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Sample records for waveform distortion index

  1. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran

    2017-09-01

    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.

  2. The Influence of Measurement Methodology on the Accuracy of Electrical Waveform Distortion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, Jacek; Kwiatkowski, Bogdan

    2018-04-01

    The present paper covers a review of documents that specify measurement methods of voltage waveform distortion. It also presents measurement stages of waveform components that are uncommon in the classic fundamentals of electrotechnics and signal theory, including the creation process of groups and subgroups of harmonics and interharmonics. Moreover, the paper discusses selected distortion factors of periodic waveforms and presents analyses that compare the values of these distortion indices. The measurements were carried out in the cycle per cycle mode and the measurement methodology that was used complies with the IEC 61000-4-7 norm. The studies showed significant discrepancies between the values of analyzed parameters.

  3. Some advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortion in a smart grid with renewable generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    Power quality (PQ) disturbances are becoming an important issue in smart grids (SGs) due to the significant economic consequences that they can generate on sensible loads. However, SGs include several distributed energy resources (DERs) that can be interconnected to the grid with static converters, which lead to a reduction of the PQ levels. Among DERs, wind turbines and photovoltaic systems are expected to be used extensively due to the forecasted reduction in investment costs and other economic incentives. These systems can introduce significant time-varying voltage and current waveform distortions that require advanced spectral analysis methods to be used. This paper provides an application of advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortions in SGs with dispersed generation. In particular, the Standard International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) method, some parametric methods (such as Prony and Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT)), and some hybrid methods are critically compared on the basis of their accuracy and the computational effort required.

  4. Nonlinear waveform distortion and shock formation in the near field of a continuous wave piston source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Cathignol, Dominique

    2004-05-01

    A classical effect of nonlinear acoustics is that a plane sinusoidal acoustic wave propagating in a nonlinear medium transforms to a sawtooth wave with one shock per cycle. However, the waveform evolution can be quite different in the near field of a plane source due to diffraction. Previous numerical simulations of nonlinear acoustic waves in the near field of a circular piston source predict the development of two shocks per wave cycle [Khokhlova et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 95-108 (2001)]. Moreover, at some locations the peak pressure may be up to 4 times the source amplitude. The motivation of this work was to experimentally verify and further explain the phenomena of the nonlinear waveform distortion. Measurements were conducted in water with a 47-mm-diameter unfocused transducer, working at 1-MHz frequency. For pressure amplitudes higher than 0.5 MPa, two shocks per cycle were observed in the waveform beyond the last minimum of the fundamental harmonic amplitude. With the increase of the observation distance, these two shocks collided and formed one shock (per cycle), i.e., the waveform developed into the classical sawtooth wave. The experimental results were in a very good agreement with the modeling based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation.

  5. Photoplethysmographic signal waveform index for detection of increased arterial stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilt, K; Meigas, K; Ferenets, R; Temitski, K; Viigimaa, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the validity of the photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveform index PPGAI for the estimation of increased arterial stiffness. For this purpose, PPG signals were recorded from 24 healthy subjects and from 20 type II diabetes patients. The recorded PPG signals were processed with the analysis algorithm developed and the waveform index PPGAI similar to the augmentation index (AIx) was calculated. As a reference, the aortic AIx was assessed and normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75) by a SphygmoCor device. A strong correlation (r = 0.85) between the PPGAI and the aortic AIx@75 and a positive correlation of both indices with age were found. Age corrections for the indices PPGAI and AIx@75 as regression models from the signals of healthy subjects were constructed. Both indices revealed a significant difference between the groups of diabetes patients and healthy controls. However, the PPGAI provided the best statistical discrimination for the group of subjects with increased arterial stiffness. The waveform index PPGAI based on the inexpensive PPG technology can be considered as a perspective measure of increased arterial stiffness estimation in clinical screenings. (paper)

  6. Accurate Methods for Signal Processing of Distorted Waveforms in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langella R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A primary problem in waveform distortion assessment in power systems is to examine ways to reduce the effects of spectral leakage. In the framework of DFT approaches, line frequency synchronization techniques or algorithms to compensate for desynchronization are necessary; alternative approaches such as those based on the Prony and ESPRIT methods are not sensitive to desynchronization, but they often require significant computational burden. In this paper, the signal processing aspects of the problem are considered; different proposals by the same authors regarding DFT-, Prony-, and ESPRIT-based advanced methods are reviewed and compared in terms of their accuracy and computational efforts. The results of several numerical experiments are reported and analysed; some of them are in accordance with IEC Standards, while others use more open scenarios.

  7. System performance enhancement with pre-distorted OOFDM signal waveforms in DM/DD systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Capmany, J

    2014-03-24

    In this work we propose a pre-distortion technique for the mitigation of the nonlinear distortion present in directly modulated/detected OOFDM systems and explore the system performance achieved under varying system parameters. Simulation results show that the proposed pre-distortion technique efficiently mitigates the nonlinear distortion, achieving transmission information rates around 40 Gbits/s and 18.5 Gbits/s over 40 km and 100 km of single mode fiber links, respectively, under optimum operating conditions. Moreover, the proposed pre-distortion technique can potentially provide higher system performance to that obtained with nonlinear equalization at the receiver.

  8. Distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Isabella Odorico; Zmylon, Nanna Nielsen; Britze, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the audience’s perception of the music festival Distortion. By conducting a field-study focusing on the subject’s perception of Distortion, their perception of the Distortion-attendants, and their perception on the promotion of Distortion, the paper will relate the audience perception to the promotion of the event. Using the group’s own research on the promotion of Distortion, the paper points out both the consistencies and the inconsistencies between the promotion and...

  9. A spatio-temporal index for aerial full waveform laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laefer, Debra F.; Vo, Anh-Vu; Bertolotto, Michela

    2018-04-01

    Aerial laser scanning is increasingly available in the full waveform version of the raw signal, which can provide greater insight into and control over the data and, thus, richer information about the scanned scenes. However, when compared to conventional discrete point storage, preserving raw waveforms leads to vastly larger and more complex data volumes. To begin addressing these challenges, this paper introduces a novel bi-level approach for storing and indexing full waveform (FWF) laser scanning data in a relational database environment, while considering both the spatial and the temporal dimensions of that data. In the storage scheme's upper level, the full waveform datasets are partitioned into spatial and temporal coherent groups that are indexed by a two-dimensional R∗-tree. To further accelerate intra-block data retrieval, at the lower level a three-dimensional local octree is created for each pulse block. The local octrees are implemented in-memory and can be efficiently written to a database for reuse. The indexing solution enables scalable and efficient three-dimensional (3D) spatial and spatio-temporal queries on the actual pulse data - functionalities not available in other systems. The proposed FWF laser scanning data solution is capable of managing multiple FWF datasets derived from large flight missions. The flight structure is embedded into the data storage model and can be used for querying predicates. Such functionality is important to FWF data exploration since aircraft locations and orientations are frequently required for FWF data analyses. Empirical tests on real datasets of up to 1 billion pulses from Dublin, Ireland prove the almost perfect scalability of the system. The use of the local 3D octree in the indexing structure accelerated pulse clipping by 1.2-3.5 times for non-axis-aligned (NAA) polyhedron shaped clipping windows, while axis-aligned (AA) polyhedron clipping was better served using only the top indexing layer. The distinct

  10. Pulsatility Index as a Diagnostic Parameter of Reciprocating Wall Shear Stress Parameters in Physiological Pulsating Waveforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit Avrahami

    Full Text Available Arterial wall shear stress (WSS parameters are widely used for prediction of the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and arterial pathologies. Traditional clinical evaluation of arterial condition relies on correlations of WSS parameters with average flow rate (Q and heart rate (HR measurements. We show that for pulsating flow waveforms in a straight tube with flow reversals that lead to significant reciprocating WSS, the measurements of HR and Q are not sufficient for prediction of WSS parameters. Therefore, we suggest adding a third quantity-known as the pulsatility index (PI-which is defined as the peak-to-peak flow rate amplitude normalized by Q. We examine several pulsating flow waveforms with and without flow reversals using a simulation of a Womersley model in a straight rigid tube and validate the simulations through experimental study using particle image velocimetry (PIV. The results indicate that clinically relevant WSS parameters such as the percentage of negative WSS (P[%], oscillating shear index (OSI and the ratio of minimum to maximum shear stress rates (min/max, are better predicted when the PI is used in conjunction with HR and Q. Therefore, we propose to use PI as an additional and essential diagnostic quantity for improved predictability of the reciprocating WSS.

  11. Reduction of waveform distortion in grid-injection current from single-phase utility interactive PV-inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Muhammad Imran; Jusoh, Awang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A reduction scheme for harmonics from utility interactive PV-inverter is proposed. • Single-phase conditioner with 3-phase expandability structure is used. • The single-phase conditioner in 3-phase structure work independently. • The scheme works effectively within overall operation range of the PV-inverter. • Conditioner in the scheme also improves the PV-inverter and plant’s utility factor. - Abstract: As the natural behavior of energy source and design characteristic, the current generated by a grid-interactive PV-inverter may contain harmonics. This distortion component will be carried on from the PV-inverter during injection power into the grid. Excessive harmonics in a grid will lead to a variety of power quality problems. This paper presents a distortion reduction scheme, utilizing a fed forward single-phase, generation-side power conditioner with a structure that can be expanded for use in a three-phase system and can work independently under imbalanced condition. Conditioner is placed in parallel with the photovoltaic plant and it functions to compensate the plant’s output current distortion, so that the total current flow to the grid is sinusoidal. This method also includes the implementation of a simpler control system for the conditioner, which consists of a combination of distortion current extraction, synchronization and a current control system, and realized through a TMS320F28335: a 150 MHz floating point DSP controller. Testing of the conditioner prototype, which was conducted on a real operation of a PV plant, showed that the scheme worked effectively within the overall operation range of the PV plant. This paper also discusses the potential of utility factor improvement of the PV-inverter and plant due to implementation of conditioner in the scheme

  12. A clinical distortion index for compressed echocardiogram evaluation: recommendations for Xvid codec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesanco, A; Hernández, C; García, J; Portolés, A; Aured, C; García, M; Ramos, L; Serrano, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new clinical distortion index able to measure the decrease in diagnostic content in compressed echocardiograms. It is calculated using cardiologists' answers to a clinical testbed composed of two types of tests: one blind and the other semi-blind. This index may be used to compare clinical performance among video codecs from a clinical perspective. It can also be used to classify compression rates into useful and useless ranges, thus providing recommendations for echocardiogram compression. A study carried out in order to illustrate its use with Xvid video codec is also presented. The results obtained showed that, for 2D and M modes, the transmission rate should be at least 768 kbit s −1 and for color Doppler mode and pulsed/continuous Doppler, 256 kbit s −1

  13. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception on Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI and body mass index (BMI categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI, women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42 were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42. Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59. Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  14. The combined effect of subjective body image and body mass index (distorted body weight perception) on suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  15. Spectral Doppler Waveforms for Diagnosis of Appendicitis: Potential Utility of Point Peak Systolic Velocity and Resistive Index Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Lewis K; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Berry, Gerald J; Olcott, Eric W

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that appendiceal spectral Doppler waveforms can distinguish patients with and patients without appendicitis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, Doppler waveforms were obtained from intramural appendiceal arteries identified with color Doppler imaging in 60% (93 of 155) of consecutive patients whose appendices were visualized at graded compression ultrasonography (US) performed for suspected appendicitis (53 male and 40 female; age, 1-56 years; mean, 14.5 years) over the 5-month period from November 2015 through March 2016. Point, non-angle-corrected peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) values were compared between patients with and patients without appendicitis by utilizing histopathologically proven appendicitis and 6-week clinical follow-up as diagnostic reference standards. Data were assessed by using the Student t test, exact binomial distribution, two-sample test of proportions, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Among the 93 patients, 36 (38.7%) had proven appendicitis (mean PSV, 19.7 cm/sec; mean RI, 0.69) and 57 patients (61.2%) did not (mean PSV, 7.1 cm/sec, P appendicitis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 1.00) for PSV and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95; P = .011) for RI. Chosen discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 94.7% and 96.5% with sensitivity of 88.9% and 63.9% (P = .013) and negative predictive value of 93.1% and 80.9% (P = .045), respectively. Original clinical graded compression US interpretations based on established US findings demonstrated specificity of 96.2% and sensitivity of 100.0%. Considering the subset of 20 patients whose maximum outer diameter measured 6-8 mm, the discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 88.9% each, with sensitivity of 100.0% and 63.6% and negative predictive value of 100

  16. Time-dependent phase error correction using digital waveform synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Buskirk, Stephen

    2017-10-10

    The various technologies presented herein relate to correcting a time-dependent phase error generated as part of the formation of a radar waveform. A waveform can be pre-distorted to facilitate correction of an error induced into the waveform by a downstream operation/component in a radar system. For example, amplifier power droop effect can engender a time-dependent phase error in a waveform as part of a radar signal generating operation. The error can be quantified and an according complimentary distortion can be applied to the waveform to facilitate negation of the error during the subsequent processing of the waveform. A time domain correction can be applied by a phase error correction look up table incorporated into a waveform phase generator.

  17. Frequency modulation television analysis: Distortion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, W. H.; Wong, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Computer simulation is used to calculate the time-domain waveform of standard T-pulse-and-bar test signal distorted in passing through an FM television system. The simulator includes flat or preemphasized systems and requires specification of the RF predetection filter characteristics. The predetection filters are modeled with frequency-symmetric Chebyshev (0.1-db ripple) and Butterworth filters. The computer was used to calculate distorted output signals for sixty-four different specified systems, and the output waveforms are plotted for all sixty-four. Comparison of the plotted graphs indicates that a Chebyshev predetection filter of four poles causes slightly more signal distortion than a corresponding Butterworth filter and the signal distortion increases as the number of poles increases. An increase in the peak deviation also increases signal distortion. Distortion also increases with the addition of preemphasis.

  18. Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brock Franklin

    2017-11-28

    High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.

  19. Programmable waveform controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    A programmable waveform controller (PWC) was developed for voltage waveform generation in the laboratory. It is based on the Intel 8080 family of chips. The hardware uses the modular board approach, sharing a common 44-pin bus. The software contains two separate programs: the first generates a single connected linear ramp waveform and is capable of bipolar operation, linear interpolation between input data points, extended time range, and cycling; the second generates four independent square waveforms with variable duration and amplitude

  20. Amplifier Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2006-12-01

    By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.

  1. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  2. A Denoising Method for LiDAR Full-Waveform Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of LiDAR full-waveform data can not only enhance the density and positioning accuracy of a point cloud, but also provide other useful parameters, such as pulse width, peak amplitude, and peak position which are important information for subsequent processing. Full-waveform data usually contain some random noises. Traditional filtering algorithms always cause distortion in the waveform. λ/μ filtering algorithm is based on Mean Shift method. It can smooth the signal iteratively and will not cause any distortion in the waveform. In this paper, an improved λ/μ filtering algorithm is proposed, and several experiments on both simulated waveform data and real waveform data are implemented to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Surrogate waveform models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott; Galley, Chad; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Tiglio, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    With the advanced detector era just around the corner, there is a strong need for fast and accurate models of gravitational waveforms from compact binary coalescence. Fast surrogate models can be built out of an accurate but slow waveform model with minimal to no loss in accuracy, but may require a large number of evaluations of the underlying model. This may be prohibitively expensive if the underlying is extremely slow, for example if we wish to build a surrogate for numerical relativity. We examine alternate choices to building surrogate models which allow for a more sparse set of input waveforms. Research supported in part by NSERC.

  4. Compressive full waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  5. Determination of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) on a 33kv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern day AC power systems are proliferated by the introduction of several kinds of nonlinear loads which generate harmonics in a power system and this has a cumulative negative effect on power quality. Examples of nonlinear loads are power electronic devices, which cause distortion of voltage and current waveforms ...

  6. Changes of brachial arterial doppler waveform during immersion of the hand of young men in ice-cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Goo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of brachial arterial Doppler waveform during immersion of the hand of young men in ice-cold water. Doppler waveforms of brachial arteries in 11 young male patients were recorded before and during immersion of ipsilateral hand in ice-cold water(4-5 .deg. C). The procedure was repeated on separate days. Patterns of waveform during immersion were compared with the changes of pulsatility index. Four men showed high impedance waveforms, and 5 men showed low impedance waveforms during immersion both at the first and at the second study. Two men, however, showed high impedance waveforms at the first study and tow impedance waveforms at the second study. The pulsatility index rose and fell in high and low impedance waveforms, respectively. The changes of brachial arterial Doppler waveforms could be classified into high and low impedance patterns, probably reflecting the acute changes in downstream impedance during immersion of hand in ice-cold water

  7. Multichannel waveform display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    For any multichannel data acquisition system, a multichannel paper chart recorder undoubtedly forms an essential part of the system. When deployed on-line, it instantaneously provides, for visual inspection, hard copies of the signal waveforms on common time base at any desired sensitivity and time resolution. Within the country, only a small range of these strip chart recorder s is available, and under stringent specifications imported recorders are often procured. The cost of such recorders may range from 1 to 5 lakhs of rupees in foreign exchange. A system to provide on the oscilloscope a steady display of multichannel waveforms, refreshed from the digital data stored in the memory is developed. The merits and demerits of the display system are compared with that built around a conventional paper chart recorder. Various illustrations of multichannel seismic event data acquired at Gauribidanur seismic array station are also presented. (author). 2 figs

  8. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  9. Harmonic distortion in microwave photonic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Bolea, Mario; Capmany, José

    2012-04-09

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of nonlinear microwave photonic filters. Far from the conventional condition of low modulation index commonly used to neglect high-order terms, we have analyzed the harmonic distortion involved in microwave photonic structures with periodic and non-periodic frequency responses. We show that it is possible to design microwave photonic filters with reduced harmonic distortion and high linearity even under large signal operation.

  10. Electronics via waveform analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Edwin C

    1993-01-01

    The author believes that a good basic understanding of electronics can be achieved by detailed visual analyses of the actual voltage waveforms present in selected circuits. The voltage waveforms included in this text were photographed using a 35-rrun camera in an attempt to make the book more attractive. This book is intended for the use of students with a variety of backgrounds. For this reason considerable material has been placed in the Appendix for those students who find it useful. The Appendix includes many basic electricity and electronic concepts as well as mathematical derivations that are not vital to the understanding of the circuit being discussed in the text at that time. Also some derivations might be so long that, if included in the text, it could affect the concentration of the student on the circuit being studied. The author has tried to make the book comprehensive enough so that a student could use it as a self-study course, providing one has access to adequate laboratory equipment.

  11. Distortion Control during Welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbari Pazooki, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The local material expansion and contraction involved in welding result in permanent deformations or instability i.e., welding distortion. Considerable efforts have been made in controlling welding distortion prior to, during or after welding. Thermal Tensioning (TT) describes a group of in-situ

  12. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  13. Waveform Sampler CAMAC Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.; Haller, G.M.; Kang, H.; Wang, J.

    1985-09-01

    A Waveform Sampler Module (WSM) for the measurement of signal shapes coming from the multi-hit drift chambers of the SLAC SLC detector is described. The module uses a high speed, high resolution analog storage device (AMU) developed in collaboration between SLAC and Stanford University. The AMU devices together with high speed TTL clocking circuitry are packaged in a hybrid which is also suitable for mounting on the detector. The module is in CAMAC format and provides eight signal channels, each recording signal amplitude versus time in 512 cells at a sampling rate of up to 360 MHz. Data are digitized by a 12-bit ADC with a 1 μs conversion time and stored in an on-board memory accessible through CAMAC

  14. Waveform Catalog, Extreme Mass Ratio Binary (Capture)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerically-generated gravitational waveforms for circular inspiral into Kerr black holes. These waveforms were developed using Scott Hughes' black hole perturbation...

  15. Measurement of 2D vector magnetic properties under the distorted flux density conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Shinya; Todaka, Takashi; Enokizono, Masato; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Shimoji, Hiroyasu

    2006-01-01

    Under distorted flux density condition, it is very difficult to evaluate the field intensity, because there is no criterion for the measurement. In the linear approximation, the measured field intensity waveform (MFI) is compared with the linear synthesis of field intensity waveform (LSFI) in each frequency, and it is shown that they are not in good agreement at higher induction. In this paper, we examined the 2D vector magnetic properties excited by distorted flux density, which consists of the 1st (fundamental frequency: 50 Hz), 3rd, and 5th harmonics. Improved linear synthesis of the field intensity waveform (ILSFI) is proposed as a new estimation method of the field intensity, instead of the conventional linear synthesis of field intensity waveform (LSFI). The usefulness of the proposed ILSFI is demonstrated in the comparison with the measured results

  16. Measurement of 2D vector magnetic properties under the distorted flux density conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Shinya [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)]. E-mail: urata@mag.eee.oita-u.ac.jp; Todaka, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Enokizono, Masato [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Maeda, Yoshitaka [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Shimoji, Hiroyasu [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    Under distorted flux density condition, it is very difficult to evaluate the field intensity, because there is no criterion for the measurement. In the linear approximation, the measured field intensity waveform (MFI) is compared with the linear synthesis of field intensity waveform (LSFI) in each frequency, and it is shown that they are not in good agreement at higher induction. In this paper, we examined the 2D vector magnetic properties excited by distorted flux density, which consists of the 1st (fundamental frequency: 50 Hz), 3rd, and 5th harmonics. Improved linear synthesis of the field intensity waveform (ILSFI) is proposed as a new estimation method of the field intensity, instead of the conventional linear synthesis of field intensity waveform (LSFI). The usefulness of the proposed ILSFI is demonstrated in the comparison with the measured results.

  17. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  18. Use of the Kalman Filter for Aortic Pressure Waveform Noise Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Frank; Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Wu, Chung-Che; Aliyazicioglu, Zekeriya; Kang, James S

    2017-01-01

    Clinical applications that require extraction and interpretation of physiological signals or waveforms are susceptible to corruption by noise or artifacts. Real-time hemodynamic monitoring systems are important for clinicians to assess the hemodynamic stability of surgical or intensive care patients by interpreting hemodynamic parameters generated by an analysis of aortic blood pressure (ABP) waveform measurements. Since hemodynamic parameter estimation algorithms often detect events and features from measured ABP waveforms to generate hemodynamic parameters, noise and artifacts integrated into ABP waveforms can severely distort the interpretation of hemodynamic parameters by hemodynamic algorithms. In this article, we propose the use of the Kalman filter and the 4-element Windkessel model with static parameters, arterial compliance C , peripheral resistance R , aortic impedance r , and the inertia of blood L , to represent aortic circulation for generating accurate estimations of ABP waveforms through noise and artifact reduction. Results show the Kalman filter could very effectively eliminate noise and generate a good estimation from the noisy ABP waveform based on the past state history. The power spectrum of the measured ABP waveform and the synthesized ABP waveform shows two similar harmonic frequencies.

  19. Propagation compensation by waveform predistortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Thomas F.; Urkowitz, Harry; Maron, David E.

    Certain modifications of the Cobra Dane radar are considered, particularly modernization of the waveform generator. For wideband waveforms, the dispersive effects of the ionosphere become increasingly significant. The technique of predistorting the transmitted waveform so that a linear chirp is received after two-way passage is one way to overcome that dispersion. This approach is maintained for the modified system, but with a specific predistortion waveform well suited to the modification. The appropriate form of predistortion was derived in an implicit form of time as a function of frequency. The exact form was approximated by Taylor series and pseudo-Chebyshev approximation. The latter proved better, as demonstrated by the resulting smaller loss in detection sensitivity, less coarsening of range resolution, and a lower peak sidelobe. The effects of error in determining the plasma delay constant were determined and are given in graphical form. A suggestion for in-place determination of the plasma delay constant is given.

  20. Distortion dependent intersystem crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2017-01-01

    . The effect is observed to increase in the presence of methyl-groups on the pinnacle carbon-atoms, where largest extents of r and p orbital-mixing are observed. This is fully consistent with the time-resolved spectroscopy data: Toluene and p-xylene show evidence for ultrafast triplet formation competing......The competition between ultrafast intersystem crossing and internal conversion in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene is investigated with time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. By exciting to S2 out-of-plane symmetry breaking, distortions are activated at early...... times whereupon spin-forbidden intersystem crossing becomes (partly) allowed. Natural bond orbital analysis suggests that the pinnacle carbon atoms distorting from the aromatic plane change hybridization between the planar Franck-Condon geometry and the deformed (boat-shaped) S2 equilibrium geometry...

  1. The effect of inlet waveforms on computational hemodynamics of patient-specific intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, J; Siddiqui, A H; Meng, H

    2014-12-18

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic quantities that have been shown to predict aneurysm rupture, as well as maximal WSS (MWSS), energy loss (EL) and pressure loss coefficient (PLc). Sixteen pulsatile CFD simulations were carried out on four typical saccular aneurysms using 4 different waveforms and an identical inflow rate as inlet boundary conditions. Our results demonstrated that under the same mean inflow rate, different waveforms produced almost identical WSS distributions and WSS magnitudes, similar OSI distributions but drastically different OSI magnitudes. The OSI magnitude is correlated with the pulsatility index of the waveform. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between aneurysm-averaged OSI values calculated from one waveform and those calculated from another waveform. In addition, different waveforms produced similar MWSS, EL and PLc in each aneurysm. In conclusion, inlet waveform has minimal effects on WSS, OSI distribution, MWSS, EL and PLc and a strong effect on OSI magnitude, but aneurysm-averaged OSI from different waveforms has a strong linear correlation with each other across different aneurysms, indicating that for the same aneurysm cohort, different waveforms can consistently stratify (rank) OSI of aneurysms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhenchun; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Guo, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion

  3. Microwave dynamic large signal waveform characterization of advanced InGaP HBT for power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lixin; Jin Zhi; Liu Xinyu, E-mail: zhaolixin@ime.ac.c [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2009-12-15

    In wireless mobile communications and wireless local area networks (WLAN), advanced InGaP HBT with power amplifiers are key components. In this paper, the microwave large signal dynamic waveform characteristics of an advanced InGaP HBT are investigated experimentally for 5.8 GHz power amplifier applications. The microwave large signal waveform distortions at various input power levels, especially at large signal level, are investigated and the reasons are analyzed. The output power saturation is also explained. These analyses will be useful for power amplifier designs. (semiconductor devices)

  4. Hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Yildirim, Tulin; Torun, Dilek; Tercan, Fahri; Kizilkilic, Osman; Niron, E. Alp

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL). Materials and methods: In this prospective study, 40 patients with diffuse FIL and 50 normal healthy adults who served as control group underwent hepatic vein (HV) Doppler ultrasonography. The patients with the diagnosis of FIL were 23 men (57.5%) and 17 women aged 30-62 years (mean age ± S.D., 42 ± 12 years). Subjects in the control group were 27 men (54%) and 23 women aged 34-65 years (mean age ± S.D., 45 ± 14 years). The diagnosis of FIL was confirmed with computed tomography density measurements. The waveforms of HV were classified into three groups: regular triphasic waveform, biphasic waveform without a reverse flow, and monophasic or flat waveform. Etiological factors for FIL were diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia and obesity (body mass index > 25). Serum lipid profile was obtained from all the patients with FIL. Results: Seventeen of the 40 patients (43%) with FIL had an abnormal HV Doppler waveform, whereas only one of the 50 (2%) healthy subjects had an abnormal waveform. The difference in the distribution of normal Doppler waveform pattern between the patients and the control group was significant (P 0.05). There was not any correlation between the degree of fat infiltration and the hepatic vein waveform pattern (P = 0.60). Conclusion: Patients with fatty liver has a high rate of an abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform pattern which can be biphasic or monophasic. We could not find a relation between the etiological factors for FIL and the occurrence of an abnormal HV Doppler waveform

  5. Models of brachial to finger pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizdulich, P; Prentza, A; Wesseling, K H

    1997-03-01

    To model the pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement occurring between brachial and finger arteries. Distortion reversion and decrement correction were also our aims. Brachial artery pressure was recorded intra-arterially and finger pressure was recorded non-invasively by the Finapres technique in 53 adult human subjects. Mean pressure was subtracted from each pressure waveform and Fourier analysis applied to the pulsations. A distortion model was estimated for each subject and averaged over the group. The average inverse model was applied to the full finger pressure waveform. The pressure decrement was modelled by multiple regression on finger systolic and diastolic levels. Waveform distortion could be described by a general, frequency dependent model having a resonance at 7.3 Hz. The general inverse model has an anti-resonance at this frequency. It converts finger to brachial pulsations thereby reducing average waveform distortion from 9.7 (s.d. 3.2) mmHg per sample for the finger pulse to 3.7 (1.7) mmHg for the converted pulse. Systolic and diastolic level differences between finger and brachial arterial pressures changed from -4 (15) and -8 (11) to +8 (14) and +8 (12) mmHg, respectively, after inverse modelling, with pulse pressures correct on average. The pressure decrement model reduced both the mean and the standard deviation of systolic and diastolic level differences to 0 (13) and 0 (8) mmHg. Diastolic differences were thus reduced most. Brachial to finger pulse wave distortion due to wave reflection in arteries is almost identical in all subjects and can be modelled by a single resonance. The pressure decrement due to flow in arteries is greatest for high pulse pressures superimposed on low means.

  6. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (http://salvus.io), a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  7. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya KARTHIKAESHWARAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  8. Limited distortion in LSB steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younhee; Duric, Zoran; Richards, Dana

    2006-02-01

    It is well known that all information hiding methods that modify the least significant bits introduce distortions into the cover objects. Those distortions have been utilized by steganalysis algorithms to detect that the objects had been modified. It has been proposed that only coefficients whose modification does not introduce large distortions should be used for embedding. In this paper we propose an effcient algorithm for information hiding in the LSBs of JPEG coefficients. Our algorithm uses parity coding to choose the coefficients whose modifications introduce minimal additional distortion. We derive the expected value of the additional distortion as a function of the message length and the probability distribution of the JPEG quantization errors of cover images. Our experiments show close agreement between the theoretical prediction and the actual additional distortion.

  9. The Effect of Inlet Waveforms on Computational Hemodynamics of Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, J.; Siddiqui, A.H.; Meng, H.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic qu...

  10. Doppler waveform of hepatic vein in patients with chronic hepatitis B; Correlation with histologic grade and stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Kyeong Tae; Namkung, Sook; Bae, Sang Hoon; Choi, Young Hee

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the waveform of the right hepatic vein and the histological grade and stage in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Eighty-seven patients with chronic hepatitis B were examined prospectively by one sonographer. In each patient, Doppler waveform of the right hepatic vein was obtained. Doppler waveform was classified into 3 type, type 0; normal triphasic pattern, type 1; reduced amplitude of phasic oscillation and no reverse flow phase, and type 2; completely flat flow pattern. In the same session, an ultrasound guided liver biopsy was performed and submitted to one pathologist for grading and staging. Duplex doppler ultrasonography of the right hepatic vein was also performed in 12 control subjects with no evidence of liver or heart disease. The doppler waveform was compared with the histologic severity and a statistical analysis was performed. In the control group, all cases had type 0 waveform. In the hepatitis group, there were type 0 waveform in 61 cases (70.1%), type 1 waveform in 22 cases (25.3%) and type 2 waveform in 4 cases (4.6%). The frequency of abnormal waveform is significantly higher in patients with grade 3-4 and stage 3-4 than grade and stage 1-2 (p>0.005). In the hepatitis group, the venous pulsatility index (VPI) was 0.17-0.69 (mean 0.41), and decreased in the highest and mean values when increasing the histologic scores. However, it was nor significant statistically (p>0.05). The frequency of abnormal waveform was correlated with the histologic severity in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The highest and mean values of the VPI were also correlated. However 70.1% of the patients with chronic hepatitis B showed normal waveform. So doppler ultrasonogram of the hepatic vein may be useful for the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis from cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B by combination of doppler waveform and venous pulsatility index.

  11. Analysis of tractable distortion metrics for EEG compression applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazán-Prieto, Carlos; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando; Cárdenas-Barrera, Julián

    2012-01-01

    Coding distortion in lossy electroencephalographic (EEG) signal compression methods is evaluated through tractable objective criteria. The percentage root-mean-square difference, which is a global and relative indicator of the quality held by reconstructed waveforms, is the most widely used criterion. However, this parameter does not ensure compliance with clinical standard guidelines that specify limits to allowable noise in EEG recordings. As a result, expert clinicians may have difficulties interpreting the resulting distortion of the EEG for a given value of this parameter. Conversely, the root-mean-square error is an alternative criterion that quantifies distortion in understandable units. In this paper, we demonstrate that the root-mean-square error is better suited to control and to assess the distortion introduced by compression methods. The experiments conducted in this paper show that the use of the root-mean-square error as target parameter in EEG compression allows both clinicians and scientists to infer whether coding error is clinically acceptable or not at no cost for the compression ratio. (paper)

  12. Distortions in Judged Spatial Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Albert

    1978-01-01

    Distortions in judgments of relative geographical relations were observed, particularly when the locations were in different geographical or political units. Subjects distorted the judged relation to conform with the relation of the superordinate political unit. A model for the hierachical storage of spatial information is presented. (Author/RD)

  13. Seismic waveform modeling over cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    With the fast growing computational technologies, numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation achieved huge successes. Obtaining the synthetic waveforms through numerical simulation receives an increasing amount of attention from seismologists. However, computational seismology is a data-intensive research field, and the numerical packages usually come with a steep learning curve. Users are expected to master considerable amount of computer knowledge and data processing skills. Training users to use the numerical packages, correctly access and utilize the computational resources is a troubled task. In addition to that, accessing to HPC is also a common difficulty for many users. To solve these problems, a cloud based solution dedicated on shallow seismic waveform modeling has been developed with the state-of-the-art web technologies. It is a web platform integrating both software and hardware with multilayer architecture: a well designed SQL database serves as the data layer, HPC and dedicated pipeline for it is the business layer. Through this platform, users will no longer need to compile and manipulate various packages on the local machine within local network to perform a simulation. By providing users professional access to the computational code through its interfaces and delivering our computational resources to the users over cloud, users can customize the simulation at expert-level, submit and run the job through it.

  14. PBX-M waveform generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.; Frank, K.T.; Kaye, S.

    1987-01-01

    The PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment) is an unique Tokamak experiment designed to run with a highly indented plasma. The shaping control will be accomplished through a closed-loop power supply control system. The system will make use of sixteen pre-programmed reference signals and twenty signals taken from direct measurements as input to an analog computer. Through a matrix conversion in the analog computer, these input signals will be used to generate eight control signals to control the eight power supplies. The pre-programmed reference signals will be created using a Macintosh personal computer interfaced to CAMAC (Comptuer Automated Measurement And Control) hardware for down-loading waveforms. The reference signals will be created on the Macintosh by the physics operators, utilizing the full graphics capability of the system. These waveforms are transferred to CAMAC memory, which are then strobed in real time through digital-to-analog converters and fed into the analog computer. The overall system (both hardware and software) is designed to be fail-safe. Specific features of the system, such as load inhibit and discharge inhibit, are discussed

  15. Volterra Series Based Distortion Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2010-01-01

    A large part of the characteristic sound of the electric guitar comes from nonlinearities in the signal path. Such nonlinearities may come from the input- or output-stage of the amplier, which is often equipped with vacuum tubes or a dedicated distortion pedal. In this paper the Volterra series...... expansion for non linear systems is investigated with respect to generating good distortion. The Volterra series allows for unlimited adjustment of the level and frequency dependency of each distortion component. Subjectively relevant ways of linking the dierent orders are discussed....

  16. Pulsatile pipe flow transition: Flow waveform effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindise, Melissa C.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2018-01-01

    Although transition is known to exist in various hemodynamic environments, the mechanisms that govern this flow regime and their subsequent effects on biological parameters are not well understood. Previous studies have investigated transition in pulsatile pipe flow using non-physiological sinusoidal waveforms at various Womersley numbers but have produced conflicting results, and multiple input waveform shapes have yet to be explored. In this work, we investigate the effect of the input pulsatile waveform shape on the mechanisms that drive the onset and development of transition using particle image velocimetry, three pulsatile waveforms, and six mean Reynolds numbers. The turbulent kinetic energy budget including dissipation rate, production, and pressure diffusion was computed. The results show that the waveform with a longer deceleration phase duration induced the earliest onset of transition, while the waveform with a longer acceleration period delayed the onset of transition. In accord with the findings of prior studies, for all test cases, turbulence was observed to be produced at the wall and either dissipated or redistributed into the core flow by pressure waves, depending on the mean Reynolds number. Turbulent production increased with increasing temporal velocity gradients until an asymptotic limit was reached. The turbulence dissipation rate was shown to be independent of mean Reynolds number, but a relationship between the temporal gradients of the input velocity waveform and the rate of turbulence dissipation was found. In general, these results demonstrated that the shape of the input pulsatile waveform directly affected the onset and development of transition.

  17. Waveform digitizing at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiya, M.; Ito, M.; Haggerty, J.; Ng, C.; Sippach, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiment E787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory is designed to study the decay K + → π + ν/bar /nu// to a sensitivity of 2 /times/ 10 -10 . To achieve acceptable muon rejection it is necessary to couple traditional methods (range/energy/momentum correlation) with observation of the (π + → μ + ν, μ + → e + ν/bar /nu//) decay sequence in scintillator. We report on the design and construction of 200 channels of relatively low cost solid state waveform digitizers. The distinguishing features are: 8 bits dynamic range, 500 MHz sampling, zero suppression on the fly, deep memory (up to .5 msec), and fast readout time (100 μsec for the entire system). We report on data obtained during the February-May 1988 run showing performance of the system for the observation of the above decay. 8 figs

  18. Waveform digitizing at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiya, M.; Ito, M.; Haggerty, J.; Ng, C.; Sippach, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiment E787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory is designed to study the decay K + → π + ν/bar /nu// to a sensitivity of 2 /times/ 10/sup /minus/10/. To achieve acceptable muon rejection it is necessary to couple traditional methods (range/energy/momentum correlation) with observation of the π + → μ + → e + ν/bar /nu// decay sequence in scintillator. We report on the design and construction of over 200 channels of relatively low cost solid state waveform digitizers. The distinguishing features are: 8 bits dynamic range, 500 MHz sampling, zero suppression on the fly, deep memory (up to .5 msec), and fast readout time (100 μsec for the entire system). We report on data obtained during the February--May 1988 run showing performance of the system for the observation of the above decay. 9 figs

  19. Distortion of gravitational-wave packets due to their self-gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    When a source emits a gravity-wave (GW) pulse over a short period of time, the leading edge of the GW signal is redshifted more than the inner boundary of the pulse. The GW pulse is distorted by the gravitational effect of the self-energy residing in between these shells. We illustrate this distortion for GW pulses from the final plunge of black hole binaries, leading to the evolution of the GW profile as a function of the radial distance from the source. The distortion depends on the total GW energy released ε and the duration of the emission τ, scaled by the total binary mass M. The effect should be relevant in finite box simulations where the waveforms are extracted within a radius of 2 M. For characteristic emission parameters at the final plunge between binary black holes of arbitrary spins, this effect could distort the simulated GW templates for LIGO and LISA by a fraction of 10 -3 . Accounting for the wave distortion would significantly decrease the waveform extraction errors in numerical simulations

  20. Characterization of volumetric flow rate waveforms at the carotid bifurcations of older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoi, Yiemeng; Xie, Yuanyuan J; Steinman, David A; Wasserman, Bruce A; Najjar, Samer S; Lakatta, Edward G; Ferruci, Luigi; Gerstenblith, Gary

    2010-01-01

    While it is widely appreciated that volumetric blood flow rate (VFR) dynamics change with age, there has been no detailed characterization of the typical shape of carotid bifurcation VFR waveforms of older adults. Toward this end, retrospectively gated phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure time-resolved VFR waveforms proximal and distal to the carotid bifurcations of 94 older adults (age 68 ± 8 years) with little or no carotid artery disease, recruited from the BLSA cohort of the VALIDATE study of factors in vascular aging. Timings and amplitudes of well-defined feature points from these waveforms were extracted automatically and averaged to produce representative common, internal and external carotid artery (CCA, ICA and ECA) waveform shapes. Relative to young adults, waveforms from older adults were found to exhibit a significantly augmented secondary peak during late systole, resulting in significantly higher resistance index (RI) and flow augmentation index (FAI). Cycle-averaged VFR at the CCA, ICA and ECA were 389 ± 74, 245 ± 61 and 125 ± 49 mL min −1 , respectively, reflecting a significant cycle-averaged outflow deficit of 5%, which peaked at around 10% during systole. A small but significant mean delay of 13 ms between arrivals of ICA versus CCA/ECA peak VFR suggested differential compliance of these vessels. Sex and age differences in waveform shape were also noted. The characteristic waveforms presented here may serve as a convenient baseline for studies of VFR waveform dynamics or as suitable boundary conditions for models of blood flow in the carotid arteries of older adults

  1. Multifunction waveform generator for EM receiver testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Jin, Sheng; Deng, Ming

    2018-01-01

    In many electromagnetic (EM) methods - such as magnetotelluric, spectral-induced polarization (SIP), time-domain-induced polarization (TDIP), and controlled-source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) methods - it is important to evaluate and test the EM receivers during their development stage. To assess the performance of the developed EM receivers, controlled synthetic data that simulate the observed signals in different modes are required. In CSAMT and SIP mode testing, the waveform generator should use the GPS time as the reference for repeating schedule. Based on our testing, the frequency range, frequency precision, and time synchronization of the currently available function waveform generators on the market are deficient. This paper presents a multifunction waveform generator with three waveforms: (1) a wideband, low-noise electromagnetic field signal to be used for magnetotelluric, audio-magnetotelluric, and long-period magnetotelluric studies; (2) a repeating frequency sweep square waveform for CSAMT and SIP studies; and (3) a positive-zero-negative-zero signal that contains primary and secondary fields for TDIP studies. In this paper, we provide the principles of the above three waveforms along with a hardware design for the generator. Furthermore, testing of the EM receiver was conducted with the waveform generator, and the results of the experiment were compared with those calculated from the simulation and theory in the frequency band of interest.

  2. Developed vibration waveform monitoring unit for CBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, T.; Hotsuta, K.; Hirose, I.; Morita, E.

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many rotating machines such as pumps and fans are in use. Shikoku Research Institute Inc. has recently developed easy-to-use tools to facilitate the maintenance of such equipment. They include a battery-operated vibration waveform monitoring unit which allows unmanned vibration monitoring on a regular basis and data collection even from intermittently operating equipment, a waveform data collector which can be used for easy collection, storage, control, and analysis of raw vibration waveform data during normal operation, and vibration analysis and evaluation tools. A combination of these tools has a high potential for optimization of rotating equipment maintenance. (author)

  3. Flow pumping system for physiological waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Savaş, Omer

    2010-02-01

    A pulsatile flow pumping system is developed to replicate flow waveforms with reasonable accuracy for experiments simulating physiological blood flows at numerous points in the body. The system divides the task of flow waveform generation between two pumps: a gear pump generates the mean component and a piston pump generates the oscillatory component. The system is driven by two programmable servo controllers. The frequency response of the system is used to characterize its operation. The system has been successfully tested in vascular flow experiments where sinusoidal, carotid, and coronary flow waveforms are replicated.

  4. Evaluation of factors influencing arterial Doppler waveforms in an in vitro flow phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that influence arterial Doppler waveforms in an in vitro phantom to provide a more accurate and comprehensive explanation of the Doppler signal. A flow model was created using a pulsatile artificial heart, rubber or polyethylene tubes, a water tank, and a glass tube. Spectral Doppler tracings were obtained in multiple combinations of compliance, resistance, and pulse rate. Peak systolic velocity, minimum diastolic velocity, resistive index (RI), pulsatility index, early systolic acceleration time, and acceleration index were measured. On the basis of these measurements, the influences of the variables on the Doppler waveforms were analyzed. With increasing distal resistance, the RI increased in a relatively linear relationship. With increasing proximal resistance, the RI decreased. The pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon was observed with a small acceleration index in the model with a higher grade of stenosis. An increase in the distal resistance masked the pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon by increasing the acceleration index. Although this phenomenon occurred independently of compliance, changes in the compliance of proximal or distal tubes caused significant changes in the Doppler waveform. There was a reverse relationship between the RI and the pulse rate. Resistance and compliance can alter the Doppler waveforms independently. The pulse rate is an extrinsic factor that also influences the RI. The compliance and distal resistance, as well as proximal resistance, influence the pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon.

  5. Waveform shape analysis: extraction of physiologically relevant information from Doppler recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, M M; Broughton Pipkin, F; Rubin, P C; Skidmore, R

    1994-05-01

    1. Doppler recordings were made from the brachial artery of healthy female subjects during a series of manoeuvres which altered the pressure-flow characteristics of the vessel. 2. Changes were induced in the peripheral circulation of the forearm by the application of heat or ice-packs. A sphygmomanometer cuff was used to create graded occlusion of the vessel above and below the point of measurement. Recordings were also made whilst the subjects performed a standardized Valsalva manoeuvre. 3. The Doppler recordings were analysed both with the standard waveform indices (systolic/diastolic ratio, pulsatility index and resistance index) and by the method of Laplace transform analysis. 4. The waveform parameters obtained by Laplace transform analysis distinguished the different changes in flow conditions; they thus had direct physiological relevance, unlike the standard waveform indices.

  6. An Improved Distortion Operator for Insurance Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-wei; QIU Wan-hua

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the distortion function approach developed in the actuarial literature for insurance risks. The main aim of this paper is to derive an extensive distortion operator, and to propose a new premium principle based on this extensive distortion operator. Furthermore, the non-robustness of general distortion operator is also discussed. Examples are provided using Bernoulli, Pareto, Lognormal and Gamma distribution assumptions.

  7. Waveform-preserved unidirectional acoustic transmission based on impedance-matched acoustic metasurface and phononic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ai-Ling; Chen, Tian-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Peng; Wan, Le-Le

    2016-08-01

    The waveform distortion happens in most of the unidirectional acoustic transmission (UAT) devices proposed before. In this paper, a novel type of waveform-preserved UAT device composed of an impedance-matched acoustic metasurface (AMS) and a phononic crystal (PC) structure is proposed and numerically investigated. The acoustic pressure field distributions and transmittance are calculated by using the finite element method. The subwavelength AMS that can modulate the wavefront of the transmitted wave at will is designed and the band structure of the PC structure is calculated and analyzed. The sound pressure field distributions demonstrate that the unidirectional acoustic transmission can be realized by the proposed UAT device without changing the waveforms of the output waves, which is the distinctive feature compared with the previous UAT devices. The physical mechanism of the unidirectional acoustic transmission is discussed by analyzing the refraction angle changes and partial band gap map. The calculated transmission spectra show that the UAT device is valid within a relatively broad frequency range. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical predictions. The proposed UAT device provides a good reference for designing waveform-preserved UAT devices and has potential applications in many fields, such as medical ultrasound, acoustic rectifiers, and noise insulation.

  8. Seismic waveform classification using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    MyShake is a global smartphone seismic network that harnesses the power of crowdsourcing. It has an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm running on the phone to distinguish earthquake motion from human activities recorded by the accelerometer on board. Once the ANN detects earthquake-like motion, it sends a 5-min chunk of acceleration data back to the server for further analysis. The time-series data collected contains both earthquake data and human activity data that the ANN confused. In this presentation, we will show the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) we built under the umbrella of supervised learning to find out the earthquake waveform. The waveforms of the recorded motion could treat easily as images, and by taking the advantage of the power of CNN processing the images, we achieved very high successful rate to select the earthquake waveforms out. Since there are many non-earthquake waveforms than the earthquake waveforms, we also built an anomaly detection algorithm using the CNN. Both these two methods can be easily extended to other waveform classification problems.

  9. Possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D. (AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Ehksperimental' noj Morfologii)

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H/sup 3/-thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough investigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient.

  10. Spectral Behavior of Weakly Compressible Aero-Optical Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Edwin; Wang, Kan; Wang, Meng; Jumper, Eric

    2016-11-01

    In classical theories of optical distortions by atmospheric turbulence, an appropriate and key assumption is that index-of-refraction variations are dominated by fluctuations in temperature and the effects of turbulent pressure fluctuations are negligible. This assumption is, however, not generally valid for aero-optical distortions caused by turbulent flow over an optical aperture, where both temperature and pressures fluctuations may contribute significantly to the index-of-refraction fluctuations. A general expression for weak fluctuations in refractive index is derived using the ideal gas law and Gladstone-Dale relation and applied to describe the spectral behavior of aero-optical distortions. Large-eddy simulations of weakly compressible, temporally evolving shear layers are then used to verify the theoretical results. Computational results support theoretical findings and confirm that if the log slope of the 1-D density spectrum in the inertial range is -mρ , the optical phase distortion spectral slope is given by - (mρ + 1) . The value of mρ is then shown to be dependent on the ratio of shear-layer free-stream densities and bounded by the spectral slopes of temperature and pressure fluctuations. Supported by HEL-JTO through AFOSR Grant FA9550-13-1-0001 and Blue Waters Graduate Fellowship Program.

  11. Prediction of windings temperature rise in induction motors supplied with distorted voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnacinski, P. [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Ship Electrical Power Engineering, Morska Street 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2008-04-15

    One of the features of ship power systems is a different level and intensity of disturbances appearing during routine operation - the rms voltage value and frequency deviation, voltage unbalance and waveform voltage distortion. As a result, marine induction machines are exposed to overheating due to the lowered voltage quality. This paper is devoted to windings temperature rise prediction in marine induction cage machines supplied with distorted voltage, which means real voltage conditions. The proposed method of prediction does not require detailed knowledge of the thermal properties of a machine. Although the method was developed for marine induction motors, it is applicable for industry machines supplied with distorted voltage. It can also be generalized and used for estimation of the steady state windings temperature rise of any electrical machinery in various work conditions. (author)

  12. Prediction of windings temperature rise in induction motors supplied with distorted voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2008-01-01

    One of the features of ship power systems is a different level and intensity of disturbances appearing during routine operation - the rms voltage value and frequency deviation, voltage unbalance and waveform voltage distortion. As a result, marine induction machines are exposed to overheating due to the lowered voltage quality. This paper is devoted to windings temperature rise prediction in marine induction cage machines supplied with distorted voltage, which means real voltage conditions. The proposed method of prediction does not require detailed knowledge of the thermal properties of a machine. Although the method was developed for marine induction motors, it is applicable for industry machines supplied with distorted voltage. It can also be generalized and used for estimation of the steady state windings temperature rise of any electrical machinery in various work conditions

  13. TPC track distortions IV: post tenebras lux

    CERN Document Server

    Ammosov, V; Boyko, I; Chelkov, G; Dedovitch, D; Dydak, F; Elagin, A; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Koreshev, V; Krumshtein, Z; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, K; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive discussion and summary of static and dynamic track distortions in the HARP TPC in terms of physical origin, mathematical modelling and correction algorithms. `Static' distortions are constant with time, while `dynamic' distortions are distortions that occur only during the 400 ms long accelerator spill. The measurement of dynamic distortions, their mathematical modelling and the correction algorithms build on our understanding of static distortions. In the course of corroborating the validity of our static distortion corrections, their reliability and precision was further improved. Dynamic TPC distortions originate dominantly from the `stalactite' effect: a column of positive-ion charge starts growing at the begin of the accelerator spill, and continues growing with nearly constant velocity out from the sense-wire plane into the active TPC volume. However, the `stalactite' effect is not able to describe the distortions that are present already at the start of the spill and which ha...

  14. Redshift distortions of galaxy correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.N.; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL; Gaztanaga, E.; Oxford Univ.

    1993-01-01

    To examine how peculiar velocities can affect the 2-, 3-, and 4-point correlation functions, we evaluate volume-average correlations for configurations that emphasize and minimize distortions for four different volume-limited samples from each of the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS redshift catalogs. We present the results as the correlation length r 0 and power index γ of the 2-point correlation, anti Ξ 2 = (r 0 /r) γ , and as the hierarchical amplitudes of the 3- and 4-point functions, S 3 = anti Ξ 3 /anti Ξ 2 2 and S 4 = anti Ξ/anti Ξ 2 3 . We find a characteristic distortion for anti Ξ 2 : The slope γ is flatter and the correlation length is larger in redshift space than in real space; that is, redshift distortions ''move'' correlations from small to large scales. At the largest scales, extra power in the redshift distribution is compatible with Ω 4/7 /b ∼ 1; we find 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.10 ± 0.16 and 0.84 ± 0.45 for the CfA, SSRS and IRAS catalogs. Higher order correlations anti Ξ 3 and anti Ξ 4 suffer similar redshift distortions, but in such a way that, within the accuracy of our analysis, the normalized amplitudes S 3 and S 4 are insensitive to this effect. The hierarchical amplitudes S 3 and S 4 are constant as a function of scale between 1-12 h -1 Mpc and have similar values in all samples and catalogues, S 3 ∼ 2 and S 4 ∼ 6, despite the fact that anti Ξ 2 , anti Ξ 3 , and anti Ξ 4 differ from one sample to another by large factors. The agreement between the independent estimations of S 3 and S 4 is remarkable given the different criteria in the selection of galaxies and also the difference in the resulting range of densities, luminosities and locations between samples

  15. Geometrical theory of nonlinear phase distortion of intense laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.; Hunt, J.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Phase distortion arising from whole beam self-focusing of intense laser pulses with arbitrary spatial profiles is treated in the limit of geometrical optics. The constant shape approximation is used to obtain the phase and angular distribution of the geometrical rays in the near field. Conditions for the validity of this approximation are discussed. Geometrical focusing of the aberrated beam is treated for the special case of a beam with axial symmetry. Equations are derived that show both the shift of the focus and the distortion of the intensity distribution that are caused by the nonlinear index of refraction of the optical medium. An illustrative example treats the case of beam distortion in a Nd:Glass amplifier

  16. Design of pulse waveform for waveform division multiple access UWB wireless communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Wang, Zhirui; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2014-01-01

    A new multiple access scheme, Waveform Division Multiple Access (WDMA) based on the orthogonal wavelet function, is presented. After studying the correlation properties of different categories of single wavelet functions, the one with the best correlation property will be chosen as the foundation for combined waveform. In the communication system, each user is assigned to different combined orthogonal waveform. Demonstrated by simulation, combined waveform is more suitable than single wavelet function to be a communication medium in WDMA system. Due to the excellent orthogonality, the bit error rate (BER) of multiuser with combined waveforms is so close to that of single user in a synchronous system. That is to say, the multiple access interference (MAI) is almost eliminated. Furthermore, even in an asynchronous system without multiuser detection after matched filters, the result is still pretty ideal and satisfactory by using the third combination mode that will be mentioned in the study.

  17. SCA Waveform Development for Space Telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Dale J.; Kifle, Multi; Hall, C. Steve; Quinn, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating and developing suitable reconfigurable radio architectures for future NASA missions. This effort is examining software-based open-architectures for space based transceivers, as well as common hardware platform architectures. The Joint Tactical Radio System's (JTRS) Software Communications Architecture (SCA) is a candidate for the software approach, but may need modifications or adaptations for use in space. An in-house SCA compliant waveform development focuses on increasing understanding of software defined radio architectures and more specifically the JTRS SCA. Space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power. This waveform development effort is key to evaluating tradeoffs with the SCA for space applications. Existing NASA telemetry links, as well as Space Exploration Initiative scenarios, are the basis for defining the waveform requirements. Modeling and simulations are being developed to determine signal processing requirements associated with a waveform and a mission-specific computational burden. Implementation of the waveform on a laboratory software defined radio platform is proceeding in an iterative fashion. Parallel top-down and bottom-up design approaches are employed.

  18. WFCatalog: A catalogue for seismological waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Luca; Koymans, Mathijs; Atkinson, Malcolm; Sleeman, Reinoud; Filgueira, Rosa

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports advances in seismic waveform description and discovery leading to a new seismological service and presents the key steps in its design, implementation and adoption. This service, named WFCatalog, which stands for waveform catalogue, accommodates features of seismological waveform data. Therefore, it meets the need for seismologists to be able to select waveform data based on seismic waveform features as well as sensor geolocations and temporal specifications. We describe the collaborative design methods and the technical solution showing the central role of seismic feature catalogues in framing the technical and operational delivery of the new service. Also, we provide an overview of the complex environment wherein this endeavour is scoped and the related challenges discussed. As multi-disciplinary, multi-organisational and global collaboration is necessary to address today's challenges, canonical representations can provide a focus for collaboration and conceptual tools for agreeing directions. Such collaborations can be fostered and formalised by rallying intellectual effort into the design of novel scientific catalogues and the services that support them. This work offers an example of the benefits generated by involving cross-disciplinary skills (e.g. data and domain expertise) from the early stages of design, and by sustaining the engagement with the target community throughout the delivery and deployment process.

  19. Mobile Watermarking against Geometrical Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile watermarking robust to geometrical distortions is still a great challenge. In mobile watermarking, efficient computation is necessary because mobile devices have very limited resources due to power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity geometrically resilient watermarking approach based on the optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function (OTCHF correlation filter and the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH correlation filter. By the rotation, translation and scale tolerance properties of the two kinds of filter, the proposed watermark detector can be robust to geometrical attacks. The embedded watermark is weighted by a perceptual mask which matches very well with the properties of the human visual system. Before correlation, a whitening process is utilized to improve watermark detection reliability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking approach is computationally efficient and robust to geometrical distortions.

  20. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  1. Wavelet analysis of the impedance cardiogram waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podtaev, S.; Stepanov, R.; Dumler, A.; Chugainov, S.; Tziberkin, K.

    2012-12-01

    Impedance cardiography has been used for diagnosing atrial and ventricular dysfunctions, valve disorders, aortic stenosis, and vascular diseases. Almost all the applications of impedance cardiography require determination of some of the characteristic points of the ICG waveform. The ICG waveform has a set of characteristic points known as A, B, E ((dZ/dt)max) X, Y, O and Z. These points are related to distinct physiological events in the cardiac cycle. Objective of this work is an approbation of a new method of processing and interpretation of the impedance cardiogram waveforms using wavelet analysis. A method of computer thoracic tetrapolar polyrheocardiography is used for hemodynamic registrations. Use of original wavelet differentiation algorithm allows combining filtration and calculation of the derivatives of rheocardiogram. The proposed approach can be used in clinical practice for early diagnostics of cardiovascular system remodelling in the course of different pathologies.

  2. Wavelet analysis of the impedance cardiogram waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podtaev, S; Stepanov, R; Dumler, A; Chugainov, S; Tziberkin, K

    2012-01-01

    Impedance cardiography has been used for diagnosing atrial and ventricular dysfunctions, valve disorders, aortic stenosis, and vascular diseases. Almost all the applications of impedance cardiography require determination of some of the characteristic points of the ICG waveform. The ICG waveform has a set of characteristic points known as A, B, E ((dZ/dt) max ) X, Y, O and Z. These points are related to distinct physiological events in the cardiac cycle. Objective of this work is an approbation of a new method of processing and interpretation of the impedance cardiogram waveforms using wavelet analysis. A method of computer thoracic tetrapolar polyrheocardiography is used for hemodynamic registrations. Use of original wavelet differentiation algorithm allows combining filtration and calculation of the derivatives of rheocardiogram. The proposed approach can be used in clinical practice for early diagnostics of cardiovascular system remodelling in the course of different pathologies.

  3. Krylov subspace acceleration of waveform relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, A.; Wu, Deyun [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Standard solution methods for numerically solving time-dependent problems typically begin by discretizing the problem on a uniform time grid and then sequentially solving for successive time points. The initial time discretization imposes a serialization to the solution process and limits parallel speedup to the speedup available from parallelizing the problem at any given time point. This bottleneck can be circumvented by the use of waveform methods in which multiple time-points of the different components of the solution are computed independently. With the waveform approach, a problem is first spatially decomposed and distributed among the processors of a parallel machine. Each processor then solves its own time-dependent subsystem over the entire interval of interest using previous iterates from other processors as inputs. Synchronization and communication between processors take place infrequently, and communication consists of large packets of information - discretized functions of time (i.e., waveforms).

  4. Waveform Design for Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerckx, Bruno; Bayguzina, Ekaterina

    2016-12-01

    Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Despite the rapid progress, the emphasis of the research community in the last decade has remained largely concentrated on improving the design of energy harvester (so-called rectenna) and has left aside the effect of transmitter design. In this paper, we study the design of transmit waveform so as to enhance the DC power at the output of the rectenna. We derive a tractable model of the non-linearity of the rectenna and compare with a linear model conventionally used in the literature. We then use those models to design novel multisine waveforms that are adaptive to the channel state information (CSI). Interestingly, while the linear model favours narrowband transmission with all the power allocated to a single frequency, the non-linear model favours a power allocation over multiple frequencies. Through realistic simulations, waveforms designed based on the non-linear model are shown to provide significant gains (in terms of harvested DC power) over those designed based on the linear model and over non-adaptive waveforms. We also compute analytically the theoretical scaling laws of the harvested energy for various waveforms as a function of the number of sinewaves and transmit antennas. Those scaling laws highlight the benefits of CSI knowledge at the transmitter in WPT and of a WPT design based on a non-linear rectenna model over a linear model. Results also motivate the study of a promising architecture relying on large-scale multisine multi-antenna waveforms for WPT. As a final note, results stress the importance of modeling and accounting for the non-linearity of the rectenna in any system design involving wireless power.

  5. Principles of waveform diversity and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wicks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to discuss current and future applications of waveform diversity and design in subjects such as radar and sonar, communications systems, passive sensing, and many other technologies. Waveform diversity allows researchers and system designers to optimize electromagnetic and acoustic systems for sensing, communications, electronic warfare or combinations thereof. This book enables solutions to problems, explaining how each system performs its own particular function, as well as how it is affected by other systems and how those other systems may likewise be affected. It is

  6. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  7. Guessing and compression subject to distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hanawal, Manjesh Kumar; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    The problem of guessing a random string is revisited. The relation-ship between guessing without distortion and compression is extended to the case when source alphabet size is countably in¯nite. Further, similar relationship is established for the case when distortion allowed by establishing a tight relationship between rate distortion codes and guessing strategies.

  8. MIMO-OFDM Chirp Waveform Diversity Design and Implementation Based on Sparse Matrix and Correlation Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen-qin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The waveforms used in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR should have a large time-bandwidth product and good ambiguity function performance. A scheme to design multiple orthogonal MIMO SAR Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM chirp waveforms by combinational sparse matrix and correlation optimization is proposed. First, the problem of MIMO SAR waveform design amounts to the associated design of hopping frequency and amplitudes. Then a iterative exhaustive search algorithm is adopted to optimally design the code matrix with the constraints minimizing the block correlation coefficient of sparse matrix and the sum of cross-correlation peaks. And the amplitudes matrix are adaptively designed by minimizing the cross-correlation peaks with the genetic algorithm. Additionally, the impacts of waveform number, hopping frequency interval and selectable frequency index are also analyzed. The simulation results verify the proposed scheme can design multiple orthogonal large time-bandwidth product OFDM chirp waveforms with low cross-correlation peak and sidelobes and it improves ambiguity performance.

  9. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  10. The role of the waveform in pulse pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datlowe, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse pile-up is the distortion of pulse-height distributions due to the overlap of detector responses to the arrival of two or more particles or photons within the detector resolving time. This paper presents a computational technique for simulating pile-up effects, which includes explicitly the dependence on the pulse-shape of the detector system. The basis of the technique is the manipulation of probability densities. The method is applicable to all types of linear pulse counting systems for nucleons, electrons, and photons, as long as the result is a pulse-height distribution. The algorithms are highly efficient in the amount of computing required for simulations, and internal checks for the numerical accuracy of the results are included. Studies of pile-up by monoenergetic pulses are used to determine the interrelationship between pulse shapes and spectral features; this information can be used to minimize pile-up. For broad spectra, the square wave approximation is compared with the present model including the correct waveform; introducing the pulse shape information smooths spectral features but does not qualitatively change the spectrum. (Auth.)

  11. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  12. Space mappings with bounded distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnyak, Yu G

    1989-01-01

    This book is intended for researchers and students concerned with questions in analysis and function theory. The author provides an exposition of the main results obtained in recent years by Soviet and other mathematicians in the theory of mappings with bounded distortion, an active direction in contemporary mathematics. The mathematical tools presented can be applied to a broad spectrum of problems that go beyond the context of the main topic of investigation. For a number of questions in the theory of partial differential equations and the theory of functions with generalized derivatives, this is the first time they have appeared in an internationally distributed monograph.

  13. Waveform relaxation methods for implicit differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Houwen; W.A. van der Veen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe apply a Runge-Kutta-based waveform relaxation method to initial-value problems for implicit differential equations. In the implementation of such methods, a sequence of nonlinear systems has to be solved iteratively in each step of the integration process. The size of these systems

  14. A multi-channel waveform digitizer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.; Muller, W.F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on the design and performance of a multichannel waveform digitizer system for use with the Multiple Sample Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) Detector at the Bevalac. 128 channels of 20 MHz Flash ADC plus 256 word deep memory are housed in a single crate. Digital thresholds and hit pattern logic facilitate zero suppression during readout which is performed over a standard VME bus

  15. Resolution analysis in full waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtner, A.; Trampert, J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new method for the quantitative resolution analysis in full seismic waveform inversion that overcomes the limitations of classical synthetic inversions while being computationally more efficient and applicable to any misfit measure. The method rests on (1) the local quadratic

  16. Classification of morphologic changes in photoplethysmographic waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigges Timo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An ever increasing number of research is examining the question to what extent physiological information beyond the blood oxygen saturation could be drawn from the photoplethysmogram. One important approach to elicit that information from the photoplethysmogram is the analysis of its waveform. One prominent example for the value of photoplethysmographic waveform analysis in cardiovascular monitoring that has emerged is hemodynamic compensation assessment in the peri-operative setting or trauma situations, as digital pulse waveform dynamically changes with alterations in vascular tone or pulse wave velocity. In this work, we present an algorithm based on modern machine learning techniques that automatically finds individual digital volume pulses in photoplethysmographic signals and sorts them into one of the pulse classes defined by Dawber et al. We evaluate our approach based on two major datasets – a measurement study that we conducted ourselves as well as data from the PhysioNet MIMIC II database. As the results are satisfying we could demonstrate the capabilities of classification algorithms in the automated assessment of the digital volume pulse waveform measured by photoplethysmographic devices.

  17. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi

  18. Source-independent elastic waveform inversion using a logarithmic wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Min, Dong Joon

    2012-01-01

    The logarithmic waveform inversion has been widely developed and applied to some synthetic and real data. In most logarithmic waveform inversion algorithms, the subsurface velocities are updated along with the source estimation. To avoid estimating

  19. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing

    2018-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like

  20. Waveform inversion for acoustic VTI media in frequency domain

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background model using a single scattered wavefield from an inverted perturbation. However, current

  1. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi

    2017-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic

  2. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    , the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Towards full waveform ambient noise inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In this work we investigate fundamentals of a method—referred to as full waveform ambient noise inversion—that improves the resolution of tomographic images by extracting waveform information from interstation correlation functions that cannot be used without knowing the distribution of noise sources. The fundamental idea is to drop the principle of Green function retrieval and to establish correlation functions as self-consistent observables in seismology. This involves the following steps: (1) We introduce an operator-based formulation of the forward problem of computing correlation functions. It is valid for arbitrary distributions of noise sources in both space and frequency, and for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media. In addition, the formulation allows us to keep the derivations independent of time and frequency domain and it facilitates the application of adjoint techniques, which we use to derive efficient expressions to compute first and also second derivatives. The latter are essential for a resolution analysis that accounts for intra- and interparameter trade-offs. (2) In a forward modelling study we investigate the effect of noise sources and structure on different observables. Traveltimes are hardly affected by heterogeneous noise source distributions. On the other hand, the amplitude asymmetry of correlations is at least to first order insensitive to unmodelled Earth structure. Energy and waveform differences are sensitive to both structure and the distribution of noise sources. (3) We design and implement an appropriate inversion scheme, where the extraction of waveform information is successively increased. We demonstrate that full waveform ambient noise inversion has the potential to go beyond ambient noise tomography based on Green function retrieval and to refine noise source location, which is essential for a better understanding of noise generation. Inherent trade-offs between source and structure

  4. Retrieving rupture history using waveform inversions in time sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, L.; Xu, C.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The rupture history of large earthquakes is generally regenerated using the waveform inversion through utilizing seismological waveform records. In the waveform inversion, based on the superposition principle, the rupture process is linearly parameterized. After discretizing the fault plane into sub-faults, the local source time function of each sub-fault is usually parameterized using the multi-time window method, e.g., mutual overlapped triangular functions. Then the forward waveform of each sub-fault is synthesized through convoluting the source time function with its Green function. According to the superposition principle, these forward waveforms generated from the fault plane are summarized in the recorded waveforms after aligning the arrival times. Then the slip history is retrieved using the waveform inversion method after the superposing of all forward waveforms for each correspond seismological waveform records. Apart from the isolation of these forward waveforms generated from each sub-fault, we also realize that these waveforms are gradually and sequentially superimposed in the recorded waveforms. Thus we proposed a idea that the rupture model is possibly detachable in sequent rupture times. According to the constrained waveform length method emphasized in our previous work, the length of inverted waveforms used in the waveform inversion is objectively constrained by the rupture velocity and rise time. And one essential prior condition is the predetermined fault plane that limits the duration of rupture time, which means the waveform inversion is restricted in a pre-set rupture duration time. Therefore, we proposed a strategy to inverse the rupture process sequentially using the progressively shift rupture times as the rupture front expanding in the fault plane. And we have designed a simulation inversion to test the feasibility of the method. Our test result shows the prospect of this idea that requiring furthermore investigation.

  5. Mode distortion measurements on the Jefferson lab IR FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, S V; Shinn, M

    2002-01-01

    We have previously reported on the analytical calculations of mirror distortion in a high-power FEL with a near-concentric cavity. This analysis allowed us to estimate the power level at which the FEL interaction would be affected, though no exact theory of FEL power vs. distortion exists at this point. Recently we have directly measured the mode size and beam quality as a function of power using a resonator with a center wavelength of 5 mu m. The resonator mirrors were calcium fluoride. This particular material exhibits a large amount of distortion for a given power but, due to the negative slope of refractive index vs. temperature, adds almost no optical phase distortion on the laser output. The mode in the cavity can thus be directly calculated from the measurements at the resonator output. The presence of angular jitter produced raw measurements inconsistent with cold cavity expectations. Removing the effects of the angular jitter, we derive results in agreement with cold cavity measurements. The result i...

  6. Prototype of a transient waveform recording ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J.; Zhao, L.; Cheng, B.; Chen, H.; Guo, Y.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the design and measurement results of a transient waveform recording ASIC based on the Switched Capacitor Array (SCA) architecture. This 0.18 μm CMOS prototype device contains two channels and each channel employs a SCA of 128 samples deep, a 12-bit Wilkinson ADC and a serial data readout. A series of tests have been conducted and the results indicate that: a full 1 V signal voltage range is available, the input analog bandwidth is approximately 450 MHz and the sampling speed is adjustable from 0.076 to 3.2 Gsps (Gigabit Samples Per Second). For precision waveform timing extraction, careful calibration of timing intervals between samples is conducted to improve the timing resolution of such chips, and the timing precision of this ASIC is proved to be better than 15 ps RMS.

  7. Digitizing and analysis of neutron generator waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, T.C.

    1977-11-01

    All neutron generator waveforms from units tested at the SLA neutron generator test site are digitized and the digitized data stored in the CDC 6600 tape library for display and analysis using the CDC 6600 computer. The digitizing equipment consists mainly of seven Biomation Model 8100 transient recorders, Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/20 computer, RK05 disk, seven-track magnetic tape transport, and appropriate DEC and SLA controllers and interfaces. The PDP 11/20 computer is programmed in BASIC with assembly language drivers. In addition to digitizing waveforms, this equipment is used for other functions such as the automated testing of multiple-operation electronic neutron generators. Although other types of analysis have been done, the largest use of the digitized data has been for various types of graphical displays using the CDC 6600 and either the SD4020 or DX4460 plotters

  8. Programmable Clock Waveform Generation for CCD Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.; Marin, J.

    2006-07-01

    Charge transfer efficiency in CCDs is closely related to the clock waveform. In this paper, an experimental framework to explore different FPGA based clock waveform generator designs is described. Two alternative design approaches for controlling the rise/fall edge times and pulse width of the CCD clock signal have been implemented: level-control and time-control. Both approaches provide similar characteristics regarding the edge linearity and noise. Nevertheless, dissimilarities have been found with respect to the area and frequency range of application. Thus, while the time-control approach consumes less area, the level control approach provides a wider range of clock frequencies since it does not suffer capacitor discharge effect. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. Induced waveform transitions of dissipative solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Tuz, Vladimir R.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of an externally applied force upon the dynamics of dissipative solitons is analyzed in the framework of the one-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation supplemented by a potential term with an explicit coordinate dependence. The potential accounts for the external force manipulations and consists of three symmetrically arranged potential wells whose depth varies along the longitudinal coordinate. It is found out that under an influence of such potential a transition between different soliton waveforms coexisting under the same physical conditions can be achieved. A low-dimensional phase-space analysis is applied in order to demonstrate that by only changing the potential profile, transitions between different soliton waveforms can be performed in a controllable way. In particular, it is shown that by means of a selected potential, stationary dissipative soliton can be transformed into another stationary soliton as well as into periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic spatiotemporal dissipative structures.

  10. Structural Change Accounting with Labor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbiao Cai

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...

  11. Advanced Waveform Simulation for Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    velocity model. The method separates the main arrivals of the regional waveform into 5 windows: Pnl (vertical and radial components), Rayleigh (vertical and...ranges out to 10°, including extensive observations of crustal thinning and thickening and various Pnl complexities. Broadband modeling in 1D, 2D...existing models perform in predicting the various regional phases, Rayleigh waves, Love waves, and Pnl waves. Previous events from this Basin-and-Range

  12. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  13. Integration and interpolation of sampled waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for integrating, interpolating, and improving the signal-to-noise ratio of digitized waveforms are discussed with regard to seismic data from underground tests. The frequency-domain integration method and the digital interpolation method of Schafer and Rabiner are described and demonstrated using test data. The use of bandpass filtering for noise reduction is also demonstrated. With these methods, a backlog of seismic test data has been successfully processed

  14. Determining carotid artery pressure from scaled diameter waveforms: comparison and validation of calibration techniques in 2026 subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeersch, S J; Verdonck, P R; Segers, P; Rietzschel, E R; De Buyzere, M L; Gillebert, T C; De Bacquer, D; De Backer, G; Van Bortel, L M

    2008-01-01

    Calibrated diameter distension waveforms could provide an alternative for local arterial pressure assessment more widely applicable than applanation tonometry. We compared linearly and exponentially calibrated carotid diameter waveforms to tonometry readings. Local carotid pressures measured by tonometry and diameter waveforms measured by ultrasound were obtained in 2026 subjects participating in the Asklepios study protocol. Diameter waveforms were calibrated using a linear and an exponential calibration scheme and compared to measured tonometry waveforms by examining the mean root-mean-squared error (RMSE), carotid systolic blood pressure (SBP car ) and augmentation index (AIx) of calibrated and measured pressures. Mean RMSE was 5.2(3.3) mmHg (mean(stdev)) for linear and 4.6(3.6) mmHg for exponential calibration. Linear calibration yielded an underestimation of SBP car by 6.4(4.1) mmHg which was strongly correlated to values of brachial pulse pressure (PP bra ) (R = 0.4, P car by 1.9(3.9) mmHg, independent of PP bra . AIx was overestimated by linear calibration by 1.9(10.1)%, the difference significantly increasing with increasing AIx (R = 0.25, P < 0.001) and by exponential calibration by 5.4(10.6)%, independently of the value of AIx. Properly calibrated diameter waveforms offer a viable alternative for local pressure estimation at the carotid artery. Compared to linear calibration, exponential calibration significantly improves the pressure estimation

  15. Sparse Frequency Waveform Design for Radar-Embedded Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyun Mai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Tag application with function of covert communication, a method for sparse frequency waveform design based on radar-embedded communication is proposed. Firstly, sparse frequency waveforms are designed based on power spectral density fitting and quasi-Newton method. Secondly, the eigenvalue decomposition of the sparse frequency waveform sequence is used to get the dominant space. Finally the communication waveforms are designed through the projection of orthogonal pseudorandom vectors in the vertical subspace. Compared with the linear frequency modulation waveform, the sparse frequency waveform can further improve the bandwidth occupation of communication signals, thus achieving higher communication rate. A certain correlation exists between the reciprocally orthogonal communication signals samples and the sparse frequency waveform, which guarantees the low SER (signal error rate and LPI (low probability of intercept. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of this method.

  16. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  17. Image-domain full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong

    2013-08-20

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we define the image-domain objective function to minimize the difference of the suboffset-domain common image gathers (CIGs) obtained by migrating the observed data and the calculated data. The derivation shows that the gradient of this new objective function is the combination of the gradient of the conventional FWI and the image-domain differential semblance optimization (DSO). Compared to the conventional FWI, the imagedomain FWI is immune to cycle skipping problems by smearing the nonzero suboffset images along wavepath. It also can avoid the edge effects and the gradient artifacts that are inherent in DSO due to the falsely over-penalized focused images. This is achieved by subtracting the focused image associated with the calculated data from the unfocused image associated with the observed data in the image-domain misfit function. The numerical results of the Marmousi model show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive the initial model than the conventional FWI. © 2013 SEG.

  18. Image-domain full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we define the image-domain objective function to minimize the difference of the suboffset-domain common image gathers (CIGs) obtained by migrating the observed data and the calculated data. The derivation shows that the gradient of this new objective function is the combination of the gradient of the conventional FWI and the image-domain differential semblance optimization (DSO). Compared to the conventional FWI, the imagedomain FWI is immune to cycle skipping problems by smearing the nonzero suboffset images along wavepath. It also can avoid the edge effects and the gradient artifacts that are inherent in DSO due to the falsely over-penalized focused images. This is achieved by subtracting the focused image associated with the calculated data from the unfocused image associated with the observed data in the image-domain misfit function. The numerical results of the Marmousi model show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive the initial model than the conventional FWI. © 2013 SEG.

  19. WAVEFORM ANALYSIS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF POST-FIRE VEGETATION CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pirotti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Full-waveform is becoming increasingly available in today's LiDAR systems and the analysis of the full return signal can provide additional information on the reflecting surfaces. In this paper we present the results of an assessment on full-waveform analysis, as opposed to the more classic discrete return analysis, for discerning vegetation cover classes related to post-fire renovation. In the spring of 2011 an OPTECH ALTM sensor was used to survey an Alpine area of almost 20 km2 in the north of Italy. A forest fire event several years ago burned large patches of vegetation for a total of about 1.5 km2 . The renovation process in the area is varied because of the different interventions ranging from no intervention to the application of re-forestation techniques to accelerate the process of re-establishing protection forest. The LiDAR data was used to divide the study site into areas with different conditions in terms of re-establishment of the natural vegetation condition. The LiDAR survey provided both the full-waveform data in Optech's CSD+DGT (corrected sensor data and NDF+IDX (digitizer data with index file formats, and the discrete return in the LAS format. The method applied to the full-waveform uses canopy volume profiles obtained by modelling, whereas the method applied to discrete return uses point geometry and density indexes. The results of these two methods are assessed by ground truth obtained from sampling and comparison shows that the added information from the full-waveform does give a significant better discrimination of the vegetation cover classes.

  20. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  1. The Impact of Agricultural Policy Distortions on the Productivity Gap: Evidence from the Rice Production

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotoarisoa, Manitra A.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines how production and trade policy distortions affected rice productivity in thirty-three rice-producing countries. A rice-productivity index for each country is constructed, and a model linking the productivity gap with policy distortions is presented. After controlling for the differences in infrastructure, openness, and human capital, this article shows that high subsidies and protection in developed countries combined with taxation of rice farming in poor countries have...

  2. Estimation of Spatial Trends in LAI in Heterogeneous Semi-arid Ecosystems using Full Waveform Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, N. F.; Ilangakoon, N.; Spaete, L.; Dashti, H.

    2017-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key structural trait that is defined by the plant functional type (PFT) and controlled by prevailing climate- and human-driven ecosystem stresses. Estimates of LAI using remote sensing techniques are limited by the uncertainties of vegetation inter and intra-gap fraction estimates; this is especially the case in sparse, low stature vegetated ecosystems. Small footprint full waveform lidar digitizes the total amount of return energy with the direction information as a near continuous waveform at a high vertical resolution (1 ns). Thus waveform lidar provides additional data matrices to capture vegetation gaps as well as PFTs that can be used to constrain the uncertainties of LAI estimates. In this study, we calculated a radiometrically calibrated full waveform parameter called backscatter cross section, along with other data matrices from the waveform to estimate vegetation gaps across plots (10 m x 10 m) in a semi-arid ecosystem in the western US. The LAI was then estimated using empirical relationships with directional gap fraction. Full waveform-derived gap fraction based LAI showed a high correlation with field observed shrub LAI (R2 = 0.66, RMSE = 0.24) compared to discrete return lidar based LAI (R2 = 0.01, RMSE = 0.5). The data matrices derived from full waveform lidar classified a number of deciduous and evergreen tree species, shrub species, and bare ground with an overall accuracy of 89% at 10 m. A similar analysis was performed at 1m with overall accuracy of 80%. The next step is to use these relationships to map the PFTs LAI at 10 m spatial scale across the larger study regions. The results show the exciting potential of full waveform lidar to identify plant functional types and LAI in low-stature vegetation dominated semi-arid ecosystems, an ecosystem in which many other remote sensing techniques fail. These results can be used to assess ecosystem state, habitat suitability as well as to constrain model uncertainties in

  3. Experimental Investigation of Inlet Distortion in a Multistage Axial Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Razvan

    The primary objective of this research is to present results and methodologies used to study total pressure inlet distortion in a multi-stage axial compressor environment. The study was performed at the Purdue 3-Stage Axial Compressor Facility (P3S) which models the final three stages of a production turbofan engine's high-pressure compressor (HPC). The goal of this study was twofold; first, to design, implement, and validate a circumferentially traversable total pressure inlet distortion generation system, and second, to demonstrate data acquisition methods to characterize the inter-stage total pressure flow fields to study the propagation and attenuation of a one-per-rev total pressure distortion. The datasets acquired for this study are intended to support the development and validation of novel computational tools and flow physics models for turbomachinery flow analysis. Total pressure inlet distortion was generated using a series of low-porosity wire gauze screens placed upstream of the compressor in the inlet duct. The screens are mounted to a rotatable duct section that can be precisely controlled. The P3S compressor features fixed instrumentation stations located at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) and downstream and upstream of each vane row. Furthermore, the compressor features individually indexable stator vanes which can be traverse by up to two vane passages. Using a series of coordinated distortion and vane traverses, the total pressure flow field at the AIP and subsequent inter-stage stations was characterized with a high circumferential resolution. The uniformity of the honeycomb carrier was demonstrated by characterizing the flow field at the AIP while no distortion screens where installed. Next, the distortion screen used for this study was selected following three iterations of porosity reduction. The selected screen consisted of a series of layered screens with a 100% radial extent and a 120° circumferential extent. A detailed total

  4. Physiological interpretation of Doppler shift waveforms: the femorodistal segment in combined disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W B; Baird, R N; Cole, S E; Evans, J M; Skidmore, R; Woodcock, J P

    1983-01-01

    A new method is presented for assessing the femorodistal segment in multisegmental arterial disease, using the Laplace transform technique of Doppler waveform analysis. Blood velocity/time waveforms were obtained at femoral and ankle levels in three groups of limbs--50 without arterial disease, 12 with isolated aortoiliac stenoses, and 32 with femoropopliteal occlusions, with and without proximal disease. The waveforms were analysed for Laplace transform and pulsatility index values. The omega 0 coefficients of the Laplace transform analysis at femoral and ankle levels were compared in each subject, as the omega 0 gradient (femoral/ankle omega 0): and pulsatility index damping factor (femoral/ankle P1) was also calculated. The omega 0 gradient was shown to detect femoropopliteal occlusion in the presence of multisegmental arterial disease and to give some indication of its haemodynamic significance. The diagnostic accuracy of the omega 0 gradient was superior to that of pulsatility index damping factor. When combined with its existing ability to detect aortoiliac stenosis, this new application of the Laplace transform method offers the possibility both of a system for complete localisation of significant arterial lesions, and potential for follow-up of vascular surgical procedures in the lower limb, from two simple Doppler recordings.

  5. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  6. 'Generalizability' of a radial-aortic transfer function for the derivation of central aortic waveform parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Sarah A; Meredith, Ian T; Tay, David; Cameron, James D

    2007-09-01

    Arterial transfer functions (TFs) describe the relationship between the pressure waveform at different arterial sites. Generalized TFs are used to reconstruct central aortic waveforms from non-invasively obtained peripheral waveforms and have been promoted as potentially clinically useful. A limitation is the paucity of information on their 'generalizability' with no information existing on the number of subjects required to construct a satisfactory TF, nor is adequate prospective validation available. We therefore investigated the uniformity of radial-aortic TFs and prospectively estimated the capacity of a generalized TF to reconstruct individual central blood pressure parameters. Ninety-three subjects (64 male) were studied by simultaneous radial applanation and high-fidelity (Millar Mikro-tip catheter) direct measurement of central aortic BP during elective coronary procedures. Subjects were prospectively randomized to either a derivation or validation group. Increasing numbers of individual TFs from the derivation group were averaged to form a generalized TF. There was minimal change with greater than 20 TFs averaged. In the validation group, the error in most reconstructed parameters related to the absolute value of the directly measured parameter [systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure, Pcentral aortic SBP and pulse pressure (negatively) and time to peak systole (positively) (all PInclusion of more than 20 individual TFs in the construction of a generalized TF does not improve 'generalizability'. There appear to be systematic errors in derived central pressure waveforms and derived aortic augmentation index is inaccurate compared to the directly measured value.

  7. Modelling the Perceptual Components of Loudspeaker Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sune L.; Agerkvist, Finn T.; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    While non-linear distortion in loudspeakers decreases audio quality, the perceptual consequences can vary substantially. This paper investigates the metric Rnonlin [1] which was developed to predict subjective measurements of sound quality in nonlinear systems. The generalisability of the metric...... the perceptual consequences of non-linear distortion....

  8. Advanced Machining Toolpath for Low Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Advanced Machining Toolpath for Low Distortion FINAL STATUS REPORT Prepared by Brian Becker R&D Technology Manager Third Wave Systems, Inc... Machining Toolpath for Low Distortion December 2016 Contract No.: W911W6-16-P-0044 2 Table of Contents 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...2 2.1 Task 1: Collect Details of Machining Lab to Support

  9. TPC track distortions III: fiat lux

    CERN Document Server

    Boyko, I; Dydak, F; Elagin, A; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Koreshev, V; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, K; Veenhof, R; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview and final summary of all four types of static track distortions seen in the HARP TPC, in terms of physical origins, mathematical modelling, and correction algorithms. 'Static'™ distortions are defined as not depending on the event time within the 400 ms long accelerator spill. Calculated static distortions are compared with measurements from cosmic-muon tracks. We characterize track distortions by the r phi residuals of cluster positions with respect to the transverse projection of a helical trajectory constrained by hits in the RPC overlap regions. This method provides a fixed TPC-external reference system (by contrast to the co-moving coordinate system associated with a fit) which solely permits to identify individually, and measure quantitatively, the static TPC track distortions arising from (i) the inhomogeneity of the solenoidal magnetic field, (ii) the inhomogeneity of the electric field from the high-voltage mismatch between the inner and outer TPC field cages, (...

  10. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  11. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Glad, Aslaug Clemmensen; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup

    2017-01-01

    -preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal....... During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well...

  12. Waveform design for wireless power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Clerckx, B; Bayguzina, E

    2016-01-01

    Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Despite the rapid progress, the emphasis of the research community in the last decade has remained largely concentrated on improving the design of energy harvester (so-called rectenna) and has left aside the effect of transmitter design. In this paper, we study the design of transmit waveform so as to enhance the DC power at the output of the rectenna. We derive a tractable model of the non-linearity ...

  13. Performance Prediction of Constrained Waveform Design for Adaptive Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    the famous Woodward quote, having a ubiquitous feeling for all radar waveform design (and performance prediction) researchers , that is found at the end...discuss research that develops performance prediction models to quantify the impact on SINR when an amplitude constraint is placed on a radar waveform...optimize the radar perfor- mance for the particular scenario and tasks. There have also been several survey papers on various topics in waveform design for

  14. On the accuracy and precision of numerical waveforms: effect of waveform extraction methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2016-08-01

    We present a new set of 95 numerical relativity simulations of non-precessing binary black holes (BBHs). The simulations sample comprehensively both black-hole spins up to spin magnitude of 0.9, and cover mass ratios 1-3. The simulations cover on average 24 inspiral orbits, plus merger and ringdown, with low initial orbital eccentricities e\\lt {10}-4. A subset of the simulations extends the coverage of non-spinning BBHs up to mass ratio q = 10. Gravitational waveforms at asymptotic infinity are computed with two independent techniques: extrapolation and Cauchy characteristic extraction. An error analysis based on noise-weighted inner products is performed. We find that numerical truncation error, error due to gravitational wave extraction, and errors due to the Fourier transformation of signals with finite length of the numerical waveforms are of similar magnitude, with gravitational wave extraction errors dominating at noise-weighted mismatches of ˜ 3× {10}-4. This set of waveforms will serve to validate and improve aligned-spin waveform models for gravitational wave science.

  15. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  16. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  17. Advances in waveform-agile sensing for tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Sira, Sandeep Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology and information processing afford a new flexibility in the design of waveforms for agile sensing. Sensors are now developed with the ability to dynamically choose their transmit or receive waveforms in order to optimize an objective cost function. This has exposed a new paradigm of significant performance improvements in active sensing: dynamic waveform adaptation to environment conditions, target structures, or information features. The manuscript provides a review of recent advances in waveform-agile sensing for target tracking applications. A dynamic wav

  18. Wavelet-Based Signal Processing of Electromagnetic Pulse Generated Waveforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ardolino, Richard S

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigated and compared alternative signal processing techniques that used wavelet-based methods instead of traditional frequency domain methods for processing measured electromagnetic pulse (EMP) waveforms...

  19. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-17

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.

  20. A sheath model for arbitrary radiofrequency waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. M.; Chabert, Pascal

    2012-10-01

    The sheath is often the most important region of a rf plasma, because discharge impedance, power absorption and ion acceleration are critically affected by the behaviour of the sheath. Consequently, models of the sheath are central to any understanding of the physics of rf plasmas. Lieberman has supplied an analytical model for a radio-frequency sheath driven by a single frequency, but in recent years interest has been increasing in radio-frequency discharges excited by increasingly complex wave forms. There has been limited success in generalizing the Lieberman model in this direction, because of mathematical complexities. So there is essentially no sheath model available to describe many modern experiments. In this paper we present a new analytical sheath model, based on a simpler mathematical framework than that of Lieberman. For the single frequency case, this model yields scaling laws that are identical in form to those of Lieberman, differing only by numerical coefficients close to one. However, the new model may be straightforwardly solved for arbitrary current waveforms, and may be used to derive scaling laws for such complex waveforms. In this paper, we will describe the model and present some illustrative examples.

  1. On detection of black hole quasinormal ringdowns: Detection efficiency and waveform parameter determination in matched filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ando, Masaki; Sasaki, Misao; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hirotaka

    2005-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a slightly distorted black hole with ringdown waveform is well understood in general relativity. It provides a probe for direct observation of black holes and determination of their physical parameters, masses and angular momenta (Kerr parameters). For ringdown searches using data of gravitational wave detectors, matched filtering technique is useful. In this paper, we describe studies on problems in matched filtering analysis in realistic gravitational wave searches using observational data. Above all, we focus on template constructions, matches or signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), detection probabilities for Galactic events, and accuracies in evaluation of waveform parameters or black hole hairs. In template design for matched filtering, search parameter ranges and template separations are determined by requirements from acceptable maximum loss of SNRs, detection efficiencies, and computational costs. In realistic searches using observational data, however, effects of nonstationary noises cause decreases of SNRs, and increases of errors in waveform parameter determinations. These problems will potentially arise in any matched filtering searches for any kind of waveforms. To investigate them, we have performed matched filtering analysis for artificial ringdown signals which are generated with Monte-Carlo technique and injected into the TAMA300 observational data. We employed an efficient method to construct a bank of ringdown filters recently proposed by Nakano et al., and use a template bank generated from a criterion such that losses of SNRs of any signals do not exceed 2%. We found that this criterion is fulfilled in ringdown searches using TAMA300 data, by examining distribution of SNRs of simulated signals. It is also shown that with TAMA300 sensitivity, the detection probability for Galactic ringdown events is about 50% for black holes of masses greater than 20M · with SNR>10. The accuracies in waveform parameter estimations are

  2. On the Economic Consequences of Index-Linked Investing

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Wurgler

    2010-01-01

    Trillions of dollars are invested through index funds, exchange-traded funds, and other index derivatives. The benefits of index-linked investing are well-known, but the possible broader economic consequences are unstudied. I review research which suggests that index-linked investing is distorting stock prices and risk-return tradeoffs, which in turn may be distorting corporate investment and financing decisions, investor portfolio allocation decisions, fund manager skill assessments, and oth...

  3. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  4. Development of a full waveform digital sonic tool and its field application; Full wave onpa kenso sochi no kaihatsu to genchi tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurahashi, T [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Goebuchi, T [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Full waveform digital sonic tool (OYO) has been developed for the purpose of accurately measuring geophysical anomalies in the rockbed containing cracks, and its performance is evaluated by comparing its measurements with those obtained by the conventional sonic logging device (DBM). Modification involves the following. While gain is fixed in the DBM, it is variable in a times10-times200 range in the OYO. Analog transfer:ground surface A/D in the DBM is replaced by digital transfer:intra-probe A/D in the OYO. In the DBM, only a special program running on the MS-DOS can analyze waveform data but, in the OYO, waveforms are recorded in the SEG-Y format enabling the import of the data into generally available waveform processing software. In the OYO, a high-speed communication board is incorporated into the probe, which realizes high-speed communication. There is a very excellent agreement between the two in P-wave velocity distribution as reckoned from the initial run. Regarding the OYO, however, it is pointed out that gain control be performed with the greatest care to prevent waveforms from distortion. 5 figs.

  5. Distortional Modes of Thin-Walled Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Andreassen, Michael Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The classic thin-walled beam theory for open and closed cross-sections can be generalized by including distortional displacement modes. The introduction of additional displacement modes leads to coupled differential equations, which seems to have prohibited the use of exact shape functions...... in the modelling of coupled torsion and distortion. However, if the distortional displacement modes are chosen as those which decouple the differential equations as in non proportionally damped modal dynamic analysis then it may be possible to use exact shape functions and perform analysis on a reduced problem....... In the recently developed generalized beam theory (GBT) the natural distortional displacement modes are determined on the basis of a quadratic eigenvalue problem. However, as in linear modal dynamic analysis of proportionally damped structures this problem has been solved approximately using linear eigenvalue...

  6. Coulomb Distortion in the Inelastic Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Solvignon, Dave Gaskell, John Arrington

    2009-09-01

    The Coulomb distortion effects have been for a long time neglected in deep inelastic scattering for the good reason that the incident energies were very high. But for energies in the range of earlier data from SLAC or at JLab, the Coulomb distortion could have the potential consequence of affecting the A-dependence of the EMC effect and of the longitudinal to transverse virtual photon absorption cross section ratio $R(x,Q^2)$.

  7. Structures and properties of spatially distorted porphyrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubchikov, Oleg A; Kuvshinova, Elizaveta M; Pukhovskaya, Svetlana G

    2005-01-01

    The published data on the structures and properties of porphyrins with distorted aromatic macrocycles are generalised and analysed. Data on the crystal structures, spectra and kinetics of formation and dissociation of their coordination derivatives are summarised. It is demonstrated that the distortion of the planar structure of the tetrapyrrole core is one of the most efficient means of controlling spectral, physicochemical and coordination properties of these compounds.

  8. Components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganetzky, B.

    1977-01-01

    The segregation distorter (SD) complex is a naturally occurring meiotic drive system with the property that males heterozygous for an SD-bearing chromosome 2 and an SD+-bearing homolog transmit the SD-bearing chromosome almost exclusively. This distorted segregation is the consequence of an induced dysfunction of those sperm that receive the SD+ homolog. From previous studies, two loci have been implicated in this phenomenon: the Sd locus which is required to produce distortion, and the Responder (Rsp) locus that is the site at which Sd acts. There are two allelic alternatives of Rsp-sensitive (Rsp/sup sens/) and insensitive (Rsp/sup ins/); a chromosome carrying Rsp/sup ins/ is not distorted by SD. In the present study, the function and location of each of these elements was examined by a genetic and cytological characterization of x-ray-induced mutations at each locus. The results indicate the following: the Rsp locus is located in the proximal heterochromatin of 2R; a deletion for the Rsp locus renders a chromosome insensitive to distortion; the Sd locus is located to the left of pr (2-54.5), in the region from 37D2-D7 to 38A6-B2 of the salivary chromosome map; an SD chromosome deleted for Sd loses its ability to distort; there is another important component of the SD system, E(SD), in or near the proximal heterochromatin of 2L, that behaves as a strong enhancer of distortion. The results of these studies allow a reinterpretation of results from earlier analyses of the SD system and serve to limit the possible mechanisms to account for segregation distortion

  9. Method and apparatus for resonant frequency waveform modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Matthew S [Richland, WA

    2011-06-07

    A resonant modulator device and process are described that provide enhanced resonant frequency waveforms to electrical devices including, e.g., laser devices. Faster, larger, and more complex modulation waveforms are obtained than can be obtained by use of conventional current controllers alone.

  10. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion

  11. An Overview of Radar Waveform Optimization for Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lulu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An optimal waveform design method that fully employs the knowledge of the target and the environment can further improve target detection performance, thus is of vital importance to research. In this paper, methods of radar waveform optimization for target detection are reviewed and summarized and provide the basis for the research.

  12. A pulse generator of arbitrary shaped waveform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jiayou; Chen Zhihao

    2011-01-01

    The three bump magnets in the booster extraction system of SSRF are driven by a signal generator with an external trigger. The signal generator must have three independent and controllable outputs, and both amplitude and make-and-break should be controllable, with current state information being readable. In this paper, we describe a signal generator based on FPGA and DAC boards. It makes use of characteristics of both FPGA flex programmable and rich reconfigurable IO resources. The system has a 16-bit DAC with four outputs, using Matlab to write a GUI based on RS232 protocol for control. It was simulated in Modelsim and tested on board. The results indicate that the system is well designed and all the requirements are met. The arbitrary waveform is writable, and the pulse width and period can be controlled. (authors)

  13. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2017-05-26

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  14. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.; Zabihi Naeini, E.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  15. Rectangular waveform linear transformer driver module design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yue; Xie Weiping; Zhou Liangji; Chen Lin

    2014-01-01

    Linear Transformer Driver is a novel pulsed power technology, its main merits include a parallel LC discharge array and Inductive Voltage Adder. The parallel LC discharge array lowers the whole circuit equivalent inductance and the Inductive Voltage Adder unites the modules in series in order to create a high electric field grads, meanwhile, restricts the high voltage in a small space. The lower inductance in favor of LTD output a fast waveform and IVA confine high voltage in secondary cavity. In recently, some LTD-based pulsed power system has been development yet. The usual LTD architecture provides damped sine shaped output pulses that may not be suitable in flash radiography, high power microwave production, z-pinch drivers, and certain other applications. A more suitable driver output pulse would have a flat or inclined top (slightly rising or falling). In this paper, we present the design of an LTD cavity that generates this type of the output pulse by including within its circular array some number of the harmonic bricks in addition to the standard bricks according to Fourier progression theory. The parallel LC discharge array circuit formula is introduced by Kirchhoff Law, and the sum of harmonic is proofed as an analytic result, meanwhile, rationality of design is proved by simulation. Varying gas spark discharge dynamic resistance with harmonic order and switches jitter are analyzed. The results are as following: The more harmonic order is an approach to the ideal rectangular waveform, but lead to more system complexity. The capacity decreases as harmonic order increase, and gas spark discharge dynamic resistance rises with the capacity. The rising time protracts and flat is decay or even vanishes and the shot to shot reproducibility is degenerate as the switches jitter is high. (authors)

  16. Synthetic tsunami waveform catalogs with kinematic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel; Matias, Luis; Omira, Rachid

    2017-07-01

    In this study we present a comprehensive methodology to produce a synthetic tsunami waveform catalogue in the northeast Atlantic, east of the Azores islands. The method uses a synthetic earthquake catalogue compatible with plate kinematic constraints of the area. We use it to assess the tsunami hazard from the transcurrent boundary located between Iberia and the Azores, whose western part is known as the Gloria Fault. This study focuses only on earthquake-generated tsunamis. Moreover, we assume that the time and space distribution of the seismic events is known. To do this, we compute a synthetic earthquake catalogue including all fault parameters needed to characterize the seafloor deformation covering the time span of 20 000 years, which we consider long enough to ensure the representability of earthquake generation on this segment of the plate boundary. The computed time and space rupture distributions are made compatible with global kinematic plate models. We use the tsunami empirical Green's functions to efficiently compute the synthetic tsunami waveforms for the dataset of coastal locations, thus providing the basis for tsunami impact characterization. We present the results in the form of offshore wave heights for all coastal points in the dataset. Our results focus on the northeast Atlantic basin, showing that earthquake-induced tsunamis in the transcurrent segment of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary pose a minor threat to coastal areas north of Portugal and beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. However, in Morocco, the Azores, and the Madeira islands, we can expect wave heights between 0.6 and 0.8 m, leading to precautionary evacuation of coastal areas. The advantages of the method are its easy application to other regions and the low computation effort needed.

  17. Leakage Current Waveforms and Arcing Characteristics of Epoxy Resin for Outdoor Insulators under Clean and Salt Fogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwarno

    2008-05-01

    were distorted from sinusoidal. For clean samples under clean fog, THD of LC decreased with RH but slightly increased with the applied voltage. Large distortion at the peak of LC waveform was observed on kaolin polluted sample under salt fog of 3.6 mS/cm and high RH and high applied voltage. This correlates with corona arc on the sample surface. Similar behaviour was observed on kaolin-salt polluted samples under clean fog. Tracking arc experiment indicated that arc length LC magnitude and arc intensity increased with the pollutant conductivity. The THD also significantly increased with pollutant conductivity. At conductivity of less than 0.6 mS/cm the unsymmetrical LC waveforms were obtained. However, symmetrical LC waveforms were observed for conductivity of 0.9 and 1.2 mS/cm. The change of LC magnitude and waveform at different condition of samples may be useful for the diagnostics of insulator condition.

  18. Impedance cardiography: a comparison of cardiac output vs waveform analysis for assessing left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P; Kelly, Russell F; Calvin, James E

    2007-01-01

    Early detection of asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) is beneficial in managing heart failure. Recent studies have cast doubt on the usefulness of cardiac output as an indicator of LVSD. In impedance cardiography (ICG), the dZ/dt waveform has a systolic wave called the E wave. This study looked at measurements of the amplitude and area of the E wave compared with ICG-derived cardiac output, stroke volume, cardiac index, and stroke index as methods of assessing LVSD. ICG data were obtained from patients (n=26) admitted to a coronary care unit. Clinical LVSD severity was stratified into 4 groups (none, mild, moderate, and severe) based on echocardiography data and standard clinical assessment by a cardiologist blinded to ICG data. Statistical analysis showed that the E wave amplitude and area were better indicators of the level of LVSD than cardiac output, stroke volume, cardiac index, or stroke index. ICG waveform analysis has potential as a simple point-of-care test for detecting LVSD in asymptomatic patients at high risk for developing heart failure and for monitoring LVSD in patients being treated for heart failure.

  19. Design of a 9-loop quasi-exponential waveform generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Partha; Shukla, Rohit; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-12-01

    We know in an under-damped L-C-R series circuit, current follows a damped sinusoidal waveform. But if a number of sinusoidal waveforms of decreasing time period, generated in an L-C-R circuit, be combined in first quarter cycle of time period, then a quasi-exponential nature of output current waveform can be achieved. In an L-C-R series circuit, quasi-exponential current waveform shows a rising current derivative and thereby finds many applications in pulsed power. Here, we have described design and experiment details of a 9-loop quasi-exponential waveform generator. In that, design details of magnetic switches have also been described. In the experiment, output current of 26 kA has been achieved. It has been shown that how well the experimentally obtained output current profile matches with the numerically computed output.

  20. Closed form of optimal current waveform for class-F PA up to fourth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PA and its dual, usually referred as inverse class-F PA, current and voltage ... voltage waveforms provides a number of advantages in the process of PA design ... RF PA design approaches with waveform theory and experimental waveform.

  1. Ultrasonographic Findings of Mammographic Architectural Distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Hwangbo, Seol; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Sung Hun; Choi, Jae Jeong; Chung, Yong An

    2008-01-01

    To review the sonographic findings of various diseases showing architectural distortion depicted under mammography. We collected and reviewed architectural distortions observed under mammography at our health institution between 1 March 2004, and 28 February 2007. We collected 23 cases of sonographically-detected mammographic architectural distortions that confirmed lesions after surgical resection. The sonographic findings of mammographic architectural distortion were analyzed by use of the BI-RADS lexicon for shape, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, posterior acoustic feature and orientation. There were variable diseases that showed architectural distortion depicted under mammography. Fibrocystic disease was the most common presentation (n = 6), followed by adenosis (n = 2), stromal fibrosis (n = 2), radial scar (n = 3), usual ductal hyperplasia (n = 1), atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 1) and mild fibrosis with microcalcification (n = 1). Malignant lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n = 2), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (n = 2), invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 2) and invasive lobular carcinoma (n = 1) were observed. As observed by sonography, shape was divided as irregular (n = 22) and round (n = 1). Margin was divided as circumscribed (n = 1), indistinct (n = 7), angular (n = 1), microlobulated (n = 1) and sipculated (n = 13). Lesion boundary was divided as abrupt interface (n = 11) and echogenic halo (n = 12). Echo pattern was divided as hypoechoic (n = 20), anechoic (n = 1), hyperechoic (n = 1) and isoechoic (n = 1). Posterior acoustic feature was divided as posterior acoustic feature (n = 7), posterior acoustic shadow (n = 15) and complex posterior acoustic feature (n = 1). Orientation was divided as parallel (n = 12) and not parallel (n = 11). There were no differential sonographic findings between benign and malignant lesions. This study presented various sonographic findings of mammographic architectural distortion and that it is

  2. Generic distortion model for metrology under optical microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingjian; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai; Chao, YuhJin; Miraldo, Pedro; Shi, Yusheng

    2018-04-01

    For metrology under optical microscopes, lens distortion is the dominant source of error. Previous distortion models and correction methods mostly rely on the assumption that parametric distortion models require a priori knowledge of the microscopes' lens systems. However, because of the numerous optical elements in a microscope, distortions can be hardly represented by a simple parametric model. In this paper, a generic distortion model considering both symmetric and asymmetric distortions is developed. Such a model is obtained by using radial basis functions (RBFs) to interpolate the radius and distortion values of symmetric distortions (image coordinates and distortion rays for asymmetric distortions). An accurate and easy to implement distortion correction method is presented. With the proposed approach, quantitative measurement with better accuracy can be achieved, such as in Digital Image Correlation for deformation measurement when used with an optical microscope. The proposed technique is verified by both synthetic and real data experiments.

  3. Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott E.; Galley, Chad R.; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Kaye, Jason; Tiglio, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform's value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mcfit) online operations, where cfit denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m ≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 105M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in generating new waveforms with a

  4. Electrochemical sensing using comparison of voltage-current time differential values during waveform generation and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Leta Yar-Li; Glass, Robert Scott; Fitzpatrick, Joseph Jay; Wang, Gangqiang; Henderson, Brett Tamatea; Lourdhusamy, Anthoniraj; Steppan, James John; Allmendinger, Klaus Karl

    2018-01-02

    A device for signal processing. The device includes a signal generator, a signal detector, and a processor. The signal generator generates an original waveform. The signal detector detects an affected waveform. The processor is coupled to the signal detector. The processor receives the affected waveform from the signal detector. The processor also compares at least one portion of the affected waveform with the original waveform. The processor also determines a difference between the affected waveform and the original waveform. The processor also determines a value corresponding to a unique portion of the determined difference between the original and affected waveforms. The processor also outputs the determined value.

  5. Is there an Optimal Shape of the Defibrillation Shock: Constant Current vs. Pulsed Biphasic Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dotsinsky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three waveforms for transthoracic defibrillation are assessed and compared: the Pulsed Biphasic Waveform (PBW, the Rectilinear Biphasic Waveform (RBW, and the "lossless" constant current (LLCC pulses. Two indices are introduced: 1 kf = W/W0 - the ratio between the delivered energy W and the energy W0 of a rectangular pulse with the same duration and electric charge; 2 ηC = W/WC0 - the level of utilizing the initially loaded capacitor energy WC0. The envisioned comparative study shows that ηC index is favorable for both PBW and LLCC, while kf of both RBW and LLCC demonstrates advantage over the PBW in the range of small inter-electrode thoracic impedances below 80 Ω. Some design considerations are also discussed. The attractive LLCC concept needs large and heavy inductive coil to support the constant current amplitude, besides it is capable to induce strong electromagnetic influences due to the complex current control. The RBW technology controls the delivery of current through a series of internal resistors which are, however, a source of high heat losses. The PBW implements controlled duty cycle of high-frequency chopped pulses to adapt the energy delivery in respect of the patient impedance measured at the beginning of the shock. PBW technology makes use of small capacitors which allows the construction of light weight and small-size portable devices for transthoracic defibrillation.

  6. Distortion of optical feedback signals in microchip Nd:YAG lasers subjected to external multi-beam interference feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Dong, Tan; Shu-Lian, Zhang; Zhou, Ren; Cheng, Ren; Yi-Nan, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical analysis for the characteristics of an external cavity Nd:YAG laser with feedback of multiple-beam interference, which is induced by the multi-reentrance of the light from the external Fabry–Perot cavity. The theoretical model considers the multiple beam interference of the external Fabry–Perot cavity. It is found that the optical feedback signals are distorted to pulse waveforms instead of the sinusoidal ones in conventional feedback. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The obtained theoretical and experimental results can advance the development of a laser feedback interferometer

  7. Source-independent elastic waveform inversion using a logarithmic wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    The logarithmic waveform inversion has been widely developed and applied to some synthetic and real data. In most logarithmic waveform inversion algorithms, the subsurface velocities are updated along with the source estimation. To avoid estimating the source wavelet in the logarithmic waveform inversion, we developed a source-independent logarithmic waveform inversion algorithm. In this inversion algorithm, we first normalize the wavefields with the reference wavefield to remove the source wavelet, and then take the logarithm of the normalized wavefields. Based on the properties of the logarithm, we define three types of misfit functions using the following methods: combination of amplitude and phase, amplitude-only, and phase-only. In the inversion, the gradient is computed using the back-propagation formula without directly calculating the Jacobian matrix. We apply our algorithm to noise-free and noise-added synthetic data generated for the modified version of elastic Marmousi2 model, and compare the results with those of the source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion. For the noise-free data, the source-independent algorithms yield velocity models close to true velocity models. For random-noise data, the source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion yields better results than the source-independent method, whereas for coherent-noise data, the results are reversed. Numerical results show that the source-independent and source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion methods have their own merits for random- and coherent-noise data. © 2011.

  8. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-09-01

    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  9. Waveform LiDAR across forest biomass gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, P. M.; Nelson, R. F.; Dubayah, R.; Sun, G.; Ranson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed information on the quantity and distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) is needed to understand how it varies across space and changes over time. Waveform LiDAR data is routinely used to derive the heights of scattering elements in each illuminated footprint, and the vertical structure of vegetation is related to AGB. Changes in LiDAR waveforms across vegetation structure gradients can demonstrate instrument sensitivity to land cover transitions. A close examination of LiDAR waveforms in footprints across a forest gradient can provide new insight into the relationship of vegetation structure and forest AGB. In this study we use field measurements of individual trees within Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) footprints along transects crossing forest to non-forest gradients to examine changes in LVIS waveform characteristics at sites with low (field AGB measurements to original and adjusted LVIS waveforms to detect the forest AGB interval along a forest - non-forest transition in which the LVIS waveform lose the ability to discern differences in AGB. Our results help identify the lower end the forest biomass range that a ~20m footprint waveform LiDAR can detect, which can help infer accumulation of biomass after disturbances and during forest expansion, and which can guide the use of LiDAR within a multi-sensor fusion biomass mapping approach.

  10. SURFACE FITTING FILTERING OF LIDAR POINT CLOUD WITH WAVEFORM INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Xing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-waveform LiDAR is an active technology of photogrammetry and remote sensing. It provides more detailed information about objects along the path of a laser pulse than discrete-return topographic LiDAR. The point cloud and waveform information with high quality can be obtained by waveform decomposition, which could make contributions to accurate filtering. The surface fitting filtering method with waveform information is proposed to present such advantage. Firstly, discrete point cloud and waveform parameters are resolved by global convergent Levenberg Marquardt decomposition. Secondly, the ground seed points are selected, of which the abnormal ones are detected by waveform parameters and robust estimation. Thirdly, the terrain surface is fitted and the height difference threshold is determined in consideration of window size and mean square error. Finally, the points are classified gradually with the rising of window size. The filtering process is finished until window size is larger than threshold. The waveform data in urban, farmland and mountain areas from “WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research” are selected for experiments. Results prove that compared with traditional method, the accuracy of point cloud filtering is further improved and the proposed method has highly practical value.

  11. Expertise and processing distorted structure in chess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, James C; Boggan, Amy L; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    A classic finding in research on human expertise and knowledge is that of enhanced memory for stimuli in a domain of expertise as compared to either stimuli outside that domain, or within-domain stimuli that have been degraded or distorted in some way. However, we do not understand how experts process degradation or distortion of stimuli within the expert domain (e.g., a face with the eyes, nose, and mouth in the wrong positions, or a chessboard with pieces placed randomly). Focusing on the domain of chess, we present new fMRI evidence that when experts view such distorted/within-domain stimuli, they engage an active search for structure-a kind of exploratory chunking-that involves a component of a prefrontal-parietal network linked to consciousness, attention and working memory.

  12. Lattice shear distortions in fluorite structure oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, J. Jr.; Mueller, M.H.; Hitterman, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Crystallographic shear distortions have been observed in fluorite structure, single crystals of UO 2 and Zr(Ca)O 2 /sub-x/ by neutron-diffraction techniques. These distortions localize on the oxygen sublattice and do not require the presence of an external strain. The internal rearrangement mode in UO 2 is a transverse, zone boundary q vector = 2π/a (0.5, 0.0) deformation with amplitude 0.014 A. In Zr(Ca)O/sub 2-x/, the mode is a longitudinal, q vector = 2-/a (0,0,0.5) deformation with amplitude 0.23 A. Cation-anion elastic interactions dominate in selecting the nature of the internal distortion

  13. Density distortion within a rotating body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzano, P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper ascertains the distortion of the density distribution within a self-gravitating body in hydrostatic equilibrium under the influence of rotation. For this purpose, the Poisson equation has been solved by using the undistorted density profile within the Laplacian to obtain the distorted density. The Laplacian has been expressed in terms of a system of curvilinear coordinates for which the equipotential surfaces constitute a family of fundamental surfaces. In performing the requisite algebraic manipulations, the Clairaut and Radau equations developed in a previous paper (Lanzano,1974) were utilized to eliminate the derivatives of the elements pertaining to the equipotential surfaces. The density distortion has been obtained up to third-order terms in a small rotational parameter. (Auth.)

  14. 'Distorted structure modelling' - a more physical approach to Rapid Distortion Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savill, A.M.

    1979-11-01

    Rapid Distortion Theory is reviewed in the light of the modern mechanistic approach to turbulent motion. The apparent failure of current models, based on this theory, to predict stress intensity ratios accurately in distorted shear flows is attributed to their oversimplistic assumptions concerning the inherent turbulence structure of such flows. A more realistic picture of this structure and the manner in which it responds to distortion is presented in terms of interactions between the mean flow and three principal types of eddies. If Rapid Distortion Theory is modified to account for this it is shown that the stress intensity ratios can be accurately predicted in three test flows. It is concluded that a computational scheme based on Rapid Distortion Theory might ultimately be capable of predicting turbulence parameters in the highly complex geometries of reactor cooling systems. (author)

  15. Holographic measurement of distortion during laser melting: Additive distortion from overlapping pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Peter; Frostevarg, Jan; Powell, John; Eriksson, Ingemar; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-03-01

    Laser - material interactions such as welding, heat treatment and thermal bending generate thermal gradients which give rise to thermal stresses and strains which often result in a permanent distortion of the heated object. This paper investigates the thermal distortion response which results from pulsed laser surface melting of a stainless steel sheet. Pulsed holography has been used to accurately monitor, in real time, the out-of-plane distortion of stainless steel samples melted on one face by with both single and multiple laser pulses. It has been shown that surface melting by additional laser pulses increases the out of plane distortion of the sample without significantly increasing the melt depth. The distortion differences between the primary pulse and subsequent pulses has also been analysed for fully and partially overlapping laser pulses.

  16. Statistical gravitational waveform models: What to simulate next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Zoheyr; Farr, Ben; Holz, Daniel E.; Pürrer, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Models of gravitational waveforms play a critical role in detecting and characterizing the gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary coalescences. Waveforms from numerical relativity (NR), while highly accurate, are too computationally expensive to produce to be directly used with Bayesian parameter estimation tools like Markov-chain-Monte-Carlo and nested sampling. We propose a Gaussian process regression (GPR) method to generate reduced-order-model waveforms based only on existing accurate (e.g. NR) simulations. Using a training set of simulated waveforms, our GPR approach produces interpolated waveforms along with uncertainties across the parameter space. As a proof of concept, we use a training set of IMRPhenomD waveforms to build a GPR model in the 2-d parameter space of mass ratio q and equal-and-aligned spin χ1=χ2. Using a regular, equally-spaced grid of 120 IMRPhenomD training waveforms in q ∈[1 ,3 ] and χ1∈[-0.5 ,0.5 ], the GPR mean approximates IMRPhenomD in this space to mismatches below 4.3 ×10-5. Our approach could in principle use training waveforms directly from numerical relativity. Beyond interpolation of waveforms, we also present a greedy algorithm that utilizes the errors provided by our GPR model to optimize the placement of future simulations. In a fiducial test case we find that using the greedy algorithm to iteratively add simulations achieves GPR errors that are ˜1 order of magnitude lower than the errors from using Latin-hypercube or square training grids.

  17. Distorted representation in visual tourism research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    how photographic materialities, performativities and sensations contribute to new tourism knowledges. While highlighting the potential of distorted representation, the paper posits a cautionary note in regards to the influential role of academic journals in determining the qualities of visual data....... The paper exemplifies distorted representation through three impressionistic tales derived from ethnographic research on the European rail travel phenomenon: interrail.......Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations...

  18. Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Field

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform’s value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mc_{fit} online operations, where c_{fit} denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 10^{5}M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in

  19. [Evaluation of circulatory state using pulse oximeter: 2. PI (perfusion index) x PVI (pleth variability index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Toru; Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2009-07-01

    Pulse oximeter expressed by SpO2 is used for monitoring respiratory state during operation and in ICU. Perfusion index (PI) and pleth variability index (PVI) as new indexes are calculated from pulse oximeter (Masimo SET Radical-7, Masimo Corp., USA, 1998) waveforms. And these indices were used as parameters to evaluate the circulatory state. For PI calculation, the pulsatile infrared signal is indexed against the nonpulsatile infrared signal and expressed as a percentage. It might thus be of future value in assessment of perioperative changes in peripheral perfusion. PVI is a measure of a dynamic change in PI that occurs during complete respiratory cycle. It might be thought that PVI, an index automatically derived from the pulse oximeter waveform analysis, had potentially clinical applications for noninvasive hypovolemia detection and fluid responsiveness monitoring.

  20. Full Waveform Inversion Using Nonlinearly Smoothed Wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.; Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Li, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The lack of low frequency information in the acquired data makes full waveform inversion (FWI) conditionally converge to the accurate solution. An initial velocity model that results in data with events within a half cycle of their location in the observed data was required to converge. The multiplication of wavefields with slightly different frequencies generates artificial low frequency components. This can be effectively utilized by multiplying the wavefield with itself, which is nonlinear operation, followed by a smoothing operator to extract the artificially produced low frequency information. We construct the objective function using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefields with a global-correlation norm to properly handle the energy imbalance in the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Similar to the multi-scale strategy, we progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the multiplied wavefield to welcome higher resolution. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. Examples on the Marmousi 2 model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FWI method to mitigate the cycle-skipping problem in the case of a lack of low frequency information.

  1. Full Waveform Inversion Using Nonlinearly Smoothed Wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.

    2017-05-26

    The lack of low frequency information in the acquired data makes full waveform inversion (FWI) conditionally converge to the accurate solution. An initial velocity model that results in data with events within a half cycle of their location in the observed data was required to converge. The multiplication of wavefields with slightly different frequencies generates artificial low frequency components. This can be effectively utilized by multiplying the wavefield with itself, which is nonlinear operation, followed by a smoothing operator to extract the artificially produced low frequency information. We construct the objective function using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefields with a global-correlation norm to properly handle the energy imbalance in the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Similar to the multi-scale strategy, we progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the multiplied wavefield to welcome higher resolution. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. Examples on the Marmousi 2 model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FWI method to mitigate the cycle-skipping problem in the case of a lack of low frequency information.

  2. Femtosecond Nanofocusing with Full Optical Waveform Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berweger, Samuel; Atkin, Joanna M.; Xu, Xiaoji G.; Olmon, Robert L.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The simultaneous nanometer spatial confinement and femtosecond temporal control of an optical excitation has been a long-standing challenge in optics. Previous approaches using surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonant nanostructures or SPP waveguides have suffered from, for example, mode mismatch, or possible dependence on the phase of the driving laser field to achieve spatial localization. Here we take advantage of the intrinsic phase- and amplitude-independent nanofocusing ability of a conical noble metal tip with weak wavelength dependence over a broad bandwidth to achieve a 10 nm spatially and few-femtosecond temporally confined excitation. In combination with spectral pulse shaping and feedback on the second-harmonic response of the tip apex, we demonstrate deterministic arbitrary optical waveform control. In addition, the high efficiency of the nanofocusing tip provided by the continuous micro- to nanoscale mode transformation opens the door for spectroscopy of elementary optical excitations in matter on their natural length and time scales and enables applications from ultrafast nano-opto-electronics to single molecule quantum coherent control.

  3. Full waveform inversion for mechanized tunneling reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamert, Andre; Musayev, Khayal; Lambrecht, Lasse; Friederich, Wolfgang; Hackl, Klaus; Baitsch, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In mechanized tunnel drilling processes, exploration of soil structure and properties ahead of the tunnel boring machine can greatly help to lower costs and improve safety conditions during drilling. We present numerical full waveform inversion approaches in time and frequency domain of synthetic acoustic data to detect different small scale structures representing potential obstacles in front of the tunnel boring machine. With the use of sensitivity kernels based on the adjoint wave field in time domain and in frequency domain it is possible to derive satisfactory models with a manageable amount of computational load. Convergence to a suitable model is assured by the use of iterative model improvements and gradually increasing frequencies. Results of both, time and frequency approach, will be compared for different obstacle and source/receiver setups. They show that the image quality strongly depends on the used receiver and source positions and increases significantly with the use of transmission waves due to the installed receivers and sources at the surface and/or in bore holes. Transmission waves lead to clearly identified structure and position of the obstacles and give satisfactory guesses for the wave speed. Setups using only reflected waves result in blurred objects and ambiguous position of distant objects and allow to distinguish heterogeneities with higher or lower wave speed, respectively.

  4. SeisFlows-Flexible waveform inversion software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrak, Ryan T.; Borisov, Dmitry; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Tromp, Jeroen

    2018-06-01

    SeisFlows is an open source Python package that provides a customizable waveform inversion workflow and framework for research in oil and gas exploration, earthquake tomography, medical imaging, and other areas. New methods can be rapidly prototyped in SeisFlows by inheriting from default inversion or migration classes, and code can be tested on 2D examples before application to more expensive 3D problems. Wave simulations must be performed using an external software package such as SPECFEM3D. The ability to interface with external solvers lends flexibility, and the choice of SPECFEM3D as a default option provides optional GPU acceleration and other useful capabilities. Through support for massively parallel solvers and interfaces for high-performance computing (HPC) systems, inversions with thousands of seismic traces and billions of model parameters can be performed. So far, SeisFlows has run on clusters managed by the Department of Defense, Chevron Corp., Total S.A., Princeton University, and the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

  5. Waveform Analysis of UWB GPR Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Armesto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR systems fall into the category of ultra-wideband (UWB devices. Most GPR equipment covers a frequency range between an octave and a decade by using short-time pulses. Each signal recorded by a GPR gathers a temporal log of attenuated and distorted versions of these pulses (due to the effect of the propagation medium plus possible electromagnetic interferences and noise. In order to make a good interpretation of this data and extract the most possible information during processing, a deep knowledge of the wavelet emitted by the antennas is essential. Moreover, some advanced processing techniques require specific knowledge of this signal to obtain satisfactory results. In this work, we carried out a series of tests in order to determine the source wavelet emitted by a ground-coupled antenna with a 500 MHz central frequency.

  6. Improving the output voltage waveform of an intense electron-beam accelerator based on helical type Blumlein pulse forming line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bing Cheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL consisting of an inner coaxial pulse forming line (PFL and an outer coaxial PFL is widely used in the field of pulsed power, especially for intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBA. The output voltage waveform determines the quality and characteristics of the output beam current of the IEBA. Comparing with the conventional BPFL, an IEBA based on a helical type BPFL can increase the duration of the output voltage in the same geometrical volume. However, for the helical type BPFL, the voltage waveform on a matched load may be distorted which influences the electron-beam quality. In this paper, an IEBA based on helical type BPFL is studied theoretically. Based on telegrapher equations of the BPFL, a formula for the output voltage of IEBA is obtained when the transition section is taken into account, where the transition section is between the middle cylinder of BPFL and the load. From the theoretical analysis, it is found that the wave impedance and transit time of the transition section influence considerably the main pulse voltage waveform at the load, a step is formed in front of the main pulse, and a sharp spike is also formed at the end of the main pulse. In order to get a well-shaped square waveform at the load and to improve the electron-beam quality of such an accelerator, the wave impedance of the transition section should be equal to that of the inner PFL of helical type BPFL and the transit time of the transition section should be designed as short as possible. Experiments performed on an IEBA with the helical type BPFL show reasonable agreement with theoretical analysis.

  7. Sources of optical distortion in rapidly grown crystals of KH2PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Yoreo, J.J.; Zaitseva, N.P.; Woods, B.W.; Land, T.A.; Rek, Z.U.

    1995-01-01

    We report results of x-ray topographic and optical measurements on KH 2 PO 4 crystals grown at rates of 5 to 30mm/day. We show that optical distortion in these crystals is caused primarily by 3 sources: dislocations, differences in composition between adjacent growth sectors of the crystal, and differences in composition between adjacent sectors of vicinal growth hillocks within a single growth sector of the crystal. We find that the compositional heterogeneities cause spatial variations in the refractive index and induced distortion of the transmitted wave front while large groups of dislocations are responsible for strain induced birefringence which leads to beam depolarization

  8. Intrinsic light variation in very close eclipsing binary systems with distorted components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnendijk, L.

    1974-01-01

    Using the theory of distorted components in very close binaries, the semiaxes are computed for several possible models. The coefficients of limb darkening and the gravity effect are found as weighted mean values of the results of several theoretical investigations. A simple linear relation is found between the coefficient of limb darkening and the logarithm of the effective temperature in the spectral interval A0 to K0. The Fourier series for the intrinsic light variation of such distorted components is given for any polytropic index. The influence of the tidal bulge is described in detail. (IAA)

  9. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (Review of Economics and Statistics, 90, 428-441) to detect whether the widely...

  10. Synchronization of cubic distortion spontaneous otoacoustic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P; Wit, HP

    A spontaneous otoacoustic emission spectrum may contain equally spaced emission peaks. Then, two peaks, at frequencies, f(1) and f(2), respectively, apparently generate a distortion product at f(d)=2f(1)-f(2) [or 2f(2)-f(1)]. For the three emission peaks of nine of such triplets tin six emission

  11. The possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H 3 -thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough inestigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient [ru

  12. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (2008) to detect whether the widely used class of Residual Income based performa...

  13. Electromagnetic pulse distortion in living tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Insight into the distortion of electromagnetic (EM) signals in living tissue is important for optimising medical applications. To obtain this insight, field calculations have been carried out for a plane-stratified configuration of air, skin, fat, muscle and bone tissue. In this configuration, an EM

  14. DISTORTION ANALYSIS OF TILL -WALLED BOX GIRDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    bridges, buildings, motor vehicles, ships and aircrafts. Due to thinness of the box walls, generalized loads applied to this structure give rise to warping and distortion of ..... Recommendation for Design of. Intermediate Diaphragms in Box. Girders, Transactions of Japanese. Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 14,1984, pp 121-126.

  15. Rate-distortion theory and human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental goal of perception is to aid in the achievement of behavioral objectives. This requires extracting and communicating useful information from noisy and uncertain sensory signals. At the same time, given the complexity of sensory information and the limitations of biological information processing, it is necessary that some information must be lost or discarded in the act of perception. Under these circumstances, what constitutes an 'optimal' perceptual system? This paper describes the mathematical framework of rate-distortion theory as the optimal solution to the problem of minimizing the costs of perceptual error subject to strong constraints on the ability to communicate or transmit information. Rate-distortion theory offers a general and principled theoretical framework for developing computational-level models of human perception (Marr, 1982). Models developed in this framework are capable of producing quantitatively precise explanations for human perceptual performance, while yielding new insights regarding the nature and goals of perception. This paper demonstrates the application of rate-distortion theory to two benchmark domains where capacity limits are especially salient in human perception: discrete categorization of stimuli (also known as absolute identification) and visual working memory. A software package written for the R statistical programming language is described that aids in the development of models based on rate-distortion theory. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel wave-form command shaper for overhead cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALED ALHAZZA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel command shaping control strategy for oscillation reduction of simple harmonic oscillators is proposed, and validated experimentally. A wave-form acceleration command shaper is derived analytically. The performance of the proposed shaper is simulated numerically, and validated experimentally on a scaled model of an overhead crane. Amplitude modulation is used to enhance the shaper performance, which results in a modulated wave-form command shaper. It is determined that the proposed wave-form and modulated wave-form command shaper profiles are capable of eliminating travel and residual oscillations. Furthermore, unlike traditional impulse and step command shapers, the proposed command shaper has piecewise smoother acceleration, velocity, and displacement profiles. Experimental results using continuous and discrete commands are presented. Experiments with discrete commands involved embedding a saturation model-based feedback in the algorithm of the command shaper.

  17. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-01-13

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  18. Maass waveforms arising from sigma and related indefinite theta functions

    OpenAIRE

    Zwegers, Sander

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider an example of a Maass waveform which was constructed by Cohen from a function $\\sigma$, studied by Andrews, Dyson and Hickerson, and it's companion $\\sigma^*$. We put this example in a more general framework.

  19. Efficient data retrieval method for similar plasma waveforms in EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying, E-mail: liuying-ipp@szu.edu.cn [SZU-CASIPP Joint Laboratory for Applied Plasma, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Huang, Jianjun; Zhou, Huasheng; Wang, Fan [SZU-CASIPP Joint Laboratory for Applied Plasma, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wang, Feng [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The proposed method is carried out by means of bounding envelope and angle distance. • It allows retrieving for whole similar waveforms of any time length. • In addition, the proposed method is also possible to retrieve subsequences. - Abstract: Fusion research relies highly on data analysis due to its massive-sized database. In the present work, we propose an efficient method for searching and retrieving similar plasma waveforms in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Based on Piecewise Linear Aggregate Approximation (PLAA) for extracting feature values, the searching process is accomplished in two steps. The first one is coarse searching to narrow down the search space, which is carried out by means of bounding envelope. The second step is fine searching to retrieval similar waveforms, which is implemented by the angle distance. The proposed method is tested in EAST databases and turns out to have good performance in retrieving similar waveforms.

  20. Conditioning the full-waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual trade-off between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation

  1. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially

  2. Full Waveform Inversion Using Oriented Time Migration Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) for reflection events is limited by its linearized update requirements given by a process equivalent to migration. Unless the background velocity model is reasonably accurate the resulting gradient can have

  3. Interferometric full-waveform inversion of time-lapse data

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    surveys. To overcome this challenge, we propose the use of interferometric full waveform inversion (IFWI) for inverting the velocity model from data recorded by baseline and monitor surveys. A known reflector is used as the reference reflector for IFWI

  4. Velocity Building by Reflection Waveform Inversion without Cycle-skipping

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong

    2017-01-01

    Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides estimation of low wavenumber model components using reflections generated from a migration/demigration process. The resulting model tends to be a good initial model for FWI. In fact, the optimization

  5. 3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate

  6. Spectral implementation of full waveform inversion based on reflections

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Using the reflection imaging process as a source to model reflections for full waveform inversion (FWI), referred to as reflection FWI (RFWI), allows us to update the background component of the model, and avoid using the relatively costly migration

  7. Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.

  8. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Jardak, Seifallah

    2016-01-01

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  9. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  10. Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zabihi Naeini, E.; Kamath, N.; Tsvankin, I.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI

  11. Convergence of the Distorted Wave Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to begin to understand the idea of reaction mechanisms in nonrelativistic scattering systems. If we have a complete reaction theory of a particular scattering system, then we claim that the theory itself must contain information about important reaction mechanisms in the system. This information can be used to decide what reaction mechanisms should be included in an approximate calculation. To investigate this claim, we studied several solvable models. The primary concept employed in studying our models is the convergence of the multistep series generated by iterating the corresponding scattering integral equation. We known that the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for potential scattering determine the rate of convergence of the Born series. The Born series will converge only if these eigenvalues all life within the unit circle. We extend these results to a study of the distorted wave Born series for inelastic scattering. The convergence criterion tells us when approximations are valid. We learn how the convergence of the distorted wave series depends upon energy, coupling constants, angular momentum, and angular momentum transfer. In one of our models, we look at several possible distorting potentials to see which one gives the best convergence. We have also applied our results to several actual DWBA or coupled channel calculations in the literature. In addition to the study of models of two-body scattering systems, we have considered the case of rearrangement scattering. We have discussed the formulation of (N greater than or equal to 3)-body distorted wave equations in which the interior dynamics have been redistributed by introducing compact N-body distortion potentials

  12. Forensic image analysis - CCTV distortion and artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckiner, Dilan; Mallett, Xanthé; Roux, Claude; Meuwly, Didier; Maynard, Philip

    2018-04-01

    As a result of the worldwide deployment of surveillance cameras, authorities have gained a powerful tool that captures footage of activities of people in public areas. Surveillance cameras allow continuous monitoring of the area and allow footage to be obtained for later use, if a criminal or other act of interest occurs. Following this, a forensic practitioner, or expert witness can be required to analyse the footage of the Person of Interest. The examination ultimately aims at evaluating the strength of evidence at source and activity levels. In this paper, both source and activity levels are inferred from the trace, obtained in the form of CCTV footage. The source level alludes to features observed within the anatomy and gait of an individual, whilst the activity level relates to activity undertaken by the individual within the footage. The strength of evidence depends on the value of the information recorded, where the activity level is robust, yet source level requires further development. It is therefore suggested that the camera and the associated distortions should be assessed first and foremost and, where possible, quantified, to determine the level of each type of distortion present within the footage. A review of the 'forensic image analysis' review is presented here. It will outline the image distortion types and detail the limitations of differing surveillance camera systems. The aim is to highlight various types of distortion present particularly from surveillance footage, as well as address gaps in current literature in relation to assessment of CCTV distortions in tandem with gait analysis. Future work will consider the anatomical assessment from surveillance footage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang

    2016-09-06

    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  14. A microcomputer-based waveform generator for Moessbauer spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianping; Chen Xiaomei

    1995-01-01

    A waveform generator for Moessbauer spectrometers based on 8751 single chip microcomputer is described. The reference wave form with high linearity is generated with a 12 bit DAC, and its amplitude is controlled with a 8 bit DAC. Because the channel advance and synchronous signals can be delayed arbitrarily, excellent folded spectra can be acquired. This waveform generator can be controlled with DIP switches on faceplate or series interface of the IBM-PC microcomputer

  15. A Time Domain Waveform for Testing General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huwyler, Cédric; Jetzer, Philippe; Porter, Edward K

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational-wave parameter estimation is only as good as the theory the waveform generation models are based upon. It is therefore crucial to test General Relativity (GR) once data becomes available. Many previous works, such as studies connected with the ppE framework by Yunes and Pretorius, rely on the stationary phase approximation (SPA) to model deviations from GR in the frequency domain. As Fast Fourier Transform algorithms have become considerably faster and in order to circumvent possible problems with the SPA, we test GR with corrected time domain waveforms instead of SPA waveforms. Since a considerable amount of work has been done already in the field using SPA waveforms, we establish a connection between leading-order-corrected waveforms in time and frequency domain, concentrating on phase-only corrected terms. In a Markov Chain Monte Carlo study, whose results are preliminary and will only be available later, we will assess the ability of the eLISA detector to measure deviations from GR for signals coming from supermassive black hole inspirals using these corrected waveforms. (paper)

  16. Phase-space topography characterization of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Niri, Ehsan; Al-Beer, Helem

    2018-03-01

    Fundamental understanding of ultrasound interaction with material discontinuities having closed interfaces has many engineering applications such as nondestructive evaluation of defects like kissing bonds and cracks in critical structural and mechanical components. In this paper, to analyze the acoustic field nonlinearities due to defects with closed interfaces, the use of a common technique in nonlinear physics, based on a phase-space topography construction of ultrasound waveform, is proposed. The central idea is to complement the "time" and "frequency" domain analyses with the "phase-space" domain analysis of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. A nonlinear time series method known as pseudo phase-space topography construction is used to construct equivalent phase-space portrait of measured ultrasound waveforms. Several nonlinear models are considered to numerically simulate nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. The phase-space response of the simulated waveforms is shown to provide different topographic information, while the frequency domain shows similar spectral behavior. Thus, model classification can be substantially enhanced in the phase-space domain. Experimental results on high strength aluminum samples show that the phase-space transformation provides a unique detection and classification capabilities. The Poincaré map of the phase-space domain is also used to better understand the nonlinear behavior of ultrasound waveforms. It is shown that the analysis of ultrasound nonlinearities is more convenient and informative in the phase-space domain than in the frequency domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptive Waveform Design for Cognitive Radar in Multiple Targets Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of cognitive radar (CR waveform optimization design for target detection and estimation in multiple extended targets situations is investigated. This problem is analyzed in signal-dependent interference, as well as additive channel noise for extended targets with unknown target impulse response (TIR. To address this problem, an improved algorithm is employed for target detection by maximizing the detection probability of the received echo on the promise of ensuring the TIR estimation precision. In this algorithm, an additional weight vector is introduced to achieve a trade-off among different targets. Both the estimate of TIR and transmit waveform can be updated at each step based on the previous step. Under the same constraint on waveform energy and bandwidth, the information theoretical approach is also considered. In addition, the relationship between the waveforms that are designed based on the two criteria is discussed. Unlike most existing works that only consider single target with temporally correlated characteristics, waveform design for multiple extended targets is considered in this method. Simulation results demonstrate that compared with linear frequency modulated (LFM signal, waveforms designed based on maximum detection probability and maximum mutual information (MI criteria can make radar echoes contain more multiple-target information and improve radar performance as a result.

  18. Adaptive phase k-means algorithm for waveform classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Yaojun; Xu, Feng; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin

    2018-01-01

    Waveform classification is a powerful technique for seismic facies analysis that describes the heterogeneity and compartments within a reservoir. Horizon interpretation is a critical step in waveform classification. However, the horizon often produces inconsistent waveform phase, and thus results in an unsatisfied classification. To alleviate this problem, an adaptive phase waveform classification method called the adaptive phase k-means is introduced in this paper. Our method improves the traditional k-means algorithm using an adaptive phase distance for waveform similarity measure. The proposed distance is a measure with variable phases as it moves from sample to sample along the traces. Model traces are also updated with the best phase interference in the iterative process. Therefore, our method is robust to phase variations caused by the interpretation horizon. We tested the effectiveness of our algorithm by applying it to synthetic and real data. The satisfactory results reveal that the proposed method tolerates certain waveform phase variation and is a good tool for seismic facies analysis.

  19. Optimal current waveforms for brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle, Nicholas; Boyd, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we give energy-optimal current waveforms for a permanent magnet synchronous motor that result in a desired average torque. Our formulation generalises previous work by including a general back-electromotive force (EMF) wave shape, voltage and current limits, an arbitrary phase winding connection, a simple eddy current loss model, and a trade-off between power loss and torque ripple. Determining the optimal current waveforms requires solving a small convex optimisation problem. We show how to use the alternating direction method of multipliers to find the optimal current in milliseconds or hundreds of microseconds, depending on the processor used, which allows the possibility of generating optimal waveforms in real time. This allows us to adapt in real time to changes in the operating requirements or in the model, such as a change in resistance with winding temperature, or even gross changes like the failure of one winding. Suboptimal waveforms are available in tens or hundreds of microseconds, allowing for quick response after abrupt changes in the desired torque. We demonstrate our approach on a simple numerical example, in which we give the optimal waveforms for a motor with a sinusoidal back-EMF, and for a motor with a more complicated, nonsinusoidal waveform, in both the constant-torque region and constant-power region.

  20. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion, with reduced local minima. We propose a waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase objective function in the frequency-domain. The unwrapped phase, or what we call the instantaneous traveltime, is given by the imaginary part of dividing the derivative of the wavefield with respect to the angular frequency by the wavefield itself. As a result, the objective function is given a traveltime-like function, which allows us to smooth it and reduce its nonlinearity. The gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique. We apply both our waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase and the conventional waveform inversion and show that our inversion algorithm gives better convergence to the true model than the conventional waveform inversion. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  1. 3D Electric Waveforms of Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Electric fields provide the major coupling between the turbulence of the solar wind and particles. A large part of the turbulent spectrum of fluctuations in the solar wind is thought to be kinetic Alfvén waves; however, whistlers have recently been found to be important. In this article, we attempt to determine the mode identification of individual waveforms using the three-dimensional antenna system of the SWaves experiments on the STEREO spacecraft. Samples are chosen using waveforms with an apparent periodic structure, selected visually. The short antennas of STEREO respond to density fluctuations and to electric fields. Measurement of four quantities using only three antennas presents a problem. Methods to overcome or to ignore this difficulty are presented. We attempt to decide whether the waveforms correspond to the whistler mode or the Alfvén mode by using the direction of rotation of the signal. Most of the waveforms are so oblique—nearly linearly polarized—that the direction cannot be determined. However, about one third of the waveforms can be identified, and whistlers and Alfvén waves are present in roughly equal numbers. The selected waveforms are very intense but intermittent and are orders of magnitude stronger than the average, yet their accumulated signal accounts for a large fraction of the average. The average, however, is supposed to be the result of a turbulent mixture of many waves, not short coherent events. This presents a puzzle for future work.

  2. Machine Learning Techniques for Arterial Pressure Waveform Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cardoso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arterial Pressure Waveform (APW can provide essential information about arterial wall integrity and arterial stiffness. Most of APW analysis frameworks individually process each hemodynamic parameter and do not evaluate inter-dependencies in the overall pulse morphology. The key contribution of this work is the use of machine learning algorithms to deal with vectorized features extracted from APW. With this purpose, we follow a five-step evaluation methodology: (1 a custom-designed, non-invasive, electromechanical device was used in the data collection from 50 subjects; (2 the acquired position and amplitude of onset, Systolic Peak (SP, Point of Inflection (Pi and Dicrotic Wave (DW were used for the computation of some morphological attributes; (3 pre-processing work on the datasets was performed in order to reduce the number of input features and increase the model accuracy by selecting the most relevant ones; (4 classification of the dataset was carried out using four different machine learning algorithms: Random Forest, BayesNet (probabilistic, J48 (decision tree and RIPPER (rule-based induction; and (5 we evaluate the trained models, using the majority-voting system, comparatively to the respective calculated Augmentation Index (AIx. Classification algorithms have been proved to be efficient, in particular Random Forest has shown good accuracy (96.95% and high area under the curve (AUC of a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve (0.961. Finally, during validation tests, a correlation between high risk labels, retrieved from the multi-parametric approach, and positive AIx values was verified. This approach gives allowance for designing new hemodynamic morphology vectors and techniques for multiple APW analysis, thus improving the arterial pulse understanding, especially when compared to traditional single-parameter analysis, where the failure in one parameter measurement component, such as Pi, can jeopardize the whole evaluation.

  3. Source-independent time-domain waveform inversion using convolved wavefields: Application to the encoded multisource waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full waveform inversion requires a good estimation of the source wavelet to improve our chances of a successful inversion. This is especially true for an encoded multisource time-domain implementation, which, conventionally, requires separate

  4. Factors influencing the renal arterial Doppler waveform: a simulation study using an electrical circuit model (secondary publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Bong Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular compliance, resistance, and pulse rate on the resistive index (RI) by using an electrical circuit model to simulate renal blood flow. In order to analyze the renal arterial Doppler waveform, we modeled the renal blood-flow circuit with an equivalent simple electrical circuit containing resistance, inductance, and capacitance. The relationships among the impedance, resistance, and compliance of the circuit were derived from well-known equations, including Kirchhoff’s current law for alternating current circuits. Simulated velocity-time profiles for pulsatile flow were generated using Mathematica (Wolfram Research) and the influence of resistance, compliance, and pulse rate on waveforms and the RI was evaluated. Resistance and compliance were found to alter the waveforms independently. The impedance of the circuit increased with increasing proximal compliance, proximal resistance, and distal resistance. The impedance decreased with increasing distal compliance. The RI of the circuit decreased with increasing proximal compliance and resistance. The RI increased with increasing distal compliance and resistance. No positive correlation between impedance and the RI was found. Pulse rate was found to be an extrinsic factor that also influenced the RI. This simulation study using an electrical circuit model led to a better understanding of the renal arterial Doppler waveform and the RI, which may be useful for interpreting Doppler findings in various clinical settings.

  5. Factors influencing the renal arterial Doppler waveform: a simulation study using an electrical circuit model (secondary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Chang Kyu; Han, Bong Soo; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular compliance, resistance, and pulse rate on the resistive index (RI) by using an electrical circuit model to simulate renal blood flow. In order to analyze the renal arterial Doppler waveform, we modeled the renal blood-flow circuit with an equivalent simple electrical circuit containing resistance, inductance, and capacitance. The relationships among the impedance, resistance, and compliance of the circuit were derived from well-known equations, including Kirchhoff’s current law for alternating current circuits. Simulated velocity-time profiles for pulsatile flow were generated using Mathematica (Wolfram Research) and the influence of resistance, compliance, and pulse rate on waveforms and the RI was evaluated. Resistance and compliance were found to alter the waveforms independently. The impedance of the circuit increased with increasing proximal compliance, proximal resistance, and distal resistance. The impedance decreased with increasing distal compliance. The RI of the circuit decreased with increasing proximal compliance and resistance. The RI increased with increasing distal compliance and resistance. No positive correlation between impedance and the RI was found. Pulse rate was found to be an extrinsic factor that also influenced the RI. This simulation study using an electrical circuit model led to a better understanding of the renal arterial Doppler waveform and the RI, which may be useful for interpreting Doppler findings in various clinical settings

  6. Quality Evaluation and Nonuniform Compression of Geometrically Distorted Images Using the Quadtree Distortion Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the effects of lossy compression algorithms applied to images affected by geometrical distortion. It will be shown that the encoding-decoding process results in a nonhomogeneous image degradation in the geometrically corrected image, due to the different amount of information associated to each pixel. A distortion measure named quadtree distortion map (QDM able to quantify this aspect is proposed. Furthermore, QDM is exploited to achieve adaptive compression of geometrically distorted pictures, in order to ensure a uniform quality on the final image. Tests are performed using JPEG and JPEG2000 coding standards in order to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the performance of the proposed method.

  7. Image distortion due to refraction by planar surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arizaga, R; Cap, N; Rabal, H; Trivi, M

    2010-01-01

    The term 'apparent depth' is commonly treated in textbooks as an issue easily understandable from the point of view of paraxial optical geometrical optics. Nevertheless, everyday life tells us that most of the time the observation of objects immersed in water is made under a great range of visual angles where the paraxial approximation is not valid. Here we developed a non-paraxial treatment to calculate the position and shape of the image of objects immersed in liquids of different refractive indices. The approach was focused on the parametric positions of the images of a single point at different viewing angles. Then we calculated how the image of an extended object is distorted. By using the Matlab software, it is possible to visualize the images for different geometrical conditions. We also include the analysis for refractive index with negative values as is the case of metamaterials.

  8. Image distortion due to refraction by planar surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizaga, R; Cap, N; Rabal, H; Trivi, M [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC) and OPTIMO Dto de Ciencias Basicas, Fac. de Ingenieria UNLP, PO Box 3, 1897 Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    The term 'apparent depth' is commonly treated in textbooks as an issue easily understandable from the point of view of paraxial optical geometrical optics. Nevertheless, everyday life tells us that most of the time the observation of objects immersed in water is made under a great range of visual angles where the paraxial approximation is not valid. Here we developed a non-paraxial treatment to calculate the position and shape of the image of objects immersed in liquids of different refractive indices. The approach was focused on the parametric positions of the images of a single point at different viewing angles. Then we calculated how the image of an extended object is distorted. By using the Matlab software, it is possible to visualize the images for different geometrical conditions. We also include the analysis for refractive index with negative values as is the case of metamaterials.

  9. System and Method for Generating a Frequency Modulated Linear Laser Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor); Petway, Larry B. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Lockard, George E. (Inventor); Hines, Glenn D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system for generating a frequency modulated linear laser waveform includes a single frequency laser generator to produce a laser output signal. An electro-optical modulator modulates the frequency of the laser output signal to define a linear triangular waveform. An optical circulator passes the linear triangular waveform to a band-pass optical filter to filter out harmonic frequencies created in the waveform during modulation of the laser output signal, to define a pure filtered modulated waveform having a very narrow bandwidth. The optical circulator receives the pure filtered modulated laser waveform and transmits the modulated laser waveform to a target.

  10. A Method for Harmonic Sources Detection based on Harmonic Distortion Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruixing; Xu, Lin; Zheng, Xian

    2018-03-01

    Harmonic sources detection at the point of common coupling is an essential step for harmonic contribution determination and harmonic mitigation. The harmonic distortion power rate index is proposed for harmonic source location based on IEEE Std 1459-2010 in the paper. The method only based on harmonic distortion power is not suitable when the background harmonic is large. To solve this problem, a threshold is determined by the prior information, when the harmonic distortion power is larger than the threshold, the customer side is considered as the main harmonic source, otherwise, the utility side is. A simple model of public power system was built in MATLAB/Simulink and field test results of typical harmonic loads verified the effectiveness of proposed method.

  11. Extension of frequency-based dissimilarity for retrieving similar plasma waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochin, Teruhisa; Koyama, Katsumasa; Nakanishi, Hideya; Kojima, Mamoru

    2008-01-01

    Some computer-aided assistance in finding the waveforms similar to a waveform has become indispensable for accelerating data analysis in the plasma experiments. For the slowly-varying waveforms and those having time-sectional oscillation patterns, the methods using the Fourier series coefficients of waveforms in calculating the dissimilarity have successfully improved the performance in retrieving similar waveforms. This paper treats severely-varying waveforms, and proposes two extensions to the dissimilarity of waveforms. The first extension is to capture the difference of the importance of the Fourier series coefficients of waveforms against frequency. The second extension is to consider the outlines of waveforms. The correctness of the extended dissimilarity is experimentally evaluated by using the metrics used in evaluating that of the information retrieval, i.e. precision and recall. The experimental results show that the extended dissimilarity could improve the correctness of the similarity retrieval of plasma waveforms

  12. Pseudo LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. When SIRAL operates in SAR or SARin mode, the obtained waveforms have an along-track resolution and a speckle reduction which is increased with respect to the pulse-limited waveforms. Anyway, in order to analyze the continuity of the geophysical retrieved parameters among different acquisition modes, techniques to transform SARin mode data to pseudo-LRM mode data are welcome. The transformation process is known as SAR reduction and it is worth recalling here that only approximate pseudo-LRM waveforms can be obtained in case of closed burst acquisitions, as SIRAL operates. A SAR reduction processing scheme has been developed to obtain pseudo-LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition. As a trade-off between the along-track length on Earth surface contributing to one SARin pseudo-LRM waveform and the noisiness of the waveform itself, it has been chosen a SAR reduction approach based on the averaging of all the SARin echoes received each 20Hz, resulting in one pseudo-LRM waveform for each SARin burst given the SARin burst repetition period. SARin pseudo-LRM waveforms have been produced for CryoSat acquisition both on ice and sea surfaces, aiming at verifying the continuity of the retracked surface height over the ellipsoid between genuine LRM products and pseudo-LRM products. Moreover, the retracked height from the SARin pseudo-LRM has been

  13. Using visual feedback distortion to alter coordinated pinching patterns for robotic rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewer Bambi R

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common for individuals with chronic disabilities to continue using the compensatory movement coordination due to entrenched habits, increased perception of task difficulty, or personality variables such as low self-efficacy or a fear of failure. Following our previous work using feedback distortion in a virtual rehabilitation environment to increase strength and range of motion, we address the use of visual feedback distortion environment to alter movement coordination patterns. Methods Fifty-one able-bodied subjects participated in the study. During the experiment, each subject learned to move their index finger and thumb in a particular target pattern while receiving visual feedback. Visual distortion was implemented as a magnification of the error between the thumb and/or index finger position and the desired position. The error reduction profile and the effect of distortion were analyzed by comparing the mean total absolute error and a normalized error that measured performance improvement for each subject as a proportion of the baseline error. Results The results of the study showed that (1 different coordination pattern could be trained with visual feedback and have the new pattern transferred to trials without visual feedback, (2 distorting individual finger at a time allowed different error reduction profile from the controls, and (3 overall learning was not sped up by distorting individual fingers. Conclusion It is important that robotic rehabilitation incorporates multi-limb or finger coordination tasks that are important for activities of daily life in the near future. This study marks the first investigation on multi-finger coordination tasks under visual feedback manipulation.

  14. Evaluation of core distortion in FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikarimoto, I.; Tanaka, M.; Okubo, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The analyses of FBR's core distortion are mainly performed in order to evaluate the following items: 1) Change of reactivity; 2) Force at pads on core assemblies; 3) Withdrawal force at refueling; 4) Loading, refueling and residual deviations of wrapper tubes (core assemblies) at the top; 5) Bowing modes of guide tubes for control rods. The analysis of core distortion are performed by using computer program for two-dimensional row deformation analysis or three-dimensional core deformation if necessary, considering these evaluated items which become design conditions. This report shows the relationship between core deformation analysis and component design, a point of view of choosing an analysis program for design considering core characteristics, and computing examples of core deformation of prototype class reactor by the above code. (author)

  15. Lawful Distortion of Consumers’ Economic Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ‘collateral damage’. In that vein this article discusses situations where consumers may have their economic behaviour distorted by commercial practices that are not unfair under the Directive. It is expected that many consumers will make relatively good decisions most of the time...... Visitors’). The article suggests how behavioural sciences may be applied to understand these situations in order to protect more consumers from having their economic behaviour distorted by commercial practices. It is suggested that per se prohibitions may be advantageous in some instances as long......The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive prohibits unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices with a view to protect consumers’ economic interests. In a market economy such regulation cannot protect the economic interests of all consumers in all situations – there must inevitably be some...

  16. Numerical simulation of distorted crystal Darwin width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Xu Zhongmin; Wang Naxiu

    2012-01-01

    A new numerical simulation method according to distorted crystal optical theory was used to predict the direct-cooling crystal monochromator optical properties(crystal Darwin width) in this study. The finite element analysis software was used to calculate the deformed displacements of DCM crystal and to get the local reciprocal lattice vector of distorted crystal. The broadening of direct-cooling crystal Darwin width in meridional direction was estimated at 4.12 μrad. The result agrees well with the experimental data of 5 μrad, while it was 3.89 μrad by traditional calculation method of root mean square (RMS) of the slope error in the center line of footprint. The new method provides important theoretical support for designing and processing of monochromator crystal for synchrotron radiation beamline. (authors)

  17. Redshift-space distortions from vector perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Khosravi, Nima; Kunz, Martin; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2018-02-01

    We compute a general expression for the contribution of vector perturbations to the redshift space distortion of galaxy surveys. We show that they contribute to the same multipoles of the correlation function as scalar perturbations and should thus in principle be taken into account in data analysis. We derive constraints for next-generation surveys on the amplitude of two sources of vector perturbations, namely non-linear clustering and topological defects. While topological defects leave a very small imprint on redshift space distortions, we show that the multipoles of the correlation function are sensitive to vorticity induced by non-linear clustering. Therefore future redshift surveys such as DESI or the SKA should be capable of measuring such vector modes, especially with the hexadecapole which appears to be the most sensitive to the presence of vorticity.

  18. Distorted wave calculations for double electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.E.; Rivarola, R.D.; Gayet, R.; Hanssen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The resonant double electron capture by alpha particles in helium targets is studied, at intermediate and high collision energies, using the Continuum Distorted Wave - Eikonal Initial State (CDW-EIS) model. Differential and total cross sections for capture into the He (1 s 2 ) final state are calculated in the framework of an Independent Electron Approximation (IEA). Theoretical results are compared with the experimental data available at present for capture into any final state of helium. (author)

  19. Lattice distortion in hcp rare gas solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, A.; Tretyak, S. M.; Freiman, Yu. A.

    2010-04-01

    The lattice distortion parameter δ ≡c/a-√8/3 has been calculated as a function of molar volume for the hcp phases of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Results from both semi-empirical potentials and density functional theory are presented. Our study shows that δ is negative for helium in the entire pressure range. For Ar, Kr, and Xe δ changes sign from negative to positive as the pressure increases, growing rapidly in magnitude at higher pressures.

  20. Distortion of the microwave background by dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Woody and Richards distortion of the microwave background has a natural explanation within the framework of the isothermal density fluctuation picture. A pregalactic generation of ''stars'' makes light and metals. The latter are able to condense into dust grains at a redshift approximately 150-225, which then absorb the starlight and reradiate it in the infrared. At the present epoch we see this emission redshifted into the millimetre range of the spectrum

  1. A review of PFR core distortion experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron induced voidage (NIV) swelling and irradiation creep, acting together or individually, produce deformation in core components exposed to a fast neutron flux and can lead to mechanical interaction between them. Today the nature of these processes is reasonably well understood, and reactor designers have two options in attempting to accomodate them: either by employing a flexible free standing design in which contact loadings are low but in which distortion may be high, or more commonly, by some type of restrained core in which inter-component loadings are high, but where distortion is relatively small. The aims of this paper are: a. to describe briefly the various operational limits of core and core component distortion and how they arise, for which a brief description of reactor construction is necessary; b. to outline how the problems of inter-component contact loadings are overcome for the interactive core; c. to describe some other potential problems which arise either from absolute swelling, or from differential swelling between components; of particular relevance here is the problem of contact loadings between absorber rods and their guide tubes; d. to comment on the degree of agreement with, and the feedback provided by, PIE findings; e. to show how the results of the work influence reactor operators and the reload program

  2. CMB spectral distortion constraints on thermal inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kihyun; Stewart, Ewan D. [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungwook E. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Zoe, Heeseung, E-mail: cho_physics@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: heezoe@dgist.ac.kr, E-mail: jcap@profstewart.org, E-mail: heezoe@dgist.ac.kr [School of Undergraduate Studies, College of Transdisciplinary Studies, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Thermal inflation is a second epoch of exponential expansion at typical energy scales V {sup 1/4} ∼ 10{sup 6} {sup ∼} {sup 8} GeV. If the usual primordial inflation is followed by thermal inflation, the primordial power spectrum is only modestly redshifted on large scales, but strongly suppressed on scales smaller than the horizon size at the beginning of thermal inflation, k > k {sub b} = a {sub b} H {sub b}. We calculate the spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background generated by the dissipation of acoustic waves in this context. For k {sub b} || 10{sup 3} Mpc{sup −1}, thermal inflation results in a large suppression of the μ-distortion amplitude, predicting that it falls well below the standard value of μ ≅ 2× 10{sup −8}. Thus, future spectral distortion experiments, similar to PIXIE, can place new limits on the thermal inflation scenario, constraining k {sub b} ∼> 10{sup 3} Mpc{sup −1} if μ ≅ 2× 10{sup −8} were found.

  3. Cognitive Distortions in Depressed Women: Trait, or State Dependent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BATMAZ

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results have revealed that self-criticism, helplessness, hopelessness and preoccupation with danger related distortions had trait-like features, whereas self-blame related distortions were state dependent. This has clinical implications for the psychotherapeutic treatment of cognitive distortions in depression. Specifically, self-criticism related distortions should be managed during cognitive therapy for depression since the other subscales seem rather problematic. [JCBPR 2015; 4(3.000: 147-152

  4. Ocular pressure waveform reflects ventricular bigeminy and aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean B Kassem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular pulse amplitude (OPA is defined as the difference between maximum and minimum intraocular pressure (IOP during a cardiac cycle. Average values of OPA range from 1 to 4 mmHg. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the source of an irregular IOP waveform with elevated OPA in a 48-year-old male. Ocular pressure waveforms had an unusual shape consistent with early ventricular contraction. With a normal IOP, OPA was 9 mmHg, which is extraordinarily high. The subject was examined by a cardiologist and was determined to be in ventricular bigeminy. In addition, he had bounding carotid pulses and echocardiogram confirmed aortic insufficiency. After replacement of the aortic valve, the bigeminy resolved and the ocular pulse waveform became regular in appearance with an OPA of 1.6-2.0 mmHg. The ocular pressure waveform is a direct reflection of hemodynamics. Evaluating this waveform may provide an additional opportunity for screening subjects for cardiovascular anomalies and arrhythmias.

  5. Selection and generation of waveforms for differential mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Evgeny V; Coy, Stephen L; Vandermey, John; Schneider, Bradley B; Covey, Thomas R; Nazarov, Erkinjon G

    2010-02-01

    Devices based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) are used in a number of ways, including applications as ion prefilters for API-MS systems, as detectors or selectors in hybrid instruments (GC-DMS, DMS-IMS), and in standalone systems for chemical detection and identification. DMS ion separation is based on the relative difference between high field and low field ion mobility known as the alpha dependence, and requires the application of an intense asymmetric electric field known as the DMS separation field, typically in the megahertz frequency range. DMS performance depends on the waveform and on the magnitude of this separation field. In this paper, we analyze the relationship between separation waveform and DMS resolution and consider feasible separation field generators. We examine ideal and practical DMS separation field waveforms and discuss separation field generator circuit types and their implementations. To facilitate optimization of the generator designs, we present a set of relations that connect ion alpha dependence to DMS separation fields. Using these relationships we evaluate the DMS separation power of common generator types as a function of their waveform parameters. Optimal waveforms for the major types of DMS separation generators are determined for ions with various alpha dependences. These calculations are validated by comparison with experimental data.

  6. Direct current contamination of kilohertz frequency alternating current waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Manfred; Bhadra, Niloy; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin

    2014-07-30

    Kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) waveforms are being evaluated in a variety of physiological settings because of their potential to modulate neural activity uniquely when compared to frequencies in the sub-kilohertz range. However, the use of waveforms in this frequency range presents some unique challenges regarding the generator output. In this study we explored the possibility of undesirable contamination of the KHFAC waveforms by direct current (DC). We evaluated current- and voltage-controlled KHFAC waveform generators in configurations that included a capacitive coupling between generator and electrode, a resistive coupling and combinations of capacitive with inductive coupling. Our results demonstrate that both voltage- and current-controlled signal generators can unintentionally add DC-contamination to a KHFAC signal, and that capacitive coupling is not always sufficient to eliminate this contamination. We furthermore demonstrated that high value inductors, placed in parallel with the electrode, can be effective in eliminating DC-contamination irrespective of the type of stimulator, reducing the DC contamination to less than 1 μA. This study highlights the importance of carefully designing the electronic setup used in KHFAC studies and suggests specific testing that should be performed and reported in all studies that assess the neural response to KHFAC waveforms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Selection and generation of waveforms for differential mobility spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, Evgeny V.; Coy, Stephen L.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.; Vandermey, John; Schneider, Bradley B.; Covey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Devices based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) are used in a number of ways, including applications as ion prefilters for API-MS systems, as detectors or selectors in hybrid instruments (GC-DMS, DMS-IMS), and in standalone systems for chemical detection and identification. DMS ion separation is based on the relative difference between high field and low field ion mobility known as the alpha dependence, and requires the application of an intense asymmetric electric field known as the DMS separation field, typically in the megahertz frequency range. DMS performance depends on the waveform and on the magnitude of this separation field. In this paper, we analyze the relationship between separation waveform and DMS resolution and consider feasible separation field generators. We examine ideal and practical DMS separation field waveforms and discuss separation field generator circuit types and their implementations. To facilitate optimization of the generator designs, we present a set of relations that connect ion alpha dependence to DMS separation fields. Using these relationships we evaluate the DMS separation power of common generator types as a function of their waveform parameters. Optimal waveforms for the major types of DMS separation generators are determined for ions with various alpha dependences. These calculations are validated by comparison with experimental data.

  8. Accuracy of Binary Black Hole waveforms for Advanced LIGO searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Barkett, Kevin; Bhagwat, Swetha; Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Brown, Duncan; Pfeiffer, Harald; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela

    2015-04-01

    Coalescing binaries of compact objects are flagship sources for the first direct detection of gravitational waves with LIGO-Virgo observatories. Matched-filtering based detection searches aimed at binaries of black holes will use aligned spin waveforms as filters, and their efficiency hinges on the accuracy of the underlying waveform models. A number of gravitational waveform models are available in literature, e.g. the Effective-One-Body, Phenomenological, and traditional post-Newtonian ones. While Numerical Relativity (NR) simulations provide for the most accurate modeling of gravitational radiation from compact binaries, their computational cost limits their application in large scale searches. In this talk we assess the accuracy of waveform models in two regions of parameter space, which have only been explored cursorily in the past: the high mass-ratio regime as well as the comparable mass-ratio + high spin regime.s Using the SpEC code, six q = 7 simulations with aligned-spins and lasting 60 orbits, and tens of q ∈ [1,3] simulations with high black hole spins were performed. We use them to study the accuracy and intrinsic parameter biases of different waveform families, and assess their viability for Advanced LIGO searches.

  9. A study of doppler waveform using pulsatile flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hye Won; Chung, Myung Jin; Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Min, Byoung Goo

    1997-01-01

    Through the construction of a pulsatile flow model using an artificial heart pump and stenosis to demonstrate triphasic Doppler waveform, which simulates in vivo conditions, and to evaluate the relationship between Doppler waveform and vascular compliance. The flow model was constructed using a flowmeter, rubber tube, glass tube with stenosis, and artificial heart pump. Doppler study was carried out at the prestenotic, poststenotic, and distal segments;compliance was changed by changing the length of the rubber tube. With increasing proximal compliance, Doppler waveforms show decreasing peak velocity of the first phase and slightly delayed acceleration time, but the waveform itself did not change significantly. Distal compliance influenced the second phase, and was important for the formation of pulsus tardus and parvus, which without poststenotic vascular compliance, did not develop. The peak velocity of the first phase was inversely proportional to proximal compliance, and those of the second and third phases were directly proportional to distal compliance. After constructing this pulsatile flow model, we were able to explain the relationship between vascular compliance and Doppler waveform, and also better understand the formation of pulsus tardus and parvus

  10. Detection of chromatic and luminance distortions in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Wang, Karen; Menzies, Samantha; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2015-09-01

    A number of studies have measured visual thresholds for detecting spatial distortions applied to images of natural scenes. In one study, Bex [J. Vis.10(2), 1 (2010)10.1167/10.2.231534-7362] measured sensitivity to sinusoidal spatial modulations of image scale. Here, we measure sensitivity to sinusoidal scale distortions applied to the chromatic, luminance, or both layers of natural scene images. We first established that sensitivity does not depend on whether the undistorted comparison image was of the same or of a different scene. Next, we found that, when the luminance but not chromatic layer was distorted, performance was the same regardless of whether the chromatic layer was present, absent, or phase-scrambled; in other words, the chromatic layer, in whatever form, did not affect sensitivity to the luminance layer distortion. However, when the chromatic layer was distorted, sensitivity was higher when the luminance layer was intact compared to when absent or phase-scrambled. These detection threshold results complement the appearance of periodic distortions of the image scale: when the luminance layer is distorted visibly, the scene appears distorted, but when the chromatic layer is distorted visibly, there is little apparent scene distortion. We conclude that (a) observers have a built-in sense of how a normal image of a natural scene should appear, and (b) the detection of distortion in, as well as the apparent distortion of, natural scene images is mediated predominantly by the luminance layer and not chromatic layer.

  11. Centi-pixel accurate real-time inverse distortion correction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, Johan P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Inverse distortion is used to create an undistorted image from a distorted image. For each pixel in the undistorted image it is required to determine which pixel in the distorted image should be used. However the process of characterizing a lens...

  12. Appraisal Distortions and Intimate Partner Violence: Gender, Power, and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Jason B.; Oka, Megan; Fife, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    In relationships characterized by control, abuse, or violence, many appraisal distortions occur including denial and minimization. However, the nature of the distortion varies depending on the individual's role in the relationship (i.e., abuser or victim). Reducing these distortions is an important component in treatment success and involves…

  13. Closed-loop waveform control of boost inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Guo Rong; Xiao, Cheng Yuan; Wang, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    The input current of single-phase inverter typically has an AC ripple component at twice the output frequency, which causes a reduction in both the operating lifetime of its DC source and the efficiency of the system. In this paper, the closed-loop performance of a proposed waveform control method...... to eliminate such a ripple current in boost inverter is investigated. The small-signal stability and the dynamic characteristic of the inverter system for input voltage or wide range load variations under the closed-loop waveform control method are studied. It is validated that with the closedloop waveform...... control, not only was stability achieved, the reference voltage of the boost inverter capacitors can be instantaneously adjusted to match the new load, thereby achieving improved ripple mitigation for a wide load range. Furthermore, with the control and feedback mechanism, there is minimal level of ripple...

  14. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    was compared to a linear frequency modulated signal with amplitude tapering, previously used in clinical studies for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. The latter had a relatively flat spectrum which implied that the waveform tried to excite all frequencies including ones with low amplification. The proposed......In this paper a method for designing waveforms for temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging is described. The method is based on least squares optimization and is used to design nonlinear frequency modulated signals for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. By using the proposed design method...... waveform, on the other hand, was designed so that only frequencies where the transducer had a large amplification were excited. Hereby, unnecessary heating of the transducer could be avoided and the signal-tonoise ratio could be increased. The experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS was used to evaluate...

  15. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J

    2007-01-01

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential

  16. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica (DEE), Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Engenharia Biomedica NEPEB, Av. Ant. Carlos, 6627, sala 2206, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31.270-901 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential.

  17. Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2012-11-01

    The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.

  18. Analysis of Gradient Waveform in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU-YANG Shan-mei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of gradient pulse waveform affects image quality significantly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Recording and analyzing the waveform of gradient pulse helps to make rapid and accurate diagnosis of spectrometer gradient hardware and/or pulse sequence. Using the virtual instrument software LabVIEW to control the high speed data acquisition card DAQ-2005, a multi-channel acquisition scheme was designed to collect the gradient outputs from a custom-made spectrometer. The collected waveforms were post-processed (i.e., histogram statistical analysis, data filtering and difference calculation to obtain feature points containing time and amplitude information. Experiments were carried out to validate the method, which is an auxiliary test method for the development of spectrometer and pulses sequence.

  19. A complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel; Huerta, Eliu; Kumar, Prayush; Agarwal, Bhanu; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Pfeiffer, Harald; Chu, Tony; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel; Kidder, Lawrence; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela

    2017-01-01

    We present a time domain waveform model that describes the inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact binary systems whose components are non-spinning, and which evolve on orbits with low to moderate eccentricity. We show that this inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model reproduces the effective-one-body model for black hole binaries with mass-ratios between 1 to 15 in the zero eccentricity limit over a wide range of the parameter space under consideration. We use this model to show that the gravitational wave transients GW150914 and GW151226 can be effectively recovered with template banks of quasicircular, spin-aligned waveforms if the eccentricity e0 of these systems when they enter the aLIGO band at a gravitational wave frequency of 14 Hz satisfies e0GW 150914 <= 0 . 15 and e0GW 151226 <= 0 . 1 .

  20. Classification of Pulse Waveforms Using Edit Distance with Real Penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in sensor and signal processing techniques have provided effective tools for quantitative research in traditional Chinese pulse diagnosis (TCPD. Because of the inevitable intraclass variation of pulse patterns, the automatic classification of pulse waveforms has remained a difficult problem. In this paper, by referring to the edit distance with real penalty (ERP and the recent progress in -nearest neighbors (KNN classifiers, we propose two novel ERP-based KNN classifiers. Taking advantage of the metric property of ERP, we first develop an ERP-induced inner product and a Gaussian ERP kernel, then embed them into difference-weighted KNN classifiers, and finally develop two novel classifiers for pulse waveform classification. The experimental results show that the proposed classifiers are effective for accurate classification of pulse waveform.

  1. Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.

  2. Shaping the spectrum of random-phase radar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Marquette, Brandeis

    2017-05-09

    The various technologies presented herein relate to generation of a desired waveform profile in the form of a spectrum of apparently random noise (e.g., white noise or colored noise), but with precise spectral characteristics. Hence, a waveform profile that could be readily determined (e.g., by a spoofing system) is effectively obscured. Obscuration is achieved by dividing the waveform into a series of chips, each with an assigned frequency, wherein the sequence of chips are subsequently randomized. Randomization can be a function of the application of a key to the chip sequence. During processing of the echo pulse, a copy of the randomized transmitted pulse is recovered or regenerated against which the received echo is correlated. Hence, with the echo energy range-compressed in this manner, it is possible to generate a radar image with precise impulse response.

  3. Laboratory simulation of atmospheric turbulence induced optical wavefront distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Travis Shane

    1999-11-01

    Mathcad[2]. The phase screens can then be manipulated and displayed on the LCTV using a computer with an appropriate framegrabber and software. The present system consists of an Epson liquid crystal television (which was optimized to modulate up to 2π of phase), a Macintosh IIci with a framegrabber card, a QuickTime movie consisting of multiple video frames of two dimensional arrays of spatially correlated grayscale images, and two polarizers. The movie is displayed on the television via the framegrabber, and the polarizers are used to operate the television in a mode that mostly modulates the spatial phase distribution of the optical wavefront. The frames of the movie are created using an accepted turbulence model for spatially correlated variations in index of refraction, and each subsequent frame of the movie is calculated following an accepted model for temporally varying turbulence. The model used for generating spatial functions or ``phase screens'' which simulate turbulence is the well known Kolmogorov model. These ``phase screens'' are then used, employing a Taylor's frozen flow model, to simulate temporally varying turbulence. A single ``phase screen'' is given a random velocity vector between 0 and.55 meters per second to simulate temporally varying turbulence. The system is used to distort optical beams as if the beams had propagated through a long pathlength of wavefront distorting medium, such as the atmosphere.

  4. Improving waveform inversion using modified interferometric imaging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuebao; Liu, Hong; Shi, Ying; Wang, Weihong; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Similar to the reverse-time migration, full waveform inversion in the time domain is a memory-intensive processing method. The computational storage size for waveform inversion mainly depends on the model size and time recording length. In general, 3D and 4D data volumes need to be saved for 2D and 3D waveform inversion gradient calculations, respectively. Even the boundary region wavefield-saving strategy creates a huge storage demand. Using the last two slices of the wavefield to reconstruct wavefields at other moments through the random boundary, avoids the need to store a large number of wavefields; however, traditional random boundary method is less effective at low frequencies. In this study, we follow a new random boundary designed to regenerate random velocity anomalies in the boundary region for each shot of each iteration. The results obtained using the random boundary condition in less illuminated areas are more seriously affected by random scattering than other areas due to the lack of coverage. In this paper, we have replaced direct correlation for computing the waveform inversion gradient by modified interferometric imaging, which enhances the continuity of the imaging path and reduces noise interference. The new imaging condition is a weighted average of extended imaging gathers can be directly used in the gradient computation. In this process, we have not changed the objective function, and the role of the imaging condition is similar to regularization. The window size for the modified interferometric imaging condition-based waveform inversion plays an important role in this process. The numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly enhances waveform inversion performance.

  5. On the potential of OFDM enhancements as 5G waveforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Pajukoski, Kari; Lähetkangas, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    The ideal radio waveform for an upcoming 5th Generation (5G) radio access technology should cope with a set of requirements such as limited complexity, good time/frequency localization and simple extension to multi-antenna technologies. This paper discusses the suitability of Orthogonal Frequency...... Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and its recently proposed enhancements as 5G waveforms, mainly focusing on their capability to cope with our requirements. Significant focus is given to the novel zero-tail paradigm, which allows boosting the OFDM flexibility while circumventing demerits such as poor spectral...

  6. Towards distortion-free robust image authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltuc, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a general framework for distortion-free robust image authentication by multiple marking. First, by robust watermarking a subsampled version of image edges is embedded. Then, by reversible watermarking the information needed to recover the original image is inserted, too. The hiding capacity of the reversible watermarking is the essential requirement for this approach. Thus in case of no attacks not only image is authenticated but also the original is exactly recovered. In case of attacks, reversibility is lost, but image can still be authenticated. Preliminary results providing very good robustness against JPEG compression are presented

  7. Rate dependent image distortions in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trow, M.W.; Bento, A.C.; Smith, A.

    1994-01-01

    The positional linearity of imaging proportional counters is affected by the intensity distribution of the incident radiation. A mechanism for this effect is described, in which drifting positive ions in the gas produce a distorting electric field which perturbs the trajectories of the primary electrons. In certain cases, the phenomenon causes an apparent improvement of the position resolution. We demonstrate the effect in a detector filled with a xenon-argon-CO 2 mixture. The images obtained are compared with the results of a simulation. If quantitative predictions for a particular detector are required, accurate values of the absolute detector gain, ion mobility and electron drift velocity are needed. ((orig.))

  8. Multiple shadows from distorted static black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Jai; Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Wittig, Alexander; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2018-04-01

    We study the local shadow of the Schwarzschild black hole with a quadrupole distortion and the influence of the external gravitational field on the photon dynamics. The external matter sources modify the light ring structure and lead to the appearance of multiple shadow images. In the case of negative quadrupole moments we identify the most prominent mechanism causing multiple shadow formation. Furthermore, we obtain a condition under which this mechanism can be realized. This condition depends on the quadrupole moment, but also on the position of the observer and the celestial sphere.

  9. Renormalization of a distorted gauge: invariant theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.P.; Underwood, J.A.

    1976-02-01

    A new type of renormalizable theory involving massive Yang-Mills fields whose mass is generated by an intrinsic breakdown of the usual local gauge symmetry is considered. However, the Lagrangian has a distorted gauge symmetry which leads to the Ward-Takahashi (W-T) identities. Also, the theory is independent of the gauge parameter xi. An explicit renormalization at the oneloop level is completely carried out by exhibiting counter terms, defining the physical parameters and computing all renormalization constants to check the W-T identities

  10. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...

  11. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  12. Effect of Waveform on Tactile Perception by Electrovibration Displayed on Touch Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Yasemin; Guclu, Burak; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of input voltage waveform on our haptic perception of electrovibration on touch screens. Through psychophysical experiments performed with eight subjects, we first measured the detection thresholds of electrovibration stimuli generated by sinusoidal and square voltages at various fundamental frequencies. We observed that the subjects were more sensitive to stimuli generated by square wave voltage than sinusoidal one for frequencies lower than 60 Hz. Using Matlab simulations, we showed that the sensation difference of waveforms in low fundamental frequencies occurred due to the frequency-dependent electrical properties of human skin and human tactile sensitivity. To validate our simulations, we conducted a second experiment with another group of eight subjects. We first actuated the touch screen at the threshold voltages estimated in the first experiment and then measured the contact force and acceleration acting on the index fingers of the subjects moving on the screen with a constant speed. We analyzed the collected data in the frequency domain using the human vibrotactile sensitivity curve. The results suggested that Pacinian channel was the primary psychophysical channel in the detection of the electrovibration stimuli caused by all the square-wave inputs tested in this study. We also observed that the measured force and acceleration data were affected by finger speed in a complex manner suggesting that it may also affect our haptic perception accordingly.

  13. Gradient waveform pre-emphasis based on the gradient system transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Manuel; Wech, Tobias; Slawig, Anne; Ringler, Ralf; Dewdney, Andrew; Greiser, Andreas; Ruyters, Gudrun; Bley, Thorsten A; Köstler, Herbert

    2018-02-25

    The gradient system transfer function (GSTF) has been used to describe the distorted k-space trajectory for image reconstruction. The purpose of this work was to use the GSTF to determine the pre-emphasis for an undistorted gradient output and intended k-space trajectory. The GSTF of the MR system was determined using only standard MR hardware without special equipment such as field probes or a field camera. The GSTF was used for trajectory prediction in image reconstruction and for a gradient waveform pre-emphasis. As test sequences, a gradient-echo sequence with phase-encoding gradient modulation and a gradient-echo sequence with a spiral read-out trajectory were implemented and subsequently applied on a structural phantom and in vivo head measurements. Image artifacts were successfully suppressed by applying the GSTF-based pre-emphasis. Equivalent results are achieved with images acquired using GSTF-based post-correction of the trajectory as a part of image reconstruction. In contrast, the pre-emphasis approach allows reconstruction using the initially intended trajectory. The artifact suppression shown for two sequences demonstrates that the GSTF can serve for a novel pre-emphasis. A pre-emphasis based on the GSTF information can be applied to any arbitrary sequence type. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. An analog memory integrated circuit for waveform sampling up to 900 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Wooley, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of switched-capacitor technology for acquiring analog signals in high-energy physics (HEP) applications has been demonstrated in a number of analog memory designs. The design and implementation of a switched-capacitor memory suitable for capturing high-speed analog waveforms is described. Highlights of the presented circuit are a 900 MHz sampling frequency (generated on chip), input signal independent cell pedestal and sampling instances, and cell gains that are insensitive to component sizes. A two-channel version of the memory with 32 cells for each channel has been integrate in a 2-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with polysilicon-to-polysilicon capacitors. The measured rms cell response variation in a channel after cell pedestal subtraction is less than 0.3 mV across the full input signal range. The cell-to-cell gain matching is better than 0.01% rms, and the nonlinearity is less than 0.03% for a 2.5-V input range. The dynamic range of the memory exceeds 13 bits, and the peak signal-to-(noise + distortion) ratio for a 21.4 MHz sine wave sampled at 900 MHz is 59 dB

  15. Waveform Diversity and Design for Interoperating Radar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    University Di Pisa Department Di Ingegneria Dell Informazione Elettronica, Informatica , Telecomunicazioni Via Girolamo Caruso 16 Pisa, Italy 56122...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University Di Pisa Department Di Ingegneria Dell Informazione Elettronica, Informatica ...DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA DELL’INFORMAZIONE ELETTRONICA, INFORMATICA , TELECOMUNICAZIONI WAVEFORM DIVERSITY AND DESIGN FOR INTEROPERATING

  16. Seismic Broadband Full Waveform Inversion by shot/receiver refocusing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffinger, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Full waveform inversion is a tool to obtain high-resolution property models of the subsurface from seismic data. However, the technique is computationally expens- ive and so far no multi-dimensional implementation exists to achieve a resolution that can directly be used for seismic interpretation

  17. Augmented kludge waveforms for detecting extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Moore, Christopher J.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2017-08-01

    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important class of source for the future space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA. Detecting signals from EMRIs will require waveform models that are both accurate and computationally efficient. In this paper, we present the latest implementation of an augmented analytic kludge (AAK) model, publicly available at https://github.com/alvincjk/EMRI_Kludge_Suite as part of an EMRI waveform software suite. This version of the AAK model has improved accuracy compared to its predecessors, with two-month waveform overlaps against a more accurate fiducial model exceeding 0.97 for a generic range of sources; it also generates waveforms 5-15 times faster than the fiducial model. The AAK model is well suited for scoping out data analysis issues in the upcoming round of mock LISA data challenges. A simple analytic argument shows that it might even be viable for detecting EMRIs with LISA through a semicoherent template bank method, while the use of the original analytic kludge in the same approach will result in around 90% fewer detections.

  18. Centered Differential Waveform Inversion with Minimum Support Regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir

    2017-05-26

    Time-lapse full-waveform inversion has two major challenges. The first one is the reconstruction of a reference model (baseline model for most of approaches). The second is inversion for the time-lapse changes in the parameters. Common model approach is utilizing the information contained in all available data sets to build a better reference model for time lapse inversion. Differential (Double-difference) waveform inversion allows to reduce the artifacts introduced into estimates of time-lapse parameter changes by imperfect inversion for the baseline-reference model. We propose centered differential waveform inversion (CDWI) which combines these two approaches in order to benefit from both of their features. We apply minimum support regularization commonly used with electromagnetic methods of geophysical exploration. We test the CDWI method on synthetic dataset with random noise and show that, with Minimum support regularization, it provides better resolution of velocity changes than with total variation and Tikhonov regularizations in time-lapse full-waveform inversion.

  19. Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesis With Multilevel Pulse Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Justus A.; Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Golden, Evan B.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the implementation of new commercial pulse-bias electronics that have enabled an improvement in the generation of quantum-accurate waveforms both with and without low-frequency compensation biases. We have used these electronics to apply a multilevel pulse bias to the Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer and have generated, for the first time, a quantum-accurate bipolar sinusoidal waveform without the use of a low-frequency compensation bias current. This uncompensated 1 kHz waveform was synthesized with an rms amplitude of 325 mV and maintained its quantum accuracy over a1.5 mA operating current range. The same technique and equipment was also used to synthesize a quantum-accurate 1 MHz sinusoid with a 1.2 mA operating margin. In addition, we have synthesized a compensated 1 kHz sinusoid with an rms amplitude of 1 V and a 2.7 mA operating margin. PMID:28736494

  20. Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.

  1. Multisource waveform inversion of marine streamer data using normalized wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-09-01

    Multisource full-waveform inversion based on the L1- and L2-norm objective functions cannot be applied to marine streamer data because it does not take into account the unmatched acquisition geometries between the observed and modeled data. To apply multisource full-waveform inversion to marine streamer data, we construct the L1- and L2-norm objective functions using the normalized wavefield. The new residual seismograms obtained from the L1- and L2-norms using the normalized wavefield mitigate the problem of unmatched acquisition geometries, which enables multisource full-waveform inversion to work with marine streamer data. In the new approaches using the normalized wavefield, we used the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique to efficiently calculate the gradients of the objective functions. Numerical examples showed that multisource full-waveform inversion using the normalized wavefield yields much better convergence for marine streamer data than conventional approaches. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. Centered Differential Waveform Inversion with Minimum Support Regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Time-lapse full-waveform inversion has two major challenges. The first one is the reconstruction of a reference model (baseline model for most of approaches). The second is inversion for the time-lapse changes in the parameters. Common model

  3. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency domain or cycle skipping in the time domain is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion when the starting model is far from the true model. Since the phase derivative does not suffer from

  4. Experimental validation of waveform relaxation technique for power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    damping controller drawn our attention to a potential convergence problem which ... method was originally proposed as a method of parallelizing the numerical integration of very. Figure 2 ..... to it the features of an industrial real-time operating system. ..... Odeh F and Ruehli A 1985 Waveform relaxation: Theory and practice.

  5. MURI: Adaptive Waveform Design for Full Spectral Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    perhaps in a similarly-named file in the same directory as the data file) and handled by a Java class with an API for a user to request data without the...1101- 1104 . [15] J. Wang, and A. Nehorai, “Adaptive polarimetry design for a target in compound-Gaussian clutter,” International Waveform Diversity and

  6. Multisource waveform inversion of marine streamer data using normalized wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Multisource full-waveform inversion based on the L1- and L2-norm objective functions cannot be applied to marine streamer data because it does not take into account the unmatched acquisition geometries between the observed and modeled data. To apply

  7. Categorisation of full waveform data provided by laser scanning devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Andreas; Pfennigbauer, Martin

    2011-11-01

    In 2004, a laser scanner device for commercial airborne laser scanning applications, the RIEGL LMS-Q560, was introduced to the market, making use of a radical alternative approach to the traditional analogue signal detection and processing schemes found in LIDAR instruments so far: digitizing the echo signals received by the instrument for every laser pulse and analysing these echo signals off-line in a so-called full waveform analysis in order to retrieve almost all information contained in the echo signal using transparent algorithms adaptable to specific applications. In the field of laser scanning the somewhat unspecific term "full waveform data" has since been established. We attempt a categorisation of the different types of the full waveform data found in the market. We discuss the challenges in echo digitization and waveform analysis from an instrument designer's point of view and we will address the benefits to be gained by using this technique, especially with respect to the so-called multi-target capability of pulsed time-of-flight LIDAR instruments.

  8. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorkov, S; Ivanov, B I; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G

    2014-05-01

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.

  9. A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang

    2016-09-06

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.

  10. A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2014-01-01

    A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation

  11. Programmable optical waveform reshaping on a picosecond timescale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manurkar, Paritosh; Jain, Nitin; Kumar Periyannan Rajeswari, Prem

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the temporal reshaping of optical waveforms in the telecom wavelength band using the principle of quantum frequency conversion. The reshaped optical pulses do not undergo any wavelength translation. The interaction takes place in a nonlinear chi((2)) waveguide using ...... for quantum communications. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  12. A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.

  13. JET ENGINE INLET DISTORTION SCREEN AND DESCRIPTOR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pečinka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Total pressure distortion is one of the three basic flow distortions (total pressure, total temperature and swirl distortion that might appear at the inlet of a gas turbine engine (GTE during operation. Different numerical parameters are used for assessing the total pressure distortion intensity and extent. These summary descriptors are based on the distribution of total pressure in the aerodynamic interface plane. There are two descriptors largely spread around the world, however, three or four others are still in use and can be found in current references. The staff at the University of Defence decided to compare the most common descriptors using basic flow distortion patterns in order to select the most appropriate descriptor for future department research. The most common descriptors were identified based on their prevalence in widely accessible publications. The construction and use of these descriptors are reviewed in the paper. Subsequently, they are applied to radial, angular, and combined distortion patterns of different intensities and with varied mass flow rates. The tests were performed on a specially designed test bench using an electrically driven standalone industrial centrifugal compressor, sucking air through the inlet of a TJ100 small turbojet engine. Distortion screens were placed into the inlet channel to create the desired total pressure distortions. Of the three basic distortions, only the total pressure distortion descriptors were evaluated. However, both total and static pressures were collected using a multi probe rotational measurement system.

  14. Prediction of transmission distortion for wireless video communication: analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifeng; Wu, Dapeng

    2012-03-01

    Transmitting video over wireless is a challenging problem since video may be seriously distorted due to packet errors caused by wireless channels. The capability of predicting transmission distortion (i.e., video distortion caused by packet errors) can assist in designing video encoding and transmission schemes that achieve maximum video quality or minimum end-to-end video distortion. This paper is aimed at deriving formulas for predicting transmission distortion. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we identify the governing law that describes how the transmission distortion process evolves over time and analytically derive the transmission distortion formula as a closed-form function of video frame statistics, channel error statistics, and system parameters. Second, we identify, for the first time, two important properties of transmission distortion. The first property is that the clipping noise, which is produced by nonlinear clipping, causes decay of propagated error. The second property is that the correlation between motion-vector concealment error and propagated error is negative and has dominant impact on transmission distortion, compared with other correlations. Due to these two properties and elegant error/distortion decomposition, our formula provides not only more accurate prediction but also lower complexity than the existing methods.

  15. 2D acoustic-elastic coupled waveform inversion in the Laplace domain

    KAUST Repository

    Bae, Hoseuk; Shin, Changsoo; Cha, Youngho; Choi, Yun Seok; Min, Dongjoo

    2010-01-01

    Although waveform inversion has been intensively studied in an effort to properly delineate the Earth's structures since the early 1980s, most of the time- and frequency-domain waveform inversion algorithms still have critical limitations

  16. Full waveform inversion based on scattering angle enrichment with application to real dataset

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI). However, the drawback of the existing RWI methods is inability to utilize diving waves and the extra sensitivity

  17. Analysis of LFM-waveform Libraries for Cognitive Tracking Maneuvering Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of the waveform agility in cognitive radars,the waveform libraries for maneuvering target tracking are discussed. LFM-waveform libraries are designed according to different combinations of chirp parameters and FrFT rotation angles. By applying the interact multiple model (IMM algorithm in tracking maneuvering targets, transmitted waveform is called real time from the LFM-waveform libraries. The waveforms are selected from the library according to the criterion of maximum mutual information between the current state of knowledge of the model and the measurement. Simulation results show that waveform library containing certain amount LFM-waveforms can improve the performance of cognitive tracking radar.

  18. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2012-09-11

    We tested the hypothesis that the shape of the shock waveform affects not only the defibrillation threshold but also the amount of cardiac damage. Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated exponential biphasic waveform-in 6 pigs with electrodes in the right ventricular apex and superior vena cava. The ascending, descending, and rectilinear waveforms had 4-, 8-, and 16-millisecond first phases and a 3.5-millisecond rectilinear second phase that was half the voltage of the first phase. The exponential biphasic waveform had a 60% first-phase and a 50% second-phase tilt. In a second study, we attempted to defibrillate after 10 seconds of ventricular fibrillation with a single ≈30-J shock (6 pigs successfully defibrillated with 8-millisecond ascending, 8-millisecond rectilinear, and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms). Troponin I blood levels were determined before and 2 to 10 hours after the shock. The lowest-energy defibrillation threshold was for the 8-milliseconds ascending ramp (14.6±7.3 J [mean±SD]), which was significantly less than for the truncated exponential (19.6±6.3 J). Six hours after shock, troponin I was significantly less for the ascending-ramp waveform (0.80±0.54 ng/mL) than for the truncated exponential (1.92±0.47 ng/mL) or the rectilinear waveform (1.17±0.45 ng/mL). The ascending ramp has a significantly lower defibrillation threshold and at ≈30 J causes 58% less troponin I release than the truncated exponential biphasic shock. Therefore, the shock waveform affects both the defibrillation threshold and the amount of cardiac damage.

  19. Microseismic event location by master-event waveform stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Dahm, T.

    2016-12-01

    Waveform stacking location methods are nowadays extensively used to monitor induced seismicity monitoring assoiciated with several underground industrial activities such as Mining, Oil&Gas production and Geothermal energy exploitation. In the last decade a significant effort has been spent to develop or improve methodologies able to perform automated seismological analysis for weak events at a local scale. This effort was accompanied by the improvement of monitoring systems, resulting in an increasing number of large microseismicity catalogs. The analysis of microseismicity is challenging, because of the large number of recorded events often characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio. A significant limitation of the traditional location approaches is that automated picking is often done on each seismogram individually, making little or no use of the coherency information between stations. In order to improve the performance of the traditional location methods, in the last year, alternative approaches have been proposed. These methods exploits the coherence of the waveforms recorded at different stations and do not require any automated picking procedure. The main advantage of this methods relies on their robustness even when the recorded waveforms are very noisy. On the other hand, like any other location method, the location performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the available velocity model. When dealing with inaccurate velocity models, in fact, location results can be affected by large errors. Here we will introduce a new automated waveform stacking location method which is less dependent on the knowledge of the velocity model and presents several benefits, which improve the location accuracy: 1) it accounts for phase delays due to local site effects, e.g. surface topography or variable sediment thickness 2) theoretical velocity model are only used to estimate travel times within the source volume, and not along the whole source-sensor path. We

  20. Computer model analysis of the radial artery pressure waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwid, H A; Taylor, L A; Smith, N T

    1987-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of aortic and radial artery pressures are reviewed, and a model of the cardiovascular system is presented. The model is based on resonant networks for the aorta and axillo-brachial-radial arterial system. The model chosen is a simple one, in order to make interpretation of the observed relationships clear. Despite its simplicity, the model produces realistic aortic and radial artery pressure waveforms. It demonstrates that the resonant properties of the arterial wall significantly alter the pressure waveform as it is propagated from the aorta to the radial artery. Although the mean and end-diastolic radial pressures are usually accurate estimates of the corresponding aortic pressures, the systolic pressure at the radial artery is often much higher than that of the aorta due to overshoot caused by the resonant behavior of the radial artery. The radial artery dicrotic notch is predominantly dependent on the axillo-brachial-radial arterial wall properties, rather than on the aortic valve or peripheral resistance. Hence the use of the radial artery dicrotic notch as an estimate of end systole is unreliable. The rate of systolic upstroke, dP/dt, of the radial artery waveform is a function of many factors, making it difficult to interpret. The radial artery waveform usually provides accurate estimates for mean and diastolic aortic pressures; for all other measurements it is an inadequate substitute for the aortic pressure waveform. In the presence of low forearm peripheral resistance the mean radial artery pressure may significantly underestimate the mean aortic pressure, as explained by a voltage divider model.

  1. Effects of waveform model systematics on the interpretation of GW150914

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.

    2017-01-01

    Parameter estimates of GW150914 were obtained using Bayesian inference, based on three semi-analytic waveform models for binary black hole coalescences. These waveform models differ from each other in their treatment of black hole spins, and all three models make some simplifying assumptions, notably to neglect sub-dominant waveform harmonic modes and orbital eccentricity. Furthermore, while the models are calibrated to agree with waveforms obtained by full numerical solutions of Einstein's e...

  2. Bathymetry and composition of Titan's Ontario Lacus derived from Monte Carlo-based waveform inversion of Cassini RADAR altimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Hayes, A. G.; Poggiali, V.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R. D.; Seu, R.; Le Gall, A.; Notarnicola, C.; Mitchell, K. L.; Malaska, M.; Birch, S. P. D.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the Cassini RADAR was used to sound hydrocarbon lakes and seas on Saturn's moon Titan. Since the initial discovery of echoes from the seabed of Ligeia Mare, the second largest liquid body on Titan, a dedicated radar processing chain has been developed to retrieve liquid depth and microwave absorptivity information from RADAR altimetry of Titan's lakes and seas. Herein, we apply this processing chain to altimetry data acquired over southern Ontario Lacus during Titan fly-by T49 in December 2008. The new signal processing chain adopts super resolution techniques and dedicated taper functions to reveal the presence of reflection from Ontario's lakebed. Unfortunately, the extracted waveforms from T49 are often distorted due to signal saturation, owing to the extraordinarily strong specular reflections from the smooth lake surface. This distortion is a function of the saturation level and can introduce artifacts, such as signal precursors, which complicate data interpretation. We use a radar altimetry simulator to retrieve information from the saturated bursts and determine the liquid depth and loss tangent of Ontario Lacus. Received waveforms are represented using a two-layer model, where Cassini raw radar data are simulated in order to reproduce the effects of receiver saturation. A Monte Carlo based approach along with a simulated waveform look-up table is used to retrieve parameters that are given as inputs to a parametric model which constrains radio absorption of Ontario Lacus and retrieves information about the dielectric properties of the liquid. We retrieve a maximum depth of 50 m along the radar transect and a best-fit specific attenuation of the liquid equal to 0.2 ± 0.09 dB m-1 that, when converted into loss tangent, gives tanδ = 7 ± 3 × 10-5. When combined with laboratory measured cryogenic liquid alkane dielectric properties and the variable solubility of nitrogen in ethane-methane mixtures, the best-fit loss tangent is consistent with a

  3. Globalization, tax distortions and public sector retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    is strengthened by globalization, it is inferred that the marginal costs of public funds increase and a retrenchment of the public sector follows. We challenge whether these conclusions have support in a general equilibrium model featuring standard effects from open macroeconomics and trade theory. Even though...... income taxation unambiguously worsens wage competitiveness, it does not follow that marginal costs of public funds increase with product market integration due to gains from trade. Moreover, non-cooperative fiscal policies do not have a race-to-the-bottom bias despite that taxes harm competitiveness......It is widely perceived that globalization is a threat to tax financed public sector activities. The argument is that public activities (public consumption and transfers) financed by income taxes distort labour markets and cause higher wages and thus a loss of competitiveness. Since this link...

  4. Distortion compensation in interferometric testing of mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Brian M.; Reardon, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to compensate for the imaging distortion encountered in interferometric testing of mirrors, which is introduced by interferometer optics as well as from geometric projection errors. Our method involves placing a mask, imprinted with a regular square grid, over the mirror and finding a transformation that relates the grid coordinates to coordinates in the base plane of the parent surface. This method can be used on finished mirrors since no fiducials have to be applied to the surfaces. A critical step in the process requires that the grid coordinates be projected onto the mirror base plane before the regression is performed. We apply the method successfully during a center-of-curvature null test of an F/2 off-axis paraboloid

  5. Cosmic microwave background distortions at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Peratt, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors analyze the deviation of the cosmic background radiation spectrum from the 2.76+-0.02 0 Κ blackbody curve. If the cosmic background radiation is due to absorption and re-emission of synchrotron radiation from galactic-width current filaments, higher-order synchrotron modes are less thermalized than lower-order modes, causing a distortion of the blackbody curve at higher frequencies. New observations of the microwave background spectrum at short wavelengths should provide an indication of the number of synchrotron modes thermalized in this process. The deviation of the spectrum from that of a perfect blackbody can thus be correlated with astronomical observations such as filament temperatures and electron energies. The results are discussed and compared with the theoretical predictions of other models which assume the presence of intergalactic superconducting cosmic strings

  6. A scale distortion theory of anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Shane W; Mochon, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    We propose that anchoring is often best interpreted as a scaling effect--that the anchor changes how the response scale is used, not how the focal stimulus is perceived. Of importance, we maintain that this holds true even for so-called objective scales (e.g., pounds, calories, meters, etc.). In support of this theory of scale distortion, we show that prior exposure to a numeric standard changes respondents' use of that specific response scale but does not generalize to conceptually affiliated judgments rendered on similar scales. Our findings highlight the necessity of distinguishing response language effects from representational effects in places where the need for that distinction has often been assumed away.

  7. Moebius inverse problem for distorted black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, H.

    1993-01-01

    Hawking ''thermal'' radiation could be a means to detect black holes of micron sizes, which may be hovering through the universe. We consider these micro-black holes to be distorted by the presence of some distribution of matter representing a convolution factor for their Hawking radiation. One may hope to determine from their Hawking signals the temperature distribution of their material shells by the inverse black body problem. In 1990, Nan-xian Chen has used a so-called modified Moebius transform to solve the inverse black body problem. We discuss and apply this technique to Hawking radiation. Some comments on supersymmetric applications of Moebius function and transform are also added. (author). 22 refs

  8. Distortions in memory for visual displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Systematic errors in perception and memory present a challenge to theories of perception and memory and to applied psychologists interested in overcoming them as well. A number of systematic errors in memory for maps and graphs are reviewed, and they are accounted for by an analysis of the perceptual processing presumed to occur in comprehension of maps and graphs. Visual stimuli, like verbal stimuli, are organized in comprehension and memory. For visual stimuli, the organization is a consequence of perceptual processing, which is bottom-up or data-driven in its earlier stages, but top-down and affected by conceptual knowledge later on. Segregation of figure from ground is an early process, and figure recognition later; for both, symmetry is a rapidly detected and ecologically valid cue. Once isolated, figures are organized relative to one another and relative to a frame of reference. Both perceptual (e.g., salience) and conceptual factors (e.g., significance) seem likely to affect selection of a reference frame. Consistent with the analysis, subjects perceived and remembered curves in graphs and rivers in maps as more symmetric than they actually were. Symmetry, useful for detecting and recognizing figures, distorts map and graph figures alike. Top-down processes also seem to operate in that calling attention to the symmetry vs. asymmetry of a slightly asymmetric curve yielded memory errors in the direction of the description. Conceptual frame of reference effects were demonstrated in memory for lines embedded in graphs. In earlier work, the orientation of map figures was distorted in memory toward horizontal or vertical. In recent work, graph lines, but not map lines, were remembered as closer to an imaginary 45 deg line than they had been. Reference frames are determined by both perceptual and conceptual factors, leading to selection of the canonical axes as a reference frame in maps, but selection of the imaginary 45 deg as a reference frame in graphs.

  9. Correction of distortions in a discontinuous image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geagan, M.J.; Chase, B.B.; Muehllehner, G.

    1994-01-01

    Large area position-sensitive NaI detectors have been successfully applied to positron emission tomography (PET). Typical PET studies involve detector singles rates in excess of 500 kcps, which can lead to pile-up and image degradation as a function of countrate. Better high countrate performance can be achieved with a local centroid algorithm, in which the position of each event is calculated from a small group of photomultipliers (PMTs) immediately surrounding the PMT with the highest signal (the peak PMT). The local centroid contains most of the light from the scintillation. If a local centroid of only seven PMTs is used, the position resolution becomes quite stable at high countrates, however, discontinuities appear in the detector flood image as events cluster around each PMT. We therefore developed a method for distortion correction of a discontinuous flood image. For each PMT on the detector, a peak PMT domain is defined. The peak PMT domain is the area on the detector where that PMT could have the highest signal. The peak PMT domains overlap slightly, so that all combinations of peak PMT and position are represented. A collimated source is moved through a regular grid of points - a template - over each peak PMT region. A short collection is performed at each point, and the real and measured position data are recorded. For each point in the spatial range of a given PMT, distortion correction offsets are computed by interpolating between the data points which correspond to that PMT. This new method has been implemented and evaluated. System resolution has been measured at low and high countrates. The high countrate resolution is better with the new method, with no degradation in low countrate resolution. The axial sensitivity profile is also more stable at high countrates, compared to the previously developed method. 3-D brain phantom images show a clear improvement in image quality at high countrates. ((orig.))

  10. A new optimization approach for source-encoding full-waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, P.P.; Keers, H.; Herrmann, F.J.; Mulder, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Waveform inversion is the method of choice for determining a highly heterogeneous subsurface structure. However, conventional waveform inversion requires that the wavefield for each source is computed separately. This makes it very expensive for realistic 3D seismic surveys. Source-encoding waveform

  11. Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures Allan Fong, MS1,3, Ranjeev...the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to predict electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the...type of neural network for mining, understanding, and predicting electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms. Several network

  12. Light-distortion analysis as a possible indicator of visual quality after refractive lens exchange with diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Pedro; Salgado-Borges, José; Neves, Helena; Gonzalez-Meijome, José; Monteiro, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    To study the perception of light distortion after refractive lens exchange (RLE) with diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Clínica Oftalmológica das Antas, Porto, Portugal. Retrospective comparative study. Refractive lens exchange was performed with implantation of an AT Lisa 839M (trifocal) or 909MP (bifocal toric) IOL, the latter if corneal astigmatism was more than 0.75 diopter (D). The postoperative visual and refractive outcomes were evaluated. A prototype light-distortion analyzer was used to quantify the postoperative light-distortion indices. A control group of eyes in which a Tecnis ZCB00 1-piece monofocal IOL was implanted had the same examinations. A trifocal or bifocal toric IOL was implanted in 66 eyes. The control IOL was implanted in 18 eyes. All 3 groups obtained a significant improvement in uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) (P refractive cylinder was less than 1.00 D in 86.7% of cases with the toric IOL. The mean light-distortion index was significantly higher in the multifocal IOL groups than in the monofocal group (P light-distortion index and CDVA. The multifocal IOLs provided excellent UDVA and functional UNVA despite increased light-distortion indices. The light-distortion analyzer reliably quantified a subjective component of vision distinct from visual acuity; it may become a useful adjunct in the evaluation of visual quality obtained with multifocal IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of loudspeaker nonlinear distortion on personal sound zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiaohui; J. Hegarty, Patrick; Abildgaard Pedersen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Personal sound zone systems aim at creating multiple listening zones within a shared space with minimum interference between zones, but the performance is often poorer than simulations predict and effects of nonlinear distortion are sometimes audible. This paper assesses the impact of nonlinear...... distortion on sound zones through simulations and measurements performed under anechoic conditions. Two sound zones, one bright and one dark, are created with acoustic contrast control using two loudspeaker arrays driven at 250 Hz. Nonlinear distortion is modelled using second or third order nonlinearities....... Simulations show that nonlinear distortion degrades the acoustic contrast, which is confirmed by experimental measurements. The harmonic distortion is audible in the dark zone. Frequency resolved measurements reveal that harmonic distortion contributes to contrast loss, but nonlinear effects...

  14. A Cognitive Distortions and Deficits Model of Suicide Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Fazakas-DeHoog

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although cognitive distortions and deficits are known risk factors for the development and escalation of suicide ideation and behaviour, no empirical work has examined how these variables interact to predict suicide ideation. The current study proposes an integrative model of cognitive distortions (hopelessness and negative evaluations of self and future and deficits (problem solving deficits, problem solving avoidance, and cognitive rigidity. To test the integrity of this model, a sample of 397 undergraduate students completed measures of deficits, distortions, and current suicide ideation. A structural equation model demonstrated excellent fit, and findings indicated that only distortions have a direct effect on suicidal thinking, whereas cognitive deficits may exert their effects on suicide ideation via their reciprocal relation with distortions. Findings underscore the importance of both cognitive distortions and deficits for understanding suicidality, which may have implications for preventative efforts and treatment.

  15. Influence of initial state distortion in ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M F [CONICET and Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Cravero, W R [CONICET and Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Garibotti, C R [CONICET and Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2004-05-28

    We have studied the influence of initial state distortion in a single ionization by ion impact. We have taken a continuum distorted wave type distortion and by taking up to the first order in its asymptotic series expansion we build an eikonal-spherical distortion. In this way the influence of each term in the transition amplitude can be stated. This approximation can be considered an intermediate one between the eikonal initial state and the continuum distorted wave approaches for initial state distortion. We have computed doubly differential cross sections for helium ionization by protons and highly charged ions at high and intermediate impact energy. We have also discussed the contribution of the different terms in electron energy spectra, specially in the vicinity of ECC peak. Very good agreement is found with the available experimental data.

  16. Influence of initial state distortion in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciappina, M F; Cravero, W R; Garibotti, C R

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the influence of initial state distortion in a single ionization by ion impact. We have taken a continuum distorted wave type distortion and by taking up to the first order in its asymptotic series expansion we build an eikonal-spherical distortion. In this way the influence of each term in the transition amplitude can be stated. This approximation can be considered an intermediate one between the eikonal initial state and the continuum distorted wave approaches for initial state distortion. We have computed doubly differential cross sections for helium ionization by protons and highly charged ions at high and intermediate impact energy. We have also discussed the contribution of the different terms in electron energy spectra, specially in the vicinity of ECC peak. Very good agreement is found with the available experimental data

  17. The Modularized Software Package ASKI - Full Waveform Inversion Based on Waveform Sensitivity Kernels Utilizing External Seismic Wave Propagation Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present the modularized software package ASKI which is a flexible and extendable toolbox for seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) as well as sensitivity or resolution analysis operating on the sensitivity matrix. It utilizes established wave propagation codes for solving the forward problem and offers an alternative to the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have typically been written for solving inverse problems. It is available under the GPL at www.rub.de/aski. The Gauss-Newton FWI method for 3D-heterogeneous elastic earth models is based on waveform sensitivity kernels and can be applied to inverse problems at various spatial scales in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. The kernels are derived in the frequency domain from Born scattering theory as the Fréchet derivatives of linearized full waveform data functionals, quantifying the influence of elastic earth model parameters on the particular waveform data values. As an important innovation, we keep two independent spatial descriptions of the earth model - one for solving the forward problem and one representing the inverted model updates. Thereby we account for the independent needs of spatial model resolution of forward and inverse problem, respectively. Due to pre-integration of the kernels over the (in general much coarser) inversion grid, storage requirements for the sensitivity kernels are dramatically reduced.ASKI can be flexibly extended to other forward codes by providing it with specific interface routines that contain knowledge about forward code-specific file formats and auxiliary information provided by the new forward code. In order to sustain flexibility, the ASKI tools must communicate via file output/input, thus large storage capacities need to be accessible in a convenient way. Storing the complete sensitivity matrix to file, however, permits the scientist full manual control over each step in a customized procedure of sensitivity/resolution analysis and full

  18. Helical Peierls distortion: Formation of helices of polyketone and polyisocyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chang-Xing; Kertesz, Miklos

    1990-06-01

    A new type of Peierls-like distortion, the formation of a helix due to the existence of partially filled crossing bands, is reported for polyketone and polyisocyanide. The torsional potential curves, optimized geometries, band structures and phonon dispersion curves are derived. A comparison with the well-known Peierls-distorted all-trans polyacetylene indicates close similarity between the two types of Peierls distortions.

  19. Distortions in the output signals of conventional spectrum analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    We show that the output signals of conventional spectrum analysers contain distortions which basically originate from the signal processing performed inside the analysers' frequency convertors. Total elimination of these distortions through normal filtering techniques is difficult owing to the closeness of some of their frequencies to the corresponding frequencies of the required signals. Simple design adjustments that can minimize these distortions are suggested. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  20. Could unstable relic particles distort the microwave background radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.; Loeb, A.; Nussinov, S.

    1989-01-01

    Three general classes of possible scenarios for the recently reported distortion of the microwave background radiation (MBR) via decaying relic weakly interacting particles are analyzed. The analysis shows that such particles could not reheat the universe and cause the spectral distortion of the MBR. Gravitational processes such as the early formation of massive black holes may still be plausible energy sources for producing the reported spectral distortion of the MBR at an early cosmological epoch. 24 references

  1. Systems and methods for mirror mounting with minimized distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R. (Inventor); Wallace, Thomas E. (Inventor); Content, David A. (Inventor); Wake, Shane W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for mounting a mirror for use in a telescope includes attaching the mirror to a plurality of adjustable mounts; determining a distortion in the mirror caused by the plurality adjustable mounts, and, if the distortion is determined to be above a predetermined level: adjusting one or more of the adjustable mounts; and determining the distortion in the mirror caused by the adjustable mounts; and in the event the determined distortion is determined to be at or below the predetermined level, rigidizing the adjustable mounts.

  2. Modeling Kinetics of Distortion in Porous Bi-layered Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Bjørk, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    because of different sintering rates of the materials resulting in undesired distortions of the component. An analytical model based on the continuum theory of sintering has been developed to describe the kinetics of densification and distortion in the sintering processes. A new approach is used...... to extract the material parameters controlling shape distortion through optimizing the model to experimental data of free shrinkage strains. The significant influence of weight of the sample (gravity) on the kinetics of distortion is taken in to consideration. The modeling predictions indicate good agreement...

  3. Spectral Distortion in Lossy Compression of Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aiazzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortion allocation varying with wavelength in lossy compression of hyperspectral imagery is investigated, with the aim of minimizing the spectral distortion between original and decompressed data. The absolute angular error, or spectral angle mapper (SAM, is used to quantify spectral distortion, while radiometric distortions are measured by maximum absolute deviation (MAD for near-lossless methods, for example, differential pulse code modulation (DPCM, or mean-squared error (MSE for lossy methods, for example, spectral decorrelation followed by JPEG 2000. Two strategies of interband distortion allocation are compared: given a target average bit rate, distortion may be set to be constant with wavelength. Otherwise, it may be allocated proportionally to the noise level of each band, according to the virtually lossless protocol. Comparisons with the uncompressed originals show that the average SAM of radiance spectra is minimized by constant distortion allocation to radiance data. However, variable distortion allocation according to the virtually lossless protocol yields significantly lower SAM in case of reflectance spectra obtained from compressed radiance data, if compared with the constant distortion allocation at the same compression ratio.

  4. Analytic family of post-merger template waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Nagar, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Building on the analytical description of the post-merger (ringdown) waveform of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning binary black holes introduced by Damour and Nagar [Phys. Rev. D 90, 024054 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.024054], we propose an analytic, closed form, time-domain, representation of the ℓ=m =2 gravitational radiation mode emitted after merger. This expression is given as a function of the component masses and dimensionless spins (m1 ,2,χ1 ,2) of the two inspiraling objects, as well as of the mass MBH and (complex) frequency σ1 of the fundamental quasinormal mode of the remnant black hole. Our proposed template is obtained by fitting the post-merger waveform part of several publicly available numerical relativity simulations from the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog and then suitably interpolating over (symmetric) mass ratio and spins. We show that this analytic expression accurately reproduces (˜0.01 rad ) the phasing of the post-merger data of other data sets not used in its construction. This is notably the case of the spin-aligned run SXS:BBH:0305, whose intrinsic parameters are consistent with the 90% credible intervals reported in the parameter-estimation followup of GW150914 by B.P. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.241102]. Using SXS waveforms as "experimental" data, we further show that our template could be used on the actual GW150914 data to perform a new measure of the complex frequency of the fundamental quasinormal mode so as to exploit the complete (high signal-to-noise-ratio) post-merger waveform. We assess the usefulness of our proposed template by analyzing, in a realistic setting, SXS full inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms and constructing posterior probability distribution functions for the central frequency damping time of the first overtone of the fundamental quasinormal mode as well as for the physical parameters of the systems. We also briefly explore the possibility

  5. Rate-distortion optimization for compressive video sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Vijayanagar, Krishna R.; Kim, Joohee

    2014-05-01

    The recently introduced compressed sensing (CS) framework enables low complexity video acquisition via sub- Nyquist rate sampling. In practice, the resulting CS samples are quantized and indexed by finitely many bits (bit-depth) for transmission. In applications where the bit-budget for video transmission is constrained, rate- distortion optimization (RDO) is essential for quality video reconstruction. In this work, we develop a double-level RDO scheme for compressive video sampling, where frame-level RDO is performed by adaptively allocating the fixed bit-budget per frame to each video block based on block-sparsity, and block-level RDO is performed by modelling the block reconstruction peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as a quadratic function of quantization bit-depth. The optimal bit-depth and the number of CS samples are then obtained by setting the first derivative of the function to zero. In the experimental studies the model parameters are initialized with a small set of training data, which are then updated with local information in the model testing stage. Simulation results presented herein show that the proposed double-level RDO significantly enhances the reconstruction quality for a bit-budget constrained CS video transmission system.

  6. Pulsed electric field sensor based on original waveform measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Wu Wei; Cheng Yinhui; Zhou Hui; Li Baozhong; Li Jinxi; Zhu Meng

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the differential and original waveform measurement principles for pulsed E-field, and develops an pulsed E-field sensor based on original waveform measurement along with its theoretical correction model. The sensor consists of antenna, integrator, amplifier and driver, optic-electric/electric-optic conversion module and transmission module. The time-domain calibration in TEM cell indicates that, its risetime response is shorter than 1.0 ns, and the output pulse width at 90% of the maximum amplitude is wider than 10.0 μs. The output amplitude of the sensor is linear to the electric field intensity in a dynamic range of 20 dB. The measurement capability can be extended to 10 V/m or 50 kV/m by changing the system's antenna and other relative modules. (authors)

  7. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  8. Quantum optical arbitrary waveform manipulation and measurement in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowligy, Abijith S; Manurkar, Paritosh; Corzo, Neil V; Velev, Vesselin G; Silver, Michael; Scott, Ryan P; Yoo, S J B; Kumar, Prem; Kanter, Gregory S; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2014-11-17

    We describe a technique for dynamic quantum optical arbitrary-waveform generation and manipulation, which is capable of mode selectively operating on quantum signals without inducing significant loss or decoherence. It is built upon combining the developed tools of quantum frequency conversion and optical arbitrary waveform generation. Considering realistic parameters, we propose and analyze applications such as programmable reshaping of picosecond-scale temporal modes, selective frequency conversion of any one or superposition of those modes, and mode-resolved photon counting. We also report on experimental progress to distinguish two overlapping, orthogonal temporal modes, demonstrating over 8 dB extinction between picosecond-scale time-frequency modes, which agrees well with our theory. Our theoretical and experimental progress, as a whole, points to an enabling optical technique for various applications such as ultradense quantum coding, unity-efficiency cavity-atom quantum memories, and high-speed quantum computing.

  9. Transient waveform acquisition system for the ELMO Bumpy Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.G.; Burris, R.D.; Hillis, D.H.; Overbey, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The transient waveform system described in this report is designed to acquire analog waveforms from the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) diagnostic experiments. Pressure, density, synchrotron radiation, etc., are acquired and digitized with a Kinetic Systems TR812 transient recorder and associated modules located in a CAMAC crate. The system can simultaneously acquire, display, and transmit sets of data consisting of identification parameters and up to 1024 data points for 1 to 64 input signals (frequency range = 0.01 pulse/s to 100 kHz) of data every one or more minutes; thus, it can run continuously without operator intervention. The data are taken on a VAX 11/780 and transmitted to a data base on a DECSystem-10. To aid the programmer in making future modifications to the system, detailed documentation using the Yourdon structural methods has been given

  10. Image-domain full waveform inversion: Field data example

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong

    2014-08-05

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is the result of cycle skipping which degrades the low-wavenumber update in the absence of low-frequencies and long-offset data. An image-domain objective function is defined as the normed difference between the predicted and observed common image gathers (CIGs) in the subsurface offset domain. This new objective function is not constrained by cycle skipping at the far subsurface offsets. To test the effectiveness of this method, we apply it to marine data recorded in the Gulf of Mexico. Results show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive to the initial model and the absence of low-frequency data compared with conventional FWI. The liability, however, is that it is almost an order of magnitude more expensive than standard FWI.

  11. Photonic arbitrary waveform generation applicable to multiband UWB communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-12-06

    A novel photonic structure for arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) is proposed based on the electrooptical intensity modulation of a broadband optical signal which is transmitted by a dispersive element and the optoelectrical processing is realized by combining an interferometric structure with balanced photodetection. The generated waveform can be fully reconfigured through the control of the optical source power spectrum and the interferometric structure. The use of balanced photodetection permits to remove the baseband component of the generated signal which is relevant in certain applications. We have theoretically described and experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of the system by means of the generation of different pulse shapes. Specifically, the proposed structure has been applicable to generate Multiband UWB signaling formats regarding to the FCC requirements in order to show the flexibility of the system.

  12. Strategies for the characteristic extraction of gravitational waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiuc, M. C.; Bishop, N. T.; Szilagyi, B.; Winicour, J.

    2009-01-01

    We develop, test, and compare new numerical and geometrical methods for improving the accuracy of extracting waveforms using characteristic evolution. The new numerical method involves use of circular boundaries to the stereographic grid patches which cover the spherical cross sections of the outgoing null cones. We show how an angular version of numerical dissipation can be introduced into the characteristic code to damp the high frequency error arising form the irregular way the circular patch boundary cuts through the grid. The new geometric method involves use of the Weyl tensor component Ψ 4 to extract the waveform as opposed to the original approach via the Bondi news function. We develop the necessary analytic and computational formula to compute the O(1/r) radiative part of Ψ 4 in terms of a conformally compactified treatment of null infinity. These methods are compared and calibrated in test problems based upon linearized waves.

  13. Image-domain full waveform inversion: Field data example

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    The main difficulty with the data-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) is that it tends to get stuck in the local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is the result of cycle skipping which degrades the low-wavenumber update in the absence of low-frequencies and long-offset data. An image-domain objective function is defined as the normed difference between the predicted and observed common image gathers (CIGs) in the subsurface offset domain. This new objective function is not constrained by cycle skipping at the far subsurface offsets. To test the effectiveness of this method, we apply it to marine data recorded in the Gulf of Mexico. Results show that image-domain FWI is less sensitive to the initial model and the absence of low-frequency data compared with conventional FWI. The liability, however, is that it is almost an order of magnitude more expensive than standard FWI.

  14. Toward Generating More Diagnostic Features from Photoplethysmogram Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoplethysmogram (PPG signals collected using a pulse oximeter are increasingly being used for screening and diagnosis purposes. Because of the non-invasive, cost-effective, and easy-to-use nature of the pulse oximeter, clinicians and biomedical engineers are investigating how PPG signals can help in the management of many medical conditions, especially for global health application. The study of PPG signal analysis is relatively new compared to research in electrocardiogram signals, for instance; however, we anticipate that in the near future blood pressure, cardiac output, and other clinical parameters will be measured from wearable devices that collect PPG signals, based on the signal’s vast potential. This article attempts to organize and standardize the names of PPG waveforms to ensure consistent terminologies, thereby helping the rapid developments in this research area, decreasing the disconnect within and among different disciplines, and increasing the number of features generated from PPG waveforms.

  15. Toward Generating More Diagnostic Features from Photoplethysmogram Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Liang, Yongbo; Ward, Rabab

    2018-03-11

    Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals collected using a pulse oximeter are increasingly being used for screening and diagnosis purposes. Because of the non-invasive, cost-effective, and easy-to-use nature of the pulse oximeter, clinicians and biomedical engineers are investigating how PPG signals can help in the management of many medical conditions, especially for global health application. The study of PPG signal analysis is relatively new compared to research in electrocardiogram signals, for instance; however, we anticipate that in the near future blood pressure, cardiac output, and other clinical parameters will be measured from wearable devices that collect PPG signals, based on the signal's vast potential. This article attempts to organize and standardize the names of PPG waveforms to ensure consistent terminologies, thereby helping the rapid developments in this research area, decreasing the disconnect within and among different disciplines, and increasing the number of features generated from PPG waveforms.

  16. Anomalous Centrifugal Distortion in NH_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Pirali, Olivier; Coudert, L. H.

    2017-06-01

    The NH2 radical spectrum, first observed by Herzberg and Ramsay, is dominated by a strong Renner-Teller effect giving rise to two electronic states: the bent X ^{2}B_1 ground state and the quasi-linear A ^{2}A_1 excited state. The NH2 radical has been the subject of numerous high-resolution investigations and its electronic and ro-vibrational transitions have been measured. Using synchrotron radiation, new rotational transitions have been recently recorded and a value of the rotational quantum number N as large as 26 could be reached. In the X ^{2}B_1 ground state, the NH2 radical behaves like a triatomic molecule displaying spin-rotation splittings. Due to the lightness of the molecule, a strong coupling between the overall rotation and the bending mode arises whose effects increase with N and lead to the anomalous centrifugal distortion evidenced in the new measurements.^d In this talk the Bending-Rotation approach developed to account for the anomalous centrifugal distortion of the water molecule is modified to include spin-rotation coupling and applied to the fitting of high-resolution data pertaining to the ground electronic state of NH2. A preliminary line position analysis of the available data^{c,d} allowed us to account for 1681 transitions with a unitless standard deviation of 1.2. New transitions could also be assigned in the spectrum recorded by Martin-Drumel et al.^d In the talk, the results obtained with the new theoretical approach will be compared to those retrieved with a Watson-type Hamiltonian and the effects of the vibronic coupling between the ground X ^{2}B_1 and the excited A ^{2}A_1 electronic state will be discussed. Herzberg and Ramsay, J. Chem. Phys. 20 (1952) 347 Dressler and Ramsay, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 25 (1959) 553 Hadj Bachir, Huet, Destombes, and Vervloet, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 193 (1999) 326 McKellar, Vervloet, Burkholder, and Howard, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 142 (1990) 319 Morino and Kawaguchi, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 182 (1997) 428

  17. Temporal changes of the inner core from waveform doublets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    Temporal changes of the Earth's inner core have been detected from earthquake waveform doublets (repeating sources with similar waveforms at the same station). Using doublets from events up to the present in the South Sandwich Island (SSI) region recorded by the station COLA (Alaska), we confirmed systematic temporal variations in the travel time of the inner-core-refracted phase (PKIKP, the DF branch). The DF phase arrives increasingly earlier than outer core phases (BC and AB) by rate of approximately 0.07 s per decade since 1970s. If we assume that the temporal change is caused by a shift of the lateral gradient from the inner core rotation as in previous studies, we estimate the rotation rate of 0.2-0.4 degree per year. We also analyzed the topography of the inner core boundary (ICB) using SSI waveform doublets recorded by seismic stations in Eurasia and North America with reflected phase (PKiKP) and refracted phases. There are clear temporal changes in the waveforms of doublets for PKiKP under Africa and Central America. In addition, for doublets recorded by three nearby stations (AAK, AML, and UCH), we observed systematic change in the relative travel time of PKiKP and PKIKP. The temporal change of the (PKiKP - PKIKP) differential time is always negative for the event pairs if both events are before 2007, while it fluctuates to positive if the later event occurs after 2007. The rapid temporal changes in space and time may indicate localized processes (e.g., freezing and melting) of the ICB in the recent decades under Africa. We are exploring 4D models consistent with the temporal changes.

  18. Frequency-Dependent Blanking with Digital Linear Chirp Waveform Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andrews, John M. [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Wideband radar systems, especially those that operate at lower frequencies such as VHF and UHF, are often restricted from transmitting within or across specific frequency bands in order to prevent interference to other spectrum users. Herein we describe techniques for notching the transmitted spectrum of a generated and transmitted radar waveform. The notches are fully programmable as to their location, and techniques are given that control the characteristics of the notches.

  19. Arbitrary waveform generator to improve laser diode driver performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jr, Edward Steven

    2015-11-03

    An arbitrary waveform generator modifies the input signal to a laser diode driver circuit in order to reduce the overshoot/undershoot and provide a "flat-top" signal to the laser diode driver circuit. The input signal is modified based on the original received signal and the feedback from the laser diode by measuring the actual current flowing in the laser diode after the original signal is applied to the laser diode.

  20. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi-Saigo, Miki; Hardison, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two…

  1. Waveform design and diversity for advanced radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gini, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various algorithms for radar signal design, that rely heavily upon complicated processing and/or antenna architectures, have been suggested. These techniques owe their genesis to several factors, including revolutionary technological advances (new flexible waveform generators, high speed signal processing hardware, digital array radar technology, etc.) and the stressing performance requirements, often imposed by defence applications in areas such as airborne early warning and homeland security.Increasingly complex operating scenarios calls for sophisticated algorithms with the

  2. DISECA - A Matlab code for dispersive waveform calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaždová, Renata; Vilhelm, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2011), s. 526-531 ISSN 0266-352X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : velocity dispersion * synthetic waveform * seismic method Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.987, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266352X11000425

  3. Faithful effective-one-body waveforms of small-mass-ratio coalescing black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of constructing high-accuracy, faithful analytic waveforms describing the gravitational wave signal emitted by inspiralling and coalescing binary black holes. We work within the effective-one-body (EOB) framework and propose a methodology for improving the current (waveform) implementations of this framework based on understanding, element by element, the physics behind each feature of the waveform and on systematically comparing various EOB-based waveforms with exact waveforms obtained by numerical relativity approaches. The present paper focuses on small-mass-ratio nonspinning binary systems, which can be conveniently studied by Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-type methods. Our results include (i) a resummed, 3 PN-accurate description of the inspiral waveform, (ii) a better description of radiation reaction during the plunge, (iii) a refined analytic expression for the plunge waveform, (iv) an improved treatment of the matching between the plunge and ring-down waveforms. This improved implementation of the EOB approach allows us to construct complete analytic waveforms which exhibit a remarkable agreement with the exact ones in modulus, frequency, and phase. In particular, the analytic and numerical waveforms stay in phase, during the whole process, within ±1.1% of a cycle. We expect that the extension of our methodology to the comparable-mass case will be able to generate comparably accurate analytic waveforms of direct use for the ground-based network of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves

  4. Rapidly reconfigurable high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation in heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqi; Qin, Chuan; Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Lai, Weicheng; Guan, Binbin; Clements, Matthew; Su, Tiehui; Liu, Guangyao; Lu, Hongbo; Scott, Ryan P; Ben Yoo, S J

    2017-04-17

    This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

  5. Gravitational Waveforms in the Early Inspiral of Binary Black Hole Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkett, Kevin; Kumar, Prayush; Bhagwat, Swetha; Brown, Duncan; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact object binaries are important targets for gravitational wave detection by aLIGO. Detection and parameter estimation will require long, accurate waveforms for comparison. There are a number of analytical models for generating gravitational waveforms for these systems, but the only way to ensure their consistency and correctness is by comparing with numerical relativity simulations that cover many inspiral orbits. We've simulated a number of binary black hole systems with mass ratio 7 and a moderate, aligned spin on the larger black hole. We have attached these numerical waveforms to analytical waveform models to generate long hybrid gravitational waveforms that span the entire aLIGO frequency band. We analyze the robustness of these hybrid waveforms and measure the faithfulness of different hybrids with each other to obtain an estimate on how long future numerical simulations need to be in order to ensure that waveforms are accurate enough for use by aLIGO.

  6. Single-spin precessing gravitational waveform in closed form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Andrew; O'Shaughnessy, R.

    2014-02-01

    In coming years, gravitational-wave detectors should find black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries, potentially coincident with astronomical phenomena like short gamma ray bursts. These binaries are expected to precess. Gravitational-wave science requires a tractable model for precessing binaries, to disentangle precession physics from other phenomena like modified strong field gravity, tidal deformability, or Hubble flow; and to measure compact object masses, spins, and alignments. Moreover, current searches for gravitational waves from compact binaries use templates where the binary does not precess and are ill-suited for detection of generic precessing sources. In this paper we provide a closed-form representation of the single-spin precessing waveform in the frequency domain by reorganizing the signal as a sum over harmonics, each of which resembles a nonprecessing waveform. This form enables simple analytic calculations of the Fisher matrix for use in template bank generation and coincidence metrics, and jump proposals to improve the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We have verified that for generic BH-NS binaries, our model agrees with the time-domain waveform to 2%. Straightforward extensions of the derivations outlined here (and provided in full online) allow higher accuracy and error estimates.

  7. Waveform inversion for acoustic VTI media in frequency domain

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2016-09-06

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background model using a single scattered wavefield from an inverted perturbation. However, current RWI methods are mostly based on isotropic media assumption. We extend the idea of the combining inversion for the background model and perturbations to address transversely isotropic with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI) media taking into consideration of the optimal parameter sensitivity information. As a result, we apply Born modeling corresponding to perturbations in only for the variable e to derive the relative reflected waveform inversion formulation. To reduce the number of parameters, we assume the background part of η = ε and work with a single variable to describe the anisotropic part of the wave propagation. Thus, the optimization variables are the horizontal velocity v, η = ε and the e perturbation. Application to the anisotropic version of Marmousi model with a single frequency of 2.5 Hz shows that this method can converge to the accurate result starting from a linearly increasing isotropic initial velocity. Application to a real dataset demonstrates the versatility of the approach.

  8. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-09-26

    Phase wrapping in the frequency domain or cycle skipping in the time domain is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion when the starting model is far from the true model. Since the phase derivative does not suffer from the wrapping effect, its inversion has the potential of providing a robust and reliable inversion result. We propose a new waveform inversion algorithm using the phase derivative in the frequency domain along with the exponential damping term to attenuate reflections. We estimate the phase derivative, or what we refer to as the instantaneous traveltime, by taking the derivative of the Fourier-transformed wavefield with respect to the angular frequency, dividing it by the wavefield itself and taking the imaginary part. The objective function is constructed using the phase derivative and the gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm. Numerical examples show that our inversion algorithm with a strong damping generates a tomographic result even for a high ‘single’ frequency, which can be a good initial model for full waveform inversion and migration.

  9. Nonspinning numerical relativity waveform surrogates: assessing the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Scott; Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Tiglio, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Recently, multi-modal gravitational waveform surrogate models have been built directly from data numerically generated by the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). I will describe ways in which the surrogate model error can be quantified. This task, in turn, requires (i) characterizing differences between waveforms computed by SpEC with those predicted by the surrogate model and (ii) estimating errors associated with the SpEC waveforms from which the surrogate is built. Both pieces can have numerous sources of numerical and systematic errors. We make an attempt to study the most dominant error sources and, ultimately, the surrogate model's fidelity. These investigations yield information about the surrogate model's uncertainty as a function of time (or frequency) and parameter, and could be useful in parameter estimation studies which seek to incorporate model error. Finally, I will conclude by comparing the numerical relativity surrogate model to other inspiral-merger-ringdown models. A companion talk will cover the building of multi-modal surrogate models.

  10. Arbitrary waveform modulated pulse EPR at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminker, Ilia; Barnes, Ryan; Han, Songi

    2017-06-01

    We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200 GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7 T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1 GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1 ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200 GHz with >150 mW power. We find that the non-linearity of the AMC poses significant difficulties in generating amplitude-modulated pulses at 200 GHz. We demonstrate that in the power-limited regime of ω1 10 MHz) spin manipulation in incoherent (inversion), as well as coherent (echo formation) experiments. Highlights include the improvement by one order of magnitude in inversion bandwidth compared to that of conventional rectangular pulses, as well as a factor of two in improvement in the refocused echo intensity at 200 GHz.

  11. About the factors distorting biological dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    The row of chemical substances that have not mutagenic effect can strengthen ionising radiation induced cytogenetic effects. For example nitrite sodium and nitrate sodium reinforce mutagenic action of radiation and cause sensitized effect although they aren't mutagens. Presence of residual amount of herbicides in food products can have influence at level of aberration in human cells. It was investigated the influence of herbicide zencor at mutagenic action of radiation. This substance has weak mutagenic activity. In the case of combined action of zencor with irradiation antagonistic effect was observed. Mutation rate turns out to be lower than expected summary value. At the same time many foods products (tea, coffee, cacao, chocolate etc., which contain melanin) are antimutagens and can also change the frequency of radiation induced mutations. Taking of medicine distort the results of dose estimation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes after acute irradiation is considered to be adequate method of biological dosimetry. In the case of chronic irradiation this analysis becomes complicated with such processes as adaptation (selection and proliferation of cells with more radioresistant genotype) and the origin of genetic un stability which leads to higher radiosensitivity. The estimation of the level of point mutations is the most precise method of biological dosimetry because their existence is less exposed to modifications

  12. TWO NEW TIDALLY DISTORTED WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Brown, Warren R., E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    We identify two new tidally distorted white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J174140.49+652638.7 and J211921.96-001825.8 (hereafter J1741 and J2119). Both stars are extremely low mass (ELM, {<=} 0.2 M{sub Sun }) WDs in short-period, detached binary systems. High-speed photometric observations obtained at the McDonald Observatory reveal ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming in both systems; J1741, with a minimum companion mass of 1.1 M{sub Sun }, has one of the strongest Doppler beaming signals ever observed in a binary system (0.59% {+-} 0.06% amplitude). We use the observed ellipsoidal variations to constrain the radius of each WD. For J1741, the star's radius must exceed 0.074 R{sub Sun }. For J2119, the radius exceeds 0.10 R{sub Sun }. These indirect radius measurements are comparable to the radius measurements for the bloated WD companions to A-stars found by the Kepler spacecraft, and they constitute some of the largest radii inferred for any WD. Surprisingly, J1741 also appears to show a 0.23% {+-} 0.06% reflection effect, and we discuss possible sources for this excess heating. Both J1741 and J2119 are strong gravitational wave sources, and the time-of-minimum of the ellipsoidal variations can be used to detect the orbital period decay. This may be possible on a timescale of a decade or less.

  13. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  14. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.

    2011-01-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed. The study of processes relevant for astrophysics involving light nuclei has increased in the last decades due to the development of indirect methods. The present paper will also help to point out the distortion effects which arise at low energies in the study of three-body processes and will suggest some way to by-pass them in Trojan Horse Method (THM) applications. The goal of this paper is to compare the experimental momentum distribution of the spectator in the bound state a = (sx) extracted from the 2 → 3 particles (breakup, or breakup with rearrangement) reactions with the theoretical one. The theoretical momentum distribution has been calculated for the target a = (sx) using the Hulthen potential for a = d and Woods-Saxon one with the standard geometrical parameters, radius r 0 = 1.25 fm and diffuseness a = 0.65 fm, for other nuclei. (author)

  15. Rate-distortion analysis of directional wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Arian; Rajaei, Boshra; Pourreza, Hamid Reza

    2012-02-01

    The inefficiency of separable wavelets in representing smooth edges has led to a great interest in the study of new 2-D transformations. The most popular criterion for analyzing these transformations is the approximation power. Transformations with near-optimal approximation power are useful in many applications such as denoising and enhancement. However, they are not necessarily good for compression. Therefore, most of the nearly optimal transformations such as curvelets and contourlets have not found any application in image compression yet. One of the most promising schemes for image compression is the elegant idea of directional wavelets (DIWs). While these algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art image coders in practice, our theoretical understanding of them is very limited. In this paper, we adopt the notion of rate-distortion and calculate the performance of the DIW on a class of edge-like images. Our theoretical analysis shows that if the edges are not "sharp," the DIW will compress them more efficiently than the separable wavelets. It also demonstrates the inefficiency of the quadtree partitioning that is often used with the DIW. To solve this issue, we propose a new partitioning scheme called megaquad partitioning. Our simulation results on real-world images confirm the benefits of the proposed partitioning algorithm, promised by our theoretical analysis. © 2011 IEEE

  16. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  17. Motivational Distortion on 16 PF Primaries by Male Felons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbrown, Fred H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated motivational distortion using the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) for male (n=331) criminal offenders. Results indicated that ego-strength, free-floating anxiety, ability to bind anxiety, boldness, dominance, emotional sensitivity and suspiciousness contributed most to the motivational distortion scale predictions.…

  18. FSD: Frequency Space Differential measurement of CMB spectral distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Silk, Joseph; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    Although the Cosmic Microwave Background agrees with a perfect blackbody spectrum within the current experimental limits, it is expected to exhibit certain spectral distortions with known spectral properties. We propose a new method, Frequency Space Differential (FSD) to measure the spectral distortions in the CMB spectrum by using the inter-frequency differences of the brightness temperature. The difference between the observed CMB temperature at different frequencies must agree with the frequency derivative of the blackbody spectrum, in the absence of any distortion. However, in the presence of spectral distortions, the measured inter-frequency differences would also exhibit deviations from blackbody which can be modeled for known sources of spectral distortions like y & μ. Our technique uses FSD information for the CMB blackbody, y, μ or any other sources of spectral distortions to model the observed signal. Successful application of this method in future CMB missions can provide an alternative method to extract spectral distortion signals and can potentially make it feasible to measure spectral distortions without an internal blackbody calibrator.

  19. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  20. Distortion of Probability and Outcome Information in Risky Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKay, Michael L.; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Fischbeck, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that information is distorted during decision making, but very few studies have assessed the distortion of probability and outcome information in risky decisions. In two studies involving six binary decisions (e.g., banning blood donations from people who have visited England, because of "mad cow disease"),…

  1. Method and device for monitoring distortion in an optical network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring of distortion in an optical network are provided, wherein at least one reference signal and at least one data signal are conveyed via an optical link and wherein a distortion of the at least one data signal is determined based on the at least one reference

  2. How Distorted Thinking Influence Arab Children Academic Achievement in Israel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gith, Emad

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between the parents Cognitive Distortion and Arab children academic achievements in Israel. 52 fifth grade Arab Children and their parents from Israel were participated. The results indicated that parent's cognitive distortion related negatively to children academic achievements; there…

  3. Distortions caused by the signal processing in analog AM modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    Complete analytical expressions for distortions caused by signal processing in analog AM modulators are developed. The salient features in these expressions are shown to be consistent with displays of actual spectra of AM signals. Finally suggestions are given on how the distortions may be practically minimized. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  4. Distorted Risk Measures with Application to Military Capability Shortfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-15

    effects of different distortions and to make basic recommendations regarding the appropriateness of certain distortion functions and parameters using...and increased limits ratemaking by proportional hazards transforms. Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, 17: 43-54. [9] Wang, S. (1996a). Premium

  5. Fisheye image rectification using spherical and digital distortion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Pi, Yingdong; Jia, Yanling; Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Zhiyong; Hou, Wenguang

    2018-02-01

    Fisheye cameras have been widely used in many applications including close range visual navigation and observation and cyber city reconstruction because its field of view is much larger than that of a common pinhole camera. This means that a fisheye camera can capture more information than a pinhole camera in the same scenario. However, the fisheye image contains serious distortion, which may cause trouble for human observers in recognizing the objects within. Therefore, in most practical applications, the fisheye image should be rectified to a pinhole perspective projection image to conform to human cognitive habits. The traditional mathematical model-based methods cannot effectively remove the distortion, but the digital distortion model can reduce the image resolution to some extent. Considering these defects, this paper proposes a new method that combines the physical spherical model and the digital distortion model. The distortion of fisheye images can be effectively removed according to the proposed approach. Many experiments validate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  6. Deep subcritical levels measurements dependents upon kinetic distortion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shibiao; Li Xiang; Fu Guo'en; Huang Liyuan; Mu Keliang

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of deep subcritical levels, with the increase of subcriticality, showed that the results impact on the kinetic distortion effect, along with neutron flux strongly deteriorated. Using the diffusion theory, calculations have been carried out to quantify the kinetic distortion correction factors in subcritical systems, and these indicate that epithermal neutron distributions are strongly affected by kinetic distortion. Subcriticality measurements in four different rod-state combination at the zero power device was carried out. The test data analysis shows that, with increasing subcriticality, kinetic distortion effect correction factor gradually increases from 1.052 to 1.065, corresponding reactive correction amount of 0.78β eff ∼ 3.01β eff . Thus, it is necessary to consider the kinetic distortion effect in the deep subcritical reactivity measurements. (authors)

  7. Effects of image distortion correction on voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to show that correcting image distortion significantly affects brain volumetry using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and to assess whether the processing of distortion correction reduces system dependency. We obtained contiguous sagittal T 1 -weighted images of the brain from 22 healthy participants using 1.5- and 3-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) scanners, preprocessed images using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5, and tested the relation between distortion correction and brain volume using VBM. Local brain volume significantly increased or decreased on corrected images compared with uncorrected images. In addition, the method used to correct image distortion for gradient nonlinearity produced fewer volumetric errors from MR system variation. This is the first VBM study to show more precise volumetry using VBM with corrected images. These results indicate that multi-scanner or multi-site imaging trials require correction for distortion induced by gradient nonlinearity. (author)

  8. Colocated MIMO Radar: Beamforming, Waveform design, and Target Parameter Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-04-01

    Thanks to its improved capabilities, the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar is attracting the attention of researchers and practitioners alike. Because it transmits orthogonal or partially correlated waveforms, this emerging technology outperformed the phased array radar by providing better parametric identifiability, achieving higher spatial resolution, and designing complex beampatterns. To avoid jamming and enhance the signal to noise ratio, it is often interesting to maximize the transmitted power in a given region of interest and minimize it elsewhere. This problem is known as the transmit beampattern design and is usually tackled as a two-step process: a transmit covariance matrix is firstly designed by minimizing a convex optimization problem, which is then used to generate practical waveforms. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method maps easily generated Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability density function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. The second part of this thesis covers the topic of target parameter estimation. To determine the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum likelihood estimation yields the best performance. However, it requires a two dimensional search problem. Therefore, its computational complexity is prohibitively high. So, we proposed a reduced complexity and optimum performance algorithm which allows the two dimensional fast Fourier transform to jointly estimate the spatial location

  9. Pulse waveform analysis on temporal changes in ocular blood flow due to caffeine intake: a comparative study between habitual and non-habitual groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Aishah; Bhatti, Mehwish S; Faye, Ibrahima; Lu, Cheng Kai; Laude, Augustinus; Tang, Tong Boon

    2018-06-06

    To evaluate and compare the temporal changes in pulse waveform parameters of ocular blood flow (OBF) between non-habitual and habitual groups due to caffeine intake. This study was conducted on 19 healthy subjects (non-habitual 8; habitual 11), non-smoking and between 21 and 30 years of age. Using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), three areas of optical nerve head were analyzed which are vessel, tissue, and overall, each with ten pulse waveform parameters, namely mean blur rate (MBR), fluctuation, skew, blowout score (BOS), blowout time (BOT), rising rate, falling rate, flow acceleration index (FAI), acceleration time index (ATI), and resistive index (RI). Two-way mixed ANOVA was used to determine the difference between every two groups where p groups in several ocular pulse waveform parameters, namely MBR (overall, vessel, tissue), BOT (overall), rising rate (overall), and falling rate (vessel), all with p group, but not within the habitual group. The temporal changes in parameters MBR (vessel, tissue), skew (overall, vessel), BOT (overall, vessel), rising rate (overall), falling rate (overall, vessel), and FAI (tissue) were significant for both groups (habitual and non-habitual) in response to caffeine intake. The experiment results demonstrated caffeine does modulate OBF significantly and response differently in non-habitual and habitual groups. Among all ten parameters, MBR and BOT were identified as the suitable biomarkers to differentiate between the two groups.

  10. Forest Canopy LAI and Vertical FAVD Profile Inversion from Airborne Full-Waveform LiDAR Data Based on a Radiative Transfer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopy leaf area index (LAI is a critical variable for the modeling of climates and ecosystems over both regional and global scales. This paper proposes a physically based method to retrieve LAI and foliage area volume density (FAVD profile directly from full-waveform Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR data using a radiative transfer (RT model. First, a physical interaction model between LiDAR and a forest scene was built on the basis of radiative transfer theories. Next, FAVD profile of each laser shot of full-waveform LiDAR was inverted using the physical model. In addition, the missing LiDAR data, caused by high-density forest and LiDAR system limitations, were filled in based on the inverted FAVD and the ancillary CHM data. Finally, LAI of the study area was retrieved from the inverted FAVD at a 10-m resolution. CHM derived LAI based on the Beer-Lambert law was compared with the LAI derived from full-waveform data. Also, we compared the results with the field measured LAI. The values of correlation coefficient r and RMSE of the estimated LAI were 0.73 and 0.67, respectively. The results indicate that full-waveform LiDAR data is a reliable data source and represent a useful tool for retrieving forest LAI.

  11. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  12. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  13. Prussian phenomenon and its historical distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Y. Plenkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of Prussia. Once, Prussia had been the largest continental Protestant state in Europe. The main issue of this phenomenon is that upon the tragic events of the World War II Prussian history and heritage had been considerably distorted, in order to compensate somehow for the dreadful casualties suffered by the victorious powers. The common European misconception implied that Prussia had been the bulwark of militarism, and therefore had to bear all the responsibility for the atrocities of war. Unfortunately, the majority of modern German historians share such misinterpretation of Prussian heritage in order to please false political correctness, perhaps, as an act of contrition for National Socialism and its crimes. However, the Prussian tradition and history go far beyond this militarism, and this article explains what ways. The authors believe that there should not be any prejudices and biases, that any subject should be examined sine ira et studio. Moreover, given that it is possible to characterize the Great French Revolution as a juristic one, and the Great October revolution – as a social one, the Prussian revolution “from above”, led by the first representatives of the Hohenzollern family, may be well considered as a pedagogical revolution. This revolution did bring definitely positive changes; they are surveyed in the article. The French Revolution has not eliminated the covetousness of the bourgeoisie after 1789; despotism of the authorities and people’s passiveness similarly have remained unaltered in Russia after 1917. On the contrary, Federal Republic of Germany of nowadays, distinctive for its law, order and effective responsible government is unthinkable without Prussian heritage.

  14. Study of electric field distorted by space charges under positive lightning impulse voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zezhong; Geng, Yinan

    2018-03-01

    Actually, many insulation problems are related to electric fields. And measuring electric fields is an important research topic of high-voltage engineering. In particular, the electric field distortion caused by space charge is the basis of streamer theory, and thus quantitatively measuring the Poisson electric field caused by space charge is significant to researching the mechanism of air gap discharge. In this paper, we used our photoelectric integrated sensor to measure the electric field distribution in a 1-m rod-plane gap under positive lightning impulse voltage. To verify the reliability of this quantitative measurement, we compared the measured results with calculated results from a numerical simulation. The electric-field time domain waveforms on the axis of the 1-m rod-plane out of the space charge zone were measured with various electrodes. The Poisson electric fields generated by space charge were separated from the Laplace electric field generated by applied voltages, and the amplitudes and variations were measured for various applied voltages and at various locations. This work also supplies the feasible basis for directly measuring strong electric field under high voltage.

  15. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng, E-mail: panghongfeng@126.com; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-03-15

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods.

  16. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods

  17. The evolution of costly mate choice against segregation distorters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Andri; Lindholm, Anna K; Weissing, Franz J

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of female preference for male genetic quality remains a controversial topic in sexual selection research. One well-known problem, known as the lek paradox, lies in understanding how variation in genetic quality is maintained in spite of natural selection and sexual selection against low-quality alleles. Here, we theoretically investigate a scenario where females pay a direct fitness cost to avoid males carrying an autosomal segregation distorter. We show that preference evolution is greatly facilitated under such circumstances. Because the distorter is transmitted in a non-Mendelian fashion, it can be maintained in the population despite directional sexual selection. The preference helps females avoid fitness costs associated with the distorter. Interestingly, we find that preference evolution is limited if the choice allele induces a very strong preference or if distortion is very strong. Moreover, the preference can only persist in the presence of a signal that reliably indicates a male's distorter genotype. Hence, even in a system where the lek paradox does not play a major role, costly preferences can only spread under specific circumstances. We discuss the importance of distorter systems for the evolution of costly female choice and potential implications for the use of artificial distorters in pest control. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Bilateral Symmetry of Distortions of Tactile Size Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Ghosh, Arko; Yahya, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on the limbs is generally bigger for distances oriented across the width of the limb than for distances oriented along the length of the limb. The present study aimed to investigate the coherence of such distortions of tactile size perception across different skin surfaces. We investigated distortions of tactile size perception on the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both the left and right hands as well as the forehead. Participants judged which of two tactile distances felt larger. One distance was aligned with the proximodistal axis (along the body), the other with the mediolateral axis (across the body). Clear distortions were found on all five skin surfaces, with stimuli oriented across the width of the body being perceived as farther apart than those oriented along the length of the body. Consistent with previous results, distortions were smaller on the palmar than on the dorsal hand surface. Distortion on the forehead was intermediate between the dorsal and palmar surfaces. There were clear correlations between distortion on the left and right hands, for both the dorsal and palmar skin surfaces. In contrast, within each hand, there was no significant correlation between the two skin surfaces. Distortion on the forehead was not significantly correlated with that on any of the other skin surfaces. These results provide evidence for bilaterally symmetric representations underlying tactile size perception. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. CMB spectral distortions as solutions to the Boltzmann equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Atsuhisa, E-mail: a.ota@th.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2017-01-01

    We propose to re-interpret the cosmic microwave background spectral distortions as solutions to the Boltzmann equation. This approach makes it possible to solve the second order Boltzmann equation explicitly, with the spectral y distortion and the momentum independent second order temperature perturbation, while generation of μ distortion cannot be explained even at second order in this framework. We also extend our method to higher order Boltzmann equations systematically and find new type spectral distortions, assuming that the collision term is linear in the photon distribution functions, namely, in the Thomson scattering limit. As an example, we concretely construct solutions to the cubic order Boltzmann equation and show that the equations are closed with additional three parameters composed of a cubic order temperature perturbation and two cubic order spectral distortions. The linear Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect whose momentum dependence is different from the usual y distortion is also discussed in the presence of the next leading order Kompaneets terms, and we show that higher order spectral distortions are also generated as a result of the diffusion process in a framework of higher order Boltzmann equations. The method may be applicable to a wider class of problems and has potential to give a general prescription to non-equilibrium physics.

  20. Spatial distortion in MRI with application to stereotactic neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.S.

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this work was to implement a thorough method for quantifying the errors introduced to frame-based neurosurgical stereotactic procedures by the use of MRI. Chang and Fitzpatrick's reversed gradient distortion correction method was used, in combination with a phantom, to measure these errors. Spatial distortion in MR images of between 1 mm and 2 mm was measured. Further analysis showed that this typically introduced an additional error in the coordinate of the actual treatment point of 0.7 mm. The implications of this are discussed. The main source of distortion in the MR images used for stereotaxis was found to be the head ring. A comparison between imaging sequences and MR scanners revealed that the spatial distortion depends mainly on the bandwidth per pixel of the sequence rather than other differences in the imaging sequences. By comparison with a phase map distortion correction technique, the imaging parameters required to allow successful distortion correction with the reversed gradient method were identified. The most important was the use of full Fourier spin echo acquisitions. The reversed gradient correction method was applied to two contemporary EPI techniques. Considerable improvement was seen in the production of ADC maps after the images had been corrected for distortion. The method also was shown to be valid in application to BOLD fMRl data. (author)

  1. Market distortions and aggregate productivity: Evidence from Chinese energy enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xiaoyong; Cheng, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    Market distortions can generate resource misallocations across heterogeneous firms and reduce aggregate productivity. This paper measures market distortions and aggregate productivity growth in China's energy sector. We use the wedge between output elasticities and factor shares in revenues to recover a measure of firm-level market distortions. Using data on a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises from 1999 to 2007, our estimations provide strong evidence of the existence of both factor and product market distortions within and across China's various energy industries. The productivity aggregation and decomposition results demonstrate that the estimated aggregate productivity growth (APG) is, on average, 2.595% points per year, of which technological change, resource reallocation, and firm entries and exits account for 1.981, 0.068, and 0.546% points, respectively. The weak contributions of resource reallocation and firm turnover to APG are also found in energy sub-industries, except in the coal industry. Our research suggests that China's energy sector has major potential for productivity gains from resource reallocation through the reduction of market distortions. - Highlights: •We estimate market distortions and productivity growth of China's energy sector. •We use a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises. •There are evidences of the existence of factor and product market distortions. •Aggregate productivity growth is largely driven by firm-level technological change. •China's energy sector can realize productivity gains from resource reallocations.

  2. Word Recognition for Temporally and Spectrally Distorted Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Sherri L.; Pichora-Fuller, Margaret Kathleen; Wilson, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    listeners with near-normal hearing and hearing loss performed best in the unaltered condition, followed by the jitter and smear conditions, with the poorest performance in the combined jitter-smear condition in both quiet and noise. Overall, listeners with near-normal hearing performed better than listeners...... to predict group differences, but not the effects of distortion. Individual differences in performance were similar across all distortion conditions with both age and hearing loss being implicated. The speech materials needed to be both spectrally and temporally distorted to mimic the effects of age...

  3. Perceptual distortion analysis of color image VQ-based coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Christophe; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Cherifi, Hocine

    1997-04-01

    It is generally accepted that a RGB color image can be easily encoded by using a gray-scale compression technique on each of the three color planes. Such an approach, however, fails to take into account correlations existing between color planes and perceptual factors. We evaluated several linear and non-linear color spaces, some introduced by the CIE, compressed with the vector quantization technique for minimum perceptual distortion. To study these distortions, we measured contrast and luminance of the video framebuffer, to precisely control color. We then obtained psychophysical judgements to measure how well these methods work to minimize perceptual distortion in a variety of color space.

  4. Operation of static series compensator under distorted utility conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, H.; Nelsen, H.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    in the case of distorted grid voltage. Furthermore, a selective harmonic compensation strategy is applied to filter out the grid harmonics. The operation of the SSC under distorted utility conditions and voltage dips is discussed. The validity of the proposed controller is verified by experiments, carried out...... on a 10-kV SSC laboratory setup. Experimental results have shown the ability of the SSC to mitigate voltage dips and harmonics. It is also shown that the proposed controller has improved the transient performance of the SSC even under distorted utility conditions....

  5. Full-waveform data for building roof step edge localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słota, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Airborne laser scanning data perfectly represent flat or gently sloped areas; to date, however, accurate breakline detection is the main drawback of this technique. This issue becomes particularly important in the case of modeling buildings, where accuracy higher than the footprint size is often required. This article covers several issues related to full-waveform data registered on building step edges. First, the full-waveform data simulator was developed and presented in this paper. Second, this article provides a full description of the changes in echo amplitude, echo width and returned power caused by the presence of edges within the laser footprint. Additionally, two important properties of step edge echoes, peak shift and echo asymmetry, were noted and described. It was shown that these properties lead to incorrect echo positioning along the laser center line and can significantly reduce the edge points' accuracy. For these reasons and because all points are aligned with the center of the beam, regardless of the actual target position within the beam footprint, we can state that step edge points require geometric corrections. This article presents a novel algorithm for the refinement of step edge points. The main distinguishing advantage of the developed algorithm is the fact that none of the additional data, such as emitted signal parameters, beam divergence, approximate edge geometry or scanning settings, are required. The proposed algorithm works only on georeferenced profiles of reflected laser energy. Another major advantage is the simplicity of the calculation, allowing for very efficient data processing. Additionally, the developed method of point correction allows for the accurate determination of points lying on edges and edge point densification. For this reason, fully automatic localization of building roof step edges based on LiDAR full-waveform data with higher accuracy than the size of the lidar footprint is feasible.

  6. Determine Earthquake Rupture Directivity Using Taiwan TSMIP Strong Motion Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lai, Ying-Ju; Gung, YuanCheng

    2013-04-01

    Inverting seismic waveforms for the finite fault source parameters is important for studying the physics of earthquake rupture processes. It is also significant to image seismogenic structures in urban areas. Here we analyze the finite-source process and test for the causative fault plane using the accelerograms recorded by the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The point source parameters for the mainshock and aftershocks were first obtained by complete waveform moment tensor inversions. We then use the seismograms generated by the aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGFs) to retrieve the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) of near-field stations using projected Landweber deconvolution approach. The method for identifying the fault plane relies on the spatial patterns of the apparent source time function durations which depend on the angle between rupture direction and the take-off angle and azimuth of the ray. These derived duration patterns then are compared with the theoretical patterns, which are functions of the following parameters, including focal depth, epicentral distance, average crustal 1D velocity, fault plane attitude, and rupture direction on the fault plane. As a result, the ASTFs derived from EGFs can be used to infer the ruptured fault plane and the rupture direction. Finally we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Chiayi, Taiwan, where a damaging earthquake has occurred about a century ago. The preliminary results show a strike-slip earthquake on 22 October 1999 (Mw 5.6) has ruptured unilaterally toward SSW on a sub-vertical fault. The procedure developed from this study can be applied to other strong motion waveforms recorded from other earthquakes to better understand their kinematic source parameters.

  7. Development of optoelectronic monitoring system for ear arterial pressure waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Satoshi; Imachi, Yu; Yagi, Tamotsu; Imachi, Kou; Ono, Toshirou; Man-i, Masando

    1994-02-01

    Invasive intra-arterial blood pressure measurement is the most accurate method but not practical if the subject is in motion. The apparatus developed by Wesseling et al., based on a volume-clamp method of Penaz (Finapres), is able to monitor continuous finger arterial pressure waveforms noninvasively. The limitation of Finapres is the difficulty in measuring the pressure of a subject during work that involves finger or arm action. Because the Finapres detector is attached to subject's finger, the measurements are affected by inertia of blood and hydrostatic effect cause by arm or finger motion. To overcome this problem, the authors made a detector that is attached to subject's ear and developed and optoelectronic monitoring systems for ear arterial pressure waveform (Earpres). An IR LEDs, photodiode, and air cuff comprised the detector. The detector was attached to a subject's ear, and the space adjusted between the air cuff and the rubber plate on which the LED and photodiode were positioned. To evaluate the accuracy of Earpres, the following tests were conducted with participation of 10 healthy male volunteers. The subjects rested for about five minutes, then performed standing and squatting exercises to provide wide ranges of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. Intra- and inter-individual standard errors were calculated according to the method of van Egmond et al. As a result, average, the averages of intra-individual standard errors for earpres appeared small (3.7 and 2.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic pressure respectively). The inter-individual standard errors for Earpres were about the same was Finapres for both systolic and diastolic pressure. The results showed the ear monitor was reliable in measuring arterial blood pressure waveforms and might be applicable to various fields such as sports medicine and ergonomics.

  8. Improved gravitational waveforms from spinning black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Edward K.; Sathyaprakash, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The standard post-Newtonian approximation to gravitational waveforms, called T-approximants, from nonspinning black hole binaries are known not to be sufficiently accurate close to the last stable orbit of the system. A new approximation, called P-approximants, is believed to improve the accuracy of the waveforms rendering them applicable up to the last stable orbit. In this study we apply P-approximants to the case of a test particle in equatorial orbit around a Kerr black hole parameterized by a spin-parameter q that takes values between -1 and 1. In order to assess the performance of the two approximants we measure their effectualness (i.e., larger overlaps with the exact signal), and faithfulness (i.e., smaller biases while measuring the parameters of the signal) with the exact (numerical) waveforms. We find that in the case of prograde orbits, that is orbits whose angular momentum is in the same sense as the spin angular momentum of the black hole, T-approximant templates obtain an effectualness of ∼0.99 for spins q 0.99 for all spins up to q=0.95. The bias in the estimation of parameters is much lower in the case of P-approximants than T-approximants. We find that P-approximants are both effectual and faithful and should be more effective than T-approximants as a detection template family when q>0. For q<0 both T- and P-approximants perform equally well so that either of them could be used as a detection template family

  9. Interferometric full-waveform inversion of time-lapse data

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Mrinal

    2017-08-17

    One of the key challenges associated with time-lapse surveys is ensuring the repeatability between the baseline and monitor surveys. Non-repeatability between the surveys is caused by varying environmental conditions over the course of different surveys. To overcome this challenge, we propose the use of interferometric full waveform inversion (IFWI) for inverting the velocity model from data recorded by baseline and monitor surveys. A known reflector is used as the reference reflector for IFWI, and the data are naturally redatumed to this reference reflector using natural reflections as the redatuming operator. This natural redatuming mitigates the artifacts introduced by the repeatability errors that originate above the reference reflector.

  10. Optimal control of photoelectron emission by realistic waveforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Solanpää, J.; Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Räsänen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 17 (2017), s. 1784-1792 ISSN 0950-0340 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : above-threshold ionization * optimal control * waveforms Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.328, year: 2016

  11. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recorder using a time microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Corey Vincent

    2015-04-21

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  12. Plasma density calculation based on the HCN waveform data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liaoyuan; Pan Li; Luo Cuiwen; Zhou Yan; Deng Zhongchao

    2004-01-01

    A method to improve the plasma density calculation is introduced using the base voltage and the phase zero points obtained from the HCN interference waveform data. The method includes making the signal quality higher by putting the signal control device and the analog-to-digit converters in the same location and charging them by the same power, and excluding the noise's effect according to the possible changing rate of the signal's phase, and to make the base voltage more accurate by dynamical data processing. (authors)

  13. Frequency domain, waveform inversion of laboratory crosswell radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Mazzella, Aldo T.; Horton, Robert J.; McKenna, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    A new waveform inversion for crosswell radar is formulated in the frequency-domain for a 2.5D model. The inversion simulates radar waves using the vector Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves. The objective function is minimized using a backpropagation method suitable for a 2.5D model. The inversion is tested by processing crosswell radar data collected in a laboratory tank. The estimated model is consistent with the known electromagnetic properties of the tank. The formulation for the 2.5D model can be extended to inversions of acoustic and elastic data.

  14. Complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, E. A.; Kumar, Prayush; Agarwal, Bhanu; George, Daniel; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Haas, Roland; Ren, Wei; Chu, Tony; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2017-01-01

    We present a time domain waveform model that describes the inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact binary systems whose components are nonspinning, and which evolve on orbits with low to moderate eccentricity. The inspiral evolution is described using third-order post-Newtonian equations both for the equations of motion of the binary, and its far-zone radiation field. This latter component also includes instantaneous, tails and tails-of-tails contributions, and a contribution due to nonlinear memory. This framework reduces to the post-Newtonian approximant TaylorT4 at third post-Newtonian order in the zero-eccentricity limit. To improve phase accuracy, we also incorporate higher-order post-Newtonian corrections for the energy flux of quasicircular binaries and gravitational self-force corrections to the binding energy of compact binaries. This enhanced prescription for the inspiral evolution is combined with a fully analytical prescription for the merger-ringdown evolution constructed using a catalog of numerical relativity simulations. We show that this inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model reproduces the effective-one-body model of Ref. [Y. Pan et al., Phys. Rev. D 89, 061501 (2014)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.061501] for quasicircular black hole binaries with mass ratios between 1 to 15 in the zero-eccentricity limit over a wide range of the parameter space under consideration. Using a set of eccentric numerical relativity simulations, not used during calibration, we show that our new eccentric model reproduces the true features of eccentric compact binary coalescence throughout merger. We use this model to show that the gravitational-wave transients GW150914 and GW151226 can be effectively recovered with template banks of quasicircular, spin-aligned waveforms if the eccentricity e0 of these systems when they enter the aLIGO band at a gravitational-wave frequency of 14 Hz satisfies e0GW 150914≤0.15 and e0GW 151226≤0.1 . We also find that varying the spin

  15. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  16. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  17. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  18. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  19. Sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators using modern electronic circuit building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, V K; Sharma, R K

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a single-source reference to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as a variety of modern electronic circuit building blocks. It provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators and includes a catalogue of over 600 configurations of oscillators and waveform generators, describing their relevant design details and salient performance features/limitations. The authors discuss a number of interesting, open research problems and include a comprehensive collection of over 1500 references on oscillators and non-sinusoidal waveform generators/relaxation oscillators. Offers readers a single-source reference to everything connected to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as modern electronic circuit building blocks; Provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators; Includes a catalog of over 600 configurations of oscillato...

  20. Time-domain simulation and waveform reconstruction for shielding effectiveness of materials against electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiao-feng; Chen, Xiang; Wei, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Shielding effectiveness (SE) of materials of current testing standards is often carried out by using continuous-wave measurement and amplitude-frequency characteristics curve is used to characterize the results. However, with in-depth study of high-power electromagnetic pulse (EMP) interference, it was discovered that only by frequency-domain SE of materials cannot be completely characterized by shielding performance of time-domain pulsed-field. And there is no uniform testing methods and standards of SE of materials against EMP. In this paper, the method of minimum phase transfer function is used to reconstruct shielded time-domain waveform based on the analysis of the waveform reconstruction method. Pulse of plane waves through an infinite planar material is simulated by using CST simulation software. The reconstructed waveform and simulation waveform is compared. The results show that the waveform reconstruction method based on the minimum phase can be well estimated EMP waveform through the infinite planar materials.

  1. Waveform efficiency analysis of auditory nerve fiber stimulation for cochlear implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaii, Mehdi Lotfi; Sadhedi, Hamed; Jalali, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the electrical stimulation efficiency of various stimulating waveforms is an important issue for efficient neural stimulator design. Concerning the implantable micro devices design, it is also necessary to consider the feasibility of hardware implementation of the desired waveforms. In this paper, the charge, power and energy efficiency of four waveforms (i.e. square, rising ramp, triangular and rising ramp-decaying exponential) in various durations have been simulated and evaluated based on the computational model of the auditory nerve fibers. Moreover, for a fair comparison of their feasibility, a fully integrated current generator circuit has been developed so that the desired stimulating waveforms can be generated. The simulation results show that stimulation with the square waveforms is a proper choice in short and intermediate durations while the rising ramp-decaying exponential or triangular waveforms can be employed for long durations.

  2. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  3. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Design and implement of system for browsing remote seismic waveform based on B/S schema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xuefeng; Shen Junyi; Wang Zhihai; Sun Peng; Jin Ping; Yan Feng

    2006-01-01

    Browsing remote seismic waveform based on B/S schema is of significance in modern seismic research and data service, and the technology should be improved urgently. This paper describes the basic plan, architecture and implement of system for browsing remote seismic waveform based on B/S schema. The problem to access, browse and edit the waveform data on serve from client only using browser has been solved. On this basis, the system has been established and been in use. (authors)

  5. Computational Stimulation of the Basal Ganglia Neurons with Cost Effective Delayed Gaussian Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshzand, Mohammad; Faezipour, Miad; Barkana, Buket D

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has compelling results in the desynchronization of the basal ganglia neuronal activities and thus, is used in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Accurate definition of DBS waveform parameters could avert tissue or electrode damage, increase the neuronal activity and reduce energy cost which will prolong the battery life, hence avoiding device replacement surgeries. This study considers the use of a charge balanced Gaussian waveform pattern as a method to disrupt the firing patterns of neuronal cell activity. A computational model was created to simulate ganglia cells and their interactions with thalamic neurons. From the model, we investigated the effects of modified DBS pulse shapes and proposed a delay period between the cathodic and anodic parts of the charge balanced Gaussian waveform to desynchronize the firing patterns of the GPe and GPi cells. The results of the proposed Gaussian waveform with delay outperformed that of rectangular DBS waveforms used in in-vivo experiments. The Gaussian Delay Gaussian (GDG) waveforms achieved lower number of misses in eliciting action potential while having a lower amplitude and shorter length of delay compared to numerous different pulse shapes. The amount of energy consumed in the basal ganglia network due to GDG waveforms was dropped by 22% in comparison with charge balanced Gaussian waveforms without any delay between the cathodic and anodic parts and was also 60% lower than a rectangular charged balanced pulse with a delay between the cathodic and anodic parts of the waveform. Furthermore, by defining a Synchronization Level metric, we observed that the GDG waveform was able to reduce the synchronization of GPi neurons more effectively than any other waveform. The promising results of GDG waveforms in terms of eliciting action potential, desynchronization of the basal ganglia neurons and reduction of energy consumption can potentially enhance the performance of DBS

  6. Full Waveform Inversion with Multisource Frequency Selection of Marine Streamer Data

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    The theory and practice of multisource full waveform inversion of marine supergathers are described with a frequency-selection strategy. The key enabling property of frequency selection is that it eliminates the crosstalk among sources, thus overcoming the aperture mismatch of marine multisource inversion. Tests on multisource full waveform inversion of synthetic marine data and Gulf of Mexico data show speedups of 4× and 8×, respectively, compared to conventional full waveform inversion.

  7. Computational Stimulation of the Basal Ganglia Neurons with Cost Effective Delayed Gaussian Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Daneshzand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS has compelling results in the desynchronization of the basal ganglia neuronal activities and thus, is used in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD. Accurate definition of DBS waveform parameters could avert tissue or electrode damage, increase the neuronal activity and reduce energy cost which will prolong the battery life, hence avoiding device replacement surgeries. This study considers the use of a charge balanced Gaussian waveform pattern as a method to disrupt the firing patterns of neuronal cell activity. A computational model was created to simulate ganglia cells and their interactions with thalamic neurons. From the model, we investigated the effects of modified DBS pulse shapes and proposed a delay period between the cathodic and anodic parts of the charge balanced Gaussian waveform to desynchronize the firing patterns of the GPe and GPi cells. The results of the proposed Gaussian waveform with delay outperformed that of rectangular DBS waveforms used in in-vivo experiments. The Gaussian Delay Gaussian (GDG waveforms achieved lower number of misses in eliciting action potential while having a lower amplitude and shorter length of delay compared to numerous different pulse shapes. The amount of energy consumed in the basal ganglia network due to GDG waveforms was dropped by 22% in comparison with charge balanced Gaussian waveforms without any delay between the cathodic and anodic parts and was also 60% lower than a rectangular charged balanced pulse with a delay between the cathodic and anodic parts of the waveform. Furthermore, by defining a Synchronization Level metric, we observed that the GDG waveform was able to reduce the synchronization of GPi neurons more effectively than any other waveform. The promising results of GDG waveforms in terms of eliciting action potential, desynchronization of the basal ganglia neurons and reduction of energy consumption can potentially enhance the

  8. Full Waveform Inversion with Multisource Frequency Selection of Marine Streamer Data

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2017-10-27

    The theory and practice of multisource full waveform inversion of marine supergathers are described with a frequency-selection strategy. The key enabling property of frequency selection is that it eliminates the crosstalk among sources, thus overcoming the aperture mismatch of marine multisource inversion. Tests on multisource full waveform inversion of synthetic marine data and Gulf of Mexico data show speedups of 4× and 8×, respectively, compared to conventional full waveform inversion.

  9. Journal Afrika Statistika ISSN 0852-0305 Distortion risk measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    la somme et sur la structure de dépendance des risques, représentée par une copule. ... Key words: Coherence; Dependence structure; Distortion function; Risk measure; Risk theory; insurance; Wang ..... Weighted risk capital allocations.

  10. A method to correct coordinate distortion in EBSD maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.B.; Elbrønd, A.; Lin, F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Drift during electron backscatter diffraction mapping leads to coordinate distortions in resulting orientation maps, which affects, in some cases significantly, the accuracy of analysis. A method, thin plate spline, is introduced and tested to correct such coordinate distortions in the maps after the electron backscatter diffraction measurements. The accuracy of the correction as well as theoretical and practical aspects of using the thin plate spline method is discussed in detail. By comparing with other correction methods, it is shown that the thin plate spline method is most efficient to correct different local distortions in the electron backscatter diffraction maps. - Highlights: • A new method is suggested to correct nonlinear spatial distortion in EBSD maps. • The method corrects EBSD maps more precisely than presently available methods. • Errors less than 1–2 pixels are typically obtained. • Direct quantitative analysis of dynamic data are available after this correction

  11. Off-shell distortions of multichannel atomic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina, R. O.; Clauser, C. F.

    2017-10-01

    Any multichannel problem can be reduced to a succession of two-body events. However, these basic building blocks of many-body theories do not correspond to elastic processes but are off-the-energy-shell. In view of this difficulty, the great majority of the Distorted-Wave models includes a subsidiary approximation where these off-shell terms are arbitrarily forced to lie on the energy shell. At a first glance, since the energy deficiency is negligible for high enough velocities, the on-shell assumption seems to be completely justified. However, for the case of Coulomb interactions, the two-body off-shell distortions have branch-point singularities on the on-shell limit. In this article we demonstrate that these singularities might produce sizeable distortions of multiple scattering amplitudes, mainly when dealing with ion-ion collisions. Finally, we propose a method of including these distortions that might lead to better results that removing them completely.

  12. FPGA Based Compensation Method for Correcting Distortion in Voltage Inverters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, Kenya D

    2007-01-01

    ...) voltage source inverters. Blanking time distortion is caused by the delay inserted to prevent the short circuit that would occur if the two transistors in the same inverter leg are both on at the same time...

  13. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  14. A search for transmission ratio distortions in offspring from crosses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    differential embryonic mortality, nondisjunction and gene conversion that are rather irregular forms of ... Keywords. transmission ratio distortion; meiotic drive; inbred mice. ..... Sapienza 2000 Heritability of the maternal meiotic drive system.

  15. Estimates of Atmospheric Distortion Number for Nonlinear Refraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roadcap, J. R; McNicholl, P. J; Beland, R. R; Jumper, G. Y

    2007-01-01

    A characteristic nondimensional distortion number Nd was derived in the 1970s that allows inference of the degree of nonlinear refraction or thermal blooming associated with an atmospheric laser path...

  16. Source-independent time-domain waveform inversion using convolved wavefields: Application to the encoded multisource waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2011-09-01

    Full waveform inversion requires a good estimation of the source wavelet to improve our chances of a successful inversion. This is especially true for an encoded multisource time-domain implementation, which, conventionally, requires separate-source modeling, as well as the Fourier transform of wavefields. As an alternative, we have developed the source-independent time-domain waveform inversion using convolved wavefields. Specifically, the misfit function consists of the convolution of the observed wavefields with a reference trace from the modeled wavefield, plus the convolution of the modeled wavefields with a reference trace from the observed wavefield. In this case, the source wavelet of the observed and the modeled wavefields are equally convolved with both terms in the misfit function, and thus, the effects of the source wavelets are eliminated. Furthermore, because the modeled wavefields play a role of low-pass filtering, the observed wavefields in the misfit function, the frequency-selection strategy from low to high can be easily adopted just by setting the maximum frequency of the source wavelet of the modeled wavefields; and thus, no filtering is required. The gradient of the misfit function is computed by back-propagating the new residual seismograms and applying the imaging condition, similar to reverse-time migration. In the synthetic data evaluations, our waveform inversion yields inverted models that are close to the true model, but demonstrates, as predicted, some limitations when random noise is added to the synthetic data. We also realized that an average of traces is a better choice for the reference trace than using a single trace. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  17. A New Waveform Mosaic Algorithm in the Vectorization of Paper Seismograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maofa Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available History paper seismograms are very important information for earthquake monitoring and prediction, and the vectorization of paper seismograms is a very import problem to be resolved. In this paper, a new waveform mosaic algorithm in the vectorization of paper seismograms is presented. We also give out the technological process to waveform mosaic, and a waveform mosaic system used to vectorize analog seismic record has been accomplished independently. Using it, we can precisely and speedy accomplish waveform mosaic for vectorizing analog seismic records.

  18. GO JUPITER PWS EDITED EDR 10KHZ WAVEFORM RECEIVER V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during Jupiter orbital operations. These data were obtained...

  19. GO JUPITER PWS EDITED EDR 1KHZ WAVEFORM RECEIVER V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes wideband waveform measurements from the Galileo plasma wave receiver obtained during Jupiter orbital operations. These data were obtained...

  20. Development of plasma current waveform adjusting system ZLJ for tokamak device HL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shangbing; Hu Haotian; Tang Fangqun; Zhou Yongzheng; Chu Xiuzhong; Cheng Jiashun; Gao Yunxia

    1989-12-01

    The control of some typical Tokamak discharge waveforms has been achieved by using plasma current waveform adjusting system ZLJ in the ohmic heating of HL-1. The discharge waveforms include a series of regular plasma current waveforms with various slow rising rate, such as 80 kA, 450 ms long flat-topping; 100 kA, 200 ms rising; 200 ms falt-topping and 180 kA, 400 ms slow rising etc. The design principle of the system and the initial experimental results are described

  1. SBS [stimulated Brillouin scattering] pulse distortion in multimode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Hawkins, R.J.; Laumann, C.W.; Hatch, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have observed sever temporal-pulse-shape distortion due to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in multimode optical fibers used to diagnose 351 m laser pulses on the Nova laser system. Our measurements can be fit by a basic model of SBS and provide a clear indication of the intensity and temporal regimes where significant SBS-induced temporal-pulse-shape distortion can be avoided. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Reactivity analysis of core distortion effects in the FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved technique for evaluating core distortion reactivity effects was developed using reactivity analyses of two core geometry models (R-Z and HEX). This technique is incorporated into a new processor code called CORDIS. The advantages of this technique over existing reactivity models are that is preserves core heterogeneity, provides a control rod insertion effect model, uses row-dependent axial shape functions, and provides a flexible and cost efficient core distortion reactivity analysis method

  3. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  4. Distorted eikonal cross sections: A time-dependent view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    For Hamiltonians with two potentials, differential cross sections are written as time-correlation functions of reference and distorted transition operators. Distorted eikonal differential cross sections are defined in terms of straight-line and reference classical trajectories. Both elastic and inelastic results are obtained. Expressions for the inelastic cross sections are presented in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions through the use of the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method

  5. Correlation of lattice distortion with photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xia; Shui Miao; Li Rongsheng; Song Yue

    2008-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide dispersions on X-3B pigment degradation has been investigated. A variety of factors that would influence the photocatalytic activity such as crystallite size, lattice distortion, and anatase content are discussed in detail. It is found that lattice distortion is the most important one among these factors and is expected to inhibit the hole and electron pair recombination. It determines, to some extent, the photocatalytic efficiency of titanium dioxide dispersions

  6. Nonlinear distortion in wireless systems modeling and simulation with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gharaibeh, Khaled M

    2011-01-01

    This book covers the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in wireless communication systems with MATLAB simulations and techniques In this book, the author describes the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in single and multichannel wireless communication systems using both deterministic and stochastic signals. Models and simulation methods of nonlinear amplifiers explain in detail how to analyze and evaluate the performance of data communication links under nonlinear amplification. The book addresses the analysis of nonlinear systems

  7. Elliptical Galaxies: Rotationally Distorted, After All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2009-12-01

    .15$, and low rotationparameters $(0lechi_v^2<0.15$, while fastrotators show large ellipticities $(0.2lehat{e}<0.65$, large anisotropy parameters$(0.15ledelta<0.35$, and large rotationparameters $(0.15lechi_v^2<0.5$. Analternative kinematic classification withrespect to earlier attempts (Emsellem etal. 2007 requires larger samples for providingadditional support to the above mentionedresults. A possible interpretation of slowrotators as nonrotating at all and elongated due to negative anisotropy parameters,instead of flattened due to positiveanisotropy parameters, is exploited.Finally, the elliptical side of the Hubblemorphological sequence is interpreted as asequence of equilibrium (adjoint configurations where the ellipticity is an increasing functionof the rotation parameter, slow rotators correspond to early classes (E0-E2 in the oblate limit and E2-E0 in the prolate limitand fast rotators to late classes (E3-E6.In this view, boundaries are rotationally distorted regardless of angular momentumand stress tensor, where rotation has tobe intended as due to additional kinetic energy of tangential equatorial velocity components,with respect to spherical configurations with isotropic stress tensor.

  8. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM, BPSK (Barker code modulation, Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4. The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN, and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA, image binarization algorithm and Pseudo–Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi–Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of −2 dB.

  9. Frequency spectrum analysis of finger photoplethysmographic waveform variability during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Faizan; Middleton, Paul M; Malouf, Philip; Chan, Gregory S H; Savkin, Andrey V; Lovell, Nigel H; Steel, Elizabeth; Mackie, James

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates the peripheral circulatory and autonomic response to volume withdrawal in haemodialysis based on spectral analysis of photoplethysmographic waveform variability (PPGV). Frequency spectrum analysis was performed on the baseline and pulse amplitude variabilities of the finger infrared photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveform and on heart rate variability extracted from the ECG signal collected from 18 kidney failure patients undergoing haemodialysis. Spectral powers were calculated from the low frequency (LF, 0.04-0.145 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 0.145-0.45 Hz) bands. In eight stable fluid overloaded patients (fluid removal of >2 L) not on alpha blockers, progressive reduction in relative blood volume during haemodialysis resulted in significant increase in LF and HF powers of PPG baseline and amplitude variability (P analysis of finger PPGV may provide valuable information on the autonomic vascular response to blood volume reduction in haemodialysis, and can be potentially utilized as a non-invasive tool for assessing peripheral circulatory control during routine dialysis procedure.

  10. Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.

  11. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-dong; Alkhalifah, Tariq; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing

    2018-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang

    2017-08-16

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.

  13. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-08-17

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example in reservoir analysis, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a boundary condition for the whole area. Since certain rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elastic and anisotropic parameters (facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel confidence map based approach to utilize the facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such a confidence map using Bayesian theory, in which the confidence map is updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. The numerical examples show that the proposed method can reduce the trade-offs and also can improve the resolution of the inverted elastic and anisotropic properties.

  14. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-05-01

    To increase the feasibility of full waveform inversion on real data, we suggest a new objective function, which is defined as the global correlation of the envelopes of modelled and observed data. The envelope-based global correlation norm has the advantage of the envelope inversion that generates artificial low-frequency information, which provides the possibility to recover long-wavelength structure in an early stage. In addition, the envelope-based global correlation norm maintains the advantage of the global correlation norm, which reduces the sensitivity of the misfit to amplitude errors so that the performance of inversion on real data can be enhanced when the exact source wavelet is not available and more complex physics are ignored. Through the synthetic example for 2-D SEG/EAGE overthrust model with inaccurate source wavelet, we compare the performance of four different approaches, which are the least-squares waveform inversion, least-squares envelope inversion, global correlation norm and envelope-based global correlation norm. Finally, we apply the envelope-based global correlation norm on the 3-D Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) data from the North Sea. The envelope-based global correlation norm captures the strong reflections from the high-velocity caprock and generates artificial low-frequency reflection energy that helps us recover long-wavelength structure of the model domain in the early stages. From this long-wavelength model, the conventional global correlation norm is sequentially applied to invert for higher-resolution features of the model.

  15. Expanding the frontiers of waveform imaging with Salvus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, M.; Boehm, C.; van Driel, M.; Krischer, L.; Fichtner, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical waves are natural harbingers of information. From medical ultrasound to the normal modes of Sun, wave motion is often our best window into the character of some underlying continuum. For over a century, geophysicists have been using this window to peer deep into the Earth, developing techniques that have gone on to underlie much of world's energy economy. As computers and numerical techniques have become more powerful over the last several decades, seismologists have begun to scale back classical simplifying approximations of wave propagation physics. As a result, we are now approaching the ideal of `full-waveform inversion'; maximizing the aperture of our window by taking the full complexity of wave motion into account.Salvus is a modern high-performance software suite which aims to bring recent developments in geophysical waveform inversion to new and exciting domains. In this short presentation we will look at the connections between these applications, with examples from non-destructive testing, medical imaging, seismic exploration, and (extra-) planetary seismology.

  16. Individual Biometric Identification Using Multi-Cycle Electrocardiographic Waveform Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonki Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG waveform conveys information regarding the electrical property of the heart. The patterns vary depending on the individual heart characteristics. ECG features can be potentially used for biometric recognition. This study presents a new method using the entire ECG waveform pattern for matching and demonstrates that the approach can potentially be employed for individual biometric identification. Multi-cycle ECG signals were assessed using an ECG measuring circuit, and three electrodes can be patched on the wrists or fingers for considering various measurements. For biometric identification, our-fold cross validation was used in the experiments for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. Four different pattern matching algorithms, i.e., cosine similarity, cross correlation, city block distance, and Euclidean distances, were tested to compare the individual identification performances with a single channel of ECG signal (3-wire ECG. To evaluate the pattern matching for biometric identification, the ECG recordings for each subject were partitioned into training and test set. The suggested method obtained a maximum performance of 89.9% accuracy with two heartbeats of ECG signals measured on the wrist and 93.3% accuracy with three heartbeats for 55 subjects. The performance rate with ECG signals measured on the fingers improved up to 99.3% with two heartbeats and 100% with three heartbeats of signals for 20 subjects.

  17. Observation of 45 GHz current waveforms using HTS sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, M.; Suzuki, H.; Hato, T.; Wakana, H.; Nakayama, K.; Ishimaru, Y.; Horibe, O.; Adachi, S.; Kamitani, A.; Suzuki, K.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tarutani, Y.; Tanabe, K.

    2005-01-01

    We succeeded in observing high-frequency current waveforms up to 45 GHz using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sampler. In this experiment, we used a sampler circuit with a superconducting pickup coil, which magnetically detects current signals flowing through a micro-strip line on a printed board placed outside the cryochamber. This type of measurement enables non-contact current-waveform observation that seems useful for analyses of EMI, defects in LSI, etc. Computer simulation reveals that one of our latest versions of HTS sampler circuits having Josephson transmission lines with optimized biases as buffers has a potential of sampling high-frequency signals with a bandwidth above 100 GHz. To realize the circuit parameters required in the simulations, we developed an HTS circuit fabrication process employing a lower ground plane structure with SrSnO 3 insulating layers. We consider that improvement of the circuit fabrication process and optimization of the pickup coil lead to much higher signal frequency observable by the sampler

  18. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2018-03-20

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Individual Biometric Identification Using Multi-Cycle Electrocardiographic Waveform Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonki; Kim, Seulgee; Kim, Daeeun

    2018-03-28

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform conveys information regarding the electrical property of the heart. The patterns vary depending on the individual heart characteristics. ECG features can be potentially used for biometric recognition. This study presents a new method using the entire ECG waveform pattern for matching and demonstrates that the approach can potentially be employed for individual biometric identification. Multi-cycle ECG signals were assessed using an ECG measuring circuit, and three electrodes can be patched on the wrists or fingers for considering various measurements. For biometric identification, our-fold cross validation was used in the experiments for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. Four different pattern matching algorithms, i.e., cosine similarity, cross correlation, city block distance, and Euclidean distances, were tested to compare the individual identification performances with a single channel of ECG signal (3-wire ECG). To evaluate the pattern matching for biometric identification, the ECG recordings for each subject were partitioned into training and test set. The suggested method obtained a maximum performance of 89.9% accuracy with two heartbeats of ECG signals measured on the wrist and 93.3% accuracy with three heartbeats for 55 subjects. The performance rate with ECG signals measured on the fingers improved up to 99.3% with two heartbeats and 100% with three heartbeats of signals for 20 subjects.

  20. Continuous-waveform constant-current isolated physiological stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Mark R.; Devine, Jack M.; Harder, Rene; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed an isolated continuous-waveform constant-current physiological stimulator that is powered and controlled by universal serial bus (USB) interface. The stimulator is composed of a custom printed circuit board (PCB), 16-MHz MSP430F2618 microcontroller with two integrated 12-bit digital to analog converters (DAC0, DAC1), high-speed H-Bridge, voltage-controlled current source (VCCS), isolated USB communication and power circuitry, two isolated transistor-transistor logic (TTL) inputs, and a serial 16 × 2 character liquid crystal display. The stimulators are designed to produce current stimuli in the range of ±15 mA indefinitely using a 20V source and to be used in ex vivo cardiac experiments, but they are suitable for use in a wide variety of research or student experiments that require precision control of continuous waveforms or synchronization with external events. The device was designed with customization in mind and has features that allow it to be integrated into current and future experimental setups. Dual TTL inputs allow replacement by two or more traditional stimulators in common experimental configurations. The MSP430 software is written in C++ and compiled with IAR Embedded Workbench 5.20.2. A control program written in C++ runs on a Windows personal computer and has a graphical user interface that allows the user to control all aspects of the device.

  1. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Motohashi-Saigo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV and auditory-only (A-only Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences. Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu. Results revealed a significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/; c no significant effect of condition; and d no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.

  2. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  3. Two dimensional spatial distortion correction algorithm for scintillation GAMMA cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, R.; Gray, E.; Jih, F.; King, S.E.; Lim, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Spatial distortion in an Anger gamma camera originates fundamentally from the discrete nature of scintillation light sampling with an array of PMT's. Historically digital distortion correction started with the method based on the distortion measurement by using 1-D slit pattern and the subsequent on-line bi-linear approximation with 64 x 64 look-up tables for X and Y. However, the X, Y distortions are inherently two-dimensional in nature, and thus the validity of this 1-D calibration method becomes questionable with the increasing distortion amplitude in association with the effort to get better spatial and energy resolutions. The authors have developed a new accurate 2-D correction algorithm. This method involves the steps of; data collection from 2-D orthogonal hole pattern, 2-D distortion vector measurement, 2-D Lagrangian polynomial interpolation, and transformation to X, Y ADC frame. The impact of numerical precision used in correction and the accuracy of bilinear approximation with varying look-up table size have been carefully examined through computer simulation by using measured single PMT light response function together with Anger positioning logic. Also the accuracy level of different order Lagrangian polynomial interpolations for correction table expansion from hole centroids were investigated. Detailed algorithm and computer simulation are presented along with camera test results

  4. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  5. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  6. Increase of nonlinear signal distortions due to linear mode coupling in space division multiplexed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutluyarov, Ruslan V.; Bagmanov, Valeriy Kh; Antonov, Vyacheslav V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of linear and nonlinear mode coupling in space division multiplexed (SDM) optical communications over step-index fiber in few-mode regime. Linear mode coupling is caused by the fiber imperfections, while the nonlinear coupling is caused by the Kerr......-nonlinearities. Therefore, we use the system of generalized coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations (GCNLSE) to describe the signal propagation. We analytically show that the presence of linear mode coupling may cause increasing of the nonlinear signal distortions. For the detailed study we solve GCNLSE numerically...... for the standard step index fiber at the wavelength of 850 nm in the basis of spatial modes with helical phase front (vortex modes) and for a special kind of few-mode fiber with enlarged core, providing propagation of five spatial modes at 1550 nm. Simulation results confirm that the linear mode coupling may lead...

  7. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  8. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  9. Cognitive distortions among older adult gamblers in an Asian context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythily Subramaniam

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe the construct of cognitive distortions based on the narratives of older adult gamblers (aged 60 years and above in Singapore.Singapore residents (citizens or permanent residents aged 60 years and above, who were current or past regular gamblers were included in the study. Participants were recruited using a combination of venue based approach, referrals from service providers as well as by snowball sampling. In all, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with older adult gamblers. The six-step thematic network analysis methodology was adopted for data analysis.The mean age of the participants was 66.2 years. The majority were male (n = 18, of Chinese ethnicity (n = 16, with a mean age of gambling initiation at 24.5 years. Among older adult gamblers, cognitive distortions emerged as a significant global theme comprising three organizing themes-illusion of control, probability control and interpretive control. The organizing themes comprised nine basic themes: perception of gambling as a skill, near miss, concept of luck, superstitious beliefs, entrapment, gambler's fallacy, chasing wins, chasing losses, and beliefs that wins are more than losses.Cognitive distortions were endorsed by all gamblers in the current study and were shown to play a role in both maintaining and escalating the gambling behaviour. While the surface characteristics of the distortions had a culture-specific appearance, the deeper characteristics of the distortions may in fact be more universal than previously thought. Future research must include longitudinal studies to understand causal relationships between cognitive distortions and gambling as well as the role of culture-specific distortions both in the maintenance and treatment of the disorder.

  10. Depths of Intraplate Indian Ocean Earthquakes from Waveform Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, A. J.; Polet, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Ocean is a region of complex tectonics and anomalous seismicity. The ocean floor in this region exhibits many bathymetric features, most notably the multiple inactive fracture zones within the Wharton Basin and the Ninetyeast Ridge. The 11 April 2012 MW 8.7 and 8.2 strike-slip events that took place in this area are unique because their rupture appears to have extended to a depth where brittle failure, and thus seismic activity, was considered to be impossible. We analyze multiple intraplate earthquakes that have occurred throughout the Indian Ocean to better constrain their focal depths in order to enhance our understanding of how deep intraplate events are occurring and more importantly determine if the ruptures are originating within a ductile regime. Selected events are located within the Indian Ocean away from major plate boundaries. A majority are within the deforming Indo-Australian tectonic plate. Events primarily display thrust mechanisms with some strike-slip or a combination of the two. All events are between MW5.5-6.5. Event selections were handled this way in order to facilitate the analysis of teleseismic waveforms using a point source approximation. From these criteria we gathered a suite of 15 intraplate events. Synthetic seismograms of direct P-waves and depth phases are computed using a 1-D propagator matrix approach and compared with global teleseismic waveform data to determine a best depth for each event. To generate our synthetic seismograms we utilized the CRUST1.0 software, a global crustal model that generates velocity values at the hypocenter of our events. Our waveform analysis results reveal that our depths diverge from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) depths, which underestimate our deep lithosphere events and overestimate our shallow depths by as much as 17 km. We determined a depth of 45km for our deepest event. We will show a comparison of our final earthquake depths with the lithospheric thickness based on

  11. On the square arc voltage waveform model in magnetic discharge lamp studies

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Julio; Sainz Sapera, Luis; Mesas García, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    The current number of magnetic and electronic ballast discharge lamps in power distribution systems is increasing because they perform better than incandescent lamps. This paper studies the magnetic discharge lamp modeling. In particular, the arc voltage waveform is analyzed and the limitations of the square waveform model are revealed from experimental measurements.

  12. Auto-correlation based intelligent technique for complex waveform presentation and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, K P S; Singh, R; Sayann, K S

    2009-01-01

    Waveform acquisition and presentation forms the heart of many measurement systems. Particularly, data acquisition and presentation of repeating complex signals like sine sweep and frequency-modulated signals introduces the challenge of waveform time period estimation and live waveform presentation. This paper presents an intelligent technique, for waveform period estimation of both the complex and simple waveforms, based on the normalized auto-correlation method. The proposed technique is demonstrated using LabVIEW based intensive simulations on several simple and complex waveforms. Implementation of the technique is successfully demonstrated using LabVIEW based virtual instrumentation. Sine sweep vibration waveforms are successfully presented and measured for electrodynamic shaker system generated vibrations. The proposed method is also suitable for digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) triggering, for complex signals acquisition and presentation. This intelligence can be embodied into the DSO, making it an intelligent measurement system, catering wide varieties of the waveforms. The proposed technique, simulation results, robustness study and implementation results are presented in this paper.

  13. Screening for aortoiliac lesions by visual interpretation of the common femoral Doppler waveform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Jensen, F; Grønvall Rasmussen, J B

    2001-01-01

    to study the accuracy of simple visual interpretation of the common femoral artery Doppler waveform for screening the aorto-iliac segment for significant occlusive disease.......to study the accuracy of simple visual interpretation of the common femoral artery Doppler waveform for screening the aorto-iliac segment for significant occlusive disease....

  14. Waveform measurement in mocrowave device characterization: impact on power amplifiers design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Quaglia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an example of a measurement setup enabling waveform measurements during the load-pull characterization of a microwave power device. The significance of this measurement feature is highlighted showing how waveform engineering can be exploited to design high efficiency microwave power amplifiers.

  15. Influence of crystal orientation on magnetostriction waveform in grain orientated electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijima, Gou, E-mail: g-kijima@jfe-steel.co.jp [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kawasaki, 210-0855 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroi; Senda, Kunihiro; Hayakawa, Yasuyuki [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kurashiki, 712-8511 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    Aiming to gain insight into the mechanisms of grain-oriented electrical steel sheet magnetostriction waveforms, we investigated the influence of crystal orientations. An increase in the β angle results in an increase in the amplitude of magnetostriction waveform, but does not affect the waveform itself. By slanting the excitation direction to simulate the change of the α angle, change in the magnetostriction waveform and a constriction–extension transition point in the steel plate was observed. The amplitude, however, was not significantly affected. We explained the nature of constriction–extension transition point in the magnetostriction waveform by considering the magnetization rotation. We speculated that the change of waveform resulting from the increase in the coating tensile stress can be attributed to the phenomenon of the magnetization rotation becoming hard to be generated due to the increase of magnetic anisotropy toward [001] axis. - Highlights: • β angle is related with the amplitude of magnetostriction waveform. • α angle is related with the magnetostriction waveform itself. • The effect of α angle can be controlled by the effect of coating tensile stress.

  16. Effects of waveform model systematics on the interpretation of GW150914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K.M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernández Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J.G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G.F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGrath Hoareau, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, Brian C J; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Castro-Perez, J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifir, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van Den Brand, J. F.J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S.J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Chu, I.W.T.; Hemberger, D.; Hinder, I.; Kidder, L. E.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Vano-Vinuales, A.

    2017-01-01

    Parameter estimates of GW150914 were obtained using Bayesian inference, based on three semi-analytic waveform models for binary black hole coalescences. These waveform models differ from each other in their treatment of black hole spins, and all three models make some simplifying assumptions,

  17. WaveformECG: A Platform for Visualizing, Annotating, and Analyzing ECG Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Raimond L; Granite, Stephen; Jurado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most commonly collected data in cardiovascular research because of the ease with which it can be measured and because changes in ECG waveforms reflect underlying aspects of heart disease. Accessed through a browser, WaveformECG is an open source platform supporting interactive analysis, visualization, and annotation of ECGs.

  18. Early arrival waveform inversion of shallow seismic land data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2013-09-22

    We estimate the near-surface velocity distribution over Wadi Qudaid in Saudi Arabia by applying early arrival waveform inversion (EWI) to shallow seismic land data collected with source-receiver offsets no longer than 232 m. The main purpose is to characterize the shallow subsurface for its water storage and reuse potential. To enhance the accuracy of EWI, we extracted a natural source wavelet from the data, and also corrected for the attenuation effects with an estimated factor Q. Results suggest that, compared to traveltime tomography, EWI can generate a highly resolved velocity tomogram from shallow seismic data. The more accurate EWI tomogram can make an economically important difference in assessing the storage potential of this wadi; in this case we find an increase of 18% of storage potential in the EWI tomogram relative to the traveltime tomogram. This approach suggests that FWI might be a more accurate means for economically characterizing the water storage potential for wadis’ throughout the world.

  19. Direct Synthesis of Microwave Waveforms for Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, James; Vrajitoarea, Andrei; Zhang, Gengyan; Leng, Zhaoqi; Srinivasan, Srikanth; Houck, Andrew

    Current state of the art quantum computing experiments in the microwave regime use control pulses generated by modulating microwave tones with baseband signals generated by an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). Recent advances in digital analog conversion technology have made it possible to directly synthesize arbitrary microwave pulses with sampling rates of 65 gigasamples per second (GSa/s) or higher. These new ultra-wide bandwidth AWG's could dramatically simplify the classical control chain for quantum computing experiments, presenting potential cost savings and reducing the number of components that need to be carefully calibrated. Here we use a Keysight M8195A AWG to study the viability of such a simplified scheme, demonstrating randomized benchmarking of a superconducting qubit with high fidelity.

  20. Memory and convulsive stimulation: effects of stimulus waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanis, C W; Squire, L R

    1981-09-01

    Electrical stimulation with brief pulses can produce a seizure requiring less energy than conventional sine-wave stimulation, and it has been suggested that brief-pulse stimulation might reduce the memory loss associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The authors evaluated the effects of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on memory in mice by using various waveforms, current intensities, training-ECS intervals, pulse widths, and stimulus durations. When equated for ability to produce seizures, low-energy, brief-pulse stimulation caused as much amnesia as sine-wave stimulation and sometimes more. In the absence of comparisons of the amnesic effects of brief-pulse and sine-wave stimulation in humans, the use of brief pulses for administering ECT is unwarranted.

  1. 3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2014-01-01

    The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate this ambiguity between the different parameters. We use dynamic ray tracing to efficiently handle the expensive computational cost for 3-D anisotropic models. Ray tracing provides also the ray direction information necessary for conditioning the sensitivity kernels to handle anisotropy. The NMO velocity and η parameter kernels showed a maximum sensitivity for diving waves which results in a relevant choice of those parameters in wave equation tomography. The δ parameter kernel showed zero sensitivity; therefore it can serve as a secondary parameter to fit the amplitude in the acoustic anisotropic inversion. Considering the limited penetration depth of diving waves, migration velocity analysis based kernels are introduced to fix the depth ambiguity with reflections and compute sensitivity maps in the deeper parts of the model.

  2. Conditioning the full waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual tradeoff between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain in which the small scattering angles of the gradient update is initially muted out. A model update hierarchical filtering strategy includes applying varying degree of filtering to the different parameter updates. A feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using both FWI and reection based FWI (RFWI), two strategies to combat the tradeoff between anisotropic parameters are outlined.

  3. Characterizing Geological Facies using Seismic Waveform Classification in Sarawak Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraa, Afiqah; Zailani, Ahmad; Prasad Ghosh, Deva

    2017-10-01

    Numerous effort have been made to build relationship between geology and geophysics using different techniques throughout the years. The integration of these two most important data in oil and gas industry can be used to reduce uncertainty in exploration and production especially for reservoir productivity enhancement and stratigraphic identification. This paper is focusing on seismic waveform classification to different classes using neural network and to link them according to the geological facies which are established using the knowledge on lithology and log motif of well data. Seismic inversion is used as the input for the neural network to act as the direct lithology indicator reducing dependency on well calibration. The interpretation of seismic facies classification map provides a better understanding towards the lithology distribution, depositional environment and help to identify significant reservoir rock

  4. Automatic physiological waveform processing for FMRI noise correction and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kelley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI resting state and connectivity studies of brain focus on neural fluctuations at low frequencies which share power with physiological fluctuations originating from lung and heart. Due to the lack of automated software to process physiological signals collected at high magnetic fields, a gap exists in the processing pathway between the acquisition of physiological data and its use in fMRI software for both physiological noise correction and functional analyses of brain activation and connectivity. To fill this gap, we developed an open source, physiological signal processing program, called PhysioNoise, in the python language. We tested its automated processing algorithms and dynamic signal visualization on resting monkey cardiac and respiratory waveforms. PhysioNoise consistently identifies physiological fluctuations for fMRI noise correction and also generates covariates for subsequent analyses of brain activation and connectivity.

  5. Real time monitoring of moment magnitude by waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2012-01-01

    An instantaneous measure of the moment magnitude (Mw) of an ongoing earthquake is estimated from the moment rate function (MRF) determined in real-time from available seismic data using waveform inversion. Integration of the MRF gives the moment function from which an instantaneous Mw is derived. By repeating the inversion procedure at regular intervals while seismic data are coming in we can monitor the evolution of seismic moment and Mw with time. The final size and duration of a strong earthquake can be obtained within 12 to 15 minutes after the origin time. We show examples of Mw monitoring for three large earthquakes at regional distances. The estimated Mw is only weakly sensitive to changes in the assumed source parameters. Depending on the availability of seismic stations close to the epicenter, a rapid estimation of the Mw as a prerequisite for the assessment of earthquake damage potential appears to be feasible.

  6. Langmuir waveforms at interplanetary shocks: STEREO statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, C.

    2016-12-01

    Wave-particle interactions and particle acceleration are the two main processes allowing energy dissipation at non collisional shocks. Ion acceleration has been deeply studied for many years, also for their central role in the shock front reformation. Electron dynamics is also important in the shock dynamics through the instabilities they can generate which may impact the ion dynamics.Particle measurements can be efficiently completed by wave measurements to determine the characteristics of the electron beams and study the turbulence of the medium. Electric waveforms obtained from the S/WAVES instrument of the STEREO mission between 2007 to 2014 are analyzed. Thus, clear signature of Langmuir waves are observed on 41 interplanetary shocks. These data enable a statistical analysis and to deduce some characteristics of the electron dynamics on different shocks sources (SIR or ICME) and types (quasi-perpendicular or quasi-parallel). The conversion process between electrostatic to electromagnetic waves has also been tested in several cases.

  7. Conditioning the full waveform inversion gradient to welcome anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-08-05

    Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the complex nonlinearity in the objective function, compounded by the eventual tradeoff between the model parameters. A hierarchical approach based on frequency and arrival time data decimation to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with this problem usually falls short in anisotropic media. In place of data decimation, I use a model gradient filter approach to access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat the potential nonlinearity and parameter trade off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain in which the small scattering angles of the gradient update is initially muted out. A model update hierarchical filtering strategy includes applying varying degree of filtering to the different parameter updates. A feature not easily accessible to simple data decimation. Using both FWI and reection based FWI (RFWI), two strategies to combat the tradeoff between anisotropic parameters are outlined.

  8. Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zabihi Naeini, E.

    2017-05-26

    Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI) as an alternative tool for higher-resolution reservoir characterization. An important step in developing reservoir-oriented FWI is the implementation of facies-based rock physics constraints adapted from the classic methods. We show that such constraints can be incorporated into FWI by adding appropriately designed regularization terms to the objective function. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated on both isotropic and VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) models with pronounced lateral and vertical heterogeneity. The inversion results are explained using the theoretical radiation patterns produced by perturbations in the medium parameters.

  9. Full-waveform inversion: From near surface to deep

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-11-01

    The ancient Persian Gulf port city of Muscat provided a spectacular setting for the SEG\\'s 2013 Workshop on Full-waveform Inversion (FWI). This active R&D topic attracted about 36 oral presentations and 20 or so posters, which added up to three intense days of ideas, images, and discussion. FWI has progressed from academic research topic to commercial workflow component in roughly 10 years, with many case studies documenting improved imaging and business value and others documenting a definite need for improved understanding of algorithms and applicability. Along with fundamental research issues of worldwide importance, the meeting provided an opportunity to showcase implications of the Middle East\\'s particular exploration challenges for the further development of FWI.

  10. Optimal overlapping of waveform relaxation method for linear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Susumu; Ozawa, Kazufumi

    2000-01-01

    Waveform relaxation (WR) method is extremely suitable for solving large systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) on parallel computers, but the convergence of the method is generally slow. In order to accelerate the convergence, the methods which decouple the system into many subsystems with overlaps some of the components between the adjacent subsystems have been proposed. The methods, in general, converge much faster than the ones without overlapping, but the computational cost per iteration becomes larger due to the increase of the dimension of each subsystem. In this research, the convergence of the WR method for solving constant coefficients linear ODEs is investigated and the strategy to determine the number of overlapped components which minimizes the cost of the parallel computations is proposed. Numerical experiments on an SR2201 parallel computer show that the estimated number of the overlapped components by the proposed strategy is reasonable. (author)

  11. All-optical temporal integration of ultrafast pulse waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongwoo; Ahn, Tae-Jung; Dai, Yitang; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José

    2008-10-27

    An ultrafast all-optical temporal integrator is experimentally demonstrated. The demonstrated integrator is based on a very simple and practical solution only requiring the use of a widely available all-fiber passive component, namely a reflection uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This design allows overcoming the severe speed (bandwidth) limitations of the previously demonstrated photonic integrator designs. We demonstrate temporal integration of a variety of ultrafast optical waveforms, including Gaussian, odd-symmetry Hermite Gaussian, and (odd-)symmetry double pulses, with temporal features as fast as ~6-ps, which is about one order of magnitude faster than in previous photonic integration demonstrations. The developed device is potentially interesting for a multitude of applications in all-optical computing and information processing, ultrahigh-speed optical communications, ultrafast pulse (de-)coding, shaping and metrology.

  12. Reversible conduction block in peripheral nerve using electrical waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Niloy; Vrabec, Tina L; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin L

    2018-01-01

    Electrical nerve block uses electrical waveforms to block action potential propagation. Two key features that distinguish electrical nerve block from other nonelectrical means of nerve block: block occurs instantly, typically within 1 s; and block is fully and rapidly reversible (within seconds). Approaches for achieving electrical nerve block are reviewed, including kilohertz frequency alternating current and charge-balanced polarizing current. We conclude with a discussion of the future directions of electrical nerve block. Electrical nerve block is an emerging technique that has many significant advantages over other methods of nerve block. This field is still in its infancy, but a significant expansion in the clinical application of this technique is expected in the coming years.

  13. Distortion definition and correction in off-axis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Simioni, Emanuele; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Off-axis optical configurations are becoming more and more used in a variety of applications, in particular they are the most preferred solution for cameras devoted to Solar System planets and small bodies (i.e. asteroids and comets) study. Off-axis designs, being devoid of central obstruction, are able to guarantee better PSF and MTF performance, and thus higher contrast imaging capabilities with respect to classical on-axis designs. In particular they are suitable for observing extended targets with intrinsic low contrast features, or scenes where a high dynamical signal range is present. Classical distortion theory is able to well describe the performance of the on-axis systems, but it has to be adapted for the off-axis case. A proper way to deal with off-axis distortion definition is thus needed together with dedicated techniques to accurately measure and hence remove the distortion effects present in the acquired images. In this paper, a review of the distortion definition for off-axis systems will be given. In particular the method adopted by the authors to deal with the distortion related issues (definition, measure, removal) in some off-axis instruments will be described in detail.

  14. Distortion-Based Link Adaptation for Wireless Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nix

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless local area networks (WLANs such as IEEE 802.11a/g utilise numerous transmission modes, each providing different throughputs and reliability levels. Most link adaptation algorithms proposed in the literature (i maximise the error-free data throughput, (ii do not take into account the content of the data stream, and (iii rely strongly on the use of ARQ. Low-latency applications, such as real-time video transmission, do not permit large numbers of retransmission. In this paper, a novel link adaptation scheme is presented that improves the quality of service (QoS for video transmission. Rather than maximising the error-free throughput, our scheme minimises the video distortion of the received sequence. With the use of simple and local rate distortion measures and end-to-end distortion models at the video encoder, the proposed scheme estimates the received video distortion at the current transmission rate, as well as on the adjacent lower and higher rates. This allows the system to select the link-speed which offers the lowest distortion and to adapt to the channel conditions. Simulation results are presented using the MPEG-4/AVC H.264 video compression standard over IEEE 802.11g. The results show that the proposed system closely follows the optimum theoretic solution.

  15. Distortion of digital panoramic radiographs used for implant site assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayyan Abdulhamid Kayal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study is conducted to determine the amount of distortion of digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of all patients who received dental implants in the years 2012 and 2013 were selected from the records at the faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Radiographs were analyzed using the R4 Kodak Software for linear measurements of implants length and width. The measurements were compared to the actual size of the implant, and the amount of distortion was calculated. Results: A total of 169 implants were analyzed. Horizontally, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.4 mm in width in the radiographic measurement compared to the actual size in the incisor region. Vertically, the sample overall exhibited a decrease by 0.4 mm compared to the actual size. Incisors had the highest difference with a decrease of 1.7 mm in the radiographic measurements compared to actual size. The highest distortion was found in the incisor region for both diameter and length (1.1 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion: Digital panoramic radiographs show minimal to no distortion. The highest distortion is found in the anterior area.

  16. Accuracy evaluation of optical distortion calibration by digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zeren; Zhang, Qingchuan; Su, Yong; Wu, Shangquan

    2017-11-01

    Due to its convenience of operation, the camera calibration algorithm, which is based on the plane template, is widely used in image measurement, computer vision and other fields. How to select a suitable distortion model is always a problem to be solved. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an experimental evaluation of the accuracy of camera distortion calibrations. This paper presents an experimental method for evaluating camera distortion calibration accuracy, which is easy to implement, has high precision, and is suitable for a variety of commonly used lens. First, we use the digital image correlation method to calculate the in-plane rigid body displacement field of an image displayed on a liquid crystal display before and after translation, as captured with a camera. Next, we use a calibration board to calibrate the camera to obtain calibration parameters which are used to correct calculation points of the image before and after deformation. The displacement field before and after correction is compared to analyze the distortion calibration results. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of two commonly used industrial camera lenses for four commonly used distortion models.

  17. ABOUT WAVEFORM OF BRAKING CYLINDER FILLING IN FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Ursuliak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. As part of the scientific paper it is necessary to study the waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on longitudinal train dynamics at different modes of braking. At this one should estimate the level of maximum longitudinal forces and braking distance size in freight cars of various lengths. Methodology. In this paper we attempt to approximate the actual diagram of braking cylinders filling with rational functions of varying degrees. In selection of coefficients in the required functions the highest values of the longitudinal forces and braking distances were used as controlled parameters. They were compared with similar values obtained as a result of experimental rides. The level of longitudinal forces and braking distances amount were evaluated by means of mathematical modeling of train longitudinal vibrations, caused by different braking modes. Findings. At mathematical modeling was assumed that the train consists of 60 uniform four-axle gondola cars, weight of 80 tons, equipped with air dispenser No. 483 included in the median operation, composite braking blocks, and one locomotive VL-8. Train before braking has been pre-stretched. Various types of pneumatic braking (emergency, full service and adjusting braking of the freight train on the horizontal section of the track were simulated. As the calculation results were obtained values of the longitudinal forces, braking distances amounts and reduction time in speed at various braking modes. Originality. Waveform impact of the braking cylinders filling on the longitudinal forces level and braking distances amount in freight trains were investigated. Also the longitudinal loading of freight trains at various pneumatic braking was investigated. Practical value. Obtained results can be used to assess the level of largest longitudinal forces and braking distances in the freight trains of different lengths by mathematical modeling of different braking modes.

  18. Lossless compression of waveform data for efficient storage and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, S.D.; Tan, Li Zhe; Magotra, Neeraj

    1993-01-01

    Compression of waveform data is significant in many engineering and research areas since it can be used to alleviate data storage and transmission bandwidth. For example, seismic data are widely recorded and transmitted so that analysis can be performed on large amounts of data for numerous applications such as petroleum exploration, determination of the earth's core structure, seismic event detection and discrimination of underground nuclear explosions, etc. This paper describes a technique for lossless wave form data compression. The technique consists of two stages. The first stage is a modified form of linear prediction with discrete coefficients and the second stage is bi-level sequence coding. The linear predictor generates an error or residue sequence in a way such that exact reconstruction of the original data sequence can be accomplished with a simple algorithm. The residue sequence is essentially white Gaussian with seismic or other similar waveform data. Bi-level sequence coding, in which two sample sizes are chosen and the residue sequence is encoded into subsequences that alternate from one level to the other, further compresses the residue sequence. The principal feature of the two-stage data compression algorithm is that it is lossless, that is, it allows exact, bit-for-bit recovery of the original data sequence. The performance of the lossless compression algorithm at each stage is analyzed. The advantages of using bi-level sequence coding in the second stage are its simplicity of implementation, its effectiveness on data with large amplitude variations, and its near-optimal performance in encoding Gaussian sequences. Applications of the two-stage technique to typical seismic data indicates that an average number of compressed bits per sample close to the lower bound is achievable in practical situations

  19. Ultimate waveform reproducibility of extreme-ultraviolet pulses by high-harmonic generation in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M.; Kim, H. Y.; Goulielmakis, E.

    2018-05-01

    Optical waveforms of light reproducible with subcycle precision underlie applications of lasers in ultrafast spectroscopies, quantum control of matter and light-based signal processing. Nonlinear upconversion of optical pulses via high-harmonic generation in gas media extends these capabilities to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). However, the waveform reproducibility of the generated EUV pulses in gases is inherently sensitive to intensity and phase fluctuations of the driving field. We used photoelectron interferometry to study the effects of intensity and carrier-envelope phase of an intense single-cycle optical pulse on the field waveform of EUV pulses generated in quartz nanofilms, and contrasted the results with those obtained in gas argon. The EUV waveforms generated in quartz were found to be virtually immune to the intensity and phase of the driving field, implying a non-recollisional character of the underlying emission mechanism. Waveform-sensitive photonic applications and precision measurements of fundamental processes in optics will benefit from these findings.

  20. Variance stabilization for computing and comparing grand mean waveforms in MEG and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Artur; Kordecki, Wojciech; Sielużycki, Cezary; Zacharias, Norman; Heil, Peter; König, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Grand means of time-varying signals (waveforms) across subjects in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are commonly computed as arithmetic averages and compared between conditions, for example, by subtraction. However, the prerequisite for these operations, homogeneity of the variance of the waveforms in time, and for most common parametric statistical tests also between conditions, is rarely met. We suggest that the heteroscedasticity observed instead results because waveforms may differ by factors and additive terms and follow a mixed model. We propose to apply the asinh-transformation to stabilize the variance in such cases. We demonstrate the homogeneous variance and the normal distributions of data achieved by this transformation using simulated waveforms, and we apply it to real MEG data and show its benefits. The asinh-transformation is thus an essential and useful processing step prior to computing and comparing grand mean waveforms in MEG and EEG. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  2. Doppler Aliasing Reduction in Wide-Angle Synthetic Aperture Radar Using Phase Modulated Random Stepped-Frequency Waveforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyatt, Andrew W

    2006-01-01

    ...) waveforms in a Wide-Angle Synthetic Aperture Radar (WA-SAR) scenario. RSF waveforms have been demonstrated to have desirable properties which allow for cancelling of Doppler aliased scatterers in WA-SAR images...

  3. An Exact Formula for Calculating Inverse Radial Lens Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Drap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new approach to calculating the inverse of radial distortions. The method presented here provides a model of reverse radial distortion, currently modeled by a polynomial expression, that proposes another polynomial expression where the new coefficients are a function of the original ones. After describing the state of the art, the proposed method is developed. It is based on a formal calculus involving a power series used to deduce a recursive formula for the new coefficients. We present several implementations of this method and describe the experiments conducted to assess the validity of the new approach. Such an approach, non-iterative, using another polynomial expression, able to be deduced from the first one, can actually be interesting in terms of performance, reuse of existing software, or bridging between different existing software tools that do not consider distortion from the same point of view.

  4. Multiview Trajectory Mapping Using Homography with Lens Distortion Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a trajectory mapping algorithm for a distributed camera setting that is based on statistical homography estimation accounting for the distortion introduced by camera lenses. Unlike traditional approaches based on the direct linear transformation (DLT algorithm and singular value decomposition (SVD, the planar homography estimation is derived from renormalization. In addition to this, the algorithm explicitly introduces a correction parameter to account for the nonlinear radial lens distortion, thus improving the accuracy of the transformation. We demonstrate the proposed algorithm by generating mosaics of the observed scenes and by registering the spatial locations of moving objects (trajectories from multiple cameras on the mosaics. Moreover, we objectively compare the transformed trajectories with those obtained by SVD and least mean square (LMS methods on standard datasets and demonstrate the advantages of the renormalization and the lens distortion correction.

  5. Multiview Trajectory Mapping Using Homography with Lens Distortion Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayumbi Gabin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a trajectory mapping algorithm for a distributed camera setting that is based on statistical homography estimation accounting for the distortion introduced by camera lenses. Unlike traditional approaches based on the direct linear transformation (DLT algorithm and singular value decomposition (SVD, the planar homography estimation is derived from renormalization. In addition to this, the algorithm explicitly introduces a correction parameter to account for the nonlinear radial lens distortion, thus improving the accuracy of the transformation. We demonstrate the proposed algorithm by generating mosaics of the observed scenes and by registering the spatial locations of moving objects (trajectories from multiple cameras on the mosaics. Moreover, we objectively compare the transformed trajectories with those obtained by SVD and least mean square (LMS methods on standard datasets and demonstrate the advantages of the renormalization and the lens distortion correction.

  6. Lepton asymmetry, neutrino spectral distortions, and big bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, C. T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2017-03-01

    We calculate Boltzmann neutrino energy transport with self-consistently coupled nuclear reactions through the weak-decoupling-nucleosynthesis epoch in an early universe with significant lepton numbers. We find that the presence of lepton asymmetry enhances processes which give rise to nonthermal neutrino spectral distortions. Our results reveal how asymmetries in energy and entropy density uniquely evolve for different transport processes and neutrino flavors. The enhanced distortions in the neutrino spectra alter the expected big bang nucleosynthesis light element abundance yields relative to those in the standard Fermi-Dirac neutrino distribution cases. These yields, sensitive to the shapes of the neutrino energy spectra, are also sensitive to the phasing of the growth of distortions and entropy flow with time/scale factor. We analyze these issues and speculate on new sensitivity limits of deuterium and helium to lepton number.

  7. Time distortion for expert and novice online game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Peng, Shu-Yun; Yang, Chin-Chow

    2006-08-01

    Online game addiction is a new mental disorder. This disorder is difficult to describe because of its comprehensive nature. Many online game players have problems controlling their playing time. They cannot stop playing a game that they enjoy. This research surveyed the past literature on "flow" and time disorder theory. A time distortion experiment was conducted. This research invited 64 children, teenagers, and young adults to investigate player skill and playing time effects on online game break-off. The playing experience and degree of time distortion were measured and analyzed. The results showed that both novice and expert online game players were subject to time distortion. The participants had difficulty breaking off from the game without intrusion by others in the real world. This research also suggests eight questions for self-evaluation for online game addiction.

  8. Distorted Images of Islam: The Case of Former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Karčić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the former Yugoslavia has witnessed increasing distortion of images of Islam in academic publications, media, and public life. This process has been connected with the changes in power structure in Serbia, and with the new ideological orientation of the Serbian leadership which opted for national exclusivism (ethno fascism. The Muslims have been portrayed as a threat to the realization of the Serbian hegemonist project. In order to mobilize domestic public opinion against the Muslims and to justify future acts against them in the eyes of the West, the Serbian leadership needed an image of Islam as a totalitarian, inherently violent, and culturally alien system on European soil. Such a distorted image has been provided by some influential Serbian orientalists, the Orthodox Church, and some historians. Due to these distortions, these Serbian intellectual circles have become accomplices in the crimes committed against the Muslims in former Yugoslavia during 1992-1995.

  9. Testing inflation and curvaton scenarios with CMB distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clesse, Sébastien; Garbrecht, Björn; Zhu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Prior to recombination, Silk damping causes the dissipation of energy from acoustic waves into the monopole of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), resulting in spectral distortions. These can be used to probe the primordial scalar power spectrum on smaller scales than it is possible with CMB anisotropies. An enhancement of power on these scales is nevertheless required for the resulting distortions to be detectable by future experiments like PIXIE. In this paper, we examine all 49 single-field inflation models listed by Martin et al. in the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris [1] and find that only one of these may lead to a detectable level of distortions in a tuned region of its parameter space, namely the original hybrid model. Three effective multi-field scenarios are also studied: with softly and suddenly turning trajectories, and with a mild waterfall trajectory. Softly turning trajectories do not induce distortions at any detectable level, whereas a sudden turn in the field space or a mild waterfall trajectory predicts a peak (plus damped oscillations in the sudden turn case) in the scalar power spectrum, which can lead to an observable amount of CMB distortions. Finally, another scenario leading to potentially detectable distortions involves a curvaton whose blue spectrum is subdominant on CMB angular scales and overtakes the inflaton spectrum on smaller scales. In this case however, we show that the bounds from ultra compact minihaloes are not satisfied. Expectations for an ultimate PRISM-class experiment characterized by an improvement in sensitivity by a factor of ten are discussed for some models

  10. Testing inflation and curvaton scenarios with CMB distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesse, Sébastien; Garbrecht, Björn; Zhu, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Prior to recombination, Silk damping causes the dissipation of energy from acoustic waves into the monopole of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), resulting in spectral distortions. These can be used to probe the primordial scalar power spectrum on smaller scales than it is possible with CMB anisotropies. An enhancement of power on these scales is nevertheless required for the resulting distortions to be detectable by future experiments like PIXIE. In this paper, we examine all 49 single-field inflation models listed by Martin et al. in the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris [1] and find that only one of these may lead to a detectable level of distortions in a tuned region of its parameter space, namely the original hybrid model. Three effective multi-field scenarios are also studied: with softly and suddenly turning trajectories, and with a mild waterfall trajectory. Softly turning trajectories do not induce distortions at any detectable level, whereas a sudden turn in the field space or a mild waterfall trajectory predicts a peak (plus damped oscillations in the sudden turn case) in the scalar power spectrum, which can lead to an observable amount of CMB distortions. Finally, another scenario leading to potentially detectable distortions involves a curvaton whose blue spectrum is subdominant on CMB angular scales and overtakes the inflaton spectrum on smaller scales. In this case however, we show that the bounds from ultra compact minihaloes are not satisfied. Expectations for an ultimate PRISM-class experiment characterized by an improvement in sensitivity by a factor of ten are discussed for some models.

  11. Anisotropic extinction distortion of the galaxy correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wenjuan; Hui Lam; Menard, Brice; May, Morgan; Scranton, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Similar to the magnification of the galaxies' fluxes by gravitational lensing, the extinction of the fluxes by comic dust, whose existence is recently detected by [B. Menard, R. Scranton, M. Fukugita, and G. Richards, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, 1025 (2010).], also modifies the distribution of a flux-selected galaxy sample. We study the anisotropic distortion by dust extinction to the 3D galaxy correlation function, including magnification bias and redshift distortion at the same time. We find the extinction distortion is most significant along the line of sight and at large separations, similar to that by magnification bias. The correction from dust extinction is negative except at sufficiently large transverse separations, which is almost always opposite to that from magnification bias (we consider a number count slope s>0.4). Hence, the distortions from these two effects tend to reduce each other. At low z (< or approx. 1), the distortion by extinction is stronger than that by magnification bias, but at high z, the reverse holds. We also study how dust extinction affects probes in real space of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the linear redshift distortion parameter β. We find its effect on BAO is negligible. However, it introduces a positive scale-dependent correction to β that can be as large as a few percent. At the same time, we also find a negative scale-dependent correction from magnification bias, which is up to percent level at low z, but to ∼40% at high z. These corrections are non-negligible for precision cosmology, and should be considered when testing General Relativity through the scale-dependence of β.

  12. Coil extensions improve line shapes by removing field distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Mark S.; Altobelli, Stephen A.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2018-06-01

    The static magnetic susceptibility of the rf coil can substantially distort the field B0 and be a dominant source of line broadening. A scaling argument shows that this may be a particular problem in microcoil NMR. We propose coil extensions to reduce the distortion. The actual rf coil is extended to a much longer overall length by abutted coil segments that do not carry rf current. The result is a long and nearly uniform sheath of copper wire, in terms of the static susceptibility. The line shape improvement is demonstrated at 43.9 MHz and in simulation calculations.

  13. Analytical evaluation of nonlinear distortion effects on multicarrier signals

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to support reliable high quality of service as well as spectral and power efficiency, multicarrier modulation systems have found increasing use in modern communications services. However, one of the main drawbacks of these systems is their vulnerability to nonlinear distortion effects. Analytical Evaluation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects on Multicarrier Signals details a unified approach to well-known analytical results on memoryless nonlinearities that takes advantage of the Gaussian behavior of multicarrier signals.Sharing new insights into the behavior of nonlinearly d

  14. Visualization and spectral synthesis of rotationally distorted stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, T H; Sbordone, L

    2011-01-01

    Simple spherical, non-rotating stellar models are inadequate when describing real stars in the limit of very fast rotation: Both the observable spectrum and the geometrical shape of the star deviate strongly from simple models. We attempt to approach the problem of modeling geometrically distorted, rapidly rotating stars from a new angle: By constructing distorted geometrical models and integrating standard stellar models with varying temperature, gravity, and abundances, over the entire surface, we attempt a semi-empirical approach to modeling. Here we present our methodology, and present simple examples of applications.

  15. Sudden distortion of turbulence at a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Dellwik, Ebba

    2014-01-01

    Dellwik et al. (2013) presented data from a forest edge experiment based on two meteorological towers instrumented with sonic anemometers. The experiment was performed at a dense edge of the Tromnæs Forest, which is a 24 m tall mature beech stand on the island Falster, Denmark. The topography...... in the lateral variance, whereas the streamwise variance remained approximately constant. This result is in contrast to the predictions by homogeneous rapid distortion theory. We apply and develop an alternative framework based on inhomogeneous rapid distortion theory, also called blocking, in combination...

  16. Information theory and rate distortion theory for communications and compression

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    This book is very specifically targeted to problems in communications and compression by providing the fundamental principles and results in information theory and rate distortion theory for these applications and presenting methods that have proved and will prove useful in analyzing and designing real systems. The chapters contain treatments of entropy, mutual information, lossless source coding, channel capacity, and rate distortion theory; however, it is the selection, ordering, and presentation of the topics within these broad categories that is unique to this concise book. While the cover

  17. A method to correct coordinate distortion in EBSD maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Elbrønd, Andreas Benjamin; Lin, Fengxiang

    2014-01-01

    Drift during electron backscatter diffraction mapping leads to coordinate distortions in resulting orientation maps, which affects, in some cases significantly, the accuracy of analysis. A method, thin plate spline, is introduced and tested to correct such coordinate distortions in the maps after...... the electron backscatter diffraction measurements. The accuracy of the correction as well as theoretical and practical aspects of using the thin plate spline method is discussed in detail. By comparing with other correction methods, it is shown that the thin plate spline method is most efficient to correct...

  18. Temperature and distortion transients in gas tungsten-arc weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.; Friedman, E.

    1979-10-01

    An analysis and test program to develop a fundamental understanding of the gas tungsten-arc welding process has been undertaken at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to develop techniques to determine and control the various welding parameters and weldment conditions so as to result in optimum weld response characteristics. These response characteristics include depth of penetration, weld bead configuration, weld bead sink and roll, distortion, and cracking sensitivity. The results are documented of that part of the program devoted to analytical and experimental investigations of temperatures, weld bead dimensions, and distortions for moving gas tungsten-arc welds applied to Alloy 600 plates

  19. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo, E-mail: Remo.Garattini@unibg.it [Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); I.N.F.N. – sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Majumder, Barun, E-mail: barunbasanta@iitgn.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India)

    2014-07-15

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  20. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-07-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheele-DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.