WorldWideScience

Sample records for waveforms possessing endpoint

  1. Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brock Franklin

    2017-11-28

    High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.

  2. Programmable waveform controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    A programmable waveform controller (PWC) was developed for voltage waveform generation in the laboratory. It is based on the Intel 8080 family of chips. The hardware uses the modular board approach, sharing a common 44-pin bus. The software contains two separate programs: the first generates a single connected linear ramp waveform and is capable of bipolar operation, linear interpolation between input data points, extended time range, and cycling; the second generates four independent square waveforms with variable duration and amplitude

  3. TBI Endpoints Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    therapy , and early mild physical activity, which result in fewer symptoms, lower mean severity of symptoms, less social disability, and fewer days off work...developing more precise TBI diagnostic tools, clinical endpoints, and effective therapies . We designed and executed an interactive program that combined...surgery, neuropsychology, neuroradiology, psychiatry, neurology, sports medicine, pediatrics, geriatrics , health economics, biostatistics, and informatics

  4. Individual ball possession in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Link

    Full Text Available This paper describes models for detecting individual and team ball possession in soccer based on position data. The types of ball possession are classified as Individual Ball Possession (IBC, Individual Ball Action (IBA, Individual Ball Control (IBC, Team Ball Possession (TBP, Team Ball Control (TBC und Team Playmaking (TPM according to different starting points and endpoints and the type of ball control involved. The machine learning approach used is able to determine how long the ball spends in the sphere of influence of a player based on the distance between the players and the ball together with their direction of motion, speed and the acceleration of the ball. The degree of ball control exhibited during this phase is classified based on the spatio-temporal configuration of the player controlling the ball, the ball itself and opposing players using a Bayesian network. The evaluation and application of this approach uses data from 60 matches in the German Bundesliga season of 2013/14, including 69,667 IBA intervals. The identification rate was F = .88 for IBA and F = .83 for IBP, and the classification rate for IBC was κ = .67. Match analysis showed the following mean values per match: TBP 56:04 ± 5:12 min, TPM 50:01 ± 7:05 min and TBC 17:49 ± 8:13 min. There were 836 ± 424 IBC intervals per match and their number was significantly reduced by -5.1% from the 1st to 2nd half. The analysis of ball possession at the player level indicates shortest accumulated IBC times for the central forwards (0:49 ± 0:43 min and the longest for goalkeepers (1:38 ± 0:58 min, central defenders (1:38 ± 1:09 min and central midfielders (1:27 ± 1:08 min. The results could improve performance analysis in soccer, help to detect match events automatically, and allow discernment of higher value tactical structures, which is based on individual ball possession.

  5. Surrogate waveform models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott; Galley, Chad; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Tiglio, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    With the advanced detector era just around the corner, there is a strong need for fast and accurate models of gravitational waveforms from compact binary coalescence. Fast surrogate models can be built out of an accurate but slow waveform model with minimal to no loss in accuracy, but may require a large number of evaluations of the underlying model. This may be prohibitively expensive if the underlying is extremely slow, for example if we wish to build a surrogate for numerical relativity. We examine alternate choices to building surrogate models which allow for a more sparse set of input waveforms. Research supported in part by NSERC.

  6. The protection of possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection in disputes for the protection of possession can be attained through the following actions a for dispossession (interdictum recuperande possessionis and b with an action for the disturbance of possession (interdictum retinendae possessionis. The general feature of these disputes is that there is only discussion on the facts and not a legal matters. Subject matter jurisdiction for the resolution of such disputes belongs to the court of general jurisdiction, while the dispute itself is a litigation. The special rule of proceedings of action for disturbance are: provisionality of the protection of possession; urgency in proceedings; initiation of the proceedings; limiting of objection; prescribing temporary measures; rendering a ruling in the form of order; appeals which may be filed within a short deadline and which does not have suspensive effect (do not delay the execution of the order; revision is not allowed etc.

  7. Compressive full waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  8. Shared Contract-Obedient Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Lozes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing verification techniques for message-passing programs suppose either that channel endpoints are used in a linear fashion, where at most one thread may send or receive from an endpoint at any given time, or that endpoints may be used arbitrarily by any number of threads. The former approach usually forbids the sharing of channels while the latter limits what is provable about programs. In this paper we propose a midpoint between these techniques by extending a proof system based on separation logic to allow sharing of endpoints. We identify two independent mechanisms for supporting sharing: an extension of fractional shares to endpoints, and a new technique based on what we call reflexive ownership transfer. We demonstrate on a number of examples that a linear treatment of sharing is possible.

  9. Calorimetry end-point predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a portion of the work presently in progress at Rocky Flats in the field of calorimetry. In particular, calorimetry end-point predictions are outlined. The problems associated with end-point predictions and the progress made in overcoming these obstacles are discussed. The two major problems, noise and an accurate description of the heat function, are dealt with to obtain the most accurate results. Data are taken from an actual calorimeter and are processed by means of three different noise reduction techniques. The processed data are then utilized by one to four algorithms, depending on the accuracy desired to determined the end-point

  10. Multichannel waveform display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    For any multichannel data acquisition system, a multichannel paper chart recorder undoubtedly forms an essential part of the system. When deployed on-line, it instantaneously provides, for visual inspection, hard copies of the signal waveforms on common time base at any desired sensitivity and time resolution. Within the country, only a small range of these strip chart recorder s is available, and under stringent specifications imported recorders are often procured. The cost of such recorders may range from 1 to 5 lakhs of rupees in foreign exchange. A system to provide on the oscilloscope a steady display of multichannel waveforms, refreshed from the digital data stored in the memory is developed. The merits and demerits of the display system are compared with that built around a conventional paper chart recorder. Various illustrations of multichannel seismic event data acquired at Gauribidanur seismic array station are also presented. (author). 2 figs

  11. Electronics via waveform analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Edwin C

    1993-01-01

    The author believes that a good basic understanding of electronics can be achieved by detailed visual analyses of the actual voltage waveforms present in selected circuits. The voltage waveforms included in this text were photographed using a 35-rrun camera in an attempt to make the book more attractive. This book is intended for the use of students with a variety of backgrounds. For this reason considerable material has been placed in the Appendix for those students who find it useful. The Appendix includes many basic electricity and electronic concepts as well as mathematical derivations that are not vital to the understanding of the circuit being discussed in the text at that time. Also some derivations might be so long that, if included in the text, it could affect the concentration of the student on the circuit being studied. The author has tried to make the book comprehensive enough so that a student could use it as a self-study course, providing one has access to adequate laboratory equipment.

  12. Endpoints in pediatric pain studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dijk (Monique); I. Ceelie (Ilse); D. Tibboel (Dick)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAssessing pain intensity in (preverbal) children is more difficult than in adults. Tools to measure pain are being used as primary endpoints [e.g., pain intensity, time to first (rescue) analgesia, total analgesic consumption, adverse effects, and long-term effects] in studies on the

  13. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  14. Waveform Sampler CAMAC Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.; Haller, G.M.; Kang, H.; Wang, J.

    1985-09-01

    A Waveform Sampler Module (WSM) for the measurement of signal shapes coming from the multi-hit drift chambers of the SLAC SLC detector is described. The module uses a high speed, high resolution analog storage device (AMU) developed in collaboration between SLAC and Stanford University. The AMU devices together with high speed TTL clocking circuitry are packaged in a hybrid which is also suitable for mounting on the detector. The module is in CAMAC format and provides eight signal channels, each recording signal amplitude versus time in 512 cells at a sampling rate of up to 360 MHz. Data are digitized by a 12-bit ADC with a 1 μs conversion time and stored in an on-board memory accessible through CAMAC

  15. Waveform Catalog, Extreme Mass Ratio Binary (Capture)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerically-generated gravitational waveforms for circular inspiral into Kerr black holes. These waveforms were developed using Scott Hughes' black hole perturbation...

  16. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  17. Establishing a group of endpoints to support collective operations without specifying unique identifiers for any endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksom, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.; Xue, Hanghon

    2016-02-02

    A parallel computer executes a number of tasks, each task includes a number of endpoints and the endpoints are configured to support collective operations. In such a parallel computer, establishing a group of endpoints receiving a user specification of a set of endpoints included in a global collection of endpoints, where the user specification defines the set in accordance with a predefined virtual representation of the endpoints, the predefined virtual representation is a data structure setting forth an organization of tasks and endpoints included in the global collection of endpoints and the user specification defines the set of endpoints without a user specification of a particular endpoint; and defining a group of endpoints in dependence upon the predefined virtual representation of the endpoints and the user specification.

  18. Propagation compensation by waveform predistortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Thomas F.; Urkowitz, Harry; Maron, David E.

    Certain modifications of the Cobra Dane radar are considered, particularly modernization of the waveform generator. For wideband waveforms, the dispersive effects of the ionosphere become increasingly significant. The technique of predistorting the transmitted waveform so that a linear chirp is received after two-way passage is one way to overcome that dispersion. This approach is maintained for the modified system, but with a specific predistortion waveform well suited to the modification. The appropriate form of predistortion was derived in an implicit form of time as a function of frequency. The exact form was approximated by Taylor series and pseudo-Chebyshev approximation. The latter proved better, as demonstrated by the resulting smaller loss in detection sensitivity, less coarsening of range resolution, and a lower peak sidelobe. The effects of error in determining the plasma delay constant were determined and are given in graphical form. A suggestion for in-place determination of the plasma delay constant is given.

  19. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhenchun; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Guo, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion

  20. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (http://salvus.io), a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  1. The qualified possession turn into ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Possession is prima facie evidence of ownership. Possession is ninetents of the law, means that possession is good against all other, except the true owner. The possession ripens into ownership if it is qualified and by effluxion of time. In Serbian law there are two kinds of adverse possession ripens into ownership. The first one is named ordinary and second one extraordinary adverse possession. Ordinary possession need to be legal, conscientious and genuine. Extraordinary possession is only conscientious, but in a wide sense. Adverse possession destroys the title of the owner and vests it in possessor. An occupation of land inconsistent with the right of the true owner: the possession of those against whom a right action has accured to the true owner. It is actual possession in the absence of possession by the rightful owner and without lawful title. If the adverse possession continues, the effect at the expiration of the prescribed period is that not only the remedy but the title of former owner is extinguished. The person in adverse possession gains a new possessory title which cannot, normally exceed in extent of duration the interest of the former owner.

  2. Adaptive endpoint detection of seismic signal based on auto-correlated function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Wanchun; Shi Ren

    2000-01-01

    There are certain shortcomings for the endpoint detection by time-waveform envelope and/or by checking the travel table (both labelled as the artificial detection method). Based on the analysis of the auto-correlation function, the notion of the distance between auto-correlation functions was quoted, and the characterizations of the noise and the signal with noise were discussed by using the distance. Then, the method of auto-adaptable endpoint detection of seismic signal based on auto-correlated similarity was summed up. The steps of implementation and determining of the thresholds were presented in detail. The experimental results that were compared with the methods based on artificial detecting show that this method has higher sensitivity even in a low SNR circumstance

  3. Establishing a group of endpoints in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.; Xue, Hanhong

    2016-02-02

    A parallel computer executes a number of tasks, each task includes a number of endpoints and the endpoints are configured to support collective operations. In such a parallel computer, establishing a group of endpoints receiving a user specification of a set of endpoints included in a global collection of endpoints, where the user specification defines the set in accordance with a predefined virtual representation of the endpoints, the predefined virtual representation is a data structure setting forth an organization of tasks and endpoints included in the global collection of endpoints and the user specification defines the set of endpoints without a user specification of a particular endpoint; and defining a group of endpoints in dependence upon the predefined virtual representation of the endpoints and the user specification.

  4. Seismic waveform modeling over cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    With the fast growing computational technologies, numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation achieved huge successes. Obtaining the synthetic waveforms through numerical simulation receives an increasing amount of attention from seismologists. However, computational seismology is a data-intensive research field, and the numerical packages usually come with a steep learning curve. Users are expected to master considerable amount of computer knowledge and data processing skills. Training users to use the numerical packages, correctly access and utilize the computational resources is a troubled task. In addition to that, accessing to HPC is also a common difficulty for many users. To solve these problems, a cloud based solution dedicated on shallow seismic waveform modeling has been developed with the state-of-the-art web technologies. It is a web platform integrating both software and hardware with multilayer architecture: a well designed SQL database serves as the data layer, HPC and dedicated pipeline for it is the business layer. Through this platform, users will no longer need to compile and manipulate various packages on the local machine within local network to perform a simulation. By providing users professional access to the computational code through its interfaces and delivering our computational resources to the users over cloud, users can customize the simulation at expert-level, submit and run the job through it.

  5. PBX-M waveform generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.; Frank, K.T.; Kaye, S.

    1987-01-01

    The PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment) is an unique Tokamak experiment designed to run with a highly indented plasma. The shaping control will be accomplished through a closed-loop power supply control system. The system will make use of sixteen pre-programmed reference signals and twenty signals taken from direct measurements as input to an analog computer. Through a matrix conversion in the analog computer, these input signals will be used to generate eight control signals to control the eight power supplies. The pre-programmed reference signals will be created using a Macintosh personal computer interfaced to CAMAC (Comptuer Automated Measurement And Control) hardware for down-loading waveforms. The reference signals will be created on the Macintosh by the physics operators, utilizing the full graphics capability of the system. These waveforms are transferred to CAMAC memory, which are then strobed in real time through digital-to-analog converters and fed into the analog computer. The overall system (both hardware and software) is designed to be fail-safe. Specific features of the system, such as load inhibit and discharge inhibit, are discussed

  6. A summation free β+-endpoint spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, H.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Roeckl, E.; Schardt, D.; Simon, R.S.; Kleinheinz, P.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.

    1990-08-01

    A β + -endpoint spectrometer is described, where positrons are observed in an 11-mm thick silicon detector in coincidence with subsequent γ-rays meausred in a germanium detector, and where the summing of the positron energy with the annihilation radiation is prevented by detecting both 511-keV quanta in opposite segments of a BGO ring surrounding the silicon detector. The procedure of measuring and analyzing the data is outlined for the decay of the 11/2 - -isomer of 149 Tb; its endpoint energy is determined to be 1853(10) keV, in agreement with the literature. The accuracy and reliability of β + -endpoint measurements is discussed in comparison to the EC/β + -ratio method. (orig.)

  7. End-point sharpness in thermometric titrimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, H J

    1967-07-01

    It is shown that the sharpness of an end-point in a thermometric titration where the simple reaction A + B right harpoon over left harpoon AB takes place, depends on Kc(A') where K is the equilibrium constant for the reaction, and c(A') is the total concentration of the titrand (A) in the reaction mixture. The end-point is sharp if, (i) the enthalpy change in the reaction is not negligible, and (ii) Kc(A') > 10(3). This shows that it should, for example, be possible to titrate 0.1 M acid, pK(A) = 10, using a thennometric end-point. Some aspects of thermometric titrimetry when Kc(A') < 10(3) are also considered.

  8. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  9. Pulsatile pipe flow transition: Flow waveform effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindise, Melissa C.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2018-01-01

    Although transition is known to exist in various hemodynamic environments, the mechanisms that govern this flow regime and their subsequent effects on biological parameters are not well understood. Previous studies have investigated transition in pulsatile pipe flow using non-physiological sinusoidal waveforms at various Womersley numbers but have produced conflicting results, and multiple input waveform shapes have yet to be explored. In this work, we investigate the effect of the input pulsatile waveform shape on the mechanisms that drive the onset and development of transition using particle image velocimetry, three pulsatile waveforms, and six mean Reynolds numbers. The turbulent kinetic energy budget including dissipation rate, production, and pressure diffusion was computed. The results show that the waveform with a longer deceleration phase duration induced the earliest onset of transition, while the waveform with a longer acceleration period delayed the onset of transition. In accord with the findings of prior studies, for all test cases, turbulence was observed to be produced at the wall and either dissipated or redistributed into the core flow by pressure waves, depending on the mean Reynolds number. Turbulent production increased with increasing temporal velocity gradients until an asymptotic limit was reached. The turbulence dissipation rate was shown to be independent of mean Reynolds number, but a relationship between the temporal gradients of the input velocity waveform and the rate of turbulence dissipation was found. In general, these results demonstrated that the shape of the input pulsatile waveform directly affected the onset and development of transition.

  10. Waveform digitizing at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiya, M.; Ito, M.; Haggerty, J.; Ng, C.; Sippach, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiment E787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory is designed to study the decay K + → π + ν/bar /nu// to a sensitivity of 2 /times/ 10 -10 . To achieve acceptable muon rejection it is necessary to couple traditional methods (range/energy/momentum correlation) with observation of the (π + → μ + ν, μ + → e + ν/bar /nu//) decay sequence in scintillator. We report on the design and construction of 200 channels of relatively low cost solid state waveform digitizers. The distinguishing features are: 8 bits dynamic range, 500 MHz sampling, zero suppression on the fly, deep memory (up to .5 msec), and fast readout time (100 μsec for the entire system). We report on data obtained during the February-May 1988 run showing performance of the system for the observation of the above decay. 8 figs

  11. Waveform digitizing at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiya, M.; Ito, M.; Haggerty, J.; Ng, C.; Sippach, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiment E787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory is designed to study the decay K + → π + ν/bar /nu// to a sensitivity of 2 /times/ 10/sup /minus/10/. To achieve acceptable muon rejection it is necessary to couple traditional methods (range/energy/momentum correlation) with observation of the π + → μ + → e + ν/bar /nu// decay sequence in scintillator. We report on the design and construction of over 200 channels of relatively low cost solid state waveform digitizers. The distinguishing features are: 8 bits dynamic range, 500 MHz sampling, zero suppression on the fly, deep memory (up to .5 msec), and fast readout time (100 μsec for the entire system). We report on data obtained during the February--May 1988 run showing performance of the system for the observation of the above decay. 9 figs

  12. Multifunction waveform generator for EM receiver testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Jin, Sheng; Deng, Ming

    2018-01-01

    In many electromagnetic (EM) methods - such as magnetotelluric, spectral-induced polarization (SIP), time-domain-induced polarization (TDIP), and controlled-source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) methods - it is important to evaluate and test the EM receivers during their development stage. To assess the performance of the developed EM receivers, controlled synthetic data that simulate the observed signals in different modes are required. In CSAMT and SIP mode testing, the waveform generator should use the GPS time as the reference for repeating schedule. Based on our testing, the frequency range, frequency precision, and time synchronization of the currently available function waveform generators on the market are deficient. This paper presents a multifunction waveform generator with three waveforms: (1) a wideband, low-noise electromagnetic field signal to be used for magnetotelluric, audio-magnetotelluric, and long-period magnetotelluric studies; (2) a repeating frequency sweep square waveform for CSAMT and SIP studies; and (3) a positive-zero-negative-zero signal that contains primary and secondary fields for TDIP studies. In this paper, we provide the principles of the above three waveforms along with a hardware design for the generator. Furthermore, testing of the EM receiver was conducted with the waveform generator, and the results of the experiment were compared with those calculated from the simulation and theory in the frequency band of interest.

  13. 50 CFR 648.164 - Possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.164 Possession restrictions. (a) No person shall possess more than 15 bluefish in, or harvested from, the EEZ unless that person is the owner or operator of a fishing vessel issued a bluefish commercial permit or is issued a bluefish dealer permit. Persons aboard a vessel that...

  14. Developed vibration waveform monitoring unit for CBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, T.; Hotsuta, K.; Hirose, I.; Morita, E.

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many rotating machines such as pumps and fans are in use. Shikoku Research Institute Inc. has recently developed easy-to-use tools to facilitate the maintenance of such equipment. They include a battery-operated vibration waveform monitoring unit which allows unmanned vibration monitoring on a regular basis and data collection even from intermittently operating equipment, a waveform data collector which can be used for easy collection, storage, control, and analysis of raw vibration waveform data during normal operation, and vibration analysis and evaluation tools. A combination of these tools has a high potential for optimization of rotating equipment maintenance. (author)

  15. Flow pumping system for physiological waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Savaş, Omer

    2010-02-01

    A pulsatile flow pumping system is developed to replicate flow waveforms with reasonable accuracy for experiments simulating physiological blood flows at numerous points in the body. The system divides the task of flow waveform generation between two pumps: a gear pump generates the mean component and a piston pump generates the oscillatory component. The system is driven by two programmable servo controllers. The frequency response of the system is used to characterize its operation. The system has been successfully tested in vascular flow experiments where sinusoidal, carotid, and coronary flow waveforms are replicated.

  16. Biomarkers and correlative endpoints for immunotherapy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael A; Osada, Takuya; Hobeika, Amy; Patel, Sandip; Lyerly, H Kim

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapies for lung cancer are reaching phase III clinical trial, but the ultimate success likely will depend on developing biomarkers to guide development and choosing patient populations most likely to benefit. Because the immune response to cancer involves multiple cell types and cytokines, some spatially and temporally separated, it is likely that multiple biomarkers will be required to fully characterize efficacy of the vaccine and predict eventual benefit. Peripheral blood markers of response, such as the ELISPOT assay and cytokine flow cytometry analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells following immunotherapy, remain the standard approach, but it is increasingly important to obtain tissue to study the immune response at the site of the tumor. Earlier clinical endpoints such as response rate and progression-free survival do not correlate with overall survival demonstrated for some immunotherapies, suggesting the need to develop other intermediary clinical endpoints. Insofar as all these biomarkers and surrogate endpoints are relevant in multiple malignancies, it may be possible to extrapolate findings to immunotherapy of lung cancer.

  17. Improved Endpoints for Cancer Immunotherapy Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; Janetzki, Sylvia; Hodi, F. Stephen; Ibrahim, Ramy; Anderson, Aparna; Humphrey, Rachel; Blumenstein, Brent; Wolchok, Jedd

    2010-01-01

    Unlike chemotherapy, which acts directly on the tumor, cancer immunotherapies exert their effects on the immune system and demonstrate new kinetics that involve building a cellular immune response, followed by changes in tumor burden or patient survival. Thus, adequate design and evaluation of some immunotherapy clinical trials require a new development paradigm that includes reconsideration of established endpoints. Between 2004 and 2009, several initiatives facilitated by the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute and partner organizations systematically evaluated an immunotherapy-focused clinical development paradigm and created the principles for redefining trial endpoints. On this basis, a body of clinical and laboratory data was generated that supports three novel endpoint recommendations. First, cellular immune response assays generate highly variable results. Assay harmonization in multicenter trials may minimize variability and help to establish cellular immune response as a reproducible biomarker, thus allowing investigation of its relationship with clinical outcomes. Second, immunotherapy may induce novel patterns of antitumor response not captured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors or World Health Organization criteria. New immune-related response criteria were defined to more comprehensively capture all response patterns. Third, delayed separation of Kaplan–Meier curves in randomized immunotherapy trials can affect results. Altered statistical models describing hazard ratios as a function of time and recognizing differences before and after separation of curves may allow improved planning of phase III trials. These recommendations may improve our tools for cancer immunotherapy trials and may offer a more realistic and useful model for clinical investigation. PMID:20826737

  18. Seismic waveform classification using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    MyShake is a global smartphone seismic network that harnesses the power of crowdsourcing. It has an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm running on the phone to distinguish earthquake motion from human activities recorded by the accelerometer on board. Once the ANN detects earthquake-like motion, it sends a 5-min chunk of acceleration data back to the server for further analysis. The time-series data collected contains both earthquake data and human activity data that the ANN confused. In this presentation, we will show the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) we built under the umbrella of supervised learning to find out the earthquake waveform. The waveforms of the recorded motion could treat easily as images, and by taking the advantage of the power of CNN processing the images, we achieved very high successful rate to select the earthquake waveforms out. Since there are many non-earthquake waveforms than the earthquake waveforms, we also built an anomaly detection algorithm using the CNN. Both these two methods can be easily extended to other waveform classification problems.

  19. POSSESSION, REVIEW FROM CULTURAL AND PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Sri Diniari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Possession is a culture related syndrome, commonly found in Indonesia including Bali. We can see this event in religion and cultural ceremony and at other times at school, home, and in society. This syndrome consist of temporary loss of self identification and environment awareness; in several events a person acts as if he/she was controlled by other being, magic force, spirit or ‘other forces’. There are still several different opinions about trance-possession, whether it is related to certain culture or is a part of mental disorder. DSM-IV-TR and PPDGJ-III defined trance-possession as mental disorder (dissociative for involuntary possession, if it is not a common activity, and if it is not a part of religion or cultural event. (MEDICINA 2012;43:37-40.

  20. Subself theory and reincarnation/possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2004-12-01

    A subself model of the mind is used to account for multiple personality, possession, the spirit controls of mediums, reincarnation, and the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenics, with suggestions for empirical research.

  1. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  2. Endpoint singularities in unintegrated parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Hautmann, F

    2007-01-01

    We examine the singular behavior from the endpoint region x -> 1 in parton distributions unintegrated in both longitudinal and transverse momenta. We identify and regularize the singularities by using the subtraction method, and compare this with the cut-off regularization method. The counterterms for the distributions with subtractive regularization are given in coordinate space by compact all-order expressions in terms of eikonal-line operators. We carry out an explicit calculation at one loop for the unintegrated quark distribution. We discuss the relation of the unintegrated parton distributions in subtractive regularization with the ordinary parton distributions.

  3. Design of pulse waveform for waveform division multiple access UWB wireless communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Wang, Zhirui; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2014-01-01

    A new multiple access scheme, Waveform Division Multiple Access (WDMA) based on the orthogonal wavelet function, is presented. After studying the correlation properties of different categories of single wavelet functions, the one with the best correlation property will be chosen as the foundation for combined waveform. In the communication system, each user is assigned to different combined orthogonal waveform. Demonstrated by simulation, combined waveform is more suitable than single wavelet function to be a communication medium in WDMA system. Due to the excellent orthogonality, the bit error rate (BER) of multiuser with combined waveforms is so close to that of single user in a synchronous system. That is to say, the multiple access interference (MAI) is almost eliminated. Furthermore, even in an asynchronous system without multiuser detection after matched filters, the result is still pretty ideal and satisfactory by using the third combination mode that will be mentioned in the study.

  4. Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems.

  5. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SCA Waveform Development for Space Telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Dale J.; Kifle, Multi; Hall, C. Steve; Quinn, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating and developing suitable reconfigurable radio architectures for future NASA missions. This effort is examining software-based open-architectures for space based transceivers, as well as common hardware platform architectures. The Joint Tactical Radio System's (JTRS) Software Communications Architecture (SCA) is a candidate for the software approach, but may need modifications or adaptations for use in space. An in-house SCA compliant waveform development focuses on increasing understanding of software defined radio architectures and more specifically the JTRS SCA. Space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power. This waveform development effort is key to evaluating tradeoffs with the SCA for space applications. Existing NASA telemetry links, as well as Space Exploration Initiative scenarios, are the basis for defining the waveform requirements. Modeling and simulations are being developed to determine signal processing requirements associated with a waveform and a mission-specific computational burden. Implementation of the waveform on a laboratory software defined radio platform is proceeding in an iterative fashion. Parallel top-down and bottom-up design approaches are employed.

  7. WFCatalog: A catalogue for seismological waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Luca; Koymans, Mathijs; Atkinson, Malcolm; Sleeman, Reinoud; Filgueira, Rosa

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports advances in seismic waveform description and discovery leading to a new seismological service and presents the key steps in its design, implementation and adoption. This service, named WFCatalog, which stands for waveform catalogue, accommodates features of seismological waveform data. Therefore, it meets the need for seismologists to be able to select waveform data based on seismic waveform features as well as sensor geolocations and temporal specifications. We describe the collaborative design methods and the technical solution showing the central role of seismic feature catalogues in framing the technical and operational delivery of the new service. Also, we provide an overview of the complex environment wherein this endeavour is scoped and the related challenges discussed. As multi-disciplinary, multi-organisational and global collaboration is necessary to address today's challenges, canonical representations can provide a focus for collaboration and conceptual tools for agreeing directions. Such collaborations can be fostered and formalised by rallying intellectual effort into the design of novel scientific catalogues and the services that support them. This work offers an example of the benefits generated by involving cross-disciplinary skills (e.g. data and domain expertise) from the early stages of design, and by sustaining the engagement with the target community throughout the delivery and deployment process.

  8. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  9. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  10. Wavelet analysis of the impedance cardiogram waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podtaev, S.; Stepanov, R.; Dumler, A.; Chugainov, S.; Tziberkin, K.

    2012-12-01

    Impedance cardiography has been used for diagnosing atrial and ventricular dysfunctions, valve disorders, aortic stenosis, and vascular diseases. Almost all the applications of impedance cardiography require determination of some of the characteristic points of the ICG waveform. The ICG waveform has a set of characteristic points known as A, B, E ((dZ/dt)max) X, Y, O and Z. These points are related to distinct physiological events in the cardiac cycle. Objective of this work is an approbation of a new method of processing and interpretation of the impedance cardiogram waveforms using wavelet analysis. A method of computer thoracic tetrapolar polyrheocardiography is used for hemodynamic registrations. Use of original wavelet differentiation algorithm allows combining filtration and calculation of the derivatives of rheocardiogram. The proposed approach can be used in clinical practice for early diagnostics of cardiovascular system remodelling in the course of different pathologies.

  11. Wavelet analysis of the impedance cardiogram waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podtaev, S; Stepanov, R; Dumler, A; Chugainov, S; Tziberkin, K

    2012-01-01

    Impedance cardiography has been used for diagnosing atrial and ventricular dysfunctions, valve disorders, aortic stenosis, and vascular diseases. Almost all the applications of impedance cardiography require determination of some of the characteristic points of the ICG waveform. The ICG waveform has a set of characteristic points known as A, B, E ((dZ/dt) max ) X, Y, O and Z. These points are related to distinct physiological events in the cardiac cycle. Objective of this work is an approbation of a new method of processing and interpretation of the impedance cardiogram waveforms using wavelet analysis. A method of computer thoracic tetrapolar polyrheocardiography is used for hemodynamic registrations. Use of original wavelet differentiation algorithm allows combining filtration and calculation of the derivatives of rheocardiogram. The proposed approach can be used in clinical practice for early diagnostics of cardiovascular system remodelling in the course of different pathologies.

  12. Krylov subspace acceleration of waveform relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, A.; Wu, Deyun [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Standard solution methods for numerically solving time-dependent problems typically begin by discretizing the problem on a uniform time grid and then sequentially solving for successive time points. The initial time discretization imposes a serialization to the solution process and limits parallel speedup to the speedup available from parallelizing the problem at any given time point. This bottleneck can be circumvented by the use of waveform methods in which multiple time-points of the different components of the solution are computed independently. With the waveform approach, a problem is first spatially decomposed and distributed among the processors of a parallel machine. Each processor then solves its own time-dependent subsystem over the entire interval of interest using previous iterates from other processors as inputs. Synchronization and communication between processors take place infrequently, and communication consists of large packets of information - discretized functions of time (i.e., waveforms).

  13. Waveform Design for Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerckx, Bruno; Bayguzina, Ekaterina

    2016-12-01

    Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Despite the rapid progress, the emphasis of the research community in the last decade has remained largely concentrated on improving the design of energy harvester (so-called rectenna) and has left aside the effect of transmitter design. In this paper, we study the design of transmit waveform so as to enhance the DC power at the output of the rectenna. We derive a tractable model of the non-linearity of the rectenna and compare with a linear model conventionally used in the literature. We then use those models to design novel multisine waveforms that are adaptive to the channel state information (CSI). Interestingly, while the linear model favours narrowband transmission with all the power allocated to a single frequency, the non-linear model favours a power allocation over multiple frequencies. Through realistic simulations, waveforms designed based on the non-linear model are shown to provide significant gains (in terms of harvested DC power) over those designed based on the linear model and over non-adaptive waveforms. We also compute analytically the theoretical scaling laws of the harvested energy for various waveforms as a function of the number of sinewaves and transmit antennas. Those scaling laws highlight the benefits of CSI knowledge at the transmitter in WPT and of a WPT design based on a non-linear rectenna model over a linear model. Results also motivate the study of a promising architecture relying on large-scale multisine multi-antenna waveforms for WPT. As a final note, results stress the importance of modeling and accounting for the non-linearity of the rectenna in any system design involving wireless power.

  14. Principles of waveform diversity and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wicks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to discuss current and future applications of waveform diversity and design in subjects such as radar and sonar, communications systems, passive sensing, and many other technologies. Waveform diversity allows researchers and system designers to optimize electromagnetic and acoustic systems for sensing, communications, electronic warfare or combinations thereof. This book enables solutions to problems, explaining how each system performs its own particular function, as well as how it is affected by other systems and how those other systems may likewise be affected. It is

  15. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  16. Extracting gluino endpoints with event topology patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Reuter, J.; Sakurai, K.; Wiesler, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    In this paper we study the gluino dijet mass edge measurement at the LHC in a realistic situation including both SUSY and combinatorical backgrounds together with effects of initial and final state radiation as well as a finite detector resolution. Three benchmark scenarios are examined in which the dominant SUSY production process and also the decay modes are different. Several new kinematical variables are proposed to minimize the impact of SUSY and combinatorial backgrounds in the measurement. By selecting events with a particular number of jets and leptons, we attempt to measure two distinct gluino dijet mass edges originating from wino g {yields} jjW and bino g {yields}jjB decay modes, separately. We determine the endpoints of distributions of proposed and existing variables and show that those two edges can be disentangled and measured within good accuracy, irrespective of the presence of ISR, FSR, and detector effects.

  17. Radiological endpoints relevant to ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the potential risk from radiation due to the releases of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities, considerable research was performed to determine for humans the levels of dose received, their responses to the doses and mechanisms of action of radioactivity on living matter. More recently, there is an increased interest in the effects of radioactivity on non-human species. There are differences in approach between risk assessment for humans and ecosystems. For protection of humans, the focus is the individual and the endpoint of primary concern is cancer induction. For protection of ecosystems, the focus is on population stability and the endpoint of concern is reproductive success for organisms important ecologically and economically. For these organisms, information is needed on their responses to irradiation and the potential impact of the doses absorbed on their reproductive success. Considerable information is available on the effects of radiation on organisms from different phyla and types of ecosystems. Databases useful for assessing risk from exposures of populations to radioactivity are the effects of irradiation on mortality, fertility and sterility, the latter two of which are important components of reproductive success. Data on radiation effects on mortality are available both from acute and chronic irradiation. In relation to radiation effects, reproductive success for a given population is related to a number of characteristics of the species, including inherent radiosensitivity of reproductive tissues and early life stages, processes occurring during gametogenesis, reproductive strategy and exposure history. The available data on acute and chronic radiation doses is reviewed for invertebrates, fishes and mammals. The information reviewed indicates that wide ranges in responses with species can be expected. Parameters that most likely contribute to inherent radiosensitivity are discussed. (author)

  18. Digital possessions after a romantic break up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herron, Daniel; Moncur, Wendy; van den Hoven, Elise

    2016-01-01

    With technology becoming more pervasive in everyday life, it is common for individuals to use digital media to support the enactment and maintenance of romantic relationships. Partners in a relationship may create digital possessions frequently. However, after a relationship ends, individuals

  19. POSSESSION VERSUS POSITION: STRATEGIC EVALUATION IN AFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. O'Shaughnessy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In sports like Australian Rules football and soccer, teams must battle to achieve possession of the ball in sufficient space to make optimal use of it. Ultimately the teams need to score, and to do that the ball must be brought into the area in front of goal - the place where the defence usually concentrates on shutting down space and opportunity time. Coaches would like to quantify the trade-offs between contested play in good positions and uncontested play in less promising positions, in order to inform their decision-making about where to put their players, and when to gamble on sending the ball to a contest rather than simply maintain possession. To evaluate football strategies, Champion Data has collected the on-ground locations of all 350,000 possessions and stoppages in the past two seasons of AFL (2004, 2005. By following each chain of play through to the next score, we can now reliably estimate the scoreboard "equity" of possessing the ball at any location, and measure the effect of having sufficient time to dispose of it effectively. As expected, winning the ball under physical pressure (through a "hard ball get" is far more difficult to convert into a score than winning it via a mark. We also analyse some equity gradients to show how getting the ball 20 metres closer to goal is much more important in certain areas of the ground than in others. We conclude by looking at the choices faced by players in possession wanting to maximise their likelihood of success

  20. Waveform relaxation methods for implicit differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Houwen; W.A. van der Veen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe apply a Runge-Kutta-based waveform relaxation method to initial-value problems for implicit differential equations. In the implementation of such methods, a sequence of nonlinear systems has to be solved iteratively in each step of the integration process. The size of these systems

  1. A multi-channel waveform digitizer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.; Muller, W.F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on the design and performance of a multichannel waveform digitizer system for use with the Multiple Sample Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) Detector at the Bevalac. 128 channels of 20 MHz Flash ADC plus 256 word deep memory are housed in a single crate. Digital thresholds and hit pattern logic facilitate zero suppression during readout which is performed over a standard VME bus

  2. Resolution analysis in full waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtner, A.; Trampert, J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new method for the quantitative resolution analysis in full seismic waveform inversion that overcomes the limitations of classical synthetic inversions while being computationally more efficient and applicable to any misfit measure. The method rests on (1) the local quadratic

  3. Classification of morphologic changes in photoplethysmographic waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigges Timo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An ever increasing number of research is examining the question to what extent physiological information beyond the blood oxygen saturation could be drawn from the photoplethysmogram. One important approach to elicit that information from the photoplethysmogram is the analysis of its waveform. One prominent example for the value of photoplethysmographic waveform analysis in cardiovascular monitoring that has emerged is hemodynamic compensation assessment in the peri-operative setting or trauma situations, as digital pulse waveform dynamically changes with alterations in vascular tone or pulse wave velocity. In this work, we present an algorithm based on modern machine learning techniques that automatically finds individual digital volume pulses in photoplethysmographic signals and sorts them into one of the pulse classes defined by Dawber et al. We evaluate our approach based on two major datasets – a measurement study that we conducted ourselves as well as data from the PhysioNet MIMIC II database. As the results are satisfying we could demonstrate the capabilities of classification algorithms in the automated assessment of the digital volume pulse waveform measured by photoplethysmographic devices.

  4. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi

  5. The intermediate endpoint effect in logistic and probit regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, DP; Lockwood, CM; Brown, CH; Wang, W; Hoffman, JM

    2010-01-01

    Background An intermediate endpoint is hypothesized to be in the middle of the causal sequence relating an independent variable to a dependent variable. The intermediate variable is also called a surrogate or mediating variable and the corresponding effect is called the mediated, surrogate endpoint, or intermediate endpoint effect. Clinical studies are often designed to change an intermediate or surrogate endpoint and through this intermediate change influence the ultimate endpoint. In many intermediate endpoint clinical studies the dependent variable is binary, and logistic or probit regression is used. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe a limitation of a widely used approach to assessing intermediate endpoint effects and to propose an alternative method, based on products of coefficients, that yields more accurate results. Methods The intermediate endpoint model for a binary outcome is described for a true binary outcome and for a dichotomization of a latent continuous outcome. Plots of true values and a simulation study are used to evaluate the different methods. Results Distorted estimates of the intermediate endpoint effect and incorrect conclusions can result from the application of widely used methods to assess the intermediate endpoint effect. The same problem occurs for the proportion of an effect explained by an intermediate endpoint, which has been suggested as a useful measure for identifying intermediate endpoints. A solution to this problem is given based on the relationship between latent variable modeling and logistic or probit regression. Limitations More complicated intermediate variable models are not addressed in the study, although the methods described in the article can be extended to these more complicated models. Conclusions Researchers are encouraged to use an intermediate endpoint method based on the product of regression coefficients. A common method based on difference in coefficient methods can lead to distorted

  6. Source-independent elastic waveform inversion using a logarithmic wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Min, Dong Joon

    2012-01-01

    The logarithmic waveform inversion has been widely developed and applied to some synthetic and real data. In most logarithmic waveform inversion algorithms, the subsurface velocities are updated along with the source estimation. To avoid estimating

  7. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing

    2018-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like

  8. Waveform inversion for acoustic VTI media in frequency domain

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background model using a single scattered wavefield from an inverted perturbation. However, current

  9. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi

    2017-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic

  10. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    , the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  11. Towards full waveform ambient noise inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In this work we investigate fundamentals of a method—referred to as full waveform ambient noise inversion—that improves the resolution of tomographic images by extracting waveform information from interstation correlation functions that cannot be used without knowing the distribution of noise sources. The fundamental idea is to drop the principle of Green function retrieval and to establish correlation functions as self-consistent observables in seismology. This involves the following steps: (1) We introduce an operator-based formulation of the forward problem of computing correlation functions. It is valid for arbitrary distributions of noise sources in both space and frequency, and for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media. In addition, the formulation allows us to keep the derivations independent of time and frequency domain and it facilitates the application of adjoint techniques, which we use to derive efficient expressions to compute first and also second derivatives. The latter are essential for a resolution analysis that accounts for intra- and interparameter trade-offs. (2) In a forward modelling study we investigate the effect of noise sources and structure on different observables. Traveltimes are hardly affected by heterogeneous noise source distributions. On the other hand, the amplitude asymmetry of correlations is at least to first order insensitive to unmodelled Earth structure. Energy and waveform differences are sensitive to both structure and the distribution of noise sources. (3) We design and implement an appropriate inversion scheme, where the extraction of waveform information is successively increased. We demonstrate that full waveform ambient noise inversion has the potential to go beyond ambient noise tomography based on Green function retrieval and to refine noise source location, which is essential for a better understanding of noise generation. Inherent trade-offs between source and structure

  12. Taking Possession: Rituals, Space and Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mara DeSilva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In early modern Europe authority over communities, both people and spaces, was visualized through ritual gestures and processions. Communities gathered to witness ceremonial entries that drew on accepted forms of gestures and speech identifying individuals and articulating their place in the urban power relationship. Ceremonial entries by rulers, ambassadors, bishops, and other office-holders drew on ritual acts projecting messages of possession in order to establish reputations of prestige and authority. This introductory essay draws on cultural anthropology and recent historiography to build a framework for understanding rituals of possession that went beyond the tradition triumphal entry to incorporate substitutes, new modes of prestigious display, and attend to conflicts. By “taking possession” of communities, offices, and spaces using accepted ritual forms, early moderns initiated conversations about authority and power that were far more flexible in their scope, practice, and participants than expected.

  13. Retrieving rupture history using waveform inversions in time sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, L.; Xu, C.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The rupture history of large earthquakes is generally regenerated using the waveform inversion through utilizing seismological waveform records. In the waveform inversion, based on the superposition principle, the rupture process is linearly parameterized. After discretizing the fault plane into sub-faults, the local source time function of each sub-fault is usually parameterized using the multi-time window method, e.g., mutual overlapped triangular functions. Then the forward waveform of each sub-fault is synthesized through convoluting the source time function with its Green function. According to the superposition principle, these forward waveforms generated from the fault plane are summarized in the recorded waveforms after aligning the arrival times. Then the slip history is retrieved using the waveform inversion method after the superposing of all forward waveforms for each correspond seismological waveform records. Apart from the isolation of these forward waveforms generated from each sub-fault, we also realize that these waveforms are gradually and sequentially superimposed in the recorded waveforms. Thus we proposed a idea that the rupture model is possibly detachable in sequent rupture times. According to the constrained waveform length method emphasized in our previous work, the length of inverted waveforms used in the waveform inversion is objectively constrained by the rupture velocity and rise time. And one essential prior condition is the predetermined fault plane that limits the duration of rupture time, which means the waveform inversion is restricted in a pre-set rupture duration time. Therefore, we proposed a strategy to inverse the rupture process sequentially using the progressively shift rupture times as the rupture front expanding in the fault plane. And we have designed a simulation inversion to test the feasibility of the method. Our test result shows the prospect of this idea that requiring furthermore investigation.

  14. Endpoint distinctiveness facilitates analogical mapping in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Endpoint Distinctiveness Facilitates Analogical Mapping in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, reassignment, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal map of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons’ capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. PMID:25447511

  16. Sample size determination for equivalence assessment with multiple endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Anna; Dong, Xiaoyu; Tsong, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Equivalence assessment between a reference and test treatment is often conducted by two one-sided tests (TOST). The corresponding power function and sample size determination can be derived from a joint distribution of the sample mean and sample variance. When an equivalence trial is designed with multiple endpoints, it often involves several sets of two one-sided tests. A naive approach for sample size determination in this case would select the largest sample size required for each endpoint. However, such a method ignores the correlation among endpoints. With the objective to reject all endpoints and when the endpoints are uncorrelated, the power function is the production of all power functions for individual endpoints. With correlated endpoints, the sample size and power should be adjusted for such a correlation. In this article, we propose the exact power function for the equivalence test with multiple endpoints adjusted for correlation under both crossover and parallel designs. We further discuss the differences in sample size for the naive method without and with correlation adjusted methods and illustrate with an in vivo bioequivalence crossover study with area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) as the two endpoints.

  17. Ordered kinematic endpoints for 5-body cascade decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, Matthew D. [Theory Group, Department of Physics and Texas Cosmology Center,University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1608, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States)

    2016-12-23

    We present expressions for the kinematic endpoints of 5-body cascade decay chains proceeding through all possible combinations of 2-body and 3-body decays, with one stable invisible particle in the final decay stage. When an invariant mass can be formed in multiple ways by choosing different final state particles from a common vertex, we introduce techniques for finding the sub-leading endpoints for all indistinguishable versions of the invariant mass. In contrast to short decay chains, where sub-leading endpoints are linearly related to the leading endpoints, we find that in 5-body decays, they provide additional independent constraints on the mass spectrum.

  18. Prototype of a transient waveform recording ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J.; Zhao, L.; Cheng, B.; Chen, H.; Guo, Y.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the design and measurement results of a transient waveform recording ASIC based on the Switched Capacitor Array (SCA) architecture. This 0.18 μm CMOS prototype device contains two channels and each channel employs a SCA of 128 samples deep, a 12-bit Wilkinson ADC and a serial data readout. A series of tests have been conducted and the results indicate that: a full 1 V signal voltage range is available, the input analog bandwidth is approximately 450 MHz and the sampling speed is adjustable from 0.076 to 3.2 Gsps (Gigabit Samples Per Second). For precision waveform timing extraction, careful calibration of timing intervals between samples is conducted to improve the timing resolution of such chips, and the timing precision of this ASIC is proved to be better than 15 ps RMS.

  19. Digitizing and analysis of neutron generator waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, T.C.

    1977-11-01

    All neutron generator waveforms from units tested at the SLA neutron generator test site are digitized and the digitized data stored in the CDC 6600 tape library for display and analysis using the CDC 6600 computer. The digitizing equipment consists mainly of seven Biomation Model 8100 transient recorders, Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/20 computer, RK05 disk, seven-track magnetic tape transport, and appropriate DEC and SLA controllers and interfaces. The PDP 11/20 computer is programmed in BASIC with assembly language drivers. In addition to digitizing waveforms, this equipment is used for other functions such as the automated testing of multiple-operation electronic neutron generators. Although other types of analysis have been done, the largest use of the digitized data has been for various types of graphical displays using the CDC 6600 and either the SD4020 or DX4460 plotters

  20. Programmable Clock Waveform Generation for CCD Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.; Marin, J.

    2006-07-01

    Charge transfer efficiency in CCDs is closely related to the clock waveform. In this paper, an experimental framework to explore different FPGA based clock waveform generator designs is described. Two alternative design approaches for controlling the rise/fall edge times and pulse width of the CCD clock signal have been implemented: level-control and time-control. Both approaches provide similar characteristics regarding the edge linearity and noise. Nevertheless, dissimilarities have been found with respect to the area and frequency range of application. Thus, while the time-control approach consumes less area, the level control approach provides a wider range of clock frequencies since it does not suffer capacitor discharge effect. (Author) 8 refs.

  1. Induced waveform transitions of dissipative solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Tuz, Vladimir R.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of an externally applied force upon the dynamics of dissipative solitons is analyzed in the framework of the one-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation supplemented by a potential term with an explicit coordinate dependence. The potential accounts for the external force manipulations and consists of three symmetrically arranged potential wells whose depth varies along the longitudinal coordinate. It is found out that under an influence of such potential a transition between different soliton waveforms coexisting under the same physical conditions can be achieved. A low-dimensional phase-space analysis is applied in order to demonstrate that by only changing the potential profile, transitions between different soliton waveforms can be performed in a controllable way. In particular, it is shown that by means of a selected potential, stationary dissipative soliton can be transformed into another stationary soliton as well as into periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic spatiotemporal dissipative structures.

  2. Advanced Waveform Simulation for Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    velocity model. The method separates the main arrivals of the regional waveform into 5 windows: Pnl (vertical and radial components), Rayleigh (vertical and...ranges out to 10°, including extensive observations of crustal thinning and thickening and various Pnl complexities. Broadband modeling in 1D, 2D...existing models perform in predicting the various regional phases, Rayleigh waves, Love waves, and Pnl waves. Previous events from this Basin-and-Range

  3. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  4. Integration and interpolation of sampled waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for integrating, interpolating, and improving the signal-to-noise ratio of digitized waveforms are discussed with regard to seismic data from underground tests. The frequency-domain integration method and the digital interpolation method of Schafer and Rabiner are described and demonstrated using test data. The use of bandpass filtering for noise reduction is also demonstrated. With these methods, a backlog of seismic test data has been successfully processed

  5. Time-dependent phase error correction using digital waveform synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Buskirk, Stephen

    2017-10-10

    The various technologies presented herein relate to correcting a time-dependent phase error generated as part of the formation of a radar waveform. A waveform can be pre-distorted to facilitate correction of an error induced into the waveform by a downstream operation/component in a radar system. For example, amplifier power droop effect can engender a time-dependent phase error in a waveform as part of a radar signal generating operation. The error can be quantified and an according complimentary distortion can be applied to the waveform to facilitate negation of the error during the subsequent processing of the waveform. A time domain correction can be applied by a phase error correction look up table incorporated into a waveform phase generator.

  6. Sparse Frequency Waveform Design for Radar-Embedded Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyun Mai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Tag application with function of covert communication, a method for sparse frequency waveform design based on radar-embedded communication is proposed. Firstly, sparse frequency waveforms are designed based on power spectral density fitting and quasi-Newton method. Secondly, the eigenvalue decomposition of the sparse frequency waveform sequence is used to get the dominant space. Finally the communication waveforms are designed through the projection of orthogonal pseudorandom vectors in the vertical subspace. Compared with the linear frequency modulation waveform, the sparse frequency waveform can further improve the bandwidth occupation of communication signals, thus achieving higher communication rate. A certain correlation exists between the reciprocally orthogonal communication signals samples and the sparse frequency waveform, which guarantees the low SER (signal error rate and LPI (low probability of intercept. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of this method.

  7. Image-domain full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong

    2013-08-20

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we define the image-domain objective function to minimize the difference of the suboffset-domain common image gathers (CIGs) obtained by migrating the observed data and the calculated data. The derivation shows that the gradient of this new objective function is the combination of the gradient of the conventional FWI and the image-domain differential semblance optimization (DSO). Compared to the conventional FWI, the imagedomain FWI is immune to cycle skipping problems by smearing the nonzero suboffset images along wavepath. It also can avoid the edge effects and the gradient artifacts that are inherent in DSO due to the falsely over-penalized focused images. This is achieved by subtracting the focused image associated with the calculated data from the unfocused image associated with the observed data in the image-domain misfit function. The numerical results of the Marmousi model show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive the initial model than the conventional FWI. © 2013 SEG.

  8. Image-domain full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we define the image-domain objective function to minimize the difference of the suboffset-domain common image gathers (CIGs) obtained by migrating the observed data and the calculated data. The derivation shows that the gradient of this new objective function is the combination of the gradient of the conventional FWI and the image-domain differential semblance optimization (DSO). Compared to the conventional FWI, the imagedomain FWI is immune to cycle skipping problems by smearing the nonzero suboffset images along wavepath. It also can avoid the edge effects and the gradient artifacts that are inherent in DSO due to the falsely over-penalized focused images. This is achieved by subtracting the focused image associated with the calculated data from the unfocused image associated with the observed data in the image-domain misfit function. The numerical results of the Marmousi model show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive the initial model than the conventional FWI. © 2013 SEG.

  9. Hippeastrum hybridum anthocyanins as indicators of endpoint in acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthocyanins from Hippeastrum hybridum (Amaryllis) were investigated as indicators of endpoint in acid- base titrations. Extraction of the anthocyanins was done using distilled water, methanol and methanol containing 0.5% acetic acid. The extracts were used in determination of endpoint in titrations between strong.

  10. Hippeastrum hybridum anthocyanins as indicators of endpoint in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthocyanins from Hippeastrum hybridum (Amaryllis) were investigated as indicators of endpoint in acid- base titrations. Extraction of the anthocyanins was done using distilled water, methanol and methanol containing 0.5% acetic acid. The extracts were used in determination of endpoint in titrations between strong ...

  11. The impact of endpoint measures in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, A.; Jacobs, J. W.; Dinant, H. J.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    In clinical trials on the effectiveness of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), it is common to apply a large number of endpoint measures. This practice has several disadvantages. To determine which endpoint measures are most valuable, reports of

  12. Male homosexuality and spirit possession in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between male homosexuality and the Afro-Brazilian possession cults in Belém do Parà. After a discussion of the literature follows a description of the cults' beliefs, rites and social organization. Male sex roles are then discussed and the two categories, bicha and man, analyzed. It is noted that there is no term which is equivalent to the western category of "homosexual" in this taxonomic system. After putting forward folk explanations for the presence of many bichas in the cults, an analysis is put forward of the social rewards available to bichas within these cults, and the structural relationship between homosexuality and these regions in terms of their congruent marginality vis-à-vis "normal society."

  13. Predicative possession in Medieval Slavic Bible translations Predicative Possession in Early Biblical Slavic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia McAnallen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Proto-Slavic (LPS had an inventory of three constructions for expressing predicative possession. Using the earliest Slavic Bible translations from Old Church Slavic (OCS, and to a lesser degree Old Czech, a number of conclusions can be drawn about the status of predicative possession for LPS. The verb iměti ‘have’ was the most frequent and least syntactically and semantically restricted predicative possessive construction (PPC. Existential PPCs with a dative possessor appear primarily with kinship relations, abstract possessums, and in a number of other fixed construction types; existential PPCs with the possessor in an u + genitive prepositional phrase primarily appear with concrete and countable possessums. Both existential PPCs call for an animate, most often pronominal, possessor. The u + genitive was the rarest type of PPC in LPS, though it had undoubtedly grammaticalized as a PPC.

  14. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately killed...

  15. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  16. Ecosystem services as assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Wayne R; Rea, Anne W; Suter, Glenn W; Martin, Lawrence; Blake-Hedges, Lynne; Crk, Tanja; Davis, Christine; Ferreira, Gina; Jordan, Steve; Mahoney, Michele; Barron, Mace G

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the outputs of ecological processes that contribute to human welfare or have the potential to do so in the future. Those outputs include food and drinking water, clean air and water, and pollinated crops. The need to protect the services provided by natural systems has been recognized previously, but ecosystem services have not been formally incorporated into ecological risk assessment practice in a general way in the United States. Endpoints used conventionally in ecological risk assessment, derived directly from the state of the ecosystem (e.g., biophysical structure and processes), and endpoints based on ecosystem services serve different purposes. Conventional endpoints are ecologically important and susceptible entities and attributes that are protected under US laws and regulations. Ecosystem service endpoints are a conceptual and analytical step beyond conventional endpoints and are intended to complement conventional endpoints by linking and extending endpoints to goods and services with more obvious benefit to humans. Conventional endpoints can be related to ecosystem services even when the latter are not considered explicitly during problem formulation. To advance the use of ecosystem service endpoints in ecological risk assessment, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Assessment Forum has added generic endpoints based on ecosystem services (ES-GEAE) to the original 2003 set of generic ecological assessment endpoints (GEAEs). Like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are defined by an entity and an attribute. Also like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are broadly described and will need to be made specific when applied to individual assessments. Adoption of ecosystem services as a type of assessment endpoint is intended to improve the value of risk assessment to environmental decision making, linking ecological risk to human well-being, and providing an improved means of communicating those risks. Integr Environ Assess Manag

  17. 22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession. (a) When a consular officer take articles of a decedent's personal property from a foreign... Department discharging the consular officer of any responsibility for the articles transferred. (b) A... effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4...

  18. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Glad, Aslaug Clemmensen; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup

    2017-01-01

    -preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal....... During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well...

  19. Waveform design for wireless power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Clerckx, B; Bayguzina, E

    2016-01-01

    Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Despite the rapid progress, the emphasis of the research community in the last decade has remained largely concentrated on improving the design of energy harvester (so-called rectenna) and has left aside the effect of transmitter design. In this paper, we study the design of transmit waveform so as to enhance the DC power at the output of the rectenna. We derive a tractable model of the non-linearity ...

  20. Changes in Doppler flow velocity waveforms and fetal size at 20 weeks gestation among cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, E M; North, R A; Chan, E; Stone, P R; Dekker, G A; McCowan, L M E

    2009-09-01

    To compare umbilical and uterine artery Doppler waveforms and fetal size at 20 weeks between smokers and nonsmokers. Prospective cohort study. Auckland, New Zealand and Adelaide, Australia. Nulliparous participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Self-reported smoking status was determined at 15 +/- 1 weeks' gestation. At the 20 +/- 1 week anatomy scan, uterine and umbilical Doppler resistance indices (RI) and fetal measurements were compared between smokers and nonsmokers. Umbilical and mean uterine artery Doppler RI values, abnormal umbilical and uterine Doppler (RI > 90th centile) and fetal biometry. Among the 2459 women, 248 (10%) were smokers. Smokers had higher umbilical RI [0.75 (SD 0.06) versus 0.73 (0.06), P gestation, women who smoke have higher umbilical artery RI, a surrogate measure for an abnormal placental villous vascular tree. This may contribute to later fetal growth restriction among smokers. Further research is needed to explore the clinical significance of these findings.

  1. Full Waveform Adjoint Seismic Tomography of the Antarctic Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A. J.; Wiens, D.; Zhu, H.; Tromp, J.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A. D.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T. J.; Dalziel, I. W. D.; Hansen, S. E.; Shore, P.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies investigating the response and influence of the solid Earth on the evolution of the cryosphere demonstrate the need to account for 3D rheological structure to better predict ice sheet dynamics, stability, and future sea level impact, as well as to improve glacial isostatic adjustment models and more accurately measure ice mass loss. Critical rheological properties like mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness may be estimated from shear wave velocity models that, for Antarctica, would ideally possess regional-scale resolution extending down to at least the base of the transition zone (i.e. 670 km depth). However, current global- and continental-scale seismic velocity models are unable to obtain both the resolution and spatial coverage necessary, do not take advantage of the full set of available Antarctic data, and, in most instance, employ traditional seismic imaging techniques that utilize limited seismogram information. We utilize 3-component earthquake waveforms from almost 300 Antarctic broadband seismic stations and 26 southern mid-latitude stations from 270 earthquakes (5.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.0) between 2001-2003 and 2007-2016 to conduct a full-waveform adjoint inversion for Antarctica and surrounding regions of the Antarctic plate. Necessary forward and adjoint wavefield simulations are performed utilizing SPECFEM3D_GLOBE with the aid of the Texas Advanced Computing Center. We utilize phase observations from seismogram segments containing P, S, Rayleigh, and Love waves, including reflections and overtones, which are autonomously identified using FLEXWIN. The FLEXWIN analysis is carried out over a short (15-50 s) and long (initially 50-150 s) period band that target body waves, or body and surface waves, respectively. As our model is iteratively refined, the short-period corner of the long period band is gradually reduced to 25 s as the model converges over 20 linearized inversion iterations. We will briefly present this new high

  2. Performance Prediction of Constrained Waveform Design for Adaptive Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    the famous Woodward quote, having a ubiquitous feeling for all radar waveform design (and performance prediction) researchers , that is found at the end...discuss research that develops performance prediction models to quantify the impact on SINR when an amplitude constraint is placed on a radar waveform...optimize the radar perfor- mance for the particular scenario and tasks. There have also been several survey papers on various topics in waveform design for

  3. On the accuracy and precision of numerical waveforms: effect of waveform extraction methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2016-08-01

    We present a new set of 95 numerical relativity simulations of non-precessing binary black holes (BBHs). The simulations sample comprehensively both black-hole spins up to spin magnitude of 0.9, and cover mass ratios 1-3. The simulations cover on average 24 inspiral orbits, plus merger and ringdown, with low initial orbital eccentricities e\\lt {10}-4. A subset of the simulations extends the coverage of non-spinning BBHs up to mass ratio q = 10. Gravitational waveforms at asymptotic infinity are computed with two independent techniques: extrapolation and Cauchy characteristic extraction. An error analysis based on noise-weighted inner products is performed. We find that numerical truncation error, error due to gravitational wave extraction, and errors due to the Fourier transformation of signals with finite length of the numerical waveforms are of similar magnitude, with gravitational wave extraction errors dominating at noise-weighted mismatches of ˜ 3× {10}-4. This set of waveforms will serve to validate and improve aligned-spin waveform models for gravitational wave science.

  4. Advances in waveform-agile sensing for tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Sira, Sandeep Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology and information processing afford a new flexibility in the design of waveforms for agile sensing. Sensors are now developed with the ability to dynamically choose their transmit or receive waveforms in order to optimize an objective cost function. This has exposed a new paradigm of significant performance improvements in active sensing: dynamic waveform adaptation to environment conditions, target structures, or information features. The manuscript provides a review of recent advances in waveform-agile sensing for target tracking applications. A dynamic wav

  5. Wavelet-Based Signal Processing of Electromagnetic Pulse Generated Waveforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ardolino, Richard S

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigated and compared alternative signal processing techniques that used wavelet-based methods instead of traditional frequency domain methods for processing measured electromagnetic pulse (EMP) waveforms...

  6. Planning and analyzing clinical trials with composite endpoints

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Geraldine; Kieser, Meinhard

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the most important aspects of how to plan and evaluate clinical trials with a composite primary endpoint to guarantee a clinically meaningful and valid interpretation of the results. Composite endpoints are often used as primary efficacy variables for clinical trials, particularly in the fields of oncology and cardiology. These endpoints combine several variables of interest within a single composite measure, and as a result, all variables that are of major clinical relevance can be considered in the primary analysis without the need to adjust for multiplicity. Moreover, composite endpoints are intended to increase the size of the expected effects thus making clinical trials more powerful. The book offers practical advice for statisticians and medical experts involved in the planning and analysis of clinical trials. For readers who are mainly interested in the application of the methods, all the approaches are illustrated with real-world clinical trial examples, and the software codes requ...

  7. Gastroenterological endpoints in drug trials for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewes, Frank A. J. A.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Wilschanski, Micheal

    2016-01-01

    The phenotype of cystic fibrosis includes a wide variety of clinical and biochemical gastrointestinal presentations. These gastrointestinal characteristics of the disease have come under renewed interest as potential outcome measures and clinical endpoints for therapeutic trials in cystic fibrosis.

  8. Endpoint behavior of high-energy scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2010-01-01

    In high-energy processes near the endpoint, there emerge new contributions associated with spectator interactions. Away from the endpoint region, these new contributions are suppressed compared to the leading contribution, but the leading contribution becomes suppressed as we approach the endpoint and the new contributions become comparable. We present how the new contributions scale as we reach the endpoint and show that they are comparable to the suppressed leading contributions in deep inelastic scattering by employing a power-counting analysis. The hadronic tensor in deep inelastic scattering is shown to factorize including the spectator interactions, and it can be expressed in terms of the light cone distribution amplitudes of initial hadrons. We also consider the contribution of the spectator contributions in Drell-Yan processes. Here the spectator interactions are suppressed compared to double parton annihilation according to the power counting.

  9. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-17

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.

  10. A sheath model for arbitrary radiofrequency waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. M.; Chabert, Pascal

    2012-10-01

    The sheath is often the most important region of a rf plasma, because discharge impedance, power absorption and ion acceleration are critically affected by the behaviour of the sheath. Consequently, models of the sheath are central to any understanding of the physics of rf plasmas. Lieberman has supplied an analytical model for a radio-frequency sheath driven by a single frequency, but in recent years interest has been increasing in radio-frequency discharges excited by increasingly complex wave forms. There has been limited success in generalizing the Lieberman model in this direction, because of mathematical complexities. So there is essentially no sheath model available to describe many modern experiments. In this paper we present a new analytical sheath model, based on a simpler mathematical framework than that of Lieberman. For the single frequency case, this model yields scaling laws that are identical in form to those of Lieberman, differing only by numerical coefficients close to one. However, the new model may be straightforwardly solved for arbitrary current waveforms, and may be used to derive scaling laws for such complex waveforms. In this paper, we will describe the model and present some illustrative examples.

  11. Possession States: Approaches to Clinical Evaluation and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. McCormick

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The fields of anthropology and sociology have produced a large quantity of literature on possession states, physicians however rarely report on such phenomena. As a result clinical description of possession states has suffered, even though these states may be more common and less deviant than supposed. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV may include specific criteria for possession disorders. The authors briefly review Western notions about possession and kindred states and present guidelines for evaluation and classification.

  12. Method and apparatus for resonant frequency waveform modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Matthew S [Richland, WA

    2011-06-07

    A resonant modulator device and process are described that provide enhanced resonant frequency waveforms to electrical devices including, e.g., laser devices. Faster, larger, and more complex modulation waveforms are obtained than can be obtained by use of conventional current controllers alone.

  13. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion

  14. An Overview of Radar Waveform Optimization for Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lulu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An optimal waveform design method that fully employs the knowledge of the target and the environment can further improve target detection performance, thus is of vital importance to research. In this paper, methods of radar waveform optimization for target detection are reviewed and summarized and provide the basis for the research.

  15. A pulse generator of arbitrary shaped waveform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jiayou; Chen Zhihao

    2011-01-01

    The three bump magnets in the booster extraction system of SSRF are driven by a signal generator with an external trigger. The signal generator must have three independent and controllable outputs, and both amplitude and make-and-break should be controllable, with current state information being readable. In this paper, we describe a signal generator based on FPGA and DAC boards. It makes use of characteristics of both FPGA flex programmable and rich reconfigurable IO resources. The system has a 16-bit DAC with four outputs, using Matlab to write a GUI based on RS232 protocol for control. It was simulated in Modelsim and tested on board. The results indicate that the system is well designed and all the requirements are met. The arbitrary waveform is writable, and the pulse width and period can be controlled. (authors)

  16. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2017-05-26

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  17. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.; Zabihi Naeini, E.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  18. Rectangular waveform linear transformer driver module design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yue; Xie Weiping; Zhou Liangji; Chen Lin

    2014-01-01

    Linear Transformer Driver is a novel pulsed power technology, its main merits include a parallel LC discharge array and Inductive Voltage Adder. The parallel LC discharge array lowers the whole circuit equivalent inductance and the Inductive Voltage Adder unites the modules in series in order to create a high electric field grads, meanwhile, restricts the high voltage in a small space. The lower inductance in favor of LTD output a fast waveform and IVA confine high voltage in secondary cavity. In recently, some LTD-based pulsed power system has been development yet. The usual LTD architecture provides damped sine shaped output pulses that may not be suitable in flash radiography, high power microwave production, z-pinch drivers, and certain other applications. A more suitable driver output pulse would have a flat or inclined top (slightly rising or falling). In this paper, we present the design of an LTD cavity that generates this type of the output pulse by including within its circular array some number of the harmonic bricks in addition to the standard bricks according to Fourier progression theory. The parallel LC discharge array circuit formula is introduced by Kirchhoff Law, and the sum of harmonic is proofed as an analytic result, meanwhile, rationality of design is proved by simulation. Varying gas spark discharge dynamic resistance with harmonic order and switches jitter are analyzed. The results are as following: The more harmonic order is an approach to the ideal rectangular waveform, but lead to more system complexity. The capacity decreases as harmonic order increase, and gas spark discharge dynamic resistance rises with the capacity. The rising time protracts and flat is decay or even vanishes and the shot to shot reproducibility is degenerate as the switches jitter is high. (authors)

  19. Synthetic tsunami waveform catalogs with kinematic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel; Matias, Luis; Omira, Rachid

    2017-07-01

    In this study we present a comprehensive methodology to produce a synthetic tsunami waveform catalogue in the northeast Atlantic, east of the Azores islands. The method uses a synthetic earthquake catalogue compatible with plate kinematic constraints of the area. We use it to assess the tsunami hazard from the transcurrent boundary located between Iberia and the Azores, whose western part is known as the Gloria Fault. This study focuses only on earthquake-generated tsunamis. Moreover, we assume that the time and space distribution of the seismic events is known. To do this, we compute a synthetic earthquake catalogue including all fault parameters needed to characterize the seafloor deformation covering the time span of 20 000 years, which we consider long enough to ensure the representability of earthquake generation on this segment of the plate boundary. The computed time and space rupture distributions are made compatible with global kinematic plate models. We use the tsunami empirical Green's functions to efficiently compute the synthetic tsunami waveforms for the dataset of coastal locations, thus providing the basis for tsunami impact characterization. We present the results in the form of offshore wave heights for all coastal points in the dataset. Our results focus on the northeast Atlantic basin, showing that earthquake-induced tsunamis in the transcurrent segment of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary pose a minor threat to coastal areas north of Portugal and beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. However, in Morocco, the Azores, and the Madeira islands, we can expect wave heights between 0.6 and 0.8 m, leading to precautionary evacuation of coastal areas. The advantages of the method are its easy application to other regions and the low computation effort needed.

  20. Design of a 9-loop quasi-exponential waveform generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Partha; Shukla, Rohit; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-12-01

    We know in an under-damped L-C-R series circuit, current follows a damped sinusoidal waveform. But if a number of sinusoidal waveforms of decreasing time period, generated in an L-C-R circuit, be combined in first quarter cycle of time period, then a quasi-exponential nature of output current waveform can be achieved. In an L-C-R series circuit, quasi-exponential current waveform shows a rising current derivative and thereby finds many applications in pulsed power. Here, we have described design and experiment details of a 9-loop quasi-exponential waveform generator. In that, design details of magnetic switches have also been described. In the experiment, output current of 26 kA has been achieved. It has been shown that how well the experimentally obtained output current profile matches with the numerically computed output.

  1. Automatic Identification of the Repolarization Endpoint by Computing the Dominant T-wave on a Reduced Number of Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, C; Agostinelli, A; Di Nardo, F; Fioretti, S; Burattini, L

    2016-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) T-wave endpoint (Tend) identification suffers lack of reliability due to the presence of noise and variability among leads. Tend identification can be improved by using global repolarization waveforms obtained by combining several leads. The dominant T-wave (DTW) is a global repolarization waveform that proved to improve Tend identification when computed using the 15 (I to III, aVr, aVl, aVf, V1 to V6, X, Y, Z) leads usually available in clinics, of which only 8 (I, II, V1 to V6) are independent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the 8 independent leads are sufficient to obtain a DTW which allows a reliable Tend identification. To this aim Tend measures automatically identified from 15-dependent-lead DTWs of 46 control healthy subjects (CHS) and 103 acute myocardial infarction patients (AMIP) were compared with those obtained from 8-independent-lead DTWs. Results indicate that Tend distributions have not statistically different median values (CHS: 340 ms vs. 340 ms, respectively; AMIP: 325 ms vs. 320 ms, respectively), besides being strongly correlated (CHS: ρ=0.97, AMIP: 0.88; Pautomatic Tend identification from DTW, the 8 independent leads can be used without a statistically significant loss of accuracy but with a significant decrement of computational effort. The lead dependence of 7 out of 15 leads does not introduce a significant bias in the Tend determination from 15 dependent lead DTWs.

  2. Closed form of optimal current waveform for class-F PA up to fourth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PA and its dual, usually referred as inverse class-F PA, current and voltage ... voltage waveforms provides a number of advantages in the process of PA design ... RF PA design approaches with waveform theory and experimental waveform.

  3. Sample size determination in clinical trials with multiple endpoints

    CERN Document Server

    Sozu, Takashi; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Evans, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates recent methodological developments for calculating the sample size and power in trials with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, offering an important reference work for statisticians working in this area. The determination of sample size and the evaluation of power are fundamental and critical elements in the design of clinical trials. If the sample size is too small, important effects may go unnoticed; if the sample size is too large, it represents a waste of resources and unethically puts more participants at risk than necessary. Recently many clinical trials have been designed with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, creating a need for new approaches to the design and analysis of these clinical trials. The book focuses on the evaluation of power and sample size determination when comparing the effects of two interventions in superiority clinical trials with multiple endpoints. Methods for sample size calculation in clin...

  4. Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott E.; Galley, Chad R.; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Kaye, Jason; Tiglio, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform's value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mcfit) online operations, where cfit denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m ≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 105M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in generating new waveforms with a

  5. Surrogate Endpoint Evaluation: Principal Stratification Criteria and the Prentice Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter B; Gabriel, Erin E; Huang, Ying; Chan, Ivan S F

    2015-09-01

    A common problem of interest within a randomized clinical trial is the evaluation of an inexpensive response endpoint as a valid surrogate endpoint for a clinical endpoint, where a chief purpose of a valid surrogate is to provide a way to make correct inferences on clinical treatment effects in future studies without needing to collect the clinical endpoint data. Within the principal stratification framework for addressing this problem based on data from a single randomized clinical efficacy trial, a variety of definitions and criteria for a good surrogate endpoint have been proposed, all based on or closely related to the "principal effects" or "causal effect predictiveness (CEP)" surface. We discuss CEP-based criteria for a useful surrogate endpoint, including (1) the meaning and relative importance of proposed criteria including average causal necessity (ACN), average causal sufficiency (ACS), and large clinical effect modification; (2) the relationship between these criteria and the Prentice definition of a valid surrogate endpoint; and (3) the relationship between these criteria and the consistency criterion (i.e., assurance against the "surrogate paradox"). This includes the result that ACN plus a strong version of ACS generally do not imply the Prentice definition nor the consistency criterion, but they do have these implications in special cases. Moreover, the converse does not hold except in a special case with a binary candidate surrogate. The results highlight that assumptions about the treatment effect on the clinical endpoint before the candidate surrogate is measured are influential for the ability to draw conclusions about the Prentice definition or consistency. In addition, we emphasize that in some scenarios that occur commonly in practice, the principal strata sub-populations for inference are identifiable from the observable data, in which cases the principal stratification framework has relatively high utility for the purpose of effect

  6. Surrogate Endpoint Evaluation: Principal Stratification Criteria and the Prentice Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter B.; Gabriel, Erin E.; Huang, Ying; Chan, Ivan S.F.

    2015-01-01

    A common problem of interest within a randomized clinical trial is the evaluation of an inexpensive response endpoint as a valid surrogate endpoint for a clinical endpoint, where a chief purpose of a valid surrogate is to provide a way to make correct inferences on clinical treatment effects in future studies without needing to collect the clinical endpoint data. Within the principal stratification framework for addressing this problem based on data from a single randomized clinical efficacy trial, a variety of definitions and criteria for a good surrogate endpoint have been proposed, all based on or closely related to the “principal effects” or “causal effect predictiveness (CEP)” surface. We discuss CEP-based criteria for a useful surrogate endpoint, including (1) the meaning and relative importance of proposed criteria including average causal necessity (ACN), average causal sufficiency (ACS), and large clinical effect modification; (2) the relationship between these criteria and the Prentice definition of a valid surrogate endpoint; and (3) the relationship between these criteria and the consistency criterion (i.e., assurance against the “surrogate paradox”). This includes the result that ACN plus a strong version of ACS generally do not imply the Prentice definition nor the consistency criterion, but they do have these implications in special cases. Moreover, the converse does not hold except in a special case with a binary candidate surrogate. The results highlight that assumptions about the treatment effect on the clinical endpoint before the candidate surrogate is measured are influential for the ability to draw conclusions about the Prentice definition or consistency. In addition, we emphasize that in some scenarios that occur commonly in practice, the principal strata sub-populations for inference are identifiable from the observable data, in which cases the principal stratification framework has relatively high utility for the purpose of

  7. Electrochemical sensing using comparison of voltage-current time differential values during waveform generation and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Leta Yar-Li; Glass, Robert Scott; Fitzpatrick, Joseph Jay; Wang, Gangqiang; Henderson, Brett Tamatea; Lourdhusamy, Anthoniraj; Steppan, James John; Allmendinger, Klaus Karl

    2018-01-02

    A device for signal processing. The device includes a signal generator, a signal detector, and a processor. The signal generator generates an original waveform. The signal detector detects an affected waveform. The processor is coupled to the signal detector. The processor receives the affected waveform from the signal detector. The processor also compares at least one portion of the affected waveform with the original waveform. The processor also determines a difference between the affected waveform and the original waveform. The processor also determines a value corresponding to a unique portion of the determined difference between the original and affected waveforms. The processor also outputs the determined value.

  8. Sensitivity of submersed freshwater macrophytes and endpoints in laboratory toxicity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, Gertie H.P.; Belgers, J. Dick M.; Hoekzema, Conny H.; Thissen, Jac T.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The toxicological sensitivity and variability of a range of macrophyte endpoints were statistically tested with data from chronic, non-axenic, macrophyte toxicity tests. Five submersed freshwater macrophytes, four pesticides/biocides and 13 endpoints were included in the statistical analyses. Root endpoints, reflecting root growth, were most sensitive in the toxicity tests, while endpoints relating to biomass, growth and shoot length were less sensitive. The endpoints with the lowest coefficients of variation were not necessarily the endpoints, which were toxicologically most sensitive. Differences in sensitivity were in the range of 10-1000 for different macrophyte-specific endpoints. No macrophyte species was consistently the most sensitive. Criteria to select endpoints in macrophyte toxicity tests should include toxicological sensitivity, variance and ecological relevance. Hence, macrophyte toxicity tests should comprise an array of endpoints, including very sensitive endpoints like those relating to root growth. - A range of endpoints is more representative of macrophyte fitness than biomass and growth only

  9. Source-independent elastic waveform inversion using a logarithmic wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    The logarithmic waveform inversion has been widely developed and applied to some synthetic and real data. In most logarithmic waveform inversion algorithms, the subsurface velocities are updated along with the source estimation. To avoid estimating the source wavelet in the logarithmic waveform inversion, we developed a source-independent logarithmic waveform inversion algorithm. In this inversion algorithm, we first normalize the wavefields with the reference wavefield to remove the source wavelet, and then take the logarithm of the normalized wavefields. Based on the properties of the logarithm, we define three types of misfit functions using the following methods: combination of amplitude and phase, amplitude-only, and phase-only. In the inversion, the gradient is computed using the back-propagation formula without directly calculating the Jacobian matrix. We apply our algorithm to noise-free and noise-added synthetic data generated for the modified version of elastic Marmousi2 model, and compare the results with those of the source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion. For the noise-free data, the source-independent algorithms yield velocity models close to true velocity models. For random-noise data, the source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion yields better results than the source-independent method, whereas for coherent-noise data, the results are reversed. Numerical results show that the source-independent and source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion methods have their own merits for random- and coherent-noise data. © 2011.

  10. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-09-01

    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  11. Waveform LiDAR across forest biomass gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, P. M.; Nelson, R. F.; Dubayah, R.; Sun, G.; Ranson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed information on the quantity and distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) is needed to understand how it varies across space and changes over time. Waveform LiDAR data is routinely used to derive the heights of scattering elements in each illuminated footprint, and the vertical structure of vegetation is related to AGB. Changes in LiDAR waveforms across vegetation structure gradients can demonstrate instrument sensitivity to land cover transitions. A close examination of LiDAR waveforms in footprints across a forest gradient can provide new insight into the relationship of vegetation structure and forest AGB. In this study we use field measurements of individual trees within Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) footprints along transects crossing forest to non-forest gradients to examine changes in LVIS waveform characteristics at sites with low (field AGB measurements to original and adjusted LVIS waveforms to detect the forest AGB interval along a forest - non-forest transition in which the LVIS waveform lose the ability to discern differences in AGB. Our results help identify the lower end the forest biomass range that a ~20m footprint waveform LiDAR can detect, which can help infer accumulation of biomass after disturbances and during forest expansion, and which can guide the use of LiDAR within a multi-sensor fusion biomass mapping approach.

  12. SURFACE FITTING FILTERING OF LIDAR POINT CLOUD WITH WAVEFORM INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Xing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-waveform LiDAR is an active technology of photogrammetry and remote sensing. It provides more detailed information about objects along the path of a laser pulse than discrete-return topographic LiDAR. The point cloud and waveform information with high quality can be obtained by waveform decomposition, which could make contributions to accurate filtering. The surface fitting filtering method with waveform information is proposed to present such advantage. Firstly, discrete point cloud and waveform parameters are resolved by global convergent Levenberg Marquardt decomposition. Secondly, the ground seed points are selected, of which the abnormal ones are detected by waveform parameters and robust estimation. Thirdly, the terrain surface is fitted and the height difference threshold is determined in consideration of window size and mean square error. Finally, the points are classified gradually with the rising of window size. The filtering process is finished until window size is larger than threshold. The waveform data in urban, farmland and mountain areas from “WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research” are selected for experiments. Results prove that compared with traditional method, the accuracy of point cloud filtering is further improved and the proposed method has highly practical value.

  13. Statistical gravitational waveform models: What to simulate next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Zoheyr; Farr, Ben; Holz, Daniel E.; Pürrer, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Models of gravitational waveforms play a critical role in detecting and characterizing the gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary coalescences. Waveforms from numerical relativity (NR), while highly accurate, are too computationally expensive to produce to be directly used with Bayesian parameter estimation tools like Markov-chain-Monte-Carlo and nested sampling. We propose a Gaussian process regression (GPR) method to generate reduced-order-model waveforms based only on existing accurate (e.g. NR) simulations. Using a training set of simulated waveforms, our GPR approach produces interpolated waveforms along with uncertainties across the parameter space. As a proof of concept, we use a training set of IMRPhenomD waveforms to build a GPR model in the 2-d parameter space of mass ratio q and equal-and-aligned spin χ1=χ2. Using a regular, equally-spaced grid of 120 IMRPhenomD training waveforms in q ∈[1 ,3 ] and χ1∈[-0.5 ,0.5 ], the GPR mean approximates IMRPhenomD in this space to mismatches below 4.3 ×10-5. Our approach could in principle use training waveforms directly from numerical relativity. Beyond interpolation of waveforms, we also present a greedy algorithm that utilizes the errors provided by our GPR model to optimize the placement of future simulations. In a fiducial test case we find that using the greedy algorithm to iteratively add simulations achieves GPR errors that are ˜1 order of magnitude lower than the errors from using Latin-hypercube or square training grids.

  14. Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Field

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform’s value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mc_{fit} online operations, where c_{fit} denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 10^{5}M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in

  15. The Asthma Control Questionnaire as a clinical trial endpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, P J; Casale, T B; Dahl, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    these component endpoints; however, there is no consensus on the optimal instrument for use in clinical trials. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) has been shown to be a valid, reliable instrument that allows accurate and reproducible assessment of asthma control that compares favourably with other commonly...

  16. Full Waveform Inversion Using Nonlinearly Smoothed Wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.; Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Li, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The lack of low frequency information in the acquired data makes full waveform inversion (FWI) conditionally converge to the accurate solution. An initial velocity model that results in data with events within a half cycle of their location in the observed data was required to converge. The multiplication of wavefields with slightly different frequencies generates artificial low frequency components. This can be effectively utilized by multiplying the wavefield with itself, which is nonlinear operation, followed by a smoothing operator to extract the artificially produced low frequency information. We construct the objective function using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefields with a global-correlation norm to properly handle the energy imbalance in the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Similar to the multi-scale strategy, we progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the multiplied wavefield to welcome higher resolution. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. Examples on the Marmousi 2 model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FWI method to mitigate the cycle-skipping problem in the case of a lack of low frequency information.

  17. Full Waveform Inversion Using Nonlinearly Smoothed Wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.

    2017-05-26

    The lack of low frequency information in the acquired data makes full waveform inversion (FWI) conditionally converge to the accurate solution. An initial velocity model that results in data with events within a half cycle of their location in the observed data was required to converge. The multiplication of wavefields with slightly different frequencies generates artificial low frequency components. This can be effectively utilized by multiplying the wavefield with itself, which is nonlinear operation, followed by a smoothing operator to extract the artificially produced low frequency information. We construct the objective function using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefields with a global-correlation norm to properly handle the energy imbalance in the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Similar to the multi-scale strategy, we progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the multiplied wavefield to welcome higher resolution. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. Examples on the Marmousi 2 model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FWI method to mitigate the cycle-skipping problem in the case of a lack of low frequency information.

  18. Femtosecond Nanofocusing with Full Optical Waveform Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berweger, Samuel; Atkin, Joanna M.; Xu, Xiaoji G.; Olmon, Robert L.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The simultaneous nanometer spatial confinement and femtosecond temporal control of an optical excitation has been a long-standing challenge in optics. Previous approaches using surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonant nanostructures or SPP waveguides have suffered from, for example, mode mismatch, or possible dependence on the phase of the driving laser field to achieve spatial localization. Here we take advantage of the intrinsic phase- and amplitude-independent nanofocusing ability of a conical noble metal tip with weak wavelength dependence over a broad bandwidth to achieve a 10 nm spatially and few-femtosecond temporally confined excitation. In combination with spectral pulse shaping and feedback on the second-harmonic response of the tip apex, we demonstrate deterministic arbitrary optical waveform control. In addition, the high efficiency of the nanofocusing tip provided by the continuous micro- to nanoscale mode transformation opens the door for spectroscopy of elementary optical excitations in matter on their natural length and time scales and enables applications from ultrafast nano-opto-electronics to single molecule quantum coherent control.

  19. Full waveform inversion for mechanized tunneling reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamert, Andre; Musayev, Khayal; Lambrecht, Lasse; Friederich, Wolfgang; Hackl, Klaus; Baitsch, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In mechanized tunnel drilling processes, exploration of soil structure and properties ahead of the tunnel boring machine can greatly help to lower costs and improve safety conditions during drilling. We present numerical full waveform inversion approaches in time and frequency domain of synthetic acoustic data to detect different small scale structures representing potential obstacles in front of the tunnel boring machine. With the use of sensitivity kernels based on the adjoint wave field in time domain and in frequency domain it is possible to derive satisfactory models with a manageable amount of computational load. Convergence to a suitable model is assured by the use of iterative model improvements and gradually increasing frequencies. Results of both, time and frequency approach, will be compared for different obstacle and source/receiver setups. They show that the image quality strongly depends on the used receiver and source positions and increases significantly with the use of transmission waves due to the installed receivers and sources at the surface and/or in bore holes. Transmission waves lead to clearly identified structure and position of the obstacles and give satisfactory guesses for the wave speed. Setups using only reflected waves result in blurred objects and ambiguous position of distant objects and allow to distinguish heterogeneities with higher or lower wave speed, respectively.

  20. SeisFlows-Flexible waveform inversion software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrak, Ryan T.; Borisov, Dmitry; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Tromp, Jeroen

    2018-06-01

    SeisFlows is an open source Python package that provides a customizable waveform inversion workflow and framework for research in oil and gas exploration, earthquake tomography, medical imaging, and other areas. New methods can be rapidly prototyped in SeisFlows by inheriting from default inversion or migration classes, and code can be tested on 2D examples before application to more expensive 3D problems. Wave simulations must be performed using an external software package such as SPECFEM3D. The ability to interface with external solvers lends flexibility, and the choice of SPECFEM3D as a default option provides optional GPU acceleration and other useful capabilities. Through support for massively parallel solvers and interfaces for high-performance computing (HPC) systems, inversions with thousands of seismic traces and billions of model parameters can be performed. So far, SeisFlows has run on clusters managed by the Department of Defense, Chevron Corp., Total S.A., Princeton University, and the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

  1. Biomechanical constraints on the feedforward regulation of endpoint stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Murray, Wendy M; Perreault, Eric J

    2012-10-01

    Although many daily tasks tend to destabilize arm posture, it is still possible to have stable interactions with the environment by regulating the multijoint mechanics of the arm in a task-appropriate manner. For postural tasks, this regulation involves the appropriate control of endpoint stiffness, which represents the stiffness of the arm at the hand. Although experimental studies have been used to evaluate endpoint stiffness control, including the orientation of maximal stiffness, the underlying neural strategies remain unknown. Specifically, the relative importance of feedforward and feedback mechanisms has yet to be determined due to the difficulty separately identifying the contributions of these mechanisms in human experiments. This study used a previously validated three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the arm to quantify the degree to which the orientation of maximal endpoint stiffness could be changed using only steady-state muscle activations, used to represent feedforward motor commands. Our hypothesis was that the feedforward control of endpoint stiffness orientation would be significantly constrained by the biomechanical properties of the musculoskeletal system. Our results supported this hypothesis, demonstrating substantial biomechanical constraints on the ability to regulate endpoint stiffness throughout the workspace. The ability to regulate stiffness orientation was further constrained by additional task requirements, such as the need to support the arm against gravity or exert forces on the environment. Together, these results bound the degree to which slowly varying feedforward motor commands can be used to regulate the orientation of maximum arm stiffness and provide a context for better understanding conditions in which feedback control may be needed.

  2. Modeling hard clinical end-point data in economic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Anuraag R; Zheng, Ying; Palencia, Roberto; Ruffolo, Antonio; Hass, Bastian; Sorensen, Sonja V

    2013-11-01

    The availability of hard clinical end-point data, such as that on cardiovascular (CV) events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, is increasing, and as a result there is growing interest in using hard end-point data of this type in economic analyses. This study investigated published approaches for modeling hard end-points from clinical trials and evaluated their applicability in health economic models with different disease features. A review of cost-effectiveness models of interventions in clinically significant therapeutic areas (CV diseases, cancer, and chronic lower respiratory diseases) was conducted in PubMed and Embase using a defined search strategy. Only studies integrating hard end-point data from randomized clinical trials were considered. For each study included, clinical input characteristics and modeling approach were summarized and evaluated. A total of 33 articles (23 CV, eight cancer, two respiratory) were accepted for detailed analysis. Decision trees, Markov models, discrete event simulations, and hybrids were used. Event rates were incorporated either as constant rates, time-dependent risks, or risk equations based on patient characteristics. Risks dependent on time and/or patient characteristics were used where major event rates were >1%/year in models with fewer health states (Models of infrequent events or with numerous health states generally preferred constant event rates. The detailed modeling information and terminology varied, sometimes requiring interpretation. Key considerations for cost-effectiveness models incorporating hard end-point data include the frequency and characteristics of the relevant clinical events and how the trial data is reported. When event risk is low, simplification of both the model structure and event rate modeling is recommended. When event risk is common, such as in high risk populations, more detailed modeling approaches, including individual simulations or explicitly time-dependent event rates, are

  3. A Novel wave-form command shaper for overhead cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALED ALHAZZA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel command shaping control strategy for oscillation reduction of simple harmonic oscillators is proposed, and validated experimentally. A wave-form acceleration command shaper is derived analytically. The performance of the proposed shaper is simulated numerically, and validated experimentally on a scaled model of an overhead crane. Amplitude modulation is used to enhance the shaper performance, which results in a modulated wave-form command shaper. It is determined that the proposed wave-form and modulated wave-form command shaper profiles are capable of eliminating travel and residual oscillations. Furthermore, unlike traditional impulse and step command shapers, the proposed command shaper has piecewise smoother acceleration, velocity, and displacement profiles. Experimental results using continuous and discrete commands are presented. Experiments with discrete commands involved embedding a saturation model-based feedback in the algorithm of the command shaper.

  4. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-01-13

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  5. Maass waveforms arising from sigma and related indefinite theta functions

    OpenAIRE

    Zwegers, Sander

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider an example of a Maass waveform which was constructed by Cohen from a function $\\sigma$, studied by Andrews, Dyson and Hickerson, and it's companion $\\sigma^*$. We put this example in a more general framework.

  6. Efficient data retrieval method for similar plasma waveforms in EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying, E-mail: liuying-ipp@szu.edu.cn [SZU-CASIPP Joint Laboratory for Applied Plasma, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Huang, Jianjun; Zhou, Huasheng; Wang, Fan [SZU-CASIPP Joint Laboratory for Applied Plasma, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wang, Feng [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The proposed method is carried out by means of bounding envelope and angle distance. • It allows retrieving for whole similar waveforms of any time length. • In addition, the proposed method is also possible to retrieve subsequences. - Abstract: Fusion research relies highly on data analysis due to its massive-sized database. In the present work, we propose an efficient method for searching and retrieving similar plasma waveforms in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Based on Piecewise Linear Aggregate Approximation (PLAA) for extracting feature values, the searching process is accomplished in two steps. The first one is coarse searching to narrow down the search space, which is carried out by means of bounding envelope. The second step is fine searching to retrieval similar waveforms, which is implemented by the angle distance. The proposed method is tested in EAST databases and turns out to have good performance in retrieving similar waveforms.

  7. Conditioning the full-waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual trade-off between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation

  8. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially

  9. Full Waveform Inversion Using Oriented Time Migration Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) for reflection events is limited by its linearized update requirements given by a process equivalent to migration. Unless the background velocity model is reasonably accurate the resulting gradient can have

  10. Interferometric full-waveform inversion of time-lapse data

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    surveys. To overcome this challenge, we propose the use of interferometric full waveform inversion (IFWI) for inverting the velocity model from data recorded by baseline and monitor surveys. A known reflector is used as the reference reflector for IFWI

  11. Velocity Building by Reflection Waveform Inversion without Cycle-skipping

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong

    2017-01-01

    Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides estimation of low wavenumber model components using reflections generated from a migration/demigration process. The resulting model tends to be a good initial model for FWI. In fact, the optimization

  12. 3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate

  13. Spectral implementation of full waveform inversion based on reflections

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Using the reflection imaging process as a source to model reflections for full waveform inversion (FWI), referred to as reflection FWI (RFWI), allows us to update the background component of the model, and avoid using the relatively costly migration

  14. Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.

  15. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Jardak, Seifallah

    2016-01-01

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  16. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  17. Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zabihi Naeini, E.; Kamath, N.; Tsvankin, I.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI

  18. Micro-seismic waveform matching inversion based on gravitational search algorithm and parallel computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Xing, H. L.

    2016-12-01

    Micro-seismic events induced by water injection, mining activity or oil/gas extraction are quite informative, the interpretation of which can be applied for the reconstruction of underground stress and monitoring of hydraulic fracturing progress in oil/gas reservoirs. The source characterises and locations are crucial parameters that required for these purposes, which can be obtained through the waveform matching inversion (WMI) method. Therefore it is imperative to develop a WMI algorithm with high accuracy and convergence speed. Heuristic algorithm, as a category of nonlinear method, possesses a very high convergence speed and good capacity to overcome local minimal values, and has been well applied for many areas (e.g. image processing, artificial intelligence). However, its effectiveness for micro-seismic WMI is still poorly investigated; very few literatures exits that addressing this subject. In this research an advanced heuristic algorithm, gravitational search algorithm (GSA) , is proposed to estimate the focal mechanism (angle of strike, dip and rake) and source locations in three dimension. Unlike traditional inversion methods, the heuristic algorithm inversion does not require the approximation of green function. The method directly interacts with a CPU parallelized finite difference forward modelling engine, and updating the model parameters under GSA criterions. The effectiveness of this method is tested with synthetic data form a multi-layered elastic model; the results indicate GSA can be well applied on WMI and has its unique advantages. Keywords: Micro-seismicity, Waveform matching inversion, gravitational search algorithm, parallel computation

  19. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang

    2016-09-06

    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  20. A microcomputer-based waveform generator for Moessbauer spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianping; Chen Xiaomei

    1995-01-01

    A waveform generator for Moessbauer spectrometers based on 8751 single chip microcomputer is described. The reference wave form with high linearity is generated with a 12 bit DAC, and its amplitude is controlled with a 8 bit DAC. Because the channel advance and synchronous signals can be delayed arbitrarily, excellent folded spectra can be acquired. This waveform generator can be controlled with DIP switches on faceplate or series interface of the IBM-PC microcomputer

  1. A Time Domain Waveform for Testing General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huwyler, Cédric; Jetzer, Philippe; Porter, Edward K

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational-wave parameter estimation is only as good as the theory the waveform generation models are based upon. It is therefore crucial to test General Relativity (GR) once data becomes available. Many previous works, such as studies connected with the ppE framework by Yunes and Pretorius, rely on the stationary phase approximation (SPA) to model deviations from GR in the frequency domain. As Fast Fourier Transform algorithms have become considerably faster and in order to circumvent possible problems with the SPA, we test GR with corrected time domain waveforms instead of SPA waveforms. Since a considerable amount of work has been done already in the field using SPA waveforms, we establish a connection between leading-order-corrected waveforms in time and frequency domain, concentrating on phase-only corrected terms. In a Markov Chain Monte Carlo study, whose results are preliminary and will only be available later, we will assess the ability of the eLISA detector to measure deviations from GR for signals coming from supermassive black hole inspirals using these corrected waveforms. (paper)

  2. Phase-space topography characterization of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Niri, Ehsan; Al-Beer, Helem

    2018-03-01

    Fundamental understanding of ultrasound interaction with material discontinuities having closed interfaces has many engineering applications such as nondestructive evaluation of defects like kissing bonds and cracks in critical structural and mechanical components. In this paper, to analyze the acoustic field nonlinearities due to defects with closed interfaces, the use of a common technique in nonlinear physics, based on a phase-space topography construction of ultrasound waveform, is proposed. The central idea is to complement the "time" and "frequency" domain analyses with the "phase-space" domain analysis of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. A nonlinear time series method known as pseudo phase-space topography construction is used to construct equivalent phase-space portrait of measured ultrasound waveforms. Several nonlinear models are considered to numerically simulate nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. The phase-space response of the simulated waveforms is shown to provide different topographic information, while the frequency domain shows similar spectral behavior. Thus, model classification can be substantially enhanced in the phase-space domain. Experimental results on high strength aluminum samples show that the phase-space transformation provides a unique detection and classification capabilities. The Poincaré map of the phase-space domain is also used to better understand the nonlinear behavior of ultrasound waveforms. It is shown that the analysis of ultrasound nonlinearities is more convenient and informative in the phase-space domain than in the frequency domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive Waveform Design for Cognitive Radar in Multiple Targets Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of cognitive radar (CR waveform optimization design for target detection and estimation in multiple extended targets situations is investigated. This problem is analyzed in signal-dependent interference, as well as additive channel noise for extended targets with unknown target impulse response (TIR. To address this problem, an improved algorithm is employed for target detection by maximizing the detection probability of the received echo on the promise of ensuring the TIR estimation precision. In this algorithm, an additional weight vector is introduced to achieve a trade-off among different targets. Both the estimate of TIR and transmit waveform can be updated at each step based on the previous step. Under the same constraint on waveform energy and bandwidth, the information theoretical approach is also considered. In addition, the relationship between the waveforms that are designed based on the two criteria is discussed. Unlike most existing works that only consider single target with temporally correlated characteristics, waveform design for multiple extended targets is considered in this method. Simulation results demonstrate that compared with linear frequency modulated (LFM signal, waveforms designed based on maximum detection probability and maximum mutual information (MI criteria can make radar echoes contain more multiple-target information and improve radar performance as a result.

  4. Adaptive phase k-means algorithm for waveform classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Yaojun; Xu, Feng; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin

    2018-01-01

    Waveform classification is a powerful technique for seismic facies analysis that describes the heterogeneity and compartments within a reservoir. Horizon interpretation is a critical step in waveform classification. However, the horizon often produces inconsistent waveform phase, and thus results in an unsatisfied classification. To alleviate this problem, an adaptive phase waveform classification method called the adaptive phase k-means is introduced in this paper. Our method improves the traditional k-means algorithm using an adaptive phase distance for waveform similarity measure. The proposed distance is a measure with variable phases as it moves from sample to sample along the traces. Model traces are also updated with the best phase interference in the iterative process. Therefore, our method is robust to phase variations caused by the interpretation horizon. We tested the effectiveness of our algorithm by applying it to synthetic and real data. The satisfactory results reveal that the proposed method tolerates certain waveform phase variation and is a good tool for seismic facies analysis.

  5. Optimal current waveforms for brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle, Nicholas; Boyd, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we give energy-optimal current waveforms for a permanent magnet synchronous motor that result in a desired average torque. Our formulation generalises previous work by including a general back-electromotive force (EMF) wave shape, voltage and current limits, an arbitrary phase winding connection, a simple eddy current loss model, and a trade-off between power loss and torque ripple. Determining the optimal current waveforms requires solving a small convex optimisation problem. We show how to use the alternating direction method of multipliers to find the optimal current in milliseconds or hundreds of microseconds, depending on the processor used, which allows the possibility of generating optimal waveforms in real time. This allows us to adapt in real time to changes in the operating requirements or in the model, such as a change in resistance with winding temperature, or even gross changes like the failure of one winding. Suboptimal waveforms are available in tens or hundreds of microseconds, allowing for quick response after abrupt changes in the desired torque. We demonstrate our approach on a simple numerical example, in which we give the optimal waveforms for a motor with a sinusoidal back-EMF, and for a motor with a more complicated, nonsinusoidal waveform, in both the constant-torque region and constant-power region.

  6. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion, with reduced local minima. We propose a waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase objective function in the frequency-domain. The unwrapped phase, or what we call the instantaneous traveltime, is given by the imaginary part of dividing the derivative of the wavefield with respect to the angular frequency by the wavefield itself. As a result, the objective function is given a traveltime-like function, which allows us to smooth it and reduce its nonlinearity. The gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique. We apply both our waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase and the conventional waveform inversion and show that our inversion algorithm gives better convergence to the true model than the conventional waveform inversion. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. 3D Electric Waveforms of Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Electric fields provide the major coupling between the turbulence of the solar wind and particles. A large part of the turbulent spectrum of fluctuations in the solar wind is thought to be kinetic Alfvén waves; however, whistlers have recently been found to be important. In this article, we attempt to determine the mode identification of individual waveforms using the three-dimensional antenna system of the SWaves experiments on the STEREO spacecraft. Samples are chosen using waveforms with an apparent periodic structure, selected visually. The short antennas of STEREO respond to density fluctuations and to electric fields. Measurement of four quantities using only three antennas presents a problem. Methods to overcome or to ignore this difficulty are presented. We attempt to decide whether the waveforms correspond to the whistler mode or the Alfvén mode by using the direction of rotation of the signal. Most of the waveforms are so oblique—nearly linearly polarized—that the direction cannot be determined. However, about one third of the waveforms can be identified, and whistlers and Alfvén waves are present in roughly equal numbers. The selected waveforms are very intense but intermittent and are orders of magnitude stronger than the average, yet their accumulated signal accounts for a large fraction of the average. The average, however, is supposed to be the result of a turbulent mixture of many waves, not short coherent events. This presents a puzzle for future work.

  8. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  9. Patients’ preferences for selection of endpoints in cardiovascular clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Chow

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To reduce the duration and overall costs of cardiovascular trials, use of the combined endpoints in trial design has become commonplace. Though this methodology may serve the needs of investigators and trial sponsors, the preferences of patients or potential trial subjects in the trial design process has not been studied. Objective: To determine the preferences of patients in the design of cardiovascular trials. Design: Participants were surveyed in a pilot study regarding preferences among various single endpoints commonly used in cardiovascular trials, preference for single vs. composite endpoints, and the likelihood of compliance with a heart medication if patients similar to them participated in the trial design process. Participants: One hundred adult English-speaking patients, 38% male, from a primary care ambulatory practice located in an urban setting. Key results: Among single endpoints, participants rated heart attack as significantly more important than death from other causes (4.53 vs. 3.69, p=0.004 on a scale of 1–6. Death from heart disease was rated as significantly more important than chest pain (4.73 vs. 2.47, p<0.001, angioplasty/PCI/CABG (4.73 vs. 2.43, p<0.001, and stroke (4.73 vs. 2.43, p<0.001. Participants also expressed a slight preference for combined endpoints over single endpoint (43% vs. 57%, incorporation of the opinions of the study patient population into the design of trials (48% vs. 41% for researchers, and a greater likelihood of medication compliance if patient preferences were considered during trial design (67% indicated a significant to major effect. Conclusions: Patients are able to make judgments and express preferences regarding trial design. They prefer that the opinions of the study population rather than the general population be incorporated into the design of the study. This novel approach to study design would not only incorporate patient preferences into medical decision making, but

  10. Source-independent time-domain waveform inversion using convolved wavefields: Application to the encoded multisource waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full waveform inversion requires a good estimation of the source wavelet to improve our chances of a successful inversion. This is especially true for an encoded multisource time-domain implementation, which, conventionally, requires separate

  11. System and Method for Generating a Frequency Modulated Linear Laser Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor); Petway, Larry B. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Lockard, George E. (Inventor); Hines, Glenn D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system for generating a frequency modulated linear laser waveform includes a single frequency laser generator to produce a laser output signal. An electro-optical modulator modulates the frequency of the laser output signal to define a linear triangular waveform. An optical circulator passes the linear triangular waveform to a band-pass optical filter to filter out harmonic frequencies created in the waveform during modulation of the laser output signal, to define a pure filtered modulated waveform having a very narrow bandwidth. The optical circulator receives the pure filtered modulated laser waveform and transmits the modulated laser waveform to a target.

  12. Extension of frequency-based dissimilarity for retrieving similar plasma waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochin, Teruhisa; Koyama, Katsumasa; Nakanishi, Hideya; Kojima, Mamoru

    2008-01-01

    Some computer-aided assistance in finding the waveforms similar to a waveform has become indispensable for accelerating data analysis in the plasma experiments. For the slowly-varying waveforms and those having time-sectional oscillation patterns, the methods using the Fourier series coefficients of waveforms in calculating the dissimilarity have successfully improved the performance in retrieving similar waveforms. This paper treats severely-varying waveforms, and proposes two extensions to the dissimilarity of waveforms. The first extension is to capture the difference of the importance of the Fourier series coefficients of waveforms against frequency. The second extension is to consider the outlines of waveforms. The correctness of the extended dissimilarity is experimentally evaluated by using the metrics used in evaluating that of the information retrieval, i.e. precision and recall. The experimental results show that the extended dissimilarity could improve the correctness of the similarity retrieval of plasma waveforms

  13. Trial endpoints for drug approval in oncology: Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, J

    2001-04-01

    As with other drugs, new drug applications for marketing approval of chemopreventive drugs must include data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials that demonstrate effectiveness and safety for the intended use. This article summarizes the regulatory requirements for traditional marketing approval, as well as for approval under the accelerated approval regulations. Unlike traditional approval, accelerated approval is based on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. Discussions with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding the validity of trial endpoints that may serve as surrogates for clinical benefit for accelerated approval should take place as early as possible in drug development. Meetings with the FDA to discuss these issues may be requested throughout the clinical development of a new drug.

  14. Pseudo LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. When SIRAL operates in SAR or SARin mode, the obtained waveforms have an along-track resolution and a speckle reduction which is increased with respect to the pulse-limited waveforms. Anyway, in order to analyze the continuity of the geophysical retrieved parameters among different acquisition modes, techniques to transform SARin mode data to pseudo-LRM mode data are welcome. The transformation process is known as SAR reduction and it is worth recalling here that only approximate pseudo-LRM waveforms can be obtained in case of closed burst acquisitions, as SIRAL operates. A SAR reduction processing scheme has been developed to obtain pseudo-LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition. As a trade-off between the along-track length on Earth surface contributing to one SARin pseudo-LRM waveform and the noisiness of the waveform itself, it has been chosen a SAR reduction approach based on the averaging of all the SARin echoes received each 20Hz, resulting in one pseudo-LRM waveform for each SARin burst given the SARin burst repetition period. SARin pseudo-LRM waveforms have been produced for CryoSat acquisition both on ice and sea surfaces, aiming at verifying the continuity of the retracked surface height over the ellipsoid between genuine LRM products and pseudo-LRM products. Moreover, the retracked height from the SARin pseudo-LRM has been

  15. Sperm count as a surrogate endpoint for male fertility control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Norbert; Gerlinger, Christoph

    2007-11-30

    When assessing the effectiveness of a hormonal method of fertility control in men, the classical approach used for the assessment of hormonal contraceptives in women, by estimating the pregnancy rate or using a life-table analysis for the time to pregnancy, is difficult to apply in a clinical development program. The main reasons are the dissociation of the treated unit, i.e. the man, and the observed unit, i.e. his female partner, the high variability in the frequency of male intercourse, the logistical cost and ethical concerns related to the monitoring of the trial. A reasonable surrogate endpoint of the definite endpoint time to pregnancy is sperm count. In addition to the avoidance of the mentioned problems, trials that compare different treatments are possible with reasonable sample sizes, and study duration can be shorter. However, current products do not suppress sperm production to 100 per cent in all men and the sperm count is only observed with measurement error. Complete azoospermia might not be necessary in order to achieve an acceptable failure rate compared with other forms of male fertility control. Therefore, the use of sperm count as a surrogate endpoint must rely on the results of a previous trial in which both the definitive- and surrogate-endpoint results were assessed. The paper discusses different estimation functions of the mean pregnancy rate (corresponding to the cumulative hazard) that are based on the results of sperm count trial and a previous trial in which both sperm count and time to pregnancy were assessed, as well as the underlying assumptions. Sample size estimations are given for pregnancy rate estimation with a given precision.

  16. Gene expression profiling reveals multiple toxicity endpoints induced by hepatotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qihong; Jin Xidong; Gaillard, Elias T.; Knight, Brian L.; Pack, Franklin D.; Stoltz, James H.; Jayadev, Supriya; Blanchard, Kerry T

    2004-05-18

    Microarray technology continues to gain increased acceptance in the drug development process, particularly at the stage of toxicology and safety assessment. In the current study, microarrays were used to investigate gene expression changes associated with hepatotoxicity, the most commonly reported clinical liability with pharmaceutical agents. Acetaminophen, methotrexate, methapyrilene, furan and phenytoin were used as benchmark compounds capable of inducing specific but different types of hepatotoxicity. The goal of the work was to define gene expression profiles capable of distinguishing the different subtypes of hepatotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with acetaminophen (single dose, 4500 mg/kg for 6, 24 and 72 h), methotrexate (1 mg/kg per day for 1, 7 and 14 days), methapyrilene (100 mg/kg per day for 3 and 7 days), furan (40 mg/kg per day for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days) or phenytoin (300 mg/kg per day for 14 days). Hepatic gene expression was assessed using toxicology-specific gene arrays containing 684 target genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Principal component analysis (PCA) of gene expression data was able to provide a clear distinction of each compound, suggesting that gene expression data can be used to discern different hepatotoxic agents and toxicity endpoints. Gene expression data were applied to the multiplicity-adjusted permutation test and significantly changed genes were categorized and correlated to hepatotoxic endpoints. Repression of enzymes involved in lipid oxidation (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, enoyl CoA hydratase, very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase) were associated with microvesicular lipidosis. Likewise, subsets of genes associated with hepatotocellular necrosis, inflammation, hepatitis, bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis have been identified. The current study illustrates that expression profiling can be used to: (1) distinguish different hepatotoxic endpoints; (2) predict the development of toxic endpoints; and

  17. Pulmonary Endpoints in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. A Workshop Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finder, Jonathan; Mayer, Oscar Henry; Sheehan, Daniel; Sawnani, Hemant; Abresch, R Ted; Benditt, Joshua; Birnkrant, David J; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik; Kinnett, Kathi; McDonald, Craig M; Connolly, Anne M

    2017-08-15

    Development of novel therapeutics for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has led to clinical trials that include pulmonary endpoints that allow assessment of respiratory muscle status, especially in nonambulatory subjects. Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy (PPMD) convened a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, on April 14 and 15, 2016, to summarize published respiratory data in DMD and give guidance to clinical researchers assessing the effect of interventions on pulmonary outcomes in DMD.

  18. Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Helena F.; Veiga, Diogo F.; Freire, Pablo R.; Weinstein, John N.; Mills, Gordon B.; Almeida, Jonas S.

    2011-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source. PMID:20851208

  19. Overview of Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints in Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Wagner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous factors that recommend the use of biomarkers in drug development including the ability to provide a rational basis for selection of lead compounds, as an aid in determining or refining mechanism of action or pathophysiology, and the ability to work towards qualification and use of a biomarker as a surrogate endpoint. Examples of biomarkers come from many different means of clinical and laboratory measurement. Total cholesterol is an example of a clinically useful biomarker that was successfully qualified for use as a surrogate endpoint. Biomarkers require validation in most circumstances. Validation of biomarker assays is a necessary component to delivery of high-quality research data necessary for effective use of biomarkers. Qualification is necessary for use of a biomarker as a surrogate endpoint. Putative biomarkers are typically identified because of a relationship to known or hypothetical steps in a pathophysiologic cascade. Biomarker discovery can also be effected by expression profiling experiment using a variety of array technologies and related methods. For example, expression profiling experiments enabled the discovery of adipocyte related complement protein of 30 kD (Acrp30 or adiponectin as a biomarker for in vivo activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR γ activity.

  20. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg DavidE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1 catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2 classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as the research design and conceptual model guiding analysis and interpretation of data. The majority of studies (68% investigated endpoints related to psychosexual differentiation. The preponderance of studies (76% examined a direct relationship (i.e., inferring causality between prenatal androgen exposure and psychological outcomes. Findings are discussed in relation to the observed imbalance between theoretical interest in the role of prenatal androgens in shaping psychosexual differentiation and a broader conceptual model that examines the role of other potential factors in mediating or moderating the influence of CAH pathophysiology on psychological outcomes in both affected females and males. The latter approach offers to identify factors amenable to clinical intervention that enhance both health and quality of life outcomes in CAH as well as other disorders of sex development.

  1. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment... figuring your net earnings from self-employment, the term possession of the United States shall be deemed...

  2. Mental illness complicated by the santeria belief in spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Jeffrey, W D

    1988-11-01

    Santeria, a religious system that blends African and Catholic beliefs, is practiced by many Cuban Americans. One aspect of this system is the belief in spirit possession. Basic santeria beliefs and rituals, including the fiesta santera (a gathering at which some participants may become possessed), are briefly described, and four cases in which the patients' belief in possession played a role in their mental illness are presented. The belief in possession can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, but it should not be considered a culture-bound syndrome. Rather, it may be a nonspecific symptom of a variety of mental illnesses and should be evaluated in the context of the patient's overall belief system and ability to carry out usual activities.

  3. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  4. The epistemological significance of possession entering the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Craig

    2015-09-01

    The discourse of the American Psychiatric Association's DSM reflects the inherently dialogic or contradictory nature of its stated mandate to demonstrate both 'nosological completeness' and cultural 'inclusiveness'. Psychiatry employs the dialogic discourse of the DSM in a one-sided, positivistic manner by identifying what it considers universal mental disease entities stripped of their cultural context. In 1992 the editors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders proposed to introduce possession into their revisions. A survey of the discussions about introducing 'possession' as a dissociative disorder to be listed in the DSM-IV indicates a missed epistemological break. Subsequently the editors of the DSM-5 politically 'recuperated' possession into its official discourse, without acknowledging the anarchic challenges that possession presents to psychiatry as a cultural practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Criminalization of 'Possession of Unexplained Property' and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worku_Y

    government operating costs, increases government spending for wages and ... revenues by plundering revenue generating agencies such as tax collection, ..... a) the assets under the ownership or possession of himself and his family; and.

  6. Ocular pressure waveform reflects ventricular bigeminy and aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean B Kassem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular pulse amplitude (OPA is defined as the difference between maximum and minimum intraocular pressure (IOP during a cardiac cycle. Average values of OPA range from 1 to 4 mmHg. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the source of an irregular IOP waveform with elevated OPA in a 48-year-old male. Ocular pressure waveforms had an unusual shape consistent with early ventricular contraction. With a normal IOP, OPA was 9 mmHg, which is extraordinarily high. The subject was examined by a cardiologist and was determined to be in ventricular bigeminy. In addition, he had bounding carotid pulses and echocardiogram confirmed aortic insufficiency. After replacement of the aortic valve, the bigeminy resolved and the ocular pulse waveform became regular in appearance with an OPA of 1.6-2.0 mmHg. The ocular pressure waveform is a direct reflection of hemodynamics. Evaluating this waveform may provide an additional opportunity for screening subjects for cardiovascular anomalies and arrhythmias.

  7. Selection and generation of waveforms for differential mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Evgeny V; Coy, Stephen L; Vandermey, John; Schneider, Bradley B; Covey, Thomas R; Nazarov, Erkinjon G

    2010-02-01

    Devices based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) are used in a number of ways, including applications as ion prefilters for API-MS systems, as detectors or selectors in hybrid instruments (GC-DMS, DMS-IMS), and in standalone systems for chemical detection and identification. DMS ion separation is based on the relative difference between high field and low field ion mobility known as the alpha dependence, and requires the application of an intense asymmetric electric field known as the DMS separation field, typically in the megahertz frequency range. DMS performance depends on the waveform and on the magnitude of this separation field. In this paper, we analyze the relationship between separation waveform and DMS resolution and consider feasible separation field generators. We examine ideal and practical DMS separation field waveforms and discuss separation field generator circuit types and their implementations. To facilitate optimization of the generator designs, we present a set of relations that connect ion alpha dependence to DMS separation fields. Using these relationships we evaluate the DMS separation power of common generator types as a function of their waveform parameters. Optimal waveforms for the major types of DMS separation generators are determined for ions with various alpha dependences. These calculations are validated by comparison with experimental data.

  8. Direct current contamination of kilohertz frequency alternating current waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Manfred; Bhadra, Niloy; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin

    2014-07-30

    Kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) waveforms are being evaluated in a variety of physiological settings because of their potential to modulate neural activity uniquely when compared to frequencies in the sub-kilohertz range. However, the use of waveforms in this frequency range presents some unique challenges regarding the generator output. In this study we explored the possibility of undesirable contamination of the KHFAC waveforms by direct current (DC). We evaluated current- and voltage-controlled KHFAC waveform generators in configurations that included a capacitive coupling between generator and electrode, a resistive coupling and combinations of capacitive with inductive coupling. Our results demonstrate that both voltage- and current-controlled signal generators can unintentionally add DC-contamination to a KHFAC signal, and that capacitive coupling is not always sufficient to eliminate this contamination. We furthermore demonstrated that high value inductors, placed in parallel with the electrode, can be effective in eliminating DC-contamination irrespective of the type of stimulator, reducing the DC contamination to less than 1 μA. This study highlights the importance of carefully designing the electronic setup used in KHFAC studies and suggests specific testing that should be performed and reported in all studies that assess the neural response to KHFAC waveforms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Selection and generation of waveforms for differential mobility spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, Evgeny V.; Coy, Stephen L.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.; Vandermey, John; Schneider, Bradley B.; Covey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Devices based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) are used in a number of ways, including applications as ion prefilters for API-MS systems, as detectors or selectors in hybrid instruments (GC-DMS, DMS-IMS), and in standalone systems for chemical detection and identification. DMS ion separation is based on the relative difference between high field and low field ion mobility known as the alpha dependence, and requires the application of an intense asymmetric electric field known as the DMS separation field, typically in the megahertz frequency range. DMS performance depends on the waveform and on the magnitude of this separation field. In this paper, we analyze the relationship between separation waveform and DMS resolution and consider feasible separation field generators. We examine ideal and practical DMS separation field waveforms and discuss separation field generator circuit types and their implementations. To facilitate optimization of the generator designs, we present a set of relations that connect ion alpha dependence to DMS separation fields. Using these relationships we evaluate the DMS separation power of common generator types as a function of their waveform parameters. Optimal waveforms for the major types of DMS separation generators are determined for ions with various alpha dependences. These calculations are validated by comparison with experimental data.

  10. Accuracy of Binary Black Hole waveforms for Advanced LIGO searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Barkett, Kevin; Bhagwat, Swetha; Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Brown, Duncan; Pfeiffer, Harald; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela

    2015-04-01

    Coalescing binaries of compact objects are flagship sources for the first direct detection of gravitational waves with LIGO-Virgo observatories. Matched-filtering based detection searches aimed at binaries of black holes will use aligned spin waveforms as filters, and their efficiency hinges on the accuracy of the underlying waveform models. A number of gravitational waveform models are available in literature, e.g. the Effective-One-Body, Phenomenological, and traditional post-Newtonian ones. While Numerical Relativity (NR) simulations provide for the most accurate modeling of gravitational radiation from compact binaries, their computational cost limits their application in large scale searches. In this talk we assess the accuracy of waveform models in two regions of parameter space, which have only been explored cursorily in the past: the high mass-ratio regime as well as the comparable mass-ratio + high spin regime.s Using the SpEC code, six q = 7 simulations with aligned-spins and lasting 60 orbits, and tens of q ∈ [1,3] simulations with high black hole spins were performed. We use them to study the accuracy and intrinsic parameter biases of different waveform families, and assess their viability for Advanced LIGO searches.

  11. A study of doppler waveform using pulsatile flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hye Won; Chung, Myung Jin; Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Min, Byoung Goo

    1997-01-01

    Through the construction of a pulsatile flow model using an artificial heart pump and stenosis to demonstrate triphasic Doppler waveform, which simulates in vivo conditions, and to evaluate the relationship between Doppler waveform and vascular compliance. The flow model was constructed using a flowmeter, rubber tube, glass tube with stenosis, and artificial heart pump. Doppler study was carried out at the prestenotic, poststenotic, and distal segments;compliance was changed by changing the length of the rubber tube. With increasing proximal compliance, Doppler waveforms show decreasing peak velocity of the first phase and slightly delayed acceleration time, but the waveform itself did not change significantly. Distal compliance influenced the second phase, and was important for the formation of pulsus tardus and parvus, which without poststenotic vascular compliance, did not develop. The peak velocity of the first phase was inversely proportional to proximal compliance, and those of the second and third phases were directly proportional to distal compliance. After constructing this pulsatile flow model, we were able to explain the relationship between vascular compliance and Doppler waveform, and also better understand the formation of pulsus tardus and parvus

  12. Closed-loop waveform control of boost inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Guo Rong; Xiao, Cheng Yuan; Wang, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    The input current of single-phase inverter typically has an AC ripple component at twice the output frequency, which causes a reduction in both the operating lifetime of its DC source and the efficiency of the system. In this paper, the closed-loop performance of a proposed waveform control method...... to eliminate such a ripple current in boost inverter is investigated. The small-signal stability and the dynamic characteristic of the inverter system for input voltage or wide range load variations under the closed-loop waveform control method are studied. It is validated that with the closedloop waveform...... control, not only was stability achieved, the reference voltage of the boost inverter capacitors can be instantaneously adjusted to match the new load, thereby achieving improved ripple mitigation for a wide load range. Furthermore, with the control and feedback mechanism, there is minimal level of ripple...

  13. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    was compared to a linear frequency modulated signal with amplitude tapering, previously used in clinical studies for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. The latter had a relatively flat spectrum which implied that the waveform tried to excite all frequencies including ones with low amplification. The proposed......In this paper a method for designing waveforms for temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging is described. The method is based on least squares optimization and is used to design nonlinear frequency modulated signals for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. By using the proposed design method...... waveform, on the other hand, was designed so that only frequencies where the transducer had a large amplification were excited. Hereby, unnecessary heating of the transducer could be avoided and the signal-tonoise ratio could be increased. The experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS was used to evaluate...

  14. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J

    2007-01-01

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential

  15. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica (DEE), Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Engenharia Biomedica NEPEB, Av. Ant. Carlos, 6627, sala 2206, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31.270-901 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential.

  16. Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2012-11-01

    The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.

  17. Analysis of Gradient Waveform in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU-YANG Shan-mei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of gradient pulse waveform affects image quality significantly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Recording and analyzing the waveform of gradient pulse helps to make rapid and accurate diagnosis of spectrometer gradient hardware and/or pulse sequence. Using the virtual instrument software LabVIEW to control the high speed data acquisition card DAQ-2005, a multi-channel acquisition scheme was designed to collect the gradient outputs from a custom-made spectrometer. The collected waveforms were post-processed (i.e., histogram statistical analysis, data filtering and difference calculation to obtain feature points containing time and amplitude information. Experiments were carried out to validate the method, which is an auxiliary test method for the development of spectrometer and pulses sequence.

  18. A complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel; Huerta, Eliu; Kumar, Prayush; Agarwal, Bhanu; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Pfeiffer, Harald; Chu, Tony; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel; Kidder, Lawrence; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela

    2017-01-01

    We present a time domain waveform model that describes the inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact binary systems whose components are non-spinning, and which evolve on orbits with low to moderate eccentricity. We show that this inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model reproduces the effective-one-body model for black hole binaries with mass-ratios between 1 to 15 in the zero eccentricity limit over a wide range of the parameter space under consideration. We use this model to show that the gravitational wave transients GW150914 and GW151226 can be effectively recovered with template banks of quasicircular, spin-aligned waveforms if the eccentricity e0 of these systems when they enter the aLIGO band at a gravitational wave frequency of 14 Hz satisfies e0GW 150914 <= 0 . 15 and e0GW 151226 <= 0 . 1 .

  19. Classification of Pulse Waveforms Using Edit Distance with Real Penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in sensor and signal processing techniques have provided effective tools for quantitative research in traditional Chinese pulse diagnosis (TCPD. Because of the inevitable intraclass variation of pulse patterns, the automatic classification of pulse waveforms has remained a difficult problem. In this paper, by referring to the edit distance with real penalty (ERP and the recent progress in -nearest neighbors (KNN classifiers, we propose two novel ERP-based KNN classifiers. Taking advantage of the metric property of ERP, we first develop an ERP-induced inner product and a Gaussian ERP kernel, then embed them into difference-weighted KNN classifiers, and finally develop two novel classifiers for pulse waveform classification. The experimental results show that the proposed classifiers are effective for accurate classification of pulse waveform.

  20. Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.

  1. Shaping the spectrum of random-phase radar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Marquette, Brandeis

    2017-05-09

    The various technologies presented herein relate to generation of a desired waveform profile in the form of a spectrum of apparently random noise (e.g., white noise or colored noise), but with precise spectral characteristics. Hence, a waveform profile that could be readily determined (e.g., by a spoofing system) is effectively obscured. Obscuration is achieved by dividing the waveform into a series of chips, each with an assigned frequency, wherein the sequence of chips are subsequently randomized. Randomization can be a function of the application of a key to the chip sequence. During processing of the echo pulse, a copy of the randomized transmitted pulse is recovered or regenerated against which the received echo is correlated. Hence, with the echo energy range-compressed in this manner, it is possible to generate a radar image with precise impulse response.

  2. Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Helena F; Veiga, Diogo F; Freire, Pablo R; Weinstein, John N; Mills, Gordon B; Almeida, Jonas S

    2010-12-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-temperature LATE-PCR endpoint genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Arthur H

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conventional PCR, total amplicon yield becomes independent of starting template number as amplification reaches plateau and varies significantly among replicate reactions. This paper describes a strategy for reconfiguring PCR so that the signal intensity of a single fluorescent detection probe after PCR thermal cycling reflects genomic composition. The resulting method corrects for product yield variations among replicate amplification reactions, permits resolution of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes based on endpoint fluorescence signal intensities, and readily identifies imbalanced allele ratios equivalent to those arising from gene/chromosomal duplications. Furthermore, the use of only a single colored probe for genotyping enhances the multiplex detection capacity of the assay. Results Two-Temperature LATE-PCR endpoint genotyping combines Linear-After-The-Exponential (LATE-PCR (an advanced form of asymmetric PCR that efficiently generates single-stranded DNA and mismatch-tolerant probes capable of detecting allele-specific targets at high temperature and total single-stranded amplicons at a lower temperature in the same reaction. The method is demonstrated here for genotyping single-nucleotide alleles of the human HEXA gene responsible for Tay-Sachs disease and for genotyping SNP alleles near the human p53 tumor suppressor gene. In each case, the final probe signals were normalized against total single-stranded DNA generated in the same reaction. Normalization reduces the coefficient of variation among replicates from 17.22% to as little as 2.78% and permits endpoint genotyping with >99.7% accuracy. These assays are robust because they are consistent over a wide range of input DNA concentrations and give the same results regardless of how many cycles of linear amplification have elapsed. The method is also sufficiently powerful to distinguish between samples with a 1:1 ratio of two alleles from samples comprised of

  4. Improving waveform inversion using modified interferometric imaging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuebao; Liu, Hong; Shi, Ying; Wang, Weihong; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Similar to the reverse-time migration, full waveform inversion in the time domain is a memory-intensive processing method. The computational storage size for waveform inversion mainly depends on the model size and time recording length. In general, 3D and 4D data volumes need to be saved for 2D and 3D waveform inversion gradient calculations, respectively. Even the boundary region wavefield-saving strategy creates a huge storage demand. Using the last two slices of the wavefield to reconstruct wavefields at other moments through the random boundary, avoids the need to store a large number of wavefields; however, traditional random boundary method is less effective at low frequencies. In this study, we follow a new random boundary designed to regenerate random velocity anomalies in the boundary region for each shot of each iteration. The results obtained using the random boundary condition in less illuminated areas are more seriously affected by random scattering than other areas due to the lack of coverage. In this paper, we have replaced direct correlation for computing the waveform inversion gradient by modified interferometric imaging, which enhances the continuity of the imaging path and reduces noise interference. The new imaging condition is a weighted average of extended imaging gathers can be directly used in the gradient computation. In this process, we have not changed the objective function, and the role of the imaging condition is similar to regularization. The window size for the modified interferometric imaging condition-based waveform inversion plays an important role in this process. The numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly enhances waveform inversion performance.

  5. Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2014-08-12

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI composed of data communications endpoints, each endpoint including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI, including establishing a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying, for tasks representing processes of execution of the parallel application, a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI including a plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks; receiving in endpoints of the geometry an instruction for a collective operation; and executing the instruction for a collective operation through the endpoints in dependence upon the geometry, including dividing data communications operations among the plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks.

  6. On the potential of OFDM enhancements as 5G waveforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Pajukoski, Kari; Lähetkangas, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    The ideal radio waveform for an upcoming 5th Generation (5G) radio access technology should cope with a set of requirements such as limited complexity, good time/frequency localization and simple extension to multi-antenna technologies. This paper discusses the suitability of Orthogonal Frequency...... Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and its recently proposed enhancements as 5G waveforms, mainly focusing on their capability to cope with our requirements. Significant focus is given to the novel zero-tail paradigm, which allows boosting the OFDM flexibility while circumventing demerits such as poor spectral...

  7. Possessive Pronouns in European Portuguese and Old French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Miguel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring European Portuguese (EP data into light, showing that, in spite of the lack of morphological evidence, the syntactic behaviour of possessives, across EP dialects, shows evidences for a tripartite possessive system (Cardinaletti, 1998; Cardinaletti & Starke, 1999. It will be argued that the syntactic position of possessives parallels the positions assumed for EP sentential subjects in non interrogative contexts: [Spec, AgrsP], [Spec, TP] and [Spec, VP]. As a matter of fact, depending on their syntactic properties and assuming, as null hypothesis, that the nominal head moves to Numb'º', possessives may occur in [Spec, AgrsNP], [Spec, NumbP] and [Spec, NP]. Furthermore, would it be so, this dialectal variation would be useful in order to understand the changes that have occurred in other romance languages in previous stages. It might be the case that the loss of weak possessive forms (“mien” in French parallels, among other things, the lack of sentential subjects in [Spec, TP].

  8. The goalkeeper influence on ball possession effectiveness in futsal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente-Vila Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify which variables were the best predictors of success in futsal ball possession when controlling for space and task related indicators, situational variables and the participation of the goalkeeper as a regular field player or not (5 vs. 4 or 4 vs. 4. The sample consisted of 326 situations of ball possession corresponding to 31 matches played by a team from the Spanish Futsal League during the 2010–2011, 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 seasons. Multidimensional qualitative data obtained from 10 ordered categorical variables were used. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall, the highest ball possession effectiveness was achieved when the goalkeeper participated as a regular field player (p<0.01, the duration of the ball possession was less than 10 s (p<0.01, the ball possession ended in the penalty area (p<0.01 and the defensive pressure was low (p<0.01. The information obtained on the relative effectiveness of offensive playing tactics can be used to improve team’s goal-scoring and goal preventing abilities.

  9. Verification of models for ballistic movement time and endpoint variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ray F; Drury, Colin G

    2013-01-01

    A hand control movement is composed of several ballistic movements. The time required in performing a ballistic movement and its endpoint variability are two important properties in developing movement models. The purpose of this study was to test potential models for predicting these two properties. Twelve participants conducted ballistic movements of specific amplitudes using a drawing tablet. The measured data of movement time and endpoint variability were then used to verify the models. This study was successful with Hoffmann and Gan's movement time model (Hoffmann, 1981; Gan and Hoffmann 1988) predicting more than 90.7% data variance for 84 individual measurements. A new theoretically developed ballistic movement variability model, proved to be better than Howarth, Beggs, and Bowden's (1971) model, predicting on average 84.8% of stopping-variable error and 88.3% of aiming-variable errors. These two validated models will help build solid theoretical movement models and evaluate input devices. This article provides better models for predicting end accuracy and movement time of ballistic movements that are desirable in rapid aiming tasks, such as keying in numbers on a smart phone. The models allow better design of aiming tasks, for example button sizes on mobile phones for different user populations.

  10. Imaging biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Wolf S.

    2006-01-01

    The employment of biomarkers (including imaging biomarkers, especially PET) in drug development has gained increasing attention during recent years. This has been partly stimulated by the hope that the integration of biomarkers into drug development programmes may be a means to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the drug development process by early identification of promising drug candidates - thereby counteracting the rising costs of drug development. More importantly, however, the interest in biomarkers for drug development is the logical consequence of recent advances in biosciences and medicine which are leading to target-specific treatments in the framework of ''personalised medicine''. A considerable proportion of target-specific drugs will show effects in subgroups of patients only. Biomarkers are a means to identify potential responders, or patient subgroups at risk for specific side-effects. Biomarkers are used in early drug development in the context of translational medicine to gain information about the drug's potential in different patient groups and disease states. The information obtained at this stage is mainly important for designing subsequent clinical trials and to identify promising drug candidates. Biomarkers in later phases of clinical development may - if properly validated - serve as surrogate endpoints for clinical outcomes. Regulatory agencies in the EU and the USA have facilitated the use of biomarkers early in the development process. The validation of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints is part of FDA's ''critical path initiative''. (orig.)

  11. Time-dependent efficacy of longitudinal biomarker for clinical endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-06-01

    Joint modelling of longitudinal biomarker and event-time processes has gained its popularity in recent years as they yield more accurate and precise estimates. Considering this modelling framework, a new methodology for evaluating the time-dependent efficacy of a longitudinal biomarker for clinical endpoint is proposed in this article. In particular, the proposed model assesses how well longitudinally repeated measurements of a biomarker over various time periods (0,t) distinguish between individuals who developed the disease by time t and individuals who remain disease-free beyond time t. The receiver operating characteristic curve is used to provide the corresponding efficacy summaries at various t based on the association between longitudinal biomarker trajectory and risk of clinical endpoint prior to each time point. The model also allows detecting the time period over which a biomarker should be monitored for its best discriminatory value. The proposed approach is evaluated through simulation and illustrated on the motivating dataset from a prospective observational study of biomarkers to diagnose the onset of sepsis.

  12. Cortical plasticity as a new endpoint measurement for chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models of chronic pain are widely used to investigate basic mechanisms of chronic pain and to evaluate potential novel drugs for treating chronic pain. Among the different criteria used to measure chronic pain, behavioral responses are commonly used as the end point measurements. However, not all chronic pain conditions can be easily measured by behavioral responses such as the headache, phantom pain and pain related to spinal cord injury. Here I propose that cortical indexes, that indicate neuronal plastic changes in pain-related cortical areas, can be used as endpoint measurements for chronic pain. Such cortical indexes are not only useful for those chronic pain conditions where a suitable animal model is lacking, but also serve as additional screening methods for potential drugs to treat chronic pain in humans. These cortical indexes are activity-dependent immediate early genes, electrophysiological identified plastic changes and biochemical assays of signaling proteins. It can be used to evaluate novel analgesic compounds that may act at peripheral or spinal sites. I hope that these new cortical endpoint measurements will facilitate our search for new, and more effective, pain medicines, and help to reduce false lead drug targets.

  13. A yeast screening system for simultaneously monitoring multiple genetic endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, M.L.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Mutation, recombination, and mitochondrial deficiencies have been proposed to have roles in the carcinogenic process. The authors describe a diploid strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of detecting this wide spectrum of genetic changes. The markers used for monitoring these events have been especially well characterized genetically. Ultraviolet light was chosen as a model carcinogenic agent to test this system. In addition to highly significant increases in the frequencies of each genetic change, increases in the absolute numbers of each change indicated induction and not selective survival. The relative amounts of each type of genetic change varied with dose. The wide spectrum of endpoints monitored in the XD83 yeast system may allow the detection of certain carcinogens and other genetically toxic agents which have escaped detection in more limited systems. Since only one strain is required to simultaneously monitor these genetic changes, this assay system should facilitate comparisons of the induced changes and be more efficient than using multiple strains to monitor the same endpoints. (Auth.)

  14. Parametric Study of Beta-Endpoint Energy in Direct Energy Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    value to the endpoint energy of nickel-63 ( Ni63 ), whose endpoint energy is 66 keV. Only an approximation is sought. Nickel-63 is an easily...is known to vary from Sr90’s spectrum, where instead of peaking at approximately one third of the endpoint energy, the peak of Ni63 ’s output spectrum

  15. Waveform Diversity and Design for Interoperating Radar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    University Di Pisa Department Di Ingegneria Dell Informazione Elettronica, Informatica , Telecomunicazioni Via Girolamo Caruso 16 Pisa, Italy 56122...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University Di Pisa Department Di Ingegneria Dell Informazione Elettronica, Informatica ...DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA DELL’INFORMAZIONE ELETTRONICA, INFORMATICA , TELECOMUNICAZIONI WAVEFORM DIVERSITY AND DESIGN FOR INTEROPERATING

  16. Seismic Broadband Full Waveform Inversion by shot/receiver refocusing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffinger, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Full waveform inversion is a tool to obtain high-resolution property models of the subsurface from seismic data. However, the technique is computationally expens- ive and so far no multi-dimensional implementation exists to achieve a resolution that can directly be used for seismic interpretation

  17. Augmented kludge waveforms for detecting extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Moore, Christopher J.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2017-08-01

    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important class of source for the future space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA. Detecting signals from EMRIs will require waveform models that are both accurate and computationally efficient. In this paper, we present the latest implementation of an augmented analytic kludge (AAK) model, publicly available at https://github.com/alvincjk/EMRI_Kludge_Suite as part of an EMRI waveform software suite. This version of the AAK model has improved accuracy compared to its predecessors, with two-month waveform overlaps against a more accurate fiducial model exceeding 0.97 for a generic range of sources; it also generates waveforms 5-15 times faster than the fiducial model. The AAK model is well suited for scoping out data analysis issues in the upcoming round of mock LISA data challenges. A simple analytic argument shows that it might even be viable for detecting EMRIs with LISA through a semicoherent template bank method, while the use of the original analytic kludge in the same approach will result in around 90% fewer detections.

  18. Centered Differential Waveform Inversion with Minimum Support Regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir

    2017-05-26

    Time-lapse full-waveform inversion has two major challenges. The first one is the reconstruction of a reference model (baseline model for most of approaches). The second is inversion for the time-lapse changes in the parameters. Common model approach is utilizing the information contained in all available data sets to build a better reference model for time lapse inversion. Differential (Double-difference) waveform inversion allows to reduce the artifacts introduced into estimates of time-lapse parameter changes by imperfect inversion for the baseline-reference model. We propose centered differential waveform inversion (CDWI) which combines these two approaches in order to benefit from both of their features. We apply minimum support regularization commonly used with electromagnetic methods of geophysical exploration. We test the CDWI method on synthetic dataset with random noise and show that, with Minimum support regularization, it provides better resolution of velocity changes than with total variation and Tikhonov regularizations in time-lapse full-waveform inversion.

  19. Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesis With Multilevel Pulse Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Justus A.; Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Golden, Evan B.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the implementation of new commercial pulse-bias electronics that have enabled an improvement in the generation of quantum-accurate waveforms both with and without low-frequency compensation biases. We have used these electronics to apply a multilevel pulse bias to the Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer and have generated, for the first time, a quantum-accurate bipolar sinusoidal waveform without the use of a low-frequency compensation bias current. This uncompensated 1 kHz waveform was synthesized with an rms amplitude of 325 mV and maintained its quantum accuracy over a1.5 mA operating current range. The same technique and equipment was also used to synthesize a quantum-accurate 1 MHz sinusoid with a 1.2 mA operating margin. In addition, we have synthesized a compensated 1 kHz sinusoid with an rms amplitude of 1 V and a 2.7 mA operating margin. PMID:28736494

  20. Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.

  1. Multisource waveform inversion of marine streamer data using normalized wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-09-01

    Multisource full-waveform inversion based on the L1- and L2-norm objective functions cannot be applied to marine streamer data because it does not take into account the unmatched acquisition geometries between the observed and modeled data. To apply multisource full-waveform inversion to marine streamer data, we construct the L1- and L2-norm objective functions using the normalized wavefield. The new residual seismograms obtained from the L1- and L2-norms using the normalized wavefield mitigate the problem of unmatched acquisition geometries, which enables multisource full-waveform inversion to work with marine streamer data. In the new approaches using the normalized wavefield, we used the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique to efficiently calculate the gradients of the objective functions. Numerical examples showed that multisource full-waveform inversion using the normalized wavefield yields much better convergence for marine streamer data than conventional approaches. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. Centered Differential Waveform Inversion with Minimum Support Regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Time-lapse full-waveform inversion has two major challenges. The first one is the reconstruction of a reference model (baseline model for most of approaches). The second is inversion for the time-lapse changes in the parameters. Common model

  3. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency domain or cycle skipping in the time domain is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion when the starting model is far from the true model. Since the phase derivative does not suffer from

  4. Experimental validation of waveform relaxation technique for power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    damping controller drawn our attention to a potential convergence problem which ... method was originally proposed as a method of parallelizing the numerical integration of very. Figure 2 ..... to it the features of an industrial real-time operating system. ..... Odeh F and Ruehli A 1985 Waveform relaxation: Theory and practice.

  5. MURI: Adaptive Waveform Design for Full Spectral Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    perhaps in a similarly-named file in the same directory as the data file) and handled by a Java class with an API for a user to request data without the...1101- 1104 . [15] J. Wang, and A. Nehorai, “Adaptive polarimetry design for a target in compound-Gaussian clutter,” International Waveform Diversity and

  6. Multisource waveform inversion of marine streamer data using normalized wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Multisource full-waveform inversion based on the L1- and L2-norm objective functions cannot be applied to marine streamer data because it does not take into account the unmatched acquisition geometries between the observed and modeled data. To apply

  7. Categorisation of full waveform data provided by laser scanning devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Andreas; Pfennigbauer, Martin

    2011-11-01

    In 2004, a laser scanner device for commercial airborne laser scanning applications, the RIEGL LMS-Q560, was introduced to the market, making use of a radical alternative approach to the traditional analogue signal detection and processing schemes found in LIDAR instruments so far: digitizing the echo signals received by the instrument for every laser pulse and analysing these echo signals off-line in a so-called full waveform analysis in order to retrieve almost all information contained in the echo signal using transparent algorithms adaptable to specific applications. In the field of laser scanning the somewhat unspecific term "full waveform data" has since been established. We attempt a categorisation of the different types of the full waveform data found in the market. We discuss the challenges in echo digitization and waveform analysis from an instrument designer's point of view and we will address the benefits to be gained by using this technique, especially with respect to the so-called multi-target capability of pulsed time-of-flight LIDAR instruments.

  8. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorkov, S; Ivanov, B I; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G

    2014-05-01

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.

  9. A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang

    2016-09-06

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.

  10. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2014-01-01

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation

  11. Programmable optical waveform reshaping on a picosecond timescale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manurkar, Paritosh; Jain, Nitin; Kumar Periyannan Rajeswari, Prem

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the temporal reshaping of optical waveforms in the telecom wavelength band using the principle of quantum frequency conversion. The reshaped optical pulses do not undergo any wavelength translation. The interaction takes place in a nonlinear chi((2)) waveguide using ...... for quantum communications. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  12. A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.

  13. Crosshole Tomography, Waveform Inversion, and Anisotropy: A Combined Approach Using Simulated Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, M.; Pratt, R. G.; Kamei, R.; McDowell, G.

    2012-12-01

    of finite-time cooling schedules. We present the results of this approach for real and synthetically generated elastic TI data. After traveltime modelling, near offset data satisfied the half-cycle criterion. This gave us confidence that our horizontal velocity model was satisfactory, and we kept it constant while simulated annealing was run to determine the best-fit anisotropy profile. Once a low temperature was reached (so that minimizations to the objective function became rare), we constructed an average anisotropy model using accepted models which possessed a |E| within one standard deviation of the best fit model. This anisotropy model allowed the starting model for Waveform Tomography to satisfy the half-cycle first break criterion at large offsets. We believe that the success of this method is explained by the multipath nature of finite difference wave propagation, which does not suffer from the errors experienced by traveltime ray-tracing along the sharp velocity gradients present in the model.

  14. 2D acoustic-elastic coupled waveform inversion in the Laplace domain

    KAUST Repository

    Bae, Hoseuk; Shin, Changsoo; Cha, Youngho; Choi, Yun Seok; Min, Dongjoo

    2010-01-01

    Although waveform inversion has been intensively studied in an effort to properly delineate the Earth's structures since the early 1980s, most of the time- and frequency-domain waveform inversion algorithms still have critical limitations

  15. Full waveform inversion based on scattering angle enrichment with application to real dataset

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI). However, the drawback of the existing RWI methods is inability to utilize diving waves and the extra sensitivity

  16. Analysis of LFM-waveform Libraries for Cognitive Tracking Maneuvering Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of the waveform agility in cognitive radars,the waveform libraries for maneuvering target tracking are discussed. LFM-waveform libraries are designed according to different combinations of chirp parameters and FrFT rotation angles. By applying the interact multiple model (IMM algorithm in tracking maneuvering targets, transmitted waveform is called real time from the LFM-waveform libraries. The waveforms are selected from the library according to the criterion of maximum mutual information between the current state of knowledge of the model and the measurement. Simulation results show that waveform library containing certain amount LFM-waveforms can improve the performance of cognitive tracking radar.

  17. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2012-09-11

    We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold but also the amount of cardiac damage. Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform-in 6 pigs with electrodes in the right ventricular apex and superior vena cava. The ascending, descending, and rectilinear waveforms had 4-, 8-, and 16-millisecond first phases and a 3.5-millisecond rectilinear second phase that was half the voltage of the first phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% first-phase and a 50% second-phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 seconds of ventricular fibrillation with a single ≈30-J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8-millisecond ascending, 8-millisecond rectilinear, and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hours after the shock. The lowest-energy defibrillation threshold was for the 8-milliseconds ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 J [mean±SD]), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours after shock, troponin I was significantly less for the ascending-ramp waveform (0.80±0.54 ng/mL) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47 ng/mL) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17±0.45 ng/mL). The ascending ramp has a significantly lower defibrillation threshold and at ≈30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the defibrillation threshold and the amount of cardiac damage.

  18. Microseismic event location by master-event waveform stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Dahm, T.

    2016-12-01

    Waveform stacking location methods are nowadays extensively used to monitor induced seismicity monitoring assoiciated with several underground industrial activities such as Mining, Oil&Gas production and Geothermal energy exploitation. In the last decade a significant effort has been spent to develop or improve methodologies able to perform automated seismological analysis for weak events at a local scale. This effort was accompanied by the improvement of monitoring systems, resulting in an increasing number of large microseismicity catalogs. The analysis of microseismicity is challenging, because of the large number of recorded events often characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio. A significant limitation of the traditional location approaches is that automated picking is often done on each seismogram individually, making little or no use of the coherency information between stations. In order to improve the performance of the traditional location methods, in the last year, alternative approaches have been proposed. These methods exploits the coherence of the waveforms recorded at different stations and do not require any automated picking procedure. The main advantage of this methods relies on their robustness even when the recorded waveforms are very noisy. On the other hand, like any other location method, the location performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the available velocity model. When dealing with inaccurate velocity models, in fact, location results can be affected by large errors. Here we will introduce a new automated waveform stacking location method which is less dependent on the knowledge of the velocity model and presents several benefits, which improve the location accuracy: 1) it accounts for phase delays due to local site effects, e.g. surface topography or variable sediment thickness 2) theoretical velocity model are only used to estimate travel times within the source volume, and not along the whole source-sensor path. We

  19. Computer model analysis of the radial artery pressure waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwid, H A; Taylor, L A; Smith, N T

    1987-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of aortic and radial artery pressures are reviewed, and a model of the cardiovascular system is presented. The model is based on resonant networks for the aorta and axillo-brachial-radial arterial system. The model chosen is a simple one, in order to make interpretation of the observed relationships clear. Despite its simplicity, the model produces realistic aortic and radial artery pressure waveforms. It demonstrates that the resonant properties of the arterial wall significantly alter the pressure waveform as it is propagated from the aorta to the radial artery. Although the mean and end-diastolic radial pressures are usually accurate estimates of the corresponding aortic pressures, the systolic pressure at the radial artery is often much higher than that of the aorta due to overshoot caused by the resonant behavior of the radial artery. The radial artery dicrotic notch is predominantly dependent on the axillo-brachial-radial arterial wall properties, rather than on the aortic valve or peripheral resistance. Hence the use of the radial artery dicrotic notch as an estimate of end systole is unreliable. The rate of systolic upstroke, dP/dt, of the radial artery waveform is a function of many factors, making it difficult to interpret. The radial artery waveform usually provides accurate estimates for mean and diastolic aortic pressures; for all other measurements it is an inadequate substitute for the aortic pressure waveform. In the presence of low forearm peripheral resistance the mean radial artery pressure may significantly underestimate the mean aortic pressure, as explained by a voltage divider model.

  20. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity | James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This paper discerns a number of common themes that run through many of these experiences. In particular, sex as a motif for deviance and evil is noted as a common feature of many of the possession stories and all contact with spirits is seen ...

  1. Gun Possession among Massachusetts Batterer Intervention Program Enrollees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    Batterers with access to firearms present a serious lethal threat to their partners. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the prevalence of and risk markers for gun possession among Massachusetts men enrolled in batterer intervention programs. The authors found that 1.8% of the men reported having a gun in or around their home.…

  2. Licenses for possessing and applying radioactive sources, materials, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial and governmental institutions have been licensed by Dutch authorities to possess and apply radioactive sources, materials, etc. A summary is given and the list is subdivided into a number of sections such as radioactive sources, radioactive materials, X-ray equipment and technetium-generators

  3. 46 CFR 308.504 - Definition of territories and possessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of territories and possessions. 308.504 Section 308.504 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.504 Definition of territories and...

  4. Dynamics of the spirit possession phenomenon in Eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Swantz

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the spirit possession phenomenon is related in this study to the more general question of the role of religious institutions as part in the development process of a people living in a limited geographical area of a wider national society. It is assumed that religion, like culture in general, has its specific institutional forms as result of the historical development of a society, but at the same time religion is a force shaping that history. People's cultural resources influence their social and economic development and form a potential creative element in it'. Some of the questions to be asked are: "How are specific religious practices related to the dynamics of change in the societies in question? What is the social and religious context in which the spirit possession phenomenon occurs in them? What social and economic relations get their expression in them? To what extent is spirit possession in this case a means of exerting values and creatively overcoming a crisis or conflict which the changing social and economic relations impose on the people? The established spirit possession cults are here seen as the institutional forms of religious experience. At the same time it becomes evident that there is institutionalization in process as well as deinstitutionalization of spirit possession where it occurs outside established institutional forms. Institution is taken as a socially shared form of behaviour the significance of which is commonly recognized by those who share it. By the term spirit possession cult is meant a ritual form of spirit possession of a group which is loosely organized and without strict membership. The context of the study is four ethnic groups in Eastern Tanzania, near the coast of the Indian Ocean. The general theme of the project is The Role of Culture in the Restructuring of Tanzanian Rural Areas. The restructuring refers to a villagisation programme carried out in the whole country. People are being

  5. Low dose response analysis through a cytogenetic end-point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojtor, I.; Koeteles, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of low doses were studied on human lymphocytes of various individuals. The frequency of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked cultured lymphocytes was taken as end-point. The probability distribution of radiation-induced increment was statistically proved and identified as to be asymmetric when the blood samples had been irradiated with doses of 0.01-0.05 Gy of X-rays, similarly to that in unirradiated control population. On the contrary, at or above 1 Gy the corresponding normal curve could be accepted only reflecting an approximately symmetrical scatter of the increments about their mean value. It was found that the slope as well as the closeness of correlation of the variables considerably changed when lower and lower dose ranges had been selected. Below approximately 0.2 Gy even an unrelatedness was found betwen the absorbed dose and the increment

  6. Hausdorff dimension of exponential parameter rays and their endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailesteanu, Mihai; Balan, Horia Vlad; Schleicher, Dierk

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the set I of parameters κ for which the singular value of z map e z + κ converges to ∞. The set I consists of uncountably many parameter rays, plus landing points of some of these rays (Förster et al 2008 Proc Am. Math. Soc. 136 at press (Preprint math.DS/0311427)). We show that the parameter rays have Hausdorff dimension 1, which implies (Qiu 1994 Acta Math. Sin. (N.S.) 10 362–8) that the ray endpoints in I alone have dimension 2. Analogous results were known for dynamical planes of exponential maps (Karpińska 1999 C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Sér. I: Math. 328 1039–44; Schleicher and Zimmer 2003 J. Lond. Math. Soc. 67 380–400); our result shows that this also holds in parameter space

  7. Biomarkers of intermediate endpoints in environmental and occupational health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hansen, Ase M

    2007-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in environmental and occupational health is increasing due to increasing demands on information about health risks from unfavourable exposures. Biomarkers provide information about individual loads. Biomarkers of intermediate endpoints benefit in comparison with biomarkers...... of exposure from the fact that they are closer to the adverse outcome in the pathway from exposure to health effects and may provide powerful information for intervention. Some biomarkers are specific, e.g., DNA and protein adducts, while others are unspecific like the cytogenetic biomarkers of chromosomal...... health effect from the result of the measurement has been performed for the cytogenetic biomarkers showing a predictive value of high levels of CA and increased risk of cancer. The use of CA in future studies is, however, limited by the laborious and sensitive procedure of the test and lack of trained...

  8. Effects of waveform model systematics on the interpretation of GW150914

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.

    2017-01-01

    Parameter estimates of GW150914 were obtained using Bayesian inference, based on three semi-analytic waveform models for binary black hole coalescences. These waveform models differ from each other in their treatment of black hole spins, and all three models make some simplifying assumptions, notably to neglect sub-dominant waveform harmonic modes and orbital eccentricity. Furthermore, while the models are calibrated to agree with waveforms obtained by full numerical solutions of Einstein's e...

  9. A new optimization approach for source-encoding full-waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, P.P.; Keers, H.; Herrmann, F.J.; Mulder, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Waveform inversion is the method of choice for determining a highly heterogeneous subsurface structure. However, conventional waveform inversion requires that the wavefield for each source is computed separately. This makes it very expensive for realistic 3D seismic surveys. Source-encoding waveform

  10. Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures Allan Fong, MS1,3, Ranjeev...the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to predict electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the...type of neural network for mining, understanding, and predicting electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms. Several network

  11. The Modularized Software Package ASKI - Full Waveform Inversion Based on Waveform Sensitivity Kernels Utilizing External Seismic Wave Propagation Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present the modularized software package ASKI which is a flexible and extendable toolbox for seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) as well as sensitivity or resolution analysis operating on the sensitivity matrix. It utilizes established wave propagation codes for solving the forward problem and offers an alternative to the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have typically been written for solving inverse problems. It is available under the GPL at www.rub.de/aski. The Gauss-Newton FWI method for 3D-heterogeneous elastic earth models is based on waveform sensitivity kernels and can be applied to inverse problems at various spatial scales in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. The kernels are derived in the frequency domain from Born scattering theory as the Fréchet derivatives of linearized full waveform data functionals, quantifying the influence of elastic earth model parameters on the particular waveform data values. As an important innovation, we keep two independent spatial descriptions of the earth model - one for solving the forward problem and one representing the inverted model updates. Thereby we account for the independent needs of spatial model resolution of forward and inverse problem, respectively. Due to pre-integration of the kernels over the (in general much coarser) inversion grid, storage requirements for the sensitivity kernels are dramatically reduced.ASKI can be flexibly extended to other forward codes by providing it with specific interface routines that contain knowledge about forward code-specific file formats and auxiliary information provided by the new forward code. In order to sustain flexibility, the ASKI tools must communicate via file output/input, thus large storage capacities need to be accessible in a convenient way. Storing the complete sensitivity matrix to file, however, permits the scientist full manual control over each step in a customized procedure of sensitivity/resolution analysis and full

  12. Analytic family of post-merger template waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Nagar, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Building on the analytical description of the post-merger (ringdown) waveform of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning binary black holes introduced by Damour and Nagar [Phys. Rev. D 90, 024054 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.024054], we propose an analytic, closed form, time-domain, representation of the ℓ=m =2 gravitational radiation mode emitted after merger. This expression is given as a function of the component masses and dimensionless spins (m1 ,2,χ1 ,2) of the two inspiraling objects, as well as of the mass MBH and (complex) frequency σ1 of the fundamental quasinormal mode of the remnant black hole. Our proposed template is obtained by fitting the post-merger waveform part of several publicly available numerical relativity simulations from the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog and then suitably interpolating over (symmetric) mass ratio and spins. We show that this analytic expression accurately reproduces (˜0.01 rad ) the phasing of the post-merger data of other data sets not used in its construction. This is notably the case of the spin-aligned run SXS:BBH:0305, whose intrinsic parameters are consistent with the 90% credible intervals reported in the parameter-estimation followup of GW150914 by B.P. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.241102]. Using SXS waveforms as "experimental" data, we further show that our template could be used on the actual GW150914 data to perform a new measure of the complex frequency of the fundamental quasinormal mode so as to exploit the complete (high signal-to-noise-ratio) post-merger waveform. We assess the usefulness of our proposed template by analyzing, in a realistic setting, SXS full inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms and constructing posterior probability distribution functions for the central frequency damping time of the first overtone of the fundamental quasinormal mode as well as for the physical parameters of the systems. We also briefly explore the possibility

  13. Descending with Angels: Jinn Possession, Islamic Exorcism, and Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    What is it like to be a Muslim possessed by a jinn spirit? How do you find refuge from madness and evil in a place like Denmark? In this book I explore some of the ways in which Muslims in the West have sought to protect themselves. Over several years I followed Muslim patients being treated.......” In the book I analyze how these broader social and political issues are paralleled in the invisible dynamics of jinn possession and psychosis, proposing new theoretical perspectives on religious and psychiatric healing as ritual practices for dealing with the invisible in human life....... hypervisible in public discourse through intensive state monitoring, surveillance, and media coverage. Yet their religion of Islam remains poorly understood and is frequently identified by politicians, commentators, and even healthcare specialists as the underlying invisible cause of “integration problems...

  14. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  15. Emotional regulation, attachment to possessions and hoarding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Philip J; Moulding, Richard; Taylor, Jasmine K; Nedeljkovic, Maja

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to test which particular facets of emotion regulation (ER) are most linked to symptoms of hoarding disorder, and whether beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions (EA) mediate this relationship. A non-clinical sample of 150 participants (108 females) completed questionnaires of emotional tolerance (distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency - impulsivity when experiencing negative emotions), depressed mood, hoarding, and beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions. While all emotional tolerance measures related to hoarding, when considered together and controlling for depression and age, anxiety sensitivity and urgency were the significant predictors. Anxiety sensitivity was fully mediated, and urgency partially mediated, via beliefs regarding emotional attachment to possessions. These findings provide further support for (1) the importance of anxiety sensitivity and negative urgency for hoarding symptoms, and (2) the view that individuals with HD symptoms may rely on items for emotion regulation, leading to stronger beliefs that items are integral to emotional wellbeing. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pulsed electric field sensor based on original waveform measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Wu Wei; Cheng Yinhui; Zhou Hui; Li Baozhong; Li Jinxi; Zhu Meng

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the differential and original waveform measurement principles for pulsed E-field, and develops an pulsed E-field sensor based on original waveform measurement along with its theoretical correction model. The sensor consists of antenna, integrator, amplifier and driver, optic-electric/electric-optic conversion module and transmission module. The time-domain calibration in TEM cell indicates that, its risetime response is shorter than 1.0 ns, and the output pulse width at 90% of the maximum amplitude is wider than 10.0 μs. The output amplitude of the sensor is linear to the electric field intensity in a dynamic range of 20 dB. The measurement capability can be extended to 10 V/m or 50 kV/m by changing the system's antenna and other relative modules. (authors)

  17. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  18. Quantum optical arbitrary waveform manipulation and measurement in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowligy, Abijith S; Manurkar, Paritosh; Corzo, Neil V; Velev, Vesselin G; Silver, Michael; Scott, Ryan P; Yoo, S J B; Kumar, Prem; Kanter, Gregory S; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2014-11-17

    We describe a technique for dynamic quantum optical arbitrary-waveform generation and manipulation, which is capable of mode selectively operating on quantum signals without inducing significant loss or decoherence. It is built upon combining the developed tools of quantum frequency conversion and optical arbitrary waveform generation. Considering realistic parameters, we propose and analyze applications such as programmable reshaping of picosecond-scale temporal modes, selective frequency conversion of any one or superposition of those modes, and mode-resolved photon counting. We also report on experimental progress to distinguish two overlapping, orthogonal temporal modes, demonstrating over 8 dB extinction between picosecond-scale time-frequency modes, which agrees well with our theory. Our theoretical and experimental progress, as a whole, points to an enabling optical technique for various applications such as ultradense quantum coding, unity-efficiency cavity-atom quantum memories, and high-speed quantum computing.

  19. Transient waveform acquisition system for the ELMO Bumpy Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.G.; Burris, R.D.; Hillis, D.H.; Overbey, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The transient waveform system described in this report is designed to acquire analog waveforms from the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) diagnostic experiments. Pressure, density, synchrotron radiation, etc., are acquired and digitized with a Kinetic Systems TR812 transient recorder and associated modules located in a CAMAC crate. The system can simultaneously acquire, display, and transmit sets of data consisting of identification parameters and up to 1024 data points for 1 to 64 input signals (frequency range = 0.01 pulse/s to 100 kHz) of data every one or more minutes; thus, it can run continuously without operator intervention. The data are taken on a VAX 11/780 and transmitted to a data base on a DECSystem-10. To aid the programmer in making future modifications to the system, detailed documentation using the Yourdon structural methods has been given

  20. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran

    2017-09-01

    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.

  1. Image-domain full waveform inversion: Field data example

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong

    2014-08-05

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is the result of cycle skipping which degrades the low-wavenumber update in the absence of low-frequencies and long-offset data. An image-domain objective function is defined as the normed difference between the predicted and observed common image gathers (CIGs) in the subsurface offset domain. This new objective function is not constrained by cycle skipping at the far subsurface offsets. To test the effectiveness of this method, we apply it to marine data recorded in the Gulf of Mexico. Results show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive to the initial model and the absence of low-frequency data compared with conventional FWI. The liability, however, is that it is almost an order of magnitude more expensive than standard FWI.

  2. Photonic arbitrary waveform generation applicable to multiband UWB communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-12-06

    A novel photonic structure for arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) is proposed based on the electrooptical intensity modulation of a broadband optical signal which is transmitted by a dispersive element and the optoelectrical processing is realized by combining an interferometric structure with balanced photodetection. The generated waveform can be fully reconfigured through the control of the optical source power spectrum and the interferometric structure. The use of balanced photodetection permits to remove the baseband component of the generated signal which is relevant in certain applications. We have theoretically described and experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of the system by means of the generation of different pulse shapes. Specifically, the proposed structure has been applicable to generate Multiband UWB signaling formats regarding to the FCC requirements in order to show the flexibility of the system.

  3. Strategies for the characteristic extraction of gravitational waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiuc, M. C.; Bishop, N. T.; Szilagyi, B.; Winicour, J.

    2009-01-01

    We develop, test, and compare new numerical and geometrical methods for improving the accuracy of extracting waveforms using characteristic evolution. The new numerical method involves use of circular boundaries to the stereographic grid patches which cover the spherical cross sections of the outgoing null cones. We show how an angular version of numerical dissipation can be introduced into the characteristic code to damp the high frequency error arising form the irregular way the circular patch boundary cuts through the grid. The new geometric method involves use of the Weyl tensor component Ψ 4 to extract the waveform as opposed to the original approach via the Bondi news function. We develop the necessary analytic and computational formula to compute the O(1/r) radiative part of Ψ 4 in terms of a conformally compactified treatment of null infinity. These methods are compared and calibrated in test problems based upon linearized waves.

  4. Image-domain full waveform inversion: Field data example

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is the result of cycle skipping which degrades the low-wavenumber update in the absence of low-frequencies and long-offset data. An image-domain objective function is defined as the normed difference between the predicted and observed common image gathers (CIGs) in the subsurface offset domain. This new objective function is not constrained by cycle skipping at the far subsurface offsets. To test the effectiveness of this method, we apply it to marine data recorded in the Gulf of Mexico. Results show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive to the initial model and the absence of low-frequency data compared with conventional FWI. The liability, however, is that it is almost an order of magnitude more expensive than standard FWI.

  5. Toward Generating More Diagnostic Features from Photoplethysmogram Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoplethysmogram (PPG signals collected using a pulse oximeter are increasingly being used for screening and diagnosis purposes. Because of the non-invasive, cost-effective, and easy-to-use nature of the pulse oximeter, clinicians and biomedical engineers are investigating how PPG signals can help in the management of many medical conditions, especially for global health application. The study of PPG signal analysis is relatively new compared to research in electrocardiogram signals, for instance; however, we anticipate that in the near future blood pressure, cardiac output, and other clinical parameters will be measured from wearable devices that collect PPG signals, based on the signal’s vast potential. This article attempts to organize and standardize the names of PPG waveforms to ensure consistent terminologies, thereby helping the rapid developments in this research area, decreasing the disconnect within and among different disciplines, and increasing the number of features generated from PPG waveforms.

  6. Toward Generating More Diagnostic Features from Photoplethysmogram Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Liang, Yongbo; Ward, Rabab

    2018-03-11

    Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals collected using a pulse oximeter are increasingly being used for screening and diagnosis purposes. Because of the non-invasive, cost-effective, and easy-to-use nature of the pulse oximeter, clinicians and biomedical engineers are investigating how PPG signals can help in the management of many medical conditions, especially for global health application. The study of PPG signal analysis is relatively new compared to research in electrocardiogram signals, for instance; however, we anticipate that in the near future blood pressure, cardiac output, and other clinical parameters will be measured from wearable devices that collect PPG signals, based on the signal's vast potential. This article attempts to organize and standardize the names of PPG waveforms to ensure consistent terminologies, thereby helping the rapid developments in this research area, decreasing the disconnect within and among different disciplines, and increasing the number of features generated from PPG waveforms.

  7. Temporal changes of the inner core from waveform doublets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    Temporal changes of the Earth's inner core have been detected from earthquake waveform doublets (repeating sources with similar waveforms at the same station). Using doublets from events up to the present in the South Sandwich Island (SSI) region recorded by the station COLA (Alaska), we confirmed systematic temporal variations in the travel time of the inner-core-refracted phase (PKIKP, the DF branch). The DF phase arrives increasingly earlier than outer core phases (BC and AB) by rate of approximately 0.07 s per decade since 1970s. If we assume that the temporal change is caused by a shift of the lateral gradient from the inner core rotation as in previous studies, we estimate the rotation rate of 0.2-0.4 degree per year. We also analyzed the topography of the inner core boundary (ICB) using SSI waveform doublets recorded by seismic stations in Eurasia and North America with reflected phase (PKiKP) and refracted phases. There are clear temporal changes in the waveforms of doublets for PKiKP under Africa and Central America. In addition, for doublets recorded by three nearby stations (AAK, AML, and UCH), we observed systematic change in the relative travel time of PKiKP and PKIKP. The temporal change of the (PKiKP - PKIKP) differential time is always negative for the event pairs if both events are before 2007, while it fluctuates to positive if the later event occurs after 2007. The rapid temporal changes in space and time may indicate localized processes (e.g., freezing and melting) of the ICB in the recent decades under Africa. We are exploring 4D models consistent with the temporal changes.

  8. Frequency-Dependent Blanking with Digital Linear Chirp Waveform Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andrews, John M. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Wideband radar systems, especially those that operate at lower frequencies such as VHF and UHF, are often restricted from transmitting within or across specific frequency bands in order to prevent interference to other spectrum users. Herein we describe techniques for notching the transmitted spectrum of a generated and transmitted radar waveform. The notches are fully programmable as to their location, and techniques are given that control the characteristics of the notches.

  9. Arbitrary waveform generator to improve laser diode driver performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jr, Edward Steven

    2015-11-03

    An arbitrary waveform generator modifies the input signal to a laser diode driver circuit in order to reduce the overshoot/undershoot and provide a "flat-top" signal to the laser diode driver circuit. The input signal is modified based on the original received signal and the feedback from the laser diode by measuring the actual current flowing in the laser diode after the original signal is applied to the laser diode.

  10. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi-Saigo, Miki; Hardison, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two…

  11. Waveform design and diversity for advanced radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gini, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various algorithms for radar signal design, that rely heavily upon complicated processing and/or antenna architectures, have been suggested. These techniques owe their genesis to several factors, including revolutionary technological advances (new flexible waveform generators, high speed signal processing hardware, digital array radar technology, etc.) and the stressing performance requirements, often imposed by defence applications in areas such as airborne early warning and homeland security.Increasingly complex operating scenarios calls for sophisticated algorithms with the

  12. DISECA - A Matlab code for dispersive waveform calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaždová, Renata; Vilhelm, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2011), s. 526-531 ISSN 0266-352X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : velocity dispersion * synthetic waveform * seismic method Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.987, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266352X11000425

  13. Faithful effective-one-body waveforms of small-mass-ratio coalescing black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of constructing high-accuracy, faithful analytic waveforms describing the gravitational wave signal emitted by inspiralling and coalescing binary black holes. We work within the effective-one-body (EOB) framework and propose a methodology for improving the current (waveform) implementations of this framework based on understanding, element by element, the physics behind each feature of the waveform and on systematically comparing various EOB-based waveforms with exact waveforms obtained by numerical relativity approaches. The present paper focuses on small-mass-ratio nonspinning binary systems, which can be conveniently studied by Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-type methods. Our results include (i) a resummed, 3 PN-accurate description of the inspiral waveform, (ii) a better description of radiation reaction during the plunge, (iii) a refined analytic expression for the plunge waveform, (iv) an improved treatment of the matching between the plunge and ring-down waveforms. This improved implementation of the EOB approach allows us to construct complete analytic waveforms which exhibit a remarkable agreement with the exact ones in modulus, frequency, and phase. In particular, the analytic and numerical waveforms stay in phase, during the whole process, within ±1.1% of a cycle. We expect that the extension of our methodology to the comparable-mass case will be able to generate comparably accurate analytic waveforms of direct use for the ground-based network of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves

  14. Rapidly reconfigurable high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation in heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqi; Qin, Chuan; Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Lai, Weicheng; Guan, Binbin; Clements, Matthew; Su, Tiehui; Liu, Guangyao; Lu, Hongbo; Scott, Ryan P; Ben Yoo, S J

    2017-04-17

    This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

  15. Gravitational Waveforms in the Early Inspiral of Binary Black Hole Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkett, Kevin; Kumar, Prayush; Bhagwat, Swetha; Brown, Duncan; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact object binaries are important targets for gravitational wave detection by aLIGO. Detection and parameter estimation will require long, accurate waveforms for comparison. There are a number of analytical models for generating gravitational waveforms for these systems, but the only way to ensure their consistency and correctness is by comparing with numerical relativity simulations that cover many inspiral orbits. We've simulated a number of binary black hole systems with mass ratio 7 and a moderate, aligned spin on the larger black hole. We have attached these numerical waveforms to analytical waveform models to generate long hybrid gravitational waveforms that span the entire aLIGO frequency band. We analyze the robustness of these hybrid waveforms and measure the faithfulness of different hybrids with each other to obtain an estimate on how long future numerical simulations need to be in order to ensure that waveforms are accurate enough for use by aLIGO.

  16. Single-spin precessing gravitational waveform in closed form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Andrew; O'Shaughnessy, R.

    2014-02-01

    In coming years, gravitational-wave detectors should find black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries, potentially coincident with astronomical phenomena like short gamma ray bursts. These binaries are expected to precess. Gravitational-wave science requires a tractable model for precessing binaries, to disentangle precession physics from other phenomena like modified strong field gravity, tidal deformability, or Hubble flow; and to measure compact object masses, spins, and alignments. Moreover, current searches for gravitational waves from compact binaries use templates where the binary does not precess and are ill-suited for detection of generic precessing sources. In this paper we provide a closed-form representation of the single-spin precessing waveform in the frequency domain by reorganizing the signal as a sum over harmonics, each of which resembles a nonprecessing waveform. This form enables simple analytic calculations of the Fisher matrix for use in template bank generation and coincidence metrics, and jump proposals to improve the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We have verified that for generic BH-NS binaries, our model agrees with the time-domain waveform to 2%. Straightforward extensions of the derivations outlined here (and provided in full online) allow higher accuracy and error estimates.

  17. Photoplethysmographic signal waveform index for detection of increased arterial stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilt, K; Meigas, K; Ferenets, R; Temitski, K; Viigimaa, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the validity of the photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveform index PPGAI for the estimation of increased arterial stiffness. For this purpose, PPG signals were recorded from 24 healthy subjects and from 20 type II diabetes patients. The recorded PPG signals were processed with the analysis algorithm developed and the waveform index PPGAI similar to the augmentation index (AIx) was calculated. As a reference, the aortic AIx was assessed and normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75) by a SphygmoCor device. A strong correlation (r = 0.85) between the PPGAI and the aortic AIx@75 and a positive correlation of both indices with age were found. Age corrections for the indices PPGAI and AIx@75 as regression models from the signals of healthy subjects were constructed. Both indices revealed a significant difference between the groups of diabetes patients and healthy controls. However, the PPGAI provided the best statistical discrimination for the group of subjects with increased arterial stiffness. The waveform index PPGAI based on the inexpensive PPG technology can be considered as a perspective measure of increased arterial stiffness estimation in clinical screenings. (paper)

  18. Waveform inversion for acoustic VTI media in frequency domain

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2016-09-06

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background model using a single scattered wavefield from an inverted perturbation. However, current RWI methods are mostly based on isotropic media assumption. We extend the idea of the combining inversion for the background model and perturbations to address transversely isotropic with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI) media taking into consideration of the optimal parameter sensitivity information. As a result, we apply Born modeling corresponding to perturbations in only for the variable e to derive the relative reflected waveform inversion formulation. To reduce the number of parameters, we assume the background part of η = ε and work with a single variable to describe the anisotropic part of the wave propagation. Thus, the optimization variables are the horizontal velocity v, η = ε and the e perturbation. Application to the anisotropic version of Marmousi model with a single frequency of 2.5 Hz shows that this method can converge to the accurate result starting from a linearly increasing isotropic initial velocity. Application to a real dataset demonstrates the versatility of the approach.

  19. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-09-26

    Phase wrapping in the frequency domain or cycle skipping in the time domain is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion when the starting model is far from the true model. Since the phase derivative does not suffer from the wrapping effect, its inversion has the potential of providing a robust and reliable inversion result. We propose a new waveform inversion algorithm using the phase derivative in the frequency domain along with the exponential damping term to attenuate reflections. We estimate the phase derivative, or what we refer to as the instantaneous traveltime, by taking the derivative of the Fourier-transformed wavefield with respect to the angular frequency, dividing it by the wavefield itself and taking the imaginary part. The objective function is constructed using the phase derivative and the gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm. Numerical examples show that our inversion algorithm with a strong damping generates a tomographic result even for a high ‘single’ frequency, which can be a good initial model for full waveform inversion and migration.

  20. Nonspinning numerical relativity waveform surrogates: assessing the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott; Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Tiglio, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Recently, multi-modal gravitational waveform surrogate models have been built directly from data numerically generated by the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). I will describe ways in which the surrogate model error can be quantified. This task, in turn, requires (i) characterizing differences between waveforms computed by SpEC with those predicted by the surrogate model and (ii) estimating errors associated with the SpEC waveforms from which the surrogate is built. Both pieces can have numerous sources of numerical and systematic errors. We make an attempt to study the most dominant error sources and, ultimately, the surrogate model's fidelity. These investigations yield information about the surrogate model's uncertainty as a function of time (or frequency) and parameter, and could be useful in parameter estimation studies which seek to incorporate model error. Finally, I will conclude by comparing the numerical relativity surrogate model to other inspiral-merger-ringdown models. A companion talk will cover the building of multi-modal surrogate models.

  1. Arbitrary waveform modulated pulse EPR at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminker, Ilia; Barnes, Ryan; Han, Songi

    2017-06-01

    We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200 GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7 T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1 GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1 ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200 GHz with >150 mW power. We find that the non-linearity of the AMC poses significant difficulties in generating amplitude-modulated pulses at 200 GHz. We demonstrate that in the power-limited regime of ω1 10 MHz) spin manipulation in incoherent (inversion), as well as coherent (echo formation) experiments. Highlights include the improvement by one order of magnitude in inversion bandwidth compared to that of conventional rectangular pulses, as well as a factor of two in improvement in the refocused echo intensity at 200 GHz.

  2. SpEnD: Linked Data SPARQL Endpoints Discovery Using Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Semih; Dogdu, Erdogan; Kodaz, Halife; Kamilaris, Andreas; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves

    In this study, a novel metacrawling method is proposed for discovering and monitoring linked data sources on the Web. We implemented the method in a prototype system, named SPARQL Endpoints Discovery (SpEnD). SpEnD starts with a "search keyword" discovery process for finding relevant keywords for the linked data domain and specifically SPARQL endpoints. Then, these search keywords are utilized to find linked data sources via popular search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo, Yandex). By using this method, most of the currently listed SPARQL endpoints in existing endpoint repositories, as well as a significant number of new SPARQL endpoints, have been discovered. Finally, we have developed a new SPARQL endpoint crawler (SpEC) for crawling and link analysis.

  3. Inconsistent selection and definition of local and regional endpoints in breast cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moossdorff, M; van Roozendaal, L M; Schipper, R-J; Strobbe, L J A; Voogd, A C; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G; Smidt, M L

    2014-12-01

    Results in breast cancer research are reported using study endpoints. Most are composite endpoints (such as locoregional recurrence), consisting of several components (for example local recurrence) that are in turn composed of specific events (such as skin recurrence). Inconsistent endpoint selection and definition might lead to unjustified conclusions when comparing study outcomes. This study aimed to determine which locoregional endpoints are used in breast cancer studies, and how these endpoints and their components are defined. PubMed was searched for breast cancer studies published in nine leading journals in 2011. Articles using endpoints with a local or regional component were included and definitions were compared. Twenty-three different endpoints with a local or regional component were extracted from 44 articles. Most frequently used were disease-free survival (25 articles), recurrence-free survival (7), local control (4), locoregional recurrence-free survival (3) and event-free survival (3). Different endpoints were used for similar outcomes. Of 23 endpoints, five were not defined and 18 were defined only partially. Of these, 16 contained a local and 13 a regional component. Included events were not specified in 33 of 57 (local) and 27 of 50 (regional) cases. Definitions of local components inconsistently included carcinoma in situ and skin and chest wall recurrences. Regional components inconsistently included specific nodal sites and skin and chest wall recurrences. Breast cancer studies use many different endpoints with a locoregional component. Definitions of endpoints and events are either not provided or vary between trials. To improve transparency, facilitate trial comparison and avoid unjustified conclusions, authors should report detailed definitions of all endpoints. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sensitive endpoints in extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study versus two generation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    . The protocol includes assessment of novel endpoints of concern and developmental landmarks such as anogenital distance, nipple retention (both sensitive endpoints for anti-androgenic effects in male offspring) and mammary gland development (sensitive endpoint for oestrogen action) and may also include...... during critical period of development in contrast to the parental generation. Retrospective analysis of available two-generation studies, however, indicate that the assessment included in the study of other endpoints in the male offspring such as histopathology of reproductive organs and semen quality...

  5. Colocated MIMO Radar: Beamforming, Waveform design, and Target Parameter Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-04-01

    Thanks to its improved capabilities, the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar is attracting the attention of researchers and practitioners alike. Because it transmits orthogonal or partially correlated waveforms, this emerging technology outperformed the phased array radar by providing better parametric identifiability, achieving higher spatial resolution, and designing complex beampatterns. To avoid jamming and enhance the signal to noise ratio, it is often interesting to maximize the transmitted power in a given region of interest and minimize it elsewhere. This problem is known as the transmit beampattern design and is usually tackled as a two-step process: a transmit covariance matrix is firstly designed by minimizing a convex optimization problem, which is then used to generate practical waveforms. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method maps easily generated Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability density function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. The second part of this thesis covers the topic of target parameter estimation. To determine the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum likelihood estimation yields the best performance. However, it requires a two dimensional search problem. Therefore, its computational complexity is prohibitively high. So, we proposed a reduced complexity and optimum performance algorithm which allows the two dimensional fast Fourier transform to jointly estimate the spatial location

  6. 21 CFR 314.510 - Approval based on a surrogate endpoint or on an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses § 314.510 Approval based on a surrogate endpoint or on an effect on... well-controlled. The applicant shall carry out any such studies with due diligence. ...

  7. Catch bonding in the forced dissociation of a polymer endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrusch, Cyril; Storm, Cornelis

    2018-04-01

    Applying a force to certain supramolecular bonds may initially stabilize them, manifested by a lower dissociation rate. We show that this behavior, known as catch bonding and by now broadly reported in numerous biophysics bonds, is generically expected when either or both the trapping potential and the force applied to the bond possess some degree of nonlinearity. We enumerate possible scenarios and for each identify the possibility and, if applicable, the criterion for catch bonding to occur. The effect is robustly predicted by Kramers theory and Mean First Passage Time theory and confirmed in direct molecular dynamics simulation. Among the catch scenarios, one plays out essentially any time the force on the bond originates in a polymeric object, implying that some degree of catch bond behavior is to be expected in many settings relevant to polymer network mechanics or optical tweezer experiments.

  8. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE POSSESSED" ("DEMONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Leonidovich Sharakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a question of Christian symbolism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel The Possessed (Demons. The introductory part identifies the purpose of a symbol in Christian poetics through the parallel with ancient symbolism. The author makes a conclusion that the functional role of a symbol in the ancient world and Christian tradition is different. Therefore, the ancient symbol involves a number of interrelated categories, such as fate, intuition or conjecture, inspiration, and predictions. Christian symbolism is based on the idea of redemption and moral innocence. Methodologically, the article is based on a cultural and historical approach, as well as on the comparative academic tradition. The overview of Dostoyevsky’s pre-materials for The Possessed (Demons enables us to suggest the use of Christian symbolism in this novel. Hence, the objective of the study is to investigate a composition of images and symbols in this piece of writing, with a special focus on the image of a chronicler since the storyline of the novel is developed through his perception. We make a supposition that there are several levels of Gospel perception in the artistic vision or consciousness of the chronicler, that form the basis of the symbolical composition of the novel. The article sequentially examines the examples of Christian symbolism, including the connection of ideas, characters and storylines of the novel with the Gospel. Then it gives evidence and reasons for the thesis that the Gospel gives the characters of the novel the grounds for shaping their destiny.

  9. Is Doubling of Serum Creatinine a Valid Clinical 'Hard' Endpoint in Clinical Nephrology Trials?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, H. J.; Perkovic, V.; de Zeeuw, D.

    2011-01-01

    The composite of end stage renal disease (ESRD), doubling of serum creatinine and (renal) death, is a frequently used endpoint in randomized clinical trials in nephrology. Doubling of serum creatinine is a well-accepted part of this endpoint because a doubling of serum creatinine reflects a large

  10. Right-handed currents at B→ K l+l− kinematic endpoint

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... The recent LHCb measured values of these observables are used to conclude an evidence of right-handed currents at the kinematic endpoint of this decay mode. As the conclusion is drawn at the maximum dilepton invariant mass square ( q 2 ) kinematic endpoint, it relies only on heavy quark symmetries ...

  11. Restoration for the future: Setting endpoints and targets and selecting indicators of progress and success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Callie Jo Schweitzer; John M. Kabrick

    2014-01-01

    Setting endpoints and targets in forest restoration is a complicated task that is best accomplished in cooperative partnerships that account for the ecology of the system, production of desired ecosystem goods and services, economics and well-being of society, and future environments. Clearly written and quantitative endpoints and intermediary targets need to be...

  12. Restoration for the future: endpoints, targets, and indicators of progress and success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Callie Jo. Schweitzer

    2014-01-01

    Setting endpoints and targets in forest restoration is a complicated task that is best accomplished in cooperative partnerships that account for the ecology of the system, production of desired ecosystem goods and services, economics and well-being of society, and future environments. Clearly described and quantitative endpoints and intermediary targets are needed to...

  13. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-05-10

    The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD proteins, HA epitope-tagged ADD proteins and mutants were transiently expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and their distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Several nuclear proteins were identified to interact with ADD1 by mass spectrometry, which were further verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In this study, we found that ADD1 was detectable both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas ADD2 and ADD3 were detected only in the cytoplasm. However, ADD2 and ADD3 were partially (~40%) sequestered in the nucleus by leptomycin B, a CRM1/exportin1 inhibitor. Upon the removal of leptomycin B, ADD2 and ADD3 re-distributed to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and are quickly transported to the cytoplasm upon entering the nucleus. Indeed, we found that ADD2 and ADD3 possess much higher potential to counteract the activity of the NLS derived from Simian virus 40 large T-antigen than ADD1. All the ADD proteins appear to contain multiple nuclear export signals mainly in their head and neck domains. However, except for the leucine-rich motif ( 377 FEALMRMLDWLGYRT 391 ) in the neck domain of ADD1, no other classic nuclear export signal was identified in the ADD proteins. In addition, the nuclear retention of ADD1 facilitates its interaction with RNA polymerase II and zinc-finger protein 331. Our results suggest that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus. The discrepancy in the

  14. Full-waveform data for building roof step edge localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słota, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Airborne laser scanning data perfectly represent flat or gently sloped areas; to date, however, accurate breakline detection is the main drawback of this technique. This issue becomes particularly important in the case of modeling buildings, where accuracy higher than the footprint size is often required. This article covers several issues related to full-waveform data registered on building step edges. First, the full-waveform data simulator was developed and presented in this paper. Second, this article provides a full description of the changes in echo amplitude, echo width and returned power caused by the presence of edges within the laser footprint. Additionally, two important properties of step edge echoes, peak shift and echo asymmetry, were noted and described. It was shown that these properties lead to incorrect echo positioning along the laser center line and can significantly reduce the edge points' accuracy. For these reasons and because all points are aligned with the center of the beam, regardless of the actual target position within the beam footprint, we can state that step edge points require geometric corrections. This article presents a novel algorithm for the refinement of step edge points. The main distinguishing advantage of the developed algorithm is the fact that none of the additional data, such as emitted signal parameters, beam divergence, approximate edge geometry or scanning settings, are required. The proposed algorithm works only on georeferenced profiles of reflected laser energy. Another major advantage is the simplicity of the calculation, allowing for very efficient data processing. Additionally, the developed method of point correction allows for the accurate determination of points lying on edges and edge point densification. For this reason, fully automatic localization of building roof step edges based on LiDAR full-waveform data with higher accuracy than the size of the lidar footprint is feasible.

  15. Determine Earthquake Rupture Directivity Using Taiwan TSMIP Strong Motion Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lai, Ying-Ju; Gung, YuanCheng

    2013-04-01

    Inverting seismic waveforms for the finite fault source parameters is important for studying the physics of earthquake rupture processes. It is also significant to image seismogenic structures in urban areas. Here we analyze the finite-source process and test for the causative fault plane using the accelerograms recorded by the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The point source parameters for the mainshock and aftershocks were first obtained by complete waveform moment tensor inversions. We then use the seismograms generated by the aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGFs) to retrieve the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) of near-field stations using projected Landweber deconvolution approach. The method for identifying the fault plane relies on the spatial patterns of the apparent source time function durations which depend on the angle between rupture direction and the take-off angle and azimuth of the ray. These derived duration patterns then are compared with the theoretical patterns, which are functions of the following parameters, including focal depth, epicentral distance, average crustal 1D velocity, fault plane attitude, and rupture direction on the fault plane. As a result, the ASTFs derived from EGFs can be used to infer the ruptured fault plane and the rupture direction. Finally we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Chiayi, Taiwan, where a damaging earthquake has occurred about a century ago. The preliminary results show a strike-slip earthquake on 22 October 1999 (Mw 5.6) has ruptured unilaterally toward SSW on a sub-vertical fault. The procedure developed from this study can be applied to other strong motion waveforms recorded from other earthquakes to better understand their kinematic source parameters.

  16. Development of optoelectronic monitoring system for ear arterial pressure waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Satoshi; Imachi, Yu; Yagi, Tamotsu; Imachi, Kou; Ono, Toshirou; Man-i, Masando

    1994-02-01

    Invasive intra-arterial blood pressure measurement is the most accurate method but not practical if the subject is in motion. The apparatus developed by Wesseling et al., based on a volume-clamp method of Penaz (Finapres), is able to monitor continuous finger arterial pressure waveforms noninvasively. The limitation of Finapres is the difficulty in measuring the pressure of a subject during work that involves finger or arm action. Because the Finapres detector is attached to subject's finger, the measurements are affected by inertia of blood and hydrostatic effect cause by arm or finger motion. To overcome this problem, the authors made a detector that is attached to subject's ear and developed and optoelectronic monitoring systems for ear arterial pressure waveform (Earpres). An IR LEDs, photodiode, and air cuff comprised the detector. The detector was attached to a subject's ear, and the space adjusted between the air cuff and the rubber plate on which the LED and photodiode were positioned. To evaluate the accuracy of Earpres, the following tests were conducted with participation of 10 healthy male volunteers. The subjects rested for about five minutes, then performed standing and squatting exercises to provide wide ranges of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. Intra- and inter-individual standard errors were calculated according to the method of van Egmond et al. As a result, average, the averages of intra-individual standard errors for earpres appeared small (3.7 and 2.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic pressure respectively). The inter-individual standard errors for Earpres were about the same was Finapres for both systolic and diastolic pressure. The results showed the ear monitor was reliable in measuring arterial blood pressure waveforms and might be applicable to various fields such as sports medicine and ergonomics.

  17. Improved gravitational waveforms from spinning black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Edward K.; Sathyaprakash, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The standard post-Newtonian approximation to gravitational waveforms, called T-approximants, from nonspinning black hole binaries are known not to be sufficiently accurate close to the last stable orbit of the system. A new approximation, called P-approximants, is believed to improve the accuracy of the waveforms rendering them applicable up to the last stable orbit. In this study we apply P-approximants to the case of a test particle in equatorial orbit around a Kerr black hole parameterized by a spin-parameter q that takes values between -1 and 1. In order to assess the performance of the two approximants we measure their effectualness (i.e., larger overlaps with the exact signal), and faithfulness (i.e., smaller biases while measuring the parameters of the signal) with the exact (numerical) waveforms. We find that in the case of prograde orbits, that is orbits whose angular momentum is in the same sense as the spin angular momentum of the black hole, T-approximant templates obtain an effectualness of ∼0.99 for spins q 0.99 for all spins up to q=0.95. The bias in the estimation of parameters is much lower in the case of P-approximants than T-approximants. We find that P-approximants are both effectual and faithful and should be more effective than T-approximants as a detection template family when q>0. For q<0 both T- and P-approximants perform equally well so that either of them could be used as a detection template family

  18. Observations on Three Endpoint Properties and Their Relationship to Regulatory Outcomes of European Oncology Marketing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Stolk, Pieter; McAuslane, James Neil; Schellens, Jan; Breckenridge, Alasdair M; Leufkens, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Guidance and exploratory evidence indicate that the type of endpoints and the magnitude of their outcome can define a therapy's clinical activity; however, little empirical evidence relates specific endpoint properties with regulatory outcomes. We explored the relationship of 3 endpoint properties to regulatory outcomes by assessing 50 oncology marketing authorization applications (MAAs; reviewed from 2009 to 2013). Overall, 16 (32%) had a negative outcome. The most commonly used hard endpoints were overall survival (OS) and the duration of response or stable disease. OS was a component of 91% approved and 63% failed MAAs. The most commonly used surrogate endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and health-related quality of life assessments. There was no difference (p = .3801) between the approved and failed MAA cohorts in the proportion of hard endpoints used. A mean of slightly more than four surrogate endpoints were used per approved MAA compared with slightly more than two for failed MAAs. Longer OS and PFS duration outcomes were generally associated with approvals, often when not statistically significant. The approved cohort was associated with a preponderance of statistically significant (p < .05) improvements in primary endpoints (p < .0001 difference between the approved and failed groups). Three key endpoint properties (type of endpoint [hard/surrogate], magnitude of an endpoint outcome, and its statistical significance) are consistent with the European Medicines Agency guidance and, notwithstanding the contribution of unique disease-specific circumstances, are associated with a predictable positive outcome for oncology MAAs. Regulatory decisions made by the European Medicines Agency determine which new medicines will be available to European prescribers and for which therapeutic indications. Regulatory success or failure can be influenced by many factors. This study assessed three key properties of endpoints used in

  19. OPERA models for predicting physicochemical properties and environmental fate endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Kamel; Grulke, Chris M; Judson, Richard S; Williams, Antony J

    2018-03-08

    The collection of chemical structure information and associated experimental data for quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) modeling is facilitated by an increasing number of public databases containing large amounts of useful data. However, the performance of QSAR models highly depends on the quality of the data and modeling methodology used. This study aims to develop robust QSAR/QSPR models for chemical properties of environmental interest that can be used for regulatory purposes. This study primarily uses data from the publicly available PHYSPROP database consisting of a set of 13 common physicochemical and environmental fate properties. These datasets have undergone extensive curation using an automated workflow to select only high-quality data, and the chemical structures were standardized prior to calculation of the molecular descriptors. The modeling procedure was developed based on the five Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) principles for QSAR models. A weighted k-nearest neighbor approach was adopted using a minimum number of required descriptors calculated using PaDEL, an open-source software. The genetic algorithms selected only the most pertinent and mechanistically interpretable descriptors (2-15, with an average of 11 descriptors). The sizes of the modeled datasets varied from 150 chemicals for biodegradability half-life to 14,050 chemicals for logP, with an average of 3222 chemicals across all endpoints. The optimal models were built on randomly selected training sets (75%) and validated using fivefold cross-validation (CV) and test sets (25%). The CV Q 2 of the models varied from 0.72 to 0.95, with an average of 0.86 and an R 2 test value from 0.71 to 0.96, with an average of 0.82. Modeling and performance details are described in QSAR model reporting format and were validated by the European Commission's Joint Research Center to be OECD compliant. All models are freely available as an open

  20. Defining the end-point of mastication: A conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Stuart, Eli M; Jones, Jim R; Bronlund, John E

    2017-10-01

    properties define the end-point texture and enduring sensory perception of the food. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Endpoints and cutpoints in head and neck oncology trials: methodical background, challenges, current practice and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Marcus; von Usslar, Kathrin; Kurzweg, Thiemo; Lörincz, Balazs B; Knecht, Rainald

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews the methodical and statistical basics of designing a trial, with a special focus on the process of defining and choosing endpoints and cutpoints as the foundations of clinical research, and ultimately that of evidence-based medicine. There has been a significant progress in the treatment of head and neck cancer in the past few decades. Currently available treatment options can have a variety of different goals, depending e.g. on tumor stage, among other factors. The outcome of a specific treatment in clinical trials is measured using endpoints. Besides classical endpoints, such as overall survival or organ preservation, other endpoints like quality of life are becoming increasingly important in designing and conducting a trial. The present work is based on electronic research and focuses on the solid methodical and statistical basics of a clinical trial, on the structure of study designs and on the presentation of various endpoints.

  2. Interferometric full-waveform inversion of time-lapse data

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal

    2017-08-17

    One of the key challenges associated with time-lapse surveys is ensuring the repeatability between the baseline and monitor surveys. Non-repeatability between the surveys is caused by varying environmental conditions over the course of different surveys. To overcome this challenge, we propose the use of interferometric full waveform inversion (IFWI) for inverting the velocity model from data recorded by baseline and monitor surveys. A known reflector is used as the reference reflector for IFWI, and the data are naturally redatumed to this reference reflector using natural reflections as the redatuming operator. This natural redatuming mitigates the artifacts introduced by the repeatability errors that originate above the reference reflector.

  3. Optimal control of photoelectron emission by realistic waveforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Solanpää, J.; Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Räsänen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 17 (2017), s. 1784-1792 ISSN 0950-0340 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : above-threshold ionization * optimal control * waveforms Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.328, year: 2016

  4. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recorder using a time microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Corey Vincent

    2015-04-21

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  5. Plasma density calculation based on the HCN waveform data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liaoyuan; Pan Li; Luo Cuiwen; Zhou Yan; Deng Zhongchao

    2004-01-01

    A method to improve the plasma density calculation is introduced using the base voltage and the phase zero points obtained from the HCN interference waveform data. The method includes making the signal quality higher by putting the signal control device and the analog-to-digit converters in the same location and charging them by the same power, and excluding the noise's effect according to the possible changing rate of the signal's phase, and to make the base voltage more accurate by dynamical data processing. (authors)

  6. Frequency domain, waveform inversion of laboratory crosswell radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Mazzella, Aldo T.; Horton, Robert J.; McKenna, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    A new waveform inversion for crosswell radar is formulated in the frequency-domain for a 2.5D model. The inversion simulates radar waves using the vector Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves. The objective function is minimized using a backpropagation method suitable for a 2.5D model. The inversion is tested by processing crosswell radar data collected in a laboratory tank. The estimated model is consistent with the known electromagnetic properties of the tank. The formulation for the 2.5D model can be extended to inversions of acoustic and elastic data.

  7. Complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, E. A.; Kumar, Prayush; Agarwal, Bhanu; George, Daniel; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Haas, Roland; Ren, Wei; Chu, Tony; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2017-01-01

    We present a time domain waveform model that describes the inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact binary systems whose components are nonspinning, and which evolve on orbits with low to moderate eccentricity. The inspiral evolution is described using third-order post-Newtonian equations both for the equations of motion of the binary, and its far-zone radiation field. This latter component also includes instantaneous, tails and tails-of-tails contributions, and a contribution due to nonlinear memory. This framework reduces to the post-Newtonian approximant TaylorT4 at third post-Newtonian order in the zero-eccentricity limit. To improve phase accuracy, we also incorporate higher-order post-Newtonian corrections for the energy flux of quasicircular binaries and gravitational self-force corrections to the binding energy of compact binaries. This enhanced prescription for the inspiral evolution is combined with a fully analytical prescription for the merger-ringdown evolution constructed using a catalog of numerical relativity simulations. We show that this inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model reproduces the effective-one-body model of Ref. [Y. Pan et al., Phys. Rev. D 89, 061501 (2014)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.061501] for quasicircular black hole binaries with mass ratios between 1 to 15 in the zero-eccentricity limit over a wide range of the parameter space under consideration. Using a set of eccentric numerical relativity simulations, not used during calibration, we show that our new eccentric model reproduces the true features of eccentric compact binary coalescence throughout merger. We use this model to show that the gravitational-wave transients GW150914 and GW151226 can be effectively recovered with template banks of quasicircular, spin-aligned waveforms if the eccentricity e0 of these systems when they enter the aLIGO band at a gravitational-wave frequency of 14 Hz satisfies e0GW 150914≤0.15 and e0GW 151226≤0.1 . We also find that varying the spin

  8. Sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators using modern electronic circuit building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, V K; Sharma, R K

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a single-source reference to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as a variety of modern electronic circuit building blocks. It provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators and includes a catalogue of over 600 configurations of oscillators and waveform generators, describing their relevant design details and salient performance features/limitations. The authors discuss a number of interesting, open research problems and include a comprehensive collection of over 1500 references on oscillators and non-sinusoidal waveform generators/relaxation oscillators. Offers readers a single-source reference to everything connected to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as modern electronic circuit building blocks; Provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators; Includes a catalog of over 600 configurations of oscillato...

  9. A Denoising Method for LiDAR Full-Waveform Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of LiDAR full-waveform data can not only enhance the density and positioning accuracy of a point cloud, but also provide other useful parameters, such as pulse width, peak amplitude, and peak position which are important information for subsequent processing. Full-waveform data usually contain some random noises. Traditional filtering algorithms always cause distortion in the waveform. λ/μ filtering algorithm is based on Mean Shift method. It can smooth the signal iteratively and will not cause any distortion in the waveform. In this paper, an improved λ/μ filtering algorithm is proposed, and several experiments on both simulated waveform data and real waveform data are implemented to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Time-domain simulation and waveform reconstruction for shielding effectiveness of materials against electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiao-feng; Chen, Xiang; Wei, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Shielding effectiveness (SE) of materials of current testing standards is often carried out by using continuous-wave measurement and amplitude-frequency characteristics curve is used to characterize the results. However, with in-depth study of high-power electromagnetic pulse (EMP) interference, it was discovered that only by frequency-domain SE of materials cannot be completely characterized by shielding performance of time-domain pulsed-field. And there is no uniform testing methods and standards of SE of materials against EMP. In this paper, the method of minimum phase transfer function is used to reconstruct shielded time-domain waveform based on the analysis of the waveform reconstruction method. Pulse of plane waves through an infinite planar material is simulated by using CST simulation software. The reconstructed waveform and simulation waveform is compared. The results show that the waveform reconstruction method based on the minimum phase can be well estimated EMP waveform through the infinite planar materials.

  11. Waveform efficiency analysis of auditory nerve fiber stimulation for cochlear implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaii, Mehdi Lotfi; Sadhedi, Hamed; Jalali, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the electrical stimulation efficiency of various stimulating waveforms is an important issue for efficient neural stimulator design. Concerning the implantable micro devices design, it is also necessary to consider the feasibility of hardware implementation of the desired waveforms. In this paper, the charge, power and energy efficiency of four waveforms (i.e. square, rising ramp, triangular and rising ramp-decaying exponential) in various durations have been simulated and evaluated based on the computational model of the auditory nerve fibers. Moreover, for a fair comparison of their feasibility, a fully integrated current generator circuit has been developed so that the desired stimulating waveforms can be generated. The simulation results show that stimulation with the square waveforms is a proper choice in short and intermediate durations while the rising ramp-decaying exponential or triangular waveforms can be employed for long durations.

  12. Immobilized cells of Candida rugosa possessing fumarase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Zhone, L.

    1980-01-01

    Immobilized cells of C. rugosa that possessed fumarase activity were prepared by different methods; the most active immobilized cells were entrapped in polyacrylamide gels. The effects of pH temperature, and divalent cations on the fumarase activity of both immobilized and native cells were the same. Mn/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Fe/sup 2 +/ did not protect the immobilized enzyme against thermal inactivation. The activity of immobilized fumarase remained constant during 91 days of storage of 4-6 degrees. The immobilized cell column was used for the continuous production of L-malic acid from 1M fumarate at 30 degrees and pH 8.5. The immobilized column operated steadily for 2 months. Half life of the immobilized fumarase at 30 degrees was 95 days.

  13. Social forces for team coordination in ball possession game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keiko; Shima, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2018-02-01

    Team coordination is a basic human behavioral trait observed in many real-life communities. To promote teamwork, it is important to cultivate social skills that elicit team coordination. In the present work, we consider which social skills are indispensable for individuals performing a ball possession game in soccer. We develop a simple social force model that describes the synchronized motion of offensive players. Comparing the simulation results with experimental observations, we uncovered that the cooperative social force, a measure of perception skill, has the most important role in reproducing the harmonized collective motion of experienced players in the task. We further developed an experimental tool that facilitates real players' perceptions of interpersonal distance, revealing that the tool improves novice players' motions as if the cooperative social force were imposed.

  14. Considerations in choosing a primary endpoint that measures durability of virological suppression in an antiretroviral trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, P B; Ribaudo, H J; Greenberg, L; Yu, G; Bosch, R J; Tierney, C; Kuritzkes, D R

    2000-09-08

    At present, many clinical trials of anti-HIV-1 therapies compare treatments by a primary endpoint that measures the durability of suppression of HIV-1 replication. Several durability endpoints are compared. Endpoints are compared by their implicit assumptions regarding surrogacy for clinical outcomes, sample size requirements, and accommodations for inter-patient differences in baseline plasma HIV-1-RNA levels and in initial treatment response. Virological failure is defined by the non-suppression of virus levels at a prespecified follow-up time T(early virological failure), or by relapse. A binary virological failure endpoint is compared with three time-to-virological failure endpoints: time from (i) randomization that assigns early failures a failure time of T weeks; (ii) randomization that extends the early failure time T for slowly responding subjects; and (iii) virological response that assigns non-responders a failure time of 0 weeks. Endpoint differences are illustrated with Agouron's trial 511. In comparing high with low-dose nelfinavir (NFV) regimens in Agouron 511, the difference in Kaplan-Meier estimates of the proportion not failing by 24 weeks is 16.7% (P = 0.048), 6.5% (P = 0.29) and 22.9% (P = 0.0030) for endpoints (i), (ii) and (iii), respectively. The results differ because NFV suppresses virus more quickly at the higher dose, and the endpoints weigh this treatment difference differently. This illustrates that careful consideration needs to be given to choosing a primary endpoint that will detect treatment differences of interest. A time from randomization endpoint is usually recommended because of its advantages in flexibility and sample size, especially at interim analyses, and for its interpretation for patient management.

  15. A data-driven weighting scheme for multivariate phenotypic endpoints recapitulates zebrafish developmental cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guozhu, E-mail: gzhang6@ncsu.edu [Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Roell, Kyle R., E-mail: krroell@ncsu.edu [Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Truong, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.truong@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Sinnhuber Aquatic Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: robert.tanguay@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Sinnhuber Aquatic Research Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Reif, David M., E-mail: dmreif@ncsu.edu [Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Human Health and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish have become a key alternative model for studying health effects of environmental stressors, partly due to their genetic similarity to humans, fast generation time, and the efficiency of generating high-dimensional systematic data. Studies aiming to characterize adverse health effects in zebrafish typically include several phenotypic measurements (endpoints). While there is a solid biomedical basis for capturing a comprehensive set of endpoints, making summary judgments regarding health effects requires thoughtful integration across endpoints. Here, we introduce a Bayesian method to quantify the informativeness of 17 distinct zebrafish endpoints as a data-driven weighting scheme for a multi-endpoint summary measure, called weighted Aggregate Entropy (wAggE). We implement wAggE using high-throughput screening (HTS) data from zebrafish exposed to five concentrations of all 1060 ToxCast chemicals. Our results show that our empirical weighting scheme provides better performance in terms of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for identifying significant morphological effects and improves robustness over traditional curve-fitting approaches. From a biological perspective, our results suggest that developmental cascade effects triggered by chemical exposure can be recapitulated by analyzing the relationships among endpoints. Thus, wAggE offers a powerful approach for analysis of multivariate phenotypes that can reveal underlying etiological processes. - Highlights: • Introduced a data-driven weighting scheme for multiple phenotypic endpoints. • Weighted Aggregate Entropy (wAggE) implies differential importance of endpoints. • Endpoint relationships reveal developmental cascade effects triggered by exposure. • wAggE is generalizable to multi-endpoint data of different shapes and scales.

  16. Design and implement of system for browsing remote seismic waveform based on B/S schema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xuefeng; Shen Junyi; Wang Zhihai; Sun Peng; Jin Ping; Yan Feng

    2006-01-01

    Browsing remote seismic waveform based on B/S schema is of significance in modern seismic research and data service, and the technology should be improved urgently. This paper describes the basic plan, architecture and implement of system for browsing remote seismic waveform based on B/S schema. The problem to access, browse and edit the waveform data on serve from client only using browser has been solved. On this basis, the system has been established and been in use. (authors)

  17. Computational Stimulation of the Basal Ganglia Neurons with Cost Effective Delayed Gaussian Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshzand, Mohammad; Faezipour, Miad; Barkana, Buket D

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has compelling results in the desynchronization of the basal ganglia neuronal activities and thus, is used in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Accurate definition of DBS waveform parameters could avert tissue or electrode damage, increase the neuronal activity and reduce energy cost which will prolong the battery life, hence avoiding device replacement surgeries. This study considers the use of a charge balanced Gaussian waveform pattern as a method to disrupt the firing patterns of neuronal cell activity. A computational model was created to simulate ganglia cells and their interactions with thalamic neurons. From the model, we investigated the effects of modified DBS pulse shapes and proposed a delay period between the cathodic and anodic parts of the charge balanced Gaussian waveform to desynchronize the firing patterns of the GPe and GPi cells. The results of the proposed Gaussian waveform with delay outperformed that of rectangular DBS waveforms used in in-vivo experiments. The Gaussian Delay Gaussian (GDG) waveforms achieved lower number of misses in eliciting action potential while having a lower amplitude and shorter length of delay compared to numerous different pulse shapes. The amount of energy consumed in the basal ganglia network due to GDG waveforms was dropped by 22% in comparison with charge balanced Gaussian waveforms without any delay between the cathodic and anodic parts and was also 60% lower than a rectangular charged balanced pulse with a delay between the cathodic and anodic parts of the waveform. Furthermore, by defining a Synchronization Level metric, we observed that the GDG waveform was able to reduce the synchronization of GPi neurons more effectively than any other waveform. The promising results of GDG waveforms in terms of eliciting action potential, desynchronization of the basal ganglia neurons and reduction of energy consumption can potentially enhance the performance of DBS

  18. Full Waveform Inversion with Multisource Frequency Selection of Marine Streamer Data

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    The theory and practice of multisource full waveform inversion of marine supergathers are described with a frequency-selection strategy. The key enabling property of frequency selection is that it eliminates the crosstalk among sources, thus overcoming the aperture mismatch of marine multisource inversion. Tests on multisource full waveform inversion of synthetic marine data and Gulf of Mexico data show speedups of 4× and 8×, respectively, compared to conventional full waveform inversion.

  19. Computational Stimulation of the Basal Ganglia Neurons with Cost Effective Delayed Gaussian Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Daneshzand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has compelling results in the desynchronization of the basal ganglia neuronal activities and thus, is used in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD. Accurate definition of DBS waveform parameters could avert tissue or electrode damage, increase the neuronal activity and reduce energy cost which will prolong the battery life, hence avoiding device replacement surgeries. This study considers the use of a charge balanced Gaussian waveform pattern as a method to disrupt the firing patterns of neuronal cell activity. A computational model was created to simulate ganglia cells and their interactions with thalamic neurons. From the model, we investigated the effects of modified DBS pulse shapes and proposed a delay period between the cathodic and anodic parts of the charge balanced Gaussian waveform to desynchronize the firing patterns of the GPe and GPi cells. The results of the proposed Gaussian waveform with delay outperformed that of rectangular DBS waveforms used in in-vivo experiments. The Gaussian Delay Gaussian (GDG waveforms achieved lower number of misses in eliciting action potential while having a lower amplitude and shorter length of delay compared to numerous different pulse shapes. The amount of energy consumed in the basal ganglia network due to GDG waveforms was dropped by 22% in comparison with charge balanced Gaussian waveforms without any delay between the cathodic and anodic parts and was also 60% lower than a rectangular charged balanced pulse with a delay between the cathodic and anodic parts of the waveform. Furthermore, by defining a Synchronization Level metric, we observed that the GDG waveform was able to reduce the synchronization of GPi neurons more effectively than any other waveform. The promising results of GDG waveforms in terms of eliciting action potential, desynchronization of the basal ganglia neurons and reduction of energy consumption can potentially enhance the

  20. Full Waveform Inversion with Multisource Frequency Selection of Marine Streamer Data

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2017-10-27

    The theory and practice of multisource full waveform inversion of marine supergathers are described with a frequency-selection strategy. The key enabling property of frequency selection is that it eliminates the crosstalk among sources, thus overcoming the aperture mismatch of marine multisource inversion. Tests on multisource full waveform inversion of synthetic marine data and Gulf of Mexico data show speedups of 4× and 8×, respectively, compared to conventional full waveform inversion.

  1. Source-independent time-domain waveform inversion using convolved wavefields: Application to the encoded multisource waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2011-09-01

    Full waveform inversion requires a good estimation of the source wavelet to improve our chances of a successful inversion. This is especially true for an encoded multisource time-domain implementation, which, conventionally, requires separate-source modeling, as well as the Fourier transform of wavefields. As an alternative, we have developed the source-independent time-domain waveform inversion using convolved wavefields. Specifically, the misfit function consists of the convolution of the observed wavefields with a reference trace from the modeled wavefield, plus the convolution of the modeled wavefields with a reference trace from the observed wavefield. In this case, the source wavelet of the observed and the modeled wavefields are equally convolved with both terms in the misfit function, and thus, the effects of the source wavelets are eliminated. Furthermore, because the modeled wavefields play a role of low-pass filtering, the observed wavefields in the misfit function, the frequency-selection strategy from low to high can be easily adopted just by setting the maximum frequency of the source wavelet of the modeled wavefields; and thus, no filtering is required. The gradient of the misfit function is computed by back-propagating the new residual seismograms and applying the imaging condition, similar to reverse-time migration. In the synthetic data evaluations, our waveform inversion yields inverted models that are close to the true model, but demonstrates, as predicted, some limitations when random noise is added to the synthetic data. We also realized that an average of traces is a better choice for the reference trace than using a single trace. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. A New Waveform Mosaic Algorithm in the Vectorization of Paper Seismograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maofa Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available History paper seismograms are very important information for earthquake monitoring and prediction, and the vectorization of paper seismograms is a very import problem to be resolved. In this paper, a new waveform mosaic algorithm in the vectorization of paper seismograms is presented. We also give out the technological process to waveform mosaic, and a waveform mosaic system used to vectorize analog seismic record has been accomplished independently. Using it, we can precisely and speedy accomplish waveform mosaic for vectorizing analog seismic records.

  3. GO JUPITER PWS EDITED EDR 10KHZ WAVEFORM RECEIVER V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during Jupiter orbital operations. These data were obtained...

  4. GO JUPITER PWS EDITED EDR 1KHZ WAVEFORM RECEIVER V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during Jupiter orbital operations. These data were obtained...

  5. Development of plasma current waveform adjusting system ZLJ for tokamak device HL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shangbing; Hu Haotian; Tang Fangqun; Zhou Yongzheng; Chu Xiuzhong; Cheng Jiashun; Gao Yunxia

    1989-12-01

    The control of some typical Tokamak discharge waveforms has been achieved by using plasma current waveform adjusting system ZLJ in the ohmic heating of HL-1. The discharge waveforms include a series of regular plasma current waveforms with various slow rising rate, such as 80 kA, 450 ms long flat-topping; 100 kA, 200 ms rising; 200 ms falt-topping and 180 kA, 400 ms slow rising etc. The design principle of the system and the initial experimental results are described

  6. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM, BPSK (Barker code modulation, Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4. The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN, and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA, image binarization algorithm and Pseudo–Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi–Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of −2 dB.

  7. Frequency spectrum analysis of finger photoplethysmographic waveform variability during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Faizan; Middleton, Paul M; Malouf, Philip; Chan, Gregory S H; Savkin, Andrey V; Lovell, Nigel H; Steel, Elizabeth; Mackie, James

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates the peripheral circulatory and autonomic response to volume withdrawal in haemodialysis based on spectral analysis of photoplethysmographic waveform variability (PPGV). Frequency spectrum analysis was performed on the baseline and pulse amplitude variabilities of the finger infrared photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveform and on heart rate variability extracted from the ECG signal collected from 18 kidney failure patients undergoing haemodialysis. Spectral powers were calculated from the low frequency (LF, 0.04-0.145 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 0.145-0.45 Hz) bands. In eight stable fluid overloaded patients (fluid removal of >2 L) not on alpha blockers, progressive reduction in relative blood volume during haemodialysis resulted in significant increase in LF and HF powers of PPG baseline and amplitude variability (P analysis of finger PPGV may provide valuable information on the autonomic vascular response to blood volume reduction in haemodialysis, and can be potentially utilized as a non-invasive tool for assessing peripheral circulatory control during routine dialysis procedure.

  8. Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.

  9. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-dong; Alkhalifah, Tariq; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing

    2018-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang

    2017-08-16

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.

  11. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-08-17

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example in reservoir analysis, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a boundary condition for the whole area. Since certain rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elastic and anisotropic parameters (facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel confidence map based approach to utilize the facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such a confidence map using Bayesian theory, in which the confidence map is updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. The numerical examples show that the proposed method can reduce the trade-offs and also can improve the resolution of the inverted elastic and anisotropic properties.

  12. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-05-01

    To increase the feasibility of full waveform inversion on real data, we suggest a new objective function, which is defined as the global correlation of the envelopes of modelled and observed data. The envelope-based global correlation norm has the advantage of the envelope inversion that generates artificial low-frequency information, which provides the possibility to recover long-wavelength structure in an early stage. In addition, the envelope-based global correlation norm maintains the advantage of the global correlation norm, which reduces the sensitivity of the misfit to amplitude errors so that the performance of inversion on real data can be enhanced when the exact source wavelet is not available and more complex physics are ignored. Through the synthetic example for 2-D SEG/EAGE overthrust model with inaccurate source wavelet, we compare the performance of four different approaches, which are the least-squares waveform inversion, least-squares envelope inversion, global correlation norm and envelope-based global correlation norm. Finally, we apply the envelope-based global correlation norm on the 3-D Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) data from the North Sea. The envelope-based global correlation norm captures the strong reflections from the high-velocity caprock and generates artificial low-frequency reflection energy that helps us recover long-wavelength structure of the model domain in the early stages. From this long-wavelength model, the conventional global correlation norm is sequentially applied to invert for higher-resolution features of the model.

  13. Expanding the frontiers of waveform imaging with Salvus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, M.; Boehm, C.; van Driel, M.; Krischer, L.; Fichtner, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical waves are natural harbingers of information. From medical ultrasound to the normal modes of Sun, wave motion is often our best window into the character of some underlying continuum. For over a century, geophysicists have been using this window to peer deep into the Earth, developing techniques that have gone on to underlie much of world's energy economy. As computers and numerical techniques have become more powerful over the last several decades, seismologists have begun to scale back classical simplifying approximations of wave propagation physics. As a result, we are now approaching the ideal of `full-waveform inversion'; maximizing the aperture of our window by taking the full complexity of wave motion into account.Salvus is a modern high-performance software suite which aims to bring recent developments in geophysical waveform inversion to new and exciting domains. In this short presentation we will look at the connections between these applications, with examples from non-destructive testing, medical imaging, seismic exploration, and (extra-) planetary seismology.

  14. Individual Biometric Identification Using Multi-Cycle Electrocardiographic Waveform Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonki Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG waveform conveys information regarding the electrical property of the heart. The patterns vary depending on the individual heart characteristics. ECG features can be potentially used for biometric recognition. This study presents a new method using the entire ECG waveform pattern for matching and demonstrates that the approach can potentially be employed for individual biometric identification. Multi-cycle ECG signals were assessed using an ECG measuring circuit, and three electrodes can be patched on the wrists or fingers for considering various measurements. For biometric identification, our-fold cross validation was used in the experiments for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. Four different pattern matching algorithms, i.e., cosine similarity, cross correlation, city block distance, and Euclidean distances, were tested to compare the individual identification performances with a single channel of ECG signal (3-wire ECG. To evaluate the pattern matching for biometric identification, the ECG recordings for each subject were partitioned into training and test set. The suggested method obtained a maximum performance of 89.9% accuracy with two heartbeats of ECG signals measured on the wrist and 93.3% accuracy with three heartbeats for 55 subjects. The performance rate with ECG signals measured on the fingers improved up to 99.3% with two heartbeats and 100% with three heartbeats of signals for 20 subjects.

  15. Observation of 45 GHz current waveforms using HTS sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, M.; Suzuki, H.; Hato, T.; Wakana, H.; Nakayama, K.; Ishimaru, Y.; Horibe, O.; Adachi, S.; Kamitani, A.; Suzuki, K.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tarutani, Y.; Tanabe, K.

    2005-01-01

    We succeeded in observing high-frequency current waveforms up to 45 GHz using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sampler. In this experiment, we used a sampler circuit with a superconducting pickup coil, which magnetically detects current signals flowing through a micro-strip line on a printed board placed outside the cryochamber. This type of measurement enables non-contact current-waveform observation that seems useful for analyses of EMI, defects in LSI, etc. Computer simulation reveals that one of our latest versions of HTS sampler circuits having Josephson transmission lines with optimized biases as buffers has a potential of sampling high-frequency signals with a bandwidth above 100 GHz. To realize the circuit parameters required in the simulations, we developed an HTS circuit fabrication process employing a lower ground plane structure with SrSnO 3 insulating layers. We consider that improvement of the circuit fabrication process and optimization of the pickup coil lead to much higher signal frequency observable by the sampler

  16. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2018-03-20

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Individual Biometric Identification Using Multi-Cycle Electrocardiographic Waveform Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonki; Kim, Seulgee; Kim, Daeeun

    2018-03-28

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform conveys information regarding the electrical property of the heart. The patterns vary depending on the individual heart characteristics. ECG features can be potentially used for biometric recognition. This study presents a new method using the entire ECG waveform pattern for matching and demonstrates that the approach can potentially be employed for individual biometric identification. Multi-cycle ECG signals were assessed using an ECG measuring circuit, and three electrodes can be patched on the wrists or fingers for considering various measurements. For biometric identification, our-fold cross validation was used in the experiments for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. Four different pattern matching algorithms, i.e., cosine similarity, cross correlation, city block distance, and Euclidean distances, were tested to compare the individual identification performances with a single channel of ECG signal (3-wire ECG). To evaluate the pattern matching for biometric identification, the ECG recordings for each subject were partitioned into training and test set. The suggested method obtained a maximum performance of 89.9% accuracy with two heartbeats of ECG signals measured on the wrist and 93.3% accuracy with three heartbeats for 55 subjects. The performance rate with ECG signals measured on the fingers improved up to 99.3% with two heartbeats and 100% with three heartbeats of signals for 20 subjects.

  18. Continuous-waveform constant-current isolated physiological stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Mark R.; Devine, Jack M.; Harder, Rene; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed an isolated continuous-waveform constant-current physiological stimulator that is powered and controlled by universal serial bus (USB) interface. The stimulator is composed of a custom printed circuit board (PCB), 16-MHz MSP430F2618 microcontroller with two integrated 12-bit digital to analog converters (DAC0, DAC1), high-speed H-Bridge, voltage-controlled current source (VCCS), isolated USB communication and power circuitry, two isolated transistor-transistor logic (TTL) inputs, and a serial 16 × 2 character liquid crystal display. The stimulators are designed to produce current stimuli in the range of ±15 mA indefinitely using a 20V source and to be used in ex vivo cardiac experiments, but they are suitable for use in a wide variety of research or student experiments that require precision control of continuous waveforms or synchronization with external events. The device was designed with customization in mind and has features that allow it to be integrated into current and future experimental setups. Dual TTL inputs allow replacement by two or more traditional stimulators in common experimental configurations. The MSP430 software is written in C++ and compiled with IAR Embedded Workbench 5.20.2. A control program written in C++ runs on a Windows personal computer and has a graphical user interface that allows the user to control all aspects of the device.

  19. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Motohashi-Saigo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV and auditory-only (A-only Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences. Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu. Results revealed a significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/; c no significant effect of condition; and d no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.

  20. Changes of brachial arterial doppler waveform during immersion of the hand of young men in ice-cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Goo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of brachial arterial Doppler waveform during immersion of the hand of young men in ice-cold water. Doppler waveforms of brachial arteries in 11 young male patients were recorded before and during immersion of ipsilateral hand in ice-cold water(4-5 .deg. C). The procedure was repeated on separate days. Patterns of waveform during immersion were compared with the changes of pulsatility index. Four men showed high impedance waveforms, and 5 men showed low impedance waveforms during immersion both at the first and at the second study. Two men, however, showed high impedance waveforms at the first study and tow impedance waveforms at the second study. The pulsatility index rose and fell in high and low impedance waveforms, respectively. The changes of brachial arterial Doppler waveforms could be classified into high and low impedance patterns, probably reflecting the acute changes in downstream impedance during immersion of hand in ice-cold water

  1. Evaluation of early efficacy endpoints for proof-of-concept trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Sun, Linda; Li, Chih-Lin

    2013-03-11

    A Phase II proof-of-concept (POC) trial usually uses an early efficacy endpoint other than a clinical endpoint as the primary endpoint. Because of the advancement in bioscience and technology, which has yielded a number of new surrogate biomarkers, drug developers often have more candidate endpoints to choose from than they can handle. As a result, selection of endpoint and its effect size as well as choice of type I/II error rates are often at the center of heated debates in design of POC trials. While optimization of the trade-off between benefit and cost is the implicit objective in such a decision-making process, it is seldom explicitly accounted for in practice. In this research note, motivated by real examples from the oncology field, we provide practical measures for evaluation of early efficacy endpoints (E4) for POC trials. We further provide optimal design strategies for POC trials that include optimal Go-No Go decision criteria for initiation of Phase III and optimal resource allocation strategies for conducting multiple POC trials in a portfolio under fixed resources. Although oncology is used for illustration purpose, the same idea developed in this research note also applies to similar situations in other therapeutic areas or in early-stage drug development in that a Go-No Go decision has to rely on limited data from an early efficacy endpoint and cost-effectiveness is the main concern.

  2. Pollutant threshold concentration determination in marine ecosystems using an ecological interaction endpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changyou; Liang, Shengkang; Guo, Wenting; Yu, Hua; Xing, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    The threshold concentrations of pollutants are determined by extrapolating single-species effect data to community-level effects. This assumes the most sensitive endpoint of the life cycle of individuals and the species sensitivity distribution from single-species toxic effect tests, thus, ignoring the ecological interactions. The uncertainties due to this extrapolation can be partially overcome using the equilibrium point of a customized ecosystem. This method incorporates ecological interactions and integrates the effects on growth, survival, and ingestion into a single effect measure, the equilibrium point excursion in the customized ecosystem, in order to describe the toxic effects on plankton. A case study showed that the threshold concentration of copper calculated with the endpoint of the equilibrium point was 10 μg L −1 , which is significantly different from the threshold calculated with a single-species endpoint. The endpoint calculated using this method provides a more relevant measure of the ecological impact than any single individual-level endpoint. - Highlights: • Ecotoxicological effect of exposure to copper was tested on a customized ecosystem. • Equilibrium point of biomasses in the customized ecosystem was used as an endpoint. • Exposure–response relationship in a community level was built on equilibrium point. • A threshold concentration incorporating ecological interactions was derived. - The equilibrium biomass incorporating ecological interactions in a customized ecosystem was used as an endpoint to calculate the threshold concentration at a community level

  3. A comparison of chemoembolization endpoints using angiographic versus transcatheter intraarterial perfusion/MR imaging monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Robert J; Wang, Dingxin; Gehl, James; Atassi, Bassel; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent; Nemcek, Albert A; Miller, Frank H; Mulcahy, Mary F; Kulik, Laura; Larson, Andrew C; Salem, Riad; Omary, Reed A

    2007-10-01

    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an established treatment for unresectable liver cancer. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that angiographic endpoints during TACE are measurable and reproducible by comparing subjective angiographic versus objective magnetic resonance (MR) endpoints of TACE. The study included 12 consecutive patients who presented for TACE for surgically unresectable HCC or progressive hepatic metastases despite chemotherapy. All procedures were performed with a dedicated imaging system. Angiographic series before and after TACE were reviewed independently by three board-certified interventional radiologists. A subjective angiographic chemoembolization endpoint (SACE) classification scheme, modified from an established angiographic grading system in the cardiology literature, was designed to assist in reproducibly classifying angiographic endpoints. Reproducibility in SACE classification level was compared among operators, and MR imaging perfusion reduction was compared with SACE levels for each observer. Twelve patients successfully underwent 15 separate TACE sessions. SACE levels ranged from I through IV. There was moderate agreement in SACE classification (kappa = 0.46 +/- 0.12). There was no correlation between SACE level and MR perfusion reduction (r = 0.16 for one operator and 0.02 for the other two). Angiographic endpoints during TACE vary widely, have moderate reproducibility among operators, and do not correlate with functional MR imaging perfusion endpoints. Future research should aim to determine ideal angiographic and functional MR imaging endpoints for TACE according to outcome measures such as imaging response, pathologic response, and survival.

  4. A step towards standardization: A method for end-point titer determination by fluorescence index of an automated microscope. End-point titer determination by fluorescence index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Teresa; Gilio, Michele; Padula, Maria Carmela; Tramontano, Giuseppina; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Pafundi, Vito

    2018-05-01

    Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) is widely considered the Gold Standard for Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) screening. However, the high inter-reader variability remains the major disadvantage associated with ANA testing and the main reason for the increasing demand of the computer-aided immunofluorescence microscope. Previous studies proposed the quantification of the fluorescence intensity as an alternative for the classical end-point titer evaluation. However, the different distribution of bright/dark light linked to the nature of the self-antigen and its location in the cells result in different mean fluorescence intensities. The aim of the present study was to correlate Fluorescence Index (F.I.) with end-point titers for each well-defined ANA pattern. Routine serum samples were screened for ANA testing on HEp-2000 cells using Immuno Concepts Image Navigator System, and positive samples were serially diluted to assign the end-point titer. A comparison between F.I. and end-point titers related to 10 different staining patterns was made. According to our analysis, good technical performance of F.I. (97% sensitivity and 94% specificity) was found. A significant correlation between quantitative reading of F.I. and end-point titer groups was observed using Spearman's test and regression analysis. A conversion scale of F.I. in end-point titers for each recognized ANA-pattern was obtained. The Image Navigator offers the opportunity to improve worldwide harmonization of ANA test results. In particular, digital F.I. allows quantifying ANA titers by using just one sample dilution. It could represent a valuable support for the routine laboratory and an effective tool to reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Ovarian cancer clinical trial endpoints: Society of Gynecologic Oncology white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thomas J.; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Brady, Mark F.; Coleman, Robert L.; Einstein, Mark H.; Monk, Bradley J.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thigpen, J. Tate; Umpierre, Sharee A.; Villella, Jeannine A.; Alvarez, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of multiple clinical endpoints in the unique setting of ovarian cancer. Methods A clinical trial workgroup was established by the Society of Gynecologic Oncology to develop a consensus statement via multiple conference calls, meetings and white paper drafts. Results Clinical trial endpoints have profound effects on late phase clinical trial design, result interpretation, drug development, and regulatory approval of therapeutics. Selection of the optimal clinical trial endpoint is particularly provocative in ovarian cancer where long overall survival (OS) is observed. The lack of new regulatory approvals and the lack of harmony between regulatory bodies globally for ovarian cancer therapeutics are of concern. The advantages and disadvantages of the numerous endpoints available are herein discussed within the unique context of ovarian cancer where both crossover and post-progression therapies potentially uncouple surrogacy between progression-free survival (PFS) and OS, the two most widely supported and utilized endpoints. The roles of patient reported outcomes (PRO) and health related quality of life (HRQoL) are discussed, but even these widely supported parameters are affected by the unique characteristics of ovarian cancer where a significant percentage of patients may be asymptomatic. Original data regarding the endpoint preferences of ovarian cancer advocates is presented. Conclusions Endpoint selection in ovarian cancer clinical trials should reflect the impact on disease burden and unique characteristics of the treatment cohort while reflecting true patient benefit. Both OS and PFS have led to regulatory approvals and are clinically important. OS remains the most objective and accepted endpoint because it is least vulnerable to bias; however, the feasibility of OS in ovarian cancer is compromised by the requirement for large trial size, prolonged time-line for final analysis, and potential for unintended loss of treatment effect

  6. Ovarian cancer clinical trial endpoints: Society of Gynecologic Oncology white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thomas J; Armstrong, Deborah K; Brady, Mark F; Coleman, Robert L; Einstein, Mark H; Monk, Bradley J; Mannel, Robert S; Thigpen, J Tate; Umpierre, Sharee A; Villella, Jeannine A; Alvarez, Ronald D

    2014-01-01

    To explore the value of multiple clinical endpoints in the unique setting of ovarian cancer. A clinical trial workgroup was established by the Society of Gynecologic Oncology to develop a consensus statement via multiple conference calls, meetings and white paper drafts. Clinical trial endpoints have profound effects on late phase clinical trial design, result interpretation, drug development, and regulatory approval of therapeutics. Selection of the optimal clinical trial endpoint is particularly provocative in ovarian cancer where long overall survival (OS) is observed. The lack of new regulatory approvals and the lack of harmony between regulatory bodies globally for ovarian cancer therapeutics are of concern. The advantages and disadvantages of the numerous endpoints available are herein discussed within the unique context of ovarian cancer where both crossover and post-progression therapies potentially uncouple surrogacy between progression-free survival (PFS) and OS, the two most widely supported and utilized endpoints. The roles of patient reported outcomes (PRO) and health related quality of life (HRQoL) are discussed, but even these widely supported parameters are affected by the unique characteristics of ovarian cancer where a significant percentage of patients may be asymptomatic. Original data regarding the endpoint preferences of ovarian cancer advocates is presented. Endpoint selection in ovarian cancer clinical trials should reflect the impact on disease burden and unique characteristics of the treatment cohort while reflecting true patient benefit. Both OS and PFS have led to regulatory approvals and are clinically important. OS remains the most objective and accepted endpoint because it is least vulnerable to bias; however, the feasibility of OS in ovarian cancer is compromised by the requirement for large trial size, prolonged time-line for final analysis, and potential for unintended loss of treatment effect from active post-progression therapies

  7. Gene expression profiles in auricle skin as a possible additional endpoint for determination of sensitizers: A multi-endpoint evaluation of the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Hiromi; Maeda, Akihisa; Nakajima, Mayumi; Kitsukawa, Mika; Takahashi, Kei; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Mutsuga, Mayu; Asaoka, Yoshiji; Miyamoto, Yohei; Oshida, Keiyu

    2017-10-05

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to test chemicals to induce skin sensitization. Exposure of mouse auricle skin to a sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has been measured by in vivo incorporation of H 3 -methyl thymidine or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). The stimulation index (SI), the ratio of the mean proliferation in each treated group to that in the concurrent vehicle control group, is frequently used as a regulatory-authorized endpoint for LLNA. However, some non-sensitizing irritants, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or methyl salicylate (MS), have been reported as false-positives by this endpoint. In search of a potential endpoint to enhance the specificity of existing endpoints, we evaluated 3 contact sensitizers; (hexyl cinnamic aldehyde [HCA], oxazolone [OXA], and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene [DNCB]), 1 respiratory sensitizer (toluene 2,4-diisocyanate [TDI]), and 2 non-sensitizing irritants (MS and SDS) by several endpoints in LLNA. Each test substance was applied to both ears of female CBA/Ca mice daily for 3 consecutive days. The ears and auricle lymph node cells were analyzed on day 5 for endpoints including the SI value, lymph node cell count, cytokine release from lymph node cells, and histopathological changes and gene expression profiles in auricle skin. The SI values indicated that all the test substances induced significant proliferation of lymph node cells. The lymph node cell counts showed no significant changes by the non-sensitizers assessed. The inflammatory findings of histopathology were similar among the auricle skins treated by sensitizers and irritants. Gene expression profiles of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 in auricle skin were similar to the cytokine release profiles in draining lymph node cells. In addition, the gene expression of the chemokine CXCL1 and/or CXCL2 showed that it has the potential to discriminate sensitizers and non-sensitizing irritants. Our results

  8. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Radiation Safety, Chiba, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  9. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  10. The possession law suit, caused by forbidden immissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Serbian Law and in most of jurisdictions, there are limits on exercising the right of property. The real estate owner must refrain from activities by which the use of other real estate is being impoded through the immission of execive gasses, vapors, smoke, heat noise, tremors etc. The property ownership whose is affected by immission exceeding the set limits, has the right to request a stop of immisions which exceeded the allowed volume of immissions. In article author describes various kinds of immissions. The general feature of this law suit is that there is only discussion on the facts and not for a legal matters. Subject matter jurisdiction for the resolution of such disputes belongs to the court of general jurisdiction, while the disputes itself is a litigation. The special rule of proceedings of action of disturbance are: provisionality of the protection of possession; urgency in proceedings; initiation of proceedings; limiting of objection; prescribing temporary measures; rendering a ruling in the form of order; appeals which may be filed within a short deadline and which does not have suspensive effect (do not delay the execution of the order; revision is not allowed etc.

  11. Novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors possessing a turn mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Naoko; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2015-04-01

    Amyloid β peptide, the main component of senile plaques found in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, is a molecular target for AD therapeutic intervention. A number of potential AD therapeutics have been reported, including inhibitors of β-secretase, γ-secretase, and Aβ aggregation, and anti-amyloid agents, such as neprilysin, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), and Aβ antibodies. Recently, we reported potent small-sized β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors, which could serve as anti-AD drugs. However AD is a progressive disorder, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over several decades, and therefore may require many years to get cured. One possible way to achieve a greater therapeutic effect is through simultaneous administration of multiple drugs, similar to those used in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) used to treat AIDS. In order to overcome AD, we took a drug discovery approach to evaluate, novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors. Previously, we reported that a tong-type compound possessing a turn mimic as the inhibitor of HIV-1 protease dimerization. Oligomerized amyloid β peptides contain a turn structure within the molecule. Here, we designed and synthesized novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors with a turn-mimic template, based on the turn conformer of the oligomerized amyloid β peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Yildirim, Tulin; Torun, Dilek; Tercan, Fahri; Kizilkilic, Osman; Niron, E. Alp

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL). Materials and methods: In this prospective study, 40 patients with diffuse FIL and 50 normal healthy adults who served as control group underwent hepatic vein (HV) Doppler ultrasonography. The patients with the diagnosis of FIL were 23 men (57.5%) and 17 women aged 30-62 years (mean age ± S.D., 42 ± 12 years). Subjects in the control group were 27 men (54%) and 23 women aged 34-65 years (mean age ± S.D., 45 ± 14 years). The diagnosis of FIL was confirmed with computed tomography density measurements. The waveforms of HV were classified into three groups: regular triphasic waveform, biphasic waveform without a reverse flow, and monophasic or flat waveform. Etiological factors for FIL were diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia and obesity (body mass index > 25). Serum lipid profile was obtained from all the patients with FIL. Results: Seventeen of the 40 patients (43%) with FIL had an abnormal HV Doppler waveform, whereas only one of the 50 (2%) healthy subjects had an abnormal waveform. The difference in the distribution of normal Doppler waveform pattern between the patients and the control group was significant (P 0.05). There was not any correlation between the degree of fat infiltration and the hepatic vein waveform pattern (P = 0.60). Conclusion: Patients with fatty liver has a high rate of an abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform pattern which can be biphasic or monophasic. We could not find a relation between the etiological factors for FIL and the occurrence of an abnormal HV Doppler waveform

  13. The effect of inlet waveforms on computational hemodynamics of patient-specific intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, J; Siddiqui, A H; Meng, H

    2014-12-18

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic quantities that have been shown to predict aneurysm rupture, as well as maximal WSS (MWSS), energy loss (EL) and pressure loss coefficient (PLc). Sixteen pulsatile CFD simulations were carried out on four typical saccular aneurysms using 4 different waveforms and an identical inflow rate as inlet boundary conditions. Our results demonstrated that under the same mean inflow rate, different waveforms produced almost identical WSS distributions and WSS magnitudes, similar OSI distributions but drastically different OSI magnitudes. The OSI magnitude is correlated with the pulsatility index of the waveform. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between aneurysm-averaged OSI values calculated from one waveform and those calculated from another waveform. In addition, different waveforms produced similar MWSS, EL and PLc in each aneurysm. In conclusion, inlet waveform has minimal effects on WSS, OSI distribution, MWSS, EL and PLc and a strong effect on OSI magnitude, but aneurysm-averaged OSI from different waveforms has a strong linear correlation with each other across different aneurysms, indicating that for the same aneurysm cohort, different waveforms can consistently stratify (rank) OSI of aneurysms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Depths of Intraplate Indian Ocean Earthquakes from Waveform Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, A. J.; Polet, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Ocean is a region of complex tectonics and anomalous seismicity. The ocean floor in this region exhibits many bathymetric features, most notably the multiple inactive fracture zones within the Wharton Basin and the Ninetyeast Ridge. The 11 April 2012 MW 8.7 and 8.2 strike-slip events that took place in this area are unique because their rupture appears to have extended to a depth where brittle failure, and thus seismic activity, was considered to be impossible. We analyze multiple intraplate earthquakes that have occurred throughout the Indian Ocean to better constrain their focal depths in order to enhance our understanding of how deep intraplate events are occurring and more importantly determine if the ruptures are originating within a ductile regime. Selected events are located within the Indian Ocean away from major plate boundaries. A majority are within the deforming Indo-Australian tectonic plate. Events primarily display thrust mechanisms with some strike-slip or a combination of the two. All events are between MW5.5-6.5. Event selections were handled this way in order to facilitate the analysis of teleseismic waveforms using a point source approximation. From these criteria we gathered a suite of 15 intraplate events. Synthetic seismograms of direct P-waves and depth phases are computed using a 1-D propagator matrix approach and compared with global teleseismic waveform data to determine a best depth for each event. To generate our synthetic seismograms we utilized the CRUST1.0 software, a global crustal model that generates velocity values at the hypocenter of our events. Our waveform analysis results reveal that our depths diverge from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) depths, which underestimate our deep lithosphere events and overestimate our shallow depths by as much as 17 km. We determined a depth of 45km for our deepest event. We will show a comparison of our final earthquake depths with the lithospheric thickness based on

  15. Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L; Alave, Jorge L; Westfall, Andrew O; Paz, Jorge; Moran, Fiorella; Carbajal-Gonzalez, Danny; Callacondo, David; Avalos, Odalie; Rodriguez, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; Willig, James H

    2013-01-01

    In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs) in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010). Three OPs were defined: 1) Medication possession ratio (MPR): days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2) Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3) Clinic visit constancy (CVC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH) models (one per OP) were fit for (1) time of first-line ART persistence and (2) time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%). In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71) and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96) were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99). The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.

  16. On the square arc voltage waveform model in magnetic discharge lamp studies

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Julio; Sainz Sapera, Luis; Mesas García, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    The current number of magnetic and electronic ballast discharge lamps in power distribution systems is increasing because they perform better than incandescent lamps. This paper studies the magnetic discharge lamp modeling. In particular, the arc voltage waveform is analyzed and the limitations of the square waveform model are revealed from experimental measurements.

  17. Auto-correlation based intelligent technique for complex waveform presentation and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, K P S; Singh, R; Sayann, K S

    2009-01-01

    Waveform acquisition and presentation forms the heart of many measurement systems. Particularly, data acquisition and presentation of repeating complex signals like sine sweep and frequency-modulated signals introduces the challenge of waveform time period estimation and live waveform presentation. This paper presents an intelligent technique, for waveform period estimation of both the complex and simple waveforms, based on the normalized auto-correlation method. The proposed technique is demonstrated using LabVIEW based intensive simulations on several simple and complex waveforms. Implementation of the technique is successfully demonstrated using LabVIEW based virtual instrumentation. Sine sweep vibration waveforms are successfully presented and measured for electrodynamic shaker system generated vibrations. The proposed method is also suitable for digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) triggering, for complex signals acquisition and presentation. This intelligence can be embodied into the DSO, making it an intelligent measurement system, catering wide varieties of the waveforms. The proposed technique, simulation results, robustness study and implementation results are presented in this paper.

  18. Screening for aortoiliac lesions by visual interpretation of the common femoral Doppler waveform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Jensen, F; Grønvall Rasmussen, J B

    2001-01-01

    to study the accuracy of simple visual interpretation of the common femoral artery Doppler waveform for screening the aorto-iliac segment for significant occlusive disease.......to study the accuracy of simple visual interpretation of the common femoral artery Doppler waveform for screening the aorto-iliac segment for significant occlusive disease....

  19. Waveform measurement in mocrowave device characterization: impact on power amplifiers design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Quaglia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an example of a measurement setup enabling waveform measurements during the load-pull characterization of a microwave power device. The significance of this measurement feature is highlighted showing how waveform engineering can be exploited to design high efficiency microwave power amplifiers.

  20. Use of the Kalman Filter for Aortic Pressure Waveform Noise Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Frank; Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Wu, Chung-Che; Aliyazicioglu, Zekeriya; Kang, James S

    2017-01-01

    Clinical applications that require extraction and interpretation of physiological signals or waveforms are susceptible to corruption by noise or artifacts. Real-time hemodynamic monitoring systems are important for clinicians to assess the hemodynamic stability of surgical or intensive care patients by interpreting hemodynamic parameters generated by an analysis of aortic blood pressure (ABP) waveform measurements. Since hemodynamic parameter estimation algorithms often detect events and features from measured ABP waveforms to generate hemodynamic parameters, noise and artifacts integrated into ABP waveforms can severely distort the interpretation of hemodynamic parameters by hemodynamic algorithms. In this article, we propose the use of the Kalman filter and the 4-element Windkessel model with static parameters, arterial compliance C , peripheral resistance R , aortic impedance r , and the inertia of blood L , to represent aortic circulation for generating accurate estimations of ABP waveforms through noise and artifact reduction. Results show the Kalman filter could very effectively eliminate noise and generate a good estimation from the noisy ABP waveform based on the past state history. The power spectrum of the measured ABP waveform and the synthesized ABP waveform shows two similar harmonic frequencies.

  1. Influence of crystal orientation on magnetostriction waveform in grain orientated electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijima, Gou, E-mail: g-kijima@jfe-steel.co.jp [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kawasaki, 210-0855 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroi; Senda, Kunihiro; Hayakawa, Yasuyuki [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kurashiki, 712-8511 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    Aiming to gain insight into the mechanisms of grain-oriented electrical steel sheet magnetostriction waveforms, we investigated the influence of crystal orientations. An increase in the β angle results in an increase in the amplitude of magnetostriction waveform, but does not affect the waveform itself. By slanting the excitation direction to simulate the change of the α angle, change in the magnetostriction waveform and a constriction–extension transition point in the steel plate was observed. The amplitude, however, was not significantly affected. We explained the nature of constriction–extension transition point in the magnetostriction waveform by considering the magnetization rotation. We speculated that the change of waveform resulting from the increase in the coating tensile stress can be attributed to the phenomenon of the magnetization rotation becoming hard to be generated due to the increase of magnetic anisotropy toward [001] axis. - Highlights: • β angle is related with the amplitude of magnetostriction waveform. • α angle is related with the magnetostriction waveform itself. • The effect of α angle can be controlled by the effect of coating tensile stress.

  2. Effects of waveform model systematics on the interpretation of GW150914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K.M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernández Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J.G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G.F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGrath Hoareau, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, Brian C J; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Castro-Perez, J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifir, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van Den Brand, J. F.J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S.J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Chu, I.W.T.; Hemberger, D.; Hinder, I.; Kidder, L. E.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Vano-Vinuales, A.

    2017-01-01

    Parameter estimates of GW150914 were obtained using Bayesian inference, based on three semi-analytic waveform models for binary black hole coalescences. These waveform models differ from each other in their treatment of black hole spins, and all three models make some simplifying assumptions,

  3. WaveformECG: A Platform for Visualizing, Annotating, and Analyzing ECG Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Raimond L; Granite, Stephen; Jurado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most commonly collected data in cardiovascular research because of the ease with which it can be measured and because changes in ECG waveforms reflect underlying aspects of heart disease. Accessed through a browser, WaveformECG is an open source platform supporting interactive analysis, visualization, and annotation of ECGs.

  4. Endpoint behavior of the pion distribution amplitude in QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates for the pion distribution amplitude, we derive another sum rule for its derivative and its ''integral derivatives''--defined in this work. We use this new sum rule to analyze the fine details of the pion distribution amplitude in the endpoint region x∼0. The results for endpoint-suppressed and flattop (or flatlike) pion distribution amplitudes are compared with those we obtained with differential sum rules by employing two different models for the distribution of vacuum-quark virtualities. We determine the range of values of the derivatives of the pion distribution amplitude and show that endpoint-suppressed distribution amplitudes lie within this range, while those with endpoint enhancement--flat-type or Chernyak-Zhitnitsky like--yield values outside this range.

  5. 78 FR 49530 - Gastroenterology Regulatory Endpoints and the Advancement of Therapeutics; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...] Gastroenterology Regulatory Endpoints and the Advancement of Therapeutics; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug... for Drug Evaluation and Research, in cosponsorship with the American College of Gastroenterology, the... American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, and the Pediatric IBD...

  6. On weighted hardy inequalities on semiaxis for functions vanishing at the endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanov Vladimir

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the weighted Hardy inequalities on the semiaxis of the form for functions vanishing at the endpoints together with derivatives up to the order . The case is completely characterized.

  7. 76 FR 51993 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Standards for Clinical Trial Imaging Endpoints; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... clinical trials of therapeutic drugs and biological products. The draft guidance describes standards... important imaging endpoint is used in a clinical trial of a therapeutic drug or biological product... Services to the Chairman of [[Page 51994

  8. Reporting and evaluation of HIV-related clinical endpoints in two multicenter international clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lifson, A; Rhame, F; Bellosa, W

    2006-01-01

    adjudication between reviewers before diagnostic certainty was assigned. CONCLUSION: Important requirements for HIV trials using clinical endpoints include objective definitions of "confirmed" and "probable," a formal reporting process with adequate information and supporting source documentation, evaluation......PURPOSE: The processes for reporting and review of progression of HIV disease clinical endpoints are described for two large phase III international clinical trials. METHOD: SILCAAT and ESPRIT are multicenter randomized HIV trials evaluating the impact of interleukin-2 on disease progression...... and death in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. We report definitions used for HIV progression of disease endpoints, procedures for site reporting of such events, processes for independent review of reported events by an Endpoint Review Committee (ERC), and the procedure...

  9. Early arrival waveform inversion of shallow seismic land data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2013-09-22

    We estimate the near-surface velocity distribution over Wadi Qudaid in Saudi Arabia by applying early arrival waveform inversion (EWI) to shallow seismic land data collected with source-receiver offsets no longer than 232 m. The main purpose is to characterize the shallow subsurface for its water storage and reuse potential. To enhance the accuracy of EWI, we extracted a natural source wavelet from the data, and also corrected for the attenuation effects with an estimated factor Q. Results suggest that, compared to traveltime tomography, EWI can generate a highly resolved velocity tomogram from shallow seismic data. The more accurate EWI tomogram can make an economically important difference in assessing the storage potential of this wadi; in this case we find an increase of 18% of storage potential in the EWI tomogram relative to the traveltime tomogram. This approach suggests that FWI might be a more accurate means for economically characterizing the water storage potential for wadis’ throughout the world.

  10. Direct Synthesis of Microwave Waveforms for Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, James; Vrajitoarea, Andrei; Zhang, Gengyan; Leng, Zhaoqi; Srinivasan, Srikanth; Houck, Andrew

    Current state of the art quantum computing experiments in the microwave regime use control pulses generated by modulating microwave tones with baseband signals generated by an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). Recent advances in digital analog conversion technology have made it possible to directly synthesize arbitrary microwave pulses with sampling rates of 65 gigasamples per second (GSa/s) or higher. These new ultra-wide bandwidth AWG's could dramatically simplify the classical control chain for quantum computing experiments, presenting potential cost savings and reducing the number of components that need to be carefully calibrated. Here we use a Keysight M8195A AWG to study the viability of such a simplified scheme, demonstrating randomized benchmarking of a superconducting qubit with high fidelity.

  11. Memory and convulsive stimulation: effects of stimulus waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanis, C W; Squire, L R

    1981-09-01

    Electrical stimulation with brief pulses can produce a seizure requiring less energy than conventional sine-wave stimulation, and it has been suggested that brief-pulse stimulation might reduce the memory loss associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The authors evaluated the effects of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on memory in mice by using various waveforms, current intensities, training-ECS intervals, pulse widths, and stimulus durations. When equated for ability to produce seizures, low-energy, brief-pulse stimulation caused as much amnesia as sine-wave stimulation and sometimes more. In the absence of comparisons of the amnesic effects of brief-pulse and sine-wave stimulation in humans, the use of brief pulses for administering ECT is unwarranted.

  12. 3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2014-01-01

    The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate this ambiguity between the different parameters. We use dynamic ray tracing to efficiently handle the expensive computational cost for 3-D anisotropic models. Ray tracing provides also the ray direction information necessary for conditioning the sensitivity kernels to handle anisotropy. The NMO velocity and η parameter kernels showed a maximum sensitivity for diving waves which results in a relevant choice of those parameters in wave equation tomography. The δ parameter kernel showed zero sensitivity; therefore it can serve as a secondary parameter to fit the amplitude in the acoustic anisotropic inversion. Considering the limited penetration depth of diving waves, migration velocity analysis based kernels are introduced to fix the depth ambiguity with reflections and compute sensitivity maps in the deeper parts of the model.

  13. Conditioning the full waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual tradeoff between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain in which the small scattering angles of the gradient update is initially muted out. A model update hierarchical filtering strategy includes applying varying degree of filtering to the different parameter updates. A feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using both FWI and reection based FWI (RFWI), two strategies to combat the tradeoff between anisotropic parameters are outlined.

  14. Characterizing Geological Facies using Seismic Waveform Classification in Sarawak Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraa, Afiqah; Zailani, Ahmad; Prasad Ghosh, Deva

    2017-10-01

    Numerous effort have been made to build relationship between geology and geophysics using different techniques throughout the years. The integration of these two most important data in oil and gas industry can be used to reduce uncertainty in exploration and production especially for reservoir productivity enhancement and stratigraphic identification. This paper is focusing on seismic waveform classification to different classes using neural network and to link them according to the geological facies which are established using the knowledge on lithology and log motif of well data. Seismic inversion is used as the input for the neural network to act as the direct lithology indicator reducing dependency on well calibration. The interpretation of seismic facies classification map provides a better understanding towards the lithology distribution, depositional environment and help to identify significant reservoir rock

  15. Automatic physiological waveform processing for FMRI noise correction and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kelley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI resting state and connectivity studies of brain focus on neural fluctuations at low frequencies which share power with physiological fluctuations originating from lung and heart. Due to the lack of automated software to process physiological signals collected at high magnetic fields, a gap exists in the processing pathway between the acquisition of physiological data and its use in fMRI software for both physiological noise correction and functional analyses of brain activation and connectivity. To fill this gap, we developed an open source, physiological signal processing program, called PhysioNoise, in the python language. We tested its automated processing algorithms and dynamic signal visualization on resting monkey cardiac and respiratory waveforms. PhysioNoise consistently identifies physiological fluctuations for fMRI noise correction and also generates covariates for subsequent analyses of brain activation and connectivity.

  16. Real time monitoring of moment magnitude by waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2012-01-01

    An instantaneous measure of the moment magnitude (Mw) of an ongoing earthquake is estimated from the moment rate function (MRF) determined in real-time from available seismic data using waveform inversion. Integration of the MRF gives the moment function from which an instantaneous Mw is derived. By repeating the inversion procedure at regular intervals while seismic data are coming in we can monitor the evolution of seismic moment and Mw with time. The final size and duration of a strong earthquake can be obtained within 12 to 15 minutes after the origin time. We show examples of Mw monitoring for three large earthquakes at regional distances. The estimated Mw is only weakly sensitive to changes in the assumed source parameters. Depending on the availability of seismic stations close to the epicenter, a rapid estimation of the Mw as a prerequisite for the assessment of earthquake damage potential appears to be feasible.

  17. Langmuir waveforms at interplanetary shocks: STEREO statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, C.

    2016-12-01

    Wave-particle interactions and particle acceleration are the two main processes allowing energy dissipation at non collisional shocks. Ion acceleration has been deeply studied for many years, also for their central role in the shock front reformation. Electron dynamics is also important in the shock dynamics through the instabilities they can generate which may impact the ion dynamics.Particle measurements can be efficiently completed by wave measurements to determine the characteristics of the electron beams and study the turbulence of the medium. Electric waveforms obtained from the S/WAVES instrument of the STEREO mission between 2007 to 2014 are analyzed. Thus, clear signature of Langmuir waves are observed on 41 interplanetary shocks. These data enable a statistical analysis and to deduce some characteristics of the electron dynamics on different shocks sources (SIR or ICME) and types (quasi-perpendicular or quasi-parallel). The conversion process between electrostatic to electromagnetic waves has also been tested in several cases.

  18. Conditioning the full waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-08-05

    Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual tradeoff between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain in which the small scattering angles of the gradient update is initially muted out. A model update hierarchical filtering strategy includes applying varying degree of filtering to the different parameter updates. A feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using both FWI and reection based FWI (RFWI), two strategies to combat the tradeoff between anisotropic parameters are outlined.

  19. Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zabihi Naeini, E.

    2017-05-26

    Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI) as an alternative tool for higher-resolution reservoir characterization. An important step in developing reservoir-oriented FWI is the implementation of facies-based rock physics constraints adapted from the classic methods. We show that such constraints can be incorporated into FWI by adding appropriately designed regularization terms to the objective function. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated on both isotropic and VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) models with pronounced lateral and vertical heterogeneity. The inversion results are explained using the theoretical radiation patterns produced by perturbations in the medium parameters.

  20. Full-waveform inversion: From near surface to deep

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-11-01

    The ancient Persian Gulf port city of Muscat provided a spectacular setting for the SEG\\'s 2013 Workshop on Full-waveform Inversion (FWI). This active R&D topic attracted about 36 oral presentations and 20 or so posters, which added up to three intense days of ideas, images, and discussion. FWI has progressed from academic research topic to commercial workflow component in roughly 10 years, with many case studies documenting improved imaging and business value and others documenting a definite need for improved understanding of algorithms and applicability. Along with fundamental research issues of worldwide importance, the meeting provided an opportunity to showcase implications of the Middle East\\'s particular exploration challenges for the further development of FWI.

  1. Optimal overlapping of waveform relaxation method for linear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Susumu; Ozawa, Kazufumi

    2000-01-01

    Waveform relaxation (WR) method is extremely suitable for solving large systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) on parallel computers, but the convergence of the method is generally slow. In order to accelerate the convergence, the methods which decouple the system into many subsystems with overlaps some of the components between the adjacent subsystems have been proposed. The methods, in general, converge much faster than the ones without overlapping, but the computational cost per iteration becomes larger due to the increase of the dimension of each subsystem. In this research, the convergence of the WR method for solving constant coefficients linear ODEs is investigated and the strategy to determine the number of overlapped components which minimizes the cost of the parallel computations is proposed. Numerical experiments on an SR2201 parallel computer show that the estimated number of the overlapped components by the proposed strategy is reasonable. (author)

  2. All-optical temporal integration of ultrafast pulse waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongwoo; Ahn, Tae-Jung; Dai, Yitang; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José

    2008-10-27

    An ultrafast all-optical temporal integrator is experimentally demonstrated. The demonstrated integrator is based on a very simple and practical solution only requiring the use of a widely available all-fiber passive component, namely a reflection uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This design allows overcoming the severe speed (bandwidth) limitations of the previously demonstrated photonic integrator designs. We demonstrate temporal integration of a variety of ultrafast optical waveforms, including Gaussian, odd-symmetry Hermite Gaussian, and (odd-)symmetry double pulses, with temporal features as fast as ~6-ps, which is about one order of magnitude faster than in previous photonic integration demonstrations. The developed device is potentially interesting for a multitude of applications in all-optical computing and information processing, ultrahigh-speed optical communications, ultrafast pulse (de-)coding, shaping and metrology.

  3. Reversible conduction block in peripheral nerve using electrical waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Niloy; Vrabec, Tina L; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin L

    2018-01-01

    Electrical nerve block uses electrical waveforms to block action potential propagation. Two key features that distinguish electrical nerve block from other nonelectrical means of nerve block: block occurs instantly, typically within 1 s; and block is fully and rapidly reversible (within seconds). Approaches for achieving electrical nerve block are reviewed, including kilohertz frequency alternating current and charge-balanced polarizing current. We conclude with a discussion of the future directions of electrical nerve block. Electrical nerve block is an emerging technique that has many significant advantages over other methods of nerve block. This field is still in its infancy, but a significant expansion in the clinical application of this technique is expected in the coming years.

  4. ABOUT WAVEFORM OF BRAKING CYLINDER FILLING IN FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Ursuliak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. As part of the scientific paper it is necessary to study the waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on longitudinal train dynamics at different modes of braking. At this one should estimate the level of maximum longitudinal forces and braking distance size in freight cars of various lengths. Methodology. In this paper we attempt to approximate the actual diagram of braking cylinders filling with rational functions of varying degrees. In selection of coefficients in the required functions the highest values of the longitudinal forces and braking distances were used as controlled parameters. They were compared with similar values obtained as a result of experimental rides. The level of longitudinal forces and braking distances amount were evaluated by means of mathematical modeling of train longitudinal vibrations, caused by different braking modes. Findings. At mathematical modeling was assumed that the train consists of 60 uniform four-axle gondola cars, weight of 80 tons, equipped with air dispenser No. 483 included in the median operation, composite braking blocks, and one locomotive VL-8. Train before braking has been pre-stretched. Various types of pneumatic braking (emergency, full service and adjusting braking of the freight train on the horizontal section of the track were simulated. As the calculation results were obtained values of the longitudinal forces, braking distances amounts and reduction time in speed at various braking modes. Originality. Waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on the longitudinal forces level and braking distances amount in freight trains were investigated. Also the longitudinal loading of freight trains at various pneumatic braking was investigated. Practical value. Obtained results can be used to assess the level of largest longitudinal forces and braking distances in the freight trains of different lengths by mathematical modeling of different braking modes.

  5. Lossless compression of waveform data for efficient storage and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, S.D.; Tan, Li Zhe; Magotra, Neeraj

    1993-01-01

    Compression of waveform data is significant in many engineering and research areas since it can be used to alleviate data storage and transmission bandwidth. For example, seismic data are widely recorded and transmitted so that analysis can be performed on large amounts of data for numerous applications such as petroleum exploration, determination of the earth's core structure, seismic event detection and discrimination of underground nuclear explosions, etc. This paper describes a technique for lossless wave form data compression. The technique consists of two stages. The first stage is a modified form of linear prediction with discrete coefficients and the second stage is bi-level sequence coding. The linear predictor generates an error or residue sequence in a way such that exact reconstruction of the original data sequence can be accomplished with a simple algorithm. The residue sequence is essentially white Gaussian with seismic or other similar waveform data. Bi-level sequence coding, in which two sample sizes are chosen and the residue sequence is encoded into subsequences that alternate from one level to the other, further compresses the residue sequence. The principal feature of the two-stage data compression algorithm is that it is lossless, that is, it allows exact, bit-for-bit recovery of the original data sequence. The performance of the lossless compression algorithm at each stage is analyzed. The advantages of using bi-level sequence coding in the second stage are its simplicity of implementation, its effectiveness on data with large amplitude variations, and its near-optimal performance in encoding Gaussian sequences. Applications of the two-stage technique to typical seismic data indicates that an average number of compressed bits per sample close to the lower bound is achievable in practical situations

  6. SpEnD: Linked Data SPARQL Endpoints Discovery Using Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Yumusak, Semih; Dogdu, Erdogan; Kodaz, Halife; Kamilaris, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel metacrawling method is proposed for discovering and monitoring linked data sources on the Web. We implemented the method in a prototype system, named SPARQL Endpoints Discovery (SpEnD). SpEnD starts with a "search keyword" discovery process for finding relevant keywords for the linked data domain and specifically SPARQL endpoints. Then, these search keywords are utilized to find linked data sources via popular search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo, Yandex). By using this ...

  7. Ultimate waveform reproducibility of extreme-ultraviolet pulses by high-harmonic generation in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M.; Kim, H. Y.; Goulielmakis, E.

    2018-05-01

    Optical waveforms of light reproducible with subcycle precision underlie applications of lasers in ultrafast spectroscopies, quantum control of matter and light-based signal processing. Nonlinear upconversion of optical pulses via high-harmonic generation in gas media extends these capabilities to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). However, the waveform reproducibility of the generated EUV pulses in gases is inherently sensitive to intensity and phase fluctuations of the driving field. We used photoelectron interferometry to study the effects of intensity and carrier-envelope phase of an intense single-cycle optical pulse on the field waveform of EUV pulses generated in quartz nanofilms, and contrasted the results with those obtained in gas argon. The EUV waveforms generated in quartz were found to be virtually immune to the intensity and phase of the driving field, implying a non-recollisional character of the underlying emission mechanism. Waveform-sensitive photonic applications and precision measurements of fundamental processes in optics will benefit from these findings.

  8. Variance stabilization for computing and comparing grand mean waveforms in MEG and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Artur; Kordecki, Wojciech; Sielużycki, Cezary; Zacharias, Norman; Heil, Peter; König, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Grand means of time-varying signals (waveforms) across subjects in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are commonly computed as arithmetic averages and compared between conditions, for example, by subtraction. However, the prerequisite for these operations, homogeneity of the variance of the waveforms in time, and for most common parametric statistical tests also between conditions, is rarely met. We suggest that the heteroscedasticity observed instead results because waveforms may differ by factors and additive terms and follow a mixed model. We propose to apply the asinh-transformation to stabilize the variance in such cases. We demonstrate the homogeneous variance and the normal distributions of data achieved by this transformation using simulated waveforms, and we apply it to real MEG data and show its benefits. The asinh-transformation is thus an essential and useful processing step prior to computing and comparing grand mean waveforms in MEG and EEG. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. The use of intermediate endpoints in the design of type 1 diabetes prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a rationale for the selection of intermediate endpoints to be used in the design of type 1 diabetes prevention clinical trials. Relatives of individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were enrolled on the TrialNet Natural History Study and screened for diabetes-related autoantibodies. Those with two or more such autoantibodies were analysed with respect to increased HbA1c, decreased C-peptide following an OGTT, or abnormal OGTT values as intermediate markers of disease progression. Over 2 years, a 10% increase in HbA1c, and a 20% or 30% decrease in C-peptide from baseline, or progression to abnormal OGTT, occurred with a frequency between 20% and 41%. The 3- to 5-year risk of type 1 diabetes following each intermediate endpoint was high, namely 47% to 84%. The lower the incidence of the endpoint being reached, the higher the risk of diabetes. A diabetes prevention trial using these intermediate endpoints would require a 30% to 50% smaller sample size than one using type 1 diabetes as the endpoint. The use of an intermediate endpoint in diabetes prevention is based on the generally held view of disease progression from initial occurrence of autoantibodies through successive immunological and metabolic changes to manifest type 1 diabetes. Thus, these markers are suitable for randomised phase 2 trials, which can more rapidly screen promising new therapies, allowing them to be subsequently confirmed in definitive phase 3 trials.

  10. Development of Cardiovascular and Neurodevelopmental Metrics as Sublethal Endpoints for the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzykwa, Julie C; Olivas, Alexis; Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin

    2018-06-19

    The fathead minnow fish embryo toxicity (FET) test has been proposed as a more humane alternative to current toxicity testing methods, as younger organisms are thought to experience less distress during toxicant exposure. However, the FET test protocol does not include endpoints that allow for the prediction of sublethal adverse outcomes, limiting its utility relative to other test types. Researchers have proposed the development of sublethal endpoints for the FET test to increase its utility. The present study 1) developed methods for previously unmeasured sublethal metrics in fathead minnows (i.e., spontaneous contraction frequency and heart rate) and 2) investigated the responsiveness of several sublethal endpoints related to growth (wet weight, length, and growth-related gene expression), neurodevelopment (spontaneous contraction frequency, and neurodevelopmental gene expression), and cardiovascular function and development (pericardial area, eye size and cardiovascular related gene expression) as additional FET test metrics using the model toxicant 3,4-dichloroaniline. Of the growth, neurological and cardiovascular endpoints measured, length, eye size and pericardial area were found to more responsive than the other endpoints, respectively. Future studies linking alterations in these endpoints to longer-term adverse impacts are needed to fully evaluate the predictive power of these metrics in chemical and whole effluent toxicity testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Five criteria for using a surrogate endpoint to predict treatment effect based on data from multiple previous trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G

    2018-02-20

    A surrogate endpoint in a randomized clinical trial is an endpoint that occurs after randomization and before the true, clinically meaningful, endpoint that yields conclusions about the effect of treatment on true endpoint. A surrogate endpoint can accelerate the evaluation of new treatments but at the risk of misleading conclusions. Therefore, criteria are needed for deciding whether to use a surrogate endpoint in a new trial. For the meta-analytic setting of multiple previous trials, each with the same pair of surrogate and true endpoints, this article formulates 5 criteria for using a surrogate endpoint in a new trial to predict the effect of treatment on the true endpoint in the new trial. The first 2 criteria, which are easily computed from a zero-intercept linear random effects model, involve statistical considerations: an acceptable sample size multiplier and an acceptable prediction separation score. The remaining 3 criteria involve clinical and biological considerations: similarity of biological mechanisms of treatments between the new trial and previous trials, similarity of secondary treatments following the surrogate endpoint between the new trial and previous trials, and a negligible risk of harmful side effects arising after the observation of the surrogate endpoint in the new trial. These 5 criteria constitute an appropriately high bar for using a surrogate endpoint to make a definitive treatment recommendation. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. An upper and lower bound of the Medication Possession Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperber CM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Christian M Sperber, Suren R Samarasinghe, Grace P Lomax Patient Connect Limited, Guildford, UK Background: The Medication Possession Ratio (MPR is a ubiquitous and central measurement for adherence in the health care industry. However, attempts to standardize its calculation have failed, possibly due to the opacity of a single, static MPR, incapability of directly lending itself to a variety of studies, and challenges of comparing the value across studies. This work shows that the MPR strictly depends on the length of the time interval over which it is measured as well as on the dominant dispense quantity for short time intervals. Furthermore, removing a proportion of the patient cohort based on the number of acquisitions may also have a severe impact on the MPR. Therefore, it is suggested that the MPR is represented as a trend over a range of time intervals. To this end, an upper and lower bound of the MPR trend is developed with an upper bound acknowledging patients who change their treatment and the lower bound acknowledging patients who discontinue their treatment.Purpose: Introducing a representation of the MPR value as a trend rather than a static number by developing a quantitative description of an upper and lower bound of the MPR trend, while shedding light on the impacts on prefiltering the patient cohort.Patients and methods: Anonymized patient-level data was utilized as an example for a suggested calculation of an upper and lower bound of the MPR.Results: Representation of the MPR for a predefined time interval precludes a reliable MPR assessment. A quantitative approach is suggested to generate an upper and lower trend of the MPR while emphasizing the impact on removing patients with a limited number of acquisitions.Conclusion: An upper and lower trend makes the MPR more transparent and allows a better comparison across different studies. Removing patients with a limited number of acquisitions should be avoided. Keywords: MPR

  13. Doppler Aliasing Reduction in Wide-Angle Synthetic Aperture Radar Using Phase Modulated Random Stepped-Frequency Waveforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyatt, Andrew W

    2006-01-01

    ...) waveforms in a Wide-Angle Synthetic Aperture Radar (WA-SAR) scenario. RSF waveforms have been demonstrated to have desirable properties which allow for cancelling of Doppler aliased scatterers in WA-SAR images...

  14. Are symptoms of spirit possessed patients covered by the DSM-IV or DSM-5 criteria for possession trance disorder? A mixed-method explorative study in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl, M.; Kleyn, W.; de Jong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aims As in many cultures, spirit possession is a common idiom of distress in Uganda. The DSM-IV contains experimental research criteria for dissociative and possession trance disorder (DTD and PTD), which are under review for the DSM-5. In the current proposed categories of the

  15. A web-based endpoint adjudication system for interim analyses in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Tracy L; Dimmick, Bill F; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Kendrick, Amy S; Sable, Carole; Ngai, Angela; Wallace, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    A data monitoring committee (DMC) is often employed to assess trial progress and review safety data and efficacy endpoints throughout a trail. Interim analyses performed for the DMC should use data that are as complete and verified as possible. Such analyses are complicated when data verification involves subjective study endpoints or requires clinical expertise to determine each subject's status with respect to the study endpoint. Therefore, procedures are needed to obtain adjudicated data for interim analyses in an efficient manner. In the past, methods for handling such data included using locally reported results as surrogate endpoints, adjusting analysis methods for unadjudicated data, or simply performing the adjudication as rapidly as possible. These methods all have inadequacies that make their sole usage suboptimal. For a study of prophylaxis for invasive candidiasis, adjudication of both study eligibility criteria and clinical endpoints prior to two interim analyses was required. Because the study was expected to enroll at a moderate rate and the sponsor required adjudicated endpoints to be used for interim analyses, an efficient process for adjudication was required. We created a web-based endpoint adjudication system (WebEAS) that allows for expedited review by the endpoint adjudication committee (EAC). This system automatically identifies when a subject's data are complete, creates a subject profile from the study data, and assigns EAC reviewers. The reviewers use the WebEAS to review the subject profile and submit their completed review form. The WebEAS then compares the reviews, assigns an additional review as a tiebreaker if needed, and stores the adjudicated data. The study for which this system was originally built was administratively closed after 10 months with only 38 subjects enrolled. The adjudication process was finalized and the WebEAS system activated prior to study closure. Some website accessibility issues presented initially. However

  16. The Secret Prover : Proving Possession of Arbitrary Files While not Giving Them Away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, Wouter

    2005-01-01

    The Secret Prover is a Java application which allows a user (A) to prove to another user (B), that A possesses a file. If B also possesses this file B will get convinced, and if B does not possess this file B will gain no information on (the contents of) this file. This is the first implementation

  17. Comparing three novel endpoints for developmental osteotoxicity in the embryonic stem cell test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieden, Nicole I. zur; Davis, Lesley A.; Rancourt, Derrick E.

    2010-01-01

    Birth defects belong to the most serious side effects of pharmaceutical compounds or environmental chemicals. In vivo, teratogens most often affect the normal development of bones, causing growth retardation, limb defects or craniofacial malformations. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is one of the most promising models that allow the in vitro prediction of embryotoxicity, with one of its endpoints being bone tissue development. The present study was designed to describe three novel inexpensive endpoints to assess developmental osteotoxicity using the model compounds penicillin G (non-teratogenic), 5-fluorouracil (strong teratogen) and all-trans retinoic acid (bone teratogen). These three endpoints were: quantification of matrix incorporated calcium by (1) morphometric analysis and (2) measurement of calcium levels as well as (3) activity of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme involved in matrix calcification. To evaluate our data, we have compared the concentration curves and resulting ID 50 s of the new endpoints with mRNA expression for osteocalcin. Osteocalcin is an exclusive marker found only in mineralized tissues, is regulated upon compound treatment and reliably predicts the potential of a chemical entity acting as a bone teratogen. By comparing the new endpoints to quantitative expression of osteocalcin, which we previously identified as suitable to detect developmental osteotoxicity, we were ultimately able to illustrate IMAGE analysis and Ca 2+ deposition assays as two reliable novel endpoints for the EST. This is of particular importance for routine industrial assessment of novel compounds as these two new endpoints may substitute previously used molecular read-out methods, which are often costly and time-consuming.

  18. LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROTECTION OF POSSESSION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojo Belovski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it will be discussed the legal significance and protection of possession in the Republic of Macedonia. Below it will be listed the kinds of possession, and finally the rules for possession termination will be explained. The possession is an indicator that the person who rules one item is also a right holder of that item. The possession itself occurs in two types specially authorized by a law and pure factual power behind which stands no right. The possession enjoys legal protection. Below in the paper it is processed the judicial protection of the possession which is given based on complaint for disturbance of possession and action to recover the possession. The important thing at the judicial protection is that the rulers’ protection is given to the last actual possession of the item, but it is not disputed the right of possession. Further in this paper it is included the protection of indirect possession where a complaint can be made by the indirect holder of the item, the judicial protection of possessory, possession protection of the heirs and permitted self – help for unauthorized harassment and revoking of the possession. With respect to the termination of the actual power of the item, listed and processed are the ways when the item failed, when the item was lost, when it is obvious that it won’t be returned, when the ruler had freely left it and when the item is not taken from him and the ruler hasn’t realized the right to possession.

  19. From distress to disease: a critique of the medicalisation of possession in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Divya

    2017-12-01

    This paper critiques the category of possession-form dissociative identity disorder as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) published in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The DSM as an index of psychiatry pathologises possession by categorising it as a form of dissociative identity disorder. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork, this paper argues that such a pathologisation medicalises possession, which is understood as a non-pathological condition in other contexts such as by those individuals who manifest possession at a temple in Kerala, South India. Through medicalising and further by creating distinctions between acceptable and pathological possession, the DSM converts a form of distress into a disease. This has both conceptual and pragmatic implications. The temple therefore becomes reduced to a culturally acceptable site for the manifestation of a mental illness in a form that is culturally available and possession is explained solely through a biomedical framework, denying alternative conceptualisations and theories which inform possession. By focussing on the DSM-5 classification of possession and the limitations of such a classification, this paper seeks to posit an alternative conceptualisation of possession by engaging with three primary areas which are significant in the DSM categorisation of possession: the DSM's conceptualisation of self in the singular, the distinction between pathological and non-pathological forms of possession, and the limitations of the DSM's equation of the condition of possession with the manifestation of possession. Finally, the paper briefly highlights alternative conceptualisations of possession, which emerged from the perspective of those seeking to heal possession at the Chottanikkara temple.

  20. What is the best site for measuring the effect of ventilation on the pulse oximeter waveform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Kirk H; Jablonka, Denis H; Awad, Aymen A; Stout, Robert G; Rezkanna, Hoda; Silverman, David G

    2006-08-01

    The cardiac pulse is the predominant feature of the pulse oximeter (plethysmographic) waveform. Less obvious is the effect of ventilation on the waveform. There have been efforts to measure the effect of ventilation on the waveform to determine respiratory rate, tidal volume, and blood volume. We measured the relative strength of the effect of ventilation on the reflective plethysmographic waveform at three different sites: the finger, ear, and forehead. The plethysmographic waveforms from 18 patients undergoing positive pressure ventilation during surgery and 10 patients spontaneously breathing during renal dialysis were collected. The respiratory signal was isolated from the waveform using spectral analysis. It was found that the respiratory signal in the pulse oximeter waveform was more than 10 times stronger in the region of the head when compared with the finger. This was true with both controlled positive pressure ventilation and spontaneous breathing. A significant correlation was demonstrated between the estimated blood loss from surgical procedures and the impact of ventilation on ear plethysmographic data (r(s) = 0.624, P = 0.006).

  1. EPG waveform library for Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): Effect of adhesive, input resistor, and voltage levels on waveform appearance and stylet probing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Felix A; Backus, Elaine A

    2018-05-31

    Blue-green sharpshooter, Graphocephala atropunctata, is a native California vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), a foregut-borne bacterium that is the causal agent of Pierce's disease in grapevines. A 3rd-generation, AC-DC electropenetrograph (EPG monitor) was used to record stylet probing and ingestion behaviors of adult G. atropunctata on healthy grapevines. This study presents for the first time a complete, updated waveform library for this species, as well as effects of different electropenetrograph settings and adhesives on waveform appearances. Both AC and DC applied signals were used with input resistor (Ri) levels (amplifier sensitivities) of 10 6 , 10 7 , 10 8 and 10 9  Ohms, as well as two type of adhesives, conducting silver paint and handmade silver glue. Waveform description, characterization of electrical origins (R versus emf components), and proposed biological meanings of waveforms are reported, as well as qualitative differences in waveform appearances observed with different electropenetrograph settings and adhesives. In addition, a quantitative study with AC signal, using two applied voltage levels (50 and 200 mV) and two Ri levels (10 7 and 10 9  Ohms) was performed. Intermediate Ri levels 10 7 and 10 8  Ohms provided EPG waveforms with the greatest amount of information, because both levels captured similar proportions of R and emf components, as supported by appearance, clarity, and definition of waveforms. Similarly, use of a gold wire loop plus handmade silver glue provided more definition of waveforms than a gold wire loop plus commercial conducting silver paint. Qualitative/observational evidence suggested that AC applied signal caused fewer aberrant behaviors/waveforms than DC applied signal. In the quantitative study, behavioral components of the sharpshooter X wave were the most affected by changes in Ri and voltage level. Because the X wave probably represents X. fastidiosa inoculation behavior, future studies of X. fastidiosa

  2. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anetai, Yusuke, E-mail: anetai@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Yamadaoka 2-15, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: CyberKnife{sup ®} robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony{sup ®} mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife{sup ®}. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony{sup ®} mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife{sup ®} was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy

  3. Full Waveform Inversion Using Oriented Time Migration Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2016-04-12

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) for reflection events is limited by its linearized update requirements given by a process equivalent to migration. Unless the background velocity model is reasonably accurate the resulting gradient can have an inaccurate update direction leading the inversion to converge into what we refer to as local minima of the objective function. In this thesis, I first look into the subject of full model wavenumber to analysis the root of local minima and suggest the possible ways to avoid this problem. And then I analysis the possibility of recovering the corresponding wavenumber components through the existing inversion and migration algorithms. Migration can be taken as a generalized inversion method which mainly retrieves the high wavenumber part of the model. Conventional impedance inversion method gives a mapping relationship between the migration image (high wavenumber) and model parameters (full wavenumber) and thus provides a possible cascade inversion strategy to retrieve the full wavenumber components from seismic data. In the proposed approach, consider a mild lateral variation in the model, I find an analytical Frechet derivation corresponding to the new objective function. In the proposed approach, the gradient is given by the oriented time-domain imaging method. This is independent of the background velocity. Specifically, I apply the oriented time-domain imaging (which depends on the reflection slope instead of a background velocity) on the data residual to obtain the geometrical features of the velocity perturbation. Assuming that density is constant, the conventional 1D impedance inversion method is also applicable for 2D or 3D velocity inversion within the process of FWI. This method is not only capable of inverting for velocity, but it is also capable of retrieving anisotropic parameters relying on linearized representations of the reflection response. To eliminate the cross-talk artifacts between different parameters, I

  4. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anetai, Yusuke; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ota, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: CyberKnife"® robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony"® mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife"®. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony"® mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife"® was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy affected by respiratory

  5. Full-waveform inversion of surface waves in exploration geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, D.; Gao, F.; Williamson, P.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a data fitting approach to estimate high-resolution properties of the Earth from seismic data by minimizing the misfit between observed and calculated seismograms. In land seismics, the source on the ground generates high-amplitude surface waves, which generally represent most of the energy recorded by ground sensors. Although surface waves are widely used in global seismology and engineering studies, they are typically treated as noise within the seismic exploration community since they mask deeper reflections from the intervals of exploration interest. This is mainly due to the fact that surface waves decay exponentially with depth and for a typical frequency range (≈[5-50] Hz) sample only the very shallow part of the subsurface, but also because they are much more sensitive to S-wave than P-wave velocities. In this study, we invert surface waves in the hope of using them as additional information for updating the near surface. In a heterogeneous medium, the main challenge of surface wave inversion is associated with their dispersive character, which makes it difficult to define a starting model for conventional FWI which can avoid cycle-skipping. The standard approach to dealing with this is by inverting the dispersion curves in the Fourier (f-k) domain to generate locally 1-D models, typically for the shear wavespeeds only. However this requires that the near-surface zone be more or less horizontally invariant over a sufficient distance for the spatial Fourier transform to be applicable. In regions with significant topography, such as foothills, this is not the case, so we revert to the time-space domain, but aim to minimize the differences of envelopes in the early stages of the inversion to resolve the cycle-skipping issue. Once the model is good enough, we revert to the classic waveform-difference inversion. We first present a few synthetic examples. We show that classical FWI might be trapped in a local minimum even for

  6. A Waveform Archiving System for the GE Solar 8000i Bedside Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Andrea; Jaishankar, Rohan; Filippidis, Aristotelis; Holsapple, James; Heldt, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to develop, deploy, and test a data-acquisition system for the reliable and robust archiving of high-resolution physiological waveform data from a variety of bedside monitoring devices, including the GE Solar 8000i patient monitor, and for the logging of ancillary clinical and demographic information. The data-acquisition system consists of a computer-based archiving unit and a GE Tram Rac 4A that connects to the GE Solar 8000i monitor. Standard physiological front-end sensors connect directly to the Tram Rac, which serves as a port replicator for the GE monitor and provides access to these waveform signals through an analog data interface. Together with the GE monitoring data streams, we simultaneously collect the cerebral blood flow velocity envelope from a transcranial Doppler ultrasound system and a non-invasive arterial blood pressure waveform along a common time axis. All waveform signals are digitized and archived through a LabView-controlled interface that also allows for the logging of relevant meta-data such as clinical and patient demographic information. The acquisition system was certified for hospital use by the clinical engineering team at Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. Over a 12-month period, we collected 57 datasets from 11 neuro-ICU patients. The system provided reliable and failure-free waveform archiving. We measured an average temporal drift between waveforms from different monitoring devices of 1 ms every 66 min of recorded data. The waveform acquisition system allows for robust real-time data acquisition, processing, and archiving of waveforms. The temporal drift between waveforms archived from different devices is entirely negligible, even for long-term recording.

  7. Reliability of pressure waveform analysis to determine correct epidural needle placement in labouring women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aamri, I; Derzi, S H; Moore, A; Elgueta, M F; Moustafa, M; Schricker, T; Tran, D Q

    2017-07-01

    Pressure waveform analysis provides a reliable confirmatory adjunct to the loss-of-resistance technique to identify the epidural space during thoracic epidural anaesthesia, but its role remains controversial in lumbar epidural analgesia during labour. We performed an observational study in 100 labouring women of the sensitivity and specificity of waveform analysis to determine the correct location of the epidural needle. After obtaining loss-of-resistance, the anaesthetist injected 5 ml saline through the epidural needle (accounting for the volume already used in the loss-of-resistance). Sterile extension tubing, connected to a pressure transducer, was attached to the needle. An investigator determined the presence or absence of a pulsatile waveform, synchronised with the heart rate, on a monitor screen that was not in the view of the anaesthetist or the parturient. A bolus of 4 ml lidocaine 2% with adrenaline 5 μg.ml -1 was administered, and the epidural block was assessed after 15 min. Three women displayed no sensory block at 15 min. The results showed: epidural block present, epidural waveform present 93; epidural block absent, epidural waveform absent 2; epidural block present, epidural waveform absent 4; epidural block absent, epidural waveform present 1. Compared with the use of a local anaesthetic bolus to ascertain the epidural space, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of waveform analysis were 95.9%, 66.7%, 98.9% and 33.3%, respectively. Epidural waveform analysis provides a simple adjunct to loss-of-resistance for confirming needle placement during performance of obstetric epidurals, however, further studies are required before its routine implementation in clinical practice. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Doppler waveform study as indicator of change of portal pressure after administration of octreotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Shahbaz; Hussain, Qurban; Tabassum, Sumera; Hussain, Bilal; Durrani, Muhammad Rasheed; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the effect of portal pressure lowering drug ‘octreotide’, by observing the Doppler waveform before and after the administration of intravenous bolus of octreotide and thus to assess indirectly its efficacy to lower the portal pressure. Methods: This quassi experimental study was carried out in Medical Department in collaboration with Radiology Department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi Pakistan from September 10, 2015 to February 5, 2016. Cases were selected from patients admitted in Medical Wards and those attending Medical OPD. Diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by Clinical Examination and Lab & Imaging investigation in Medical Department. Doppler waveform study was done by experienced radiologist in Radiology Department before and after administration of octreotide. Doppler signals were obtained from the right hepatic vein. Waveform tracings were recorded for five seconds and categorized as ‘monophasic’, ‘biphasic’ and ‘triphasic’. Waveform changes from one waveform to other were noted and analyzed. Results: Significant change i.e. from ‘monophasic’ to ‘biphasic’ or ‘biphasic’ to ‘triphasic’ was seen in 56% cases while ‘monophasic’ to ‘triphasic’ was seen in 20% cases. No change was seen in 24% cases. Improvement in waveform reflects lowering of portal vein pressure. Conclusion: Non invasive Hepatic vein Doppler waveform study showed improvement in Doppler waveform after administration of octreotide in 76% cases. Doppler waveform study has the potential of becoming non invasive ‘follow up tool’ of choice for assessing portal pressure in patients having variceal bleed due to portal hypertension. PMID:27648043

  9. The Influence of Measurement Methodology on the Accuracy of Electrical Waveform Distortion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, Jacek; Kwiatkowski, Bogdan

    2018-04-01

    The present paper covers a review of documents that specify measurement methods of voltage waveform distortion. It also presents measurement stages of waveform components that are uncommon in the classic fundamentals of electrotechnics and signal theory, including the creation process of groups and subgroups of harmonics and interharmonics. Moreover, the paper discusses selected distortion factors of periodic waveforms and presents analyses that compare the values of these distortion indices. The measurements were carried out in the cycle per cycle mode and the measurement methodology that was used complies with the IEC 61000-4-7 norm. The studies showed significant discrepancies between the values of analyzed parameters.

  10. 100 GHz pulse waveform measurement based on electro-optic sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhigang; Zhao, Kejia; Yang, Zhijun; Miao, Jingyuan; Chen, He

    2018-05-01

    We present an ultrafast pulse waveform measurement system based on an electro-optic sampling technique at 1560 nm and prepare LiTaO3-based electro-optic modulators with a coplanar waveguide structure. The transmission and reflection characteristics of electrical pulses on a coplanar waveguide terminated with an open circuit and a resistor are investigated by analyzing the corresponding time-domain pulse waveforms. We measure the output electrical pulse waveform of a 100 GHz photodiode and the obtained rise times of the impulse and step responses are 2.5 and 3.4 ps, respectively.

  11. Variation of Pressure Waveforms in Measurements of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inose, Naoto; Ide, Masao

    1993-05-01

    In this paper, we describe measurement of variation in pressure waveforms of the acoustic field of an extra-corporeal shock-wave lithotripter (ESWL). Variations in the measured acoustic fields and pressure waveform of an underwater spark-gap-type ESWL with an exhausted spark plug electrode have been reported by researchers using crystal sensors. If the ESWL spark plugs become exhausted, patients feel pain during kidney, biliary stone disintegration. We studied the relationship between exhaustion of electrodes and the variation of pressure waveforms and shock-wave fields of the ESWL using a newly developed hydrophone.

  12. Extracting structural land cover components using small-footprint waveform LDAR data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGlinchy, J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available .e., without vertical interactions. Three measurements were taken from the waveform once this component was removed. They are defined as ?Road Ratio?, ?Leftover?, and ?Ratio Removed?. ?Road Ratio? is measured as the ratio of an amplitude scaled dirt road... sample to an original dirt road waveform sample extracted from LU8. ?Leftover? is measured as the ratio of the sum of what remains in the ground pulse to the sum of these same points in the original waveform. ?Ratio Removed? is measured simply...

  13. Endpoint in plasma etch process using new modified w-multivariate charts and windowed regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakour, Sihem Ben; Taleb, Hassen

    2017-09-01

    Endpoint detection is very important undertaking on the side of getting a good understanding and figuring out if a plasma etching process is done in the right way, especially if the etched area is very small (0.1%). It truly is a crucial part of supplying repeatable effects in every single wafer. When the film being etched has been completely cleared, the endpoint is reached. To ensure the desired device performance on the produced integrated circuit, the high optical emission spectroscopy (OES) sensor is employed. The huge number of gathered wavelengths (profiles) is then analyzed and pre-processed using a new proposed simple algorithm named Spectra peak selection (SPS) to select the important wavelengths, then we employ wavelet analysis (WA) to enhance the performance of detection by suppressing noise and redundant information. The selected and treated OES wavelengths are then used in modified multivariate control charts (MEWMA and Hotelling) for three statistics (mean, SD and CV) and windowed polynomial regression for mean. The employ of three aforementioned statistics is motivated by controlling mean shift, variance shift and their ratio (CV) if both mean and SD are not stable. The control charts show their performance in detecting endpoint especially W-mean Hotelling chart and the worst result is given by CV statistic. As the best detection of endpoint is given by the W-Hotelling mean statistic, this statistic will be used to construct a windowed wavelet Hotelling polynomial regression. This latter can only identify the window containing endpoint phenomenon.

  14. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: are treatability and ecotoxicity endpoints related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, S.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if there is a relationship between biotreatability and ecotoxicity endpoints in a wide range of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, including medium and heavy crude oil-contaminated flare pit wastes and lubrication oil contaminated soil, research was conducted. Each test material was analyzed for pH, water repellency, electrical conductivity, available N and P, total extractable hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and toxicity to seedling emergence, root elongation in barley, lettuce and canola, earthworm survival and luminescent bacteria (Microtox), prior to, and following three months of bioremediation in the laboratory. By monitoring soil respiration, progress of the bioremediation process and determination of a treatment endpoint were assessed. The time required to attain a treatment endpoint under laboratory conditions can range from 30 days to 100 days depending on the concentration of hydrocarbons and degree of weathering. Most flare pits are biotreatable, averaging a loss of 25-30% of hydrocarbons during bioremediation. Once a treatment endpoint is achieved, residual hydrocarbons contents almost always exceeds Alberta Tier I criteria for mineral oil and grease. As a result of bioremediation treatments, hydrophobicity is often reduced from severe to low. Many flare pit materials are still moderately to extremely toxic after reaching a treatment endpoint. (Abstract only)

  15. Multi-Toxic Endpoints of the Foodborne Mycotoxins in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1, deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisin B1 (FB1, T-2 toxin (T-2, and zearalenone (ZEA are the major foodborne mycotoxins of public health concerns. In the present study, the multiple toxic endpoints of these naturally-occurring mycotoxins were evaluated in Caenorhabditis elegans model for their lethality, toxic effects on growth and reproduction, as well as influence on lifespan. We found that the lethality endpoint was more sensitive for T-2 toxicity with the EC50 at 1.38 mg/L, the growth endpoint was relatively sensitive for AFB1 toxic effects, and the reproduction endpoint was more sensitive for toxicities of AFB1, FB1, and ZEA. Moreover, the lifespan endpoint was sensitive to toxic effects of all five tested mycotoxins. Data obtained from this study may serve as an important contribution to knowledge on assessment of mycotoxin toxic effects, especially for assessing developmental and reproductive toxic effects, using the C. elegans model.

  16. Pollutant threshold concentration determination in marine ecosystems using an ecological interaction endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyou; Liang, Shengkang; Guo, Wenting; Yu, Hua; Xing, Wenhui

    2015-09-01

    The threshold concentrations of pollutants are determined by extrapolating single-species effect data to community-level effects. This assumes the most sensitive endpoint of the life cycle of individuals and the species sensitivity distribution from single-species toxic effect tests, thus, ignoring the ecological interactions. The uncertainties due to this extrapolation can be partially overcome using the equilibrium point of a customized ecosystem. This method incorporates ecological interactions and integrates the effects on growth, survival, and ingestion into a single effect measure, the equilibrium point excursion in the customized ecosystem, in order to describe the toxic effects on plankton. A case study showed that the threshold concentration of copper calculated with the endpoint of the equilibrium point was 10 μg L(-1), which is significantly different from the threshold calculated with a single-species endpoint. The endpoint calculated using this method provides a more relevant measure of the ecological impact than any single individual-level endpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Accumulated energy norm for full waveform inversion of marine data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Changsoo; Ha, Wansoo

    2017-12-01

    Macro-velocity models are important for imaging the subsurface structure. However, the conventional objective functions of full waveform inversion in the time and the frequency domain have a limited ability to recover the macro-velocity model because of the absence of low-frequency information. In this study, we propose new objective functions that can recover the macro-velocity model by minimizing the difference between the zero-frequency components of the square of seismic traces. Instead of the seismic trace itself, we use the square of the trace, which contains low-frequency information. We apply several time windows to the trace and obtain zero-frequency information of the squared trace for each time window. The shape of the new objective functions shows that they are suitable for local optimization methods. Since we use the acoustic wave equation in this study, this method can be used for deep-sea marine data, in which elastic effects can be ignored. We show that the zero-frequency components of the square of the seismic traces can be used to recover macro-velocities from synthetic and field data.

  18. Multi-parameter full waveform inversion using Poisson

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2016-07-21

    In multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI), the success of recovering each parameter is dependent on characteristics of the partial derivative wavefields (or virtual sources), which differ according to parameterisation. Elastic FWIs based on the two conventional parameterisations (one uses Lame constants and density; the other employs P- and S-wave velocities and density) have low resolution of gradients for P-wave velocities (or ). Limitations occur because the virtual sources for P-wave velocity or (one of the Lame constants) are related only to P-P diffracted waves, and generate isotropic explosions, which reduce the spatial resolution of the FWI for these parameters. To increase the spatial resolution, we propose a new parameterisation using P-wave velocity, Poisson\\'s ratio, and density for frequency-domain multi-parameter FWI for isotropic elastic media. By introducing Poisson\\'s ratio instead of S-wave velocity, the virtual source for the P-wave velocity generates P-S and S-S diffracted waves as well as P-P diffracted waves in the partial derivative wavefields for the P-wave velocity. Numerical examples of the cross-triangle-square (CTS) model indicate that the new parameterisation provides highly resolved descent directions for the P-wave velocity. Numerical examples of noise-free and noisy data synthesised for the elastic Marmousi-II model support the fact that the new parameterisation is more robust for noise than the two conventional parameterisations.

  19. Application of the DRS chip for fast waveform digitizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritt, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.ritt@psi.c [PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Dinapoli, Roberto; Hartmann, Ueli [PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2010-11-01

    The high demands of modern experiments in fast waveform digitizing led to the development of a whole family of switched capacitor arrays (SCA), called the Domino Ring Sampler (DRS). The most recent version, DRS4, is produced in a radiation hard 0.25 {mu}m CMOS process, and is capable of digitizing 9 differential input channels at sampling rates of up to 6 Giga-samples per second (GSPS) with an analogue bandwidth of 950 MHz (-3 dB). The channel depth can be configured between 1024 and 8192 cells, and the signal-to-noise ratio allows a resolution equivalent to more than 11 bits. Using an interleaved sampling technique, sampling rates up to 48 GSPS are possible. Compared with the previous versions, the DRS4 chip contains several improvements such as an on-chip PLL for sampling-frequency stabilization and various mechanisms to reduce the read out dead-time. The high bandwidth, low power consumption and short readout time make this chip attractive for many experiments, replacing traditional ADCs and TDCs. This includes time-of-flight detectors, cosmic gamma ray observatories, PET scanners and industrial applications.

  20. Efficient scattering angle filtering for Full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the scattering angles between the state and the adjoint variables for the energy admitted into an inversion gradient or an image can help improve these functions for objectives in full waveform inversion (FWI) or seismic imaging. However, the access of the scattering angle information usually requires an axis extension that could be costly, especially in 3D. For the purpose of a scattering angle filter, I develop techniques that utilize the mapping nature (no domain extension) of the filter for constant-velocity background models to interpolate between such filtered gradients using the actual velocity. The concept has well known roots in the application of phase-shift-plus-interpolation utilized commonly in the downward continuation process. If the difference between the minimum and maximum velocity of the background medium is large, we obtain filtered gradients corresponding to more constant velocity backgrounds and use linear interpolation between such velocities. The accuracy of this approximation for the Marmousi model gradient demonstrates the e ectiveness of the approach.

  1. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  2. Estimation of fracture parameters using elastic full-waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-08-17

    Current methodologies to characterize fractures at the reservoir scale have serious limitations in spatial resolution and suffer from uncertainties in the inverted parameters. Here, we propose to estimate the spatial distribution and physical properties of fractures using full-waveform inversion (FWI) of multicomponent surface seismic data. An effective orthorhombic medium with five clusters of vertical fractures distributed in a checkboard fashion is used to test the algorithm. A shape regularization term is added to the objective function to improve the estimation of the fracture azimuth, which is otherwise poorly constrained. The cracks are assumed to be penny-shaped to reduce the nonuniqueness in the inverted fracture weaknesses and achieve a faster convergence. To better understand the inversion results, we analyze the radiation patterns induced by the perturbations in the fracture weaknesses and orientation. Due to the high-resolution potential of elastic FWI, the developed algorithm can recover the spatial fracture distribution and identify localized “sweet spots” of intense fracturing. However, the fracture azimuth can be resolved only using long-offset data.

  3. The role of the waveform in pulse pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datlowe, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse pile-up is the distortion of pulse-height distributions due to the overlap of detector responses to the arrival of two or more particles or photons within the detector resolving time. This paper presents a computational technique for simulating pile-up effects, which includes explicitly the dependence on the pulse-shape of the detector system. The basis of the technique is the manipulation of probability densities. The method is applicable to all types of linear pulse counting systems for nucleons, electrons, and photons, as long as the result is a pulse-height distribution. The algorithms are highly efficient in the amount of computing required for simulations, and internal checks for the numerical accuracy of the results are included. Studies of pile-up by monoenergetic pulses are used to determine the interrelationship between pulse shapes and spectral features; this information can be used to minimize pile-up. For broad spectra, the square wave approximation is compared with the present model including the correct waveform; introducing the pulse shape information smooths spectral features but does not qualitatively change the spectrum. (Auth.)

  4. Gradient waveform synthesis for magnetic propulsion using MRI gradient coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B H; Lee, S Y; Park, S

    2008-01-01

    Navigating an untethered micro device in a living subject is of great interest for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Magnetic propulsion of an untethered device carrying a magnetic core in it is one of the promising methods to navigate the device. MRI gradients coils are thought to be suitable for navigating the device since they are capable of magnetic propulsion in any direction while providing magnetic resonance images. For precise navigation of the device, especially in the peripheral region of the gradient coils, the concomitant gradient fields, as well as the linear gradient fields in the main magnetic field direction, should be considered in driving the gradient coils. For simple gradient coil configurations, the Maxwell coil in the z-direction and the Golay coil in the x- and y-directions, we have calculated the magnetic force fields, which are not necessarily the same as the conventional linear gradient fields of MRI. Using the calculated magnetic force fields, we have synthesized gradient waveforms to navigate the device along a desired path

  5. Monofrequency waveform acquisition and inversion: A new paradigm

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    In seismic inversion, we tend to use the geometrical behavior of the wavefield (the kinematics), extracted from the data, to constrain the long wavelength model components and use the recorded reections to invert for the short wavelength features in a process referred to as full waveform inversion (FWI). For such a recipe, single frequency (the right frequency) data are capable of providing the ingredients for both model components. A frequency that provides model wavelengths (through the transmission components) low enough to update the background and high enough (reections) to map the scattering may render the other frequencies almost obsolete, especially large offset data are available to provide the transition from background to scattering components. Thus, I outline a scenario in which we acquire dedicated mono frequency data, allowing for more time to inject more of that single frequency energy at a reduced cost. The cost savings can be utilized to acquire larger offsets, which is an important for constraining the background model. Combing this single frequency data with a hierarchical scattering angle filter strategy in FWI, and potentially reection FWI, provides an opportunity to invert for complex models starting even with poor initial velocity models. The objective of this new paradigm is a high resolution model of the Earth to replace our focus on the image, which requires a band of frequencies.

  6. Multiparameter elastic full waveform inversion with facies-based constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-dong; Alkhalifah, Tariq; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing

    2018-06-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize FWI beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a priori information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it's ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  8. Efficient scattering angle filtering for Full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-08-19

    Controlling the scattering angles between the state and the adjoint variables for the energy admitted into an inversion gradient or an image can help improve these functions for objectives in full waveform inversion (FWI) or seismic imaging. However, the access of the scattering angle information usually requires an axis extension that could be costly, especially in 3D. For the purpose of a scattering angle filter, I develop techniques that utilize the mapping nature (no domain extension) of the filter for constant-velocity background models to interpolate between such filtered gradients using the actual velocity. The concept has well known roots in the application of phase-shift-plus-interpolation utilized commonly in the downward continuation process. If the difference between the minimum and maximum velocity of the background medium is large, we obtain filtered gradients corresponding to more constant velocity backgrounds and use linear interpolation between such velocities. The accuracy of this approximation for the Marmousi model gradient demonstrates the e ectiveness of the approach.

  9. Identification of complex stiffness tensor from waveform reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymarie, N.; Aristégui, C.; Audoin, B.; Baste, S.

    2002-03-01

    An inverse method is proposed in order to determine the viscoelastic properties of composite-material plates from the plane-wave transmitted acoustic field. Analytical formulations of both the plate transmission coefficient and its first and second derivatives are established, and included in a two-step inversion scheme. Two objective functions to be minimized are then designed by considering the well-known maximum-likelihood principle and by using an analytic signal formulation. Through these innovative objective functions, the robustness of the inversion process against high level of noise in waveforms is improved and the method can be applied to a very thin specimen. The suitability of the inversion process for viscoelastic property identification is demonstrated using simulated data for composite materials with different anisotropy and damping degrees. A study of the effect of the rheologic model choice on the elastic property identification emphasizes the relevance of using a phenomenological description considering viscosity. Experimental characterizations show then the good reliability of the proposed approach. Difficulties arise experimentally for particular anisotropic media.

  10. Conditioning the full-waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-04-23

    Multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual trade-off between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which small scattering-angles of the gradient update are initially muted out. The model update hierarchical filtering strategy include applying varying degrees of filtering to the different anisotropic parameter updates, a feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using FWI and reflection-based FWI, when the modeled data are obtained with the single-scattering theory, allows access to additional low model wavenumber components. Combining such access to wavenumbers with scattering-angle filters applied to the individual parameter gradients allows for multiple strategies to avoid complex FWI nonlinearity as well as the parameter trade-off.

  11. Velocity Building by Reflection Waveform Inversion without Cycle-skipping

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang

    2017-05-26

    Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides estimation of low wavenumber model components using reflections generated from a migration/demigration process. The resulting model tends to be a good initial model for FWI. In fact, the optimization images to combine the migration velocity analysis (MVA) objectives (given here by RWI) and the FWI ones. However, RWI may still encounter cycle-skipping at far offsets if the velocity model is highly inaccurate. Similar to MVA, RWI is devoted to focusing reflection data to its true image positions, yet because of the cycle skipping potential we tend to initially use only near offsets. To make the inversion procedure more robust, we introduce the extended image into our RWI. Extending the model perturbations (or image) allows us to better fit the data at larger offsets even with an inaccurate velocity. Thus, we implement a nested approach to optimize the velocity and extended image simultaneously using the objective function of RWI. We slowly reduce the extension, as the image becomes focused, to allow wavepath updates from far offsets to near as a natural progression from long wavelength updates to shorter ones. Applications on synthetic data demonstrate the effectiveness of our method without much additional cost to RWI.

  12. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-11-22

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  13. Density reconstruction in multiparameter elastic full-waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min'ao; Yang, Jizhong; Dong, Liangguo; Liu, Yuzhu; Huang, Chao

    2017-12-01

    Elastic full-waveform inversion (EFWI) is a quantitative data fitting procedure that recovers multiple subsurface parameters from multicomponent seismic data. As density is involved in addition to P- and S-wave velocities, the multiparameter EFWI suffers from more serious tradeoffs. In addition, compared with P- and S-wave velocities, the misfit function is less sensitive to density perturbation. Thus, a robust density reconstruction remains a difficult problem in multiparameter EFWI. In this paper, we develop an improved scattering-integral-based truncated Gauss-Newton method to simultaneously recover P- and S-wave velocities and density in EFWI. In this method, the inverse Gauss-Newton Hessian has been estimated by iteratively solving the Gauss-Newton equation with a matrix-free conjugate gradient algorithm. Therefore, it is able to properly handle the parameter tradeoffs. To give a detailed illustration of the tradeoffs between P- and S-wave velocities and density in EFWI, wavefield-separated sensitivity kernels and the Gauss-Newton Hessian are numerically computed, and their distribution characteristics are analyzed. Numerical experiments on a canonical inclusion model and a modified SEG/EAGE Overthrust model have demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively mitigate the tradeoff effects, and improve multiparameter gradients. Thus, a high convergence rate and an accurate density reconstruction can be achieved.

  14. Spectral implementation of full waveform inversion based on reflections

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2014-01-01

    Using the reflection imaging process as a source to model reflections for full waveform inversion (FWI), referred to as reflection FWI (RFWI), allows us to update the background component of the model, and avoid using the relatively costly migration velocity analysis (MVA), which usually relies on extended images. However, RFWI requires a good image to represent the current reflectivity, as well as, some effort to obtain good smooth gradients. We develop a spectral implementation of RFWI where the wavefield extrapolations and gradient evaluation are performed in the wavenumber domain, obtaining clean dispersion free and fast extrapolations. The gradient, in this case, yields three terms, two of which provide us with each side of the rabbit ear kernel, and the third, often ignored, provides a normalization of the reflectivity within the kernel, which can be used to obtain a reflectivity free background update. Since the image is imperfect (it is an adjoint, not an inverse), an optimization process for the third term scaling is implemented to achieve the smoothest gradient update. A rare application of RFWI on the reflectivity infested Marmousi model shows some of the potential of the approach.

  15. Monofrequency waveform acquisition and inversion: A new paradigm

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-08-05

    In seismic inversion, we tend to use the geometrical behavior of the wavefield (the kinematics), extracted from the data, to constrain the long wavelength model components and use the recorded reections to invert for the short wavelength features in a process referred to as full waveform inversion (FWI). For such a recipe, single frequency (the right frequency) data are capable of providing the ingredients for both model components. A frequency that provides model wavelengths (through the transmission components) low enough to update the background and high enough (reections) to map the scattering may render the other frequencies almost obsolete, especially large offset data are available to provide the transition from background to scattering components. Thus, I outline a scenario in which we acquire dedicated mono frequency data, allowing for more time to inject more of that single frequency energy at a reduced cost. The cost savings can be utilized to acquire larger offsets, which is an important for constraining the background model. Combing this single frequency data with a hierarchical scattering angle filter strategy in FWI, and potentially reection FWI, provides an opportunity to invert for complex models starting even with poor initial velocity models. The objective of this new paradigm is a high resolution model of the Earth to replace our focus on the image, which requires a band of frequencies.

  16. Noninvasive calculation of the aortic blood pressure waveform from the flow velocity waveform: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennin, Samuel; Mayer, Alexia; Li, Ye; Fok, Henry; Clapp, Brian; Alastruey, Jordi; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2015-09-01

    Estimation of aortic and left ventricular (LV) pressure usually requires measurements that are difficult to acquire during the imaging required to obtain concurrent LV dimensions essential for determination of LV mechanical properties. We describe a novel method for deriving aortic pressure from the aortic flow velocity. The target pressure waveform is divided into an early systolic upstroke, determined by the water hammer equation, and a diastolic decay equal to that in the peripheral arterial tree, interposed by a late systolic portion described by a second-order polynomial constrained by conditions of continuity and conservation of mean arterial pressure. Pulse wave velocity (PWV, which can be obtained through imaging), mean arterial pressure, diastolic pressure, and diastolic decay are required inputs for the algorithm. The algorithm was tested using 1) pressure data derived theoretically from prespecified flow waveforms and properties of the arterial tree using a single-tube 1-D model of the arterial tree, and 2) experimental data acquired from a pressure/Doppler flow velocity transducer placed in the ascending aorta in 18 patients (mean ± SD: age 63 ± 11 yr, aortic BP 136 ± 23/73 ± 13 mmHg) at the time of cardiac catheterization. For experimental data, PWV was calculated from measured pressures/flows, and mean and diastolic pressures and diastolic decay were taken from measured pressure (i.e., were assumed to be known). Pressure reconstructed from measured flow agreed well with theoretical pressure: mean ± SD root mean square (RMS) error 0.7 ± 0.1 mmHg. Similarly, for experimental data, pressure reconstructed from measured flow agreed well with measured pressure (mean RMS error 2.4 ± 1.0 mmHg). First systolic shoulder and systolic peak pressures were also accurately rendered (mean ± SD difference 1.4 ± 2.0 mmHg for peak systolic pressure). This is the first noninvasive derivation of aortic pressure based on fluid dynamics (flow and wave speed) in the

  17. Meeting report: Measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints within the first years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbuckle, T.E.; Hauser, R.; Swan, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    An international workshop tided "Assessing Endocrine-Related Endpoints within the First Years of Life" was held 30 April-1 May 2007, in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Representatives from a number of pregnancy cohort studies in North America and Europe presented options for measuring various endocrine......-sensitive endpoints in early life and discussed issues related to performing and using those measures. The workshop focused on measuring reproductive tract developmental endpoints [e.g., anogenital distance (AGD)], endocrine status, and infant anthropometry. To the extent possible, workshop participants strove...... on the genital exam. Although a number of outcome measures recommended during the genital exam have been associated with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, little is known about how predictive these effects are of later reproductive health or other chronic health conditions....

  18. Deep inelastic scattering near the endpoint in soft-collinear effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2007-01-01

    We apply the soft-collinear effective theory to deep inelastic scattering near the endpoint region. The forward scattering amplitude and the structure functions are shown to factorize as a convolution of the Wilson coefficients, the jet functions, and the parton distribution functions. The behavior of the parton distribution functions near the endpoint region is considered. It turns out that it evolves with the Altarelli-Parisi kernel even in the endpoint region, and the parton distribution function can be factorized further into a collinear part and the soft Wilson line. The factorized form for the structure functions is obtained by the two-step matching, and the radiative corrections or the evolution for each factorized part can be computed in perturbation theory. We present the radiative corrections of each factorized part to leading order in α s , including the zero-bin subtraction for the collinear part

  19. Implementation of minimally invasive and objective humane endpoints in the study of murine Plasmodium infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellavalle, B; Kirchhoff, J; Maretty, L

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Defining appropriate and objective endpoints for animal research can be difficult. Previously we evaluated and implemented a body temperature (BT) of ECM) and were interested in a similar endpoint for a model of severe malarial...... anaemia (SMA). Furthermore, we investigate the potential of a minimally invasive, non-contact infrared thermometer for repeated BT measurement. ECM was induced with Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in C57Bl/6 mice. SMA was induced with Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in A/J mice. Our previous published...... endpoint was applied in ECM and 30 °C was pre-determined as the lowest permitted limit for termination in SMA according to consultation with the Danish Animal Inspectorate. Infrared thermometer was compared with the rectal probe after cervical dislocation, ECM and SMA. Linear regression analysis of rectal...

  20. Effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possessions in a random series of team possessions from Norwegian professional soccer matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenga, Albin; Holme, Ingar; Ronglan, Lars Tore; Bahr, Roald

    2010-02-01

    Methods of analysis that include an assessment of opponent interactions are thought to provide a more valid means of team match performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possession by assessing opponent interactions in Norwegian elite soccer matches. We analysed a random series of 1703 team possessions from 163 of 182 (90%) matches played in the professional men's league during the 2004 season. Multidimensional qualitative data obtained from ten ordered categorical variables were used. Offensive tactics were more effective in producing score-box possessions when playing against an imbalanced defence (28.5%) than against a balanced defence (6.5%) (P tactics on producing score-box possessions, and improves the validity of team match-performance analysis in soccer.

  1. Comparison of RNA-seq and microarray-based models for clinical endpoint prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqian; Yu, Ying; Hertwig, Falk; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Zhang, Wenwei; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Wang, Jian; Furlanello, Cesare; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Cheng, Jie; Deng, Youping; Hero, Barbara; Hong, Huixiao; Jia, Meiwen; Li, Li; Lin, Simon M; Nikolsky, Yuri; Oberthuer, André; Qing, Tao; Su, Zhenqiang; Volland, Ruth; Wang, Charles; Wang, May D; Ai, Junmei; Albanese, Davide; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Avigad, Smadar; Bao, Wenjun; Bessarabova, Marina; Brilliant, Murray H; Brors, Benedikt; Chierici, Marco; Chu, Tzu-Ming; Zhang, Jibin; Grundy, Richard G; He, Min Max; Hebbring, Scott; Kaufman, Howard L; Lababidi, Samir; Lancashire, Lee J; Li, Yan; Lu, Xin X; Luo, Heng; Ma, Xiwen; Ning, Baitang; Noguera, Rosa; Peifer, Martin; Phan, John H; Roels, Frederik; Rosswog, Carolina; Shao, Susan; Shen, Jie; Theissen, Jessica; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Vandesompele, Jo; Wu, Po-Yen; Xiao, Wenzhong; Xu, Joshua; Xu, Weihong; Xuan, Jiekun; Yang, Yong; Ye, Zhan; Dong, Zirui; Zhang, Ke K; Yin, Ye; Zhao, Chen; Zheng, Yuanting; Wolfinger, Russell D; Shi, Tieliu; Malkas, Linda H; Berthold, Frank; Wang, Jun; Tong, Weida; Shi, Leming; Peng, Zhiyu; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-06-25

    Gene expression profiling is being widely applied in cancer research to identify biomarkers for clinical endpoint prediction. Since RNA-seq provides a powerful tool for transcriptome-based applications beyond the limitations of microarrays, we sought to systematically evaluate the performance of RNA-seq-based and microarray-based classifiers in this MAQC-III/SEQC study for clinical endpoint prediction using neuroblastoma as a model. We generate gene expression profiles from 498 primary neuroblastomas using both RNA-seq and 44 k microarrays. Characterization of the neuroblastoma transcriptome by RNA-seq reveals that more than 48,000 genes and 200,000 transcripts are being expressed in this malignancy. We also find that RNA-seq provides much more detailed information on specific transcript expression patterns in clinico-genetic neuroblastoma subgroups than microarrays. To systematically compare the power of RNA-seq and microarray-based models in predicting clinical endpoints, we divide the cohort randomly into training and validation sets and develop 360 predictive models on six clinical endpoints of varying predictability. Evaluation of factors potentially affecting model performances reveals that prediction accuracies are most strongly influenced by the nature of the clinical endpoint, whereas technological platforms (RNA-seq vs. microarrays), RNA-seq data analysis pipelines, and feature levels (gene vs. transcript vs. exon-junction level) do not significantly affect performances of the models. We demonstrate that RNA-seq outperforms microarrays in determining the transcriptomic characteristics of cancer, while RNA-seq and microarray-based models perform similarly in clinical endpoint prediction. Our findings may be valuable to guide future studies on the development of gene expression-based predictive models and their implementation in clinical practice.

  2. A systematic comparison of recurrent event models for application to composite endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Ann-Kathrin; Kieser, Meinhard; Rauch, Geraldine

    2018-01-04

    Many clinical trials focus on the comparison of the treatment effect between two or more groups concerning a rarely occurring event. In this situation, showing a relevant effect with an acceptable power requires the observation of a large number of patients over a long period of time. For feasibility issues, it is therefore often considered to include several event types of interest, non-fatal or fatal, and to combine them within a composite endpoint. Commonly, a composite endpoint is analyzed with standard survival analysis techniques by assessing the time to the first occurring event. This approach neglects that an individual may experience more than one event which leads to a loss of information. As an alternative, composite endpoints could be analyzed by models for recurrent events. There exists a number of such models, e.g. regression models based on count data or Cox-based models such as the approaches of Andersen and Gill, Prentice, Williams and Peterson or, Wei, Lin and Weissfeld. Although some of the methods were already compared within the literature there exists no systematic investigation for the special requirements regarding composite endpoints. Within this work a simulation-based comparison of recurrent event models applied to composite endpoints is provided for different realistic clinical trial scenarios. We demonstrate that the Andersen-Gill model and the Prentice- Williams-Petersen models show similar results under various data scenarios whereas the Wei-Lin-Weissfeld model delivers effect estimators which can considerably deviate under commonly met data scenarios. Based on the conducted simulation study, this paper helps to understand the pros and cons of the investigated methods in the context of composite endpoints and provides therefore recommendations for an adequate statistical analysis strategy and a meaningful interpretation of results.

  3. Traumatic Experience and Somatoform Dissociation Among Spirit Possession Practitioners in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffler, Yvonne; Cardeña, Etzel; Reijman, Sophie; Haluza, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies in African contexts have revealed a strong association between spirit possession and severe trauma, with inclusion into a possession cult serving at times a therapeutic function. Research on spirit possession in the Dominican Republic has so far not included quantitative studies of trauma and dissociation. This study evaluated demographic variables, somatoform dissociative symptoms, and potentially traumatizing events in the Dominican Republic with a group of Vodou practitioners that either do or do not experience spirit possession. Inter-group comparisons revealed that in contrast to non-possessed participants (n = 38), those experiencing spirit possession (n = 47) reported greater somatoform dissociation, more problems with sleep, and previous exposure to mortal danger such as assaults, accidents, or diseases. The two groups did not differ significantly in other types of trauma. The best predictor variable for group classification was somatoform dissociation, although those items could also reflect the experience of followers during a possession episode. A factor analysis across variables resulted in three factors: having to take responsibility early on in life and taking on a professional spiritual role; traumatic events and pain; and distress/dissociation. In comparison with the non-possessed individuals, the possessed ones did not seem to overall have a remarkably more severe story of trauma and seemed to derive economic gains from possession practice.

  4. Reducing sample size by combining superiority and non-inferiority for two primary endpoints in the Social Fitness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkers, Hanneke; Graff, Maud; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Teerenstra, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In randomized controlled trials, two endpoints may be necessary to capture the multidimensional concept of the intervention and the objectives of the study adequately. We show how to calculate sample size when defining success of a trial by combinations of superiority and/or non-inferiority aims for the endpoints. The randomized controlled trial design of the Social Fitness study uses two primary endpoints, which can be combined into five different scenarios for defining success of the trial. We show how to calculate power and sample size for each scenario and compare these for different settings of power of each endpoint and correlation between them. Compared to a single primary endpoint, using two primary endpoints often gives more power when success is defined as: improvement in one of the two endpoints and no deterioration in the other. This also gives better power than when success is defined as: improvement in one prespecified endpoint and no deterioration in the remaining endpoint. When two primary endpoints are equally important, but a positive effect in both simultaneously is not per se required, the objective of having one superior and the other (at least) non-inferior could make sense and reduce sample size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Dillinger, P.; Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l -1 NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing 85 Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated 85 Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct. (author)

  6. A duplex endpoint PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of Leptospira strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacer, Douadi; Zain, Siti Nursheena Mohd; Lewis, John W; Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam Mohd; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a duplex endpoint PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of Leptospira strains. Primers were designed to target the rrs (LG1/LG2) and ligB (LP1/LP2) genes to confirm the presence of the Leptospira genus and the pathogenic species, respectively. The assay showed 100% specificity against 17 Leptospira strains with a limit of detection of 23.1pg/µl of leptospiral DNA and sensitivity of 103 leptospires/ml in both spiked urine and water. Our duplex endpoint PCR assay is suitable for rapid early detection of Leptospira with high sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, R L A; Borges, P P; Vyskočil, L

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper

  8. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, R. L. A.; Borges, P. P.; Vyskočil, L.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper.

  9. Verifying Elimination Programs with a Special Emphasis on Cysticercosis Endpoints and Postelimination Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukwan Handali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods are needed for determining program endpoints or postprogram surveillance for any elimination program. Cysticercosis has the necessary effective strategies and diagnostic tools for establishing an elimination program; however, tools to verify program endpoints have not been determined. Using a statistical approach, the present study proposed that taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis antibody assays could be used to determine with a high statistical confidence whether an area is free of disease. Confidence would be improved by using secondary tests such as the taeniasis coproantigen assay and necropsy of the sentinel pigs.

  10. Magnetic Waveform Measurements of the PS Injection Kicker KFA45 and Future Emittance Growth Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Vincenzo; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project [1], this document summarises the beam-based measurement of the magnetic waveform of the PS injection kicker KFA45 [2], from data collected during several Machine Development (MD) sessions in 2016 and 2017. In the first part of the document, the measurement methodology is introduced and the results presented and compared with the specification required for a clean transfer of the bunches coming from the PSB after the upgrade. These measurements represent, to date, the only way to reconstruct the magnetic waveform. In the second part, kicker magnetic waveform PSpice®[3] simulations are compared and tuned to the measurements. Finally the simulated (validated through measurements) waveforms are used to estimate the future expected emittance growth for the different PS injection schemes, both for (LIU target) LHC and fixed target beams.

  11. A Comprehensive Approach to Adaptive Processing Both on Transmit and Receive Including Presence of Waveform Diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2006-01-01

    .... Use of waveform diversity and a comprehensive approach to adaptive processing may not be useful if the sensors deviate from their true positions, due to environmental effects or due to mechanical...

  12. Waveform inversion of lateral velocity variation from wavefield source location perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    It is challenge in waveform inversion to precisely define the deep part of the velocity model compared to the shallow part. The lateral velocity variation, or what referred to as the derivative of velocity with respect to the horizontal distance

  13. Extraction of microseismic waveforms characteristics prior to rock burst using Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelong; Li, Zhonghui; Wang, Enyuan; Feng, Junjun; Chen, Liang; Li, Nan; Kong, Xiangguo

    2016-09-01

    This study provides a new research idea concerning rock burst prediction. The characteristics of microseismic (MS) waveforms prior to and during the rock burst were studied through the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). In order to demonstrate the advantage of the MS features extraction based on HHT, the conventional analysis method (Fourier transform) was also used to make a comparison. The results show that HHT is simple and reliable, and could extract in-depth information about the characteristics of MS waveforms. About 10 days prior to the rock burst, the main frequency of MS waveforms transforms from the high-frequency to low-frequency. What's more, the waveforms energy also presents accumulation characteristic. Based on our study results, it can be concluded that the MS signals analysis through HHT could provide valuable information about the coal or rock deformation and fracture.

  14. Time-domain full waveform inversion using the gradient preconditioning based on transmitted waves energy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Tan, Jun; Song, Peng; Li, Jin-shan; Xia, Dong-ming; Liu, Zhao-lun

    2017-01-01

    The gradient preconditioning approach based on seismic wave energy can effectively avoid the huge storage consumption in the gradient preconditioning algorithms based on Hessian matrices in time-domain full waveform inversion (FWI), but the accuracy

  15. Application of multi-source waveform inversion to marine streamer data using the global correlation norm

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Conventional multi-source waveform inversion using an objective function based on the least-square misfit cannot be applied to marine streamer acquisition data because of inconsistent acquisition geometries between observed and modelled data

  16. Heeding the waveform inversion nonlinearity by unwrapping the model and data

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Choi, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traveltime inversion, waveform inversion provides relatively higher-resolution inverted models. This feature, however, comes at the cost of introducing complex nonlinearity to the inversion operator complicating the convergence process. We

  17. Full waveform inversion using oriented time-domain imaging method for vertical transverse isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full waveform inversion for reection events is limited by its linearized update re-quirements given by a process equivalent to migration. Unless the background velocity model is reasonably accurate, the resulting gradient can have an inaccurate

  18. Waveform inversion with exponential damping using a deconvolution-based objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    The lack of low frequency components in seismic data usually leads full waveform inversion into the local minima of its objective function. An exponential damping of the data, on the other hand, generates artificial low frequencies, which can

  19. 3D Multisource Full‐Waveform Inversion using Dynamic Random Phase Encoding

    KAUST Repository

    Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a multisource full‐waveform inversion algorithm using a dynamic phase encoding strategy with dual‐randomization—both the position and polarity of simultaneous sources are randomized and changed every iteration. The dynamic dual

  20. Selective data extension for full-waveform inversion: An efficient solution for cycle skipping

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Standard full-waveform inversion (FWI) attempts to minimize the difference between observed and modeled data. However, this difference is obviously sensitive to the amplitude of observed data, which leads to difficulties because we often do

  1. Multi-stage full waveform inversion strategy for 2D elastic VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Min, Dong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the multi-parametric full waveform inversion (FWI) is to find an optimal parameterization, which helps us recover the subsurface anisotropic parameters as well as seismic velocities, with minimal tradeoff. As a

  2. Multi-source waveform inversion of marine streamer data using the normalized wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Even though the encoded multi-source approach dramatically reduces the computational cost of waveform inversion, it is generally not applicable to marine streamer data. This is because the simultaneous-sources modeled data cannot be muted to comply

  3. Micro-seismic imaging using a source function independent full waveform inversion method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2018-01-01

    hand, the conventional micro-seismic source locating methods require, in many cases manual picking of traveltime arrivals, which do not only lead to manual effort and human interaction, but also prone to errors. Using full waveform inversion (FWI

  4. Efficient full waveform inversion using the excitation representation of the source wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Kalita, Mahesh; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is an iterative method of data-fitting, aiming at high-resolution recovery of the unknown model parameters. However, its conventional implementation is a cumbersome process, requiring a long computational time and large

  5. Simultaneous inversion of the background velocity and the perturbation in full-waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    The gradient of standard full-waveform inversion (FWI) attempts to map the residuals in the data to perturbations in the model. Such perturbations may include smooth background updates from the transmission components and high wavenumber updates

  6. Full-waveform inversion with reflected waves for 2D VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Pattnaik, Sonali; Tsvankin, Ilya; Wang, Hui; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Full-waveform inversion in anisotropic media using reflected waves suffers from the strong non-linearity of the objective function and trade-offs between model parameters. Estimating long-wavelength model components by fixing parameter perturbations

  7. CASSINI V/E/J/S/SS RPWS EDITED WAVEFORM FULL RES V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) edited full resolution data set includes all waveform data for the entire Cassini mission. This data set includes...

  8. Closed-form solution to directly design frequency modulated waveforms for beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid; Jardak, Seifallah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    algorithm has negligible computational complexity and yields unity peak-to-average power ratio constant envelope waveforms. Moreover, in contrast to the narrow band algorithms, it has almost flat main and side lobes. In the proposed algorithm, a relationship

  9. Inverting reflections using full-waveform inversion with inaccurate starting models

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for inverting seismic reflections using full-waveform inversion (FWI) with inaccurate starting models. For a layered medium, near-offset reflections (with zero angle of incidence) are unlikely to be cycle-skipped regardless

  10. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha; Ahmed, Sajid; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  11. A semi-automatic method for peak and valley detection in free-breathing respiratory waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wei; Nystrom, Michelle M.; Parikh, Parag J.; Fooshee, David R.; Hubenschmidt, James P.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    The existing commercial software often inadequately determines respiratory peaks for patients in respiration correlated computed tomography. A semi-automatic method was developed for peak and valley detection in free-breathing respiratory waveforms. First the waveform is separated into breath cycles by identifying intercepts of a moving average curve with the inspiration and expiration branches of the waveform. Peaks and valleys were then defined, respectively, as the maximum and minimum between pairs of alternating inspiration and expiration intercepts. Finally, automatic corrections and manual user interventions were employed. On average for each of the 20 patients, 99% of 307 peaks and valleys were automatically detected in 2.8 s. This method was robust for bellows waveforms with large variations

  12. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-04-19

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  13. Wavefront picking for 3D tomography and full-waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an efficient approach for picking firstbreak wavefronts on coarsely sampled time slices of 3D shot gathers. Our objective was to compute a smooth initial velocity model for multiscale full-waveform inversion (FWI). Using

  14. Respiratory Physiology and the Impact of Different Modes of Ventilation on the Photoplethysmographic Waveform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk H. Shelley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The photoplethysmographic waveform sits at the core of the most used, and arguably the most important, clinical monitor, the pulse oximeter.  Interestingly, the pulse oximeter was discovered while examining an artifact during the development of a noninvasive cardiac output monitor.  This article will explore the response of the pulse oximeter waveform to various modes of ventilation.  Modern digital signal processing is allowing for a re-examination of this ubiquitous signal. The effect of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform has long been thought of as a source of artifact. The primary goal of this article is to improve the understanding of the underlying physiology responsible for the observed phenomena, thereby encouraging the utilization of this understanding to develop new methods of patient monitoring. The reader will be presented with a review of respiratory physiology followed by numerous examples of the impact of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform.

  15. Respiratory physiology and the impact of different modes of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Aymen A; Shelley, Kirk H

    2012-01-01

    The photoplethysmographic waveform sits at the core of the most used, and arguably the most important, clinical monitor, the pulse oximeter. Interestingly, the pulse oximeter was discovered while examining an artifact during the development of a noninvasive cardiac output monitor. This article will explore the response of the pulse oximeter waveform to various modes of ventilation. Modern digital signal processing is allowing for a re-examination of this ubiquitous signal. The effect of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform has long been thought of as a source of artifact. The primary goal of this article is to improve the understanding of the underlying physiology responsible for the observed phenomena, thereby encouraging the utilization of this understanding to develop new methods of patient monitoring. The reader will be presented with a review of respiratory physiology followed by numerous examples of the impact of ventilation on the photoplethysmographic waveform.

  16. 'Kludge' gravitational waveforms for a test-body orbiting a Kerr black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, Stanislav; Fang Hua; Gair, Jonathan R.; Glampedakis, Kostas; Hughes, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves for low-frequency, space-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors such as the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is the inspiral of compact objects into massive black holes in the centers of galaxies. The detection of waves from such 'extreme mass ratio inspiral' systems (EMRIs) and extraction of information from those waves require template waveforms. The systems' extreme mass ratio means that their waveforms can be determined accurately using black hole perturbation theory. Such calculations are computationally very expensive. There is a pressing need for families of approximate waveforms that may be generated cheaply and quickly but which still capture the main features of true waveforms. In this paper, we introduce a family of such kludge waveforms and describe ways to generate them. Different kinds of kludges have already been used to scope out data analysis issues for LISA. The models we study here are based on computing a particle's inspiral trajectory in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, and subsequent identification of these coordinates with flat-space spherical polar coordinates. A gravitational waveform may then be computed from the multipole moments of the trajectory in these coordinates, using well-known solutions of the linearised gravitational perturbation equations in flat space time. We compute waveforms using a standard slow-motion quadrupole formula, a quadrupole/octupole formula, and a fast-motion, weak-field formula originally developed by Press. We assess these approximations by comparing to accurate waveforms obtained by solving the Teukolsky equation in the adiabatic limit (neglecting GW backreaction). We find that the kludge waveforms do extremely well at approximating the true gravitational waveform, having overlaps with the Teukolsky waveforms of 95% or higher over most of the parameter space for which comparisons can currently be made. Indeed, we find these

  17. Within-footprint roughness measurements using ICESat/GLAS waveform and LVIS elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Kai; Xu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    The surface roughness is an important characteristic over an ice sheet or glacier, since it is an identification of boundary-layer meteorology and is an important limiter on the accuracy of surface-height measurements. In this paper, we propose a simulation method to derive the within-footprint roughness (called simulation-derived roughness) using ICESat/GLAS echo waveform, laser vegetation imaging sensor (LVIS) elevations, and laser profile array (LPA) images of ICESat/GLAS. By dividing the within-footprint surface into several elements, a simulation echo waveform can be obtained as the sum of the elementary pulses reflected from each surface element. The elevation of the surface elements, which is utilized to get the return time of the elementary pulses, is implemented based on an LVIS interpolated elevation using a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The intensity of the elementary pulses can be obtained from the thresholded LPA images. Based on the return time and the intensity of the elementary pulses, we used the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method to approximate the simulation waveform to the ICESat/GLAS echo waveform. The full width at half maximum) (FWHM) of the elementary pulse was extracted from the simulation waveform for estimating the simulation-derived roughness. By comparing with the elevation-derived roughness (derived from the elevation) and the waveform-derived roughness (derived from the ICESat/GLAS waveform), the proposed algorithm can exclude the slope effect from waveform width broadening for describing the roughness of the surface elements. (paper)

  18. Pulsed Field Waveforms for Magnetization of HTS Gd-Ba-Cu-O Bulk Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, T; Matsuzaki, H; Morita, E; Sakashita, H; Harada, T; Ogata, H; Kimura, Y; Miki, M; Kitano, M; Izumi, M

    2006-01-01

    Progress in pulse magnetization technique for high-temperature superconductor bulks of melt-textured RE-Ba-Cu-O with large diameter is important for the realization of power applications. We studied the pulsed power source and pulsed field waveforms to enhance to improve the magnetization properties for Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk. The risetime and duration of pulse waveform effectively varied distribution of magnetic flux

  19. A Robust Gold Deconvolution Approach for LiDAR Waveform Data Processing to Characterize Vegetation Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Popescu, S. C.; Krause, K.; Sheridan, R.; Ku, N. W.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention has been paid in the remote sensing community to the next generation Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) waveform data systems for extracting information on topography and the vertical structure of vegetation. However, processing waveform lidar data raises some challenges compared to analyzing discrete return data. The overall goal of this study was to present a robust de-convolution algorithm- Gold algorithm used to de-convolve waveforms in a lidar dataset acquired within a 60 x 60m study area located in the Harvard Forest in Massachusetts. The waveform lidar data was collected by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Specific objectives were to: (1) explore advantages and limitations of various waveform processing techniques to derive topography and canopy height information; (2) develop and implement a novel de-convolution algorithm, the Gold algorithm, to extract elevation and canopy metrics; and (3) compare results and assess accuracy. We modeled lidar waveforms with a mixture of Gaussian functions using the Non-least squares (NLS) algorithm implemented in R and derived a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and canopy height. We compared our waveform-derived topography and canopy height measurements using the Gold de-convolution algorithm to results using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. Our findings show that the Gold algorithm performed better than the Richardson-Lucy algorithm in terms of recovering the hidden echoes and detecting false echoes for generating a DTM, which indicates that the Gold algorithm could potentially be applied to processing of waveform lidar data to derive information on terrain elevation and canopy characteristics.

  20. On the application of neural networks to the classification of phase modulated waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchenroth, Anthony; Yim, Joong Gon; Nowak, Michael; Chakravarthy, Vasu

    2017-04-01

    Accurate classification of phase modulated radar waveforms is a well-known problem in spectrum sensing. Identification of such waveforms aids situational awareness enabling radar and communications spectrum sharing. While various feature extraction and engineering approaches have sought to address this problem, the use of a machine learning algorithm that best utilizes these features is becomes foremost. In this effort, a comparison of a standard shallow and a deep learning approach are explored. Experiments provide insights into classifier architecture, training procedure, and performance.

  1. The Effect of Inlet Waveforms on Computational Hemodynamics of Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, J.; Siddiqui, A.H.; Meng, H.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic qu...

  2. Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms at the carotid bifurcations of older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoi, Yiemeng; Xie, Yuanyuan J; Steinman, David A; Wasserman, Bruce A; Najjar, Samer S; Lakatta, Edward G; Ferruci, Luigi; Gerstenblith, Gary

    2010-01-01

    While it is widely appreciated that volumetric blood flow rate (VFR) dynamics change with age, there has been no detailed characterization of the typical shape of carotid bifurcation VFR waveforms of older adults. Toward this end, retrospectively gated phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure time-resolved VFR waveforms proximal and distal to the carotid bifurcations of 94 older adults (age 68 ± 8 years) with little or no carotid artery disease, recruited from the BLSA cohort of the VALIDATE study of factors in vascular aging. Timings and amplitudes of well-defined feature points from these waveforms were extracted automatically and averaged to produce representative common, internal and external carotid artery (CCA, ICA and ECA) waveform shapes. Relative to young adults, waveforms from older adults were found to exhibit a significantly augmented secondary peak during late systole, resulting in significantly higher resistance index (RI) and flow augmentation index (FAI). Cycle-averaged VFR at the CCA, ICA and ECA were 389 ± 74, 245 ± 61 and 125 ± 49 mL min −1 , respectively, reflecting a significant cycle-averaged outflow deficit of 5%, which peaked at around 10% during systole. A small but significant mean delay of 13 ms between arrivals of ICA versus CCA/ECA peak VFR suggested differential compliance of these vessels. Sex and age differences in waveform shape were also noted. The characteristic waveforms presented here may serve as a convenient baseline for studies of VFR waveform dynamics or as suitable boundary conditions for models of blood flow in the carotid arteries of older adults

  3. Respiratory Physiology and the Impact of Different Modes of Ventilation on the Photoplethysmographic Waveform

    OpenAIRE

    Alian, Aymen A.; Shelley, Kirk H.

    2012-01-01

    The photoplethysmographic waveform sits at the core of the most used, and arguably the most important, clinical monitor, the pulse oximeter.  Interestingly, the pulse oximeter was discovered while examining an artifact during the development of a noninvasive cardiac output monitor.  This article will explore the response of the pulse oximeter waveform to various modes of ventilation.  Modern digital signal processing is allowing for a re-examination of this ubiquitous signal. The effect of ve...

  4. Seismic Full Waveform Modeling & Imaging in Attenuating Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng

    Seismic attenuation strongly affects seismic waveforms by amplitude loss and velocity dispersion. Without proper inclusion of Q parameters, errors can be introduced for seismic full waveform modeling and imaging. Three different (Carcione's, Robertsson's, and the generalized Robertsson's) isotropic viscoelastic wave equations based on the generalized standard linear solid (GSLS) are evaluated. The second-order displacement equations are derived, and used to demonstrate that, with the same stress relaxation times, these viscoelastic formulations are equivalent. By introducing separate memory variables for P and S relaxation functions, Robertsson's formulation is generalized to allow different P and S wave stress relaxation times, which improves the physical consistency of the Qp and Qs modelled in the seismograms.The three formulations have comparable computational cost. 3D seismic finite-difference forward modeling is applied to anisotropic viscoelastic media. The viscoelastic T-matrix (a dynamic effective medium theory) relates frequency-dependent anisotropic attenuation and velocity to reservoir properties in fractured HTI media, based on the meso-scale fluid flow attenuation mechanism. The seismic signatures resulting from changing viscoelastic reservoir properties are easily visible. Analysis of 3D viscoelastic seismograms suggests that anisotropic attenuation is a potential tool for reservoir characterization. To compensate the Q effects during reverse-time migration (RTM) in viscoacoustic and viscoelastic media, amplitudes need to be compensated during wave propagation; the propagation velocity of the Q-compensated wavefield needs to be the same as in the attenuating wavefield, to restore the phase information. Both amplitude and phase can be compensated when the velocity dispersion and the amplitude loss are decoupled. For wave equations based on the GSLS, because Q effects are coupled in the memory variables, Q-compensated wavefield propagates faster than

  5. Data mining technique for fast retrieval of similar waveforms in Fusion massive databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, J.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N.; Santos, M.; Sanchez, E.; Pajares, G.

    2008-01-01

    Fusion measurement systems generate similar waveforms for reproducible behavior. A major difficulty related to data analysis is the identification, in a rapid and automated way, of a set of discharges with comparable behaviour, i.e. discharges with 'similar' waveforms. Here we introduce a new technique for rapid searching and retrieval of 'similar' signals. The approach consists of building a classification system that avoids traversing the whole database looking for similarities. The classification system diminishes the problem dimensionality (by means of waveform feature extraction) and reduces the searching space to just the most probable 'similar' waveforms (clustering techniques). In the searching procedure, the input waveform is classified in any of the existing clusters. Then, a similarity measure is computed between the input signal and all cluster elements in order to identify the most similar waveforms. The inner product of normalized vectors is used as the similarity measure as it allows the searching process to be independent of signal gain and polarity. This development has been applied recently to TJ-II stellarator databases and has been integrated into its remote participation system

  6. Data mining technique for fast retrieval of similar waveforms in Fusion massive databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es; Pereira, A.; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N. [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Santos, M. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Pajares, G. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Fusion measurement systems generate similar waveforms for reproducible behavior. A major difficulty related to data analysis is the identification, in a rapid and automated way, of a set of discharges with comparable behaviour, i.e. discharges with 'similar' waveforms. Here we introduce a new technique for rapid searching and retrieval of 'similar' signals. The approach consists of building a classification system that avoids traversing the whole database looking for similarities. The classification system diminishes the problem dimensionality (by means of waveform feature extraction) and reduces the searching space to just the most probable 'similar' waveforms (clustering techniques). In the searching procedure, the input waveform is classified in any of the existing clusters. Then, a similarity measure is computed between the input signal and all cluster elements in order to identify the most similar waveforms. The inner product of normalized vectors is used as the similarity measure as it allows the searching process to be independent of signal gain and polarity. This development has been applied recently to TJ-II stellarator databases and has been integrated into its remote participation system.

  7. Unusual lightning electric field waveforms observed in Kathmandu, Nepal, and Uppsala, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pitri Bhakta; Sharma, Shriram; Baral, Kedarnath; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2017-11-01

    Unusual lightning events have been observed in Uppsala, Sweden, and Kathmandu, Nepal, using essentially the same electric field measuring system developed at Uppsala University. They occurred in the storms that also generated ;normal; lightning events. The unusual events recorded in Uppsala occurred on one thunderstorm day. Similar events were observed in Kathmandu on multiple thunderstorm days. The unusual events were analyzed in this study assuming them to be positive ground flashes (+CGs), although we cannot rule out the possibility that some or most of them were actually cloud discharges (ICs). The unusual events were each characterized by a relatively slow, negative (atmospheric electricity sign convention) electric field waveform preceded by a pronounced opposite-polarity pulse whose duration was some tens of microseconds. To the best of our knowledge, such unusual events have not been reported in the literature. The average amplitudes of the opposite-polarity pulses with respect to those of the following main waveform were found to be about 33% in Uppsala (N = 31) and about 38% in Kathmandu (N = 327). The average durations of the main waveform and the preceding opposite-polarity pulse in Uppsala were 8.24 ms and 57.1 μs, respectively, and their counterparts in Kathmandu were 421 μs and 39.7 μs. Electric field waveforms characteristic of negative ground flashes (-CGs) were also observed, and none of them exhibited an opposite-polarity pulse prior to the main waveform. Possible origins of the unusual field waveforms are discussed.

  8. Mergers of black-hole binaries with aligned spins: Waveform characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Boggs, William D.; McWilliams, Sean T.

    2011-01-01

    We conduct a descriptive analysis of the multipolar structure of gravitational-radiation waveforms from equal-mass aligned-spin mergers, following an approach first presented in the complementary context of nonspinning black holes of varying mass ratio [J. G. Baker et al., Phys. Rev. D 78, 044046 (2008).]. We find that, as with the nonspinning mergers, the dominant waveform mode phases evolve together in lock-step through inspiral and merger, supporting the previous waveform description in terms of an adiabatically rigid rotator driving gravitational-wave emission--an implicit rotating source. We further apply the late-time merger-ringdown model for the rotational frequency introduced in [J. G. Baker et al., Phys. Rev. D 78, 044046 (2008).], along with an improved amplitude model appropriate for the dominant (2, ±2) modes. This provides a quantitative description of the merger-ringdown waveforms, and suggests that the major features of these waveforms can be described with reference only to the intrinsic parameters associated with the state of the final black hole formed in the merger. We provide an explicit model for the merger-ringdown radiation, and demonstrate that this model agrees to fitting factors better than 95% with the original numerical waveforms for system masses above ∼150M · . This model may be directly applicable to gravitational-wave detection of intermediate-mass black-hole mergers.

  9. Effects of respiratory manoeuvres on hepatic vein Doppler waveform and flow velocities in a healthy population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinkaya, Naime; Koc, Zafer; Ulusan, Serife; Demir, Senay; Gurel, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to determine the variations in Doppler waveforms and flow velocity during respiratory manoeuvres in healthy individuals with no liver disease. Materials and methods: In total, 100 individuals (75 women and 25 men) without known cardiac or liver disease were examined prospectively with duplex Doppler ultrasonography (US). We recorded the Doppler waveforms and peak systolic velocities (V max ) of the middle hepatic vein during normal respiration, during breath-holding after quiet expiration and also during deep inspiration. Doppler waveforms are categorised as triphasic, biphasic or monophasic. Results: During normal respiration, hepatic venous waveforms were triphasic in 93% of subjects, monophasic in 6% and biphasic in 1%. During breath-holding after quiet expiration, the percentages were 91%, 6% and 3%, respectively. During deep inspiration, they were 80%, 18% and 2%, respectively. Although significant differences were noted between rates during deep inspiration and normal respiration, they were quite similar during normal respiration and breath-holding after quiet expiration (P max were significantly higher during normal respiration compared to quiet expiration and during quiet expiration compared to deep inspiration (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The velocities and waveforms of hepatic veins varied during respiratory manoeuvres. The status of respiration must be taken into consideration whilst examining the hepatic vein waveforms and velocities with duplex Doppler US.

  10. Evaluation of surface-wave waveform modeling for lithosphere velocity structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tao-Ming

    Surface-waveform modeling methods will become standard tools for studying the lithosphere structures because they can place greater constraints on earth structure and because of interest in the three-dimensional earth. The purpose of this study is to begin to learn the applicabilities and limitations of these methods. A surface-waveform inversion method is implemented using generalized seismological data functional theory. The method has been tested using synthetic and real seismic data and show that this method is well suited for teleseismic and regional seismograms. Like other linear inversion problems, this method also requires a good starting model. To ease reliance on good starting models, a global search technique, the genetic algorithm, has been applied to surface waveform modeling. This method can rapidly find good models for explaining surface-wave waveform at regional distance. However, this implementation also reveals that criteria which are widely used in seismological studies are not good enough to indicate the goodness of waveform fit. These two methods with the linear waveform inversion method, and traditional surface wave dispersion inversion method have been applied to a western Texas earthquake to test their abilities. The focal mechanism of the Texas event has been reestimated using a grid search for surface wave spectral amplitudes. A comparison of these four algorithms shows some interesting seismic evidences for lithosphere structure.

  11. Machine Learning Techniques for Arterial Pressure Waveform Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cardoso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arterial Pressure Waveform (APW can provide essential information about arterial wall integrity and arterial stiffness. Most of APW analysis frameworks individually process each hemodynamic parameter and do not evaluate inter-dependencies in the overall pulse morphology. The key contribution of this work is the use of machine learning algorithms to deal with vectorized features extracted from APW. With this purpose, we follow a five-step evaluation methodology: (1 a custom-designed, non-invasive, electromechanical device was used in the data collection from 50 subjects; (2 the acquired position and amplitude of onset, Systolic Peak (SP, Point of Inflection (Pi and Dicrotic Wave (DW were used for the computation of some morphological attributes; (3 pre-processing work on the datasets was performed in order to reduce the number of input features and increase the model accuracy by selecting the most relevant ones; (4 classification of the dataset was carried out using four different machine learning algorithms: Random Forest, BayesNet (probabilistic, J48 (decision tree and RIPPER (rule-based induction; and (5 we evaluate the trained models, using the majority-voting system, comparatively to the respective calculated Augmentation Index (AIx. Classification algorithms have been proved to be efficient, in particular Random Forest has shown good accuracy (96.95% and high area under the curve (AUC of a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve (0.961. Finally, during validation tests, a correlation between high risk labels, retrieved from the multi-parametric approach, and positive AIx values was verified. This approach gives allowance for designing new hemodynamic morphology vectors and techniques for multiple APW analysis, thus improving the arterial pulse understanding, especially when compared to traditional single-parameter analysis, where the failure in one parameter measurement component, such as Pi, can jeopardize the whole evaluation.

  12. Consensus-Based Sorting of Neuronal Spike Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Julien; Mueller, Christian M; Shein-Idelson, Mark; Hemberger, Mike; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing spike-sorting algorithms is difficult because sorted clusters can rarely be checked against independently obtained "ground truth" data. In most spike-sorting algorithms in use today, the optimality of a clustering solution is assessed relative to some assumption on the distribution of the spike shapes associated with a particular single unit (e.g., Gaussianity) and by visual inspection of the clustering solution followed by manual validation. When the spatiotemporal waveforms of spikes from different cells overlap, the decision as to whether two spikes should be assigned to the same source can be quite subjective, if it is not based on reliable quantitative measures. We propose a new approach, whereby spike clusters are identified from the most consensual partition across an ensemble of clustering solutions. Using the variability of the clustering solutions across successive iterations of the same clustering algorithm (template matching based on K-means clusters), we estimate the probability of spikes being clustered together and identify groups of spikes that are not statistically distinguishable from one another. Thus, we identify spikes that are most likely to be clustered together and therefore correspond to consistent spike clusters. This method has the potential advantage that it does not rely on any model of the spike shapes. It also provides estimates of the proportion of misclassified spikes for each of the identified clusters. We tested our algorithm on several datasets for which there exists a ground truth (simultaneous intracellular data), and show that it performs close to the optimum reached by a support vector machine trained on the ground truth. We also show that the estimated rate of misclassification matches the proportion of misclassified spikes measured from the ground truth data.

  13. A new parameterization for waveform inversion in acoustic orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2016-05-26

    Orthorhombic anisotropic model inversion is extra challenging because of the multiple parameter nature of the inversion problem. The high number of parameters required to describe the medium exerts considerable trade-off and additional nonlinearity to a full-waveform inversion (FWI) application. Choosing a suitable set of parameters to describe the model and designing an effective inversion strategy can help in mitigating this problem. Using the Born approximation, which is the central ingredient of the FWI update process, we have derived radiation patterns for the different acoustic orthorhombic parameterizations. Analyzing the angular dependence of scattering (radiation patterns) of the parameters of different parameterizations starting with the often used Thomsen-Tsvankin parameterization, we have assessed the potential trade-off between the parameters and the resolution in describing the data and inverting for the parameters. The analysis led us to introduce new parameters ϵd, δd, and ηd, which have azimuthally dependent radiation patterns, but keep the scattering potential of the transversely isotropic parameters stationary with azimuth (azimuth independent). The novel parameters ϵd, δd, and ηd are dimensionless and represent a measure of deviation between the vertical planes in orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, these deviation parameters offer a new parameterization style for an acoustic orthorhombic medium described by six parameters: three vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) parameters, two deviation parameters, and one parameter describing the anisotropy in the horizontal symmetry plane. The main feature of any parameterization based on the deviation parameters, is the azimuthal independency of the modeled data with respect to the VTI parameters, which allowed us to propose practical inversion strategies based on our experience with the VTI parameters. This feature of the new parameterization style holds for even the long-wavelength components of

  14. Full-waveform inversion using a nonlinearly smoothed wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-12-08

    Conventional full-waveform inversion (FWI) based on the least-squares misfit function faces problems in converging to the global minimum when using gradient methods because of the cycle-skipping phenomena. An initial model producing data that are at most a half-cycle away from the observed data is needed for convergence to the global minimum. Low frequencies are helpful in updating low-wavenumber components of the velocity model to avoid cycle skipping. However, low enough frequencies are usually unavailable in field cases. The multiplication of wavefields of slightly different frequencies adds artificial low-frequency components in the data, which can be used for FWI to generate a convergent result and avoid cycle skipping. We generalize this process by multiplying the wavefield with itself and then applying a smoothing operator to the multiplied wavefield or its square to derive the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield, which is rich in low frequencies. The global correlation-norm-based objective function can mitigate the dependence on the amplitude information of the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Therefore, we have evaluated the use of this objective function when using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. The proposed objective function has much larger convexity than the conventional objective functions. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to that of the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. We progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the nonlinear wavefield to naturally adopt the multiscale strategy. Using examples on the Marmousi 2 model, we determine that the proposed FWI helps to generate convergent results without the need for low-frequency information.

  15. New families of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta

    OpenAIRE

    Selivanova, Elena N.

    1997-01-01

    There is a well-known example of integrable conservative system on $S^2$, the case of Kovalevskaya in the dynamics of a rigid body, possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta. Goryachev proposed a one-parameter family of examples of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta which includes the case of Kovalevskaya. In this paper we proposed new examples of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta.

  16. Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in digestive oncology trials: which candidates? A questionnaires survey among clinicians and methodologists

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnetain Franck; Bedenne Laurent; Methy Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Overall survival (OS) is the gold standard for the demonstration of a clinical benefit in cancer trials. Replacement of OS by a surrogate endpoint allows to reduce trial duration. To date, few surrogate endpoints have been validated in digestive oncology. The aim of this study was to draw up an ordered list of potential surrogate endpoints for OS in digestive cancer trials, by way of a survey among clinicians and methodologists. Secondary objective was to obtain their opin...

  17. Serum urate as surrogate endpoint for flares in people with gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamp, Lisa K; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Taylor, William J

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The primary efficacy outcome in trials of urate lowering therapy (ULT) for gout is serum urate (SU). The aim of this study was to examine the strength of the relationship between SU and patient-important outcomes to determine whether SU is an adequate surrogate endpoint for clinical tr...

  18. 78 FR 73199 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Studies With Pharmacokinetic Endpoints for Drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... exposure measures is suitable for documenting BE (e.g., transdermal delivery systems and certain rectal and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-1464] Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Studies With Pharmacokinetic Endpoints for Drugs Submitted...

  19. Baseline characteristics in the Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-Renal Endpoints (ALTITUDE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, Hans-Henrik; Brenner, Barry M; McMurray, John J V

    2012-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes are at enhanced risk for macro- and microvascular complications. Albuminuria and/or reduced kidney function further enhances the vascular risk. We initiated the Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-Renal Endpoints (ALTITUDE). Aliskiren, a novel direct renin...

  20. Can joint sound assess soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test?: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Koji; Ogawa, Munehiro; Tanaka, Kazunori; Matsuya, Ayako; Uematsu, Kota; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-05-12

    The Lachman test is considered to be a reliable physical examination for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Patients with a damaged ACL demonstrate a soft endpoint feeling. However, examiners judge the soft and hard endpoints subjectively. The purpose of our study was to confirm objective performance of the Lachman test using joint auscultation. Human and porcine knee joints were examined. Knee joint sound during the Lachman test (Lachman sound) was analyzed by fast Fourier transformation. As quantitative indices of Lachman sound, the peak sound as the maximum relative amplitude (acoustic pressure) and its frequency were used. The mean Lachman peak sound for healthy volunteer knees was 86.9 ± 12.9 Hz in frequency and -40 ± 2.5 dB in acoustic pressure. The mean Lachman peak sound for intact porcine knees was 84.1 ± 9.4 Hz and -40.5 ± 1.7 dB. Porcine knees with ACL deficiency had a soft endpoint feeling during the Lachman test. The Lachman peak sounds of porcine knees with ACL deficiency were dispersed into four distinct groups, with center frequencies of around 40, 160, 450, and 1600. The Lachman peak sound was capable of assessing soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test objectively.