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Sample records for waveform analysis serum

  1. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on activated partial thromboplastin time waveform analysis, serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Delannoy, Bertrand; Guye, Marie-Laurence; Slaiman, Davy; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Cannesson, Maxime

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a frequent condition after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and makes conventional biological tests fail to detect postoperative sepsis. Biphasic waveform (BPW) analysis is a new biological test derived from activated partial thromboplastin time that has recently been proposed for sepsis diagnosis. The aim of this stud...

  2. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  3. Statement for Doppler waveforms analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Guillaume; Boulon, Carine; Desormais, Ileana; Lacroix, Philippe; Bressollette, Luc; Guilmot, Jean-Louis; Le Hello, Claire; Sevestre, Marie-Antoinette; Pernod, Gilles; Constans, Joel; Boissier, Christian; Bura-Rivière, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    Peripheral artery disease of the lower limbs (PAD) is a common disease. Evaluation of PAD is primarily based on non-invasive examinations with analysis of the arterial Doppler signal being a key element. However, the description of arterial Doppler waveforms morphologies varies considerably across medical schools and from country to country. In order to overcome this issue, the French College of Teachers for Vascular Medicine (Collège des Enseignants de Médecine Vasculaire; CEMV) has summarised the published data on Doppler waveforms analysis and proposes a new "Saint-Bonnet" classification system to describe Doppler waveforms morphologies. The simplified Saint-Bonnet classification comprises eight types and allows taking into account if the Doppler signal does not revert to baseline. This classification, which is based on previous classifications, could improve the descriptions of both physiological and pathological waveforms, recorded in lower limb arteries. According to the reviewed literature, recommendations about the use of Doppler waveforms are proposed. This statement is a preamble to reach an international consensus on the subject, which would standardize the description of arterial waveforms and improve the management of PAD patients.

  4. Electronics via waveform analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Edwin C

    1993-01-01

    The author believes that a good basic understanding of electronics can be achieved by detailed visual analyses of the actual voltage waveforms present in selected circuits. The voltage waveforms included in this text were photographed using a 35-rrun camera in an attempt to make the book more attractive. This book is intended for the use of students with a variety of backgrounds. For this reason considerable material has been placed in the Appendix for those students who find it useful. The Appendix includes many basic electricity and electronic concepts as well as mathematical derivations that are not vital to the understanding of the circuit being discussed in the text at that time. Also some derivations might be so long that, if included in the text, it could affect the concentration of the student on the circuit being studied. The author has tried to make the book comprehensive enough so that a student could use it as a self-study course, providing one has access to adequate laboratory equipment.

  5. Automated Analysis, Classification, and Display of Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Chiman; Xu, Roger; Mayhew, David; Zhang, Frank; Zide, Alan; Bonggren, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    A computer program partly automates the analysis, classification, and display of waveforms represented by digital samples. In the original application for which the program was developed, the raw waveform data to be analyzed by the program are acquired from space-shuttle auxiliary power units (APUs) at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. The program could also be modified for application to other waveforms -- for example, electrocardiograms. The program begins by performing principal-component analysis (PCA) of 50 normal-mode APU waveforms. Each waveform is segmented. A covariance matrix is formed by use of the segmented waveforms. Three eigenvectors corresponding to three principal components are calculated. To generate features, each waveform is then projected onto the eigenvectors. These features are displayed on a three-dimensional diagram, facilitating the visualization of the trend of APU operations.

  6. ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION OF LIDAR WAVEFORM DATA USING A PROGRESSIVE WAVEFORM DECOMPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to rich information of a full waveform of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging data, the analysis of full waveform has been an active area in LiDAR application. It is possible to digitally sample and store the entire reflected waveform of small-footprint instead of only discrete point clouds. Decomposition of waveform data, a key step in waveform data analysis, can be categorized to two typical methods: 1 the Gaussian modelling method such as the Non-linear least-squares (NLS algorithm and the maximum likelihood estimation using the Exception Maximization (EM algorithm. 2 pulse detection method—Average Square Difference Function (ASDF. However, the Gaussian modelling methods strongly rely on initial parameters, whereas the ASDF omits the importance of parameter information of the waveform. In this paper, we proposed a fast algorithm—Progressive Waveform Decomposition (PWD method to extract local maxims and fit the echo with Gaussian function, and calculate other parameters from the raw waveform data. On the one hand, experiments are implemented to evaluate the PWD method and the results demonstrate its robustness and efficiency. On the other hand, with the PWD parametric analysis of the full-waveform instead of a 3D point cloud, some special applications are investigated afterward.

  7. Waveform fitting and geometry analysis for full-waveform lidar feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fuan; Lai, Jhe-Syuan; Cheng, Yi-Hsiu

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach that integrates spline curve fitting and geometry analysis to extract full-waveform LiDAR features for land-cover classification. The cubic smoothing spline algorithm is used to fit the waveform curve of the received LiDAR signals. After that, the local peak locations of the waveform curve are detected using a second derivative method. According to the detected local peak locations, commonly used full-waveform features such as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and amplitude can then be obtained. In addition, the number of peaks, time difference between the first and last peaks, and the average amplitude are also considered as features of LiDAR waveforms with multiple returns. Based on the waveform geometry, dynamic time-warping (DTW) is applied to measure the waveform similarity. The sum of the absolute amplitude differences that remain after time-warping can be used as a similarity feature in a classification procedure. An airborne full-waveform LiDAR data set was used to test the performance of the developed feature extraction method for land-cover classification. Experimental results indicate that the developed spline curve- fitting algorithm and geometry analysis can extract helpful full-waveform LiDAR features to produce better land-cover classification than conventional LiDAR data and feature extraction methods. In particular, the multiple-return features and the dynamic time-warping index can improve the classification results significantly.

  8. Multi-waveform classification for seismic facies analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Yaojun; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin

    2017-04-01

    Seismic facies analysis provides an effective way to delineate the heterogeneity and compartments within a reservoir. Traditional method is using the single waveform to classify the seismic facies, which does not consider the stratigraphy continuity, and the final facies map may affect by noise. Therefore, by defining waveforms in a 3D window as multi-waveform, we developed a new seismic facies analysis algorithm represented as multi-waveform classification (MWFC) that combines the multilinear subspace learning with self-organizing map (SOM) clustering techniques. In addition, we utilize multi-window dip search algorithm to extract multi-waveform, which reduce the uncertainty of facies maps in the boundaries. Testing the proposed method on synthetic data with different S/N, we confirm that our MWFC approach is more robust to noise than the conventional waveform classification (WFC) method. The real seismic data application on F3 block in Netherlands proves our approach is an effective tool for seismic facies analysis.

  9. Analysis of Gradient Waveform in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU-YANG Shan-mei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of gradient pulse waveform affects image quality significantly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Recording and analyzing the waveform of gradient pulse helps to make rapid and accurate diagnosis of spectrometer gradient hardware and/or pulse sequence. Using the virtual instrument software LabVIEW to control the high speed data acquisition card DAQ-2005, a multi-channel acquisition scheme was designed to collect the gradient outputs from a custom-made spectrometer. The collected waveforms were post-processed (i.e., histogram statistical analysis, data filtering and difference calculation to obtain feature points containing time and amplitude information. Experiments were carried out to validate the method, which is an auxiliary test method for the development of spectrometer and pulses sequence.

  10. Analysis of acoustic emission waveforms from fatigue cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Md. Yeasin; Bao, Jingjing; Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique is a well-known approach in the field of NDE/SHM. AE monitoring from the defect formation and failure in the materials were well studied by the researchers. However, conventional AE monitoring techniques are predominantly based on statistical analysis. In this study we focus on understanding the AE waveforms from the fatigue crack growth using physics based approach. The growth of the fatigue crack causes the acoustic emission in the material that propagates in the structure. One of the main challenges of this approach is to develop the physics based understanding of the AE source itself. The acoustic emission happens not only from the crack growth but also from the interaction of the crack lips during fatigue loading of the materials. As the waveforms are generated from the AE event, they propagate and create local vibration modes along the crack faces. Fatigue experiments were performed to generate the fatigue cracks. Several test specimens were used in the fatigue experiments and corresponding AE waveforms were captured. The AE waveforms were analyzed and distinguished into different groups based on the similar nature on both time domain and frequency domain. The experimental results are explained based on the physical observation of the specimen.

  11. The 1930 Irpinia earthquake: collection and analysis of historical waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, G.; Megna, A.; Nardi, A.; Palombo, B.; Perniola, B.; Pino, N.

    2002-12-01

    The 1930 Irpinia earthquake is one of the most destructive events recorded by instruments in Italy. Several large events occurred in the same area before (1456, 1694, 1702, 1732, 1910) and after (1962, 1980, 1983) 1930. It has been hypothesized that significant differences characterized the source geometry. Early work carried out by several authors on macroseismic studies and a single-station waveform analysis, suggests a quasi-strike slip mechanism on an approximately EW-oriented fault plain. Conversely, all the major events in the area display normal fault mechanisms on Apennine-oriented (NW-SE) fault planes. In the present work we have collected about 45 waveforms for the 1930 earthquake, recorded in various European observatories, aiming to find precious hints on source geometry and kinematics. The seismograms have been rasterized, digitized and processed within the framework of the SISMOS project. The study of this earthquake is part of a wider ongoing research program on the 20th century Irpinia earthquakes (1910, 1030, 1962 and 1980) within the collaboration between the TROMOS and SISMOS projects of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. The search and recovery of the historical recordings is a unique opportunity to shed light upon scientific aspects related to this kind of investigation. Preliminary results about the 1930 earthquake waveform analysis are presented here.

  12. ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION OF LIDAR WAVEFORM DATA USING A PROGRESSIVE WAVEFORM DECOMPOSITION METHOD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. Zhu; Z. Zhang; X. Hu; Z. Li

    2012-01-01

    ...) pulse detection method-Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). However, the Gaussian modelling methods strongly rely on initial parameters, whereas the ASDF omits the importance of parameter information of the waveform...

  13. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  14. Parallel Factor Analysis of gait waveform data: A multimode extension of Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Nathaniel E; Hong, Sungjin; Polk, John D

    2012-06-01

    Gait data are typically collected in multivariate form, so some multivariate analysis is often used to understand interrelationships between observed data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a data reduction technique for correlated multivariate data, has been widely applied by gait analysts to investigate patterns of association in gait waveform data (e.g., interrelationships between joint angle waveforms from different subjects and/or joints). Despite its widespread use in gait analysis, PCA is for two-mode data, whereas gait data are often collected in higher-mode form. In this paper, we present the benefits of analyzing gait data via Parallel Factor Analysis (Parafac), which is a component analysis model designed for three- or higher-mode data. Using three-mode joint angle waveform data (subjects×time×joints), we demonstrate Parafac's ability to (a) determine interpretable components revealing the primary interrelationships between lower-limb joints in healthy gait and (b) identify interpretable components revealing the fundamental differences between normal and perturbed subjects' gait patterns across multiple joints. Our results offer evidence of the complex interconnections that exist between lower-limb joints and limb segments in both normal and abnormal gaits, confirming the need for the simultaneous analysis of multi-joint gait waveform data (especially when studying perturbed gait patterns). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) Technique for Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1996-01-01

    The Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) technique is applied to a generalized frequency domain electromagnetic problem. Most of the frequency domain techniques in computational electromagnetics result in a matrix equation, which is solved at a single frequency. In the AWE technique, the Taylor series expansion around that frequency is applied to the matrix equation. The coefficients of the Taylor's series are obtained in terms of the frequency derivatives of the matrices evaluated at the expansion frequency. The coefficients hence obtained will be used to predict the frequency response of the system over a frequency range. The detailed derivation of the coefficients (called 'moments') is given along with an illustration for electric field integral equation (or Method of Moments) technique. The radar cross section (RCS) frequency response of a square plate is presented using the AWE technique and is compared with the exact solution at various frequencies.

  16. Automatic physiological waveform processing for FMRI noise correction and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kelley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI resting state and connectivity studies of brain focus on neural fluctuations at low frequencies which share power with physiological fluctuations originating from lung and heart. Due to the lack of automated software to process physiological signals collected at high magnetic fields, a gap exists in the processing pathway between the acquisition of physiological data and its use in fMRI software for both physiological noise correction and functional analyses of brain activation and connectivity. To fill this gap, we developed an open source, physiological signal processing program, called PhysioNoise, in the python language. We tested its automated processing algorithms and dynamic signal visualization on resting monkey cardiac and respiratory waveforms. PhysioNoise consistently identifies physiological fluctuations for fMRI noise correction and also generates covariates for subsequent analyses of brain activation and connectivity.

  17. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anetai, Yusuke, E-mail: anetai@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Yamadaoka 2-15, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: CyberKnife{sup ®} robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony{sup ®} mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife{sup ®}. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony{sup ®} mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife{sup ®} was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy

  18. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anetai, Yusuke; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Ota, Seiichi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-01

    CyberKnife(®) robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony(®) mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife(®). To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony(®) mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife(®) was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior-inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy affected by respiratory phase was improved in the

  19. Diagnostic efficacy of activated partial thromboplastin time waveform and procalcitonin analysis in pediatric meningococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paize, Fauzia; Carrol, Enitan; Downey, Colin; Parry, Christopher M; Green, Gerwyn; Diggle, Peter; Newland, Paul; Riordan, F A I; Thomson, Alistair; Hart, C A; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2011-11-01

    A biphasic activated partial thromboplastin time waveform predicts sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation in adults. This has not been previously investigated in children. Our aim is to ascertain whether there are changes in the activated partial thromboplastin time waveform in children with meningococcal disease and to compare its diagnostic use with procalcitonin. Alder Hey Children's National Health Service Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK. Thirty-six children admitted to the hospital for the treatment of suspected meningococcal disease had activated partial thromboplastin time waveform and procalcitonin analysis performed at admission. The light transmittance level at 18 secs was used to quantitate the waveform. Severity of disease was assessed using the Glasgow Meningococcal Septicaemia Prognostic Score, Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score, and the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score. Twenty-four children had proven meningococcal disease, 12 had a presumed viral illness, and 20 control subjects were recruited. Transmittance level at 18 secs was lower in children with meningococcal disease and those with a viral illness (p Sensitivity and specificity was 0.91 and 0.96 for transmittance level at 18 secs and 0.92 and 1 for procalcitonin in identifying meningococcal disease. There was a significant difference in procalcitonin between children with meningococcal disease and those with a viral illness and control subjects (p thromboplastin time waveform is abnormal in children with meningococcal disease and may be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis and management of sepsis in children.

  20. Speech analysis and synthesis based on pitch-synchronous segmentation of the speech waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, George S.; Fransen, Lawrence J.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes a new speech analysis/synthesis method. This new technique does not attempt to model the human speech production mechanism. Instead, we represent the speech waveform directly in terms of the speech waveform defined in a pitch period. A significant merit of this approach is the complete elimination of pitch interference because each pitch-synchronously segmented waveform does not include a waveform discontinuity. One application of this new speech analysis/synthesis method is the alteration of speech characteristics directly on raw speech. With the increased use of man-made speech in tactical voice message systems and virtual reality environments, such a speech generation tool is highly desirable. Another application is speech encoding operation at low data rates (2400 b/s or less). According to speech intelligibility tests, our new 2400 b/s encoder outperforms the current 2400-b/s LPC. This is also true in noisy environments. Because most tactical platforms are noisy (e.g., helicopter, high-performance aircraft, tank, destroyer), our 2400-b/s speech encoding technique will make tactical voice communication more effective; it will become an indispensable capability for future C4I.

  1. WAVEFORM ANALYSIS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF POST-FIRE VEGETATION CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pirotti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Full-waveform is becoming increasingly available in today's LiDAR systems and the analysis of the full return signal can provide additional information on the reflecting surfaces. In this paper we present the results of an assessment on full-waveform analysis, as opposed to the more classic discrete return analysis, for discerning vegetation cover classes related to post-fire renovation. In the spring of 2011 an OPTECH ALTM sensor was used to survey an Alpine area of almost 20 km2 in the north of Italy. A forest fire event several years ago burned large patches of vegetation for a total of about 1.5 km2 . The renovation process in the area is varied because of the different interventions ranging from no intervention to the application of re-forestation techniques to accelerate the process of re-establishing protection forest. The LiDAR data was used to divide the study site into areas with different conditions in terms of re-establishment of the natural vegetation condition. The LiDAR survey provided both the full-waveform data in Optech's CSD+DGT (corrected sensor data and NDF+IDX (digitizer data with index file formats, and the discrete return in the LAS format. The method applied to the full-waveform uses canopy volume profiles obtained by modelling, whereas the method applied to discrete return uses point geometry and density indexes. The results of these two methods are assessed by ground truth obtained from sampling and comparison shows that the added information from the full-waveform does give a significant better discrimination of the vegetation cover classes.

  2. Biomechanical features of gait waveform data associated with knee osteoarthritis: an application of principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluzio, K J; Astephen, J L

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the gait of 50 patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis to a group of 63 age-matched asymptomatic control subjects. The analysis focused on three gait waveform measures that were selected based on previous literature demonstrating their relevance to knee osteoarthritis (OA): the knee flexion angle, flexion moment, and adduction moment. The objective was to determine the biomechanical features of these gait measures related to knee osteoarthritis. Principal component analysis was used as a data reduction tool, as well as a preliminary step for further analysis to determine gait pattern differences between the OA and the control groups. These further analyses included statistical hypothesis testing to detect group differences, and discriminant analysis to quantify overall group separation and to establish a hierarchy of discriminatory ability among the gait waveform features. The two groups were separated with a misclassification rate (estimated by cross-validation) of 8%. The discriminatory features of the gait waveforms were, in order of their discriminatory ability: the amplitude of the flexion moment, the range of motion of the flexion angle, the magnitude of the flexion moment during early stance, and the magnitude of the adduction moment during stance.

  3. Full-waveform associated identification method of ATEM 3D anomalies based on multiple linear regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanju; Huang, Wanyu; Yu, Mingmei; Guan, Shanshan; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This article studies full-waveform associated identification method of airborne time-domain electromagnetic method (ATEM) 3-d anomalies based on multiple linear regression analysis method. By using convolution algorithm, full-waveform theoretical responses are computed to derive sample library including switch-off-time period responses and off-time period responses. Extract full-waveform attributes from theoretical responses to derive linear regression equations which are used to identify the geological parameters. In order to improve the precision ulteriorly, we optimize the identification method by separating the sample library into different groups and identify the parameter respectively. Performance of full-waveform associated identification method with field data of wire-loop test experiments with ATEM system in Daedao of Changchun proves that the full-waveform associated identification method is feasible practically.

  4. Ability of ICU Health-Care Professionals to Identify Patient-Ventilator Asynchrony Using Waveform Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ivan I; Arellano, Daniel H; Adasme, Rodrigo S; Landeros, Jose M; Salinas, Francisco A; Vargas, Alvaro G; Vasquez, Francisco J; Lobos, Ignacio A; Oyarzun, Magdalena L; Restrepo, Ruben D

    2017-02-01

    Waveform analysis by visual inspection can be a reliable, noninvasive, and useful tool for detecting patient-ventilator asynchrony. However, it is a skill that requires a properly trained professional. This observational study was conducted in 17 urban ICUs. Health-care professionals (HCPs) working in these ICUs were asked to recognize different types of asynchrony shown in 3 evaluation videos. The health-care professionals were categorized according to years of experience, prior training in mechanical ventilation, profession, and number of asynchronies identified correctly. A total of 366 HCPs were evaluated. Statistically significant differences were found when HCPs with and without prior training in mechanical ventilation (trained vs non-trained HCPs) were compared according to the number of asynchronies detected correctly (of the HCPs who identified 3 asynchronies, 63 [81%] trained vs 15 [19%] non-trained, P mechanical ventilation also increased, nearly 4-fold, their odds of identifying ≥2 asynchronies correctly (odds ratio 3.67, 95% CI 1.93-6.96, P mechanical ventilation increase their ability to identify asynchrony using waveform analysis. Neither experience nor profession proved to be a relevant factor to identify asynchrony correctly using waveform analysis. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Health monitoring of Ceramic Matrix Composites from waveform-based analysis of Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maillet Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs are anticipated for use in the hot section of aircraft engines. Their implementation requires the understanding of the various damage modes that are involved and their relation to life expectancy. Acoustic Emission (AE has been shown to be an efficient technique for monitoring damage evolution in CMCs. However, only a waveform-based analysis of AE can offer the possibility to validate and precisely examine the recorded AE data with a view to damage localization and identification. The present work fully integrates wave initiation, propagation and acquisition in the analysis of Acoustic Emission waveforms recorded at various sensors, therefore providing more reliable information to assess the relation between Acoustic Emission and damage modes. The procedure allows selecting AE events originating from damage, accurate determination of their location as well as the characterization of effects of propagation on the recorded waveforms. This approach was developed using AE data recorded during tensile tests on carbon/carbon composites. It was then applied to melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composites.

  6. Analysis of LFM-waveform Libraries for Cognitive Tracking Maneuvering Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of the waveform agility in cognitive radars,the waveform libraries for maneuvering target tracking are discussed. LFM-waveform libraries are designed according to different combinations of chirp parameters and FrFT rotation angles. By applying the interact multiple model (IMM algorithm in tracking maneuvering targets, transmitted waveform is called real time from the LFM-waveform libraries. The waveforms are selected from the library according to the criterion of maximum mutual information between the current state of knowledge of the model and the measurement. Simulation results show that waveform library containing certain amount LFM-waveforms can improve the performance of cognitive tracking radar.

  7. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Robert Potas

    Full Text Available Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for

  8. Using arterial pressure waveform analysis for the assessment of fluid responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannesson, Maxime; de Backer, Daniel; Hofer, Christoph K

    2011-09-01

    Predicting the effects of volume expansion on cardiac output and oxygen delivery is of major importance in different clinical scenarios. Functional hemodynamic parameters based on pulse waveform analysis, which are relying on the effects of mechanical ventilation on stroke volume and its surrogates, have been shown to be reliable predictors of fluid responsiveness during anesthesia and intensive care unit treatment, as demonstrated by several clinical studies and meta-analyses. However, different limitations of these parameters have to be considered when they are used in clinical practice. Today, they can be continuously and automatically monitored by a variety of commercially available devices. These parameters have been introduced into the concept of perioperative fluid management and hemodynamic optimization - an approach that may positively impact postoperative patients' outcomes. In this article, technical aspects of the assessment of the functional hemodynamic parameters derived from pulse waveform analysis are summarized, emphasizing their advantages, limitations and potential applications, primarily in a perioperative setting in order to improve patient outcome.

  9. Liquid extraction surface analysis field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry for the analysis of dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Rian L; Dexter, Alex; Creese, Andrew J; Cooper, Helen J

    2015-10-21

    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) is a surface sampling technique that allows electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of a wide range of analytes directly from biological substrates. Here, we present LESA mass spectrometry coupled with high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) for the analysis of dried blood spots on filter paper. Incorporation of FAIMS in the workflow enables gas-phase separation of lipid and protein molecular classes, enabling analysis of both haemoglobin and a range of lipids (phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin species) from a single extraction sample. The work has implications for multiplexed clinical assays of multiple analytes.

  10. [Multivariate autoregressive analysis of carotid artery blood flow waveform in a newborn with multicystic encephalomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, M; Ogawa, T; Fukushima, N; Yamada, K; Goto, K

    1995-05-01

    We analyzed the carotid artery blood flow waveform (CABFW) through multivariate autoregressive analysis in a case with multicystic encephalomalacia (MCE) after neonatal asphyxia and compared the result with those of 35 healthy newborns. The total power of CABFW was at the -2 SD level of the value for 35 healthy newborns, and the power, % power, bio-informing amounts and damping time of component 3 (damping frequency 11.15 Hz) were less than -2 SD of the values in 35 healthy newborns. The Pulsatility Index (PI) of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was high (0.76). These results suggest that cerebral blood flow decreases because of cerebral vasoconstriction in MCE after neonatal asphyxia.

  11. Biomechanical parameters of the cornea after collagen crosslinking measured by waveform analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Mohamadreza; Naderi, Mostafa; Zarei-Ghanavati, Mehran

    2010-10-01

    To compare 2 corneal biomechanical parameters--corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF)--before and after collagen crosslinking (CXL) for keratoconus. Eye Research Center of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Khatam-al-Anbia Eye Hospital, Mashhad, and Department of Ophthalmology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran. Case series study. Topical riboflavin was applied to the deepithelialized cornea every 3 minutes for 30 minutes and every 5 minutes during ultraviolet-A irradiation of the cornea. Corneal hysteresis and CRF were measured by biomechanical waveform analysis (Ocular Response Analyzer) before and 6 months after CXL. The values were compared using the paired Student t test. The study comprised 51 patients (56 eyes). The mean age of the patients was 23.27 years ± 6.3 (SD). Before CXL, the mean CH was 7.9 ± 1.5 mm Hg and the mean CRF was 7.3 ± 1.4 mm Hg. Six months after CXL, the mean values were 8.20 ± 1.5 mm Hg and 7.59 ± 1.5 mm Hg, respectively. The changes in CH and CRF were not statistically significant (P>.05). The changes in central corneal thickness and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOP) between preoperatively and postoperatively were not statistically significant, although the change in corneal-compensated IOP was (P<.05). Although previous in vitro studies found a change in corneal rigidity, this study found no significant change in CH or CHF measured by biomechanical waveform analysis. Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Shear and compressional velocity models of the mantle from cluster analysis of long-period waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, C.; Masters, G.; Shearer, P.; Laske, G.

    2008-07-01

    We present a new technique for the efficient measurement of the traveltimes of long period body wave phases. The technique is based on the fact that all arrivals of a particular seismic phase are remarkably similar in shape for a single event. This allows the application of cross-correlation techniques that are usually used in a regional context to measure precise global differential times. The analysis is enhanced by the inclusion of a clustering algorithm that automatically clusters waveforms by their degree of similarity. This allows the algorithm to discriminate against unusual or distorted waveforms and makes for an extremely efficient measurement technique. This technique can be applied to any seismic phase that is observed over a reasonably large distance range. Here, we present the results of applying the algorithm to the long-period channels of all data archived at the IRIS DMC from 1976 to 2005 for the seismic phases S and P (from 23° to 100°) and SS and PP (from 50° to 170°). The resulting large data sets are inverted along with existing surface wave and updated differential traveltime measurements for new mantle models of S and P velocity. The resolution of the new model is enhanced, particularly, in the mid-mantle where SS and PP turn. We find that slow anomalies in the central Pacific and Africa extend from the core-mantle boundary to the upper mantle, but their direct connection to surface hotspots is beyond our resolution. Furthermore, we find that fast anomalies that are likely associated with subducting slabs disappear between 1700 and 2500 km, and thus are not continuous features from the upper to lower mantle despite our extensive coverage and high resolution of the mid-mantle.

  13. Arterial waveform analysis in anesthesia and critical care: Theory, practical applications, and use in goal-directed strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenij, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac output and preload are important variables in the hemodynamic optimization of critically ill patients in the operating room and intensive care unit. Arterial waveform analysis (AWA) enables continuous, minimally invasive measurement of CO from an arterial line, and provides dynamic

  14. Principal component analysis in ground reaction forces and center of pressure gait waveforms of people with transfemoral amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Denise Paschoal; de Castro, Marcelo Peduzzi; Mendes, Emilia Assunção; Machado, Leandro

    2016-12-01

    The alterations in gait pattern of people with transfemoral amputation leave them more susceptible to musculoskeletal injury. Principal component analysis is a method that reduces the amount of gait data and allows analyzing the entire waveform. To use the principal component analysis to compare the ground reaction force and center of pressure displacement waveforms obtained during gait between able-bodied subjects and both limbs of individuals with transfemoral amputation. This is a transversal study with a convenience sample. We used a force plate and pressure plate to record the anterior-posterior, medial-lateral and vertical ground reaction force, and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral center of pressure positions of 12 participants with transfemoral amputation and 20 able-bodied subjects during gait. The principal component analysis was performed to compare the gait waveforms between the participants with transfemoral amputation and the able-bodied individuals. The principal component analysis model explained between 74% and 93% of the data variance. In all ground reaction force and center of pressure waveforms relevant portions were identified; and always at least one principal component presented scores statistically different (p analysis was able to discriminate many portions of the stance phase between both lower limbs of people with transfemoral amputation compared to the able-bodied participants. Principal component analysis reduced the amount of data, allowed analyzing the whole waveform, and identified specific sub-phases of gait that were different between the groups. Therefore, this approach seems to be a powerful tool to be used in gait evaluation and following the rehabilitation status of people with transfemoral amputation. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  15. Adapted waveform analysis, wavelet packets, and local cosine libraries as a tool for image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coifman, Ronald R.; Woog, Lionel J.

    1995-09-01

    Adapted wave form analysis, refers to a collection of FFT like adapted transform algorithms. Given an image these methods provide special matched collections of templates (orthonormal bases) enabling an efficient coding of the image. Perhaps the closest well known example of such coding method is provided by musical notation, where each segment of music is represented by a musical score made up of notes (templates) characterised by their duration, pitch, location and amplitude, our method corresponds to transcribing the music in as few notes as possible. The extension to images and video is straightforward we describe the image by collections of oscillatory patterns (paint brush strokes)of various sizes locations and amplitudes using a variety of orthogonal bases. These selected basis functions are chosen inside predefined libraries of oscillatory localized functions (trigonometric and wavelet-packets waveforms) so as to optimize the number of parameters needed to describe our object. These algorithms are of complexity N log N opening the door for a large range of applications in signal and image processing, such as compression, feature extraction denoising and enhancement. In particular we describe a class of special purpose compressions for fingerprint irnages, as well as denoising tools for texture and noise extraction. We start by relating traditional Fourier methods to wavelet, wavelet-packet based algorithms using a recent refinement of the windowed sine and cosine transforms. We will then derive an adapted local sine transform show it's relation to wavelet and wavelet-packet analysis and describe an analysis toolkit illustrating the merits of different adaptive and nonadaptive schemes.

  16. Waveform Retracking and Emulation Experiment Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAI Zhenhe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the synthetic aperture radar(SAR convolution model, the convolution computation formula about the derivative of three parameters of time migration, rise time and amplitude are deduced. The SAR waveform retracking is completed using numerical integration and Fourier transform. Besides, the echo waveform under SAR model is generated using the simulation orbit, troposphere, ionosphere and tide model. The comparison shows that the shape of echo waveform under SAR model is the same as that of CryoSat-2 1 Hz SAR. The experiments show that the accuracy of SAR altimeter retracking is about 5 cm under the 20 Hz data(about 350 m resolution, which are improved compared with that of the traditional model.

  17. Analysis of full-waveform LiDAR data for classification of an orange orchard scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieber, Karolina D.; Davenport, Ian J.; Ferryman, James M.; Gurney, Robert J.; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Hacker, Jorg M.

    2013-08-01

    Full-waveform laser scanning data acquired with a Riegl LMS-Q560 instrument were used to classify an orange orchard into orange trees, grass and ground using waveform parameters alone. Gaussian decomposition was performed on this data capture from the National Airborne Field Experiment in November 2006 using a custom peak-detection procedure and a trust-region-reflective algorithm for fitting Gauss functions. Calibration was carried out using waveforms returned from a road surface, and the backscattering coefficient γ was derived for every waveform peak. The processed data were then analysed according to the number of returns detected within each waveform and classified into three classes based on pulse width and γ. For single-peak waveforms the scatterplot of γ versus pulse width was used to distinguish between ground, grass and orange trees. In the case of multiple returns, the relationship between first (or first plus middle) and last return γ values was used to separate ground from other targets. Refinement of this classification, and further sub-classification into grass and orange trees was performed using the γ versus pulse width scatterplots of last returns. In all cases the separation was carried out using a decision tree with empirical relationships between the waveform parameters. Ground points were successfully separated from orange tree points. The most difficult class to separate and verify was grass, but those points in general corresponded well with the grass areas identified in the aerial photography. The overall accuracy reached 91%, using photography and relative elevation as ground truth. The overall accuracy for two classes, orange tree and combined class of grass and ground, yielded 95%. Finally, the backscattering coefficient γ of single-peak waveforms was also used to derive reflectance values of the three classes. The reflectance of the orange tree class (0.31) and ground class (0.60) are consistent with published values at the

  18. Crosshole GPR full-waveform inversion and amplitude analysis of waveguides for 3D characterization of a gravel aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzsche, Anja; van der Kruk, Jan; Linde, Niklas; Doetsch, Joseph; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    For an accurate characterization of aquifers, high resolution 3D visualization with a high resolution can greatly improve the understanding of the interior process of flow and transport. Over the last decades crosshole ground penetrating radar showed to be a powerful tool for the characterization of aquifers due to the possibility of providing high resolution images and the strong connection to porosity and soil water content. The full-waveform inversion of GPR, that incorporates the entire waveform, can significantly improve the model resolution compared to standard ray-based techniques that uses only a small fraction of the signal. Here, the 2D full-waveform inversion is applied to a gravel aquifer in Switzerland and analyzed in 3D by inverting six crosshole GPR planes acquired between four wells. The permittivity and conductivity results obtained by the full-waveform inversion for the saturated aquifer between 4m-10m depth showed sub-wavelength resolution images with mainly similar layering at the intersection of the planes and the borehole locations. In all the conductivity images the underlying lacustrine sediments (high clay content) are clearly identified. Additionally a high permittivity zone is resolved between 5m-6m depth in all the six GPR planes which indicates a high porosity zone that is possible acting as a zone of preferential flow. Due to the high contrast to the surrounding medium this layer is acting as an electromagnetic waveguide and causes high amplitude late arrival elongated wave trains with at least one order of magnitude higher trace energy in the GPR data for transmitters-receiver combinations in this zone. For the same receivers when the transmitter is located outside this zone a distinct minimum in the trace energy can be observed. Using these maxima and minima positions of the trace energy spectra, we developed a novel amplitude analysis approach that is able to identify waveguides and their boundaries already in the measured GPR data

  19. Building Macro-models for Waveform Inversion using Strip-off Controlled Directional Reception Velocity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunjin; Shin, Changsoo

    2017-04-01

    The controlled directional reception (CDR) method is a velocity analysis method using ray-tracing. It is one of the tomographic methods that use slope (or ray parameter), so it is often called the "slope tomography method". It does not require a pre-picking operation like traveltime tomography does. Auto-picked information from the local slant stack is regarded as more reliable than reflection traveltime picked directly from the seismic data. The method also provides more detailed information about the moveout than the imaging operator in migration-based velocity analysis (MVA). Therefore, we constructed a velocity macro-model using this strip-off CDR velocity analysis. When compared to the conventional CDR method, it increased the resolution of common receiver gathers (CRG) data and reduced computer storage space dramatically. Additionally, it improved the accuracy of the velocity model by using the migrated image as a background panel during the velocity analysis. The results obtained by this method were applied to full waveform inversion (FWI) as the initial velocity model. In FWI, an exact initial model is important because it reduces instability and increases the probability of convergence to the global minimum. It is significant that the CDR model is first applied as the initial model of FWI. We confirmed good inverted results from two realistic synthetic data tests by comparison with the results obtained using the conventional initial models. In particular, the CDR macro-model has great value on its high accuracy. It is expected to provide good results with difficult data, such as seismic data with a weathered zone or short offset, and so increase the accuracy compared with the conventional method. Furthermore, it is possible to apply to multi-parameter inversion. In summary, the macro-model obtained from strip-off CDR velocity analysis is suitable for frequency domain FWI. Three-dimensional exploration and exploration in complex terrains are being conducted

  20. Derive Icebridge Sea-Ice Freeboard and Thickness Data through Full Waveform Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, D.; Harbeck, J. P.; Manizade, S.; Hofton, M. A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Studinger, M.

    2014-12-01

    The current Operation IceBridge Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) sea-ice freeboard and thickness data product at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) requires coincident Digital Mapping System (DMS) imagery or Continuous Airborne Mapping By Optical Translator (CAMBOT) imagery to produce. However, some of the IceBridge ATM and Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) sea-ice flights have no coincident imagery data. In particular, the IceBridge "South Basin Transect" flights just north of the Canadian Archipelago have historically been flown under darkness (nighttime) and coincident imagery data are not available. Here we apply an algorithm using ATM waveform parameters to identify leads to derive sea-ice freeboard. ATM waveforms were fitted with Gaussian curves to calculate pulse width, peak location, pulse amplitude, and signal baseline. For each waveform, centroid, skewness, kurtosis, and pulse area were also calculated. Received waveform parameters, such as pulse width, pulse amplitude, pulse area, skewness, kurtosis, and transmitted/received pulse area ratio show a coherent response to variations of geophysical features along an ATM profile. These parameters, combined with elevation, were used to identify leads to enable sea-ice freeboard calculation. A similar algorithm is applied to the LVIS data to calculate sea-ice freeboard. Arctic sea-ice freeboards for ATM and LVIS data with no coincident visual imagery are derived in this study, extending the IceBridge sea-ice record over a large portion of thick multi-year sea ice. The results are evaluated/validated by using ATM data with coincident DMS imagery and near coincident ATM and LVIS data comparison.

  1. Detailed analysis of tsunami waveforms generated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tanioka

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1946 Aleutian earthquake was a typical tsunami earthquake which generated abnormally larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. Previously, Johnson and Satake (1997 estimated the fault model of this earthquake using the tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges. However, they did not model the second pulse of the tsunami at Honolulu although that was much larger than the first pulse. In this paper, we numerically computed the tsunami waveforms using the linear Boussinesq equation to determine the fault model which explains the observed tsunami waveforms including the large second pulse observed at Honolulu. The estimated fault width is 40–60 km which is much narrower than the fault widths of the typical great underthrust earthquakes, the 1957 Aleutian and the 1964 Alasuka earthquakes. A previous study of the 1896 Sanriku earthquake, another typical tsunami earthquake, suggested that the additional uplift of the sediments near the Japan Trench had a large effect on the tsunami generation. In this study, we also show that the additional uplift of the sediments near the trench, due to a large coseismic horizon-tal movement of the backstop, had a significant effect on the tsunami generation of the 1946 Aleutian earthquake. The estimated seismic moment of the 1946 Aleutian earthquake is 17–19 × 1020 20 Nm (Mw 8.1.

  2. Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

  3. Position Measurements with Micro-Channel Plates and Transmission lines using Pico-second Timing and Waveform Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adamsa, Bernhard; Bogdan, Mircea; Byrum, Karen; Genat, Jean-Francois C; Grabas, Herve; Frisch, Henry J; Kim, Heejong; Heintz, Mary K; Natoli, Tyler; Northrop, Richard; Oberla, Eric; Meehan, Samuel; May, Edward N; Stanek, Robert; Tang, Fukun; Varner, Gary; Yurtsev, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    The anodes of Micro-Channel Plate devices are coupled to fast transmission lines in order to reduce the number of electronics readout channels, and can provide two-dimension position measurements using two-ends delay timing. Tests with a laser and digital waveform analysis show that resolutions of a few hundreds of microns along the transmission line can be reached taking advantage of a few pico-second timing estimation. This technique is planned to be used in Micro-channel Plate devices integrating the transmission lines as anodes.

  4. ASKI: A modular toolbox for scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion and sensitivity analysis utilizing external forward codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Florian; Friederich, Wolfgang

    Due to increasing computational resources, the development of new numerically demanding methods and software for imaging Earth's interior remains of high interest in Earth sciences. Here, we give a description from a user's and programmer's perspective of the highly modular, flexible and extendable software package ASKI-Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion-recently developed for iterative scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion. In ASKI, the three fundamental steps of solving the seismic forward problem, computing waveform sensitivity kernels and deriving a model update are solved by independent software programs that interact via file output/input only. Furthermore, the spatial discretizations of the model space used for solving the seismic forward problem and for deriving model updates, respectively, are kept completely independent. For this reason, ASKI does not contain a specific forward solver but instead provides a general interface to established community wave propagation codes. Moreover, the third fundamental step of deriving a model update can be repeated at relatively low costs applying different kinds of model regularization or re-selecting/weighting the inverted dataset without need to re-solve the forward problem or re-compute the kernels. Additionally, ASKI offers the user sensitivity and resolution analysis tools based on the full sensitivity matrix and allows to compose customized workflows in a consistent computational environment. ASKI is written in modern Fortran and Python, it is well documented and freely available under terms of the GNU General Public License (http://www.rub.de/aski).

  5. An improved analysis of GW150914 using a fully spin-precessing waveform model

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Costa, C F Da Silva; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etienne, Z; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Fauchon-Jones, E; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J -D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gaebel, S; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Haas, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hinder, I; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y -M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Zertuche, L Magana; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J V; Vano-Vinuales, A; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents updated estimates of source parameters for GW150914, a binary black-hole coalescence event detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) on September 14, 2015 [1]. Reference presented parameter estimation [2] of the source using a 13-dimensional, phenomenological precessing-spin model (precessing IMRPhenom) and a 11-dimensional nonprecessing effective-one-body (EOB) model calibrated to numerical-relativity simulations, which forces spin alignment (nonprecessing EOBNR). Here we present new results that include a 15-dimensional precessing-spin waveform model (precessing EOBNR) developed within the EOB formalism. We find good agreement with the parameters estimated previously [2], and we quote updated component masses of $35^{+5}_{-3}\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$ and $30^{+3}_{-4}\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$ (where errors correspond to 90% symmetric credible intervals). We also present slightly tighter constraints on the dimensionless spin magnitudes of the two black holes, with a prima...

  6. Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Brock Franklin

    2017-11-28

    High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.

  7. Improved Analysis of GW150914 Using a Fully Spin-Precessing Waveform Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents updated estimates of source parameters for GW150914, a binary black-hole coalescence event detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO in 2015 [Abbott et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016.]. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016.] presented parameter estimation of the source using a 13-dimensional, phenomenological precessing-spin model (precessing IMRPhenom and an 11-dimensional nonprecessing effective-one-body (EOB model calibrated to numerical-relativity simulations, which forces spin alignment (nonprecessing EOBNR. Here, we present new results that include a 15-dimensional precessing-spin waveform model (precessing EOBNR developed within the EOB formalism. We find good agreement with the parameters estimated previously [Abbott et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016.], and we quote updated component masses of 35_{-3}^{+5} M_{⊙} and 30_{-4}^{+3} M_{⊙} (where errors correspond to 90% symmetric credible intervals. We also present slightly tighter constraints on the dimensionless spin magnitudes of the two black holes, with a primary spin estimate <0.65 and a secondary spin estimate <0.75 at 90% probability. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016.] estimated the systematic parameter-extraction errors due to waveform-model uncertainty by combining the posterior probability densities of precessing IMRPhenom and nonprecessing EOBNR. Here, we find that the two precessing-spin models are in closer agreement, suggesting that these systematic errors are smaller than previously quoted.

  8. Analysis of correlation between full-waveform metrics, scan geometry and land-cover: an application over forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pirotti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For a correct use of metrics derived from processing of the full-waveform return signal from airborne laser scanner sensors any correlation which is not related to properties of the reflecting target must be known and, if possible, removed. In the following article we report on an analysis of correlation between several metrics extracted from the full-waveform return signal and scan characteristics (mainly range and type of land-cover (urban, grasslands, forests. The metrics taken in consideration are the amplitude, normalized amplitude, width (full width at half maximum, asymmetry indicators, left and right energy content, and the cross-section calculated from width and normalized amplitude considering the range effect. The results show that scan geometry in this case does not have a significant impact scans over forest cover, except for range affecting amplitude and width distribution. Over complex targets such as vegetation canopy, other factors such as incidence angle have little meaning, therefore corrections of range effect are the most meaningful. A strong correlation with the type of land-cover is also shown by the distribution of the values of the metrics in the different areas taken in consideration.

  9. The evaluation of the wave-form analysis capability of a new strain-gauge intracranial pressure MicroSensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, I R; Miller, J D

    1995-06-01

    Both laboratory and clinical trials have indicated the reliability of a new catheter-tip, strain-gauge intracranial pressure transducer. We report on the results of bench tests comparing the wave-form analysis capabilities of the new Codman intracranial pressure MicroSensor and a similar strain-gauge transducer. Good agreement was found between the two sensors with no significant nonlinearity or hysteresis over a measured pressure range from 0 to 100 mg Hg. Under "fluid-filled" conditions, the MicroSensor showed good reproduction of an arterial pressure wave form; when spectral analysis was used to analyze the two sensor types and break them down into harmonic components, no significant differences could be found for any of the first 10 amplitude and phase harmonics. If proven to stay robust after long-term clinical use, this sensor may be a useful alternative to the existing transducer systems for routinely monitoring the intracranial pressure and its wave form.

  10. Analysis of Transformer-Isolated Diode Rectifier Circuits in Three-Phase Rectangular-Waveform Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Minoru; Watanabe, Jumpei; Takeshita, Takaharu; Nishida, Yasuyuki

    This paper presents an analysis of the steady and transient characteristics of capacitor-input-type diode rectifier circuits connected to a delta-star transformer in a three-phase rectangular-waveform distribution system. Equations are derived for the input current, output voltage, and total input power factor of the rectifier circuits. The total input power factor can be improved from 0.91 to 0.98 by using the delta-star transformer. Further, design methods are developed for both the input reactor and output capacitor of the rectifier circuits. A small input reactor is desirable for obtaining a large total input power factor and a constant output voltage. The output capacitor can be designed to obtain the required output voltage variation in steady and transient states. The effectiveness of the proposed analysis is experimentally verified by using a 2.4kW prototype.

  11. Waveform-based spaceborne GNSS-R wind speed observation: Demonstration and analysis using UK TechDemoSat-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Dongkai; Zhang, Bo; Li, Weiqiang

    2018-03-01

    This paper explores two types of mathematical functions to fit single- and full-frequency waveform of spaceborne Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R), respectively. The metrics of the waveforms, such as the noise floor, peak magnitude, mid-point position of the leading edge, leading edge slope and trailing edge slope, can be derived from the parameters of the proposed models. Because the quality of the UK TDS-1 data is not at the level required by remote sensing mission, the waveforms buried in noise or from ice/land are removed by defining peak-to-mean ratio, cosine similarity of the waveform before wind speed are retrieved. The single-parameter retrieval models are developed by comparing the peak magnitude, leading edge slope and trailing edge slope derived from the parameters of the proposed models with in situ wind speed from the ASCAT scatterometer. To improve the retrieval accuracy, three types of multi-parameter observations based on the principle component analysis (PCA), minimum variance (MV) estimator and Back Propagation (BP) network are implemented. The results indicate that compared to the best results of the single-parameter observation, the approaches based on the principle component analysis and minimum variance could not significantly improve retrieval accuracy, however, the BP networks obtain improvement with the RMSE of 2.55 m/s and 2.53 m/s for single- and full-frequency waveform, respectively.

  12. The OSCAR experiment: using full-waveform inversion in the analysis of young oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverton, Akela; Morgan, Joanna; Wilson, Dean; Hobbs, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The OSCAR experiment aims to derive an integrated model to better explain the effects of heat loss and alteration by hydrothermal fluids, associated with the cooling of young oceanic crust at an axial ridge. High-resolution seismic imaging of the sediments and basaltic basement can be used to map fluid flow pathways between the oceanic crust and the surrounding ocean. To obtain these high-resolution images, we undertake full-waveform inversion (FWI), an advanced seismic imaging technique capable of resolving velocity heterogeneities at a wide range of length scales, from background trends to fine-scale geological/crustal detail, in a fully data-driven automated manner. This technology is widely used within the petroleum sector due to its potential to obtain high-resolution P-wave velocity models that lead to improvements in migrated seismic images of the subsurface. Here, we use the P-wave velocity model obtained from travel-time tomography as the starting model in the application of acoustic, time-domain FWI to a multichannel streamer field dataset acquired in the east Pacific along a profile between the Costa Rica spreading centre and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) borehole 504B, where the crust is approximately six million years old. FWI iteratively improves the velocity model by minimizing the misfit between the predicted data and the field data. It seeks to find a high-fidelity velocity model that is capable of matching individual seismic waveforms of the original raw field dataset, with an initial focus on matching the low-frequency components of the early arriving energy. Quality assurance methods adopted during the inversion ensure convergence in the direction of the global minimum. We demonstrate that FWI is able to recover fine-scale, high-resolution velocity heterogeneities within the young oceanic crust along the profile. The highly resolved FWI velocity model is useful in the identification of the layer 2A/2B interface and low-velocity layers that

  13. Full Waveform Analysis for Long-Range 3D Imaging Laser Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace AndrewM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new generation of 3D imaging systems based on laser radar (ladar offers significant advantages in defense and security applications. In particular, it is possible to retrieve 3D shape information directly from the scene and separate a target from background or foreground clutter by extracting a narrow depth range from the field of view by range gating, either in the sensor or by postprocessing. We discuss and demonstrate the applicability of full-waveform ladar to produce multilayer 3D imagery, in which each pixel produces a complex temporal response that describes the scene structure. Such complexity caused by multiple and distributed reflection arises in many relevant scenarios, for example in viewing partially occluded targets, through semitransparent materials (e.g., windows and through distributed reflective media such as foliage. We demonstrate our methodology on 3D image data acquired by a scanning time-of-flight system, developed in our own laboratories, which uses the time-correlated single-photon counting technique.

  14. Sensitivity analysis for elastic full-waveform inversion in VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Kamath, Nishant

    2014-08-05

    Multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is generally nonunique, and the results are strongly influenced by the geometry of the experiment and the type of recorded data. Studying the sensitivity of different subsets of data to the model parameters may help in choosing an optimal acquisition design, inversion workflow, and parameterization. Here, we derive the Fréchet kernel for FWI of multicomponent data from a 2D VTI (tranversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) medium. The kernel is obtained by linearizing the elastic wave equation using the Born approximation and employing the asymptotic Green\\'s function. The amplitude of the kernel (‘radiation pattern’) yields the angle-dependent energy scattered by a perturbation in a certain model parameter. The perturbations are described in terms of the P- and S-wave vertical velocities and the P-wave normal-moveout and horizontal velocities. The background medium is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic, which allows us to obtain simple expressions for the radiation patterns corresonding to all four velocities. These patterns help explain the FWI results for multicomponent transmission data generated for Gaussian anomalies in the Thomsen parameters inserted into a homogeneous VTI medium.

  15. ASKI: A modular toolbox for scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion and sensitivity analysis utilizing external forward codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schumacher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing computational resources, the development of new numerically demanding methods and software for imaging Earth’s interior remains of high interest in Earth sciences. Here, we give a description from a user’s and programmer’s perspective of the highly modular, flexible and extendable software package ASKI–Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion–recently developed for iterative scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion. In ASKI, the three fundamental steps of solving the seismic forward problem, computing waveform sensitivity kernels and deriving a model update are solved by independent software programs that interact via file output/input only. Furthermore, the spatial discretizations of the model space used for solving the seismic forward problem and for deriving model updates, respectively, are kept completely independent. For this reason, ASKI does not contain a specific forward solver but instead provides a general interface to established community wave propagation codes. Moreover, the third fundamental step of deriving a model update can be repeated at relatively low costs applying different kinds of model regularization or re-selecting/weighting the inverted dataset without need to re-solve the forward problem or re-compute the kernels. Additionally, ASKI offers the user sensitivity and resolution analysis tools based on the full sensitivity matrix and allows to compose customized workflows in a consistent computational environment. ASKI is written in modern Fortran and Python, it is well documented and freely available under terms of the GNU General Public License (http://www.rub.de/aski.

  16. [Serum proteomic analysis of cicatricial airway stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-huan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Juan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Ying-ying; Xu, Min

    2013-07-01

    To establish serum protein fingerprint profile in patients with cicatricial airway stenosis and compared with healthy control. Serum samples of 17 cicatricial airway stenosis patients and 17 healthy persons were analyzed by SELDI-TOF-MS to select the differently expressed proteins through Biomarker Wizard software. Compared with healthy control, 49 protein biomarkers were identified. Among them, 25 proteins were up-regulated, 24 proteins were down-regulated. These proteins were confirmed by searching database. There are obvious differentially expressed proteins in patients with cicatricial airway stenosis and controls, which may related with the development of airway scar.

  17. Study of a long-term series of repeated quarry blasts using spectrograms, waveform cross-correlation and Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Ben Horin, Y.; Kitov, I. O.; Margrave, G. F.; Rozhkov, M.

    2016-12-01

    We have collected and processed 1654 Jordan Phosphate Mines quarry blast waveforms recorded by the three component (3-C) station HRFI. Judging by satellite images taken for the same period, the largest spacing between these blasts might exceed 20 km while their seismic (ML) magnitudes vary in the range from 2 to 3. We have selected short waveform segments (8 min.) for each of 1654 signals, and aligned all waveforms to the Pn-wave arrival times as picked by the same detection procedure based on the STA/LTA threshold. For each event, we have created a waveform template. These waveform templates were obtained by appropriate bandpass filtering, with bands chosen heuristically by examining a spectrogram movie constructed from a subset of the data. We cross-correlated 1654x1654 waveform-template pairs in order to estimate the level of similarity between the measured signals as expressed by cross-correlation coefficient (CC). As a result of the cross-correlation procedure, a CC time series is created to which we apply standard STA/LTA detector with the same threshold as for the original waveforms to find arrival times in the CC domain. When only the Z-component is used for CC, the best four 12.5 s long templates can find all other 1653 signals. For 3-C records, there are 119 templates which can find all other signals and these observations highlight the importance of 3-C records for the performance of the waveform cross-correlation (WCC) technique. It is also found that longer templates result in lower cross-correlation because of larger difference in the shape of S-waves. To characterize the overall similarity of the whole set, we have used the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as based on the Singular Value Decomposition technique. We have demonstrated that the level of eigenvalues falls to 0.2 for the first fifteen components and the first five components are able to find all 1654 signals when WCC is applied. Therefore, the first component obtained by SVD may serve as

  18. A Comparison of Third-Generation Semi-Invasive Arterial Waveform Analysis with Thermodilution in Patients Undergoing Coronary Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Broch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncalibrated semi-invasive continous monitoring of cardiac index (CI has recently gained increasing interest. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of CI determination based on arterial waveform analysis with transpulmonary thermodilution. Fifty patients scheduled for elective coronary surgery were studied after induction of anaesthesia and before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, respectively. Each patient was monitored with a central venous line, the PiCCO system, and the FloTrac/Vigileo-system. Measurements included CI derived by transpulmonary thermodilution and uncalibrated semi-invasive pulse contour analysis. Percentage changes of CI were calculated. There was a moderate, but significant correlation between pulse contour CI and thermodilution CI both before (2=0.72, <0.0001 and after (2=0.62, <0.0001 CPB, with a percentage error of 31% and 25%, respectively. Changes in pulse contour CI showed a significant correlation with changes in thermodilution CI both before (2=0.52, <0.0001 and after (2=0.67, <0.0001 CPB. Our findings demonstrated that uncalibrated semi-invasive monitoring system was able to reliably measure CI compared with transpulmonary thermodilution in patients undergoing elective coronary surgery. Furthermore, the semi-invasive monitoring device was able to track haemodynamic changes and trends.

  19. Analysis of pig serum proteins based on shotgun liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of pig serum proteins based on shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Keshan Zhang, Yongjie Liu, Youjun Shang, Haixue Zheng, Jianhong Guo, Hong Tian, Ye Jin, Jijun He, Xiangtao Liu ...

  20. An MCMC-based waveform analysis with p-type point contact detectors in the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Benjamin; MAJORANA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Statistical signal processing can be a powerful tool for extracting as much information as possible from raw data. By fitting data to a physical model of signal generation on an event-by-event basis, it can be used to perform precise event reconstruction and enable efficient background rejection. Searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay must achieve extremely low backgrounds to reach sensitivities required for discovery, and so can benefit greatly from this analysis technique. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR has implemented a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) signal processing algorithm to fit waveforms from p-type point contact (PPC) germanium detectors. After a machine learning step to tune detector fields and electronics response parameters, the MCMC algorithm is able to reconstruct the time, energy and position of interactions within the PPC detector. The parameters estimated with this method will find many applications within the DEMONSTRATOR physics program, including background identification and rejection. This will prove important as the DEMONSTRATOR aims to reach its background goal of < 3 counts/tonne/yr in the region of interest. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  1. Acoustic impact testing and waveform analysis for damage detection in glued laminated timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng Xu; Xiping Wang; Marko Teder; Yunfei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Delamination and decay are common structural defects in old glued laminated timber (glulam) buildings, which, if left undetected, could cause severe structural damage. This paper presents a new damage detection method for glulam inspection based on moment analysis and wavelet transform (WT) of impact acoustic signals. Acoustic signals were collected from a glulam arch...

  2. Arterial waveform-analysis is of limited value in daily clinical practice in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennings, Louise Inkeri; Haase, Nicolai; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It is difficult to identify the patients who will respond to fluid therapy, but the arterial waveform-derived variables have reasonably predictive values for fluid responsiveness. However, the patient must fulfil a number of prerequisites for these variables to be valid. We assessed...... the proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with shock who at the time of resuscitation fulfilled the prerequisites for using the arterial waveform-derived variables. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study performed at six ICUs. The study included consecutive adult patients with shock (20 patients...... of arterial waveform-derived variables to predict fluid responsiveness. Thus, these variables may be of limited use during resuscitation in the ICU. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  3. Arterial waveform-analysis is of limited value in daily clinical practice in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Louise; Haase, Nicolai; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It is difficult to identify the patients who will respond to fluid therapy, but the arterial waveform-derived variables have reasonably predictive values for fluid responsiveness. However, the patient must fulfil a number of prerequisites for these variables to be valid. We assessed...... the proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with shock who at the time of resuscitation fulfilled the prerequisites for using the arterial waveform-derived variables. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study performed at six ICUs. The study included consecutive adult patients with shock (20 patients...... of arterial waveform-derived variables to predict fluid responsiveness. Thus, these variables may be of limited use during resuscitation in the ICU....

  4. An analysis of the relationship between serum cortisol and serum sodium in routine clinical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor McLaughlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hyponatraemia that should not be overlooked due to the severe consequences of an Addisonian crisis. Using the laboratory database of a large teaching hospital, we have explored the relationship between serum sodium and serum cortisol, and have estimated the frequency of hypoadrenalism in severely hyponatraemic patients. Design and methods: Data were gathered over a 23 month period from the Laboratory Information Management System at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust for instances where serum sodium and cortisol had been measured on a single sample. Data were also gathered over the same time period for all patients with severe hyponatraemia (serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L in order to determine the frequency of cortisol requesting and the incidence of adrenal insufficiency. Results: Analysis of the data (n=3268 patients revealed a trend showing higher cortisol concentrations in patients who were severely hypo- or hypernatraemic. The median cortisol concentration for patients with sodium ≤110 mmol/L was 856 nmol/L, and there was a gradual decrease in cortisol over the sodium range ≤110–150 mmol/L (Rs =−0.323, p<0.0001. Patients with sodium ≥151 mmol/L had a median cortisol of 725 nmol/L. 42% of the 978 patients with serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L had serum cortisol measured within two weeks, of whom 1.7% were diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency. Conclusions: This dataset shows rising cortisol in response to hypo- or hypernatraemia, in keeping with the stress response to illness. The data show that adrenal insufficiency is a rare cause of hyponatraemia which may be overlooked. Keywords: Serum, Sodium, Cortisol, Adrenal insufficiency

  5. Arterial waveform-analysis is of limited value in daily clinical practice in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennings, Louise Inkeri; Haase, Nicolai; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It is difficult to identify the patients who will respond to fluid therapy, but the arterial waveform-derived variables have reasonably predictive values for fluid responsiveness. However, the patient must fulfil a number of prerequisites for these variables to be valid. We assessed...... the proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with shock who at the time of resuscitation fulfilled the prerequisites for using the arterial waveform-derived variables. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study performed at six ICUs. The study included consecutive adult patients with shock (20 patients...

  6. Human processing of short temporal intervals as revealed by an ERP waveform analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka eNakajima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the time course over which the human brain processes information about durations up to ~300 ms, we reanalyzed the data that were previously reported by Mitsudo et al. (2009 using a multivariate analysis method. Event-related potentials were recorded from 19 scalp electrodes on 11 (9 original and 2 additional participants while they judged whether two neighboring empty time intervals—called t1 and t2 and marked by three tone bursts—had equal durations. There was also a control condition in which the participants were presented the same temporal patterns but without a judgment task. In the present reanalysis, we sought to visualize how the temporal patterns were represented in the brain over time. A correlation matrix across channels was calculated for each temporal pattern. Geometric separations between the correlation matrices were calculated, and subjected to multidimensional scaling. We performed such analyses for a moving 100-ms time window after the t1 presentations. In the windows centered at < 100 ms after the t2 presentation, the analyses revealed the local maxima of categorical separation between temporal patterns of perceptually equal durations versus perceptually unequal durations, both in the judgment condition and in the control condition. Such categorization of the temporal patterns was prominent only in narrow temporal regions. The analysis indicated that the participants determined whether the two neighboring time intervals were of equal duration mostly within 100 ms after the presentation of the temporal patterns. A very fast brain activity was related to the perception of elementary temporal patterns without explicit judgments. This is consistent with the findings of Mitsudo et al., and it is in line with the processing time hypothesis proposed by Nakajima et al. (2004. The validity of the correlation matrix analyses turned out to be an effective tool to grasp the overall responses of the brain to temporal

  7. Optimal monitoring of bypass therapy in hemophilia A patients with inhibitors by the use of clot waveform analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haku, J; Nogami, K; Matsumoto, T; Ogiwara, K; Shima, M

    2014-01-01

    Assays to determine the optimal hemostatic effects of bypass therapy in hemophilia A (HA) patients with inhibitors are difficult to compare. Clot waveform analysis (CWA), based on the continuous monitoring of routine coagulation parameters (prothrombin time/activated partial thromboplastin time), offers a useful method for assessing global clotting function. To investigate the technique of CWA for the hemostatic monitoring of bypass therapy in HA patients with inhibitors. Ellagic acid (Elg), tissue factor (TF) or both (Elg/TF) were used as trigger reagents in CWA. The standard parameters - clot time (CT), maximum coagulation velocity (|min1|), and acceleration (|min2|) - were recorded. Optimal monitoring was defined as: (i) a significant difference in these parameters between plasma from HA patients with inhibitors and normal plasmas; and (ii) a significant improvement in these indices in HA patients with inhibitors after bypass therapy. Experiments in vitro demonstrated that there were significant differences between plasma from HA patients with inhibitors and normal plasma with various triggers, in the order Elg > Elg/TF > TF. Addition of therapeutically achievable concentrations of bypassing agents, however, showed significant improvements in the different parameters only with Elg/TF, suggesting that this reagent provided the most appropriate assay. A total of 20 plasmas from HA patients with inhibitors in which bypassing agents were infused were evaluated ex vivo by Elg/TF CWA. The postinfusion parameters CT and |min2| reflected clinical effects, and were close to normal levels. Furthermore, Elg/TF CWA facilitated quantitative evaluation of perioperative hemostatic management of bypass therapy in HA patients with inhibitors. CWA is a promising method for the quantitative monitoring of bypass therapy during routine automated clotting assays with a modified trigger reagent comprising a well-balanced mixture of Elg and TF. © 2013 International Society on

  8. Object-Based Point Cloud Analysis of Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning Data for Urban Vegetation Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeifer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning (ALS is a remote sensing technique well-suited for 3D vegetation mapping and structure characterization because the emitted laser pulses are able to penetrate small gaps in the vegetation canopy. The backscattered echoes from the foliage, woody vegetation, the terrain, and other objects are detected, leading to a cloud of points. Higher echo densities (> 20 echoes/m2 and additional classification variables from full-waveform (FWF ALS data, namely echo amplitude, echo width and information on multiple echoes from one shot, offer new possibilities in classifying the ALS point cloud. Currently FWF sensor information is hardly used for classification purposes. This contribution presents an object-based point cloud analysis (OBPA approach, combining segmentation and classification of the 3D FWF ALS points designed to detect tall vegetation in urban environments. The definition tall vegetation includes trees and shrubs, but excludes grassland and herbage. In the applied procedure FWF ALS echoes are segmented by a seeded region growing procedure. All echoes sorted descending by their surface roughness are used as seed points. Segments are grown based on echo width homogeneity. Next, segment statistics (mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation are calculated by aggregating echo features such as amplitude and surface roughness. For classification a rule base is derived automatically from a training area using a statistical classification tree. To demonstrate our method we present data of three sites with around 500,000 echoes each. The accuracy of the classified vegetation segments is evaluated for two independent validation sites. In a point-wise error assessment, where the classification is compared with manually classified 3D points, completeness and correctness better than 90% are reached for the validation sites. In comparison to many other algorithms the proposed 3D point classification works on the original

  9. Physiological control of pituitary hormone secretory-burst mass, frequency, and waveform: a statistical formulation and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Daniel M; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Biermasz, Nienke; Veldhuis, Johannes D

    2003-09-01

    The present study investigates the time-varying control of pituitary hormone secretion over the day and night (D/N). To this end, we implemented an analytical platform designed to reconstruct simultaneously 1) basal (nonpulsatile) secretion, 2) single or dual secretory-burst waveforms, 3) random effects on burst amplitude, 4) stochastic pulse-renewal properties, 5) biexponential elimination kinetics, and 6) experimental uncertainty. The statistical solution is conditioned on a priori pulse-onset times, which are estimated in the first stage. Primary data composed of thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were monitored over 24 h in 27 healthy adults. According to statistical criteria, 21/27 profiles favored a dual compared with single secretory-burst waveform. An objectively defined waveform change point (D/N boundary) emerged at 2046 (+/-23 min), after which 1) the mass of TSH released per burst increases by 2.1-fold (P process. Further studies will be required to assess the generality of the foregoing distinctive control mechanisms in other hypothalamo-pituitary axes.

  10. A multivariate analysis of serum nutrient levels and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that estimates of intakes of a range of dietary nutrients are related to both lung function level and rate of decline, but far less evidence on the relation between lung function and objective measures of serum levels of individual nutrients. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive examination of the independent associations of a wide range of serum markers of nutritional status with lung function, measured as the one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1. Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relation between 21 serum markers of potentially relevant nutrients and FEV1, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Systematic approaches were used to guide the analysis. Results In a mutually adjusted model, higher serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, normalized calcium, chloride, and iron were independently associated with higher levels of FEV1. Higher concentrations of potassium and sodium were associated with lower FEV1. Conclusion Maintaining higher serum concentrations of dietary antioxidant vitamins and selenium is potentially beneficial to lung health. In addition other novel associations found in this study merit further investigation.

  11. Test-retest reliability of three dimensional gait analysis: including a novel approach to visualising agreement of gait cycle waveforms with Bland and Altman plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Dara; Shouldice, Ciara; Conroy, Ronan; Jones, Kim; Forward, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the measurement error (reliability) of three dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) is crucial to interpretation of gait data. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of 3DGA and apply a novel method of visualising reliability of gait cycle waveforms. A test re-test design was employed. A convenience sample of 30 healthy adults (18F; 12 M: mean age 30 ± 6.8 years) participated. Subjects walked along a 10 m walkway at their preferred gait speed and 3DGA data were collected using a VICON(®) 3DGA system. Testing was performed by the same investigator on two separate days within two weeks. Data from 10 trials were averaged and analysed. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and limits of agreement were calculated for kinetic and kinematic data. Bland and Altman plots were applied to gait cycle waveforms. Spatio-temporal parameters such as cadence, step length, velocity, step time and step width were highly repeatable generating ICC's of 0.90 and above and low SEM/MDC. Range of joint movement across the gait cycle was generally more reliable than either minimum or maximum values and higher ICCs were obtained for movement in the sagittal plane. For kinematic data the standard error of measurement was low (≤ 5) for the majority of parameters. Transverse plane measurements showed poor reliability with lowest ICC's. ICCs for kinetic data ranged from 0.51 to 0.81. Reliability of 3DGA has been estimated for our gait laboratory. Bland and Altman plots of gait cycle waveforms provide a useful addition to reliability analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NAA For Human Serum Analysis: Comparison With Conventional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, José A. G.; Azevedo, Maria R.

    2010-08-01

    Instrumental and Comparator methods of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) were applied to determine elements of clinical relevancy in serum samples of adult population (São Paulo city, Brazil). A comparison with the conventional analyses, Colorimetric for calcium, Titrymetric for chlorine and Ion Specific Electrode for sodium and potassium determination were also performed permitting a discussion about the performance of NAA methods for clinical chemistry research.

  13. Modelling transthoracic defibrillation waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, V; Cansell, A; Daskalov, I

    2000-01-01

    Recent investigations connected with implantable defibrillators yielded new data on heart electrophysiology, resulting in reassessment of existing and advancing of new types of electrical impulses. Different electrical equivalent circuits were proposed for modelling intracardiac and transthoracic defibrillation pulse waveforms, comprising generator, electrode interface and tissue resistances. We attempted modelling of the transmembrane voltage Vm time course, induced by different applied voltage Vs waveforms, taking into account only the shapes and the relative Vs and Vm amplitudes. The excitable cell membrane impedance Zm was modelled with higher resistance and lower capacitance, so that a shunting effect on the generator and tissue resistances was avoided. The result was a very simple equivalent circuit. We proposed criteria for efficient defibrillation pulse waveforms yielding a straightforward approach to model existing and new pulses and to assess their efficiency.

  14. Shear-wave velocity structure of young Atlantic Lithosphere from dispersion analysis and waveform modelling of Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Schippkus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The lithosphere is the outermost solid layer of the Earth and includes the brittle curst and brittle uppermost mantle. It is underlain by the asthenosphere, the weaker and hotter portion of the mantle. The boundary between the brittle lithosphere and the asthenosphere is call the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, or LAB. The oceanic lithosphere is created at spreading ridges and cools and thickens with age. Seismologists define the LAB by the presence of a low shear wave velocity zone beneath a high velocity lid. Surface waves from earthquakes occurring in young oceanic lithosphere should sample lithospheric structure when being recorded in the vicinity of a mid-ocean ridge. Here, we study group velocity and dispersion of Rayleigh waves caused by earthquakes occurring at transform faults in the Central Atlantic Ocean. Earthquakes were recorded either by a network of wide-band (up to 60 s) ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15°N or at the Global Seismic Network (GSN) Station ASCN on Ascension Island. Surface waves sampling young Atlantic lithosphere indicate systematic age-dependent changes of group velocities and dispersion of Rayleigh waves. With increasing plate age maximum group velocity increases (as a function of period), indicating cooling and thickening of the lithosphere. Shear wave velocity is derived inverting the observed dispersion of Rayleigh waves. Further, models derived from the OBS records were refined using waveform modelling of vertical component broadband data at periods of 15 to 40 seconds, constraining the velocity structure of the uppermost 100 km and hence in the depth interval of the mantle where lithospheric cooling is most evident. Waveform modelling supports that the thickness of lithosphere increases with age and that velocities in the lithosphere increase, too.

  15. Glycoproteomic analysis of serum from patients with gastric precancerous lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Catarina; Almeida, Andreia; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is preceded by a carcinogenesis pathway that includes gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic atrophic gastritis that may progress to intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and ultimately gastric carcinoma of the more common intestinal subtype. The identification...... the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens T and STn in the serum of patients with gastritis, IM (complete and incomplete subtypes), and control healthy individuals. The immunohistochemistry analysis of the gastric mucosa of these patients showed expression of T and STn antigens in gastric lesions, with STn...... reported to play a role in H. pylori chronic infection of the gastric mucosa and is involved in extracellular matrix modeling and degradation. Plasminogen was further characterized and showed to carry STn antigens in patients with gastritis and IM. These results provide evidence of serum proteins...

  16. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  17. Intercriteria analysis of calorimetric data of blood serum proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, Sashka; Todinova, Svetla; Mavrov, Deyan; Marinov, Pencho; Atanassova, Vassia; Atanassov, Krassimir; Taneva, Stefka G

    2017-02-01

    Biological microcalorimetry has entered into a phase where its potential for disease diagnostics is readily recognized. A wide variety of oncological and immunological disorders have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and characteristic thermodynamic profiles were reported. Now the challenge before DSC is not the experimental data collection but the development of analysis protocols for reliable data stratification/classification and discrimination of disease specific features (calorimetric markers). In this work we apply InterCriteria Analysis (ICA) approach combined with Pearson's and Spearman's correlation analysis to a large dataset of calorimetric and biochemical parameters derived for the serum proteome of patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma (MM). We have identified intercriteria dependences that are general for the various types of MM and thus can be regarded as a characteristic of this largely heterogeneous disease: strong contribution of the monoclonal (M) protein concentration to the excess heat capacity of the immunoglobulins-assigned thermal transition; shift of the albumin assigned calorimetric transition to allocation where it overlaps with the globulins assigned transition and strong shift of the globulins assigned transition temperature attributable to M proteins conformational changes. Our data justify the applicability of ICA for deciphering of the complex thermodynamic behavior of the MM blood serum proteome. The applied approach is suitable for more general application in the analysis of biocalorimetric data since it can help identify the biological relevance of the distinguished thermodynamic features observed for variety of diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomechanical analysis of gait waveform data: exploring differences between shod and barefoot running in habitually shod runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nicholas; Prins, Danielle; Divekar, Nikhil V; Lamberts, Robert P

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to utilise one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping to compare differences between biomechanical and electromyographical waveforms in runners when running in barefoot or shod conditions. Fifty habitually shod runners were assessed during overground running at their current 10-km race running speed. Electromyography, kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected during these running trials. Joint kinetics were calculated using inverse dynamics. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping one sample t-test was conducted to assess differences over an entire gait cycle on the variables of interest when barefoot or shod (pgait cycle) and swing phase (74-90%); at the ankle early stance (0-6%), mid-stance (28-38%) and swing phase (81-100%). Differences in sagittal plane moments were also found at the ankle during early stance (2, 4-5%) and knee during early stance (5-11%). Condition differences were also found in vertical ground reaction force during early stance between (3-10%). An acute bout of barefoot running in habitual shod runners invokes temporal differences throughout the gait cycle. Specifically, a co-ordinative responses between the knee and ankle joint in the sagittal plane with a delay in the impact transient peak; onset of the knee extension and ankle plantarflexion moment in the shod compared to barefoot condition was found. This appears to affect the delay in knee extension and ankle plantarflexion during late stance. This study provides a glimpse into the co-ordination of the lower limb when running in differing footwear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bizarre Waveforms in Strong Motion Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper collects a rich set of strong motion records in some typical earthquakes domestic and abroad, checks its seismic events, converts the data format, corrects the zeroline and draws the waveform. Four kinds of abnormal phenomena on the acceleration waveform are revealed, such as spike, asymmetric waveform, obvious baseline drift, and strong motion records packets separation. Then reasonable processing approaches are derived from the preliminary analysis of the generation mechanism for abnormal phenomena. In addition to the effects on time history, Fourier amplitude spectrum and response spectrum are studied before and after strong motion records correction. It is shown that (1 mechanism of spikes is rather complicated; however spikes can be eliminated by “jerk” method, ratio method, and the consistency of the three-component PGA time; (2 mechanism of the asymmetric waveform is of diversity; however, to some extent, the Butterworth low-pass filtering can be applied to correct it; (3 two pieces of strong motion record packets can be connected by searching continuous and repeated data; (4 the method of cumulative adding can be used to find the clear baseline drift; (5 the abnormal waveform directly affects the characteristics of time history and frequency spectrum.

  20. Analysis of serum magnesium ions in dogs exposed to external ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although various factors including foods and physical conditions have been reported to change serum Mg2+ status in humans, serum Mg2+2+ in dogs at different conditions using the guide dog candidates for the blind. Serum Mg2+ was decreased in winter and increased in summer. Guide dog candidates in an elementary ...

  1. Aftershock mechanisms from the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake: detailed analysis using full waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietbrock, A.; Hicks, S. P.; Chagas, B.; Detzel, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    slip style can be highly variable across the megathrust, with implications for fault processes such as postseismic fluid release. We also perform 3-D full waveform forward simulation using the spectral element code, SPECFEM3D, to understand the sensitivity of our moment tensor solutions with respect to 3-D velocity structure.

  2. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luotamo, M; Järvisalo, J; Aitio, A

    1985-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely dispersed in the environment. Occupational exposure to PCBs takes place, e.g., in manufacture and repair of capacitors and transformers. A special type of exposure of workers to PCBs may occur in connection with accidents where capacitors or transformers containing PCBs products are damaged, as in the case of a fire or electric arcing. The quantitation of PCBs poses several problems: There are 209 different homologs and isomers of PCBs. The isomers of PCBs have different responses in the electron capture detector, and the pattern of PCBs in biological specimens is different from that of commercial products. In this study a method was worked out for the analysis of PCBs in serum with the purpose of estimating occupation exposure to PCBs. The PCBs were extracted to an organic solvent, and the extract was purified by use of sulfuric acid and silica columns. Capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection was used. For separation, temperature programming was used.

  3. Ventilator waveform interpretation in mechanically ventilated small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Terry M; Aumann, Marcel

    2011-10-01

    To review the topic of ventilator waveforms analysis with emphasis on interpretation of ventilator waveforms and their use in the management and monitoring of mechanically ventilated small animal patients. Human clinical studies, scientific reviews, and textbooks, as well as veterinary textbooks and clinical examples of ventilator waveforms in mechanically ventilated dogs. Ventilator waveforms are graphic representations of data collected from the ventilator and reflect patient-ventilator interactions. The 4 parameters pressure, volume, flow, and time are most descriptive of mechanical ventilation. Typically, 3 different graphs, also referred to as scalars, consisting of pressure versus time, volume versus time, and flow versus time, with time always plotted on the x-axis, are used. Changes in the ventilator settings as well as in the characteristics of the lungs such as airway resistance (R(aw)) and respiratory system compliance (C(rs)) can be recognized from specific variations in the waveforms. Flow-volume and pressure-volume loops provide additional information about changes in lung function. Patient-ventilator dyssynchrony is a common problem during mechanical ventilation and can lead to patient discomfort and an increased work of breathing. Ventilator waveforms are helpful to identify dyssynchrony, which can be divided into trigger, flow, cycle, and expiratory dyssynchrony. Ventilator waveforms allow the clinician to assess changes in respiratory mechanics, and can be useful in monitoring the progression of disease pathology and response to therapy. Adjustments in ventilator settings based on proper analysis and interpretation of these waveforms can help the clinician to optimize ventilation therapy. Ventilator waveforms are graphic representations of patient-ventilator interactions. Proper interpretation of ventilator waveforms affords the critical care clinician a better understanding of the patient's respiratory function, response to therapy, and causes

  4. Effect of mechanical ventilation waveforms on airway wall shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparti, Ramana M; Swanson, John

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding of airway wall shear stress/strain rate is very important in order to prevent inflammation in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation due to respiratory problems in intensive-care medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of mechanical ventilation waveforms on airway wall shear/strain rate using computational fluid dynamics analysis. Six different waveforms were considered to investigate the airway wall shear stress (WSS) from fluid dynamics analysis for the airway geometry of two-to-three generations. The simulation results showed that Original with Sine Inhale Waveform (OSIW) produced the highest WSS value and the Near True Sine Waveform produced the lowest WSS value. Also, the Original with Sine Inhale Waveform and the Short Sine Inhale with Long Sine Exhale Waveform (SSILSEW) produced a higher shear strain rate in comparison to the Original Waveform (OW). These results, combined with optimization, suggest that it is possible to develop a set of mechanical ventilation waveform strategies to avoid inflammation in the lung.

  5. Short Term Comparative Analysis of Serum Electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the changes that occur in performance characteristics and serum electrolytes of Red Sokoto bucks within the first four weeks post-surgical castration. Changes in serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate and chloride) and performance characteristics were investigated in ...

  6. Waveform Catalog, Extreme Mass Ratio Binary (Capture)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerically-generated gravitational waveforms for circular inspiral into Kerr black holes. These waveforms were developed using Scott Hughes' black hole perturbation...

  7. Increased serum bicarbonate in critically ill patients: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libório, Alexandre Braga; Noritomi, Danilo Teixeira; Leite, Tacyano Tavares; de Melo Bezerra, Candice Torres; de Faria, Evandro Rodrigues; Kellum, John A

    2015-03-01

    Although metabolic alkalosis is a common occurrence, no study has evaluated its prevalence, associated factors or outcomes in critically ill patients. This is a retrospective study from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II database. From 23,529 adult patient records, 18,982 patients met the inclusion criteria. Serum bicarbonate levels demonstrated a U-shaped association with mortality with knots at 25 and 30 mEq/l. Of the total included patients, 5,565 (29.3 %) had at least one serum bicarbonate level measurement >30 mEq/l. The majority were exposed to multiple factors that are classically associated with metabolic alkalosis (mainly diuretic use, hypernatremia, hypokalemia and high gastric output). Patients with increased serum bicarbonate exhibited increased ICU LOS, more days on mechanical ventilation and higher hospital mortality. After multivariate adjustment, each 5-mEq/l increment in the serum bicarbonate level above 30 mEq/l was associated with an odds ratio of 1.21 for hospital mortality. The association between increased serum bicarbonate levels and mortality occurs independently of its possible etiologies. An increased serum bicarbonate level is common in critically ill patients; this can be attributed to multiple factors in the majority of cases, and its presence and duration negatively influence patient outcomes.

  8. Operational Analysis and Modulation Control of Three-Level Z-Source Inverters With Enhanced Output Waveform Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang Loh, Poh; Gao, Feng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    Three-level Z-source inverters are recent single-stage topological solutions proposed for buck-boost energy conversion with all favorable advantages of three-level switching retained. Despite their proven buck-boost capability, existing three-level Zsource inverters are either too costly...... while using lesser passive LC elements. Through detailed operational analysis, new operating modes of the REC Z-source inverters are identified, which when inserted appropriately to the inverter state sequence will always produce the desired voltage transfer gain with minimized commutation count...

  9. Towards full waveform ambient noise inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In this work we investigate fundamentals of a method—referred to as full waveform ambient noise inversion—that improves the resolution of tomographic images by extracting waveform information from interstation correlation functions that cannot be used without knowing the distribution of noise sources. The fundamental idea is to drop the principle of Green function retrieval and to establish correlation functions as self-consistent observables in seismology. This involves the following steps: (1) We introduce an operator-based formulation of the forward problem of computing correlation functions. It is valid for arbitrary distributions of noise sources in both space and frequency, and for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media. In addition, the formulation allows us to keep the derivations independent of time and frequency domain and it facilitates the application of adjoint techniques, which we use to derive efficient expressions to compute first and also second derivatives. The latter are essential for a resolution analysis that accounts for intra- and interparameter trade-offs. (2) In a forward modelling study we investigate the effect of noise sources and structure on different observables. Traveltimes are hardly affected by heterogeneous noise source distributions. On the other hand, the amplitude asymmetry of correlations is at least to first order insensitive to unmodelled Earth structure. Energy and waveform differences are sensitive to both structure and the distribution of noise sources. (3) We design and implement an appropriate inversion scheme, where the extraction of waveform information is successively increased. We demonstrate that full waveform ambient noise inversion has the potential to go beyond ambient noise tomography based on Green function retrieval and to refine noise source location, which is essential for a better understanding of noise generation. Inherent trade-offs between source and structure

  10. Photonic Arbitrary Waveform Generation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    comb component. The generated waveform is given as [13] ∑ = ++= K k kk tkA Atf 1 0 0 )co s( 2 )( αω (1) 5 where f(t) is the desired waveform, Ak...tone waveform is not directly obtained from an extension of the single tone case. Nonetheless, by using three optical carriers, one can obtain any...pair insertion loss is ~ -7 dB, with a channel to channel crosstalk between filter channels of ~ -15 dB. For some of the experiments carried

  11. Seismic Waveform Characterization at LLNL: Analyst Guidelines and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, F; Schultz, C A

    2001-11-01

    In the first section of this paper we present an overview of general set of procedures that we have followed in seismic waveform analysis. In the second section we discuss a number of issues and complexities that we have encountered in analysis of events in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, and parts of the European Arctic. To illustrate these complexities we can include examples of waveforms recorded over a variety of paths in these regions.

  12. Fast Transient Thermal Analysis of Non-Fourier Heat Conduction Using Tikhonov Well-Conditioned Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohel Rana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Fourier heat conduction model with dual phase lag wave-diffusion model was analyzed by using well-conditioned asymptotic wave evaluation (WCAWE and finite element method (FEM. The non-Fourier heat conduction has been investigated where the maximum likelihood (ML and Tikhonov regularization technique were used successfully to predict the accurate and stable temperature responses without the loss of initial nonlinear/high frequency response. To reduce the increased computational time by Tikhonov WCAWE using ML (TWCAWE-ML, another well-conditioned scheme, called mass effect (ME T-WCAWE, is introduced. TWCAWE with ME (TWCAWE-ME showed more stable and accurate temperature spectrum in comparison to asymptotic wave evaluation (AWE and also partial Pade AWE without sacrificing the computational time. However, the TWCAWE-ML remains as the most stable and hence accurate model to analyze the fast transient thermal analysis of non-Fourier heat conduction model.

  13. Fast transient thermal analysis of non-Fourier heat conduction using Tikhonov well-conditioned asymptotic waveform evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Sohel; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Ramiah, Harikrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Non-Fourier heat conduction model with dual phase lag wave-diffusion model was analyzed by using well-conditioned asymptotic wave evaluation (WCAWE) and finite element method (FEM). The non-Fourier heat conduction has been investigated where the maximum likelihood (ML) and Tikhonov regularization technique were used successfully to predict the accurate and stable temperature responses without the loss of initial nonlinear/high frequency response. To reduce the increased computational time by Tikhonov WCAWE using ML (TWCAWE-ML), another well-conditioned scheme, called mass effect (ME) T-WCAWE, is introduced. TWCAWE with ME (TWCAWE-ME) showed more stable and accurate temperature spectrum in comparison to asymptotic wave evaluation (AWE) and also partial Pade AWE without sacrificing the computational time. However, the TWCAWE-ML remains as the most stable and hence accurate model to analyze the fast transient thermal analysis of non-Fourier heat conduction model.

  14. Serum lipidomics analysis of ovariectomized rats under Curcuma comosa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Sueajai, Jetjamnong; Chaihad, Nichaboon; Panrak, Ratchanee; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn; Sangvanich, Polkit; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2016-11-04

    Curcuma comosa Roxb. (C. comosa) or Wan Chak Motluk, Zingiberaceae family, has been used in Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of gynecological problems and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of C. comosa by determining the changes in the lipid profiles in the ovariectomized rats, as a model of estrogen-deficiency-induced hyperlipidemia, after treatment with different components of C. comosa using an untargeted lipidomics approach. Lipids were extracted from the serum of adult female rats subjected to a sham operation (SHAM; control), ovariectomy (OVX), or OVX with 12-week daily doses of estrogen (17β-estradiol; E 2 ), (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (DPHD; a phytoestrogen from C. comosa), powdered C. comosa rhizomes or its crude ethanol extract. They were then analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, characterized, and subjected to the orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis statistical model to identify tentative biomarkers. Levels of five classes of lipids (ceramide, ceramide-1-phosphate, sphingomyelin, 1-O-alkenyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine) were elevated in the OVX rats compared to those in the SHAM rats, while the monoacylglycerols and triacylglycerols were decreased. The E 2 treatment only reversed the levels of ceramides, whereas treatments with DPHD, C. comosa extract or powder returned the levels of all upregulated lipids back to those in the SHAM control rats. The findings suggest the potential beneficial effects of C. comosa on preventing the increased ceramide levels in OVX rats, a possible cause of metabolic disturbance under estrogen deficiency. Overall, the results demonstrated the power of untargeted lipidomics in discovering disease-relevant biomarkers, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of treatment by C. comosa components (DPHD, extract or powder) as utilized in Thai traditional medicine, and also providing

  15. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  16. Rupture characteristics of the 2016 Meinong earthquake revealed by the back projection and directivity analysis of teleseismic broadband waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Pei-Ru; Hung, Shu-Huei; Meng, Lingsen; Sun, Daoyuan

    2017-04-01

    The 2016 Mw 6.4 Meinong earthquake struck a previously unrecognized fault zone in midcrust beneath south Taiwan and inflicted heavy causalities in the populated Tainan City about 30 km northwest of the epicenter. Because of its relatively short rupture duration and P wave trains contaminated by large-amplitude depth phases and reverberations generated in the source region, accurate characterization of the rupture process and source properties for such a shallow strong earthquake remains challenging. Here we present a first high-resolution MUltiple SIgnal Classification back projection source image by using both P and depth-phase sP waves recorded at two large and dense arrays to understand the source behavior and consequent hazards of this peculiar catastrophic event. The results further corroborated by the directivity analysis indicate a unilateral rupture propagating northwestward and slightly downward on the shallow NE-dipping fault plane. The source radiation process is primarily characterized by one single peak, 7 s duration, with a total rupture length of 17 km and average rupture speed of 2.4 km/s. The rupture terminated immediately east of the prominent off-fault aftershock cluster about 20 km northwest of the hypocenter. Synergistic amplification of ground shaking by the directivity and strong excitation of sP and reverberations mainly caused the destruction concentrated in the area further to the northwest away from the rupture zone.

  17. An adaptive delineator for photoplethysmography waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Mohanalakshmi; Arunagiri, Sivasubramanian; Alagala, Swarnalatha

    2016-12-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms are rich in cardiovascular information, and hence, their analysis is significant in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The second derivative of photoplethysmography (SDPPG) analysis for the accurate detection of significant points in characterising the PPG waveform is challenging. In this paper, a SDPPG analysis algorithm is proposed based on a resampling technique which normalises the signal and ensures the presence of all significant points of interest in all its recurrences. The proposed delineator detects a, b and e waves in SDPPG, which are based on the combined analysis of PPG waveforms and their second derivatives, characterising them beat-by-beat by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Experiments have been conducted on 46 PPG signal records, each of 10-s duration with low and varying amplitudes, and regular and irregular heart rhythms for healthy adults, as well as unhealthy and aged patients obtained from the large-scale openly available database PhysioNet. Based on the experiments conducted, it is found that the proposed algorithm performs better than existing methods in terms of sensitivity and positive predictivity with a highest sensitivity of 99.84% with respect to a (onset) and b waves, 99.67% for e waves (dicrotic notch), and 100% of positive predictivity for a and b waves and 99.82% in case of e waves.

  18. Does the choice of definition for defibrillation and CPR success impact the predictability of ventricular fibrillation waveform analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Danian; Dai, Chenxi; Gong, Yushun; Lu, Yubao; Zhang, Lei; Quan, Weilun; Li, Yongqin

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative analysis of ventricular fibrillation (VF), such as amplitude spectral area (AMSA), predicts shock outcomes. However, there is no uniform definition of shock/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) success in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The objective of this study is to investigate post-shock rhythm variations and the impact of shock/CPR success definition on the predictability of AMSA. A total of 554 shocks from 257 OHCA patients with VF as initial rhythm were analyzed. Post-shock rhythms were analyzed every 5s up to 120s and annotated as VF, asystole (AS) and organized rhythm (OR) at serial time intervals. Three shock/CPR success definitions were used to evaluate the predictability of AMSA: (1) termination of VF (ToVF); (2) return of organized electrical activity (ROEA); (3) return of potentially perfusing rhythm (RPPR). Rhythm changes occurred after 54.5% (N=302) of shocks and 85.8% (N=259) of them occurred within 60s after shock delivery. The observed post-shock rhythm changes were (1) from AS to VF (24.9%), (2) from OR to VF (16.1%), and (3) from AS to OR (12.1%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for AMSA as a predictor of shock/CPR success reached its maximum 60s post-shock. The AUC was 0.646 for ToVF, 0.782 for ROEA, and 0.835 for RPPR (pdefinition of shock/CPR success and performs best with the return of potentially perfusing rhythm endpoint for OHCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanics of the cornea evaluated by spectral analysis of waveforms from ocular response analyzer and Corvis-ST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Tejwani

    Full Text Available In this study, spectral analysis of the deformation signal from Corvis-ST (CoST and reflected light intensity from ocular response analyzer (ORA was performed to evaluate biomechanical concordance with each other.The study was non-interventional, observational, cross-sectional and involved 188 eyes from 94 normal subjects. Three measurements were made on each eye with ORA and CoST each and then averaged for each device. The deformation signal from CoST and reflected light intensity (applanation signal from ORA was compiled for all the eyes. The ORA signal was inverted about a line joining the two applanation peaks. All the signals were analyzed with Fourier series. The area under the signal curves (AUC, root mean square (RMS of all the harmonics, lower order (LO included 1st and 2nd order harmonic, higher order (HO up to 6th harmonic, CoST deformation amplitude (DA, corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF were analyzed.The device variables and those calculated by Fourier transform were statistically significantly different between CoST and ORA. These variables also differed between the eyes of the same subject. There was also statistically significant influence of eyes (left vs. right on the differences in a sub-set of RMS variables only. CH and CRF differed statistically significantly between the eyes of subject (p<0.001 but not DA (p = 0.65.CoST was statistically significantly different from ORA. CoST may be useful in delineating true biomechanical differences between the eyes of a subject as it reports deformation.

  20. Analysis on the correlation between serum esterase polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    张德杨

    2013-02-01

    Feb 1, 2013 ... The polymorphism of serum esterase (Es) of Henan Yuxi fat-tailed sheep was detected through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ... strain selection in early stage. As the most common index of genetic marker in blood .... exerted indistinctive impact on body size index and other indexes (P>0.05) except for ...

  1. Estimating effect of terlipressin on portal pressure in cirrhosis by observing hepatic vein Doppler waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Qurban; Haider, Shahbaz; Solangi, Noor Muhammad; Ali, Liaquat; Liaquat, Hammad; Ahmed, Fayyaz; Shahbaz, Sumera

    2013-05-01

    To observe the changes in Doppler waveform of hepatic vein after the administration of terlipressin, and to assess indirectly the efficacy of the drug to reduce the Hepatic Vein Pressure Gradient and portal pressure. The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from April 1 to November 25, 2011, and comprised 50 patients with cirrhosis with abnormal Doppler waveform of the hepatic vein. Patients with diseases causing abnormal hepatic vein doppler waveform were excluded. Doppler waveforms were studied for 20 minutes before and for 20 minutes after the administration of terlipressin. Tracings with best waveform before and after injection were saved for analysis. Changes in waveform after vasoactive drug were defined as mild, significant, marked and gross changes. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 50 patients, 36 (72%) were males and 14 (28%) females. Commonest waveform was monophasic 38 (76%). Gross changes i.e. turning triphasic from monophasic waveform was observed in 8 (16%) patients. Significant gross changes were seen in 24 (48%) patients. Total number of patients showing improvement in waveform was 36 (72%). In no case, waveform deteriorated after the administration of terlipressin (p = 0.001). Non-invasive method of observing the improvement of hepatic vein waveform by duplex ultrasound, after more studies, may be an important tool for assessing and monitoring the effects of portal pressure lowering drugs.

  2. Enrichment of low molecular weight serum proteins using acetonitrile precipitation for mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Richard; Barton, Chris; Ratcliffe, Lucy; Matharoo-Ball, Balwir; Brown, Pamela; Roberts, Jane; Teale, Phil; Creaser, Colin

    2008-10-01

    A rapid acetonitrile (ACN)-based extraction method has been developed that reproducibly depletes high abundance and high molecular weight proteins from serum prior to mass spectrometric analysis. A nanoflow liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC/MS/MS) multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method for 57 high to medium abundance serum proteins was used to characterise the ACN-depleted fraction after tryptic digestion. Of the 57 targeted proteins 29 were detected and albumin, the most abundant protein in serum and plasma, was identified as the 20th most abundant protein in the extract. The combination of ACN depletion and one-dimensional nano-LC/MS/MS enabled the detection of the low abundance serum protein, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which has a serum concentration in the region of 100 ng/mL. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the depleted serum showed no bands corresponding to proteins of molecular mass over 75 kDa after extraction, demonstrating the efficiency of the method for the depletion of high molecular weight proteins. Total protein analysis of the ACN extracts showed that approximately 99.6% of all protein is removed from the serum. The ACN-depletion strategy offers a viable alternative to the immunochemistry-based protein-depletion techniques commonly used for removing high abundance proteins from serum prior to MS-based proteomic analyses.

  3. Reagents for Lithium Electrodes and Sensors for Blood Serum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Christian

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of lithium in blood serum requires high selectivity since the blood contains about 140 mM sodium compared to the 0.5-1.5 mM lithium level in manic depressive patients under treatment with lithium salts. This review traces the development of optical and potentiometric methods for the selective measurement of lithium in the presence of sodium. Selectivities of over 1,000:1 are achievable with properly designed ionophores.

  4. A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ehlers, Alexandra; Morris, Cory; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    A rapid headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the analysis of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol in plasma and serum specimens using 1,3-propanediol as the internal standard...

  5. Effects of coffee consumption on serum uric acid: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu Yong; Kim, Hyun Jung; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Sun Hee; Park, Eun Ji; Yim, Shin-Young; Jun, Jae-Bum

    2016-04-01

    Study results on the effects of coffee consumption on serum uric acid (UA) have been conflicting. The aim of this study is to analyze the literature regarding the effect of coffee consumption on serum UA. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and KoreaMed for all articles published before January 2015. Studies with quantitative data on coffee consumption and serum UA level were included. Coffee consumption and serum UA level were identified with/without the risk of gout. Nine studies published between 1999 and 2014 were included, containing a total of 175,310 subjects. Meta-analysis demonstrated that coffee has a significantly lowering effect on serum UA, where there are gender differences in the amount of coffee required to lower serum UA. Women (4-6 cups/day) need more coffee to lower serum UA than men (1-3 cups/day). Meta-analysis showed that coffee intake of 1 cup/day or more was significantly associated with reduction of the risk of gout, with a negative correlation with the amount of daily coffee intake for both genders. This is the first systematic review on the effects of coffee consumption on serum UA. Based on our study, moderate coffee intake might be advocated for primary prevention of hyperuricemia and gout in both genders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE SIDE-LAP EFFECT ON FULL-WAVEFORM LIDAR DATA ACQUISITION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF FOREST STRUCTURE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Crespo-Peremarch

    2016-06-01

    In order to assess this effect, 64 pairwise samples were selected in adjacent areas with similar canopy structure, but having different point densities. Two parameters were tested and evaluated to minimise this effect: voxel size and voxel value assignation testing maximum, mean, median, mode, percentiles 90 and 95. Student’s t-test or Wilcoxon test were used for the comparison of paired samples. Moreover, the absolute value of standardised paired samples was calculated to quantify dissimilarities. It was concluded that optimizing voxel size and voxel value assignation minimised the effect of point density variations and homogenised full-waveform metrics. Height/median ratio (HTMR and Vertical distribution ratio (VDR had the lowest variability between different densities, and Return waveform energy (RWE reached the best improvement with respect to initial data, being the difference between standardised paired samples 1.28 before and 0.69 after modification.

  7. Lung crackle characteristics in patients with asbestosis, asbestos-related pleural disease and left ventricular failure using a time-expanded waveform analysis--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Jarad, N; Davies, S W; Logan-Sinclair, R; Rudd, R M

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate lung crackle characteristics by time-expanded waveform (TEW) analysis in patients with asbestosis (AS), asbestos-related pleural disease (ARPD) and left ventricular failure (LVF). TEW was performed on a 33 s recording from each of 40 patients (12 AS, 17 ARPD and 11 LVF). They were 38 men and two women. Crackles on TEW were counted during inspiration and expiration, and the timing of clusters of crackles with respect to inspiration and expiration was noted. A total of 1117 crackles were identified. The initial deflection width (IDW) and the two cycle duration (2CD) were calculated for all crackles within one respiratory cycle for each patient (total of 298 crackles). Crackles were detected by TEW in all patients with AS, in seven patients with ARPD and in nine patients with LVF. Crackles in AS were mainly fine, mid- to late-inspiratory. Crackles in LVF took three patterns; in the first there were repetitive mid- to late inspiratory crackles similar to those seen in AS except that the crackles in LVF tended to be medium and coarse as well as fine (three patients); in the second crackles started early in inspiration followed by a crackle-free period then by another cluster of crackles lasting to the end of inspiration and to the early third of expiration (four patients) and in the third there were repetitive expiratory crackles with no or few inspiratory crackles (two patients). Crackles in ARPD generally took the configuration of fine crackles but another type of crackle preceded by a sharp deflection followed by an M-shape oscillation then by the largest oscillation was also found. IDW and 2CD for inspiratory crackles in ARPD were shorter than those in AS and LVF (for IDW P < 0.009 and P < 0.003 compared with AS and LVF respectively and for 2CD, P < 0.006 and P < 0.003 compared with AS and LVF respectively). IDW and 2CD in AS tended to be shorter than these for LVF but these results did not reach statistical significance. It

  8. Phase-space topography characterization of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Niri, Ehsan; Al-Beer, Helem

    2018-03-01

    Fundamental understanding of ultrasound interaction with material discontinuities having closed interfaces has many engineering applications such as nondestructive evaluation of defects like kissing bonds and cracks in critical structural and mechanical components. In this paper, to analyze the acoustic field nonlinearities due to defects with closed interfaces, the use of a common technique in nonlinear physics, based on a phase-space topography construction of ultrasound waveform, is proposed. The central idea is to complement the "time" and "frequency" domain analyses with the "phase-space" domain analysis of nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. A nonlinear time series method known as pseudo phase-space topography construction is used to construct equivalent phase-space portrait of measured ultrasound waveforms. Several nonlinear models are considered to numerically simulate nonlinear ultrasound waveforms. The phase-space response of the simulated waveforms is shown to provide different topographic information, while the frequency domain shows similar spectral behavior. Thus, model classification can be substantially enhanced in the phase-space domain. Experimental results on high strength aluminum samples show that the phase-space transformation provides a unique detection and classification capabilities. The Poincaré map of the phase-space domain is also used to better understand the nonlinear behavior of ultrasound waveforms. It is shown that the analysis of ultrasound nonlinearities is more convenient and informative in the phase-space domain than in the frequency domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid Analysis of Cefazolin in Serum by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, John S.

    1977-01-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the analysis of cefazolin in serum. Serum was deproteinized by the addition of 6% trichloroacetic acid and injected onto a reverse-phase column with a mobile phase of 10 to 15% methanol in 1% aqueous acetic acid. Cefazolin chromatographed without interference from ultraviolet-absorbing components of serum, with a retention time of 3.1 min. Standard curves comparing peak area with concentration prepared from dog or human sera were linear over a range of 1.6 to 200 μg/ml. Results from the HPLC assay were compared with microbiological assays (cylinder plate method) on both standard serum samples and sera from dogs and human subjects receiving intramuscular cefazolin. The HPLC method was somewhat more accurate in comparison with the microbiological assay performed on serum samples of known concentration. The comparison of results from an analysis of serum levels of dogs or human subjects receiving cefazolin indicated that the two methods would lead to identical conclusions concerning pharmacokinetics or the achievement of therapeutic serum levels. The HPLC assay method presents an alternative to conventional microbiological assays, with marked improvement in speed (30 min) and considerable potential for future development. PMID:836007

  10. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Serum Proteins from Oral Cancer Patients: Comparison of Two Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Serum proteomic analysis can be a valuable approach for the discovery of protein biomarkers for early detection or monitoring of a disease. In this study, two analytical methods were compared for quantification of serum proteins in patients with oral cancer. In the first approach, we quantified serum proteins between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and healthy control subjects by performing in-solution digestion of serum proteins, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ labeling of the resulting peptides, strong cation exchange (SCX fractionation of labeled peptides and finally capillary liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis of the peptides. In the second approach, we first separated serum proteins with SDS-PAGE. The gel-separated proteins were then digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were labeled with iTRAQ and analyzed with LC-MS/MS for protein quantification. A total of 319 serum proteins were quantified with the first proteomic approach whereas a total of 281 proteins were quantified by the second proteomic approach. Most of the proteins were identified and quantified by both approaches, suggesting that these methods are similarly effective for serum proteome analysis. This study provides compelling evidence that quantitative serum proteomic analysis of OSCC is a valuable approach for identifying differentially expressed proteins in cancer patients’ circulation systems that may be used as potential biomarkers for disease detection. Further validation in large oral cancer patient populations may lead to a simple and low invasive clinical tool for OSCC diagnosis or monitoring.

  11. Multiple linear regression analysis of the seasonal changes in the serum concentration of beta-cryptoxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Minoru; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2004-06-01

    Beta-cryptoxanthin (beta-CRX) is a carotenoid pigment found in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit, which is heavily produced in Japan. In this study, we evaluated the seasonal changes in the serum beta-CRX level and investigated predictors of serum beta-CRX level by multiple linear regression analysis. Blood tests and self-administered questionnaires were used every other month for one year. The subjects were healthy volunteers, 15 males and 12 females. The serum beta-CRX levels increased dramatically as the intake of Satsuma mandarin increased; the maximum increase was noted in January. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that, in males, the serum beta-CRX level could be predicted by Satsuma mandarin intake, age and the month of blood sampling; however, it was inversely associated with alcohol and smoking habits. Conversely, in females, the serum beta-CRX concentration could be predicted by Satsuma mandarin intake, the month of blood sampling and age; however, it was inversely associated with body mass index. The results of multiple linear regression analysis suggest that the serum beta-CRX levels can be used to evaluate the intake volume of Satsuma mandarin. Furthermore, beta-CRX is a useful biomarker to estimate the beneficial effects of Satsuma mandarin intake in epidemiological studies.

  12. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for the Derivation of Range and Range Distributions from Laser Pulse Waveform Analysis for Surface Elevations, Roughness, Slope, and Vegetation Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Anita C.; Zwally, H. Jay; Bentley, Charles R.; Csatho, Bea M.; Harding, David J.; Hofton, Michelle A.; Minster, Jean-Bernard; Roberts, LeeAnne; Saba, Jack L.; Thomas, Robert H.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the GLAS instrument is to detect ice elevation changes over time which are used to derive changes in ice volume. Other objectives include measuring sea ice freeboard, ocean and land surface elevation, surface roughness, and canopy heights over land. This Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) describes the theory and implementation behind the algorithms used to produce the level 1B products for waveform parameters and global elevation and the level 2 products that are specific to ice sheet, sea ice, land, and ocean elevations respectively. These output products, are defined in detail along with the associated quality, and the constraints, and assumptions used to derive them.

  13. Construction of Waveform Library in Cognitive Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the thoughts of cognitive radar, Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT is used to generate a rotatable waveform libraries of Frank coded/Barker coded waveform in this paper. Then, the ambiguity function is used to analyze the delay resolution, Doppler resolution, delay side-lobe level, and Doppler side-lobe level of the waveform libraries and orthogonality of them is also analyzed. Furthermore, we proved theoretically that there is a fixed coordinate transformation between the waveforms of library and its origin waveform. Therefore, the Cramér-Rao low bound (CRLB of motion parameters can be computed easily using the waveforms of the libraries, which facilitate the subsequent waveform scheduled work. Simulation results show that the library waveforms can reduce delay resolution to satisfy the different situations and can bring significant benefits for delay resolution, orthogonality and reuse interval.

  14. Radar Waveform Design in Active Communications Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Ric A.; Shepherd, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate spectrally adaptive radar transmit waveform design and its effects on an active communication system. We specifically look at waveform design for point targets. The transmit waveform is optimized by accounting for the modulation spectrum of the communication system while trying to efficiently use the remaining spectrum. With the use of spectrally-matched radar waveform, we show that the SER detection performance of the communication system ...

  15. Analysis of serum autoantibodies in patients with HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Xipeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the condition of autoimmunity in patients infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV. MethodsSerum samples were collected from 120 HBV-infected patients and 50 healthy controls. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA and smooth muscle antibodies (SMA were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Antimitochondrial antibody-M2 antigen (AMA-M2 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rheumatoid factor (RF was detected by a scatter turbidity method. Antibodies against soluble liver antigen (SLA/LP, liver kidney microsomal (LKM-1, and liver cystosol antigen type 1 (LC-1 were detected by immunoblotting. ResultsThe positive rate autoantibodies was significantly higher in the HBV-infected patients (48.3% vs. controls: 4.0%, χ2=30375, P<0.05. However, among the HBV-infected patients, there were no significant differences in the positive rates of autoantibodies between the sub-groups of HBV carriers (40.0%, hepatitis (40.0%, hepatic sclerosis (56.7%, and hepatic cancer (56.7% (χ2=3.337, P=0.343. ANA and RF were the most frequently detected autoantibodies. The ANA titer was mostly 1∶100, and the ANA pattern was mostly of the “homogeneous type” or “granular type”. The liver profile (IgG was taken for patients with ANA titer ≥1∶320 and as a result there were only two positive samples of AMA-M2 in the hepatic sclerosis group, indicating that HBV infection can induce autoimmune liver disease. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase were significantly different between the HBV-infected patients who were negative for autoantibodies and those who were positive for autoantibodies (P=0.007, indicating that the autoantibodies contributed to liver function damage. ConclusionHBV-infected individuals express many kinds of autoantibodies, which may promote damage to liver function and should be paid attention to by treating physicians.

  16. Serum S100B levels may be associated with cerebral infarction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hua; Wang, Lu; Yang, Xiao-Kai; Fan, Lu-Ping; Wang, Yao-Guang; Guo, Lei

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to explore the potential association of serum human soluble protein-100B protein (S100B) levels with the diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral infarction (CI). Potential relevant studies were searched for in PubMed, Springerlink, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang databases, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases and VIP databases. Two investigators extracted data and assessed studies independently. Statistical analyses were carried out with the version 12.0 STATA statistical software. A total of 10 case-control studies that assessed the correlation of S100B serum level with CI, including 1211 subjects (patients=773, healthy controls=438) were included. The results showed that S100B serum levels in CI victims were significantly higher compared with those of the control group. According to the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, S100B serum level in CI victims was statistically significant in Asians and the control group, but no statistical significance was found in Caucasians. An additional subgroup analysis was carried out based on sample size, revealing that the S100B serum levels in CI victims in small samples were of statistical significance; however, no statistical significance was discovered in large samples. Elevator S100B serum levels might be negatively correlated with CI, suggesting that higher serum levels of S100B could lead to more serious condition and worse prognoses for CI patients. Therefore, S100B serum levels could be regarded as a biomarker for CI, and furthermore, S100B could aide in the diagnosis and prognosis of CI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Gurvich waveform has lower defibrillation threshold than the rectilinear waveform and the truncated exponential waveform in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fujian; Zarubin, Fidel; Wollenzier, Brian; Nikolski, Vladimir P; Efimov, Igor R

    2005-02-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator studies have established the superiority of biphasic waveforms over monophasic waveforms. However, external defibrillator studies of biphasic waveforms are not as widespread. Our objective was to compare the defibrillation efficacy of clinically used biphasic waveforms, i.e., truncated exponential, rectilinear, and quasi-sinusoidal (Gurvich) waveforms in a fibrillating heart model. Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts (n = 10) were stained with a voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye, Di-4-ANEPPS. Transmembrane action potentials were optically mapped from the anterior epicardium. We found that the Gurvich waveform was significantly superior (p truncated exponential waveforms. The defibrillation thresholds (mean +/- SE) were as follows: Gurvich, 0.25 +/- 0.01 J; rectilinear-1, 0.34 +/- 0.01 J; rectilinear-2, 0.33 +/- 0.01 J; and truncated exponential, 0.32 +/- 0.02 J. Using optically recorded transmembrane responses, we determined the shock-response transfer function, which allowed us to predict the cellular response to waveforms at high accuracy. The passive parallel resistor-capacitor model (RC-model) predicted polarization superiority of the Gurvich waveform in the myocardium with a membrane time constant (taum) of less than 2 ms. The finding of a lower defibrillation threshold with the Gurvich waveform in an in vitro model of external defibrillation suggests that the Gurvich waveform may be important for future external defibrillator designs.

  18. Fast and efficient evaluation of gravitational waveforms via reduced-order spline interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Galley, Chad R

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations of merging black hole binaries produce the most accurate gravitational waveforms. The availability of hundreds of these numerical relativity (NR) waveforms, often containing many higher spherical harmonic modes, allows one to study many aspects of gravitational waves. Amongst these are the response of data analysis pipelines, the calibration of semi-analytical models, the building of reduced-order surrogates, the estimation of the parameters of detected gravitational waves, and the composition of public catalogs of NR waveform data. The large number of generated NR waveforms consequently requires efficient data storage and handling, especially since many more waveforms will be generated at an increased rate in the forthcoming years. In addition, gravitational wave data analyses often require the NR waveforms to be interpolated and uniformly resampled at high sampling rates. Previously, this resulted in very large data files (up to $\\sim$ several GB) in memory-intensive operations, which ...

  19. Surface analysis of polydimethylsiloxane fouled with bovine serum albumin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Windvoel, T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the analysis of biological materials surfaces has grown both academically and industrially. This is because the applications for surfaces in contact with biological materials have also increased. These applications include...

  20. [Speciation analysis of trace elements Cu, Fe and Zn in serum by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Chang, Yao-Ming; Gao, Shuang-Bin; Hai, Chun-Xu; Li, Jin-Sheng; Xie, Xiao-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Since biological functions of the elements are generally different, depending on their chemical forms, chemical speciation analysis is really important in metallomics research. Thus, multielement analysis and chemical speciation of the elements in serum were carried out in the present work. A hyphenated technique was developed for high-throughput speciation analysis of the copper, iron and zinc in serum by molecular biology technology and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Here, Cu, Fe and Zn in serum were classifyied as the forms of combination and non-combination. The serum protein was precipitated by 60% concentration of ethanol under hypothermy. The forms of combination of Cu, Fe and Zn in serum which combined with proteins were in precipitations, and the forms of non-combination of Cu, Fe and Zn in serum, which were free ions, were in supernatant. The total amount of Cu, Fe and Zn in serum and the amount of the forms of non-combination of Cu, Fe and Zn were analyzed by AAS. The amount of the forms of combination of Cu, Fe and Zn was obtained by calculation. The detection limit of Cu in serum by the method is around and 9.84 x 10(-3) microg x mL(-1). For Fe and Zn, the detection limit is about 2.76 x 10(-2) microg x mL(-1) and 1.06 x 10(-3) microg x mL(-1), respectively. The percentage recovery of trace elements Cu, Fe and Zn by the proposed procedure is in the range 95.0%-101.0%, 95.0%-102.0% and 95.0%-103.0%, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of trace elements Cu, Fe and Zn in the serum is in the range 1.88%-2.26%, 0.56%-1.59% and 0.34%-1.36%, respectively. Speciation of trace elements Cu, Fe and Zn in the serum of SD rat were analyzed by the method.

  1. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (http://salvus.io), a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  2. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  3. Calibration-free concentration analysis of protein biomarkers in human serum using surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover Shah, Veenita; Ray, Sandipan; Karlsson, Robert; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-11-01

    In complex biological samples such as serum, determination of specific and active concentration of target proteins, independent of a calibration curve, will be valuable in many applications. Calibration-free concentration analysis (CFCA) is a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based label-free approach, which calculates active concentration of proteins using their known diffusion coefficient and observed changes in binding rates at different flow rates under diffusion-limited conditions. Here, for the first time we demonstrate the application of CFCA for determining protein biomarker abundance, specifically serum amyloid A (SAA), directly in the serum samples of patients suffering from different infectious and non-infectious diseases. The assay involves preparation of appropriate reaction surfaces by immobilizing antibodies on CM5 chips via amine coupling followed by serum sample preparation and injection over activated and reference surfaces at flow-rates of 5 and 100 μL/min. The system was validated in healthy and diseased (infectious and non-infectious) serum samples by quantifying two different proteins: β2-microglobulin (β2M) and SAA. All concentration assays were performed for nearly 100 serum samples, which showed reliable quantification in unattended runs with high accuracy and sensitivity. The method could detect the serum β2M to as low as 13 ng/mL in 1000-fold serum dilution, indicating the possible utility of this approach to detect low abundance protein biomarkers in body fluids. Applying the CFCA approach, significant difference in serum abundance of SAA was identified in diseased subjects as compared to the healthy controls, which correlated well with our previous proteomic investigations. Estimation of SAA concentration for a subset of healthy and diseased sera was also performed using ELISA, and the trend was observed to be similar in both SPR assay and ELISA. The reproducibility of CFCA in various serum samples made the interpretation of assay

  4. SGA scores have poor correlation with serum albumin in obese hemodialysis patients: a secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Eric D; Hand, Rosa K; Steiber, Alison L

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between serum albumin and the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) in a sample of obese hemodialysis (HD) patients. Study subjects (N = 253) included patients who were categorized into well-nourished (68%, SGA score 6-7) and malnourished (score 1-5) groups, and, on the basis of the body mass index (BMI), into obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2); 35%) and nonobese (BMI SGA Validation Project and Nutrition Algorithm Preliminary Report determined the relationship between the 7-point SGA and serum albumin concentrations in a sample of obese HD patients. Data were analyzed at Case Western Reserve University from a total of 253 HD patients. The SGA scores in the BMI groups were compared with serum albumin as an objective measure of nutrition and inflammation risk. By using analysis of variance, the obese and nonobese populations showed statistically significant differences in SGA scores (obese: P SGA group with age and gender as covariates. Serum albumin values (P SGA group. The secondary analysis showed that SGA does not correlate well with serum albumin; thus, it may not be a valid nutrition assessment tool among obese HD patients. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of methods for calculating serum osmolality: multivariate linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Mehdi; Kalantari, Kiarash Rezaei

    2005-01-01

    There are several methods for calculating serum osmolality, and their accordance with measured osmolality is the subject of controversy. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and osmolalities of 210 serum samples were measured. Two empirical equations were deduced for the calculation of serum osmolality by regression analysis of the data. To choose the best equation, chemical concentrations were also used to calculate osmolalities according to our formulas and 16 different equations were taken from the literature and compared with the measured osmolalities. Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed using Excel and SPSS software. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum concentrations of sodium (beta = 0.778, pformula presented by Dorwart and Chalmers gave inferior results to those obtained with our formulas. Our data suggest use of the Worthley et al. formula Osm = 2[Na +]+glucose+BUN for rapid mental calculation and the formulas of Bhagat et al. or ours for calculation of serum osmolality by equipment linked to a computer.

  6. Plasma/Serum Zinc Status During Aerobic Exercise Recovery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anna; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Exercise and the subsequent recovery processes have been proposed to induce disturbances in zinc homeostasis. We previously reported acute increase in serum zinc concentration immediately after aerobic exercise; the change in the indices of zinc status during exercise recovery was not explored. The aim of the current analysis is to determine the changes in zinc biomarkers during recovery from an aerobic exercise bout. We conducted a systematic literature search on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and SPORTDiscus electronic databases from inception to 20 December 2014 to identify studies that investigated the acute effects of exercise on selected indices of zinc status. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the change in serum zinc concentration during exercise recovery, defined as up to 4 h following exercise cessation, compared to pre-exercise levels. Forty-five studies were included in the systematic literature review, of which 12 studies (providing 18 comparisons) reported serum zinc levels after the cessation of exercise. During exercise recovery, serum zinc concentration was significantly lower than pre-exercise values (-1.31 ± 0.22 μmol/L, P meta-analysis of other zinc biomarkers. The present analysis showed that serum zinc levels decrease significantly during exercise recovery, compared to pre-exercise levels. This extends our previous report of an increase in serum zinc immediately after exercise. We postulate that the exercise-induced fluctuations in zinc homeostasis are linked to the muscle repair mechanisms following exercise; the potential for zinc to enhance the exercise recovery process remains to be determined.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum.

  8. Assessing the challenges of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis of blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caryn; Brown, Michael; Clemens, Graeme; Henderson, Alex; Monjardez, Geraldine; Clarke, Noel W; Gardner, Peter

    2014-04-01

    There are many approaches to measuring the infrared spectrum of a blood serum sample. Naturally, each approach will have both advantages and disadvantages. We report on the progress of the application of infrared spectroscopy in the field of blood serum analysis towards clinical application, with a focus on prostate cancer. In order to perform a high-powered study with clinical relevance, choosing the most suitable approach must undergo careful consideration. We review the possibilities of using different sample preparation methods and speculate upon the potential pitfalls of both transmission and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) techniques. Copyright © 2014 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  9. Application of FT-IR spectroscopy on breast cancer serum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Movaghar, Afshin Fayyaz; Elmi, Maryam Mitra; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nikbakhsh, Novin

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer is regarded as the most malignant tumor among women throughout the world. Therefore, early detection and proper diagnostic methods have been known to help save women's lives. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with PCA-LDA analysis, is a new technique to investigate the characteristics of serum in breast cancer. In this study, 43 breast cancer and 43 healthy serum samples were collected, and the FT-IR spectra were recorded for each one. Then, PCA analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the spectral data. The results showed that there were differences between the spectra of the two groups. Discriminating wavenumbers were associated with several spectral differences over the 950-1200 cm- 1(sugar), 1190-1350 cm- 1 (collagen), 1475-1710 cm- 1 (protein), 1710-1760 cm- 1 (ester), 2800-3000 cm- 1 (stretching motions of -CH2 & -CH3), and 3090-3700 cm- 1 (NH stretching) regions. PCA-LDA performance on serum IR could recognize changes between the control and the breast cancer cases. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PCA-LDA analysis for 3000-3600 cm- 1 (NH stretching) were found to be 83%, 84%, 74% for the control and 80%, 76%, 72% for the breast cancer cases, respectively. The results showed that the major spectral differences between the two groups were related to the differences in protein conformation in serum samples. It can be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy, together with multivariate data analysis, is able to discriminate between breast cancer and healthy serum samples.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Serum Mineral Levels and Parasite Load in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünübol Aypak, Serap; Aypak, Süleyman; Voyvoda, Hüseyin; Güven, Gülşen; Dereli Fidan, Evrim; Tosun, Gamze; Gültekin, Mehmet; Şimşek, Emrah; Gülçe Güler, Asude

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum mineral levels and parasite load in Saanen (n=37) and Damascus (n=13) goats, which were all approximately 2 months pregnant and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. To determine parasite concentration individually, fecal samples were taken from each goat, and the eggs per gram (EPG) of feces was detected via a modified McMaster technique. To investigate the possible effects of parasite concentration on serum mineral levels, blood was drawn from the goats and serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, nickel, and cadmium levels were measured via the ICP-OES technique. In a correlation analysis of the individual EPG values and mineral levels performed on the basis of the species, it was seen that increased egg numbers did not cause a statistically significant increase or decrease in Saanens except for cadmium (significant moderate positive correlation, ppregnancy and deliveries, on blood mineral levels would be much more significant.

  11. [Serum metabolomics analysis on benign prostate hyperplasia in mice based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yue; Sun, Fengxia; Ma, Yu; Deng, Ligang; Lü, Jianyun; Li, Teng; Wang, Congcong

    2014-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) increasingly becomes a common factor affecting the quality of life of aging men. Its pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) was employed to detect the changes of serum metabolites in normal mice, benign prostatic hyperplasia model mice and BPH model mice with finasteride intervention. The serum metabolite profiles of the three groups of mice were analyzed. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used for group differentiation and biomarker selection. The results showed good distinction among the three groups of mice serum metabolite spectra. Three potential biomarkers, 1-hexadecanoyl-SN-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine and (Z)-13-docosenamide, were discovered and identified. They all indicated the occurrence of benign prostatic hypertrophy is closely related to the disorders of lipid metabolism. Coinpared with the control group, the contents of the first two substances were significantly increased in the serum of BPH model mice, and significantly decreased after intervened by finasteride. The contents of (Z)-13-docosenamide decreased significantly in the serum of model group, and increased after intervened by finasteride. Compared with the control group, the contents of three biomarkers in finasteride group did not recover completely and had significant differences. This study is conductive to open new avenues of diagnosis and medical treatment for BPH.

  12. Analysis of the NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase profiles in serum-limited Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Piccoli Frasson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite of the human urogenital tract that causes trichomonosis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase family members, which hydrolyse extracellular ATP and ADP and ecto-5′-nucleotidase, which hydrolyses AMP, have been characterised in T. vaginalis. For trichomonad culture, the growth medium is supplemented with 10% serum, which is an important source of nutrients, such as adenosine. Here, we investigated the ATP metabolism of T. vaginalis trophozoites from long-term cultures and clinical isolates under limited bovine serum conditions (1% serum. The specific enzymatic activities were expressed as nmol inorganic phosphate (Pi released/min/mg protein, the gene expression patterns were determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography and the cell cycle analysis was assessed by flow cytometry. Serum limitation led to the profound activation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities. Furthermore, the levels of NTPDase A and B transcripts increased and extracellular ATP metabolism was activated, which led to enhanced ATP hydrolysis and the formation of ADP and AMP. Moreover, the cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 stage, which suggested adenosine uptake. Our data suggest that under conditions of serum limitation, NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase play a role in providing the adenosine required for T. vaginalis growth and that this process contributes to the establishment of parasitism.

  13. Association between serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Chen, Yi; Fang, Yun; Yao, Yingshui

    2015-01-01

    It is definite that the serum iron level has a positive correlation with the risk of obesity. However, the association between increased serum ferritin levels and the metabolic syndrome still remains controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to confirm the association between serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome. We searched PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for relevant articles that assessed the association between serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome and were published between 2006 and 2014. Review Manage 5.3 software was used to collect and analysis the data cited in the ultimately selected papers. The variance was exhibited using the forest plot and the heterogeneity among studies was examined using the I(2) index. We use the funnel plot to evaluate the publication bias. Cross-sectional study, case-control study and prospective cohort study met our inclusion criteria including data from a total of 4,797 participants. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the metabolic syndrome comparing the highest and lowest category of ferritin levels was 1.20 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.71; I(2)=96%). The meta-analysis demonstrates that elevated ferritin levels are positive aassociated with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Breast imaging using waveform attenuation tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Sandhu, Gursharan Y.; Boone, Michael; Duric, Neb

    2017-03-01

    Ex vivo studies using our ultrasound waveform attenuation algorithm have shown promising results for detection and characterization of lesions of different types. Our preliminary in vivo study shows that the waveform attenuation image has much higher resolution and can better delineate breast lesions boundaries than the corresponding ray-based attenuation image. In this study, we preprocessed our time domain waveforms acquired with a ring array and explored the directional transducer beam pattern to better match calculated wave fields with respect to the acquired wave fields. We have applied waveform attenuation to in vivo data and compared the resulting waveform attenuation images with the ray-based counterparts to assess the resolution and accuracy of the waveform attenuation reconstruction.

  15. Effects of simvastatin on serum adiponectin: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibin; Huang, Zhuo; Bi, Minghui; Xu, Xuejing; Zhao, Nengjiang

    2017-03-13

    Effects of simvastatin on serum level of adiponectin, a protein conferring benefits in both cardiovascular and metabolic system, are not fully determined. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed. Studies were identified by searching of Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases. Heterogeneity among the RCTs was determined by Cochrane's Q test and I(2) statistics. Meta-analysis was performed with random-effect model or fixed-effect model according to the heterogeneity. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to analyze the source of heterogeneity. Twelve RCTs with 16 comparisons and 1042 patients were included. Overall, serum adiponectin was not significantly affected by simvastatin (WMD: 0.42 μg/mL; 95% CI, -0.66-1.50 μg/mL). However, significant heterogeneity was detected (Cochrane's Q test: p simvastatin treatment on serum adiponectin (Coefficient 0.04, p = 0.03). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that simvastatin treatment was associated with increased adiponectin in studies with treatment duration of 12 weeks (WMD: 3.65 μg/mL; p simvastatin of 12 weeks may increase the serum level adiponectin in patients at risk for cardiovascular diseases, but not for the short term treatment of ≤ 8 weeks.

  16. Analysis of serum cortisol levels by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for diagnosis of stress in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Campos Lemes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy is a technique with great potential for body fluids analyses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of session training on cortisol concentrations in rugby players by means of infrared analysis of serum. Methods Blood collections were performed pre, post and 24 hours after of rugby training sessions. Serum cortisol was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results There was a significant difference between the integrated area, in the region of 1180-1102 cm-1, of the spectra for pre, post and post 24 h serums. The cortisol concentration obtained by chemiluminescent immunoassay showed no significant difference between pre, post and post 24 h. Positive correlations were obtained between the techniques (r = 0.75, post (r = 0.83 and post 24 h (r = 0.73. Conclusion The results showed no increase in cortisol levels of the players after the training sessions, as well as positive correlations indicating that FT-IR spectroscopy have produced promising results for the analysis of serum for diagnosis of stress.

  17. Correlations of ANP genetic polymorphisms and serum levels with ischemic stroke risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, De-Guang; Zhang, Dong-Yong; Wang, Zhan-Fu; Ding, Da-Ling; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun-Jie

    2014-05-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations between atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) genetic polymorphism and its serum ANP levels with the risk of ischemic stroke. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before October 1st, 2013 without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with their 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Twelve case-control studies that met all inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 1285 patients with ischemic stroke and 1088 healthy control subjects were involved in this meta-analysis. Three common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (1837 G/A, 2238 T/C, and 664 G/A) in the ANP gene were assessed. Our meta-analysis results revealed that ANP 2238 T/C polymorphism might increase the risk of ischemic stroke (C allele vs. T allele: OR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.59-3.23, pANP 1837 G/A and 664 G/A polymorphisms with ischemic stroke risk (all p>0.05). Furthermore, ischemic stroke patients had higher levels of serum ANP than those of healthy control subjects (SMD=3.12, 95% CI: 1.16-5.07, p=0.002). Our study revealed no publication bias in this meta-analysis (all p>0.05). Our findings indicate that ANP genetic polymorphism and serum ANP levels may contribute to the development of ischemic stroke. Thus, the ANP genetic polymorphism and serum ANP levels could be potential biomarkers for early detection of ischemic stroke.

  18. Seismic waveform analyses for the 1938 Off Fukushima earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murotani, S.; Satake, K.

    2016-12-01

    The 1938 Off Fukushima (Shioya-oki) earthquakes sequence, which consists of five earthquakes of Mjmaranging from 6.9 to 7.5, occurred in the southern part of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake source area. In this region, the 1938 sequence was the only known M 7 earthquakes until the 2011 Tohoku earthquake occurred. Abe (1977, Tectonophysics) estimated the focal mechanisms and seismic moments of these events. The source parameters of the earthquake sequence are shown in the following table. However, the slip distributions are not known. Murotani et al. (2004, SSJ Fall Meeting) estimated slip distributions for event 1 (Mw 7.6, Fault size 60 km x 70 km), event 2 (Mw 7.9, Fault size 80 km x 60 km), and event 3 (Mw 7.8, Fault size 90 km x 60 km) from inversion of near-field seismic waveforms at Sendai, Niigata, Maebashi, Mito, and Hongo (Tokyo). We compared the observed teleseismic waveforms at Christchurch (CHR), De Bilt (DBN), Pasadena (PAS), and Pulkovo (PUL) with the calculated waveforms from these slip distributions. The result showed that the computed waveforms fairly reproduced the phases of the observation but the amplitudes for all events were several to several tens of times larger than the observations. It means that the slip amount and Mwobtained from the near field seismic waveforms inversion were over-estimated. For event 3, the slip distribution estimated from near-field data has two large slip areas (asperities) to the north and south of the hypocenter, although only the southern asperity was able to reproduce the observed near-field seismic waveforms. When we calculate the teleseismic waveforms using one asperity model, the amplitudes become small and the phases are reproduced better compared to two asperities model. Event 3 therefore seemed to have only one asperity. In addition to the re-analysis of near field seismic data, tsunami waveforms will be also computed and compared with the observations. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16H

  19. Partitioned Waveform Inversion Applied to Eurasia and Northern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    bedle, H; Matzel, E; Flanagan, M

    2006-07-27

    This report summarizes the data analysis achieved during Heather Bedle's eleven-week Technical Scholar internship at Lawrence Livermore National Labs during the early summer 2006. The work completed during this internship resulted in constraints on the crustal and upper mantle S-velocity structure in Northern Africa, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Europe, through the fitting of regional waveform data. This data extends current raypath coverage and will be included in a joint inversion along with data from surface wave group velocity measurements, S and P teleseismic arrival time data, and receiver function data to create an improved velocity model of the upper mantle in this region. The tectonic structure of the North African/Mediterranean/Europe/Middle Eastern study region is extremely heterogeneous. This region consists of, among others, stable cratons and platforms such as the West Africa Craton, and Baltica in Northern Europe; oceanic subduction zones throughout the Mediterranean Sea where the African and Eurasian plate collide; regions of continental collision as the Arabian Plate moves northward into the Turkish Plate; and rifting in the Red Sea, separating the Arabian and Nubian shields. With such diverse tectonic structures, many of the waveforms were difficult to fit. This is not unexpected as the waveforms are fit using an averaged structure. In many cases the raypaths encounter several tectonic features, complicating the waveform, and making it hard for the software to converge on a 1D average structure. Overall, the quality of the waveform data was average, with roughly 30% of the waveforms being discarded due to excessive noise that interfered with the frequency ranges of interest. An inversion for the 3D S-velocity structure of this region was also performed following the methodology of Partitioned Waveform Inversion (Nolet, 1990; Van der Lee and Nolet, 1997). The addition of the newly fit waveforms drastically extends the range of the

  20. Goldstone Solar System Radar Waveform Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    Due to distances and relative motions among the transmitter, target object, and receiver, the time-base between any transmitted and received signal will undergo distortion. Pre-distortion of the transmitted signal to compensate for this time-base distortion allows reception of an undistorted signal. In most radar applications, an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) would be used to store the pre-calculated waveform and then play back this waveform during transmission. The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), however, has transmission durations that exceed the available memory storage of such a device. A waveform generator capable of real-time pre-distortion of a radar waveform to a given time-base distortion function is needed. To pre-distort the transmitted signal, both the baseband radar waveform and the RF carrier must be modified. In the GSSR, this occurs at the up-conversion mixing stage to an intermediate frequency (IF). A programmable oscillator (PO) is used to generate the IF along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the RF carrier. This serves as the IF input to the waveform generator where it is mixed with a baseband radar waveform whose time-base has been distorted to match the given time-base distortion function producing the modulated IF output. An error control feedback loop is used to precisely control the time-base distortion of the baseband waveform, allowing its real-time generation. The waveform generator produces IF modulated radar waveforms whose time-base has been pre-distorted to match a given arbitrary function. The following waveforms are supported: continuous wave (CW), frequency hopped (FH), binary phase code (BPC), and linear frequency modulation (LFM). The waveform generator takes as input an IF with a time varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier. The waveform generator supports interconnection with deep-space network (DSN) timing and frequency standards, and

  1. Serum and tissue leptin in lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiang; Ma, Yao; Zhou, Qilong; He, Jie; Peng, Bo; Liu, Sitong; Yan, Zhipeng; Yang, Xin; Fan, Hong

    2017-03-21

    Many studies have found that leptin is involved in tumorigenesis and the progression of lung cancer. However, these studies were inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the role of leptin in the patients with lung cancer. A systematic literature search in the several databases and on commercial Internet search engines was carried out to identify studies published up to July 8, 2016. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to investigate the effect sizes. Finally, 21 eligible articles were included in the current meta-analysis. Overall, there is no relationship between levels of serum leptin and lung cancer. However, a subgroup analysis in high-study quality group found a weak association between serum leptin concentrations and lung cancer in Chinese (SMD=0.77, P=0.035). Additionally, the meta-analysis indicates that the serum leptin levels were lower in the weight-losing group than in the sustained weight group (SMD=-0.80, P=0.001). Further, there was evidence of a significant association between expression levels of leptin protein in tissue and lung cancer (OR=7.35, Pleptin may be involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and tumor metastasis, especially among Chinese. However, the leptin may not appear to play an important role in cancer cachexia development.

  2. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2017-05-26

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  3. Categorisation of full waveform data provided by laser scanning devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Andreas; Pfennigbauer, Martin

    2011-11-01

    In 2004, a laser scanner device for commercial airborne laser scanning applications, the RIEGL LMS-Q560, was introduced to the market, making use of a radical alternative approach to the traditional analogue signal detection and processing schemes found in LIDAR instruments so far: digitizing the echo signals received by the instrument for every laser pulse and analysing these echo signals off-line in a so-called full waveform analysis in order to retrieve almost all information contained in the echo signal using transparent algorithms adaptable to specific applications. In the field of laser scanning the somewhat unspecific term "full waveform data" has since been established. We attempt a categorisation of the different types of the full waveform data found in the market. We discuss the challenges in echo digitization and waveform analysis from an instrument designer's point of view and we will address the benefits to be gained by using this technique, especially with respect to the so-called multi-target capability of pulsed time-of-flight LIDAR instruments.

  4. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  5. Presence of Serum Ferritin before and after Bariatric Surgery: Analysis in Dentate and Edentulous Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquim, Victor; Sales Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Chaim, Elinton Adami

    2016-01-01

    Society has changed its own lifestyle, specially its eating habits and physical activities, leading to excessive weight and a sedentary behavior, which has contributed to obesity increase. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to obesity, allowing weight loss and its maintenance. However, it has been related high levels of iron deficiency after surgery. A person’s nutritional status might be affected by total or partial tooth loss. The aim of this longitudinal prospective cohort study was to evaluate the levels of serum ferritin before and after bariatric surgery and to identify if there is a relation with tooth loss. The sample was composed of 50 patients selected and assisted at Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in Jaú city, Brazil. The use and necessity of prosthesis, dental absence or presence, and serum ferritin dosage were evaluated. Student’s t test, Univariate analysis, Chi-square and Odds Ratio were adopted (psurgery (p = 0.436). After surgery, the serum ferritin levels were higher in edentulous patients (prosthesis users) when compared to the pre-surgical levels, and the post-surgical levels presented significant difference regarding the dentate patients (p = 0.024). It can be concluded that rehabilitated patients in postoperative period showed better levels of serum ferritin after surgical intervention. PMID:27695053

  6. Ascending-ramp biphasic waveform has a lower defibrillation threshold and releases less troponin I than a truncated exponential biphasic waveform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Jian; Walcott, Gregory P; Ruse, Richard B; Bohanan, Scott J; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2012-01-01

    .... Defibrillation thresholds were determined for 11 waveforms-3 ascending-ramp waveforms, 3 descending-ramp waveforms, 3 rectilinear first-phase biphasic waveforms, a Gurvich waveform, and a truncated...

  7. Waveform Diversity: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Pythagoras , continuing with the studies of Galileo, Fourier, and Maxwell. Examples of waveform diversity in nature, such as the bath sonar signal...music from the epoch of Pythagoras , continuing with the studies of Galileo, Fourier, and Maxwell. Examples of waveform diversity in nature, such as the

  8. Biphasic truncated exponential waveform defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D; Blanton, D M

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents data from studies that have compared the efficacies of biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) and monophasic damped sine (MDS) waveform defibrillation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in in-hospital defibrillation. When a shock is delivered, rhythms evolve rapidly in a variety of directions and take different courses, even over a short time. When defibrillation is defined as termination of ventricular fibrillation at 5 seconds postshock, whether to an organized rhythm or asystole, low-energy BTE shocks appear to be more effective than high-energy MDS shocks in out-of-hospital arrest. For future research, the terms associated with defibrillation should be standardized and used uniformly by all investi-gators. In particular, there should be an agreed-upon definition of shock efficacy.

  9. Rapid thyroid dysfunction screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lü, Guodong; Zhai, Zhengang; Du, Guoli; Mo, Jiaqing; Lü, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis are used to investigate a rapid screening technique for thyroid function diseases. At present, the detection of thyroid function has become increasingly important, and it is urgently necessary to develop a rapid and portable method for the detection of thyroid function. Our experimental results show that, by using the Silmeco-based enhanced Raman signal, the signal strength greatly increases and the characteristic peak appears obviously. It is also observed that the Raman spectra of normal and anomalous thyroid function human serum are significantly different. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to diagnose thyroid dysfunction, and the diagnostic accuracy was 87.4%. The use of serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology combined with PCA–LDA shows good diagnostic performance for the rapid detection of thyroid function. By means of Raman technology, it is expected that a portable device for the rapid detection of thyroid function will be developed.

  10. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Six New Loci for Serum Calcium Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. O'Seaghdha (Conall); H. Wu (Hongsheng); Q. Yang (Qiong); K. Kapur (Karen); I. Guessous (Idris); P. Zuber (Patrick); A. Köttgen (Anna); C. Stoudmann (Candice); A. Teumer (Alexander); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); M. Mangino (Massimo); A. Dehghan (Abbas); W. Zhang (Weihua); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); G. Li (Guo); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); L. Portas (Laura); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Lohman (Kurt); K. Matsuda (Koichi); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); D. Firsov (Dmitri); R. Sorice; S. Ulivi (Shelia); A.C. Brockhaus (A. Catharina); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); A. Mahajan (Anubha); F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A. Mace (Aurelien); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.E. Arking (Dan); C. Tanikawa (Chizu); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); M.J. Brown (Morris); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); J.-M. Theler (Jean-Marc); D.S. Siscovick (David); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); P. Vollenweider (Peter); V. Vitart (Veronique); A.F. Wright (Alan); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); M. Boban (Mladen); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Navarro (Pau); E.M. Brown (Edward); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); J. Ding (Jinhui); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Girotto; D. Ruggiero; P. d' Adamo (Pio); A. Robino (Antonietta); T. Meitinger (Thomas); C. Meisinger (Christa); G. Davies (Gail); J.M. Starr (John); J.C. Chambers (John); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); B. Winkelmann; J. Huang (Jian); D. Murgia (Daniela); S.H. Wild (Sarah); H. Campbell (Harry); A.D. Morris (Andrew); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); U. Vol̈ker (Uwe); M. Hannemann (Mario); R. Biffar (Reiner); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); S.-Y. Shin; P. Lescuyer (Pierre); H. Henry (Hughes); C. Schurmann (Claudia); P. Munroe (Patricia); P. Gasparini (Paolo); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Ciullo; C. Gieger (Christian); W. März (Winfried); L. Lind (Lars); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G.D. Smith; I. Rudan (Igor); J.F. Wilson (James); O. Polasek (Ozren); I.J. Deary (Ian); M. Pirastu (Mario); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); Y. Liu (Yongmei); B. Kestenbaum (Bryan); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M. Nauck (Matthias); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); O. Bonny (Olivier); C. Fox (Craig); M. Bochud (Murielle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCalcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17

  11. Feasibility of Biological Effective Monitoring of Chrome Electroplaters to Chromium through Analysis of Serum Malondialdehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mozafari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Great concern about occupational exposure to chromium (Cr [VI] has been reported due to escalated risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. Consequences of occupational exposure to Cr (VI have been reported as oxidative stress and lung tissue damage. Objective: To investigate the feasibility of biological effect monitoring of chrome electroplaters through analysis of serum malondialdehyde (MDA. Methods: 90 workers directly involved in chrome electroplating—categorized into three equal groups based on their job as near bath workers, degreaser, and washers—and 30 workers without exposure to Cr (VI, served as the control group, were studied. Personal samples were collected and analyzed according to NIOSH method 7600. Serum MDA level was measured by HPLC using a UV detector. Results: Median Cr (VI exposure level was 0.38 mg/m3 in near bath workers, 0.20 mg/m3 in degreasers, and 0.05 mg/m3 in washers. The median serum MDA level of three exposed groups (2.76 μmol/L was significantly (p<0.001 higher than that in the control group (2.00 μmol/L. There was a positive correlation between electroplaters' level of exposure to Cr (VI and their serum MDA level (Spearman's ρ 0.806, p<0.001. Conclusion: Serum MDA level is a good biomarker for the level of occupational exposure to Cr (VI in electroplaters.

  12. Feasibility of Biological Effective Monitoring of Chrome Electroplaters to Chromium through Analysis of Serum Malondialdehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, P; Rezazadeh Azari, M; Shokoohi, Y; Sayadi, M

    2016-10-01

    Great concern about occupational exposure to chromium (Cr [VI]) has been reported due to escalated risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. Consequences of occupational exposure to Cr (VI) have been reported as oxidative stress and lung tissue damage. To investigate the feasibility of biological effect monitoring of chrome electroplaters through analysis of serum malondialdehyde (MDA). 90 workers directly involved in chrome electroplating---categorized into three equal groups based on their job as near bath workers, degreaser, and washers---and 30 workers without exposure to Cr (VI), served as the control group, were studied. Personal samples were collected and analyzed according to NIOSH method 7600. Serum MDA level was measured by HPLC using a UV detector. Median Cr (VI) exposure level was 0.38 mg/m(3) in near bath workers, 0.20 mg/m(3) in degreasers, and 0.05 mg/m(3) in washers. The median serum MDA level of three exposed groups (2.76 μmol/L) was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that in the control group (2.00 μmol/L). There was a positive correlation between electroplaters' level of exposure to Cr (VI) and their serum MDA level (Spearman's ρ 0.806, p<0.001). Serum MDA level is a good biomarker for the level of occupational exposure to Cr (VI) in electroplaters.

  13. Analysis of IGF and IGFBP as prognostic serum biomarkers for adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhaval; Ellis, Ryan; Howard, Brandi; Boufraqech, Myriem; Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Zhang, Lisa; Quezado, Martha M; Nilubol, Naris; Kebebew, Electron

    2014-10-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) lacks diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to guide treatment. A consistently dysregulated pathway in ACC is the IGF signaling pathway, specifically overexpression of IGF2, IGF-I-receptor, and IGFBP2. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of serum IGF and IGFBP levels and to determine their utility as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in ACC. Preoperative serum samples from 53 patients who underwent surgery for adrenocortical adenomas, 3 patients who underwent initial surgery for ACC, 16 patients who underwent reoperative surgery for ACC, and 5 healthy volunteer controls were analyzed. The serum concentration of IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP1, IGFBP2, and IGFBP3 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No difference in the levels of IGF2 (p = .231) and IGFBP2 (p = .511) was observed between patients with ACC, benign adrenocortical tumors, and healthy volunteers. IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 levels were not detected. High IGFBP2 levels were associated with better overall survival (OS) (p = .001) and showed a trend toward better abdominal progression-free (APFS) survival (p = .070) in patients with ACC. A subanalysis of patients undergoing reoperation for recurrent ACC showed better OS with high levels of IGFBP2 (p = .003) and a trend toward better APFS (p = .107). There was no significant difference in IGF2 and IGFBP2 levels by extent of disease. IGF2 and IGFBP2 are not elevated in the serum of patients with ACC compared with patients with benign neoplasms and healthy volunteers. Elevated serum IGFBP2 is associated with better survival in patients with ACC and those undergoing reoperative surgery for recurrent ACC.

  14. Serum protein expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis in workers occupationally exposed to chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guiping; Wang, Tianjing; Liu, Jiaxing; Chen, Zhangjian; Zhong, Lijun; Yu, Shanfa; Zhao, Zuchang; Zhai, Min; Jia, Guang

    2017-08-05

    Cr(VI) is widely-recognized as occupational and environmental contaminant, but the precise underlying mechanisms of Cr(VI) induced carcinogenic toxicity remain to be elucidated. Among kinds of toxic mechanisms, alteration of protein profiling usually elaborate a key mechanism of Cr(VI) induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. Large-scale proteins changes can reflect the onset or progression of carcinogenic toxicity, and potential serum protein biomarkers of Cr(VI) exposure. To gain an insight into the serum proteins expression profiling in chromate workers and find potential novel serum proteins biomarkers of Cr(VI) exposure, 107 male participants from a chromate production plant were recruited into the study. Questionnaire was applied to collect personal information and occupational history. Chromium concentration in blood (CrB) was measured to evaluate the participants' internal exposure. Serum proteins profiling and bioinformatics analysis were performed to explore differentially expressed proteins, proteins-chemical interaction network, critical proteins nodes related to the signaling pathways among 16 controls and 25 exposure workers in the first stage. ELISA tests were applied to verify the critical interested proteins nodes in the remaining 41 exposure workers and 25 controls. The results showed that the CrB levels in the control group were significantly lower than that in the exposure group (P<0.05). 44 significantly differentially expressed serum proteins formed 16 significant signaling pathways and a complex proteins-chemical interaction network, which associated with the immune system and extracellular matrix organization. C reactive protein (CRP), sonic hedgehog protein (SHH) and calcium located at critical nodes in proteins-chemical interaction network. There was a significant negative correlation between serum CRP level and CrB (P<0.05), and a significant positive correlation between SHH concentrations and CrB (P<0.05), which indicated that CRP and SHH

  15. Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.

  16. Augmented kludge waveforms for detecting extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Moore, Christopher J.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2017-08-01

    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important class of source for the future space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA. Detecting signals from EMRIs will require waveform models that are both accurate and computationally efficient. In this paper, we present the latest implementation of an augmented analytic kludge (AAK) model, publicly available at https://github.com/alvincjk/EMRI_Kludge_Suite as part of an EMRI waveform software suite. This version of the AAK model has improved accuracy compared to its predecessors, with two-month waveform overlaps against a more accurate fiducial model exceeding 0.97 for a generic range of sources; it also generates waveforms 5-15 times faster than the fiducial model. The AAK model is well suited for scoping out data analysis issues in the upcoming round of mock LISA data challenges. A simple analytic argument shows that it might even be viable for detecting EMRIs with LISA through a semicoherent template bank method, while the use of the original analytic kludge in the same approach will result in around 90% fewer detections.

  17. Serum metabonomic analysis of protective effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on renal fibrosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangcai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yang, Yunjun; Zheng, Yongquan; Dong, Minjian; Wang, Yaqiang; Bai, Guanghui; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma aromatica oil is a traditional herbal medicine demonstrating protective and anti-fibrosis activities in renal fibrosis patients. However, study of its mechanism of action is challenged by its multiple components and multiple targets that its active agent acts on. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics combined with clinical chemistry and histopathology examination were performed to evaluate intervening effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on renal interstitial fibrosis rats induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. The metabolite levels were compared based on integral values of serum 1H NMR spectra from rats on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the medicine administration. Time trajectory analysis demonstrated that metabolic profiles of the agent-treated rats were restored to control levels after 7 days of dosage. The results confirmed that the agent would be an effective anti-fibrosis medicine in a time-dependent manner, especially in early renal fibrosis stage. Targeted metabolite analysis showed that the medicine could lower levels of lipid, acetoacetate, glucose, phosphorylcholine/choline, trimethylamine oxide and raise levels of pyruvate, glycine in the serum of the rats. Serum clinical chemistry and kidney histopathology examination dovetailed well with the metabonomics data. The results substantiated that Curcuma aromatica oil administration can ameliorate renal fibrosis symptoms by inhibiting some metabolic pathways, including lipids metabolism, glycolysis and methylamine metabolism, which are dominating targets of the agent working in vivo. This study further strengthens the novel analytical approach for evaluating the effect of traditional herbal medicine and elucidating its molecular mechanism.

  18. Quantification of fentanyl in serum by isotope dilution analysis using capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sera, Shoji; Goromaru, Tsuyoshi [Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan); Sameshima, Teruko; Kawasaki, Koichi; Oda, Toshiyuki

    1998-06-01

    The quantitative determination of fentanyl (FT) in serum was examined by isotope dilution analysis using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a surface ionization detector. The separation of FT and its deuterated analogue, FT-{sup 2}H{sub 19}, was achieved within 15 min a column temperature of 260degC by using a 25 m column. Measurement of the samples prepared by the addition of a known amount of FT in the range of 0.2 to 40 ng/ml with 20 ng/ml of FT-{sup 2}H{sub 19} to human control serum allowed observation of a linear relationship between the peak area ratio and the added amount ratio. The correlation coefficient obtained by regression analysis was 0.999. The advantage of the present isotope dilution method was demonstrated by comparison with other FT analogues which substituted a propionyl group with an acetyl group or a phenethyl group with a benzyl group as the internal standard. The present method was used to determine the serum level of FT in surgical patients after i.v. administration. No endogenous compounds and concomitant drugs interfered with the detection of FT or FT-{sup 2}H{sub 19}. This method was considered to be useful for the pharmacokinetic study of FT in patients. (author)

  19. [Analysis of serum lipids levels and the establishment of reference intervals for serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chunmei; Yue, Chaoyan; Zhang, Chunyi; Li, Xiaotian

    2015-12-01

    To explore the serum lipids levels in healthy pregnant women, and to establish the reference intervals of serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy. Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), apo-lipoprotein-A(APO-A) and apo-lipoprotein-B (APO-B) were measured in 3 200 pregnant women and 3 200 healthy women of childbearing age(the control group) from January 2014 to Febuary 2015 in Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University. In the healthy pregnant women, serum lipids were measured at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks, respectively. All the parameters were detected by Hitachi 7180 automatic biochemical analyzer. The test results were calculated and determined by the C28-A3 standard of the National Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. And the normal reference intervals of serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy were defined as 2.5%-97.5%. (1) The levels of TG, TCH, HDL, LDL, APO-A and APO-B in the control group were 0.8, 4.2, 1.0, 2.7 mmol/L and 1.1, 0.8 g/L, respectively. The levels of TG, TCH, HDL, LDL, APO-A and APO-B in middle and late pregnancy were significantly higher than those in the control group (Plipids levels at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks in healthy pregnant women were compared with the control group as following. The TG levels were 1.9, 3.8 and 4.4 folds of the control group; the TCH levels were 1.1, 1.5 and 1.5 folds of the control group; the HDL levels were 1.2, 1.6 and 1.5 folds of the control group; the LDL levels were 1.1, 1.4 and 1.4 folds of the control group; the APO-A levels were 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 folds of the control group; and the APO-B levels were 1.1, 1.5 and 1.5 fold of the control group respectively. The TG level was the most increased, and it increased gradually with gestational age (Plipids at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks in healthy pregnant women were as following. The TG levels were 0.7-3.9, 1.7-6.3 and 1.6-8.1 mmol

  20. Genome-wide association meta-analysis for total serum bilirubin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew D; Kavousi, Maryam; Smith, Albert V; Chen, Ming-Huei; Dehghan, Abbas; Aspelund, Thor; Lin, Jing-Ping; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Harris, Tamara B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Launer, Lenore; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Stricker, Bruno; Yang, Qiong; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Witteman, Jacqueline C

    2009-07-15

    Variation in serum bilirubin is associated with altered cardiovascular disease risk and drug metabolism. We aimed to identify genetic contributors to variability in serum bilirubin levels by combining results from three genome-wide association studies (Framingham heart study, n = 3424; Rotterdam study, n = 3847; Age, Gene, Environment and Susceptibility-Reykjavik, n = 2193). Meta-analysis showed strong replication for a genetic influence on serum bilirubin levels of the UGT1A1 locus (P rs4149056, P = 6.7 x 10(-13)), which gives rise to a valine to alanine amino acid change leading to reduced activity for a hepatic transporter with known affinity for bilirubin. There were also suggestive associations with several other loci. The top variants in UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1 explain approximately 18.0 and approximately 1.0% of the variation in total serum bilirubin levels, respectively. In a conditional analysis adjusted for individual genotypes for the top UGT1A1 variant, the top SLCO1B1 variant remained highly significant (P = 7.3 x 10(-13)), but no other variants achieved genome-wide significance. In one of the largest genetic studies of bilirubin to date (n = 9464), we confirm the substantial genetic influence of UGT1A1 variants, consistent with past linkage and association studies, and additionally provide strong evidence of a role for allelic variation in SLCO1B1. Given the involvement of bilirubin in a number of physiological and disease processes, and the roles for UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1 in drug metabolism, these genetic findings have potential clinical importance. In analyses for association with gallbladder disease or gallstones, top bilirubin SNPs in UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1 were not associated.

  1. The Modularized Software Package ASKI - Full Waveform Inversion Based on Waveform Sensitivity Kernels Utilizing External Seismic Wave Propagation Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present the modularized software package ASKI which is a flexible and extendable toolbox for seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) as well as sensitivity or resolution analysis operating on the sensitivity matrix. It utilizes established wave propagation codes for solving the forward problem and offers an alternative to the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have typically been written for solving inverse problems. It is available under the GPL at www.rub.de/aski. The Gauss-Newton FWI method for 3D-heterogeneous elastic earth models is based on waveform sensitivity kernels and can be applied to inverse problems at various spatial scales in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. The kernels are derived in the frequency domain from Born scattering theory as the Fréchet derivatives of linearized full waveform data functionals, quantifying the influence of elastic earth model parameters on the particular waveform data values. As an important innovation, we keep two independent spatial descriptions of the earth model - one for solving the forward problem and one representing the inverted model updates. Thereby we account for the independent needs of spatial model resolution of forward and inverse problem, respectively. Due to pre-integration of the kernels over the (in general much coarser) inversion grid, storage requirements for the sensitivity kernels are dramatically reduced.ASKI can be flexibly extended to other forward codes by providing it with specific interface routines that contain knowledge about forward code-specific file formats and auxiliary information provided by the new forward code. In order to sustain flexibility, the ASKI tools must communicate via file output/input, thus large storage capacities need to be accessible in a convenient way. Storing the complete sensitivity matrix to file, however, permits the scientist full manual control over each step in a customized procedure of sensitivity/resolution analysis and full

  2. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug allergy - serum sickness; Allergic reaction - serum sickness; Allergy - serum sickness ... symptoms of serum sickness. Certain medicines (such as penicillin, cefaclor, and sulfa) can cause a similar reaction. ...

  3. Waveform Fingerprinting for Efficient Seismic Signal Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, C. E.; OReilly, O. J.; Beroza, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Cross-correlating an earthquake waveform template with continuous waveform data has proven a powerful approach for detecting events missing from earthquake catalogs. If templates do not exist, it is possible to divide the waveform data into short overlapping time windows, then identify window pairs with similar waveforms. Applying these approaches to earthquake monitoring in seismic networks has tremendous potential to improve the completeness of earthquake catalogs, but because effort scales quadratically with time, it rapidly becomes computationally infeasible. We develop a fingerprinting technique to identify similar waveforms, using only a few compact features of the original data. The concept is similar to human fingerprints, which utilize key diagnostic features to identify people uniquely. Analogous audio-fingerprinting approaches have accurately and efficiently found similar audio clips within large databases; example applications include identifying songs and finding copyrighted content within YouTube videos. In order to fingerprint waveforms, we compute a spectrogram of the time series, and segment it into multiple overlapping windows (spectral images). For each spectral image, we apply a wavelet transform, and retain only the sign of the maximum magnitude wavelet coefficients. This procedure retains just the large-scale structure of the data, providing both robustness to noise and significant dimensionality reduction. Each fingerprint is a high-dimensional, sparse, binary data object that can be stored in a database without significant storage costs. Similar fingerprints within the database are efficiently searched using locality-sensitive hashing. We test this technique on waveform data from the Northern California Seismic Network that contains events not detected in the catalog. We show that this algorithm successfully identifies similar waveforms and detects uncataloged low magnitude events in addition to cataloged events, while running to completion

  4. [Preliminary analysis of serum enzymes indicators in childhood amputees due to earthquake resulting trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Liu, Lijun; Li, Hui

    2014-04-01

    To retrospectively analyze the serum enzymes in childhood amputees as a result of earthquake, and to discuss their clinical significance. From 150 children amputees who were victims of Sichuan Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and Sichuan Lushan earthquake in 2013, 45 cases with complete records of serum enzymes examinations were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided into three groups: amputation group (n=6), fasciotomy decompression group (n=5), general trauma without injury to extremity group (n=34). Serum enzyme examination data were compared for statistical analysis to find the difference among groups. Ten children who were not victims of earthquake were selected from department of orthopaedics to serve as controls, and 20 adult amputees as a result of earthquake served as another control group. There were significant differences in injury severity scale (ISS) and the contents of all serum enzymes, including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), between the amputation group and other patients (FISS=15.474, Pchildhood amputees group were significantly higher than those in adult amputation group. The contents of ALT and CK were slightly increased. Serum enzyme contents were found to be significantly helpful for prediction of disease condition and prognosis. It was also found that CK was extremely helpful in assessing the degree of illness in patients with severe trauma, especially in patients complicated by severe soft tissue injury. In all the groups, of patients, it was found that CK rose from (129±62) U/L in non-earthquake induced trauma group to (44 208±39,788) U/L in earthquake amputation group, and it was thus increased more than 300 times. Its highest value even reached 117,513 U/L, which was more than 840 times of the normal. If a timely amputation or muscle compartment decompression was performed, CK might decline rapidly down to the

  5. Effects of Anthocyanin on Serum Lipids in Dyslipidemia Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfeng Liu

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia was present in most of the patients with coronary heart disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that anthocyanin has some effects on the serum lipid. However, these results are controversial. This study aimed at collecting current clinical evidence and evaluating the effects of anthocyanin supplementation on total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in dialysis patients.The search included PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database (up to July 2015 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs on the association between anthocyanin and serum lipids. RevMan (version 5.2 was used for Meta-analysis. Meta-regression analysis, sensitivity analysis and Egger's weighted regression tests were performed by using STATA software (version 12.0; StatCorp, College Station, TX, USA.Six studies (seven arms involving 586 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that anthocyanin supplementation has significant effects on TC [MD = -24.06, 95% CI(-45.58 to -2.64 mg/dL, I2 = 93%], TG [MD = -26.14, 95%CI(-40.20 to -3.08 mg/dL, I2 = 66%1], LDL-C [MD = -22.10, 95% CI (-34.36 to -9.85 mg/dL, I2 = 61%], and HDL-C(MD = 5.58, 95% CI (1.02 to 10.14 mg/dL;I2 = 90%.Anthocyanin supplementation significantly reduces serum TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in patients with dyslipidemia, and increases HDL-C. Further rigorously designed RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the effectiveness of anthocyanin supplementation for dyslipidemia, especially hypo high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia.

  6. Clinical Evaluation and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Nan; Li, Xue; Liu, Yunde

    2013-01-01

    The detection of serum tumor markers is valuable for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers are frequently used for the management of cancer patients. However, single markers are less efficient but marker combinations increase the cost, which is troublesome for clinics. To find an optimal serum marker combination panel that benefits the patients and the medical management system as well, four routine lung cancer serum markers (SCCA, NSE, CEA, and CYFRA21-1) were evaluated individually and in combination. Meanwhile, the costs and effects of these markers in clinical practice in China were assessed by cost-effectiveness analysis. As expected, combinations of these tumor markers improved their sensitivity for lung cancer and different combination panels had their own usefulness. NSE + CEA + CYFRA21-1 was the optimal combination panel with highest Youden's index (0.64), higher sensitivity (75.76%), and specificity (88.57%), which can aid the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. Nevertheless, the most cost-effective combination was SCCA + CEA, which can be used to screen the high-risk group. PMID:24167812

  7. Clinical Evaluation and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of serum tumor markers is valuable for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers are frequently used for the management of cancer patients. However, single markers are less efficient but marker combinations increase the cost, which is troublesome for clinics. To find an optimal serum marker combination panel that benefits the patients and the medical management system as well, four routine lung cancer serum markers (SCCA, NSE, CEA, and CYFRA21-1 were evaluated individually and in combination. Meanwhile, the costs and effects of these markers in clinical practice in China were assessed by cost-effectiveness analysis. As expected, combinations of these tumor markers improved their sensitivity for lung cancer and different combination panels had their own usefulness. NSE + CEA + CYFRA21-1 was the optimal combination panel with highest Youden’s index (0.64, higher sensitivity (75.76%, and specificity (88.57%, which can aid the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. Nevertheless, the most cost-effective combination was SCCA + CEA, which can be used to screen the high-risk group.

  8. Highly sensitive analysis of sterol profiles in human serum by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Akira; Yamashita, Kouwa; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Shirai, Mutsumi; Ikegami, Tadashi; Xu, Guorong; Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Hara, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

    2008-09-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive and specific method for the analysis of serum sterol profiles. Sterols in 1 mul of dried serum were derivatized into picolinyl esters (3beta-picolinate) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using the electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. In addition to cholesterol, 19 cholesterol precursors, cholestanol, campesterol, sitosterol, and sitostanol were identified simultaneously. Quantitative analyses for the picolinyl esters of 11 available sterols were performed, and detection limits were found to be less than 1 pg on-column. Reproducibilities and recoveries of 8 noncholesterol sterols were validated according to one-way layout and polynomial equation, respectively. The variances between sample preparations and between measurements by this method were calculated to be 1.6% to 8.2% and 2.5% to 16.5%, respectively. The recovery experiments were performed using 1 mul aliquots of normal human serum spiked with 1 ng to 6 ng of sterols, and recoveries of the sterols ranged from 88.1% to 102.5% with a mean recovery of 98.1%. The present method provides reliable and reproducible results for the identification and quantification of neutral sterols, especially in small volumes of blood samples, which is useful for serological diagnosis of inherited disorders in cholesterol metabolism and for noninvasive evaluation of cholesterol biosynthesis and absorption in humans.

  9. Quality assesment for the analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs in individual human serum samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, F. [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Ecotechnologies, Lab. of Dioxins; Abad, E.; Llerena, J.J.; Caixach, J.; Rivera, J.

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work was to optimise a relevant methodology for the ultratrace analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs in individual human serum samples. In order to carry out the study, different strategies including the elaboration of quality control samples, parallel sample analysis, control blanks and a number of quality assurance measures were implemented as analytical current practices. Some of the main drawbacks in the analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs in these kind of samples come from two conflicting aspects: the small sample size and the low levels expected to be found. Taking this into account, an unavoidable compromise between the sample amount and the minimum analytical requirements, mainly the detection limit (LOD), is mandatory. To reach this goal C{sub 18} solid phase extraction was used to remove the analytes from the matrix. Clean up was performed by solid-liquid adsorption chromatography using a variety of adsorbents. Instrumental analysis was achieved by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Finally, the optimised methodology was applied to evaluate the potential impact in general population living in the surroundings of an obsolete municipal waste incinerator plant (MWI). Thus, more than 400 individuals serum samples potentially exposed to the emission of the incinerator and people not exposed were considered in this study.

  10. Attosecond control of optical waveforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuji, Takao [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rauschenberger, Jens [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gohle, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Apolonski, Alexander [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Russian Academy of Science, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia (Russian Federation); Udem, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Yakovlev, Vladislav S [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tempea, Gabriel [Femtolasers Produktions GmbH, Fernkorngasse 10, A-1100 Vienna (Austria); Haensch, Theodor W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Krausz, Ferenc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut fuer Photonik, Technische Universitaet Wien, Gusshausstrasse 27/387, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2005-05-01

    A new, monolithic scheme for stabilizing the phase between the carrier wave and the envelope (CE phase) in a train of few-cycle laser pulses is demonstrated. Self-phase modulation and second-harmonic generation or difference-frequency generation in a single periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, that transmits the main laser beam, allows for the CE-phase locking directly in the usable output. The monolithic scheme obviates the need for splitting off a fraction of the laser output for CE-phase control, coupling into microstructured fibre, as well as separation and recombination of spectral components. As a result, the CE-phase error integrated over the spectral range of 0.2 mHz-35 MHz is as small as 0.016 x 2{pi} rad. This implies that the phase of the field oscillations ({lambda} {approx} 830 nm) with respect to the pulse peak is locked to within 44 attoseconds, resulting in optical waveform control with subhundred attosecond fidelity for the first time.

  11. Differential protein analysis of serum exosomes post-intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Song, Qi-Fang; Jin, Jing-Jie; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhou-Ping; Xie, Xiao-Fei; Gu, Xiao-Qiong; Gao, Xue-Juan; Jia, Hong-Ling

    2017-11-01

    Kawasaki disease, which is characterised by systemic vasculitides accompanied by acute fever, is regularly treated by intravenous immunoglobulin to avoid lesion formation in the coronary artery; however, the mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is unclear. Hence, we aimed to analyse the global expression profile of serum exosomal proteins before and after administering intravenous immunoglobulin. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteome of serum exosomes in patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Our analysis revealed 69 differential protein spots in the Kawasaki disease group with changes larger than 1.5-fold and 59 differential ones in patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the acute-phase response disappeared, the functions of the complement system and innate immune response were enhanced, and the antibacterial humoral response pathway of corticosteroids and cardioprotection emerged after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. Further, we showed that complement C3 and apolipoprotein A-IV levels increased before and decreased after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and that the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit displayed reverse alteration before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. These observations might be potential indicators of intravenous immunoglobulin function. Our results show the differential proteomic profile of serum exosomes of patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, such as complement C3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. These results may be useful in the identification of markers for monitoring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.

  12. Multi-mycotoxin analysis using dried blood spots and dried serum spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteresch, Bernd; Viegas, Susana; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a rapid multi-mycotoxin approach was developed for biomonitoring and quantification of 27 important mycotoxins and mycotoxin metabolites in human blood samples. HPLC-MS/MS detection was used for the analysis of dried serum spots (DSS) and dried blood spots (DBS). Detection of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, DON; DON-3-glucoronic acid, DON-3-GlcA; T-2; HT-2; and HT-2-4-GlcA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxins (OTA and its thermal degradation product 2'R-OTA; OTα; 10-hydroxychratoxin A, 10-OH-OTA), citrinin (CIT and its urinary metabolite dihydrocitrinone, DH-CIT), zearalenone and zearalanone (ZEN, ZAN), altenuene (ALT), alternariols (AOH; alternariol monomethyl ether, AME), enniatins (EnA, EnA1, EnB, EnB1) and beauvericin (Bea) was validated for two matrices, serum (DSS), and whole blood (DBS). HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed signal suppression as well as signal enhancement due to matrix effects. However, for most analytes LOQs in the lower pg/mL range and excellent recovery rate were achieved using matrix-matched calibration. Besides validation of the method, the analyte stability in DBS and DSS was also investigated. Stability is a main issue for some analytes when the dried samples are stored under common conditions at room temperature. Nevertheless, the developed method was applied to DBS samples of a German cohort (n = 50). Besides positive findings of OTA and 2'R-OTA, all samples were positive for EnB. This methodical study establishes a validated multi-mycotoxin approach for the detection of 27 mycotoxins and metabolites in dried blood/serum spots based on a fast sample preparation followed by sensitive HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. Quantitative proteomic analysis by iTRAQ® for the identification of candidate biomarkers in ovarian cancer serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins LeeAnn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, with the majority of cases diagnosed at an advanced stage when treatments are less successful. Novel serum protein markers are needed to detect ovarian cancer in its earliest stage; when detected early, survival rates are over 90%. The identification of new serum biomarkers is hindered by the presence of a small number of highly abundant proteins that comprise approximately 95% of serum total protein. In this study, we used pooled serum depleted of the most highly abundant proteins to reduce the dynamic range of proteins, and thereby enhance the identification of serum biomarkers using the quantitative proteomic method iTRAQ®. Results Medium and low abundance proteins from 6 serum pools of 10 patients each from women with serous ovarian carcinoma, and 6 non-cancer control pools were labeled with isobaric tags using iTRAQ® to determine the relative abundance of serum proteins identified by MS. A total of 220 unique proteins were identified and fourteen proteins were elevated in ovarian cancer compared to control serum pools, including several novel candidate ovarian cancer biomarkers: extracellular matrix protein-1, leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein-1, lipopolysaccharide binding protein-1, and proteoglycan-4. Western immunoblotting validated the relative increases in serum protein levels for several of the proteins identified. Conclusions This study provides the first analysis of immunodepleted serum in combination with iTRAQ® to measure relative protein expression in ovarian cancer patients for the pursuit of serum biomarkers. Several candidate biomarkers were identified which warrant further development.

  14. Copper in Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Plasma and Serum Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qihong; Zhang, Fuping; Zhu, Wenjun; Wu, Juan; Liang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an important trace element involved in oxidative stress, which is associated with the onset and progression of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, clinical studies comparing plasma or serum Cu levels in patients with DM and in healthy individuals report conflicting findings. Therefore, in this meta-analysis, we analyzed the circulating levels of Cu associated with DM (including type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]). We searched the articles indexed in PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane databases, published through January 2016 and meeting our predefined criteria. Requisite data were extracted, and a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Fifteen eligible studies involving a total of 1079 DM patients and 561 healthy controls were identified. Overall, the DM patients showed higher Cu levels than the healthy controls (plasma Cu mean difference [MD] = 1.69 μmol/L, p diabetes also indicated higher levels of Cu in the plasma and serum of DM patients than in healthy controls, respectively. Stratification of DM patients associated with and without complications also revealed similar results. This meta-analysis suggests that DM patients carried higher levels of Cu than healthy individuals. However, international cohort studies are needed to corroborate our findings.

  15. Ultrasound tomography imaging with waveform sound speed: parenchymal changes in women undergoing tamoxifen therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Sherman, Mark; Gierach, Gretchen

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging modality that can offer quantitative measurements of breast density. Recent breakthroughs in UST image reconstruction involve the use of a waveform reconstruction as opposed to a raybased reconstruction. The sound speed (SS) images that are created using the waveform reconstruction have a much higher image quality. These waveform images offer improved resolution and contrasts between regions of dense and fatty tissues. As part of a study that was designed to assess breast density changes using UST sound speed imaging among women undergoing tamoxifen therapy, UST waveform sound speed images were then reconstructed for a subset of participants. These initial results show that changes to the parenchymal tissue can more clearly be visualized when using the waveform sound speed images. Additional quantitative testing of the waveform images was also started to test the hypothesis that waveform sound speed images are a more robust measure of breast density than ray-based reconstructions. Further analysis is still needed to better understand how tamoxifen affects breast tissue.

  16. [Study of sharing platform of web-based enhanced extracorporeal counterpulsation hemodynamic waveform data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingbo; Hu, Ding; Yu, Donglan; Zheng, Zhensheng; Wang, Kuijian

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced extracorporeal counterpulsation (EECP) information consists of both text and hemodynamic waveform data. At present EECP text information has been successfully managed through Web browser, while the management and sharing of hemodynamic waveform data through Internet has not been solved yet. In order to manage EECP information completely, based on the in-depth analysis of EECP hemodynamic waveform file of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format and its disadvantages in Internet sharing, we proposed the use of the extensible markup language (XML), which is currently the Internet popular data exchange standard, as the storage specification for the sharing of EECP waveform data. Then we designed a web-based sharing system of EECP hemodynamic waveform data via ASP. NET 2.0 platform. Meanwhile, we specifically introduced the four main system function modules and their implement methods, including DICOM to XML conversion module, EECP waveform data management module, retrieval and display of EECP waveform module and the security mechanism of the system.

  17. Comparison of rectilinear biphasic waveform with biphasic truncated exponential waveform in a pediatric defibrillation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglan; Tang, Wanchun; Brewer, James E; Freeman, Gary; Chang, Yun-Te; Weil, Max Harry

    2007-08-01

    To compare the rectilinear biphasic waveform with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform for pediatric defibrillation. Prospective, randomized study. Experimental laboratory of a university-affiliated research institute. Male domestic piglets (4-24 kg). Eleven piglets (4-8 kg), which represented a patient truncated exponential waveforms, comprising five shocks at five energy settings. Each group of five shocks was fixed at a predetermined energy value, depending on the body weight of the animal. Dose-response curves were constructed using logistic regression. Aortic pressure, electrocardiogram, left ventricular pressure, and left ventricular pressure value of 40 mm Hg were continually measured. Dose-response curves determined defibrillation thresholds at 50% (D50) and 90% (D90) probability of success. The rectilinear biphasic waveform defibrillated with truncated exponential waveform. The rectilinear biphasic waveform also successfully defibrillated with significantly less energy per body weight and per heart weight compared with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform. The rectilinear biphasic waveform has superior defibrillation performance compared with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform in a piglet defibrillation model for young children.

  18. Comparative analysis of EV isolation procedures for miRNAs detection in serum samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Andreu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are emerging as potent non-invasive biomarkers. However, current methodologies are time consuming and difficult to translate to clinical practice. To analyse EV-encapsulated circulating miRNA, we searched for a quick, easy and economic method to enrich frozen human serum samples for EV. We compared the efficiency of several protocols and commercial kits to isolate EVs. Different methods based on precipitation, columns or filter systems were tested and compared with ultracentrifugation, which is the most classical protocol to isolate EVs. EV samples were assessed for purity and quantity by nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blot or cytometry against major EV protein markers. For biomarker validation, levels of a set of miRNAs were determined in EV fractions and compared with their levels in total serum. EVs isolated with precipitation-based methods were enriched for a subgroup of miRNAs that corresponded to miRNAs described to be encapsulated into EVs (miR-126, miR-30c and miR-143, while the detection of miR-21, miR-16-5p and miR-19a was very low compared with total serum. Our results point to precipitation using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a suitable method for an easy and cheap enrichment of serum EVs for miRNA analyses. The overall performance of PEG was very similar, or better than other commercial precipitating reagents, in both protein and miRNA yield, but in comparison to them PEG is much cheaper. Other methods presented poorer results, mostly when assessing miRNA by qPCR analyses. Using PEG precipitation in a longitudinal study with human samples, we demonstrated that miRNA could be assessed in frozen samples up to 8 years of storage. We report a method based on a cut-off value of mean of fold EV detection versus serum that provides an estimate of the degree of encapsulation of a given miRNA.

  19. Georgia Tech Catalog of Gravitational Waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Jani, Karan; Clark, James A; London, Lionel; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a catalog of gravitational waveforms from the bank of simulations by the numerical relativity effort at Georgia Tech. Currently, the catalog consists of 452 distinct waveforms from more than 600 binary black hole simulations: 128 of the waveforms are from binaries with black hole spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum, and 324 are from precessing binary black hole systems. The waveforms from binaries with non-spinning black holes have mass-ratios $q = m_1/m_2 \\le 15$, and those with precessing, spinning black holes have $q \\le 8$. The waveforms expand a moderate number of orbits in the late inspiral, the burst during coalescence, and the ring-down of the final black hole. Examples of waveforms in the catalog matched against the widely used approximate models are presented. In addition, predictions of the mass and spin of the final black hole by phenomenological fits are tested against the results from the simulation bank. The role of the catalog in interpreting the GW150914 even...

  20. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia : Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; van Pampus, Maria; Groen, H.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; van den Berg, P.P.; Mol, B.W.J.

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed

  1. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia: Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Corine M.; van Pampus, Maria G.; Groen, Henk; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; van den Berg, Paul P.; Mol, Ben W. J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed

  2. Importance of serum SELDI-TOF-MS analysis in the diagnosis of early lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Cebrail; Sonmez, Ozlem; Keyf, Atilla Ihsan; Yurdakul, Ahmet Selim; Ozturk, Can; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Ozmen, Fusun; Zengin, Nurullah; Kubilay, Dilek; Karatayli, Senem Ceren; Bozdayi, Mithat

    2013-01-01

    Different methods of diagnosis have been found to be inefficient in terms of screening and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Cancer cells produce proteins whose serum levels may be elevated during the early stages of cancer development. Therefore, those proteins may be recognized as potential cancer markers. The aim of this study was to differentiate healthy individuals and lung cancer cases by analyzing their serum protein profiles and evaluate the efficacy of this method in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. 170 patients with lung cancer, 53 under high risk of lung cancer, and 47 healthy people were included in our study. Proteomic analysis of the samples was performed with the SELDI-TOF-MS approach. The most discriminatory peak of the high risk group was 8141. When tree classification analysis was performed between lung cancer and the healthy control group, 11547 was determined as the most discriminatory peak, with a sensitivity of 85.5%, a specificity of 89.4%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 96.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 62.7%. We determined three different protein peaks 11480, 11547 and 11679 were only present in the lung cancer group. The 8141 peak was found in the high-risk group, but not in the lung cancer and control groups. These peaks may prove to be markers of lung cancer which suggests that they may be used in the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  3. Serum proteomic analysis revealed diagnostic value of hemoglobin for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chaohui; Xu, Chengfu; Xu, Lei; Yu, Jiekai; Miao, Min; Li, Youming

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. The two linked studies presented herein aimed to identify and verify new biomarkers for NAFLD. First, 70 serum samples were analyzed using proteomics approaches to identify potential biomarkers for NAFLD. Second, a total of 6944 initial NAFLD-free subjects were followed up for 3 years to evaluate the predictive value of hemoglobin for NAFLD. In the first study, 20 differentially expressed protein peaks (11 up-regulated and nine down-regulated) were observed in NAFLD patients upon comparison to the controls. With the aid of bioinformatic tools, we established a biomarker pattern for NAFLD with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 83%. Further analysis suggested a protein peak to be hemoglobin subunit alpha. In the second study, prospective analysis showed that subjects with higher baseline hemoglobin levels were associated with higher incidence of NAFLD. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that the age, gender, and body mass index adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for subjects with baseline hemoglobin level in quintile 2, 3, 4, and 5 vs. quintile 1 was 1.36 (1.02-1.81), 1.66 (1.23-2.25), 1.76 (1.28-2.41), and 1.83 (1.33-2.53), respectively. Our study showed that serum hemoglobin may have significant predictive value for NAFLD. Copyright © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Polycystic Ovary syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunla He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is common in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and may be associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in PCOS. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the associations of serum vitamin D levels with metabolic and endocrine dysregulations in women with PCOS, and to determine effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic and hormonal functions in PCOS patients. The literature search was undertaken through five databases until 16 January 2015 for both observational and experimental studies concerning relationships between vitamin D and PCOS. A total of 366 citations were identified, of which 30 were selected (n = 3182. We found that lower serum vitamin D levels were related to metabolic and hormonal disorders in women with PCOS. Specifically, PCOS patients with VDD were more likely to have dysglycemia (e.g., increased levels of fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR compared to those without VDD. This meta-analysis found no evidence that vitamin D supplementation reduced or mitigated metabolic and hormonal dysregulations in PCOS. VDD may be a comorbid manifestation of PCOS or a minor pathway in PCOS associated metabolic and hormonal dysregulation. Future prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials with repeated VDD assessment and better characterization of PCOS disease severity at enrollment are needed to clarify whether VDD is a co-determinant of hormonal and metabolic dysregulations in PCOS, represents a consequence of hormonal and metabolic dysregulations in PCOS or both.

  5. Structural consistency analysis of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui-Ling; Sun, Li-Hua; Liu, Li; Li, Jian; Tang, Lin; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Mei, Qi-Bing; He, Jian-Hua; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) is potential alternatives for human serum albumin (HSA) which may ease severe shortage of HSA worldwide. In theory, rHSA and HSA are the same. Structure decides function. Therefore, the 3D structural consistency analysis of rHSA and HSA is outmost importance, which is the base of their function consistency. In this paper, the crystal structures of rHSA at resolution limit of 2.22 Å and HSA at 2.30 Å were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with accession codes 4G03 (rHSA) and 4G04 (HSA). The differences between rHSA and HSA were systematically analyzed from the crystallization behavior, diffraction data and three-dimensional (3D) structure. The superimposed contrasted analysis indicated that rHSA and HSA achieved a structural similarity of 99% with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.397 Å for the corresponding overall Cα atoms. In addition, the number of α-helices in the rHSA or HSA molecule was verified to be 30. As a result, rHSA can potentially replace HSA. The study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the clinical and additional applications of rHSA. Meanwhile, it is also a good example for applications of genetic engineering.

  6. Correlation between Serum Levels of High Mobility Group Box-1 Protein and Pancreatitis: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aberrant expression of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1 contributes to the progression of various inflammatory diseases. This meta-analysis focused on the clinical significance of serum HMGB1 levels in pancreatitis patients, with the goal of building a novel diagnostic score model. Method. We conducted a meta-analysis by searching in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, China BioMedicine (CBM, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases without any language restrictions. Studies were pooled and standard mean difference (SMD and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated. Version 12.0 STATA software was used for statistical analysis. Results. We performed a final analysis of 841 subjects from 12 clinical case-control studies. The meta-analysis results showed a positive association between serum HMGB1 levels and the progression of pancreatitis. In the subgroup analysis by country, high serum level of HMGB1 may be related to pancreatitis progression in China, Korea, Hungary, and Japan populations (all P<0.05. Conclusion. The present meta-analysis indicated that serum HMGB1 level was statistically elevated in patients with pancreatitis, and thus serum levels of HMGB1 could be determined to be a useful biomarker for pancreatitis patients.

  7. Interleukin-17 SNPs and serum levels increase ulcerative colitis risk: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Tian, Hao; Jiang, Hui-Jun; Han, Bin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the associations of interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic polymorphisms and serum levels with ulcerative colitis (UC) risk. METHODS: Relevant articles were identified through a search of the following electronic databases, excluding language restriction: (1) the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013); (2) Web of Science (1945-2013); (3) PubMed (1966-2013); (4) CINAHL (1982-2013); (5) EMBASE (1980-2013); and (6) the Chinese Biomedical Database (1982-2013). Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios and standardized mean differences (SMDs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All of the included studies met all of the following five criteria: (1) the study design must be a clinical cohort or a case-control study; (2) the study must relate to the relationship between IL-17A/F genetic polymorphisms or serum IL-17 levels and the risk of UC; (3) all patients must meet the diagnostic criteria for UC; (4) the study must provide sufficient information about single nucleotide polymorphism frequencies or serum IL-17 levels; and (5) the genotype distribution of healthy controls must conform to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) criteria were used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. The NOS criteria included three aspects: (1) subject selection: 0-4; (2) comparability of subjects: 0-2; and (3) clinical outcome: 0-3. NOS scores ranged from 0 to 9, with a score ≥ 7 indicating good quality. RESULTS: Of the initial 177 articles, only 16 case-control studies met all of the inclusion criteria. A total of 1614 UC patients and 2863 healthy controls were included in this study. Fourteen studies were performed on Asian populations, and two studies on Caucasian populations. Results of the meta-analysis revealed that IL-17A and IL-17F genetic polymorphisms potentially increased UC risk under both allele and dominant models (P IL-17 levels than healthy controls

  8. Serum selenium level and gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fei-Juan; Ma, Lei-Lei; Chen, Shu-Ping; Li, Ge; Zhou, Jia-Qiang

    2016-10-28

    The association between serum selenium level and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is controversial. The aim of our study was to systematically review available literature linking selenium to GDM for a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between serum selenium level and GDM in human. PubMed, The Cochrane Library and Medline were searched for studies published up to August 2016. Manual searches of references of the relevant original studies were carried out. Pooled estimates were measured using the fixed or random effect model. Overall effect was reported in a standard mean difference (SMD). All data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 12.0. Of 44 references reviewed, seven studies involving 569 patients met our inclusion criteria and contributed to meta-analysis. All the studies were used to evaluate the relationship between serum selenium level and GDM. Selenium level was significantly lower in women with GDM than those without GDM (SMD = -1.17; 95 % CI: -1.98 to -0.35, P = 0.005). Subgroup analysis showed that such trend was consistent within the non-Caucasian population (Asia: SMD = -2.82; 95 % CI: -5.21 to -0.43, P = 0.02; Africa: SMD = -0.56; 95 % CI: -1.07 to -0.05, P = 0.03) and in the third trimester (SMD = -1.78; 95 % CI: -3.04 to -0.52, P = 0.006), but not within the Caucasian population (Europe: SMD = -0.6; 95 % CI: -1.98 to 0.78, P = 0.39) or in the second trimester (SMD = -0.68; 95 % CI: -1.6 to 0.25, P = 0.15). The available evidences suggested that serum selenium level was lower in women with GDM than those with normal glucose tolerance, especially within the non-Caucasian population and in the third trimester. However, well-designed prospective studies are needed to understand dynamic associations between selenium status and GDM risk.

  9. Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone, serum calcium and arterial blood pressure in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: results of a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Ermani, M; Luisetto, G; Nardi, A; Basso, S M M; Camozzi, V; Favia, G

    2002-05-01

    To evaluate the possible relationship between serum calcium, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and arterial blood pressure (BP) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). A retrospective population-based study. Charts of 194 patients with proven primary HPT were reviewed, and the main clinical and biochemical parameters were recorded. There were 48 men (24.7%) and 146 women (75.3%), with a median age of 59 years (range 23-82 years). Patients who used antihypertensive drugs or hormone replacement therapy had been previously excluded. All patients underwent successful parathyroidectomy, and were cured of their disease. There were no differences (P=NS) between men and women in systolic (143.3+/-19.1 vs 145.4+/-17.1 mmHg) and diastolic (87.1+/-12.3 vs 88.4+/-9.9 mmHg) BP, and in the main biochemical parameters. A significant (P<0.01) correlation was found between (i) serum calcium and serum PTH levels (r=0.39, F=88.36), (ii) age and BP, both systolic (r=0.61, F=118.16) and diastolic (r=0.48, F=64.5), and (iii) body mass index (BMI) and BP (r=0.45 and 0.36 respectively). There was no significant association of serum calcium levels with systolic (r=0.0974, t=1.3422, P=0.18) or diastolic (r=0.1117, t=1.5409, P=0.12) BP, and of serum PTH levels with systolic (r=-0.0349, t=-0.4783, P=0.63) or diastolic (r=-0.0793, t=-1.0913, P=0.28) BP. Multivariate analysis confirmed that none of the independent biochemical parameters significantly correlated with BP, both systolic and diastolic. In patients with primary HPT there is no relationship between PTH, calcium and BP. Thus, in hyperparathyroid patients, BP should be considered as an independent variable, mainly related to age and BMI.

  10. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran

    2017-09-01

    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.

  11. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  12. Modelling Sensor and Target effects on LiDAR Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, J.; North, P. R.; Rubio, J.; Cook, B. D.; Suárez, J.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the influence of sensor characteristics and interactions with vegetation and terrain properties on the estimation of vegetation parameters from LiDAR waveforms. This is carried out using waveform simulations produced by the FLIGHT radiative transfer model which is based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport (North, 1996; North et al., 2010). The opportunities for vegetation analysis that are offered by LiDAR modelling are also demonstrated by other authors e.g. Sun and Ranson, 2000; Ni-Meister et al., 2001. Simulations from the FLIGHT model were driven using reflectance and transmittance properties collected from the Howland Research Forest, Maine, USA in 2003 together with a tree list for a 200m x 150m area. This was generated using field measurements of location, species and diameter at breast height. Tree height and crown dimensions of individual trees were calculated using relationships established with a competition index determined for this site. Waveforms obtained by the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) were used as validation of simulations. This provided a base from which factors such as slope, laser incidence angle and pulse width could be varied. This has enabled the effect of instrument design and laser interactions with different surface characteristics to be tested. As such, waveform simulation is relevant for the development of future satellite LiDAR sensors, such as NASA’s forthcoming DESDynI mission (NASA, 2010), which aim to improve capabilities of vegetation parameter estimation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank scientists at the Biospheric Sciences Branch of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in particular to Jon Ranson and Bryan Blair. This work forms part of research funded by the NASA DESDynI project and the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NE/F021437/1). REFERENCES NASA, 2010, DESDynI: Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice. http

  13. Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Concentration, PSA Mass, and Obesity: A Mathematical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Robin T

    2018-02-17

    To provide a mathematical background for understanding the phenomenon of analyte hemodilution using a kinetic analysis. The first assumption for this analysis is that change in concentration of any analyte, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), is due to the flux of the analyte from an organ into the blood minus its flux from the blood. What results is a relatively simple differential equation that emphasizes the importance of plasma volume, organ mass, and two rate constants. The analyses demonstrate how serum PSA can be affected by plasma volume as well as body mass and how hemodilution due to obesity can be at least partly corrected for by expressing PSA in units of total mass or total mass density. At a time when obesity is prevalent, expressing analytes in units of total mass may make them relate more closely to disease status and prognosis.

  14. Studying the denaturation of bovine serum albumin by a novel approach of difference-UV analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Athanasios; Moschakis, Thomas

    2017-01-15

    A novel approach in the analysis of difference-UV spectrophotometric data for determining the heat denaturation degree of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was assessed. Five different parameters of difference-UV spectra were obtained by subtracting spectra of unheated and denatured protein solutions at different temperature-time combinations. BSA was found to exhibit a maximum degree of heat denaturation of about 17% compared to the complete unfolding caused by 6M guanidine hydrochloride. This low degree of heat denaturation is probably caused by the aggregation of the initially unfolded protein molecules. The kinetic analysis exhibited discontinuities in the Arrhenius plots, distinguishing the unfolding and aggregation phases of the denaturation process, whereas such a discrimination could not be obtained by differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The proposed method is accurate, fast, simple and sensitive enough to detect changes in the protein heat denaturation even at short temperature-time intervals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum albumin analysis for type II diabetes detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyong; Cao, Gang; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Liao, Fadian; Ruan, Qiuyong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Zufang; Li, Ling; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy combined with membrane electrophoresis (ME) was firstly employed to detect albumin variation in type II diabetic development. Albumin was first purified from human serum by ME and then mixed with silver nanoparticles to perform SERS spectral analysis. SERS spectra were obtained from blood albumin samples of 20 diabetic patients and 19 healthy volunteers. Subtle but discernible changes in the acquired mean spectra of the two groups were observed. Tentative assignment of albumin SERS bands indicated specific structural changes of albumin molecule with diabetic development. Meanwhile, PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms were employed to classify the two kinds of albumin SERS spectra, yielding the diagnostic sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94.7%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that the EM-SERS method in combination with multivariate statistical analysis has great potential for the label-free detection of albumin variation for improving type II diabetes screening.

  16. [Detection of serum Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies and analysis of epidemiologic data in 5 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jingtao; Yan, Wenjuan; Ni, Anping; Kong, Lingjun; Chen, Lanlan

    2014-04-01

    To detect serum Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pneumonia) antibodies and analyze the epidemiologic data. Micro-immunofluorescence (MIF) was used to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against C.pneumoniae in 7 802 serum specimens from May 2008 to September 2013. C.pneumoniae past or recent infections were determined based on specific IgG and IgM antibodies and their titers. The analysis of relationship between age, gender and other clinical factors associated with antibody titers was performed. The positive rate of C.pneumonia IgG antibodies ( ≥ 1: 16 and pneumonia IgG antibodies was 43.9. GMT in males was significantly higher than that in females (45.8 vs 41.9, P = 0.000 1). And 282 (3.6%) patients were diagnosed with recent C.pneumoniae infection (IgG ≥ 1: 512 or IgM ≥ 1: 16 or acute and convalescent serum antibody titers turned to positive or four times and more elevated). The lowest rate of 0.5% (2/417) was detected in pneumoniae IgM antibody was used as an only criteria for C. pneumoniae recent infection. The recent infection rates in patients with autoimmune diseases (7.1% (24/336) ) and those with pneumonia/chest radiological shadow findings (4.7% (69/1 467)) were statistically higher than the average rate (3.6%) of total population (P = 0.000 4, 0.014 0). The positive rate of C.pneumonia IgG antibody is quite high in the population. And the GMT of C.pneumoniae IgG antibody in males is significantly high than that in females. Recent C.pneumonia infection is to be missed if IgM antibody is used as a sole criterion.

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic and prognostic serum biomarkers of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongyu; Zhang, Yingchong; Niu, Yulong; Li, Ke; Liu, Xin; Chen, Huijuan; Gao, Chunfang

    2014-01-01

    Our systematic review summarizes the evidence concerning the accuracy of serum diagnostic and prognostic tests for colorectal cancer (CRC). The databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched iteratively to identify the relevant literature for serum markers of CRC published from 1950 to August 2012. The articles that provided adequate information to meet the requirements of the meta-analysis of diagnostic and prognostic markers were included. A 2-by-2 table of each diagnostic marker and its hazard ratio (HR) and the confidence interval (CI) of each prognostic marker was directly or indirectly extracted from the included papers, and the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic marker and the pooled HR and the CI of the prognostic marker were subsequently calculated using the extracted data. In total, 104 papers related to the diagnostic markers and 49 papers related to the prognostic serum markers of CRC were collected, and only 19 of 92 diagnostic markers were investigated in more than two studies, whereas 21 out of 44 prognostic markers were included in two or more studies. All of the pooled sensitivities of the diagnostic markers with > = 3 repetitions were less than 50%, and the meta-analyses of the prognostic markers with more than 3 studies were performed, VEGF with highest (2.245, CI: 1.347-3.744) and MMP-7 with lowest (1.099, CI: 1.018-1.187)) pooled HRs are presented. The quality of studies addressing the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of the tests was poor, and the results were highly heterogeneous. The poor characteristics indicate that these tests are of little value for clinical practice.

  18. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajia; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Yubo; Wu, Meng; Hu, Xingxing; Han, Renfang; Yuan, Yaping; Wang, Mengmeng; Chen, Mengya; Jiang, Shanqun; Tong, Jingjing; Xu, Shengqian; Xu, Jianhua; Shuai, Zongwen; Zou, Yanfeng; Pan, Faming

    2017-11-01

    Various studies have researched the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but the results were inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the correlations between serum levels of these adipokines and AS. Electronic databases were retrieved to search relevant publications. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by the random-effect model. Cochrane Q test and I2 statistic were used to test heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were applied to assess possible sources of heterogeneity. A total of sixteen articles were included. Meta-analysis results indicated no statistical differences between AS patients and normal controls in serum leptin and adiponectin levels (leptin, SMD=0.829, 95% CI=-0.116 to 1.774, p=0.085; adiponectin, SMD=0.460, 95% CI=-0.004 to 0.924, p=0.052). However, AS patients had higher serum resistin levels than controls (SMD=1.413, 95% CI=0.294 to 2.531, p=0.013). Subgroup analyses suggested that Asian and African AS patients as well as patients aged <40years had higher serum leptin and resistin levels when compared to controls. Serum adiponectin levels were higher in AS patients compared to controls in subgroup of age ≥40, and serum resistin levels in subgroup of BMI ≥25. Measurement method was a source of heterogeneity for resistin. Publication bias was not observed and the robustness of study results was confirmed by sensitivity analysis. Serum resistin, but not leptin or adiponectin levels may be closely associated with the development of AS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the Serum Bile Acid Composition for Differential Diagnosis in Patients with Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Sugita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We determined the serum bile acid (BA composition in patients with liver diseases and healthy volunteers to investigate the relationship between the etiologies of liver disease and BA metabolism. Material and Methods. Sera from 150 patients with liver diseases and 46 healthy volunteers were obtained. The serum concentrations of the 16 different BAs were determined according to the LC-MS/MS method and were compared between the different liver diseases. Results. A total of 150 subjects, including patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV (n=44, hepatitis B virus (HBV (n=23, alcoholic liver disease (ALD (n=21, biliary tract disease (n=20, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD (n=13, and other liver diseases (n=29, were recruited. The levels of UDCA and GUDCA were significantly higher in the ALD group, and the levels of DCA and UDCA were significantly lower in the biliary tract diseases group than in viral hepatitis group. In the UDCA therapy (− subgroup, a significantly lower level of TLCA was observed in the ALD group, with lower levels of CDCA, DCA, and GLCA noted in biliary tract diseases group compared to viral hepatitis group. Conclusions. Analysis of the BA composition may be useful for differential diagnosis in liver disease.

  20. Analysis of the serum bile Acid composition for differential diagnosis in patients with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Tomonori; Amano, Katsushi; Nakano, Masanori; Masubuchi, Noriko; Sugihara, Masahiro; Matsuura, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the serum bile acid (BA) composition in patients with liver diseases and healthy volunteers to investigate the relationship between the etiologies of liver disease and BA metabolism. Material and Methods. Sera from 150 patients with liver diseases and 46 healthy volunteers were obtained. The serum concentrations of the 16 different BAs were determined according to the LC-MS/MS method and were compared between the different liver diseases. Results. A total of 150 subjects, including patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) (n = 44), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (n = 23), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (n = 21), biliary tract disease (n = 20), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 13), and other liver diseases (n = 29), were recruited. The levels of UDCA and GUDCA were significantly higher in the ALD group, and the levels of DCA and UDCA were significantly lower in the biliary tract diseases group than in viral hepatitis group. In the UDCA therapy (-) subgroup, a significantly lower level of TLCA was observed in the ALD group, with lower levels of CDCA, DCA, and GLCA noted in biliary tract diseases group compared to viral hepatitis group. Conclusions. Analysis of the BA composition may be useful for differential diagnosis in liver disease.

  1. Proteomic analysis of changes in protein expression in serum from animals exposed to paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Jung, Hana; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    Paraquat (PQ) poisoning remains a major public health concern in many countries. Extensive research has focused on finding early diagnostic biomarkers of acute PQ poisoning. In order to investigate the characterization of diagnostic biomarkers in PQ poisoning, we utilized proteomic analysis using serum from rats exposed to PQ, and we identified 8 differentially expressed proteins from over 500 protein spots. The expression of apolipoprotein E (ApoE), preprohaptoglobin (Pphg), a precursor of haptoglobin (Hp), and complement component 3 (C3) proteins was greatly induced by PQ exposure while the expression of fibrinogen γ-chain (FGG) and Ac-158 was dramatically reduced. To further investigate the possibility of ApoE, Pphg and FGG as useful diagnostic biomarkers of PQ poisoning, western blot and qRT-PCR analyses were conducted using cell lines as well as rat and human sera. The expression levels of ApoE, Hp and FGG were significantly altered in the presence of PQ in both rat and human serum suggesting that these proteins may be appropriate candidate molecular biomarkers for the early diagnosis of acute PQ intoxication.

  2. Simultaneous high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of ampicillin and cloxacillin in serum and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuirjeie, M A; Abdel-Hamid, M E

    1988-04-01

    A rapid, specific and sensitive high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay for the simultaneous determination of ampicillin and cloxacillin in serum and urine is developed. Ampicillin, cloxacillin and cephalexin (internal standard) were eluted from a 6.5 mu Synchropack RPP reversed phase column at ambient temperature using a mobile phase comprised of methanol:water (3/7v/v) and containing 0.011 M sodium-n-octane sulphonate, 0.005 M NaH2PO4 and 1.3% v/v of 0.5 M HCl (pH 2.7). The analysis time required no longer than 11 min. Equations are presented for the linear relationships between the peak height ratios of ampicillin/cephalexin and cloxacillin/cephalexin over the range 10-80 micrograms/ml (ampicillin) and 5-25 micrograms/ml (cloxacillin), respectively. The sensitivity limits for ampicillin and cloxacillin in serum and urine were 5 micrograms/ml and 1 microgram/ml, respectively. Quality criteria such as accuracy, precision and specificity were studied extensively. We investigated the applicability of the HPLC assay for the developed simultaneous determination of the cumulative amounts of ampicillin and cloxacillin, excreted unchanged in urine after an oral dose containing 500 mg ampicillin and 500 mg cloxacillin to a human volunteer.

  3. Optical Methods for the Analysis of the Temoprofin Photosensitizer Distribution Between Serum Proteins and Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin Nanocarriers in Blood Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakavets, I. V.; Yankovsky, I. V.; Khludeyev, I. I.; Lassalle, H. P.; Bezdetnaya, L. N.; Zorin, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Various optical methods for the analysis of the processes leading to temoporfin photosensitizer distribution between supramolecular nanosized inclusion complexes derived from β-cyclodextrins and blood serum proteins were examined. Methods involving induced circular dichroism, fluorescence anisotropy, and the variability of the shape of the photosensitizer fluorescence excitation spectra were compared with traditional methods such as gel chromatography and ultracentrifugation. The feasibility of using the photosensitizer optical characteristics for analyzing both equilibrium and kinetic processes of photosensitizer distribution in blood was demonstrated. The main advantages and limitations of these approaches in in vitro experiments were described.

  4. Design of pulse waveform for waveform division multiple access UWB wireless communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Wang, Zhirui; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2014-01-01

    A new multiple access scheme, Waveform Division Multiple Access (WDMA) based on the orthogonal wavelet function, is presented. After studying the correlation properties of different categories of single wavelet functions, the one with the best correlation property will be chosen as the foundation for combined waveform. In the communication system, each user is assigned to different combined orthogonal waveform. Demonstrated by simulation, combined waveform is more suitable than single wavelet function to be a communication medium in WDMA system. Due to the excellent orthogonality, the bit error rate (BER) of multiuser with combined waveforms is so close to that of single user in a synchronous system. That is to say, the multiple access interference (MAI) is almost eliminated. Furthermore, even in an asynchronous system without multiuser detection after matched filters, the result is still pretty ideal and satisfactory by using the third combination mode that will be mentioned in the study.

  5. Physical properties of the crust and upper mantle in Eurasia through the analysis of waveforms from the Soviet analog seismic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dricker, Ilya G.

    Seismic networks in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) consist of more than a hundred broadband analog stations and have been in operation for more than 30 years. The longevity of the network, the number and distribution of stations, and the large number of earthquakes recorded has made the seismic data collected by the networks a valuable source of information about the structure of the Earth. The analog recording format and a lack of access to adequate computing facilities has resulted in most of these data undergoing only rudimentary analysis in the past. For this thesis I have collected and digitized several thousands analog records from the archives of more than 30 stations. I found that the quality of the digitized seismograms from the CIS analog stations is good enough to be useful in such types of analysis as the receiver functions, SKS splitting and SS-S differential travel times analysis. Studies of SKS phases recorded by stations in Eastern Europe suggest the existence of a present or recent large-scale mantle flow in central and eastern Europe, parallel to the Alpine belt, which is consistent with the hypothesis of flow proposed previously for the mantle beneath Western Europe. Application of SKS technique to the data recorded in the Altai and Sayan mountains of Central Asia show strain in the mantle beneath the Altai-Sayan region is similar, both in style and scale, to strain in the crust. The receiver functions technique was used to investigate the uppermost layers in the Khibina plutonic region of northern Russia. The results suggest that short (50 km) wavelength lateral variations in the depth of crust-mantle transition persist in this region, despite the cessation of rifting activity in the Kola peninsula in Devonian times. Finally, mapping the upper mantle velocity structure of the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings with SS-S travel time residuals suggest that while the lithospere beneath southern Tibet is thickened by the India

  6. Prognostic Role of Pre-Treatment Serum AFP-L3% in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjun; Liu, Xi; Li, Muxing; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%) has been widely used for HCC diagnosis and follow-up surveillance as tumor serologic marker. However, the prognostic value of high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We therefore conduct a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and clinical outcome of HCC. Methods Eligible studies were identified through systematic literature searches. A meta-analysis of fifteen studies (4,465 patients) was carried out to evaluate the association between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in HCC patients. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted in this meta-analysis. Results Our analysis results showed that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% implied poor OS (HR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.45–1.89 p<0.00001) and DFS (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.49–2.17 p<0.00001) of HCC. Subgroup analysis revealed that there was association between pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and endpoint (OS and DFS) in low AFP concentration HCC patients (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.24–3.10, p = 0.004; HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.09–5.89, p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusion The current evidence suggests that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% levels indicated a poor prognosis for patients with HCC and AFP-L3% may have significant prognostic value in HCC patients with low AFP concentration. PMID:24498011

  7. Prognostic role of pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in hepatocellular carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwen Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3% has been widely used for HCC diagnosis and follow-up surveillance as tumor serologic marker. However, the prognostic value of high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains controversial. We therefore conduct a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and clinical outcome of HCC. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified through systematic literature searches. A meta-analysis of fifteen studies (4,465 patients was carried out to evaluate the association between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS in HCC patients. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Our analysis results showed that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% implied poor OS (HR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.45-1.89 p<0.00001 and DFS (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.49-2.17 p<0.00001 of HCC. Subgroup analysis revealed that there was association between pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and endpoint (OS and DFS in low AFP concentration HCC patients (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.24-3.10, p = 0.004; HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.09-5.89, p = 0.03, respectively. CONCLUSION: The current evidence suggests that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% levels indicated a poor prognosis for patients with HCC and AFP-L3% may have significant prognostic value in HCC patients with low AFP concentration.

  8. A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Alexandra; Morris, Cory; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    A rapid headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the analysis of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol in plasma and serum specimens using 1,3-propanediol as the internal standard. The method employed a single-step derivitization using phenylboronic acid, was linear to 200 mg/dL and had a lower limit of quantitation of 1 mg/dL suitable for clinical analyses. The analytical method described allows for laboratories with HS-GC instrumentation to analyze ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol on a single instrument with rapid switch-over from alcohols to glycols analysis. In addition to the novel HS-GC method, a retrospective analysis of patient specimens containing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol was also described. A total of 36 patients ingested ethylene glycol, including 3 patients who presented with two separate admissions for ethylene glycol toxicity. Laboratory studies on presentation to hospital for these patients showed both osmolal and anion gap in 13 patients, osmolal but not anion gap in 13 patients, anion but not osmolal gap in 8 patients, and 1 patient with neither an osmolal nor anion gap. Acidosis on arterial blood gas was present in 13 cases. Only one fatality was seen; this was a patient with initial serum ethylene glycol concentration of 1282 mg/dL who died on third day of hospitalization. Propylene glycol was common in patients being managed for toxic ingestions, and was often attributed to iatrogenic administration of propylene glycol-containing medications such as activated charcoal and intravenous lorazepam. In six patients, propylene glycol contributed to an abnormally high osmolal gap. The common presence of propylene glycol in hospitalized patients emphasizes the importance of being able to identify both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol by chromatographic methods.

  9. Association of Serum Vitamin D Level and Carotid Atherosclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Hua; Liu, Tian; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-Bo

    2017-11-24

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis. To explore the potential link of the serum vitamin D level with carotid atherosclerosis, this meta-analysis assessed the correlation between vitamin D and carotid intima-media thickness as well as carotid atherosclerotic plaque. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched until the end of March 2017. Clinical studies investigating the relationship between vitamin D and carotid atherosclerosis were included. The outcome data were extracted according to the inclusion criteria and pooled for an effect estimate by a random-effects model. Of the 506 initially retrieved studies, 11 studies involving a total of 16,434 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale scores suggested that the included studies were of high quality. The pooled effects estimate showed that the serum vitamin D level was negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.96), with substantial heterogeneity among the individual studies (I2  = 54%). Furthermore, a subgroup analysis suggested that hypovitaminosis D was associated with an 0.85-fold decrease in the odds of having a higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI, 0.76-0.96; P D level was a protective factor against increased carotid plaque (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97; P D deficiency and carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with hypovitaminosis D might have extra requirements for preventive and therapeutic measures against early atherosclerosis, thus reducing the cardiovascular disease risk in the long term. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. WFCatalog: A catalogue for seismological waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Luca; Koymans, Mathijs; Atkinson, Malcolm; Sleeman, Reinoud; Filgueira, Rosa

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports advances in seismic waveform description and discovery leading to a new seismological service and presents the key steps in its design, implementation and adoption. This service, named WFCatalog, which stands for waveform catalogue, accommodates features of seismological waveform data. Therefore, it meets the need for seismologists to be able to select waveform data based on seismic waveform features as well as sensor geolocations and temporal specifications. We describe the collaborative design methods and the technical solution showing the central role of seismic feature catalogues in framing the technical and operational delivery of the new service. Also, we provide an overview of the complex environment wherein this endeavour is scoped and the related challenges discussed. As multi-disciplinary, multi-organisational and global collaboration is necessary to address today's challenges, canonical representations can provide a focus for collaboration and conceptual tools for agreeing directions. Such collaborations can be fostered and formalised by rallying intellectual effort into the design of novel scientific catalogues and the services that support them. This work offers an example of the benefits generated by involving cross-disciplinary skills (e.g. data and domain expertise) from the early stages of design, and by sustaining the engagement with the target community throughout the delivery and deployment process.

  11. Gaussian Decomposition of Laser Altimeter Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofton, Michelle A.; Minster, J. Bernard; Blair, J. Bryan

    1999-01-01

    We develop a method to decompose a laser altimeter return waveform into its Gaussian components assuming that the position of each Gaussian within the waveform can be used to calculate the mean elevation of a specific reflecting surface within the laser footprint. We estimate the number of Gaussian components from the number of inflection points of a smoothed copy of the laser waveform, and obtain initial estimates of the Gaussian half-widths and positions from the positions of its consecutive inflection points. Initial amplitude estimates are obtained using a non-negative least-squares method. To reduce the likelihood of fitting the background noise within the waveform and to minimize the number of Gaussians needed in the approximation, we rank the "importance" of each Gaussian in the decomposition using its initial half-width and amplitude estimates. The initial parameter estimates of all Gaussians ranked "important" are optimized using the Levenburg-Marquardt method. If the sum of the Gaussians does not approximate the return waveform to a prescribed accuracy, then additional Gaussians are included in the optimization procedure. The Gaussian decomposition method is demonstrated on data collected by the airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) in October 1997 over the Sequoia National Forest, California.

  12. Higher Serum Uric Acid May Contribute to Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Ma, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoning

    2017-01-01

    Higher levels of serum uric acid tend to increase the diabetes-related complications. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate whether the higher serum uric acid levels were associated with cerebral infarction in type 2 diabetes patients. We searched for relevant studies in the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China BioMedicine, and VIP database until August 2015. All observational studies comparing serum uric acid levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without cerebral infarction were included. We calculated the ratio of means (RoM) of serum uric acid by mean cerebral infarction /mean diabetic control from the individual studies and then pooled RoM and its 95 % confidence intervals (CI). A total of 23 eligible studies were identified. Pooled estimates indicated that type 2 diabetes patients with cerebral infarction were associated with 29 % (RoM 1.29; 95 % CI 1.26-1.31) higher serum uric acid levels than those without cerebral infarction in a random effect model. Subgroup analyses based on gender indicated that RoM was 1.23 (95 % CI 1.09-1.38) for men and 1.12 (95 % CI 0.98-1.27) for women. This meta-analysis suggests that higher serum uric acid levels may contribute to cerebral infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Robust spike classification based on frequency domain neural waveform features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenhui; Yuan, Yuan; Si, Jennie

    2013-12-01

    We introduce a new spike classification algorithm based on frequency domain features of the spike snippets. The goal for the algorithm is to provide high classification accuracy, low false misclassification, ease of implementation, robustness to signal degradation, and objectivity in classification outcomes. In this paper, we propose a spike classification algorithm based on frequency domain features (CFDF). It makes use of frequency domain contents of the recorded neural waveforms for spike classification. The self-organizing map (SOM) is used as a tool to determine the cluster number intuitively and directly by viewing the SOM output map. After that, spike classification can be easily performed using clustering algorithms such as the k-Means. In conjunction with our previously developed multiscale correlation of wavelet coefficient (MCWC) spike detection algorithm, we show that the MCWC and CFDF detection and classification system is robust when tested on several sets of artificial and real neural waveforms. The CFDF is comparable to or outperforms some popular automatic spike classification algorithms with artificial and real neural data. The detection and classification of neural action potentials or neural spikes is an important step in single-unit-based neuroscientific studies and applications. After the detection of neural snippets potentially containing neural spikes, a robust classification algorithm is applied for the analysis of the snippets to (1) extract similar waveforms into one class for them to be considered coming from one unit, and to (2) remove noise snippets if they do not contain any features of an action potential. Usually, a snippet is a small 2 or 3 ms segment of the recorded waveform, and differences in neural action potentials can be subtle from one unit to another. Therefore, a robust, high performance classification system like the CFDF is necessary. In addition, the proposed algorithm does not require any assumptions on statistical

  14. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  15. Waveform information from quantum mechanical entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Scott; Suski, William; Winn, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Although the entropy of a given signal-type waveform is technically zero, it is nonetheless desirable to use entropic measures to quantify the associated information. Several such prescriptions have been advanced in the literature but none are generally successful. Here, we report that the Fourier-conjugated 'total entropy' associated with quantum-mechanical probabilistic amplitude functions (PAFs) is a meaningful measure of information in non-probabilistic real waveforms, with either the waveform itself or its (normalized) analytic representation acting in the role of the PAF. Detailed numerical calculations are presented for both adaptations, showing the expected informatic behaviours in a variety of rudimentary scenarios. Particularly noteworthy are the sensitivity to the degree of randomness in a sequence of pulses and potential for detection of weak signals.

  16. Krylov subspace acceleration of waveform relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, A.; Wu, Deyun [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Standard solution methods for numerically solving time-dependent problems typically begin by discretizing the problem on a uniform time grid and then sequentially solving for successive time points. The initial time discretization imposes a serialization to the solution process and limits parallel speedup to the speedup available from parallelizing the problem at any given time point. This bottleneck can be circumvented by the use of waveform methods in which multiple time-points of the different components of the solution are computed independently. With the waveform approach, a problem is first spatially decomposed and distributed among the processors of a parallel machine. Each processor then solves its own time-dependent subsystem over the entire interval of interest using previous iterates from other processors as inputs. Synchronization and communication between processors take place infrequently, and communication consists of large packets of information - discretized functions of time (i.e., waveforms).

  17. Waveform information from quantum mechanical entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Scott; Suski, William; Winn, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Although the entropy of a given signal-type waveform is technically zero, it is nonetheless desirable to use entropic measures to quantify the associated information. Several such prescriptions have been advanced in the literature but none are generally successful. Here, we report that the Fourier-conjugated `total entropy' associated with quantum-mechanical probabilistic amplitude functions (PAFs) is a meaningful measure of information in non-probabilistic real waveforms, with either the waveform itself or its (normalized) analytic representation acting in the role of the PAF. Detailed numerical calculations are presented for both adaptations, showing the expected informatic behaviours in a variety of rudimentary scenarios. Particularly noteworthy are the sensitivity to the degree of randomness in a sequence of pulses and potential for detection of weak signals.

  18. A comparison of rectilinear and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms in elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Connelly, Stephanie; Wharton, Rupert; Yuen, Ho Ming

    2013-03-01

    Several different biphasic waveforms are used clinically, but few studies have compared their efficacy. The two main waveforms are the biphasic rectilinear (BR) and biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) waveforms, both of which have important differences, particularly at the extremes of transthoracic impedance. To compare the efficacy of two commonly used defibrillation waveforms in the elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. In a prospective randomized controlled study, sequential adult patients undergoing elective cardioversion for AF were recruited. Patients were randomized to receive synchronized defibrillation using either a BR or BTE waveform, both using a 50J, 100J, 150J, 200J, 200J selected energy escalating protocol. Failure to cardiovert after the fifth shock was classed as failed defibrillation. The power of this study was 80% with 5% significance level to detect a difference of 20% or greater between groups. Survival analysis was used to compare the total energy delivered to achieve successful cardioversion between groups. A total of 202 patients were recruited, of which data are complete for 199 (100 BR; 99 BTE). Median number of shocks to achieve cardioversion was 2 for the BR waveform and 3 for the BTE waveform (P = 0.059). In the BR waveform group, 95/100 (95.0%) achieved sinus rhythm. In the BTE waveform group, 90/99 (90.9%) achieved sinus rhythm and this group required on average 117.1J more energy to achieve the outcome compared to the BR waveform group (P = 0.838). BR and BTE waveforms show similar high efficacy in the elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum procalcitonin levels as a diagnostic marker for septic arthritis: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyi; Zhang, Shufeng; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Xianhui; Li, Jianhui; Wang, Ying; Yao, Yinhui

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels as a diagnostic marker for septic arthritis (SA) via meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library, as well as the reference lists of relevant articles, for studies published up to May 21, 2015 and did not impose language restrictions. We selected original studies reporting the usefulness of PCT or C-reactive protein (CRP) as a diagnostic marker for SA. We summarized test performance characteristics with the use of forest plots, hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves, and bivariate random effects models. Prespecified subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses were also performed. This meta-analysis comprised 10 studies including 838 patients. The overall sensitivity of serum PCT levels for the diagnosis of SA in these studies was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.41-0.66), and the specificity of PCT was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.87-0.98). The positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 10.97 (95% CI, 4.65-25.89); the negative LR was 0.49 (95% CI, 0.38-0.62); and the area under ROC curve (AUROC) was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.78-0.85). Six studies also examined the usefulness of CRP levels as a marker for the diagnosis of SA. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP were 0.45 (95% CI, 0.35-0.55) and 0.079 (95% CI, 0.0.021-0.25), respectively, and the positive LR, negative LR and AUROC curve were 0.48 (95% CI, 0.39-0.61), 6.79 (95% CI, 2.04-23.81), and 0.30 (95% CI, 0.26-0.34), respectively. PCT is more valuable than CRP for distinguishing SA from non-SA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomarker Identification and Pathway Analysis by Serum Metabolomics of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death, for which no validated tumor biomarker is sufficiently accurate to be useful for diagnosis. Additionally, the metabolic alterations associated with the disease are unclear. In this study, we investigated the construction, interaction, and pathways of potential lung cancer biomarkers using metabolomics pathway analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database and the Human Metabolome Database to identify the top altered pathways for analysis and visualization. We constructed a diagnostic model using potential serum biomarkers from patients with lung cancer. We assessed their specificity and sensitivity according to the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves, which could be used to distinguish patients with lung cancer from normal subjects. The pathway analysis indicated that sphingolipid metabolism was the top altered pathway in lung cancer. ROC curve analysis indicated that glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (GpAEA and sphingosine were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Compared with the traditional lung cancer diagnostic biomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment, GpAEA and sphingosine were as good or more appropriate for detecting lung cancer. We report our identification of potential metabolic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of lung cancer and clarify the metabolic alterations in lung cancer.

  1. Waveform Design for Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerckx, Bruno; Bayguzina, Ekaterina

    2016-12-01

    Far-field Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has attracted significant attention in recent years. Despite the rapid progress, the emphasis of the research community in the last decade has remained largely concentrated on improving the design of energy harvester (so-called rectenna) and has left aside the effect of transmitter design. In this paper, we study the design of transmit waveform so as to enhance the DC power at the output of the rectenna. We derive a tractable model of the non-linearity of the rectenna and compare with a linear model conventionally used in the literature. We then use those models to design novel multisine waveforms that are adaptive to the channel state information (CSI). Interestingly, while the linear model favours narrowband transmission with all the power allocated to a single frequency, the non-linear model favours a power allocation over multiple frequencies. Through realistic simulations, waveforms designed based on the non-linear model are shown to provide significant gains (in terms of harvested DC power) over those designed based on the linear model and over non-adaptive waveforms. We also compute analytically the theoretical scaling laws of the harvested energy for various waveforms as a function of the number of sinewaves and transmit antennas. Those scaling laws highlight the benefits of CSI knowledge at the transmitter in WPT and of a WPT design based on a non-linear rectenna model over a linear model. Results also motivate the study of a promising architecture relying on large-scale multisine multi-antenna waveforms for WPT. As a final note, results stress the importance of modeling and accounting for the non-linearity of the rectenna in any system design involving wireless power.

  2. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  3. Principles of waveform diversity and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wicks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to discuss current and future applications of waveform diversity and design in subjects such as radar and sonar, communications systems, passive sensing, and many other technologies. Waveform diversity allows researchers and system designers to optimize electromagnetic and acoustic systems for sensing, communications, electronic warfare or combinations thereof. This book enables solutions to problems, explaining how each system performs its own particular function, as well as how it is affected by other systems and how those other systems may likewise be affected. It is

  4. [Correlation analysis between serum free testosterone and total testosterone in Chengdu females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Liangzhi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaofang; Kang, Deying; Qiu, Dongsheng; Han, Daiwen

    2013-04-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze the correlation between serum free testosterone (FT) and total testosterone (TT) to acquire a cutoff about using total testosterone to diagnose hyperandrogenism in Chengdu females. We investigated 1854 women by cluster sampling method, detected their serum FT levels and TT levels, scored relative items, analyzed the correlation and made the ROC curve to get a cutoff of TT levels. Serum FT had a linear correlation with serum TT (r = 0.597, r2 = 0.356, P < 0.001). The cutoff value was 0.635 ng/mL. The specificity and sensitivity were 76.3% and 77.24%, respectively. No correlation found between serum FT and Ferriman-Gallway Score (P = 0.392). Positive correlations were seen between serum FT and Plewig-Kligman Score (r = 0.137, P < 0.001), serum TT and Ferriman-Gallway Score (r = 0.069, P = 0.003) and serum TT and Plewig-Kligman Score (r = 0.092, P < 0.001). There is a linear correlation between serum FT and TT. We can diagnose hyperandrogenism according to the serum TT cutoff value (0.635 ng/mL). Its clinical symptoms are not paralleled with the biochemical test results.

  5. Multivariate Path Analysis of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration, Inflammation, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaum M. Kabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Despite growing interest in the protective role that vitamin D may have in health outcomes, little research has examined the mechanisms underlying this role. This study aimed to test two hypotheses: (1 serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and elevated hemoglobin A1c; (2 these associations are mediated by serum C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods. Participants aged 20 and older in 2001–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (n = 8,655 with measures of serum 25(OHD, CRP, hemoglobin A1c, and other important covariates were included in the present study. Logistic regression and path analysis methods were applied to test the study hypotheses. Results. Decreased serum 25(OHD concentration was significantly associated with increased odds of T2DM. In males, an estimated 14.9% of the association between 25(OHD and hemoglobin A1c was mediated by serum CRP. However, this mediation effect was not observed in females. Conclusion. Using a nationally representative sample, the present study extends previous research and provides new evidence that the effect of decreased serum vitamin D concentration on T2DM may proceed through increased systemic inflammation in males. Longitudinal studies and randomized control trials are needed to confirm the present findings.

  6. Data mining technique for fast retrieval of similar waveforms in Fusion massive databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es; Pereira, A.; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N. [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Santos, M. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Pajares, G. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Fusion measurement systems generate similar waveforms for reproducible behavior. A major difficulty related to data analysis is the identification, in a rapid and automated way, of a set of discharges with comparable behaviour, i.e. discharges with 'similar' waveforms. Here we introduce a new technique for rapid searching and retrieval of 'similar' signals. The approach consists of building a classification system that avoids traversing the whole database looking for similarities. The classification system diminishes the problem dimensionality (by means of waveform feature extraction) and reduces the searching space to just the most probable 'similar' waveforms (clustering techniques). In the searching procedure, the input waveform is classified in any of the existing clusters. Then, a similarity measure is computed between the input signal and all cluster elements in order to identify the most similar waveforms. The inner product of normalized vectors is used as the similarity measure as it allows the searching process to be independent of signal gain and polarity. This development has been applied recently to TJ-II stellarator databases and has been integrated into its remote participation system.

  7. Low-tilt monophasic and biphasic waveforms compared with standard biphasic waveforms in the transvenous defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Johan R; Darragh, Karen M; Walsh, Simon J; Allen, Desmond J; Scott, Michael; Stevenson, Michael; Adgey, Jennifer A A; Anderson, John M C J; Manoharan, Ganesh

    2014-03-01

    Commercially available implantable defibrillators utilize a high-tilt waveform. Studies in atrial fibrillation and transthoracic defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation (VF) have shown improved defibrillation efficacy using low-tilt (LT) waveforms. We investigated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a LT waveform in the transvenous defibrillation of VF and hypothesized that it would be more efficacious than standard tilted biphasic (STB) waveforms. The investigation was performed in four phases in a porcine model: an efficacy study of LT monophasic waveforms (n = 9), an efficacy study of LT biphasic waveforms (n = 9), a comparison study between the most successful LT waveforms and clinically available STB waveforms (n = 15), and a safety study (n = 9). A total of 1,056 shocks were delivered (phase 1: 288, phase 2: 288, phase 3: 480). The LT biphasic 8/4-ms waveform was significantly more likely to successfully defibrillate than the LT monophasic and STB waveforms with an odds ratio of 122.3 (95% confidence interval: 32.5, 460.2, P defibrillation threshold (E50) for the LT 8/4-ms waveform was 12.7 J compared to 43.5 J and 45.5 J for STB waveforms 6/6 ms and 8/4 ms, respectively, and 47.7 J for LT 12-ms waveform. The LT 8/4-ms waveform had no lasting detrimental effect on cardiac function, and any transient hemodynamical or biochemical changes observed were comparable to those observed with STB waveforms. LT waveforms are effective and appear safe in transvenous defibrillation in a porcine model of VF. The LT biphasic 8/4-ms waveform is more efficacious than conventional waveforms. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  9. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  10. Waveform Analysis of UWB GPR Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Armesto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR systems fall into the category of ultra-wideband (UWB devices. Most GPR equipment covers a frequency range between an octave and a decade by using short-time pulses. Each signal recorded by a GPR gathers a temporal log of attenuated and distorted versions of these pulses (due to the effect of the propagation medium plus possible electromagnetic interferences and noise. In order to make a good interpretation of this data and extract the most possible information during processing, a deep knowledge of the wavelet emitted by the antennas is essential. Moreover, some advanced processing techniques require specific knowledge of this signal to obtain satisfactory results. In this work, we carried out a series of tests in order to determine the source wavelet emitted by a ground-coupled antenna with a 500 MHz central frequency.

  11. Isolated increase in serum alkaline phosphatase after liver transplantation: risk factors and outcomes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Maw; Ho, Ming-Chih; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Rey-Heng; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Wu, Yao-Ming; Lee, Po-Huang

    2013-01-01

    Isolated increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (IISAlp) is frequently observed in liver transplant recipients visiting outpatient clinics. However, whether the increase is associated with risk factors or poor survival is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of liver transplant recipients who were followed up during 1999-2009 and had IISAlp 1 month after liver transplantation, which was sustained for at least 6 months. Clinical parameters, survival, and risk factors were analyzed and compared between recipients who survived longer than 6 months after transplantation. Among 307 liver transplant recipients, 44 had IISAlp. Compared with the control group, the patients with IISAlp were more frequently of the pediatric population, recipients of female donor or living-related partial liver grafts, and found to have biliary-related pretransplant disorders, lower body weight, and shorter warm ischemic time (P liver transplantation was 6.3 ± 0.8 months. The mean follow-up duration was 5.5 ± 0.2 years. Stepwise multivariate analysis showed that being a pediatric or living-related liver transplant recipient was an independent risk factor for IISAlp, with adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 5.41 (2.59-11.28) and 3.0 (0.98-9.27), respectively. Therefore, being a pediatric or living-related liver transplant recipient was an independent risk factor for IISAlp. However, IISAlp was not associated with poor survival after liver transplantation. Hence, patients who have undergone liver transplantation do not require frequent routine examination of serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum S100B Is Related to Illness Duration and Clinical Symptoms in Schizophrenia—A Meta-Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümberg, Katharina; Polyakova, Maryna; Steiner, Johann; Schroeter, Matthias L.

    2016-01-01

    S100B has been linked to glial pathology in several psychiatric disorders. Previous studies found higher S100B serum levels in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls, and a number of covariates influencing the size of this effect have been proposed in the literature. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis on alterations of serum S100B in schizophrenia in comparison with healthy control subjects. The meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement to guarantee a high quality and reproducibility. With strict inclusion criteria 19 original studies could be included in the quantitative meta-analysis, comprising a total of 766 patients and 607 healthy control subjects. The meta-analysis confirmed higher values of the glial serum marker S100B in schizophrenia if compared with control subjects. Meta-regression analyses revealed significant effects of illness duration and clinical symptomatology, in particular the total score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), on serum S100B levels in schizophrenia. In sum, results confirm glial pathology in schizophrenia that is modulated by illness duration and related to clinical symptomatology. Further studies are needed to investigate mechanisms and mediating factors related to these findings. PMID:26941608

  13. Prognostic role of pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in hepatocellular carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiwen; Wang, Wanli; Zhang, Yingjun; Liu, Xi; Li, Muxing; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Serum lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%) has been widely used for HCC diagnosis and follow-up surveillance as tumor serologic marker. However, the prognostic value of high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We therefore conduct a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and clinical outcome of HCC. Eligible studies were identified through systematic literature searches. A meta-analysis of fifteen studies (4,465 patients) was carried out to evaluate the association between high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in HCC patients. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted in this meta-analysis. Our analysis results showed that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% implied poor OS (HR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.45-1.89 pAFP-L3% and endpoint (OS and DFS) in low AFP concentration HCC patients (HR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.24-3.10, p = 0.004; HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.09-5.89, p = 0.03, respectively). The current evidence suggests that high pre-treatment serum AFP-L3% levels indicated a poor prognosis for patients with HCC and AFP-L3% may have significant prognostic value in HCC patients with low AFP concentration.

  14. Waveform relaxation methods for implicit differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Houwen; W.A. van der Veen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe apply a Runge-Kutta-based waveform relaxation method to initial-value problems for implicit differential equations. In the implementation of such methods, a sequence of nonlinear systems has to be solved iteratively in each step of the integration process. The size of these systems

  15. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  16. Serum DKK-1 level in the development of ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatic arthritis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Ouyang, Hui; Xie, Zhen; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Xiong-Wen

    2016-04-22

    To explore the association of serum Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) levels with the development of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatic arthritis (RA) in humans, databases including PubMed, EBSCO, Springerlink, Ovid, WANFANG and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to identify relevant studies. On the basis of rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria, case-control studies of the relationships between serum DKK-1 levels and AS and RA published before December 2014 were enrolled. Statistical analyses were performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0). Seven case-control trials with a total of 300 AS patients, 136 RA patients and 232 healthy controls were included in this study. Meta-analysis results revealed that DKK-1 serum levels were significantly higher in AS patients than in normal controls (standard mean differences (s.m.d.)=0.301, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.094-0.507, P=0.004), whereas no significant difference in DKK-1 serum levels was observed between RA patients and healthy controls (s.m.d.=0.798, 95% CI=-2.166-3.763, P=0.598). Serum DKK-1 level may be closely related to the development of AS but not of RA.

  17. Serum IL-10 Predicts Worse Outcome in Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pin; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background IL–10 is an important immunosuppressive cytokine which is frequently elevated in tumor microenvironment. Some studies have reported that overexpression of serous IL–10 is correlated with worse outcome in patients with malignant tumor. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the prognostic impact of serous IL–10 expression in cancer patients. Methods We searched PubMed and EBSCO for studies in evaluating the association of IL–10 expression—in serum and clinical outcome in cancer patients. Overall survival (OS) was the primary prognostic indicator and disease-free survival (DFS) was the secondary indicator. Extracted data were computed into odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) or a P value for survival at 1, 3 and 5 years. Pooled data were weighted using the Mantel–Haenszel Fixed-effect model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 1788 patients with cancer from 21 published studies were incorporated into this meta-analysis. High level of serum IL–10 was significantly associated with worse OS at 1-year (OR = 3.70, 95% CI = 2.81 to 4.87, P < 0.00001), 3-year (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 2.53 to 4.39, P < 0.0001) and 5-year (OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.90 to 4.10, P < 0.0001) of cancer. Subgroup analysis showed that the correlation between serous IL–10 expression and outcome of patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies are consistent. The association of IL–10 with worse DFS at 1-year (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.40 to 7.94, P = 0.006) and 2-year (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.79 to 8.53, P = 0.0006) was also identified. Conclusions High expression of serous IL–10 leads to an adverse survival in most types of cancer. IL–10 is a valuable biomarker for prognostic prediction and targeting IL–10 treatment options for both solid tumors and hematological malignancies. PMID:26440936

  18. Survey of the Frequency Dependent Latitudinal Distribution of the Fast Magnetosonic Wave Mode from Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument and Integrated Science Waveform Receiver Plasma Wave Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardsen, Scott A.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Kletzing, Craig A.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Wygant, John R.; Kurth, William S.; Averkamp, Terrance F.; Bounds, Scott R.; Green, Jim L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a statistical survey of the latitudinal structure of the fast magnetosonic wave mode detected by the Van Allen Probes spanning the time interval of 21 September 2012 to 1 August 2014. We show that statistically, the latitudinal occurrence of the wave frequency (f) normalized by the local proton cyclotron frequency (f(sub cP)) has a distinct funnel-shaped appearance in latitude about the magnetic equator similar to that found in case studies. By comparing the observed E/B ratios with the model E/B ratio, using the observed plasma density and background magnetic field magnitude as input to the model E/B ratio, we show that this mode is consistent with the extra-ordinary (whistler) mode at wave normal angles (theta(sub k)) near 90 deg. Performing polarization analysis on synthetic waveforms composed from a superposition of extra-ordinary mode plane waves with theta(sub k) randomly chosen between 87 and 90 deg, we show that the uncertainty in the derived wave normal is substantially broadened, with a tail extending down to theta(sub k) of 60 deg, suggesting that another approach is necessary to estimate the true distribution of theta(sub k). We find that the histograms of the synthetically derived ellipticities and theta(sub k) are consistent with the observations of ellipticities and theta(sub k) derived using polarization analysis.We make estimates of the median equatorial theta(sub k) by comparing observed and model ray tracing frequency-dependent probability occurrence with latitude and give preliminary frequency dependent estimates of the equatorial theta(sub k) distribution around noon and 4 R(sub E), with the median of approximately 4 to 7 deg from 90 deg at f/f(sub cP) = 2 and dropping to approximately 0.5 deg from 90 deg at f/f(sub cP) = 30. The occurrence of waves in this mode peaks around noon near the equator at all radial distances, and we find that the overall intensity of these waves increases with AE*, similar to findings of other studies.

  19. Comparative proteome analysis of rubber latex serum from pathogenic fungi tolerant and susceptible rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havanapan, Phattara-Orn; Bourchookarn, Apichai; Ketterman, Albert J; Krittanai, Chartchai

    2016-01-10

    Many cultivated rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) are invaded by various Phytophthora species fungi, especially in tropical regions which result in crop yield losses. Comparative proteome analysis coupled with liquid chromatography electrospray/ionization (LC-ESI) mass spectrometry identification was employed to investigate the relative abundance of defense related proteins in Phytophthora sp. susceptible (RRIM600) and tolerant (BPM24) clones of rubber tree. Proteome maps of non-rubber constituent of these two model clones show similar protein counts, although some proteins show significant alterations in their abundance. Most of the differentially abundant proteins found in the serum of BPM24 illustrate the accumulation of defense related proteins that participate in plant defense mechanisms such as beta-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and lectin. SDS-PAGE and 2-D Western blot analysis showed greater level of accumulation of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase in latex serum of BPM24 when compared to RRIM600. A functional study of these two enzymes showed that BPM24 serum had greater beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities than that of RRIM600. These up-regulated proteins are constitutively expressed and would serve to protect the rubber tree BPM24 from any fungal invader. The information obtained from this work is valuable for understanding of defense mechanisms and plantation improvement of H. brasiliensis. Non-rubber constituents (latex serum) have almost no value and are treated as waste in the rubber agricultural industry. However, the serum of natural rubber latex contains biochemical substances. The comparative proteomics analysis of latex serum between tolerant and susceptible clones reveals that the tolerant BPM24 clone contained a high abundance of several classes of fungal pathogen-responsive proteins, such as glucanase and chitinase. Moreover, other proteins identified highlighted the accumulation of defensive-associated proteins participating in plant

  20. JTRS/SCA and Custom/SDR Waveform Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Daniel R.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares two waveform implementations generating the same RF signal using the same SDR development system. Both waveforms implement a satellite modem using QPSK modulation at 1M BPS data rates with one half rate convolutional encoding. Both waveforms are partitioned the same across the general purpose processor (GPP) and the field programmable gate array (FPGA). Both waveforms implement the same equivalent set of radio functions on the GPP and FPGA. The GPP implements the majority of the radio functions and the FPGA implements the final digital RF modulator stage. One waveform is implemented directly on the SDR development system and the second waveform is implemented using the JTRS/SCA model. This paper contrasts the amount of resources to implement both waveforms and demonstrates the importance of waveform partitioning across the SDR development system.

  1. High-throughput analysis of drug dissociation from serum proteins using affinity silica monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Michelle J; Hage, David S

    2011-08-01

    A noncompetitive peak decay method was used with 1 mm×4.6 mm id silica monoliths to measure the dissociation rate constants (kd) for various drugs with human serum albumin (HSA) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Flow rates up to 9 mL/min were used in these experiments, resulting in analysis times of only 20-30 s. Using a silica monolith containing immobilized HSA, dissociation rate constants were measured for amitriptyline, carboplatin, cisplatin, chloramphenicol, nortriptyline, quinidine, and verapamil, giving values that ranged from 0.37 to 0.78 s(-1). Similar work with an immobilized AGP silica monolith gave kd values for amitriptyline, nortriptyline, and lidocaine of 0.39-0.73 s(-1). These kd values showed good agreement with values determined for drugs with similar structures and/or affinities for HSA or AGP. It was found that a kd of up to roughly 0.80 s(-1) could be measured by this approach. This information made it possible to obtain a better understanding of the advantages and possible limitations of the noncompetitive peak decay method and in the use of affinity silica monoliths for the high-throughput analysis of drug-protein dissociation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Quantitative analysis of ibuprofen in pharmaceuticals and human control serum using kinetic spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNEZANA S. MITIC

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a new kinetic spectrophoto-metric method for the determination of ibuprofen in pharmaceutical for-mulations. Ibuprofen was determined in an acidic ethanolic medium by monitoring the rate of appearance of 1-nitroso-2-naphthol, resulting from the displacement by ibuprofen of Co(III from the tris(1-nitroso-2-naptholatocobalt(III complex. The optimum operating conditions regarding reagent concentrations and temperature were established. The tangent method was adopted for constructing the calibration curve, which was found to be linear over the concentration range 0.21–1.44 and 1.44–2.06 µg ml-1. The optimized conditions yielded a theoretical detection limit of 0.03 µg ml-1 based on the 3.3 S0 criterion. The interference effects of the usual excipients of powdery drugs, foreign ions and amino acids on the reaction rate were studied in order to assess the selectivity of the method. The developed procedure was successfully applied for the rapid determination of ibuprofen in commercial pharmaceutical formulations and human control serum. The unique features of this procedure are that the determination can be performed at room temperature and the analysis time is short. The newly developed method is simple, inexpensive and efficient for use in the analysis of a large number of samples.

  3. Binding of caffeic acid to human serum albumin by the retention data and frontal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yuxin; Li, Qian; Chen, Jiejun; Gao, Xiaokang; Chen, Hongwei; Xiao, Chaoni; Bian, Liujiao; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2014-12-01

    A new mathematical model and frontal analysis were used to characterize the binding behavior of caffeic acid to human serum albumin (HSA) based on high-performance affinity chromatography. The experiments were carried out by injecting various mole amounts of the drug onto an immobilized HSA column. They indicated that caffeic acid has only one type of binding site to HSA on which the association constant was 2.75 × 10(4) /m. The number of the binding site involving the interaction between caffeic acid and HSA was 69 nm. The data obtained by the frontal analysis appeared to present the same results for both the association constant and the number of binding sites. This new model based on the relationship between the mole amounts of injection and capacity factors assists understanding of drug-protein interaction. The proposed model also has the advantages of ligand saving and rapid operation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Serum lipids and lipoproteins in malaria--a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Benjamin J.; Wieten, Rosanne W.; Nagel, Ingeborg M.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Serum lipid profile changes have been observed during malaria infection. The underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on those serum lipid profile changes, and to discuss possible underlying biological mechanisms and the role of lipids in

  5. Evalution of capillary electrophoresis-frontal analysis for the study of low molecular weight drug-human serum albumin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Jesper; Schou, Christian; Larsen, Claus; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2002-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis frontal analysis was applied to 12 low molecular weight compounds including 8 drug substances displaying a range of different properties with respect to binding affinity, binding location, structure, lipophilicity, charge at physiological pH, and electrophoretic mobility. It was found that capillary electrophoresis frontal analysis can be used as a general method to study and quantify drug-human serum albumin interactions. The binding parameters obtained were consistent with literature values. Dextran was in some cases added to the run buffer to improve separation of the drug and human serum albumin plateau peaks. Results indicate that mobility differences between free and complexed human serum albumin give rise to only minor errors. Capillary electrophoresis frontal analysis was also found applicable to the study of human serum albumin drug displacement reactions. Low sensitivity of the UV-detection system was found to be the major limitation of capillary electrophoresis frontal analysis. The method is simple, and minimal effort has to be put into method development, which makes it well suited for screening in early drug development.

  6. SAR processing with non-linear FM chirp waveforms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-12-01

    Nonlinear FM (NLFM) waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM (LFM) waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents details of processing NLFM waveforms in both range and Doppler dimensions, with special emphasis on compensating intra-pulse Doppler, often cited as a weakness of NLFM waveforms.

  7. Bivariate analysis of basal serum anti-Mullerian hormone measurements and human blastocyst development after IVF

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, E Scott

    2011-12-02

    Abstract Background To report on relationships among baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurements, blastocyst development and other selected embryology parameters observed in non-donor oocyte IVF cycles. Methods Pre-treatment AMH was measured in patients undergoing IVF (n = 79) and retrospectively correlated to in vitro embryo development noted during culture. Results Mean (+\\/- SD) age for study patients in this study group was 36.3 ± 4.0 (range = 28-45) yrs, and mean (+\\/- SD) terminal serum estradiol during IVF was 5929 +\\/- 4056 pmol\\/l. A moderate positive correlation (0.49; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65) was noted between basal serum AMH and number of MII oocytes retrieved. Similarly, a moderate positive correlation (0.44) was observed between serum AMH and number of early cleavage-stage embryos (95% CI 0.24 to 0.61), suggesting a relationship between serum AMH and embryo development in IVF. Of note, serum AMH levels at baseline were significantly different for patients who did and did not undergo blastocyst transfer (15.6 vs. 10.9 pmol\\/l; p = 0.029). Conclusions While serum AMH has found increasing application as a predictor of ovarian reserve for patients prior to IVF, its roles to estimate in vitro embryo morphology and potential to advance to blastocyst stage have not been extensively investigated. These data suggest that baseline serum AMH determinations can help forecast blastocyst developmental during IVF. Serum AMH measured before treatment may assist patients, clinicians and embryologists as scheduling of embryo transfer is outlined. Additional studies are needed to confirm these correlations and to better define the role of baseline serum AMH level in the prediction of blastocyst formation.

  8. Serum reactome induced by Bordetella pertussis infection and Pertussis vaccines: qualitative differences in serum antibody recognition patterns revealed by peptide microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Davide; Ferrara, Giovanni; Advani, Reza; Hallander, Hans O; Maeurer, Markus J

    2015-07-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) remains a public health problem despite extensive vaccination strategies. Better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and the detailed B. pertussis (Bp) target recognition pattern will help in guided vaccine design. We characterized the specific epitope antigen recognition profiles of serum antibodies ('the reactome') induced by whooping cough and B. pertussis (Bp) vaccines from a case-control study conducted in 1996 in infants enrolled in a Bp vaccine trial in Sweden (Gustafsson, NEJM, 1996, 334, 349-355). Sera from children with whooping cough, vaccinated with Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTP) whole-cell (wc), acellular 5 (DPTa5), or with the 2 component (a2) vaccines and from infants receiving only DT (n=10 for each group) were tested with high-content peptide microarrays containing 17 Bp proteins displayed as linear (n=3175) peptide stretches. Slides were incubated with serum and peptide-IgG complexes detected with Cy5-labeled goat anti-human IgG and analyzed using a GenePix 4000B microarray scanner, followed by statistical analysis, using PAM (Prediction Analysis for Microarrays) and the identification of uniquely recognized peptide epitopes. 367/3,085 (11.9%) peptides were recognized in 10/10 sera from children with whooping cough, 239 (7.7%) in DTPwc, 259 (8.4%) in DTPa5, 105 (3.4%) DTPa2, 179 (5.8%) in the DT groups. Recognition of strongly recognized peptides was similar between whooping cough and DPTwc, but statistically different between whooping cough vs. DTPa5 (presponses and may help to guide rational vaccine development by the objective description of a clinically relevant immune response that confers protection against infectious pathogens.

  9. A long source area of the 1906 Colombia-Ecuador earthquake estimated from observed tsunami waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yusuke; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Shiina, Takahiro

    2017-12-01

    The 1906 Colombia-Ecuador earthquake induced both strong seismic motions and a tsunami, the most destructive earthquake in the history of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone. The tsunami propagated across the Pacific Ocean, and its waveforms were observed at tide gauge stations in countries including Panama, Japan, and the USA. This study conducted slip inverse analysis for the 1906 earthquake using these waveforms. A digital dataset of observed tsunami waveforms at the Naos Island (Panama) and Honolulu (USA) tide gauge stations, where the tsunami was clearly observed, was first produced by consulting documents. Next, the two waveforms were applied in an inverse analysis as the target waveform. The results of this analysis indicated that the moment magnitude of the 1906 earthquake ranged from 8.3 to 8.6. Moreover, the dominant slip occurred in the northern part of the assumed source region near the coast of Colombia, where little significant seismicity has occurred, rather than in the southern part. The results also indicated that the source area, with significant slip, covered a long distance, including the southern, central, and northern parts of the region.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Analysis of serum from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication using surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H. W.; Yan, X. L.; Dong, R. X.; Ban, G.; Li, K.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we show surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of serums from type II diabetes mellitus and diabetic complication (coronary disease, glaucoma and cerebral infarction), and analyze the SERS through the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA). In particular, we find that there exist many adenines in these serums, which maybe come from DNA (RNA) damage. The relative intensity of the band at 725±2 cm-1 assigned to adenine is higher for patients than for the healthy volunteers; therefore, it can be used as an important ‘fingerprint’ in order to diagnose these diseases. It is also shown that serums from type II diabetes mellitus group, diabetic complication group and healthy volunteers group can be discriminated by PCA.

  11. Multiplexed Analysis of Serum Breast and Ovarian Cancer Markers by Means of Suspension Bead-quantum Dot Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnik, Kristina; Sokolova, Zinaida; Baryshnikova, Maria; Bilan, Regina; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    Multiplexed analysis of cancer markers is crucial for early tumor diagnosis and screening. We have designed lab-on-a-bead microarray for quantitative detection of three breast cancer markers in human serum. Quantum dots were used as bead-bound fluorescent tags for identifying each marker by means of flow cytometry. Antigen-specific beads reliably detected CA 15-3, CEA, and CA 125 in serum samples, providing clear discrimination between the samples with respect to the antigen levels. The novel microarray is advantageous over the routine single-analyte ones due to the simultaneous detection of various markers. Therefore the developed microarray is a promising tool for serum tumor marker profiling.

  12. Immunoaffinity sample purification and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, D R; Sporns, P

    2001-02-01

    A sample purification technique was developed for the detection of potato glycoalkaloids (GAs) in blood serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). GAs were extracted from spiked serum (5 mL) using a C(18) solid-phase extraction cartridge. The GAs were then selectively captured on antibody-coated agarose beads. The agarose beads were washed with water and the GAs eluted with 25 microL of methanol. MALDI-TOF MS was used to detect the GAs in the methanol eluent. Immunoaffinity sample purification of the GAs effectively reduced the signal suppression observed during the analysis of unpurified samples. alpha-Chaconine and alpha-solanine were detected in serum spiked with 1 ng/mL of each GA.

  13. Comparative Analysis of KnockOut™ Serum with Fetal Bovine Serum for the In Vitro Long-Term Culture of Human Limbal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The limbal epithelial cells can be maintained on 3T3 feeder layer with fetal bovine serum supplemented culture medium, and these cells have been used to successfully treat limbal stem cell deficiency. However, fetal bovine serum contains unknown components and displays quantitative and qualitative lot-to-lot variations. To improve the culture condition, the defined KnockOut serum replacement was investigated to replace fetal bovine serum for culturing human limbal epithelial cell. Human primary limbal epithelial cells were cultured in KnockOut serum and fetal bovine serum supplemented medium, respectively. The cell growth rate, gene expression, and maintenance of limbal epithelial stem cells were studied and compared between these two groups. Human primary limbal epithelial cells were isolated and successfully serially cultivated in this novel KnockOut serum supplemented medium; the cell proliferation and stem cell maintenance were similar to those of cells grown in fetal bovine serum supplemented medium. These data suggests that this KnockOut serum supplemented medium is an efficient replacement to traditional fetal bovine serum supplemented medium for limbal epithelial cell culture, and this medium has great potential for long term maintenance of limbal epithelial cells, limbal epithelial stem cells transplantation, and tissue regeneration.

  14. Dried blood spot analysis of gabapentin as a valid alternative for serum: a bridging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadones, Nele; Van Bever, Elien; Van Bortel, Luc; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2017-01-05

    We evaluated the applicability of a validated GC-MS method for the determination of gabapentin in dried blood spots (DBS). Important for the acceptance of DBS sampling as an alternative sampling strategy is the possibility to base solid conclusions on the quantification. Therefore, bridging studies -studies in which the correlation between both DBS and a reference matrix (e.g. serum) is evaluated statistically- need to be conducted. To this end, a comparative study was set up to quantify gabapentin in both blood (DBS) and serum samples. Statistically significant differences between DBS and serum concentrations were found (pblood-to-serum ratio of 0.85 was observed, which is in line with expectations. Calculated serum concentrations (obtained by dividing the DBS concentrations by 0.85) demonstrated a good correlation with measured serum concentrations, with 87% of samples fulfilling the criterion for incurred sample reanalysis. Furthermore, our data indicate a good correlation between capillary and venous concentrations. Conclusively, this study demonstrated that DBS are a valid alternative to serum for the determination of gabapentin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of serum magnesium ions in dogs exposed to external stress: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Ando

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium ions (Mg2+ are essential for various enzymatic reactions in the body associated with energy production and activation of the muscles and nerves. Mg2+ is also involved in blood pressure regulation, maintenance of body temperature, and glucose metabolism. Although various factors including foods and physical conditions have been reported to change serum Mg2+ status in humans, serum Mg2+ in dogs exposed to external stress has been unclear. In this study, we examined serum levels of Mg2+ in dogs at different conditions using the guide dog candidates for the blind. Serum Mg2+ was decreased in winter and increased in summer. Guide dog candidates in an elementary class of the training showed markedly lower levels of serum Mg2+, compared with that of dogs in an advanced class. When healthy adult dogs were subjected to forced exercise using a treadmill, a significant reduction in serum Mg2+ levels was observed, particularly in winter. These findings suggest that serum levels of Mg2+ may be influenced by weather fluctuation such as air temperature, nervousness in unaccustomed situations, age, and physical stress induced by exercise. The results indicate that Mg2+ supplementation should be considered for working dogs, dogs moving or traveling to a new environment, and dogs during winter.

  16. Serum urate association with hypertension in young adults: analysis from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffo, Angelo L; Jacobs, David R; Sijtsma, Femke; Lewis, Cora E; Mikuls, Ted R; Saag, Kenneth G

    2013-08-01

    To determine if serum urate concentration is associated with development of hypertension in young adults. Retrospective cohort analysis from 4752 participants with available serum urate and without hypertension at baseline from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study; a mixed race (African-American and White) cohort established in 1985 with 20 years of follow-up data for this analysis. Associations between baseline serum urate concentration and incident hypertension (defined as a blood pressure greater or equal to 140/90 or being on antihypertensive drugs) were investigated in sex-stratified bivariate and multivariable Cox-proportional analyses. Mean age (SD) at baseline was 24.8 (3.6) years for men and 24.9 (3.7) years for women. Compared with the referent category, we found a greater hazard of developing hypertension starting at 345 µmol/l (5.8 mg/dl) of serum urate for men and 214 µmol/l (3.6 mg/dl) for women. There was a 25% increase in the hazard of developing hypertension in men (HR1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36)) per each mg/dl increase in serum urate but no significant increase in women (HR 1.06 (95%CI 0.97 to 1.16)). We found a significant independent association between higher serum urate concentrations and the subsequent hazard of incident hypertension, even at concentrations below the conventional hyperuricaemia threshold of 404 µmol/l (6.8 mg/dl).

  17. Retrospective analysis of dengue specific IgM reactive serum samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemai Bhattacharya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a retrospective analysis of dengue cases in Kolkata, on the basis of presence of anti-dengue IgM in their sera and presence or absence of anti-dengue IgG and dengue specific Non structural 1 (NS1 antigen in each of the serum sample. Methods: Sample was tested quantitatively employing ELISA technique, using Biorad test kits, with a view to get a more comprehensive picture of dengue in an urban endemic area and also to evaluate individual cases. Results: This reconstructed study revealed that of those 91 dengue cases, 70.3% (64 and 29.7% (27 were suffering from secondary and primary dengue respectively, showing that number of secondary dengue cases were much more than that of primary dengue cases with a possibility of emergence of DHF. A small proportion of cases 18.7% (17 were reactive for NS1. The duration of fever in NS1 antigen positive cases varied between 5 and 7 days. Of 17 NS1 reactive cases, 10 (10.9% and 7 (7.7% were suffering from secondary and primary dengue respectively. Conclusions: Early detection of primary and secondary dengue cases would be facilitated by utilizing all three parameters (NS1 antigen, anti-dengue IgM and IgG helping to evaluate, monitor and treat a dengue case effectively.

  18. Diagnostic prediction of renal failure from blood serum analysis by FTIR spectrometry and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammdreza; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Garmarudi, Amir Bagheri; Ramin, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    A new diagnostic approach based on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry and classification algorithm has been introduced which provides a rapid, reliable, and easy way to perform blood test for the diagnosis of renal failure. Blood serum samples from 35 renal failure patients and 40 healthy persons were analyzed by ATR-FTIR spectrometry. The resulting data was processed by Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) and QDA combined with simple filtered method. Spectroscopic studies were performed in 900-2000 cm-1 spectral region with 3.85 cm-1 data space. Results showed 93.33% and 100% of accuracy for QDA and filter-QDA models, respectively. In the first step, 30 samples were applied to construct the model. In order to modify the capability of QDA in prediction of test samples, filter-based feature selection methods were applied. It was found that the filtered spectra coupled with QDA could correctly predict the test samples in most of the cases.

  19. Simultaneous comparison of thoracic bioimpedance and arterial pulse waveform-derived cardiac output with thermodilution measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschl, M M; Kittler, H; Woisetschläger, C; Siostrzonek, P; Staudinger, T; Kofler, J; Oschatz, E; Bur, A; Gwechenberger, M; Laggner, A N

    2000-06-01

    To compare the accuracy and reliability of thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) and the arterial pulse waveform analysis with simultaneous measurement of thermodilution cardiac output (TD-CO) in critically ill patients. Prospective data collection. Emergency department and critical care unit in a 2,000-bed inner-city hospital. A total of 29 critically ill patients requiring invasive hemodynamic monitoring for clinical management were prospectively studied. Noninvasive cardiac output was simultaneously measured by a TEB device and by analysis of the arterial pulse waveform derived from the finger artery. Invasive cardiac output was determined by the thermodilution technique. A total of 175 corresponding TD-CO and noninvasive hemodynamic measurements were collected in 30-min intervals. They revealed an overall bias of 0.34 L/min/m2 (95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.44 L/min/m2; p 0.50 L/min/m2. The discrepancies of the arterial pulse waveform analysis correlated positively with the magnitude of the cardiac index (r2 = 0.29; p 0.50 L/min/m2. The magnitude of the discrepancies of the TEB was significantly correlated with age (r2 = 0.17; p = .02). Measurements were in phase in 93.2% of all arterial pulse waveform analysis and in 84.9% of all TEB readings (p < .001). The arterial pulse waveform analysis exhibits a greater accuracy and reliability as compared with the TEB with regard to overall bias, number of inaccurate readings, and phase lags. The arterial pulse waveform analysis may be useful for the monitoring of hemodynamic changes. However, both methods fail to be a substitute for the TD-CO because of a substantial percentage of inaccurate readings.

  20. Porcine defibrillation thresholds with chopped biphasic truncated exponential waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joseph L; Melnick, Sharon B; Chapman, Fred W; Walcott, Gregory P

    2007-08-01

    Conventional biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) waveforms have been studied extensively but less is known about "chopping modulated" BTE shocks. Previous studies comparing chopped and unchopped waveforms have found conflicting results. This study compared the defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) of a variety of chopped and unchopped BTE waveforms. Six anesthetized pigs were defibrillated after 15s of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation (VF). Three waveform types were studied: unchopped BTE, "short" duration chopped, and "long" duration chopped waveforms. Each type included waveforms generated with 50, 100, and 200 microF capacitances, giving 9 total waveforms. Shocks were delivered in a standard up-down protocol and the order of the waveforms was randomized. Defibrillation thresholds were calculated using a Bayesian logistic regression model. DFTs of the 50, 100, and 200 microF unchopped waveforms were 122+/-22, 124+/-22, and 126+/-22 J. Short chopped DFTs were at least 75+/-23 J higher than unchopped DFTs. Long chopped DFTs averaged 66+/-20 J more than short chopped DFTs. There is a 99.5% probability that the best of the chopped waveforms has a higher DFT than the worst of the unchopped waveforms, and a 95% probability that the difference is at least 37 J. DFT differences between capacitor values were less than 7 J for all waveform types. When treating swine with short-duration VF, chopped waveforms require more energy to defibrillate than unchopped waveforms. More study is required to assess the performance of chopped waveforms when treating cardiac arrest patients.

  1. Quantitative analysis of core fucosylation of serum proteins in liver diseases by LC-MS-MRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junfeng; Sanda, Miloslav; Wei, Renhuizi; Zhang, Lihua; Goldman, Radoslav

    2018-02-07

    Aberrant core fucosylation of proteins has been linked to liver diseases. In this study, we carried out multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantification of core fucosylated N-glycopeptides of serum proteins partially deglycosylated by a combination of endoglycosidases (endoF1, endoF2, and endoF3). To minimize variability associated with the preparatory steps, the analysis was performed without enrichment of glycopeptides or fractionation of serum besides the nanoRP chromatography. Specifically, we quantified core fucosylation of 22 N-glycopeptides derived from 17 proteins together with protein abundance of these glycoproteins in a cohort of 45 participants (15 disease-free control, 15 fibrosis and 15 cirrhosis patients) using a multiplex nanoUPLC-MS-MRM workflow. We find increased core fucosylation of 5 glycopeptides at the stage of liver fibrosis (i.e., N630 of serotransferrin, N107 of alpha-1-antitrypsin, N253 of plasma protease C1 inhibitor, N397 of ceruloplasmin, and N86 of vitronectin), increase of additional 6 glycopeptides at the stage of cirrhosis (i.e., N138 and N762 of ceruloplasmin, N354 of clusterin, N187 of hemopexin, N71 of immunoglobulin J chain, and N127 of lumican), while the degree of core fucosylation of 10 glycopeptides did not change. Interestingly, although we observe an increase in the core fucosylation at N86 of vitronectin in liver fibrosis, core fucosylation decreases on the N169 glycopeptide of the same protein. Our results demonstrate that the changes in core fucosylation are protein and site specific during the progression of fibrotic liver disease and independent of the changes in the quantity of N-glycoproteins. It is expected that the fully optimized multiplex LC-MS-MRM assay of core fucosylated glycopeptides will be useful for the serologic assessment of the fibrosis of liver. We have quantified the difference in core fucosylation among three comparison groups (healthy control, fibrosis and cirrhosis patients) using a sensitive and

  2. Multi-Gaussian fitting for pulse waveform using Weighted Least Squares and multi-criteria decision making method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Lisheng; Feng, Shuting; Meng, Max Q-H; Wang, Kuanquan

    2013-11-01

    Analysis of pulse waveform is a low cost, non-invasive method for obtaining vital information related to the conditions of the cardiovascular system. In recent years, different Pulse Decomposition Analysis (PDA) methods have been applied to disclose the pathological mechanisms of the pulse waveform. All these methods decompose single-period pulse waveform into a constant number (such as 3, 4 or 5) of individual waves. Furthermore, those methods do not pay much attention to the estimation error of the key points in the pulse waveform. The estimation of human vascular conditions depends on the key points' positions of pulse wave. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Gaussian (MG) model to fit real pulse waveforms using an adaptive number (4 or 5 in our study) of Gaussian waves. The unknown parameters in the MG model are estimated by the Weighted Least Squares (WLS) method and the optimized weight values corresponding to different sampling points are selected by using the Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method. Performance of the MG model and the WLS method has been evaluated by fitting 150 real pulse waveforms of five different types. The resulting Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) was less than 2.0% and the estimation accuracy for the key points was satisfactory, demonstrating that our proposed method is effective in compressing, synthesizing and analyzing pulse waveforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multicommutated flow analysis system based on fluorescence microdetectors for simultaneous determination of phosphate and calcium ions in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedoruk-Pogrebniak, Marta; Koncki, Robert

    2015-11-01

    A bianalyte multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system allowing simultaneous determination of calcium and phosphate ions is developed. The detection of ions is based on measurements of fluorescence of calcein and rhodamine B, respectively. For such measurements performed under flow analysis conditions two dedicated detectors made of three integrated light emitting diodes each and operating according to fluorometric paired emitter detector diode (FPEDD) principle, have been used. The developed 2FPEDD-MCFA system has been applied for serum analysis. The system provides low detection limits (16 µM and 3.6 µM for calcium and phosphate ions, respectively) and therefore small consumption of sample (8 µL) for analysis. The throughput of the system allows about 20 bianalyte determinations per hour. The presented system was validated using human serum samples. The analysis results show good correlation with those from the clinical laboratory obtained using reference photometric methods. The results of real samples analysis show that it is necessary to determine both calcium and phosphate ions simultaneously because their levels is serum are rather weakly correlated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gold - A novel deconvolution algorithm with optimization for waveform LiDAR processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tan; Popescu, Sorin C.; Krause, Keith; Sheridan, Ryan D.; Putman, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Waveform Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data have advantages over discrete-return LiDAR data in accurately characterizing vegetation structure. However, we lack a comprehensive understanding of waveform data processing approaches under different topography and vegetation conditions. The objective of this paper is to highlight a novel deconvolution algorithm, the Gold algorithm, for processing waveform LiDAR data with optimal deconvolution parameters. Further, we present a comparative study of waveform processing methods to provide insight into selecting an approach for a given combination of vegetation and terrain characteristics. We employed two waveform processing methods: (1) direct decomposition, (2) deconvolution and decomposition. In method two, we utilized two deconvolution algorithms - the Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm and the Gold algorithm. The comprehensive and quantitative comparisons were conducted in terms of the number of detected echoes, position accuracy, the bias of the end products (such as digital terrain model (DTM) and canopy height model (CHM)) from the corresponding reference data, along with parameter uncertainty for these end products obtained from different methods. This study was conducted at three study sites that include diverse ecological regions, vegetation and elevation gradients. Results demonstrate that two deconvolution algorithms are sensitive to the pre-processing steps of input data. The deconvolution and decomposition method is more capable of detecting hidden echoes with a lower false echo detection rate, especially for the Gold algorithm. Compared to the reference data, all approaches generate satisfactory accuracy assessment results with small mean spatial difference (parameter uncertainty analysis demonstrates that the Gold algorithm outperforms other approaches in dense vegetation areas, with the smallest RMSE, and the RL algorithm performs better in sparse vegetation areas in terms of RMSE. Additionally, the high

  5. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Glad, Aslaug Clemmensen; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup

    2017-01-01

    . During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well......-preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal...... imprints is related to either the formation of thin mud layers, formed during a period of calm water when winds blew offshore for a longer period, or to the growth of bacterial mats. The orientation of the wave-formed bedforms indicates a local palaeoshoreline trending NE–SW and facing a large ocean...

  6. Programmable Clock Waveform Generation for CCD Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.; Marin, J.

    2006-07-01

    Charge transfer efficiency in CCDs is closely related to the clock waveform. In this paper, an experimental framework to explore different FPGA based clock waveform generator designs is described. Two alternative design approaches for controlling the rise/fall edge times and pulse width of the CCD clock signal have been implemented: level-control and time-control. Both approaches provide similar characteristics regarding the edge linearity and noise. Nevertheless, dissimilarities have been found with respect to the area and frequency range of application. Thus, while the time-control approach consumes less area, the level control approach provides a wider range of clock frequencies since it does not suffer capacitor discharge effect. (Author) 8 refs.

  7. Prototype of a transient waveform recording ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J.; Zhao, L.; Cheng, B.; Chen, H.; Guo, Y.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the design and measurement results of a transient waveform recording ASIC based on the Switched Capacitor Array (SCA) architecture. This 0.18 μm CMOS prototype device contains two channels and each channel employs a SCA of 128 samples deep, a 12-bit Wilkinson ADC and a serial data readout. A series of tests have been conducted and the results indicate that: a full 1 V signal voltage range is available, the input analog bandwidth is approximately 450 MHz and the sampling speed is adjustable from 0.076 to 3.2 Gsps (Gigabit Samples Per Second). For precision waveform timing extraction, careful calibration of timing intervals between samples is conducted to improve the timing resolution of such chips, and the timing precision of this ASIC is proved to be better than 15 ps RMS.

  8. A retrospective analysis of serum tumor markers found in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Hu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the positive CEA, CYFRA 21-1, NSE, and TSGF rates were observed at low values during the NSLCLC serum diagnosis, they still played an important role in diagnosing lung cancer. Significant levels of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, NSE, and TSGF were detected in the serum. The amounts found were useful for diagnosing NSCLC patients who depended on the currently limited biomarker development.

  9. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Mayuko; Hara, Junko; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Shankle, William R; Tomita, Masaru

    2013-10-01

    Despite increasing global prevalence, the precise pathogenesis and terms for objective diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias remain controversial, and comprehensive understanding of the disease remains lacking. Here, we conducted metabolomic analysis of serum and saliva obtained from patients with neurodegenerative dementias (n = 10), including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobe dementia, and Lewy body disease, as well as from age-matched healthy controls (n = 9). Using CE-TOF-MS, six metabolites in serum (β-alanine, creatinine, hydroxyproline, glutamine, iso-citrate, and cytidine) and two in saliva (arginine and tyrosine) were significantly different between dementias and controls. Using multivariate analysis, serum was confirmed as a more efficient biological fluid for diagnosis compared to saliva; additionally, 45 metabolites in total were identified as candidate markers that could discriminate at least one pair of diagnostic groups from the healthy control group. These metabolites possibly provide an objective method for diagnosing dementia-type by multiphase screening. Moreover, diagnostic-type-dependent differences were observed in several tricarboxylic acid cycle compounds detected in serum, indicating that some pathways in glucose metabolism may be altered in dementia patients. This pilot study revealed novel alterations in metabolomic profiles between various neurodegenerative dementias, which would contribute to etiological investigations. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Analysis of stereoselective drug interactions with serum proteins by high-performance affinity chromatography: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Hage, David S

    2017-09-10

    The interactions of drugs with serum proteins are often stereoselective and can affect the distribution, activity, toxicity and rate of excretion of these drugs in the body. A number of approaches based on affinity chromatography, and particularly high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC), have been used as tools to study these interactions. This review describes the general principles of affinity chromatography and HPAC as related to their use in drug binding studies. The types of serum agents that have been examined with these methods are also discussed, including human serum albumin, α1-acid glycoprotein, and lipoproteins. This is followed by a description of the various formats based on affinity chromatography and HPAC that have been used to investigate drug interactions with serum proteins and the historical development for each of these formats. Specific techniques that are discussed include zonal elution, frontal analysis, and kinetic methods such as those that make use of band-broadening measurements, peak decay analysis, or ultrafast affinity extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Meta-GWAS and Meta-Analysis of Exome Array Studies Do Not Reveal Genetic Determinants of Serum Hepcidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galesloot, Tessel E.; van Dijk, Freerk; Geurts-Moespot, Anneke J.; Girelli, Domenico; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Swertz, Morris A.; van der Meer, Peter; Camaschella, Clara; Toniolo, Daniela; Vermeulen, Sita H.; van der Harst, Pim; Swinkels, Dorine W.

    2016-01-01

    Serum hepcidin concentration is regulated by iron status, inflammation, erythropoiesis and numerous other factors, but underlying processes are incompletely understood. We studied the association of common and rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) with serum hepcidin in one Italian study and two large Dutch population-based studies. We genotyped common SNVs with genome-wide association study (GWAS) arrays and subsequently performed imputation using the 1000 Genomes reference panel. Cohort-specific GWAS were performed for log-transformed serum hepcidin, adjusted for age and gender, and results were combined in a fixed-effects meta-analysis (total N 6,096). Six top SNVs (pp<1.4x10-6) was identified. Gene-based meta-analyses revealed 19 genes that showed significant association with hepcidin. Our results suggest the absence of common SNVs and rare exonic SNVs explaining a large proportion of phenotypic variation in serum hepcidin. We recommend extension of our study once additional substantial cohorts with hepcidin measurements, GWAS and/or exome array data become available in order to increase power to identify variants that explain a smaller proportion of hepcidin variation. In addition, we encourage follow-up of the potentially interesting genes that resulted from the gene-based analysis of low-frequency and rare variants. PMID:27846281

  12. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  13. The European seismological waveform framework EIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Luca; Koymans, Mathijs; Quinteros, Javier; Heinloo, Andres; Euchner, Fabian; Strollo, Angelo; Sleeman, Reinoud; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin; Pinar, Ali; Evangelidis, Christos

    2017-04-01

    The ORFEUS1 European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA2) federates (currently) 11 major European seismological data centres into a common organisational and operational framework which offers: (a) transparent and uniform access tools, advanced services and products for seismological waveform data; (b) a platform for establishing common policies for the curation of seismological waveform data and the description of waveform data by standardised quality metrics; (c) proper attribution and citation (e.g. data ownership). After its establishment in 2013, EIDA has been collecting and distributing seamlessly large amounts of seismological data and products to the research community and beyond. A major task of EIDA is the on-going improvement of the services, tools and products portfolio in order to meet the increasingly demanding users' requirements. At present EIDA is entering a new operational phase and will become the reference infrastructure for seismological waveform data in the pan-European infrastructure for solid-Earth science: EPOS (European Plate Observing System)3. The EIDA Next Generation developments, initiated within the H2020 project EPOS-IP, will provide a new infrastructure that will support the seismological and multidisciplinary EPOS community facilitating interoperability in a broader context. EIDA NG comprises a number of new services and products e.g.: Routing Service, Authentication Service, WFCatalog, Mediator, Station Book and more in the near future. In this contribution we present the current status of the EIDA NG developments and provide an overview of the usage of the new services and their impact on the user community. 1 www.orfeus-eu.org/ 2 www.orfeus-eu.org/eida/eida.html 3 www.epos-ip.org

  14. Advanced Waveform Simulation for Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    velocity model. The method separates the main arrivals of the regional waveform into 5 windows: Pnl (vertical and radial components), Rayleigh (vertical and...ranges out to 10°, including extensive observations of crustal thinning and thickening and various Pnl complexities. Broadband modeling in 1D, 2D...existing models perform in predicting the various regional phases, Rayleigh waves, Love waves, and Pnl waves. Previous events from this Basin-and-Range

  15. Relationship between serum protein and mortality in adults on long-term hemodialysis: exhaustive review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herselman, Marietjie; Esau, Nazeema; Kruger, Jeanne-Marie; Labadarios, Demetre; Moosa, M Rafique

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this exhaustive review and meta-analysis was to explore the relation among serum protein, inflammatory markers, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities in adult patients on maintenance hemodialysis. We searched the Medline, Science Citation Index, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Library, and Embase electronic data bases. Data extraction and quality assessment were done independently by two reviewers and results were pooled using the random effects model. Cochran's Q was used to identify heterogeneity and a funnel plot was used for assessment of publication bias. A meta-analysis was performed on 38 studies (265 330 patients) reporting on serum proteins, inflammatory markers, and mortality. A significant inverse relation was found between serum albumin and all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] 0.7038, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6367-0.7781) and cardiovascular (HR 0.8726, 95% CI 0.7909-0.9628) mortalities, with a significantly stronger relation with all-cause mortality (P=0.0014). Pooled results for C-reactive protein showed a weak but significant direct relation with all-cause mortality (HR 1.0322, 95% CI 1.0151-1.0496), but there was not a significant relation between C-reactive protein and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.0172, 95% CI 0.9726-1.0639). A high degree of heterogeneity was identified among studies especially in the case of all-cause mortality. An asymmetrical funnel plot for serum albumin is suggestive of publication bias. From the meta-analysis it is concluded that serum albumin showed a significant inverse relation with all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities but the relation between prealbumin and all-cause mortality was not significant. C-reactive protein showed a significant direct relation with all-cause mortality but not with cardiovascular mortality. The potential adverse effects of malnutrition and infections in relation to mortality highlight the need for continued treatment of infections and correction of malnutrition in patients

  16. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in the serum and urine of a patient with acute arsine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsine is one of the most potent hemolytic agents. It is important to clarify arsine metabolism as well as its chemical interactions with biological components. The aim of the present study was to clarify arsine metabolism by arsenic speciation analysis in serum and urine from an acute poisoning patient with hematuria, anemia, and renal and liver dysfunction. Speciation analysis of arsenics in serum and urine was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. The total arsenic (T-As concentration in serum was 244.8 μg/l at admission and 97.1 μg/l at discharge. In the speciation analysis, four kinds of As compounds derived from arsine metabolism were detected in serum and urine. The concentration of arsenite (AsIII, arsenate (AsV, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA in serum at admission were 45.8, 5.2, 17.9 and 9.3 μg/l, respectively. The concentrations of AsIII, AsV, and MMA decreased with biological half time (BHT of 30.1, 43.0, and 96.3 h, respectively. Only DMA was increased at discharge. The urinary AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA concentrations were 223.0, 12.1, 317.5 and 1053.5 μg/l at discharge, and decreased with BHT of 15.1, 20.8, 14.7, and 16.0 d, respectively. The results indicate that arsine was quickly metabolized to AsIII and subsequently up to DMA, with the result that the toxic effects of inorganic arsenic were added to those of arsine toxicity.

  17. Flexible waveform-constrained optimization design method for cognitive radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Wang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xingzhao

    2017-07-01

    The problem of waveform optimization design for cognitive radar (CR) in the presence of extended target with unknown target impulse response (TIR) is investigated. On the premise of ensuring the TIR estimation precision, a flexible waveform-constrained optimization design method taking both target detection and range resolution into account is proposed. In this method, both the estimate of TIR and transmitted waveform can be updated according to the environment information fed back by the receiver. Moreover, rather than optimizing waveforms for a single design criterion, the framework can synthesize waveforms that provide a trade-off between competing design criteria. The trade-off is determined by the parameter settings, which can be adjusted according to the requirement of radar performance in each cycle of CR. Simulation results demonstrate that CR with the proposed waveform performs better than a traditional radar system with a fixed waveform and offers more flexibility and practicability.

  18. Sparse Frequency Waveform Design for Radar-Embedded Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyun Mai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Tag application with function of covert communication, a method for sparse frequency waveform design based on radar-embedded communication is proposed. Firstly, sparse frequency waveforms are designed based on power spectral density fitting and quasi-Newton method. Secondly, the eigenvalue decomposition of the sparse frequency waveform sequence is used to get the dominant space. Finally the communication waveforms are designed through the projection of orthogonal pseudorandom vectors in the vertical subspace. Compared with the linear frequency modulation waveform, the sparse frequency waveform can further improve the bandwidth occupation of communication signals, thus achieving higher communication rate. A certain correlation exists between the reciprocally orthogonal communication signals samples and the sparse frequency waveform, which guarantees the low SER (signal error rate and LPI (low probability of intercept. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of this method.

  19. Time-dependent phase error correction using digital waveform synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Buskirk, Stephen

    2017-10-10

    The various technologies presented herein relate to correcting a time-dependent phase error generated as part of the formation of a radar waveform. A waveform can be pre-distorted to facilitate correction of an error induced into the waveform by a downstream operation/component in a radar system. For example, amplifier power droop effect can engender a time-dependent phase error in a waveform as part of a radar signal generating operation. The error can be quantified and an according complimentary distortion can be applied to the waveform to facilitate negation of the error during the subsequent processing of the waveform. A time domain correction can be applied by a phase error correction look up table incorporated into a waveform phase generator.

  20. Moving toward endotypes in atopic dermatitis: Identification of patient clusters based on serum biomarker analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Judith L; Strickland, Ian; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Nierkens, Stefan; Giovannone, Barbara; Csomor, Eszter; Sellman, Bret R; Mustelin, Tomas; Sleeman, Matthew A; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein S; Herath, Athula; Drylewicz, Julia; May, Richard D; Hijnen, DirkJan

    2017-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, chronic, inflammatory skin disease with a diverse clinical presentation. However, it is unclear whether this diversity exists at a biological level. We sought to test the hypothesis that AD is heterogeneous at the biological level of individual inflammatory mediators. Sera from 193 adult patients with moderate-to-severe AD (six area, six sign atopic dermatitis [SASSAD] score: geometric mean, 22.3 [95% CI, 21.3-23.3] and 39.1 [95% CI, 37.5-40.9], respectively) and 30 healthy control subjects without AD were analyzed for 147 serum mediators, total IgE levels, and 130 allergen-specific IgE levels. Population heterogeneity was assessed by using principal component analysis, followed by unsupervised k-means cluster analysis of the principal components. Patients with AD showed pronounced evidence of inflammation compared with healthy control subjects. Principal component analysis of data on sera from patients with AD revealed the presence of 4 potential clusters. Fifty-seven principal components described approximately 90% of the variance. Unsupervised k-means cluster analysis of the 57 largest principal components delivered 4 distinct clusters of patients with AD. Cluster 1 had high SASSAD scores and body surface areas with the highest levels of pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1, and soluble CD14. Cluster 2 had low SASSAD scores with the lowest levels of IFN-α, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Cluster 3 had high SASSAD scores with the lowest levels of IFN-β, IL-1, and epithelial cytokines. Cluster 4 had low SASSAD scores but the highest levels of the inflammatory markers IL-1, IL-4, IL-13, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. AD is a heterogeneous disease both clinically and biologically. Four distinct clusters of patients with AD have been identified that could represent endotypes with unique biological mechanisms. Elucidation of

  1. Coordinating Complementary Waveforms for Sidelobe Suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Wenbing; Howard, Stephen; Moran, William; Calderbank, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We present a general method for constructing radar transmit pulse trains and receive filters for which the radar point-spread function in delay and Doppler, given by the cross-ambiguity function of the transmit pulse train and the pulse train used in the receive filter, is essentially free of range sidelobes inside a Doppler interval around the zero-Doppler axis. The transmit pulse train is constructed by coordinating the transmission of a pair of Golay complementary waveforms across time according to zeros and ones in a binary sequence P. The pulse train used to filter the received signal is constructed in a similar way, in terms of sequencing the Golay waveforms, but each waveform in the pulse train is weighted by an element from another sequence Q. We show that a spectrum jointly determined by P and Q sequences controls the size of the range sidelobes of the cross-ambiguity function and by properly choosing P and Q we can clear out the range sidelobes inside a Doppler interval around the zero- Doppler axis...

  2. Continuous high PRF waveforms for challenging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewski, Steven; Corbeil, Allan; Ryland, Robert; Sobota, David

    2017-05-01

    Current airborne radar systems segment the available time-on-target during each beam dwell into multiple Coherent Processing Intervals (CPIs) in order to eliminate range eclipsing, solve for unambiguous range, and increase the detection performance against larger Radar Cross Section (RCS) targets. As a consequence, these radars do not realize the full Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increase and detection performance improvement that is possible. Continuous High Pulse Repetition Frequency (HPRF) waveforms and processing enables the coherent integration of all available radar data over the full time-on-target. This can greatly increase the SNR for air targets at long range and/or with weak radar returns and significantly improve the detection performance against such targets. TSC worked with its partner KeyW to implement a Continuous HPRF waveform in their Sahara radar testbed and obtained measured radar data on both a ground vehicle target and an airborne target of opportunity. This experimental data was processed by TSC to validate the expected benefits of Continuous HPRF waveforms.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii antigens: recovery analysis of tachyzoites cultivated in Vero cell maintained in serum free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa-Silva, Thaís Alves; da Silva Meira, Cristina; Frazzatti-Gallina, Neuza; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2012-04-01

    Vero cells have been used successfully in Toxoplasma gondii maintenance. Medium supplementation for culture cells with fetal bovine serum is necessary for cellular growth. However, serum in these cultures presents disadvantages, such as the potential to induce hypersensitivity, variability of serum batches, possible presence of contaminants, and the high cost of good quality serum. Culture media formulated without any animal derived components, designed for serum-free growth of cell lines have been used successfully for different virus replication. The advantages of protozoan parasite growth in cell line cultures using serum-free medium remain poorly studied. Thus, this study was designed to determine whether T. gondii tachyzoites grown in Vero cell cultures in serum-free medium, after many passages, are able to maintain the same antigenic proprieties as those maintained in experimental mice. The standardization of Vero cell culture in serum-free medium for in vitro T. gondii tachyzoite production was performed establishing the optimal initial cell concentration for the confluent monolayer formation, which was 1×10(6) Vero cell culture as initial inoculum. The total confluent monolayer formatted after 96 h and the best amount of harvested tachyzoites was 2.1×10(7) using parasite inoculum of 1.5×10(6) after 7 days post-infection. The infectivity of tachyzoites released from Vero cells maintained in serum-free medium was evaluated using groups of Swiss mice infected with cell-culture tachyzoites. The parasite concentrations were similar to those for mice infected with tachyzoites collected from other infected mice. The data from both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that in at least 30 culture cell passages, the parasites maintained the same infectivity as maintained in vivo. Another question was to know whether in the several continued passages, immunogenic progressive loss could occur. The nucleotide sequences studied were the same between the different

  4. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM, BPSK (Barker code modulation, Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4. The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN, and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA, image binarization algorithm and Pseudo–Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi–Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of −2 dB.

  5. Correlation between Seminal Fluid Analysis and Levels of Gonadotropins in Serum and Seminal Plasma of Normozoospermic Men and Infertile Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Baqir MR Fakhrildin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Levels of serum gonadotropins have direct effects on testicular functions and spermatogenesis. Assessment of levels of serum gonadotropins from fathered subjects and infertile patients indicates wide range diversity. In this study, we tried to find out whether the levels of seminal FSH and LH affect the parameters of seminal fluid analysis (SFA and if there is any correlation between levels of serum FSH and LH in healthy men and infertile patients.Materials and Methods: Levels of FSH and LH in serum and seminal plasma were assessed randomly, in addition to examination of seminal fluid analysis from 12 normozoospermic subjects (age range: 33-56 years and 66 infertile patients (age range: 20-62 years with duration of infertility (15-201 months. Macroscopic and microscopic parameters of semen specimens were determined. Data were statistically analyzed using multiple correlation and regression, and MANOVA tests.Results: Result of the present study observed significant positive correlation between FSH levels in serum and seminal plasma (r=0.984; p<0.001 of normozoospermic subjects as compared to other groups of infertile patients. No correlations were noticed between LH levels in serum and seminal plasma of normozoospermic subjects and groups of infertile patients. Significant and positive correlation was assessed between sperm concentration and levels of seminal FSH (r=0.822; p<0.05 and r=0.940; p<0.01 and seminal LH (r=0.989; p<0.001 and r=0.999; p<0.001 of asthenozoospermic and OAT patients respectively. In asthenozoospermic patients, significant and positive correlations were observed between seminal FSH and percentages of sperm motility, progressive motility, sperm normal morphology and total progressive motile sperm/ejaculate.Conclusion: This study shows a strong association and effect between seminal FSH and serum FSH and parameters of SFA for normozoospermic men and different groups of infertile patients. These finding may call

  6. Serum level and polymorphisms of retinol-binding protein-4 and risk for gestational diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shimin; Liu, Qian; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2016-03-14

    Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) has been reported to be potentially involved in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, the findings are inconsistent. Our aims were to review the studies that investigated the association of serum levels and polymorphisms of RBP4 with GDM risk, and to provide recommendations for future research. The databases PubMed, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge were searched up to October 2015 to find out studies evaluating the relationship between serum RBP4 level/ RBP4 polymorphisms and GDM risk. In the meta-analysis of serum RBP4 levels the key inclusion was that studies were designed as BMI-matched studies or had observed non-significant differences in BMI between cases and controls. Fourteen case-control studies (647 cases and 620 controls) reporting the association between serum RBP4 level and GDM risk, and three studies (1012 cases and 1605 controls) investigating the association between RBP4 polymorphisms and GDM risk were involved. Our results showed that high serum RBP4 levels represent a risk factor for GDM (pooled standardized mean difference =0.758, 95% confidence interval [0.387, 1.128]). The results of subgroup analyses based on "gestational age at blood sampling" or "diagnostic criteria" are consistent with the overall results. However, the postpartum subgroup and "before 24 weeks" subgroup both only include one article and indicate no association between serum RBP4 level and GDM risk. The meta-analysis on the association between rs3758539 polymorphism and GDM risk shows that RBP4 rs3758539 polymorphism is not associated with the development of GDM. The results of this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that RBP4 is a modest independent risk factor for GDM (i.e., nonobese patients with GDM might express RBP4 at abnormal levels). The serum RBP4 level is associated with the risk of GDM. However, the association in the first-trimester and postpartum period should be validated by further

  7. Establishment of Relational Model of Congenital Heart Disease Markers and GO Functional Analysis of the Association between Its Serum Markers and Susceptibility Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Min; Zhao, Luosha; Yuan, Jiaying

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of present study was to construct the best screening model of congenital heart disease serum markers and to provide reference for further prevention and treatment of the disease. Methods. Documents from 2006 to 2014 were collected and meta-analysis was used for screening susceptibility genes and serum markers closely related to the diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Data of serum markers were extracted from 80 congenital heart disease patients and 80 healthy controls,...

  8. Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, O A; Gaziano, J M; Djoussé, L

    2011-08-01

    Cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, have been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Dark chocolate contains saturated fat and is a source of dietary calories; consequently, it is important to determine whether consumption of dark chocolate adversely affects the blood lipid profile. The objective was to examine the effects of dark chocolate/cocoa product consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 1966 to May 2010), CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa products or dark chocolate on lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, 10 clinical trials consisting of 320 participants were included in the analysis. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. Intervention with dark chocolate/cocoa products significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (differences in means (95% CI) were -5.90 mg/dl (-10.47, -1.32 mg/dl) and -6.23 mg/dl (-11.60, -0.85 mg/dl), respectively). No statistically significant effects were observed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference in means (95% CI): -0.76 mg/dl (-3.02 to 1.51 mg/dl)) and triglyceride (TG) (-5.06 mg/dl (-13.45 to 3.32 mg/dl)). These data are consistent with beneficial effects of dark chocolate/cocoa products on total and LDL cholesterol and no major effects on HDL and TG in short-term intervention trials.

  9. Cloning, expression analysis, and antibacterial propertiesof three serum amyloid A in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juhua; Tang, Yongkai; Li, Jianlin; Li, Hongxia; Yu, Fan; Yu, Wenjuan; He, Feng; Fu, Chunjie; Mao, Shuntao

    2017-06-01

    Three serum amyloid A (SAA) genes were identified from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by PCR and RT-PCR. Considering both direction and sequence similarity with mammal's orthologs, they were named CcSAA3a, CcSAA3b and CcSAA1. CcSAA3b and CcSAA1 are adjacent on contig LHQP01017858, suggesting that the prototype of or the simplest SAA multigene family have occurred in common carp. A phylogenetic analysis of the SAAs indicated that the fish SAAs were closer to those of invertebrates and Ornithorhynchus anatinus, a primitive mammal, than to mammalian SAAs. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results displayed different expression profiles of three CcSAAs. The CcSAA3a was detected in all tested tissues, and was most abundant in the muscle; CcSAA3b was predominately expressed in the intestine and liver, and CcSAA1 in the skin. The expression level of CcSAA3a was higher than that of CcSAA3b and CcSAA1 in most tissues. Stimulation with Aeromonas hydrophila dramatically induced the expression of the three CcSAAs in all examined tissues, especially in the liver. Like Epinephelus coioides SAA, all of three rCcSAA fusion proteins could bind to both Gram-negative bacteria (A. hydrophila and E. coli) and Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus), playing a role in the identification of bacteria. However, only rCcSAA3a showed significantly anti-A. hydrophila and anti-E. coli in vitro antibacterial activity assays. These results suggested that the three CcSAAs were in functional differentiation and play significant roles in the innate immunity of common carp. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Using waveform cross correlation for automatic recovery of aftershock sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Aftershock sequences of the largest earthquakes are difficult to recover. There can be several hundred mid-sized aftershocks per hour within a few hundred km from each other recorded by the same stations. Moreover, these events generate thousands of reflected/refracted phases having azimuth and slowness close to those from the P-waves. Therefore, aftershock sequences with thousands of events represent a major challenge for automatic and interactive processing at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO). Standard methods of detection and phase association do not use all information contained in signals. As a result, wrong association of the first and later phases, both regular and site specific, produces enormous number of wrong event hypotheses and destroys valid event hypotheses in automatic IDC processing. In turn, the IDC analysts have to reject false and recreate valid hypotheses wasting precious human resources. At the current level of the IDC catalogue completeness, the method of waveform cross correlation (WCC) can resolve most of detection and association problems fully utilizing the similarity of waveforms generated by aftershocks. Array seismic stations of the International monitoring system (IMS) can enhance the performance of the WCC method: reduce station-specific detection thresholds, allow accurate estimate of signal attributes, including relative magnitude, and effectively suppress irrelevant arrivals. We have developed and tested a prototype of an aftershock tool matching all IDC processing requirements and merged it with the current IDC pipeline. This tool includes creation of master events consisting of real or synthetic waveform templates at ten and more IMS stations; cross correlation (CC) of real-time waveforms with these templates, association of arrivals detected at CC-traces in event hypotheses; building events matching the IDC quality criteria; and resolution of conflicts between events

  11. Functional and proteomic analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid derived from patients with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadosch, Dieter; Thyer, Matthew; Gautschi, Oliver P; Lochnit, Günter; Frey, Sönke P; Zellweger, René; Filgueira, Luis; Skirving, Allan P

    2010-01-01

    An enhanced fracture healing response has been reported in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This has been attributed to circulating humoral factors that are thought to be proteins produced and released by the injured brain. However, these factors remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify osteogenic factors in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from TBI patients. This was carried out using in vitro proliferation assays with the human foetal osteoblastic 1.19 cell line (hFOB) combined with a novel proteomic approach. Serum was collected from brain-injured (n = 12) and non-brain-injured (n = 9) patients with a comorbid femur shaft fracture. Similarly, CSF was obtained from TBI (n = 7) and non-TBI (n = 9) patients. The osteoinductive potential of these samples was determined by measuring the in vitro proliferation rate of hFOB cells. Highly osteogenic serum and CSF samples of TBI patients were chosen for protein analysis and were compared to those of non-brain-injured patients. A new hFOB cell-based method was used to enrich the proteins in these samples, which had a functional affinity for these osteoprogenitor cells. These enriched protein fractions were mapped using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein imaging methods displaying serum and CSF proteins of brain-injured and control subjects that had an affinity for human osteoprogenitor cells. Serum and CSF derived from brain-injured patients demonstrated a greater osteoinductive potential (P < 0.05) than their non-brain-injured counterparts. Clear-cut differences in the pattern of proteins in two-dimensional gels were detected between TBI and control patients. Fourteen proteins were exclusively present in the serum of TBI patients, while other proteins were either up- or downregulated in samples collected from TBI patients (P < 0.05). Osteoinductive factors are present in the serum and CSF of brain-injured patients. These may include one or more of those proteins identified as

  12. Deconvolution analysis of 24-h serum cortisol profiles informs the amount and distribution of hydrocortisone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Catherine J; Hill, Nathan; Dattani, Mehul T; Charmandari, Evangelia; Matthews, David R; Hindmarsh, Peter C

    2013-03-01

    Hydrocortisone therapy is based on a dosing regimen derived from estimates of cortisol secretion, but little is known of how the dose should be distributed throughout the 24 h. We have used deconvolution analysis of 24-h serum cortisol profiles to determine 24-h cortisol secretion and distribution to inform hydrocortisone dosing schedules in young children and older adults. Twenty four hour serum cortisol profiles from 80 adults (41 men, aged 60-74 years) and 29 children (24 boys, aged 5-9 years) were subject to deconvolution analysis using an 80-min half-life to ascertain total cortisol secretion and distribution throughout the 24-h period. Mean daily cortisol secretion was similar between adults (6.3 mg/m(2) body surface area/day, range 5.1-9.3) and children (8.0 mg/m(2) body surface area/day, range 5.3-12.0). Peak serum cortisol concentration was higher in children compared with adults, whereas nadir serum cortisol concentrations were similar. Timing of the peak serum cortisol concentration was similar (07.05-07.25), whereas that of the nadir concentration occurred later in adults (midnight) compared with children (22.48) (P = 0.003). Children had the highest percentage of cortisol secretion between 06.00 and 12.00 (38.4%), whereas in adults this took place between midnight and 06.00 (45.2%). These observations suggest that the daily hydrocortisone replacement dose should be equivalent on average to 6.3 mg/m(2) body surface area/day in adults and 8.0 mg/m(2) body surface area/day in children. Differences in distribution of the total daily dose between older adults and young children need to be taken into account when using a three or four times per day dosing regimen. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Meta-GWAS and Meta-Analysis of Exome Array Studies Do Not Reveal Genetic Determinants of Serum Hepcidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galesloot, Tessel E; Verweij, Niek; Traglia, Michela; Barbieri, Caterina; van Dijk, Freerk; Geurts-Moespot, Anneke J; Girelli, Domenico; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Sweep, Fred C G J; Swertz, Morris A; van der Meer, Peter; Camaschella, Clara; Toniolo, Daniela; Vermeulen, Sita H; van der Harst, Pim; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2016-01-01

    Serum hepcidin concentration is regulated by iron status, inflammation, erythropoiesis and numerous other factors, but underlying processes are incompletely understood. We studied the association of common and rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) with serum hepcidin in one Italian study and two large Dutch population-based studies. We genotyped common SNVs with genome-wide association study (GWAS) arrays and subsequently performed imputation using the 1000 Genomes reference panel. Cohort-specific GWAS were performed for log-transformed serum hepcidin, adjusted for age and gender, and results were combined in a fixed-effects meta-analysis (total N 6,096). Six top SNVs (p<5x10-6) were genotyped in 3,821 additional samples, but associations were not replicated. Furthermore, we meta-analyzed cohort-specific exome array association results of rare SNVs with serum hepcidin that were available for two of the three cohorts (total N 3,226), but no exome-wide significant signal (p<1.4x10-6) was identified. Gene-based meta-analyses revealed 19 genes that showed significant association with hepcidin. Our results suggest the absence of common SNVs and rare exonic SNVs explaining a large proportion of phenotypic variation in serum hepcidin. We recommend extension of our study once additional substantial cohorts with hepcidin measurements, GWAS and/or exome array data become available in order to increase power to identify variants that explain a smaller proportion of hepcidin variation. In addition, we encourage follow-up of the potentially interesting genes that resulted from the gene-based analysis of low-frequency and rare variants.

  14. Meta-GWAS and Meta-Analysis of Exome Array Studies Do Not Reveal Genetic Determinants of Serum Hepcidin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessel E Galesloot

    Full Text Available Serum hepcidin concentration is regulated by iron status, inflammation, erythropoiesis and numerous other factors, but underlying processes are incompletely understood. We studied the association of common and rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs with serum hepcidin in one Italian study and two large Dutch population-based studies. We genotyped common SNVs with genome-wide association study (GWAS arrays and subsequently performed imputation using the 1000 Genomes reference panel. Cohort-specific GWAS were performed for log-transformed serum hepcidin, adjusted for age and gender, and results were combined in a fixed-effects meta-analysis (total N 6,096. Six top SNVs (p<5x10-6 were genotyped in 3,821 additional samples, but associations were not replicated. Furthermore, we meta-analyzed cohort-specific exome array association results of rare SNVs with serum hepcidin that were available for two of the three cohorts (total N 3,226, but no exome-wide significant signal (p<1.4x10-6 was identified. Gene-based meta-analyses revealed 19 genes that showed significant association with hepcidin. Our results suggest the absence of common SNVs and rare exonic SNVs explaining a large proportion of phenotypic variation in serum hepcidin. We recommend extension of our study once additional substantial cohorts with hepcidin measurements, GWAS and/or exome array data become available in order to increase power to identify variants that explain a smaller proportion of hepcidin variation. In addition, we encourage follow-up of the potentially interesting genes that resulted from the gene-based analysis of low-frequency and rare variants.

  15. Investigation of the relationship between electroglottogram waveform, fundamental frequency, and sound pressure level using clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamtzis, Andreas; Ternström, Sten

    2017-07-01

    Although it has been shown in previous research (Orlikoff, 1991; Henrich et al, 2005; Kuang et al, 2014; Awan, 2015) that there exists a relationship between the electroglottogram (EGG) waveform and the acoustic signal, this relationship is still not fully understood. To investigate this relationship, the EGG and acoustic signals were measured for four male amateur choir singers who each produced eight consecutive tones of increasing and decreasing vocal intensity. The EGG signals were processed cycle-synchronously to obtain the discrete Fourier transform, and the data were used as an input to a clustering algorithm. The acoustic signal was analyzed in terms of sound pressure level (dB SPL) and fundamental frequency (fo) of vibration, and the results of both EGG and acoustic analysis were depicted on a two-dimensional plane with fo on the x-axis and SPL on the y-axis. All the subjects were seen to have a weak, near-sinusoidal EGG waveform in their lowest SPL range, whereas increase in SPL coincided with progressive enrichment in harmonic content of the EGG waveforms. The results of the clustering were additionally used to classify waveforms across subjects to enable inter-subject comparisons and assessment of individual strategies of exploring the fo-SPL dimensions. In these male subjects, the EGG waveform shape appeared to vary with SPL and to remain essentially constant with fo over one octave. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical analysis of serum and synovial fluid in clinically normal young camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Al-Rukibat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the reference range values of various biochemical components in serum and synovial fluid in clinically normal young camels (Camelus dromedarius. One-hundred serum samples and 100 synovial fluid samples were collected from clinically, radiographically and cytologically normal carpal, tarsal and fetlock joints. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, glucose, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, albumin and the activities of creatine kinase, alanine aminotransfearse, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined using commercially available kits. The concentration and activities of all measured parameters were significantly lower in the synovial fluid than in the serum except for the ALP and phosphorus, which were similar in both serum and synovial fluids. No significant difference was found in any of the measured biochemical parameters in different joints except in ALP activity, which was higher in the tarsal joint in comparison with the carpal and fetlock joint and the BUN concentration, which was higher in the tarsal joint in comparison with the carpal joint. Baseline values for biochemical components of normal camel synovial fluid and their serum counterparts have been generated. Such data can be used in the clinical investigation of camel’s joint diseases.

  17. Characterization of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance by Calorimetric Analysis of Blood Serum Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Francisca; Cerdà, Joan J.; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Durán, M. Antonia; Novo, Andrés; Ros, Teresa; Sampol, Antonia; Portugal, José

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant proliferative disorder that may progress to multiple myeloma, a malignant plasma cell neoplasia. We evaluated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as an experimental tool for differentiating serum samples of MGUS patients from healthy individuals. DSC thermograms can be used for monitoring changes in the serum proteome associated with MGUS. MGUS patients showed great variability in serum thermogram characteristics, which depended on the IgG, IgA or IgM isotypes and/or the κ or λ light chains. Thermogram feature parameters distinguished patients with MGUS from healthy people. Serum samples, named as non-MGUS, were also collected from patients with subjacent immunological pathologies who were discarded of having MGUS through serum immunofixation. They were used to verify the sensitivity of DSC for discriminating MGUS from related blood dyscrasias. Only some DSC thermogram feature parameters differentiated, to a lesser extent, between MGUS and non-MGUS individuals. We contemplate DSC as a tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of MGUS. PMID:25794164

  18. Direct closed-form covariance matrix and finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-11-24

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for direct closed-form finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns. In one example, a method includes defining a waveform covariance matrix based at least in part upon a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with a planar array of antennas. Symbols can be encoded based upon the waveform covariance matrix and the encoded symbols can be transmitted via the planar array of antennas. In another embodiment, a system comprises an N x M planar array of antennas and transmission circuitry configured to transmit symbols via a two-dimensional waveform beampattern defined based at least in part upon a 2D-FFT analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with the planar array of antennas.

  19. Serum metabonomics coupled with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis characterizes metabolic perturbations in response to hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Gao, Yue; Dong, Xin; Tan, Guangguo; Li, Wuhong; Lou, Ziyang; Chai, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    A serum metabonomic profiling method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/TOF-MS) was applied to investigate the metabolic changes in hypothyroid rats induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). With Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) for classification and selection of biomarkers, 13 potential biomarkers in rat serum were screened out. Furthermore, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was introduced to deeply analyze unique pathways of hypothyroidism that were primarily involved in sphingolipid metabolism, fatty acid transportation, phospholipid metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism. Our results demonstrated that the metabonomic approach integrating with IPA was a promising tool for providing a novel methodological clue to systemically dissect the underlying molecular mechanism of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of different mass spectrometric approaches coupled to gas chromatography for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Wu, Qian; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Hongzhi; Xu, Shunqing; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-01-01

    Gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQMS) was applied for the determination of eight organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human serum. OCPs were extracted from the serum sample by solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Electron ionization (EI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI) under two data acquisition modes, namely selected ion monitoring (SIM) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), were compared. The use of MRM generally provided higher selectivity and sensitivity because less interference from the sample matrix existed. The EI mode is more suitable for less electronegative compounds such as dichlorodiphenyldichloroethanes (DDDs) with detection limits ranging from 0.0060 to 0.060ng/mL. In the NCI mode, MRM analysis provided good and lower detection limits (0.0011-0.0030ng/mL) for pesticides containing more chlorines. The methods were validated by analyzing the pesticides in spiked serum at different levels with recoveries ranged from 83% to 116% and relative standard deviations of less than 10%. The developed method was applied for the determination of the OCPs in real human serum samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetic analysis of hybridoma cells viability under mechanical shear stress with and without serum protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legazpi, Lorea; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2009-10-01

    The effect of a well-defined mild shear stress on hybridoma cell viability (HB-8852) in a serum-free culture medium has been analysed, and the role as shear protector of different concentrations of fetal bovine serum have been studied. Samples harvested from cultures in their late exponential growth phase, were subjected in a rheometer to a constant shear stress of 0.41 +/- 0.02 Pa, and the evolution of viable and total cell concentrations was determined and compared with static controls. A simple segregated kinetic model for the viable and dead cells was used to know the effect of serum concentration on the specific cell growth and death rate of the cells.

  2. Communication waveform properties of an exact folded-band chaotic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Jonathan N.; Hahs, Daniel W.; Corron, Ned J.

    2013-11-01

    We interpret the waveform of an exact folded-band oscillator as an on-off keyed communication waveform. Unlike most nonlinear systems, this oscillator has a general analytic solution that allows for unusually exact analysis. Using this solution, we identify the key differences between a deterministic chaotic oscillation and an ideal on-off keying waveform to be (1) an inherent form of intersymbol interference and (2) a grammar restriction giving rise to a built-in variable length code. We define a simple coherent receiver based on a matched filter, and consider transmission in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Analytic expressions for upper and lower bounds on the probability of errors in receiving code letters are derived and shown to be consistent with numerical simulations.

  3. Mergers of Black-Hole Binaries with Aligned Spins: Waveform Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Boggs, William D.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Centrella, Joan

    2011-01-01

    "We apply our gravitational-waveform analysis techniques, first presented in the context of nonspinning black holes of varying mass ratio [1], to the complementary case of equal-mass spinning black-hole binary systems. We find that, as with the nonspinning mergers, the dominant waveform modes phases evolve together in lock-step through inspiral and merger, supporting the previous model of the binary system as an adiabatically rigid rotator driving gravitational-wave emission - an implicit rotating source (IRS). We further apply the late-merger model for the rotational frequency introduced in [1], along with a new mode amplitude model appropriate for the dominant (2, plus or minus 2) modes. We demonstrate that this seven-parameter model performs well in matches with the original numerical waveform for system masses above - 150 solar mass, both when the parameters are freely fit, and when they are almost completely constrained by physical considerations."

  4. The NINJA-2 project: Detecting and characterizing gravitational waveforms modelled using numerical binary black hole simulations

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C -H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Roux, A Le; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Brügmann, B; Buchman, L T; Campanelli, M; Chu, T; Etienne, Z B; Hannam, M; Healy, J; Hinder, I; Kidder, L E; Laguna, P; Liu, Y T; London, L; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; MacDonald, I; Marronetti, P; Mösta, P; Müller, D; Mundim, B C; Nakano, H; Paschalidis, V; Pekowsky, L; Pollney, D; Pfeiffer, H P; Ponce, M; Pürrer, M; Reifenberger, G; Reisswig, C; Santamaría, L; Scheel, M A; Shapiro, S L; Shoemaker, D; Sopuerta, C F; Sperhake, U; Szilágyi, B; Taylor, N W; Tichy, W; Tsatsin, P; Zlochower, Y

    2014-01-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect gravitational waves emitted from merging binary black holes and recover their parameters with next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete binary black hole hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a "blind injection challenge" similar to that conducted in recent LIGO and Virgo science runs, we added 7 hybrid waveforms to two months of data recolored to predictions of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analyzed by gravitational-wave detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered w...

  5. Optimization of Modulation Waveforms for Improved EMI Attenuation in Switching Frequency Modulated Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniss Stepins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic interference (EMI is one of the major problems of switching power converters. This paper is devoted to switching frequency modulation used for conducted EMI suppression in switching power converters. Comprehensive theoretical analysis of switching power converter conducted EMI spectrum and EMI attenuation due the use of traditional ramp and multislope ramp modulation waveforms is presented. Expressions to calculate EMI spectrum and attenuation are derived. Optimization procedure of the multislope ramp modulation waveform is proposed to get maximum benefits from switching frequency modulation for EMI reduction. Experimental verification is also performed to prove that the optimized multislope ramp modulation waveform is very useful solution for effective EMI reduction in switching power converters.

  6. Back-EMF waveform optimization of flux-reversal permanent magnet machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Hua, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Due to the special doubly-salient structure, flux-reversal permanent magnet (FRPM) machines typically suffer from relatively large torque and speed ripples, as well as acoustic noise and vibration, especially at low speeds. As one of the main sources of torque ripples, harmonics in phase back electro-motive-force (EMF) should be suppressed as much as possible in order to produce a smooth torque. In this paper, an improved configuration of FRPM machine is proposed by introducing a small space-gap between the two adjacent magnets belonging to the same stator tooth to improve the symmetry of phase back-EMF waveform. The influence of the small space-gap on phase back-EMF waveform is evaluated by employing 2D finite element analysis (FEA), and consequently, an optimal value of space-gap for a more sinusoidal back-EMF waveform is obtained.

  7. [Heritability analysis on serum lipids of adult twins in Qingdao City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Jinfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Wang, Shaojie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the level and heritability of serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in adult twins sampled from Qingdao City of China. METHODS: 316 pairs of healthy twin aged 18 to 60 years...... were recruited from the database of Qingdao City twin registry. Fasting serum lipids were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. The zygosity of twins was established by using polymorphic DNA-based microsatellite markers. The heritability was estimated by formulating univariate ACE twin mode in Mx...

  8. Improvement of Input Current Waveform for Soft-Switching Boost DCM Converter with Unity Power Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Katsunori; Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki

    In this paper, a soft-switching discontinuous mode (DCM) power factor corrected (PFC) converter is analyzed by applying the double Fourier series expansion. It is found that the fundamental component and higher-order harmonics included in the input current waveform are obtained by the Fourier series expansion of the mean value of the inductor current. From the theoretical analysis, a new method removing the distortion of the input current waveform is proposed. In spite of an open loop system, the proposed method makes a great improvement of the total harmonic distortion even if the ratio of output voltage to input voltage is very low.

  9. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-08-17

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example in reservoir analysis, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a boundary condition for the whole area. Since certain rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elastic and anisotropic parameters (facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel confidence map based approach to utilize the facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such a confidence map using Bayesian theory, in which the confidence map is updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. The numerical examples show that the proposed method can reduce the trade-offs and also can improve the resolution of the inverted elastic and anisotropic properties.

  10. Identification of Post-Translational Modifications from Serum/Plasma by Immunoaffinity Enrichment and LC-MS/MS Analysis Without Depletion of Abundant Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hongbo; Ren, Jianmin; Jia, Xiaoying; Stokes, Matthew P

    2017-01-01

    Immunoaffinity enrichment combined with LC-MS/MS enables identification of Post-translational modifications (PTMs) from serum/plasma samples without abundant protein depletion. Here we described the workflow in details in identifying various types of PTMs such as lysine acetylation and arginine methylation from cancer serum. The method described is compatible with all common proteomic analysis platforms and quantitative methods.

  11. Correlation between serum interleukin-6 level and type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Ling; Qiao, Yong-Chao; Pan, Yan-Hong; Xu, Yan; Huang, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Yin-Hui; Geng, Li-Jun; Zhao, Hai-Lu; Zhang, Xiao-Xi

    2017-06-01

    This report aimed to explore the association between the change of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Four databases (PubMed, CNKI, WanFang and Civip) were used to search and list all clinical case-control studies about serum IL-6 level in T1DM patients between Jan 1, 2000 and Aug 31, 2016. A total of 20 case-control studies with 1238 T1DM patients and 742 healthy controls were included in this study. Compared to healthy controls, the serum content of IL-6 in patients with T1DM was significantly greater (overall: SMD, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.93; p<0.001), and notably increased in all subgroup with different age, ethnic and disease duration (all p<0.001). Furthermore, the analysis in subgroup exhibited that serum levels of IL-6 in the age greater than 20-year old (SMD, 1.64; 95% CI, 0.57-2.71; p<0.001), the diseased duration among 0-10years (SMD, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.42-3.44; p<0.001) and the sorted American group (SMD, 1.68; 95% CI, 0.85-2.51; p<0.001) were higher than those in control groups. Patients with T1DM were found to be linked to elevated level of serum IL-6, which the age, ethnic and disease durations in T1DM patients had no effect on the serum IL-6 levels for promoting diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Spinal Fusion Success: A Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Melodie F.; Kanim, Linda E.; Zhao, Li; Robinson, Samuel T.; Delamarter, Rick B.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design An in vivo dosing study of vitamin D in a rat posterolateral spinal fusion model with autogenous bone grafting. Rats randomized to four levels of Vitamin D adjusted rat chow, longitudinal serum validation, surgeons/observers blinded to dietary conditions, and rats followed prospectively for fusion endpoint. Objective To assess the impact of dietary and serum levels of Vitamin D on fusion success, consolidation of fusion mass, and biomechanical stiffness after posterolateral spinal fusion procedure. Summary of Background Data Metabolic risk factors, including vitamin D insufficiency, are often overlooked by spine surgeons. Currently there are no published data on the causal effect of insufficient or deficient vitamin D levels on the success of establishing solid bony union after a spinal fusion procedure. Methods 50 rats were randomized to four experimentally controlled rat chow diets: normal control, vitamin D-deficient, vitamin-D insufficient, and a non-toxic high dose of vitamin D, four weeks prior to surgery and maintained post-surgery until sacrifice. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were determined at surgery and sacrifice using radioimmunoassay. Posterolateral fusion surgery with tail autograft was performed. Rats were sacrificed 12 weeks post-operatively and fusion was evaluated via manual palpation, high resolution radiographs, μCT, and biomechanical testing. Results Serum 25(OH)D and calcium levels were significantly correlated with vitamin-D adjusted chow (pBiomechanical stiffness, bone volume and density were also positively-related to vitamin D, and calcium. PMID:25627287

  13. ANALYSIS OF SERUM URIC ACID LEVELS IN EARLY SECOND TRIMESTER AS AN EARLY PREDICTOR FOR PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Bulusu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypertensive disorders complicate 5-10% of all pregnancies. Screening for these factors in the second trimester of pregnancy will help in early detection of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, thus enabling. 1. Early identification of patients at risk of developing preeclampsia and eclampsia. 2. Prophylactic medication to prevent hypertension or to reduce its severity. 3. Proper antenatal care. The aim of the study is to study the accuracy of serum uric acid levels in early second trimester (14-20 weeks as early predictor of preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pregnant normotensive women between 14-20 weeks gestation with singleton pregnancy irrespective of parity were selected randomly and serum levels of uric acid was estimated. Regular follow up of the cases was done till delivery. Number of cases developing preeclampsia was noted. Results were analysed statistically. RESULTS Out of the 100 patients enrolled in the study, 11 developed preeclampsia while rest 89 remained normotensive. Mean value of uric acid in preeclampsia cases was 6.28±0.86 mg/dL while that in normotensive cases was 3.42±0.94 mg/dL. This result was statistically significant. CONCLUSION Serum uric acid level at 14-20 weeks of gestation was significantly raised in the cases who developed preeclampsia as compared to those who remained normotensive. Hence, serum uric acid estimation at 14-20 weeks of gestation could be used as an effective parameter for predicting preeclampsia.

  14. Canine pyometra: a model for the analysis of serum CXCL8 in inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAAS, Melanie; KAUP, Franz-Josef; NEUMANN, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8) is a highly selective pro-inflammatory chemokine, that is elevated in sera of humans and animals with various inflammatory diseases. CXCL8 is possibly involved in uncontrolled inflammation and the development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Nevertheless, its behavior and precise properties in the course of inflammation are not fully understood. Thus, we used naturally occurring canine pyometra as a model of inflammation, in order to examine the behavior of serum CXCL8 in relation to the disease intensity and commonly analyzed inflammatory mediators. Using a commercially available canine ELISA kit, a significant increase of CXCL8 was determined in the serum of 23 dogs with pyometra compared with 35 healthy dogs. Interestingly, serum CXCL8 did not increase in severely diseased patients and behaved contrary to white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils and C-reactive protein (CRP). The measurement of serum CXCL8 may provide valuable information about the extent of ongoing lesions and could be a useful complement for existing laboratory tests. PMID:26522810

  15. Impact of lower body negative pressure induced hypovolemia on peripheral venous pressure waveform parameters in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Aymen A; Galante, Nicholas J; Stachenfeld, Nina S; Silverman, David G; Shelley, Kirk H

    2014-07-01

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) creates a reversible hypovolemia by sequestrating blood volume in the lower extremities. This study sought to examine the impact of central hypovolemia on peripheral venous pressure (PVP) waveforms in spontaneously breathing subjects. With IRB approval, 11 healthy subjects underwent progressive LBNP (baseline, -30, -75, and -90 mmHg or until the subject became symptomatic). Each was monitored for heart rate (HR), finger arterial blood pressure (BP), a chest respiratory band and PVP waveforms which are generated from a transduced upper extremity intravenous site. The first subject was excluded from PVP analysis because of technical errors in collecting the venous pressure waveform. PVP waveforms were analyzed to determine venous pulse pressure, mean venous pressure, pulse width, maximum and minimum slope (time domain analysis) together with cardiac and respiratory modulations (frequency domain analysis). No changes of significance were found in the arterial BP values at -30 mmHg LBNP, while there were significant reductions in the PVP waveforms time domain parameters (except for 50% width of the respiration induced modulations) together with modulation of the PVP waveform at the cardiac frequency but not at the respiratory frequency. As the LBNP progressed, arterial systolic BP, mean BP and pulse pressure, PVP parameters and PVP cardiac modulation decreased significantly, while diastolic BP and HR increased significantly. Changes in hemodynamic and PVP waveform parameters reached a maximum during the symptomatic phase. During the recovery phase, there was a significant reduction in HR together with a significant increase in HR variability, mean PVP and PVP cardiac modulation. Thus, in response to mild hypovolemia induced by LBNP, changes in cardiac modulation and other PVP waveform parameters identified hypovolemia before detectable hemodynamic changes.

  16. [Analysis of voriconazole serum concentrations and safety profile in pediatric oncology patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Felipe; Navea, Daniel; Saias, Carolina; Torres, Juan P; Catalán, Paula; Morales, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Voriconazole (VCZ) serum drug levels (SDL) vary widely and are associated with increased mortality when they are below the therapeutic range for invasive aspergillosis (IA). To describe VCZ SDL in oncology pediatric patients in order to reach adequate concentrations for prophylaxis (≥ 0.5 mg/L) and treatment (≥ 1.0 y 2.0 mg/L) for IA and their relationship with toxicity. Retrospective analysis of VCZ SDL and toxicities recorded in oncology pediatric patients between February 2013 and November 2014. The daily dosage and SDLs were analyzed according to administration route: intravenous (IV) and oral (PO), type of therapy (prophylaxis and treatment) and patient age (patients were analyzed and the average age was 9.3 years-old. The SDL obtained from the IV route were 43.7%. There were more SDL ≥ 0.5 mg/L and ≥ 1.0 mg/L with the IV route than the PO route (p Patients younger than 12-years-old received a higher dosage than those ≥ 12 years old (median 18.6 and 9.2 mg/kg/d, respectively, p patients (80-100% SDL ≥ 0.5 mg/L). With an IV dosage between 14 and 20 mg/kg/day in patients > 12-years-old, 80% of the SDL were ≥ 1 mg/L and ≥ 2 mg/L. In patients younger than 12-year-old, dosages between 8-30 mg/ kg/day showed similar results (50-63% of SDL ≥ 1 mg/L and 36-40% of SDL ≥ 2 mg/L). Eight patients (30.8%) presented an adverse drug reaction and no relationship with the SDL was found. Conclusión: A VCZ standard dosage of 200 mg every 12 hours PO showed the best results for IA prophylaxis in all patients. Patients younger than 12-years-old would require higher dosages than the doses used in this study to attain adequate SDL for IA treatment. No relation with SDL and adverse reactions was found.

  17. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels and macular pigment optical density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimura S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shigeto Fujimura,1,2 Kohei Ueda,1 Yoko Nomura,1 Yasuo Yanagi3,4 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Ishikawa, Japan; 3Singapore Eye Research Institute, 4Medical Retina Department, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Purpose: To assess the relationship between combined serum lutein and zeaxanthin (L+Z concentration and macular pigment optical density (MPOD, and to investigate the effect of L+Z+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA dietary supplementation on the spatial distribution of MPOD.Methods: Twenty healthy fellow eyes with unilateral wet age-related macular degeneration or chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were included. All participants received a dietary supplement for 6 months that contained 20 mg L, 1 mg Z, and 200 mg DHA. The best-corrected visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (CS were measured at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Serum L+Z concentrations were measured at baseline and at 3 months. MPOD was calculated at each time point using fundus autofluorescent images.Results: Serum L+Z concentration was correlated with MPOD at 1°–2° eccentricity at baseline (r=0.63, P=0.003 and 3 months (r=0.53, P=0.015. Serum L+Z concentration increased by a factor of 2.3±1.0 (P<0.0001. At 6 months, MPOD was significantly higher compared to the baseline level at 0°–0.25° (P=0.034 and 0.25°–0.5° (P=0.032 eccentricity. CS improved after 3 or 6 months of L+Z+DHA supplementation (P<0.05.Conclusion: Juxtafoveal MPOD was associated with serum L+Z concentration. Foveal MPOD was increased by L+Z+DHA dietary supplementation. Keywords: fundus autofluorescence, supplement, spatial distribution

  18. Simulation analysis of 9033 cases of second trimester maternal serum screening for Down’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-fang JIANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reduce the screening positive rate (SPR and improve clinical efficiency of maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome. Methods Nine thousand and thirty-three cases of second trimester maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome were included from Apr. 2013 to Apr. 2014 in the present study. The screening results, all basic data and equation curves were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the data from the authors' laboratory, the important adjustment parameters were simulated. Combined with postnatal follow-up results, the quality and clinical performance of second trimester serum screening for Down's syndrome were evaluated. Results The SPR of second trimester serum screening for Down's syndrome was 6.69%(604/9033, the detection rate (DR was 75%(3/4, and FPR was 6.65%(601/9033. The median multiple of median (MOM of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP was low and SPR was high, and MOM of free human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit (free hCGβ were high and SPR was high, while MOM of unconjugated estriol (uE3 were a little bit low, and SPR was slightly high. Considering these three factors, it is believed that the screening positive rate is high. By the simulation adjustments of MOM value equations (AFP and free hCGβ and weight correction equation, the SPR reduced to 4.11%(371/9033 after recalculating the risk, FPR declined to 4.07%(368/9033, and no more Down's syndrome fetus were missed compared with postnatal follow-up results. Conclusion Based on a localized setting depending on the local laboratory data, we suggest that the MOM value distributions(AFP, free hCGβ and uE3 and maternal weight should be regularly adjusted since it is a useful way to reduce the false-positive rate and improve clinical efficiency of maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.04.13

  19. Automatic Modulation Classification of Common Communication and Pulse Compression Radar Waveforms using Cyclic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    intermediate frequency LFM linear frequency modulation MAP maximum a posteriori MATLAB® matrix laboratory ML maximun likelihood OFDM orthogonal frequency...cognitive radar and communication systems include threat recognition and analysis, communication interception/demodulation, effective adaptive jammer...resolution, and ambiguity of range and Doppler (range rate) of the target [21]. Variables that may be manipulated in RADAR waveforms include

  20. Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaobo; Hu, Ya; Gao, Xiang; Liao, Quan; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Using serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in discriminating between benign and malignant pancreatic disease remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum CA 19-9 in predicting malignant pancreatic cystic lesions. Eligible studies were identified through searching MEDLINE and EMBASE prior to March 2016. Studies were assessed for quality using the Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy, 2nd version (QUADAS-2). Pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. Summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curves and the area under curve (AUC) were performed. A total of thirteen studies including 1437 patients were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.47(95% CI: 0.35-0.59), and 0.88(95% CI: 0.86-0.91), respectively, and the AUC was 0.87(95% CI, 0.84-0.90). Meta-regression analysis showed that sample size, region and reference standards were not the main sources of heterogeneity. Serum CA 19-9 has satisfying pooled specificity while poor pooled sensitivity for discriminating benign from malignant PCNs. It deserves to be widely used as complementary to other clinical diagnostic methods.

  1. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Rachael [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia)], E-mail: rgray@vetsci.usyd.edu.au; Canfield, Paul [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rogers, Tracey [Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia); Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  2. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rachael; Canfield, Paul; Rogers, Tracey

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  3. Digital Waveform Technology and the Next Generation of Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Nathan M.; Gotlib, Zachary P.; Opačić, Bojana; Huntley, Adam P.; Moon, Ashley M.; Donahoe, Katherine E. G.; Brabeck, Gregory F.; Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2017-10-01

    Ion traps and guides are integral parts of current commercial mass spectrometers. They are currently operated with sinusoidal waveform technology that has been developed over many years. Recently, digital waveform technology has begun to emerge and promises to supplant its older cousin because it presents new capabilities that result from the ability to instantaneously switch the frequency and duty cycle of the waveforms. This manuscript examines these capabilities and reveals their uses and effects on instrumentation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between concentrations in the hair and other tissues for Cs, Ti, Nb, Tl, La, U and Au. At the same time, serum Cs, Rb, Ti, Ge, Nb, W, Ga, Tl and La concentrations significantly correlated with the tissue content of the respective ultratrace elements. It can be concluded that hair may be used as a potential bioindicator for certain ultratrace element content in the mammalian organism.

  5. Advances in waveform-agile sensing for tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Sira, Sandeep Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology and information processing afford a new flexibility in the design of waveforms for agile sensing. Sensors are now developed with the ability to dynamically choose their transmit or receive waveforms in order to optimize an objective cost function. This has exposed a new paradigm of significant performance improvements in active sensing: dynamic waveform adaptation to environment conditions, target structures, or information features. The manuscript provides a review of recent advances in waveform-agile sensing for target tracking applications. A dynamic wav

  6. The signatures of acoustic emission waveforms from fatigue crack advancing in thin metallic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasin Bhuiyan, Md; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2018-01-01

    The acoustic emission (AE) waveforms from a fatigue crack advancing in a thin metallic plate possess diverse and complex spectral signatures. In this article, we analyze these waveform signatures in coordination with the load level during cyclic fatigue. The advancing fatigue crack may generate numerous AE hits while it grows under fatigue loading. We found that these AE hits can be sorted into various groups based on their AE waveform signatures. Each waveform group has a particular time-domain signal pattern and a specific frequency spectrum. This indicates that each group represents a certain AE event related to the fatigue crack growth behavior. In situ AE-fatigue experiments were conducted to monitor the fatigue crack growth with simultaneous measurement of AE signals, fatigue loading, and optical crack growth measurement. An in situ microscope was installed in the load-frame of the mechanical testing system (MTS) to optically monitor the fatigue crack growth and relate the AE signals with the crack growth measurement. We found the AE signal groups at higher load levels (75%–85% of maximum load) were different from the AE signal groups that happened at lower load levels (below 60% of load level). These AE waveform groups are highly related to the fatigue crack-related AE events. These AE signals mostly contain the higher frequency peaks (100 kHz, 230 kHz, 450 kHz, 550 kHz). Some AE signal groups happened as a clustered form that relates a sequence of small AE events within the fatigue crack. They happened at relatively lower load level (50%–60% of the maximum load). These AE signal groups may be related to crack friction and micro-fracture during the friction process. These AE signals mostly contain the lower frequency peaks (60 kHz, 100 kHz, 200 kHz). The AE waveform based analysis may give us comprehensive information of the metal fatigue.

  7. Effects of waveform model systematics on the interpretation of GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; E Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; E Brau, J.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; E Broida, J.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; E Cowan, E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; E Creighton, J. D.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; E Dwyer, S.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernández Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; E Gossan, S.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; E Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; E Holz, D.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; E Lord, J.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; E McClelland, D.; McCormick, S.; McGrath, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; E Mikhailov, E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; E Pace, A.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; E Smith, R. J.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; E Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; E Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; E Zucker, M.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; Boyle, M.; Chu, T.; Hemberger, D.; Hinder, I.; E Kidder, L.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Vano Vinuales, A.

    2017-05-01

    Parameter estimates of GW150914 were obtained using Bayesian inference, based on three semi-analytic waveform models for binary black hole coalescences. These waveform models differ from each other in their treatment of black hole spins, and all three models make some simplifying assumptions, notably to neglect sub-dominant waveform harmonic modes and orbital eccentricity. Furthermore, while the models are calibrated to agree with waveforms obtained by full numerical solutions of Einstein’s equations, any such calibration is accurate only to some non-zero tolerance and is limited by the accuracy of the underlying phenomenology, availability, quality, and parameter-space coverage of numerical simulations. This paper complements the original analyses of GW150914 with an investigation of the effects of possible systematic errors in the waveform models on estimates of its source parameters. To test for systematic errors we repeat the original Bayesian analysis on mock signals from numerical simulations of a series of binary configurations with parameters similar to those found for GW150914. Overall, we find no evidence for a systematic bias relative to the statistical error of the original parameter recovery of GW150914 due to modeling approximations or modeling inaccuracies. However, parameter biases are found to occur for some configurations disfavored by the data of GW150914: for binaries inclined edge-on to the detector over a small range of choices of polarization angles, and also for eccentricities greater than  ˜0.05. For signals with higher signal-to-noise ratio than GW150914, or in other regions of the binary parameter space (lower masses, larger mass ratios, or higher spins), we expect that systematic errors in current waveform models may impact gravitational-wave measurements, making more accurate models desirable for future observations.

  8. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-17

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.

  9. Discovery of the serum biomarker proteins in severe preeclampsia by proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisook; Cha, Dong Hyun; Lee, Soo Jae; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Young Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Preeclapsia (PE) is a severe disorder that occurs during pregnancy, leading to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. PE affects about 3-8% of all pregnancies. In this study, we conducted liquid chromatographymass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze serum samples depleted of the six most abundant proteins from normal and PE-affected pregnancies to profile serum proteins. A total of 237 proteins were confidently identified with AHSG), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and α-1-microglobulin/bikunin (AMBP) and Insulin like growth factor binding protein, acid labile subunit (IGFBP-ALS) were confirmed to be differentially expressed in PE using SRM (P AHSG was verified by ELISA and showed a statistically significant increase in PE samples when compared to controls. PMID:21646846

  10. Analysis of DNA-damage response to ionizing radiation in serum-shock synchronized human fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Corra', Samantha; Salvadori, Riccardo; Bee, Leonardo; Barbieri, Vito; Mognato, Maddalena

    2017-01-01

    Many aspects of cellular physiology, including cellular response to genotoxic stress, are related to the circadian rhythmicity induced by the molecular clock. The current study investigated if the cellular response to DNA damage is in relation to endogenous expression levels of the PER2 protein, a key component of the molecular regulatory system that confers rhythmicity in mammalian cells. Human normal fibroblasts (CCD-34Lu) were subjected to serum shock to induce circadian oscillations of th...

  11. Analysis of iron levels in the mucosal tissue and serum of oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj N Kallalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF, being a chronic insidious oral mucosal condition, affects most parts of the oral cavity and has a high malignant transformation rate, which is triggered by areca nut chewing, nutritional deficiencies, immunologic processes, and genetic predisposition. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of iron, as a trace element of patients with OSMF, and its association with areca nut and betel quid chewing. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 30 patients who were clinically diagnosed with OSMF and 10 healthy controls. OSMF patients were categorized by clinical staging. Tissue and serum estimation of iron levels was done using Vitros 250 photometry. Results: The levels of tissue and serum iron was significantly decreased in OSMF patients when compared to controls, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Most of the patients with OSMF chewed gutkha, as compared to the transitional form of pan masala. The betel quid and areca nut chewing habits are associated with the disease state, which may play a role in altering the tissue and serum iron levels.

  12. TXRF analysis of multielements in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). COPPE Technology Center. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The determination of trace elements levels in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established these levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Sickle cell Anemia is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. SCA occurs when a person inherits two abnormal genes (one from each parent) that cause their red blood cells to change shape. These irregular-shaped blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells. We studied forty-three patients (15 males and 28 females) aged 18 to 50 years, suffering SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers (41 males and 19 females) aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  13. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Guntur; Hamijoyo, Laniyati; Hasan, Irsan

    2017-04-01

    non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be associated with some metabolic disorders. Recent studies suggested the role of uric acid in NAFLD through oxidative stress and inflammatory process. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid and NAFLD. a systematic literature review was conducted using Pubmed and Cochrane library. The quality of all studies was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). All data were analyzed using REVIEW MANAGER 5.3. eleven studies from America and Asia involving 100,275 subjects were included. The pooled adjusted OR for NAFLD was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.66-2.23; puric acid levels and severity of NAFLD. No publication bias was observed. our study demonstrated association between serum uric acid level and NAFLD. This finding brings a new insight of uric acid in clinical practice. Increased in serum uric acid levels might serve as a trigger for physician to screen for NAFLD.

  14. Analysis of anhydrous glucose and human serum assisted by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Naara; Cerecedo-Núñez, H. H.; Padilla-Sosa, P.; Flores, Aaron; May, Manuel; Basurto, Miguel; Alcántara, Gabriela; Muñiz, Omar

    2017-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been considered like a potentially important clinical tool for real-time diagnosis of disease and evaluation of living tissue, whit the proposal to development noninvasive glucose measurements in a near future, with lower power than other reported studies, in this work are reported experimental tests made with a excitation source of semiconductor laser of 785 nm and 35 mW power. Measurements were made to different glucose concentrations, with variation from 50 mg/dL to 6000 mg/dL. For this, three intervals with different ranges of concentration were analyzed, these tests were put into plastic sampling cells, making incise the beam vertically on sample. In the same way measurements to serum human are reported, for healthy volunteers had 12 hours fasting and non-fasting conditions, with it's corresponding values of glucose taken through a conventional glucometer. Freeze-dried human serum was poured on object-holder, in the case of human serum reconstitute, it was used container in which were previously kept samples. Nine spectra per test were obtained and subsequently average was calculated, the spectra were studied in a range of 500 to 1700 cm-1. This work explores the intensity variation of the bands of glucose in 1065 cm-1 and 1127 cm-1 as a function of glucose concentration. In the obtained results, there observes a behavior with positive slope in both substances, interrelation being observed between the measurements, being promissory for non-invasive measurement.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Serum Opsonins Impacting Biodistribution and Cellular Association of Porous Silicon Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita E. Serda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass transport of drug delivery vehicles is guided by particle properties, such as size, shape, composition, and surface chemistry, as well as biomolecules and serum proteins that adsorb to the particle surface. In an attempt to identify serum proteins influencing cellular associations and biodistribution of intravascularly injected particles, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins eluted from the surface of cationic and anionic silicon microparticles. Cationic microparticles displayed a 25-fold greater abundance of Ig light variable chain, fibrinogen, and complement component 1 compared to their anionic counterparts. Anionic microparticles were found to accumulate in equal abundance in murine liver and spleen, whereas cationic microparticles showed preferential accumulation in the spleen. Immunohistochemistry supported macrophage uptake of both anionic and cationic microparticles in the liver, as well as evidence of association of cationic microparticles with hepatic endothelial cells. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs supported cellular competition for cationic microparticles by endothelial cells and macrophages. Despite high macrophage content in the lungs and tumor, microparticle uptake by these cells was minimal, supporting differences in the repertoire of surface receptors expressed by tissue-specific macrophages. In summary, particle surface chemistry drives selective binding of serum components impacting cellular interactions and biodistribution.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Serum Opsonins Impacting Biodistribution and Cellular Association of Porous Silicon Microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serda, Rita E.; Blanco, Elvin; Mack, Aaron; Stafford, Susan J.; Amra, Sarah; Li, Qingpo; van de Ven, Anne L.; Tanaka, Takemi; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Mass transport of drug delivery vehicles is guided by particle properties, such as shape, composition and surface chemistry, as well as biomolecules and serum proteins that adsorb to the particle surface. In an attempt to identify serum proteins influencing cellular associations and biodistribution of intravascularly injected particles, we used two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins eluted from the surface of cationic and anionic silicon microparticles. Cationic microparticles displayed a 25-fold greater abundance of Ig light chain variable region, fibrinogen, and complement component 1 compared to their anionic counterparts. The anionic-surface favored equal accumulation of microparticles in the liver and spleen, while cationic-surfaces favored preferential accumulation in the spleen. Immunohistochemistry supported macrophage internalization of both anionic and cationic silicon microparticles in the liver, as well as evidence of association of cationic microparticles with hepatic endothelial cells. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs supported cellular competition for cationic microparticles by endothelial cells and macrophages. Despite high macrophage content in the lungs and tumor, microparticle uptake by these cells was minimal, supporting differences in the repertoire of surface receptors expressed by tissue-specific macrophages. In summary, particle surface chemistry drives selective binding of serum components impacting cellular interactions and biodistribution. PMID:21303614

  17. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Zoriah; Wong, Su Yuen; Chong, Nyuk Jet

    2013-11-25

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease by modifying its major risk factors, including serum cholesterol levels, is an important strategy. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been promoted for reducing cholesterol levels, but its reported impact on cholesterol levels has been inconsistent. The study aimed to assess systematically the evidence and quality of current research on the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on blood lipids and its adverse effects. Electronic databases were searched up to June 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Journals and conference proceedings were also searched. The quality of the selected trials was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. The efficacy results of similar studies were pooled if they used the same comparator. Outcomes examined were levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Six studies involving 474 subjects met our inclusion criteria. These studies varied in terms of the types of interventions, comparators used, and duration of trials. Overall, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. did not produce any significant effect on any of the outcomes examined, when compared with placebo, black tea or diet. With short-term use it is well tolerated. The available evidence from RCTs does not support the efficacy of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in lowering serum lipids. Further rigorously designed trials with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm the effects of HS on serum lipids. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum cardiac troponin I analysis to determine the excessiveness of exercise intensity: A novel equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Philip J G M; Maas, Roderick P P W M

    2016-03-07

    Physical exertion is often promoted because of its beneficial health effects. This only holds true, however, as long as the optimal exercise intensity is not exceeded. If physical exertion becomes too strenuous or prolonged, cardiac injury or dysfunction may occur. Consequently, a significant elevation of the serum concentration of the sensitive and specific cardiac biomarker troponin I can be observed. In this article, we present the derivation of a novel equation that can be used to evaluate to what extent the intensity of conducted endurance exercise was excessive, based on a post-exercise assessment of serum cardiac troponin I. This is convenient, as exercise intensity is difficult for an athlete to quantify accurately and the currently used heart rate indices can be affected by various physiological and environmental factors. Serum cardiac troponin I, on the other hand, is a post-hoc parameter that directly reflects the actual effects on the myocardium and may therefore be a promising alternative. To our knowledge, this is the first method to determine relative exercise intensity in retrospect. We therefore believe that this equation can serve as a potentially valuable tool to objectively evaluate the benefits or harmful effects of physical exertion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Regression analysis of serum bone metabolic markers and traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in patients with CKD-MBD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Ming; Meng, Xian-Jie; Wu, Wei; Liu, Ying-Lu; Zhai, Xiao-Juan

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the interdependent relationship between serum bone metabolic markers and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes in patients with chronic kidney disease (stages 3 and 4)-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), in order to provide the objective basis for exploring the rules of TCM syndrome differentiation in patients with CKD-MBD. The retrospective survey was conducted to collect 105 cases with CKD (stages 3 and 4)-MBD. General clinical indexes, frequency of TCM syndromes and distribution of TCM syndrome type were investigated. Furthermore, serum bone metabolic markers, including calcium (Ca2+), phosphonium (P3+), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), procollagen type 1 amino-N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and β-crosslaps (β-CTX) were analyzed, respectively. Meanwhile, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed. And then, the multivariate regression analysis was performed for serum bone metabolic markers and TCM syndromes. The results showed that the general clinical features of the 105 patients included old age, hypertension, fracture, loss of bone mass and mild abnormalities of serum bone metabolic markers. High-frequency TCM syndromes were related to Yang deficiency in Spleen and Kidney, Qi deficiency in Spleen and Kidney and blood stasis. Moreover, Yang deficiency in Spleen and Kidney and blood stasis were found as the most frequent characteristics of the distribution of TCM syndromes type. The clinical characteristics of patients with the syndrome type of Yang deficiency in Spleen and Kidney were probably old age, increase in TCM syndrome scores and abnormalities in iPTH and P1NP. In addition, the interdependent relationship between abnormality in Ca2+ and syndromes of hair loss, tooth shake and sexual dysfunction, abnormality in P3+ and syndromes of aches in waist and knees, abnormality in iPTH and syndromes of soreness and weakness in waist and knees, lassitude, fatigue and extreme chilliness, abnormality in ALP and

  20. Blood mercury can be a factor of elevated serum ferritin: analysis of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Choi, Young-Hwa; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Serum ferritin as well as blood mercury are reported to be associated with chronic inflammation. However, the relation between serum ferritin and blood mercury has not yet been established. We utilized the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012) 10,977 subjects (5433 males and 5544 females). To evaluate the association of serum ferritin and blood mercury cross-sectionally, complex sample analysis was conducted after adjustment for the relevant variables. Serum concentrations of ferritin and blood mercury were higher in males than in females (115.7 ± 1.7 vs. 40.9 ± 0.7 ng/mL and 5.0 ± 0.1 vs. 3.6 ± 0.1 μg/L, respectively). Serum ferritin and blood mercury concentrations had significant correlations in both genders after adjustment (r = 0.062, P analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test showed significantly higher serum ferritin according to the tertile of blood mercury (P = 0.007) in males. The adjusted odds ratio of having the highest tertile of serum ferritin in the top tertile of blood mercury in males was 1.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.05-2.21). Thus, the current study indicates that blood mercury concentration can be a factor for the elevated serum ferritin concentration.

  1. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossowska, Barbara, E-mail: barbara@immchem.am.wroc.pl [Department of Chemistry and Immunochemistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Bujwida 44a, 50-345 Wroclaw (Poland); Dudka, Ilona, E-mail: ilona.dudka@pwr.wroc.pl [Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Group, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Bugla-Ploskonska, Gabriela, E-mail: gabriela.bugla-ploskonska@microb.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna, E-mail: aszyman@mp.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland); Doroszkiewicz, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: wlodzimierz.doroszkiewicz@microb.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Gancarz, Roman, E-mail: roman.gancarz@pwr.wroc.pl [Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Group, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Andrzejak, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard@chzaw.am.wroc.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland); Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta, E-mail: jola@chzaw.am.wroc.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals.

  2. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Barbara; Dudka, Ilona; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela; Szymańska-Chabowska, Anna; Doroszkiewicz, Włodzimierz; Gancarz, Roman; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta

    2010-10-15

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical Label-Free Aptasensor for Specific Analysis of Dopamine in Serum in the Presence of Structurally Related Neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Ferapontova, Elena E

    2016-04-05

    Cellular and brain metabolism of dopamine can be correlated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, and as such, in vivo analysis of dopamine in the presence of structurally related neurotransmitters (NT) represents a holy grail of neuroscience. Interference from those NTs generally does not allow selective electroanalysis of dopamine, which redox transformation overlaps with those of other catecholamines. In our previous work, we reported an electrochemical RNA-aptamer-based biosensor for specific analysis of dopamine (Analytical Chemistry, 2013; Vol. 85, p 121). However, the overall design of the biosensor restricted its stability and impeded its operation in serum. Here, we show that specific biorecognition and electroanalysis of dopamine in serum can be performed by the RNA aptamer tethered to cysteamine-modified gold electrodes via the alkanethiol linker. The stabilized dopamine aptasensor allowed continuous 20 h amperometric analysis of dopamine in 10% serum within the physiologically important 0.1-1 μM range and in the presence of catechol and such dopamine precursors and metabolites as norepinephrine and l-DOPA. In a flow-injection mode, the aptasensor response to dopamine was ∼1 s, the sensitivity of analysis, optimized by adjusting the aptamer surface coverage, was 67 ± 1 nA μM(-1) cm(-2), and the dopamine LOD was 62 nM. The proposed design of the aptasensor, exploiting both the aptamer alkanethiol tethering to the electrode and screening of the catecholamine-aptamer electrostatic interactions, allows direct monitoring of dopamine levels in biological fluids in the presence of competitive NT and thus may be further applicable in biomedical research.

  4. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies six new Loci for serum calcium concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conall M O'Seaghdha

    Full Text Available Calcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17 population-based cohorts and investigated the 14 most strongly associated loci in ≤ 21,679 additional individuals. Seven loci (six new regions in association with serum calcium were identified and replicated. Rs1570669 near CYP24A1 (P = 9.1E-12, rs10491003 upstream of GATA3 (P = 4.8E-09 and rs7481584 in CARS (P = 1.2E-10 implicate regions involved in Mendelian calcemic disorders: Rs1550532 in DGKD (P = 8.2E-11, also associated with bone density, and rs7336933 near DGKH/KIAA0564 (P = 9.1E-10 are near genes that encode distinct isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase. Rs780094 is in GCKR. We characterized the expression of these genes in gut, kidney, and bone, and demonstrate modulation of gene expression in bone in response to dietary calcium in mice. Our results shed new light on the genetics of calcium homeostasis.

  5. Flow injection analysis-Rayleigh light scattering detection for online determination of protein in human serum sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Dong, Lijun; Wang, Weiping; Hu, Zhide; Chen, Xingguo

    2006-07-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system combined with Rayleigh light scattering (RLS) detection is developed for the sensitive and rapid determination of protein concentration in human serum sample. This method is based on the weak intensity of RLS of Eriochrome Black T (EBT, 2-hydroxy-1-(1-hydroxy-2-naphthylazo)-6-nitronaphthalene-4-sulfonic acid sodium salt), which can be enhanced by the addition of protein in weakly acidic solution. The effects of pH and interfering species on the determination of protein were examined. Calibrations for protein, based on RLS intensity, were linear in the concentration ranges of 7-36 microg/ml for human serum album (HSA) and 8-44 microg/ml for bovine serum album (BSA). The detection limits of the method were found to be 0.882 and 2.507 microg/ml for HSA and BSA, respectively. A relative standard deviation of 0.76% (n=5) was obtained with 20 microg/ml HSA standard solution. The FIA-RLS method was more stable than the general RLS method, and the average RSD value of FIA-RLS was less than that of the general RLS. The sample rate was determined to be 90 samples per hour.

  6. Diagnostic value of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen for hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Wang, Zhao-Juan; Chen, Long-Hua; Dong, Wen-Zhu

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic value of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) and SCCA-IgM for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After a comprehensive search of PubMed and Web of Science databases, we identified eligible studies on the diagnostic value serum SCCAs for HCC. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the revised Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) tool. The overall diagnostic value of SCCAs for HCC was pooled using a bivariate model. Twelve studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivities for SCCA and SCCA-IgM were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.81) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55-0.82), respectively. The corresponding specificities were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.52-0.94) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.51-0.72), respectively. The areas under summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curves for SCCA and SCCA-IgM were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72-0.80) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66-0.74), respectively. Major design deficiencies of the included studies were two-gate design and partial verification bias. Therefore, we concluded that both serum SCCA and SCCA-IgM have a fair diagnostic value for HCC.

  7. Fluorescence analysis of competition of phenylbutazone and methotrexate in binding to serum albumin in combination treatment in rheumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    Combination of several drugs is often necessary especially during long-them therapy. The competition between drugs can cause a decrease of the amount of a drug bound to albumin. This results in an increase of the free, biological active fraction of the drug. The aim of the presented study was to describe the competition between phenylbutazone (Phe) and methotrexate (MTX), two drugs recommended for the treatment of rheumatology in binding to bovine (BSA) and human (HSA) serum albumin in the high affinity binding site. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of drugs on the protein fluorescence and to define the binding and quenching properties of drugs-serum albumin complexes. The effect of the displacement of one drug from the complex of the other with serum albumin has been described on the basis of the comparison of the quenching curves and binding constants for the binary and ternary systems. The conclusion that both Phe and MTX form a binding site in the same subdomain (IIA) points to the necessity of using a monitoring therapy owning to the possible increase of the uncontrolled toxic effects.

  8. Usage analysis of human serum albumin in patients with liver cancer and liver cirrhosis after hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Donghai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo analyze the usage of human serum albumin in patients with liver cancer and liver cirrhosis after hepatectomy. MethodsA total of 121 patients with liver cancer and liver cirrhosis who received hepatectomy in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were divided into control group (n=60 and observation group (n=61. Both groups received human serum albumin in addition to the routine treatment for liver protection. The observation group was given intravenous drip of 5% human serum albumin within 48 h after surgery. The plasma albumin concentrations of patients were measured at 48 h after surgery, and if the concentration was <35 g/L, the patients would be given 20% human serum albumin until the concentration was ≥35 g/L. The control group was given intravenous drip of 20% human serum albumin within 48 h after surgery until the plasma albumin concentration was ≥35 g/L. The amounts of used human serum albumin and plasma were recorded for both groups. The urine volume, abdominal drainage volume, central venous pressure (CVP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and thromboelastogram (TEG R and K values were measured at 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after surgery. The liver function indices before and after surgery and the indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (ICG R15 at 7 days after surgery were measured. Comparison of continuous data between the two groups was made by t test, while comparison of categorical data was made by chisquare test. Results(1 There were no significant differences in age, sex, Child-Pugh classification, surgical approach, intraoperative blood loss, occlusion time of the first porta hepatis, and operation time between the two groups (P>0.05. But there were significant differences in the amounts of used human serum albumin and plasma and the length of hospital stay between the two groups (P<0.05. (2 There were significant differences in daily urine volume, CVP, MAP, abdominal drainage volume, and interstitial

  9. Comparative analysis of serum proteome in congenital scoliosis patients with TBX6 haploinsufficiency - a first report pointing to lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiankun; Wu, Nan; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Yangzhong; Liu, Sen; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jiaqi; Zuo, Yuzhi; Liu, Zhenlei; Chen, Weisheng; Chen, Yixin; Chen, Jia; Lin, Mao; Zhao, Yanxue; Yang, Yang; Wang, Shensgru; Yang, Xu; Ma, Yufen; Wang, Jian; Chen, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jianguo; Shen, Jianxiong; Wu, Zhihong; Qiu, Guixing

    2018-01-01

    Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine affecting quality of life. We have demonstrated TBX6 haploinsufficiency is the most important contributor to CS. However, the pathophysiology at the protein level remains unclear. Therefore, this study was to explore the differential proteome in serum of CS patients with TBX6 haploinsufficiency. Sera from nine CS patients with TBX6 haploinsufficiency and nine age- and gender-matched healthy controls were collected and analysed by isobaric tagged relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labelling coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). In total, 277 proteins were detected and 20 proteins were designated as differentially expressed proteins, which were submitted to subsequent bioinformatics analysis. Gene Ontology classification analysis showed the biological process was primarily related to 'cellular process', molecular function 'structural molecule activity' and cellular component 'extracellular region'. IPA analysis revealed 'LXR/RXR activation' was the top pathway, which is a crucial pathway in lipid metabolism. Hierarchical clustering analysis generated two clusters. In summary, this study is the first proteomic research to delineate the total and differential serum proteins in TBX6 haploinsufficiency-caused CS. The proteins discovered in this experiment may serve as potential biomarkers for CS, and lipid metabolism might play important roles in the pathogenesis of CS. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Systematic forensic toxicological analysis by GC-MS in serum using automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapp, Marcel; Maurer, Hans H; Desel, Herbert

    2016-08-01

    Non-targeted screening of body fluids for psychoactive agents is an essential task for forensic toxicology. The challenge is the identification of xenobiotics of interest from background noise and endogenous matrix components. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of an Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based toxicological serum screening. One hundred fifty serum samples submitted to the authors´ laboratory for systematic forensic toxicological analysis underwent GC-MS screening after neutral and basic liquid-liquid extraction. Recorded datasets were routinely evaluated both by experienced personnel and automatically using the AMDIS software combined with the Maurer/Pfleger/Weber GC-MS library MPW_2011. The results from manual and automated data evaluation were then systematically compared. AMDIS parameters for data deconvolution and substance identification had been successfully adapted to the GC-MS screening procedure in serum. The number of false positive hits could substantially be reduced without increasing the risk of overlooking relevant compounds. With AMDIS-based data evaluation, additional drugs were identified in 25 samples (17%) that had not been detected by manual data evaluation. Importantly, among these drugs, there were frequently prescribed and toxicologically relevant antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs such as citalopram, mirtazapine, quetiapine, or venlafaxine. For most of the identified drugs, their serum concentrations were in the therapeutic or subtherapeutic range. Thus, our study indicated that automated data evaluation by AMDIS provided reliable screening results. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Vitamin D intake, serum Vitamin D levels, and risk of gastric cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Khayatzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We are aware of no systematic review or meta-analysis of published findings about the association between Vitamin D status and risk of gastric cancer (GC. We systematically reviewed the current evidence on the association between Vitamin D intake as well as serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OHD levels and risk of GC. Materials and Methods: Published evidence in this area was searched to August 2014 through the use of ISI Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Ovid Database, EMBASE, and Google Scholar for relevant articles by cross-referencing. Seven articles had reported odds ratios (ORs or relative risks (RR as their effect size; four papers had reported the ORs between Vitamin D intake and GC; and three papers had reported the association between serum 25(OHD and risk of GC. Results: Pooled effect size for comparison of highest versus lowest intakes of Vitamin D was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 1.25; P = 0.26 indicating no significant association between Vitamin D intake and risk of GC. We failed to find a significant association between serum Vitamin D levels and risk of GC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.74-1.14; P = 0.429. Among men, the pooled effect size or highest versus lowest category of serum Vitamin D levels was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.18, P = 0.49. The corresponding figures in women were 1.04 and 95% CI: 0.74-1.47 (P = 0.80. Conclusion: We found no evidence for the significant association between Vitamin D status and risk of GC. However, due to limited data in this field, further studies are required to reach a definite conclusion.

  12. Sudoku Inspired Designs for Radar Waveforms and Antenna Arrays

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    Travis D. Bufler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudoku puzzles, often seen in magazines and newspapers, are logic-based challenges where each entry within the puzzle is comprised of symbols adhering to row, column and box constraints. Previously, we had investigated their potential in frequency-hopped waveforms to achieve desirable radar ambiguity functions and compared them with random, as well as the more familiar Costas sequences. This paper further examines the properties of Sudoku codes in more detail through computational search and analysis. We examine the co-hit and cross-hit arrays, defined as the correlation between two sequences, to quickly and efficiently evaluate numerous Sudoku puzzles. Additionally, we investigate the use of Sudoku puzzles for antenna applications, including array interleaving, array thinning and random element spacing.

  13. 3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2014-01-01

    The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate this ambiguity between the different parameters. We use dynamic ray tracing to efficiently handle the expensive computational cost for 3-D anisotropic models. Ray tracing provides also the ray direction information necessary for conditioning the sensitivity kernels to handle anisotropy. The NMO velocity and η parameter kernels showed a maximum sensitivity for diving waves which results in a relevant choice of those parameters in wave equation tomography. The δ parameter kernel showed zero sensitivity; therefore it can serve as a secondary parameter to fit the amplitude in the acoustic anisotropic inversion. Considering the limited penetration depth of diving waves, migration velocity analysis based kernels are introduced to fix the depth ambiguity with reflections and compute sensitivity maps in the deeper parts of the model.

  14. Traditional waveform based spike sorting yields biased rate code estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Valérie

    2009-04-28

    Much of neuroscience has to do with relating neural activity and behavior or environment. One common measure of this relationship is the firing rates of neurons as functions of behavioral or environmental parameters, often called tuning functions and receptive fields. Firing rates are estimated from the spike trains of neurons recorded by electrodes implanted in the brain. Individual neurons' spike trains are not typically readily available, because the signal collected at an electrode is often a mixture of activities from different neurons and noise. Extracting individual neurons' spike trains from voltage signals, which is known as spike sorting, is one of the most important data analysis problems in neuroscience, because it has to be undertaken prior to any analysis of neurophysiological data in which more than one neuron is believed to be recorded on a single electrode. All current spike-sorting methods consist of clustering the characteristic spike waveforms of neurons. The sequence of first spike sorting based on waveforms, then estimating tuning functions, has long been the accepted way to proceed. Here, we argue that the covariates that modulate tuning functions also contain information about spike identities, and that if tuning information is ignored for spike sorting, the resulting tuning function estimates are biased and inconsistent, unless spikes can be classified with perfect accuracy. This means, for example, that the commonly used peristimulus time histogram is a biased estimate of the firing rate of a neuron that is not perfectly isolated. We further argue that the correct conceptual way to view the problem out is to note that spike sorting provides information about rate estimation and vice versa, so that the two relationships should be considered simultaneously rather than sequentially. Indeed we show that when spike sorting and tuning-curve estimation are performed in parallel, unbiased estimates of tuning curves can be recovered even from

  15. Higher Serum Angiotensinogen Is an Indicator of IgA Vasculitis with Nephritis Revealed by Comparative Proteomes Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian He

    Full Text Available IgA vasculitis (IgAV, previously named as Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is the most common systematic vasculitis with unknown etiology. Lack of appropriate study system and/or animal model limits the understanding of its molecular pathogenesis and hinders the identification of targets for rational therapy, especially for its long-term complication, IgAV nephritis (IgAVN. In this study, we applied comparative analysis of serum proteomes to obtain an insight about disease pathogenesis. This study has utilized high sensitivity nanoscale ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS to investigate the alterations in serum proteomic profiles in patients with IgAV (n=6, IgAVN (n=6 and healthy subjects (n=7. The differentially expressed proteins were subjected to functional pathway analysis by PANTHER and DAVID software. We identified 107 differentially expressed proteins among three different groups, and functional analysis suggested that, in addition to earlier reported pathways, such as acute phase response, immune response, complement and blood coagulation pathways, hemostasis and Wnt signaling pathway were probably involved in pathogenesis of IgAV. A few differentially abundant proteins identified, such as C4a, serum amyloid A, angiotensinogen, and kininogen 1, were further validated by ELISA. More importantly, we found that angiotensinogen concentration is correlated with IgAVN and could be used as a potential marker for the progression of IgAV. This is the first report of analyzing the proteomic alterations in IgAV patients and the differentially proteins identified in this study may enhance understanding of the pathology of IgAV and a few of them may be used to monitor disease progression.

  16. Fertility-associated metabolites in bull seminal plasma and blood serum: 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajeet; Kroetsch, Tom; Blondin, Patrick; Anzar, Muhammad

    2015-02-01

    Early estimation of bull fertility is highly desirable for the conservation of male genetics of endangered species and for the exploitation of genetically superior sires in artificial insemination programs. The present work was conducted as a proof-of-principle study to identify fertility-associated metabolites in dairy bull seminal plasma and blood serum using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). Semen and blood samples were collected from high- and low-fertility breeding bulls (n = 5 each), stationed at Semex, Guelph, Canada. NMR spectra of serum and seminal plasma were recorded at a resonance frequency of 500.13 MHz on a Bruker Avance-500 spectrometer equipped with an inverse triple resonance probe (TXI, 5 mm). Spectra were phased manually, baseline corrected, and calibrated against 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionic-2,2,3,3-d4 acid at 0.0 parts per million (ppm). Spectra were converted to an appropriate format for analysis using Prometab software running within MATLAB. Principal component analysis was used to examine intrinsic variation in the NMR data set, and to identify trends and to exclude outliers. Partial least square-discriminant analysis was performed to identify the significant features between fertility groups. The fertility-associated metabolites with variable importance in projections (VIP) scores >2 were citrate (2.50 ppm), tryptamine/taurine (3.34-3.38 ppm), isoleucine (0.74 ppm), and leucine (0.78 ppm) in the seminal plasma; and isoleucine (1.14 ppm), asparagine (2.90-2.94 ppm), glycogen (3.98 ppm), and citrulline (1.54 ppm) in the serum. These metabolites showed identifiable peaks, and thus can be used as biomarkers of fertility in breeding bulls. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of Canagliflozin on Serum Magnesium in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Post Hoc Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Richard E; Mende, Christian; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Sha, Sue; Davies, Michael J; Desai, Mehul

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on serum magnesium in hypomagnesemic patients with type 2 diabetes. This post hoc analysis was based on pooled data from four placebo-controlled studies of canagliflozin (N = 2313). The proportion of patients with baseline serum magnesium magnesium ≥0.74 mmol/L at week 26 was evaluated. At week 26, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg increased serum magnesium versus placebo in patients with baseline serum magnesium magnesium magnesium ≥0.74 mmol/L at week 26 with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus placebo (74.1% and 80.6% vs 28.8%). Canagliflozin was associated with normalization of serum magnesium in hypomagnesemic patients with type 2 diabetes, potentially leading to improved cardiometabolic outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers, NCT01081834, NCT01106677, NCT01106625, NCT01106690.

  18. Harmonisation of serum dihydrotestosterone analysis: establishment of an external quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Ronda F; Jolly, Lisa; Hartmann, Michaela F; Ho, Chung Shun; Kam, Richard K T; Joseph, John; Boyder, Conchita; Wudy, Stefan A

    2017-03-01

    Serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is an important analyte for the clinical assessment of disorders of sex development. It is also reportedly a difficult analyte to measure. Currently, there are significant gaps in the standardisation of this analyte, including no external quality assurance (EQA) program available worldwide to allow for peer review performance of DHT. We therefore proposed to establish a pilot EQA program for serum DHT. DHT was assessed in the 2015 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs' Endocrine program material. The material's target (i.e. "true") values were established using a measurement procedure based on isotope dilution gas chromatography (GC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). DHT calibrator values were based on weighed values of pure DHT material (>97.5% purity) from Sigma. The allowable limits of performance (ALP) were established as ±0.1 up to 0.5 nmol/L and ±15% for targets >0.5 nmol/L. Target values for the six levels of RCPAQAP material for DHT ranged from 0.02 to 0.43 nmol/L (0.01-0.12 ng/mL). The material demonstrated linearity across the six levels. There were seven participating laboratories for this pilot study. Results of the liquid chromatography (LC) MS/MS methods were within the ALP; whereas the results from the immunoassay methods were consistently higher than the target values and outside the ALP. This report provides the first peer comparison of serum DHT measured by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoassay laboratories. Establishment of this program provides one of the pillars to achieve method harmonisation. This supports accurate clinical decisions where DHT measurement is required.

  19. Soya products and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A; Onabanjo, Temilola A; Yansane, Alfa; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-09-28

    Soya proteins and isoflavones have been reported to exert beneficial effects on the serum lipid profile. More recently, this claim is being challenged. The objective of this study was to comprehensively examine the effects of soya consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 2004 through February 2014), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register) and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of soya on the lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, thirty-five studies (fifty comparisons) were included in our analyses. Treatment duration ranged from 4 weeks to 1 year. Intake of soya products resulted in a significant reduction in serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, -4.83 (95% CI -7.34, -2.31) mg/dl, TAG, -4.92 (95% CI -7.79, -2.04) mg/dl, and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations, -5.33 (95% CI -8.35, -2.30) mg/dl. There was also a significant increase in serum HDL-cholesterol concentration, 1.40 (95% CI 0.58, 2.23) mg/dl. The I² statistic ranged from 92 to 99%, indicating significant heterogeneity. LDL reductions were more marked in hypercholesterolaemic patients, -7.47 (95% CI -11.79, -3.16) mg/dl, than in healthy subjects, -2.96 (95% CI -5.28, -0.65) mg/dl. LDL reduction was stronger when whole soya products (soya milk, soyabeans and nuts) were used as the test regimen, -11.06 (95% CI -15.74, -6.37) mg/dl, as opposed to when 'processed' soya extracts, -3.17 (95% CI -5.75, -0.58) mg/dl, were used. These data are consistent with the beneficial effects of soya proteins on serum LDL, HDL, TAG and TC concentrations. The effect was stronger in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Whole soya foods appeared to be more beneficial than soya supplementation, whereas isoflavone supplementation had no effects on the lipid profile.

  20. Method and apparatus for resonant frequency waveform modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Matthew S [Richland, WA

    2011-06-07

    A resonant modulator device and process are described that provide enhanced resonant frequency waveforms to electrical devices including, e.g., laser devices. Faster, larger, and more complex modulation waveforms are obtained than can be obtained by use of conventional current controllers alone.

  1. Multicenter study of principles-based waveforms for external defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, A C; Swerdlow, C D; Love, C J; Ellenbogen, K A; Deering, T F; Brewer, J E; Augostini, R S; Tchou, P J

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a shock waveform for external defibrillation depends on the waveform characteristics. Recently, design principles based on cardiac electrophysiology have been developed to determine optimal waveform characteristics. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of principles-based monophasic and biphasic waveforms for external defibrillation. A prospective, randomized, blinded, multicenter study of 118 patients undergoing electrophysiologic testing or receiving an implantable defibrillator was conducted. Ventricular fibrillation was induced, and defibrillation was attempted in each patient with a biphasic and a monophasic waveform. Patients were randomly placed into 2 groups: group 1 received shocks of escalating energy, and group 2 received only high-energy shocks. The biphasic waveform achieved a first-shock success rate of 100% in group 1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 95.1% to 100%) and group 2 (95% CI 94.6% to 100%), with average delivered energies of 201+/-17 J and 295+/-28 J, respectively. The monophasic waveform demonstrated a 96.7% (95% CI 89.1% to 100%) first-shock success rate and average delivered energy of 215+/-12 J for group 1 and a 98.2% (95% CI 91.7% to 100%) first-shock success rate and average delivered energy of 352+/-13 J for group 2. Using principles of electrophysiology, it is possible to design both biphasic and monophasic waveforms for external defibrillation that achieve a high first-shock efficacy.

  2. Exploring tree species signature using waveform LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Popescu, S. C.; Krause, K.

    2015-12-01

    Successful classification of tree species with waveform LiDAR data would be of considerable value to estimate the biomass stocks and changes in forests. Current approaches emphasize converting the full waveform data into discrete points to get larger amount of parameters and identify tree species using several discrete-points variables. However, ignores intensity values and waveform shapes which convey important structural characteristics. The overall goal of this study was to employ the intensity and waveform shape of individual tree as the waveform signature to detect tree species. The data was acquired by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) within 250*250 m study area located in San Joaquin Experimental Range. Specific objectives were to: (1) segment individual trees using the smoothed canopy height model (CHM) derived from discrete LiDAR points; (2) link waveform LiDAR with above individual tree boundaries to derive sample signatures of three tree species and use these signatures to discriminate tree species in a large area; and (3) compare tree species detection results from discrete LiDAR data and waveform LiDAR data. An overall accuracy of the segmented individual tree of more than 80% was obtained. The preliminary results show that compared with the discrete LiDAR data, the waveform LiDAR signature has a higher potential for accurate tree species classification.

  3. An Overview of Radar Waveform Optimization for Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lulu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An optimal waveform design method that fully employs the knowledge of the target and the environment can further improve target detection performance, thus is of vital importance to research. In this paper, methods of radar waveform optimization for target detection are reviewed and summarized and provide the basis for the research.

  4. [A case of Kennedy-Alter-Sung (KAS) syndrome presenting as hypersexuality and elevated serum CK: usefulness of genetic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokezu, Y; Yanai, S; Nagai, M; Nagamatsu, K; Yamamoto, Y

    1996-03-01

    We report a unique case of KAS syndrome presenting as hypersexuality and elevated serum creatine kinase (CK). None of the other members of the patient's family had KAS. The patient had engaged in sexual behavior 4 approximately 5 times a week since his marriage. He did not have gynecomastia or hepatomegaly. Neurological examination revealed facial twitching and tongue atrophy and fasciculations. Mild to moderate muscular atrophy and weakness were evident in the proximal portion of the upper and the distal portion of the lower extremities. Deep tendon reflexes were absent, as were sensory disturbance and sphincter dysfunction. Laboratory data showed mild elevation of transaminase (GOT 113 U/L, GPT 69 U/L) and extreme elevation of CK (4,600 U/L) in serum. Electromyography and muscle biopsy from the left biceps showed chronic neurogenic atrophy. Genetic analysis showed increased expansion of a CAG repeat (44 repeats) in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene. We diagnosed KAS syndrome based on the genetic analysis. This case is important in illustrating the clinical varieties of KAS syndrome, as well as the importance of genetic analysis in KAS syndrome cases presenting with atypical manifestations and without a family history.

  5. Synthetic tsunami waveform catalogs with kinematic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baptista

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a comprehensive methodology to produce a synthetic tsunami waveform catalogue in the northeast Atlantic, east of the Azores islands. The method uses a synthetic earthquake catalogue compatible with plate kinematic constraints of the area. We use it to assess the tsunami hazard from the transcurrent boundary located between Iberia and the Azores, whose western part is known as the Gloria Fault. This study focuses only on earthquake-generated tsunamis. Moreover, we assume that the time and space distribution of the seismic events is known. To do this, we compute a synthetic earthquake catalogue including all fault parameters needed to characterize the seafloor deformation covering the time span of 20 000 years, which we consider long enough to ensure the representability of earthquake generation on this segment of the plate boundary. The computed time and space rupture distributions are made compatible with global kinematic plate models. We use the tsunami empirical Green's functions to efficiently compute the synthetic tsunami waveforms for the dataset of coastal locations, thus providing the basis for tsunami impact characterization. We present the results in the form of offshore wave heights for all coastal points in the dataset. Our results focus on the northeast Atlantic basin, showing that earthquake-induced tsunamis in the transcurrent segment of the Azores–Gibraltar plate boundary pose a minor threat to coastal areas north of Portugal and beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. However, in Morocco, the Azores, and the Madeira islands, we can expect wave heights between 0.6 and 0.8 m, leading to precautionary evacuation of coastal areas. The advantages of the method are its easy application to other regions and the low computation effort needed.

  6. Sample preparation for mass spectrometric analysis of human serum N-glycans using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-based solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liwei; Zhang, Ye; Chen, Linlin; Shen, Aijin; Zhang, Xingwang; Ren, Shifang; Gu, Jianxin; Yu, Long; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-09-21

    Expression levels of N-linked glycans derived from human serum glycoproteins have been shown to change during the progression of many diseases. Generally, N-glycans released from human serum proteins co-exist with endogenous serum peptides, salts, and other contaminants. Effective removal of these contaminants is essential to obtain the glycan profile of human serum proteins. Here, we developed a sample preparation method for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of N-linked glycans derived from human serum glycoproteins based on a zwitterionic hydrophilic material named Click TE-Cys. The high hydrophilicity of Click TE-Cys, resulting from its unique surface structure and charge distribution, facilitated removal of co-existing salts and endogenous serum peptides. Furthermore, the present enrichment approach was handled in parallel, thus saving time. Using this method, a total of 47 unique N-glycans released from human serum proteins were identified. The intrabatch and interbatch coefficients of variation for the 47 N-linked glycans were 8.57% ± 0.96% and 9.22% ± 1.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the present method is suitable for fast purification of N-linked glycans derived from human serum glycoproteins, and has potential for clinical application.

  7. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a method for designing waveforms for temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging is described. The method is based on least squares optimization and is used to design nonlinear frequency modulated signals for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. By using the proposed design method......, the amplitude spectrum of the transmitted waveform can be optimized, such that most of the energy is transmitted where the transducer has large amplification. To test the design method, a waveform was designed for a BK8804 linear array transducer. The resulting nonlinear frequency modulated waveform...... waveform, on the other hand, was designed so that only frequencies where the transducer had a large amplification were excited. Hereby, unnecessary heating of the transducer could be avoided and the signal-tonoise ratio could be increased. The experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS was used to evaluate...

  8. [Comparative analysis of serum proteomic profiles between patients with silicosis and chronic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Rongming; Ding, Bangmei; Zhang, Yingyi; Wu, Weimin; Fang, Zhonghua; Zhao, Rui; Xia, Qian; Li, Yong; Zhu, Baoli

    2015-08-01

    To analyze the differences in serum proteomic profiles between patients with silicosis and chronic bronchitis and to investigate the pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis, and treatment of these two disease. Serum samples from patients with stage I silicosis and chronic bronchitis were collected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed and protein plots with expression differences higher than 2-fold were identified and further analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Compared with the silicosis group, the chronic bronchitis group had 11 up-regulated proteins and 23 down-regulated proteins. The chronic bronchitis group had high expression of proteins such as interferon beta precursor, apolipoprotein precursor, and transforming growth factor beta1 precursor. The silicosis group had high expression of proteins such as interleukin-6, granzyme A, cathepsin G, and glycoprotein precursor. The differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in the activity of serine enzymes, cytotoxicity, inflammation response, and apolipoprotein transfer and play different roles in silicosis and chronic bronchitis.

  9. Polypharmacotherapy in rheumatology: 1H NMR analysis of binding of phenylbutazone and methotrexate to serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Bojko, B.; Szkudlarek-Haśnik, A.; Knopik, M.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2011-05-01

    The influence of phenylbutazone (Phe) and methotrexate (MTX) on binding of MTX and Phe to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumin in the low-affinity binding sites is investigated. The strength and kind of interactions between serum albumin (SA) and drugs used in combination therapy were found using 1H NMR spectroscopy. A stoichiometric molar ratios for Phe-SA and MTX-SA complexes are 36:1 and 31:1, respectively. It appeared these molar ratios are higher for the ternary systems than it were in the binary ones. The presence of the additional drug (MTX or Phe) causes the increase of an affinity of albumin towards Phe and MTX. It was found that the aliphatic groups of MTX are more resistant to the influence of Phe on the MTX-SA complex than the aromatic rings. The results showed the important impact of another drug (MTX or Phe) on the affinity of SA towards Phe and MTX in the low-affinity binding sites. This work is a subsequent part of the spectroscopic study on Phe-MTX-SA interactions (Maciążek-Jurczyk, 2009 [1]).

  10. A retrospective analysis of 25% human serum albumin supplementation in hypoalbuminemic dogs with septic peritonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Farrah B.; Read, Robyn L.; Powell, Lisa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the influence of 25% human serum albumin (HSA) supplementation on serum albumin level, total protein (TP), colloid osmotic pressure (COP), hospital stay, and survival in dogs with septic peritonitis. Records of 39 dogs with septic peritonitis were evaluated. In the HSA group, initial and post-transfusion TP, albumin, COP, and HSA dose were recorded. In the non-supplemented group, repeated values of TP, albumin, and COP were recorded over their hospitalization. Eighteen dogs survived (53.8% mortality). Repeat albumin values were higher in survivors (mean 23.9 g/L) and elevated repeat albumin values were associated with HSA supplementation. Repeat albumin and TP were higher in the HSA supplemented group (mean 24 g/L and 51.9 g/L, respectively) and their COP increased by 5.8 mmHg. Length of hospitalization was not affected. Twenty-five percent HSA increases albumin, TP, and COP in canine patients with septic peritonitis. Higher postoperative albumin levels are associated with survival. PMID:26028681

  11. Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Gong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association between serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PaC. Methods: We identified eligible studies in Medline and EMBASE databases (no reference trials from 2014 to 2016 in addition to the reference lists of original studies and review articles on this topic. A summary of relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CI was calculated using a random-effects model. The heterogeneity between studies was assessed using Cochran Q and I2 statistics. Results: Ten studies (seven nested case-control studies and three retrospective case-control studies were selected as they met our inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis. All these studies were published between 1997 and 2013. The current data suggested that serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3in addition to the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio were not associated with an increased risk of PaC (Summary relative risks (SRRs = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.67–1.16 for IGF-I; SRRs = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.54–1.15 for IGF-II; SRRs = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.69–1.17 for IGFBP-3; SRRs = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.71–1.23 for IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio. There was no publication bias in the present meta-analysis. Conclusion: Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 as well as the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio were not associated with increased risk of PaC.

  12. Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuanfeng; Zhang, Bingyi; Liao, Yadi; Tang, Yunqiang; Mai, Cong; Chen, Tiejun; Tang, Hui

    2017-04-18

    To investigate the association between serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PaC). We identified eligible studies in Medline and EMBASE databases (no reference trials from 2014 to 2016) in addition to the reference lists of original studies and review articles on this topic. A summary of relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. The heterogeneity between studies was assessed using Cochran Q and I² statistics. Ten studies (seven nested case-control studies and three retrospective case-control studies) were selected as they met our inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis. All these studies were published between 1997 and 2013. The current data suggested that serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3)in addition to the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio were not associated with an increased risk of PaC (Summary relative risks (SRRs) = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.67-1.16 for IGF-I; SRRs = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.54-1.15 for IGF-II; SRRs = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.69-1.17 for IGFBP-3; SRRs = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.71-1.23 for IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio). There was no publication bias in the present meta-analysis. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 as well as the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio were not associated with increased risk of PaC.

  13. Earthquake Fingerprints: Representing Earthquake Waveforms for Similarity-Based Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K.; Beroza, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    New earthquake detection methods, such as Fingerprint and Similarity Thresholding (FAST), use fast approximate similarity search to identify similar waveforms in long-duration data without templates (Yoon et al. 2015). These methods have two key components: fingerprint extraction and an efficient search algorithm. Fingerprint extraction converts waveforms into fingerprints, compact signatures that represent short-duration waveforms for identification and search. Earthquakes are detected using an efficient indexing and search scheme, such as locality-sensitive hashing, that identifies similar waveforms in a fingerprint database. The quality of the search results, and thus the earthquake detection results, is strongly dependent on the fingerprinting scheme. Fingerprint extraction should map similar earthquake waveforms to similar waveform fingerprints to ensure a high detection rate, even under additive noise and small distortions. Additionally, fingerprints corresponding to noise intervals should have mutually dissimilar fingerprints to minimize false detections. In this work, we compare the performance of multiple fingerprint extraction approaches for the earthquake waveform similarity search problem. We apply existing audio fingerprinting (used in content-based audio identification systems) and time series indexing techniques and present modified versions that are specifically adapted for seismic data. We also explore data-driven fingerprinting approaches that can take advantage of labeled or unlabeled waveform data. For each fingerprinting approach we measure its ability to identify similar waveforms in a low signal-to-noise setting, and quantify the trade-off between true and false detection rates in the presence of persistent noise sources. We compare the performance using known event waveforms from eight independent stations in the Northern California Seismic Network.

  14. Analysis of clinical factors for the determination of optimal serum level of thyrotropin after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone administration

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    Son, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University Medical Center and School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To determine the optimal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels after administration of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) to patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), we have analyzed the clinical parameters that affected the degree of the increase in serum levels of TSH. We retrospectively analyzed 276 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), post-thyroidectomy and remnant ablation. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of TSH after rhTSH stimulation and various clinical factors, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of the degree of increase in serum TSH level after rhTSH stimulation. After the rhTSH injections, all subjects achieved TSH levels of >30 μU/mL, with a mean of 203.8 ± 83.4 μU/mL. On univariate analysis, age (r = 0.255) and serum creatinine (r = 0.169) level were positive predictors for higher levels of serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation, while weight (r = –0.239), BMI (r = –0.223), BSA (r = –0.217), and estimated GFR (r = –0.199) were negative predictors. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum creatinine was the most powerful independent predictor for serum levels of TSH, followed by age, BSA, and BMI. An increment in serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation was significantly affected by age, BSA, BMI, and creatinine, with creatinine being the most powerful predictor. By understanding the difference in the increased levels of TSH in various subjects, their dose of rhTSH can be adjusted during scheduling for radioiodine ablation, or during follow-up (recurrence surveillance) after surgery and ablation.

  15. Facial nerve action potentials: a study to assess waveform reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axon, P R; Ramsden, R T

    2000-11-01

    To assess the reliability of the orthodromic facial nerve action potential (FNAP), recorded from the intratemporal portion of the facial nerve on stimulation within the cerebellopontine angle. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Ten consecutive patients undergoing translabyrinthine resection of vestibular schwannoma. Diagnostic. Ten consecutive FNAPs were recorded on stimulation of the facial nerve within the cerebellopontine angle. The FNAP recording probe was placed directly on the nerve surface after the fallopian canal was opened at the second genu. Ten consecutive compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded simultaneously from surface electrodes overlying the facial musculature, by use of a standardized electrode placement technique. The stimulating and recording equipment were removed (excluding CMAP surface electrodes) and reapplied, and FNAP and CMAP data were recorded for a second time (test/retest). Peak-to-peak amplitudes of all waveforms were calculated. The average FNAP peak-to-peak amplitude for all patients was larger than the CMAP peak-to-peak amplitude (2.60 mV and 1.07 mV, respectively). Random effects analysis of variance was performed to assess the individual components of variation. This showed that CMAP was less variable than FNAP for replicate error (10 consecutive FNAPs and CMAPs) and test/retest error. However, subject variance was less for FNAP, where subject variance was by far the largest contributor to overall variation. The reliability coefficient for FNAP was 0.995 and for the CMAP was 0.982, where absolute reliability is 1.0. These data confirm that the FNAP, recorded by the technique described here, is a reliable waveform when compared with the CMAP and is a valid method for assessing facial nerve function.

  16. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  17. Golay Complementary Waveforms in Reed–Müller Sequences for Radar Detection of Nonzero Doppler Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuezhi; Huang, Xiaotao; Suvorova, Sofia; Moran, Bill

    2018-01-01

    Golay complementary waveforms can, in theory, yield radar returns of high range resolution with essentially zero sidelobes. In practice, when deployed conventionally, while high signal-to-noise ratios can be achieved for static target detection, significant range sidelobes are generated by target returns of nonzero Doppler causing unreliable detection. We consider signal processing techniques using Golay complementary waveforms to improve radar detection performance in scenarios involving multiple nonzero Doppler targets. A signal processing procedure based on an existing, so called, Binomial Design algorithm that alters the transmission order of Golay complementary waveforms and weights the returns is proposed in an attempt to achieve an enhanced illumination performance. The procedure applies one of three proposed waveform transmission ordering algorithms, followed by a pointwise nonlinear processor combining the outputs of the Binomial Design algorithm and one of the ordering algorithms. The computational complexity of the Binomial Design algorithm and the three ordering algorithms are compared, and a statistical analysis of the performance of the pointwise nonlinear processing is given. Estimation of the areas in the Delay–Doppler map occupied by significant range sidelobes for given targets are also discussed. Numerical simulations for the comparison of the performances of the Binomial Design algorithm and the three ordering algorithms are presented for both fixed and randomized target locations. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed signal processing procedure has a better detection performance in terms of lower sidelobes and higher Doppler resolution in the presence of multiple nonzero Doppler targets compared to existing methods. PMID:29324708

  18. The relationship of serum alanine aminotransferase normal-range levels to arterial stiffness and metabolic syndrome in non-drinkers and drinkers: a Chinese community-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shihui; Lin, Ying; Luo, Leiming; Ye, Ping

    2017-04-11

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normal-range levels across the world. The current analysis was designed to explore the relationship of serum ALT normal-range levels to cfPWV and metabolic syndrome (Mets) in non-drinkers and drinkers in a Chinese community-dwelling population. There were 2202 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range enrolled for the current analysis. Median (range) age of participants was 53 (18-96) years, 51.5% were males, and 31.2% were drinkers. Prevalence of Mets was 29.4%. Median (range) of cfPWV was 10.1 (2.4-32.7) m/s. Hazard ratios for prevalence of Mets, central obesity and high triglyceride significantly increased with elevated levels of serum ALT in both non-drinkers and drinkers (p  10 m/s, high blood pressure and high blood glucose significantly increased with elevated levels of serum ALT in non-drinkers (p Chinese community-dwelling population, prevalence of Mets and its components (including central obesity and high TG) increased with an elevation in serum ALT levels within normal range in both non-drinkers and drinkers, while cfPWV and other components of Mets, such as high blood pressure and glucose, increased with an elevation in serum ALT levels in non-drinkers, but not in drinkers.

  19. Growth curves of "normal" serum total IgE levels throughout childhood: A quantile analysis in a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Chiara; Perna, Serena; Vicari, Donatella; Alfò, Marco; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffman, Ute; Forster, Johannes; Zepp, Fred; Schuster, Antje; Wahn, Ulrich; Keil, Thomas; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies of serum total IgE (t-IgE) were not able to discriminate well-enough atopic from non-atopic subjects, that is, with or without serum-specific IgE antibodies to allergens. To model growth curves of the total IgE levels in children without atopic sensitization (hereafter defined as "normal" t-IgE levels) and to test their usefulness in predicting atopic sensitization. The German Multicentre Allergy Study (MAS), a birth cohort with 1314 recruited newborns, began in 1990 and examined the participants until age 20 years. Total and specific IgE (t-IgE, s-IgE) were analyzed with a fluorescent enzyme immunoassay ImmunoCAP (TFS, Sweden) at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, and 20 years. Participants were classified as "never atopic" if all their available serum samples had negative response (cutoff: grass) tested in the MAS birth cohort. By contrast, participants were defined as atopic if they had, for at least at one available serum sample, s-IgE≥0.35 kUA /L to at least one allergenic extract tested. The evolution of t-IgE levels in the "never atopic" children was described by growth curves, estimated by exploiting a quantile regression model. A "reference" percentile, based on the t-IgE value measured at age 5 years, was assigned to each child with no IgE sensitization at that age. Upward deviations from the own "reference" quantile of t-IgE in atopic and "never atopic" children were calculated and a ROC analysis was used to identify the best cutoff point for predicting atopic sensitization. Overall, 1113 of 1314 children were included in this analysis. Of these, 469 were "never atopic" and 644 atopic. Quantile trajectories of t-IgE levels in "never atopic" subjects were stable from 5 years of age, increased to a plateau at age 10-13 years, and decreased slightly afterward. The onset of atopic s-IgE responses was characterized by an upward deviation of serum t-IgE levels from their "reference" trajectory. T-IgE quantiles predicted the onset of atopy

  20. Accuracy of binary black hole waveform models for aligned-spin binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2016-05-01

    Coalescing binary black holes are among the primary science targets for second generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Reliable gravitational waveform models are central to detection of such systems and subsequent parameter estimation. This paper performs a comprehensive analysis of the accuracy of recent waveform models for binary black holes with aligned spins, utilizing a new set of 84 high-accuracy numerical relativity simulations. Our analysis covers comparable mass binaries (mass-ratio 1 ≤q ≤3 ), and samples independently both black hole spins up to a dimensionless spin magnitude of 0.9 for equal-mass binaries and 0.85 for unequal mass binaries. Furthermore, we focus on the high-mass regime (total mass ≳50 M⊙ ). The two most recent waveform models considered (PhenomD and SEOBNRv2) both perform very well for signal detection, losing less than 0.5% of the recoverable signal-to-noise ratio ρ , except that SEOBNRv2's efficiency drops slightly for both black hole spins aligned at large magnitude. For parameter estimation, modeling inaccuracies of the SEOBNRv2 model are found to be smaller than systematic uncertainties for moderately strong GW events up to roughly ρ ≲15 . PhenomD's modeling errors are found to be smaller than SEOBNRv2's, and are generally irrelevant for ρ ≲20 . Both models' accuracy deteriorates with increased mass ratio, and when at least one black hole spin is large and aligned. The SEOBNRv2 model shows a pronounced disagreement with the numerical relativity simulation in the merger phase, for unequal masses and simultaneously both black hole spins very large and aligned. Two older waveform models (PhenomC and SEOBNRv1) are found to be distinctly less accurate than the more recent PhenomD and SEOBNRv2 models. Finally, we quantify the bias expected from all four waveform models during parameter estimation for several recovered binary parameters: chirp mass, mass ratio, and effective spin.

  1. Effect of allopurinol and uric acid normalization on serum lipids hyperuricemic subjects: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Verônica Moreira Ferreira de; Melo, Angelita Cristine de; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2017-12-01

    Although uric acid is not part of any definition of metabolic syndrome, a number of studies have shown strong associations between the concentration of uric acid and metabolic syndrome or its components. The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate, using prospective interventional studies, the effects of allopurinol therapy and uric acid normalization on serum concentrations of triacylglycerol, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in hyperuricemic subjects. A systematic search of the PubMed and Scopus databases was performed following the guidelines described in the PRISMA statement. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, including six randomized controlled trials and one controlled before-and-after study. Despite differences in the follow-up periods (4, 12 and 24weeks) and allopurinol dose (100-300mg/day), all the studies showed decreases in the mean serum uric acid level (95% confidence interval: -2.61 to -1.55 (4weeks), -2.94 to -1.09 (12weeks) and -2.59 to -1.22 (24weeks); plipid levels, although larger and longer trials of higher quality are needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative sequence analysis reveals regulation of genes in developing schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni exposed to host portal serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander de Jesus Jeremias

    analysis, we found 103 genes differentially expressed by schistosomula cultured for 3 hours and 12 hours in the presence of hamster portal serum. After the subtraction of a second list of genes, also differentially expressed between schistosomula cultured for 3 hours and 12 hours in presence of peripheral serum, a set of 58 genes was finally established. This pattern was further validated for a subset of 17 genes, by measuring gene expression through quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Processes that were activated by the portal serum stimulus include response to stress, membrane transport, protein synthesis and folding/degradation, signaling, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell adhesion and nucleotide synthesis. Additionally, a smaller number of genes down-regulated under the same condition act on cholinergic signaling, inorganic cation and organic anion membrane transport, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton arrangement. Considering the role of these genes in triggering processes that allow the parasite to quickly adapt, escape the immune response of the host and start maturation into an adult worm after contact with the portal serum, this work may point to unexplored molecular targets for drug discovery and vaccine development against schistosomiasis.

  3. Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Patients with De Novo, Drug Naïve Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-Hui Li

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is reported to be neuroprotective in the setting of Parkinson's disease (PD, and there is increasing interest in the possible association of serum IGF-1 levels with PD patients, but with conflicting results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of serum IGF-1 levels in de novo, drug naïve PD patients compared with healthy controls.Pubmed, ISI Web of Science, OVID, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases from 1966 to October 2014 were utilized to identify candidate studies using Medical Subjective Headings without language restriction. A random-effects model was chosen, with subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis conducted to reveal underlying heterogeneity among the included studies.In this meta-analysis, we found that PD patients had higher serum IGF-1 levels compared with healthy controls (summary mean difference [MD] = 17.75, 95%CI = 6.01, 29.48. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the source of heterogeneity was population differences within the total group. Sensitivity analysis showed that the combined MD was consistent at any time omitting any one study.The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that serum IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in de novo, drug-naïve PD patients compared with healthy controls. Nevertheless, additional endeavors are required to further explore the association between serum IGF-1 levels and diagnosis, prognosis and early therapy for PD.

  4. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) Spectroscopy-Based Analysis of Lipid Components in Serum/Plasma of Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) is a useful tool for the analysis of lipid components in biofluids such as serum/plasma. Such tool is applied for the analysis of lipid components in serum/plasma of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The practical approach of sampling, storage, lipid extraction procedure, sample preparation before performing the 1H NMR spectroscopy experiments is presented. All the experimental parameters of NMR spectroscopy are also described. Details of the assignments of lipid components (qualitative analysis) and quantification of particular lipid components (quantitative analysis) are explained.

  5. Analysis of serum insulin growth factor-1 concentrations in localized osteosarcoma: a children's oncology group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinstein, Scott C; Barkauskas, Donald A; Bernstein, Mark; Goorin, Allen; Gorlick, Richard; Krailo, Mark; Schwartz, Cindy L; Wexler, Leonard H; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in localized osteosarcoma, serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were measured in 224 similarly treated, newly diagnosed patients. We demonstrated that younger patients had lower concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 compared to older (P < 0.001) along with lower IGFBP-3:IGF-1 and IGFBP-2:IGF-1 ratios (P < 0.001). IGFBP-2 did not correlate with age (P = 0.16), yet IGFBP-2:IGF-1 ratios were higher in the younger population (P < 0.001). These findings show that older patients have higher concentrations of free IGF-1. None of IGF-1, IGFBP-2, nor IGFBP-3 concentrations were associated with event-free nor overall survival. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Analysis of serum th1/th2 cytokine levels in patients with acute mumps infection

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    Jeevan Malaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mumps virus is frequently the causative agent of parotitis. There has been no study on serum cytokine levels of acute mumps parotitis except for a few which document cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid of mumps meningitis. It is with this notion, our study aimed to find Th1/Th2 cytokine levels from patients with acute mumps parotitis. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of mumps-specific IgM, mumps, measles, rubella-specific IgG antibody, and Th1/Th2 cytokines, namely interferon-g (IFN-g, interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured simultaneously in serum from 74 patients (42 pediatric and 32 adult cases, 40 healthy subjects (20 pediatric and 20 adults and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with mumps virus genotype C which served as the positive control. Statistical significance was analyzed between each group by means of Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test. Results: IgM positivity confirmed acute infection in all 74 patients and of these 67 were vaccinated cases; however, very few of them (10/67 were positive for mumps IgG. We found that IFN-g, IL-2, and IL-10 showed a statistically significant increase in both pediatric and adult patients with acute mumps infection when compared to healthy controls and values were comparable to the positive control. Conclusion: The Th1 cells play important roles during the acute phase of mumps parotitis.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of common serum liver enzymes as prospective predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV patients.

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    Hie-Won Hann

    Full Text Available Serum liver enzymes are frequently tested in clinics to aid disease diagnosis. Large observational studies indicated that these enzymes might predict cancer risk and mortality. However, no prospective study has reported on their relationships with the risk of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.We evaluated the predictive values of four routinely tested liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT] in HCC risk in a prospectively enrolled clinical cohort of 588 Korean American HBV patients. For all four enzymes, the baseline level as well as the average and maximum levels during the first 1 or 2 years of follow-up were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Patients were categorized into a normal or an elevated group based on the clinical cut-off of each enzyme. During a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 52 patients (incidence rate, 8.8% developed HCC. The incidence rates were higher in the elevated groups for all four enzymes. The most significant finding was for GGT, with the highest incidence rate of 16.4% in the elevated group compared to 4.6% in the normal group (P<0.001. Compared to patients with normal baseline GGT, those with elevated GGT exhibited a significantly increased HCC risk with a hazards ratio (HR of 2.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-4.77, P = 0.002. Further analyses revealed a cumulative effect between baseline GGT and ALP (HR = 3.41, 95% CI 1.54-7.56, P = 0.003.Serum GGT might predict HCC risk in HBV patients individually or jointly with other enzymes.

  8. Pharmacokinetic of pseudoephedrine in rat serum with luminol-pepsin chemiluminescence system by flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Li, Yajuan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenghua

    2015-02-01

    Pepsin (Pep) accelerated the electron transferring rate of excited 3-aminophathlate and enhanced luminol-dissolved oxygen chemiluminescence (CL) intensity, and the flow injection (FI) luminol-Pep CL system was first developed. It was found that the CL intensity of luminol-Pep reaction could be remarkably inhibited by pseudoephedrine (PE); the decrement of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of PE concentration in the range of 0.1∼100.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 nmol mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), the complete process including washing and sampling was performed within 40 s, offering a sample throughput of 90 h(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to determining PE in rat serum for 18 h after intragastric administration with the elimination ratio of 42.34 % and recoveries from 90.3 to 110.6 %. The pharmacokinetic results showed that PE could be rapidly absorbed into serum with peak concentration (C max) of 1.45 ± 0.18 g L(-1) at the time (T max) of 1.49 ± 0.02 h; the absorption half-life (0.35 ± 0.04 h), elimination half-life (1.86 ± 0.24 h), the area under curve (109.81 ± 6.03 mg L(-1) h(-1)), mean residence time (3.82 ± 0.27 h), and elimination rate constant (2.26 ± 0.23 L g(-1) h(-1)) in rats vivo were derived, respectively. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-Pep-PE reaction was discussed by FI-CL, fluorescence, and molecular docking (MD) methods.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Serum (Antioxidative Status Parаmeters in Healthy Persons

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    Tatjana Ruskovska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five antioxidant and two oxidative stress assays were applied to serum samples of 43 healthy males. The antioxidant tests showed different inter-assay correlations. A very good correlation of 0.807 was observed between the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and total antioxidant status (TAS assay and also a fair correlation of 0.501 between the biological antioxidant potential (BAP and TAS assay. There was no statistically significant correlation between the BAP and FRAP assay. The anti-oxidant assays have a high correlation with uric acid, especially the TAS (0.922 and FRAP assay (0.869. The BAP assay has a much lower and no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.302, which makes BAP more suitable for the antioxidant status. The total thiol assay showed no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.114. The total thiol assay, which is based on a completely different principle, showed a good and statistically significant correlation with the BAP assay (0.510 and also to the TAS assay, but to a lower and not significant extent (0.279 and not with the FRAP assay (−0.008. The oxy-adsorbent test (OXY assay has no correlation with any of the other assays tested. The oxidative stress assays, reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and total oxidant status (TOS, based on a different principle, do not show a statistically significant correlation with the serum samples in this study. Both assays showed a negative, but not significant, correlation with the antioxidant assays. In conclusion, the ROM, TOS, BAP and TTP assays are based on different principles and will have an additional value when a combination of these assays will be applied in large-scale population studies.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Human Growth Hormone in Serum Using SPRi, Nano-SPRi and ELISA Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Stephen; Zeidan, Effat; Henrich, Vincent C; Sandros, Marinella G

    2016-01-07

    Sensitive and selective methods for the detection of human growth hormone (hGH) over a wide range of concentrations (high levels of 50-100 ng ml(-) (1) and minimum levels of 0.03 ng ml(-) (1)) in circulating blood are essential as variable levels may indicate altered physiology. For example, growth disorders occurring in childhood can be diagnosed by measuring levels of hGH in blood. Also, the misuse of recombinant hGH in sports not only poses an ethical issue it also presents serious health threats to the abuser. One popular strategy for measuring hGH misuse, relies on the detection of the ratio of 22 kDa hGH to total hGH, as non-22 kDa endogenous levels drop after exogenous recombinant hGH (rhGH) administration. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an analytical tool that allows direct (label-free) monitoring and visualization of biomolecular interactions by recording changes of the refractive index adjacent to the sensor surface in real time. In contrast, the most frequently used colorimetric method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) uses enzyme labeled detection antibodies to indirectly measure analyte concentration after the addition of a substrate that induces a color change. To increase detection sensitivity, amplified SPRi uses a sandwich assay format and near infrared quantum dots (QDs) to increase signal strength. After direct SPRi detection of recombinant rhGH in spiked human serum, the SPRi signal is amplified by the sequential injection of detection antibody coated with near-infrared QDs (Nano-SPRi). In this study, the diagnostic potential of direct and amplified SPRi was assessed for measuring rhGH spiked in human serum and compared directly with the capabilities of a commercially available ELISA kit.

  11. Analysis of low Z elements in serum of patients with leukemias by SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Leukemia is a disease that occurs all over the world. Leukemia is a type of cancer. All cancers begin in cells, which make up blood and other tissues. Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. Leukemia is a kind of cancer that begins in blood cells. There are four common types of leukemia: Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL). In this work, low Z elements were determined in serum of patients with four groups of leukemia (CML, AML, CLL and ALL) and control group (CG) or healthy subjects using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence induced by Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF). We studied thirty patients - male gender and feminine gender - with ages ranging from 18 to 60 years, suffering from CML, AML, CLL, ALL and thirty healthy volunteers aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples were collected from people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. All of them were submitted to medical history. This study was performed with the approval of the ethics committee. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following six elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K and Ca. By using t-test it could be seen significant differences (alpha = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and four groups of leukemia. The t- test showed real differences among the elemental concentrations. Thus, our findings indicate that the elements can be directly related to the biochemical processes in leukemias. The significant differences found between the groups may be indicators of these diseases. This could help biomedical field with regard to early diagnosis and improved medical treatment. (author)

  12. Electrochemical sensing using comparison of voltage-current time differential values during waveform generation and detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Leta Yar-Li; Glass, Robert Scott; Fitzpatrick, Joseph Jay; Wang, Gangqiang; Henderson, Brett Tamatea; Lourdhusamy, Anthoniraj; Steppan, James John; Allmendinger, Klaus Karl

    2018-01-02

    A device for signal processing. The device includes a signal generator, a signal detector, and a processor. The signal generator generates an original waveform. The signal detector detects an affected waveform. The processor is coupled to the signal detector. The processor receives the affected waveform from the signal detector. The processor also compares at least one portion of the affected waveform with the original waveform. The processor also determines a difference between the affected waveform and the original waveform. The processor also determines a value corresponding to a unique portion of the determined difference between the original and affected waveforms. The processor also outputs the determined value.

  13. An architecture for pre-warping general parametric frequency-modulated radar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2017-05-01

    It is often advantageous to modify, or warp, radar waveforms, particularly with respect to group-delay and spectral dilation. These warping adjustments may facilitate real-time motion compensation of waveforms in radar systems, especially when those waveforms are generated by a digital parametric waveform generator. Relevant waveforms to this paper include Frequency Modulated (FM) waveforms, such as the Linear-FM (LFM) chirp, Non-Linear FM (NLFM) chirp, and other general FM waveforms. We present techniques for making fine adjustments to dynamically warp general FM waveforms.

  14. Selective analysis of human serum albumin based on SEC-ICP-MS after labelling with iophenoxic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dersch, Julie Maria; Nguyen, Tam T. T. N.; Østergaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in the human plasma. HSA has several physiological roles in the human body, including storage and transport. Owing to the predominance of albumin in plasma, HSA is often involved in the protein binding of drugs. The aim of this work...... linearity in the range 1 to 250 mg L−1. The precision was 3.7 % and the accuracy 100.7 % determined by analysis of a certified HSA reference material. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.23 and 9.79 mg L−1, respectively. The method was applied for analysis of HSA in human...... plasma and urine samples and for studying the binding of cisplatin to proteins in the human plasma....

  15. Untargeted LC-QTOF (ESI + MS Analysis of Small Serum Metabolites Related to Prostate Cancer and Prostate Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Maria Maxim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer has an increasing incidence and there is an urgent need for development of new serum biomarkers for early diagnostic as the ones known are ineffective. The aim of the study was to use untargeted metabolomics in order to identify and characterize small metabolite fingerprints in patients with normal vs pathologic values of PSA ( previously determined by electrochemiluminiscence. A cohort of one hundred patients with different Prostate Specific amtigen values were investigated by untargeted metabolomics. The serum small metabolite profile determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, LC-QTOF(ESI+MS in order to identify specific biomarkers, for normal patient group (PSA = 0-4 ng.ml and four pathologic groups, having PSA values from 4 to >1000 ng/ml. The major molecules identified in the samples were polar phospholipids, maily lysophosphatidyl choline derivatives, having m/z values from 496 to 524, like LPC(O-16:0/O-1:0, LPC(18:1/2:0 or PS(18:1(9Z/0:0, LPC(18:2(9Z,12Z/0:0 and their isomers and  LPC(O-18:1(11Z/2:0, respectively. Also, small molecules (free fatty acids and prostaglandin derivatives were identified and are significantly different in pathologic vs normal serum samples. Generally the pathologic samples had increased concentrations of all above mentioned molecules. The Principal Component analysis showed , by plot and loadings scores, significant clustering of normal vs pathological groups.

  16. Clinical usefulness of serum free light chains measurement in patients with multiple myeloma: comparative analysis of two different tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kubicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are two commercially available tests for measurement of serum free light chains (sFLC in multiple myeloma (MM patients – Freelite and N Latex FLC. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment and direct comparison of the usefulness of the methods in routine clinical practice.Methods: 40 refractory/relapsed MM patients underwent routine disease activity assessment studies, along with sFLC analysis using both assays. Correlation and concordance between the tests and sensitivity of studied methods of sFLC assessment were established. Special attention was focused on sFLC results in patients finally evaluated after completing the treatment. Results: A weak correlation for the measurement of both κ [Passing–Bablok slope (PB = 0.7681] and λ chains [(PB = 1.542] was found. Using Bland–Altman plots, a bias of 0.0467 (κ and -0.2133 (λ between the measurements was documented. The concordance coefficient equaled 0.87 for κ, 0.62 for λ and 0.52 for κ/λ ratio. Ten patients had an abnormal Freelite assay κ/λ ratio and normal N Latex FLC κ/λ ratio. Three of these patients had negative serum protein electrophoresis results and fulfilled diagnostic criteria of stringent complete remission (sCR according to N Latex FLC (but not according to Freelite. When the κ/λ ratio obtained by both methods was compared to patients’ serum/urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation results, sensitivity of Freelite and N Latex FLC was established to be 62.5% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions: There was no strong correlation or concordance between the two assays, and the sensitivity in terms of sFLC detection was different. This may cause problems when diagnosis of sCR is considered.

  17. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-09-01

    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. Source-independent elastic waveform inversion using a logarithmic wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    The logarithmic waveform inversion has been widely developed and applied to some synthetic and real data. In most logarithmic waveform inversion algorithms, the subsurface velocities are updated along with the source estimation. To avoid estimating the source wavelet in the logarithmic waveform inversion, we developed a source-independent logarithmic waveform inversion algorithm. In this inversion algorithm, we first normalize the wavefields with the reference wavefield to remove the source wavelet, and then take the logarithm of the normalized wavefields. Based on the properties of the logarithm, we define three types of misfit functions using the following methods: combination of amplitude and phase, amplitude-only, and phase-only. In the inversion, the gradient is computed using the back-propagation formula without directly calculating the Jacobian matrix. We apply our algorithm to noise-free and noise-added synthetic data generated for the modified version of elastic Marmousi2 model, and compare the results with those of the source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion. For the noise-free data, the source-independent algorithms yield velocity models close to true velocity models. For random-noise data, the source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion yields better results than the source-independent method, whereas for coherent-noise data, the results are reversed. Numerical results show that the source-independent and source-estimation logarithmic waveform inversion methods have their own merits for random- and coherent-noise data. © 2011.

  19. SURFACE FITTING FILTERING OF LIDAR POINT CLOUD WITH WAVEFORM INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Xing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-waveform LiDAR is an active technology of photogrammetry and remote sensing. It provides more detailed information about objects along the path of a laser pulse than discrete-return topographic LiDAR. The point cloud and waveform information with high quality can be obtained by waveform decomposition, which could make contributions to accurate filtering. The surface fitting filtering method with waveform information is proposed to present such advantage. Firstly, discrete point cloud and waveform parameters are resolved by global convergent Levenberg Marquardt decomposition. Secondly, the ground seed points are selected, of which the abnormal ones are detected by waveform parameters and robust estimation. Thirdly, the terrain surface is fitted and the height difference threshold is determined in consideration of window size and mean square error. Finally, the points are classified gradually with the rising of window size. The filtering process is finished until window size is larger than threshold. The waveform data in urban, farmland and mountain areas from “WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research” are selected for experiments. Results prove that compared with traditional method, the accuracy of point cloud filtering is further improved and the proposed method has highly practical value.

  20. Truncated exponential versus damped sinusoidal waveform shocks for transthoracic defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, J C; Hartley, L L; York, D K; Brown, D D; Kerber, R E

    1996-12-01

    Currently available transthoracic defibrillators use either a damped sinusoidal or truncated exponential (TE) waveform. Truncated exponential waveforms deliver a long pulse if the transthoracic impedance is high; it has been suggested that such a long pulse may be less effective for defibrillation. Our objective was to compare the ability of damped sinusoidal (DS) waveform shocks versus TE waveform shocks to terminate ventricular fibrillation (VF) and achieve survival from witnessed cardiac arrest. We retrospectively reviewed field-recorded electrocardiograms from 86 patients with witnessed VF, treated by prehospital personnel equipped with DS or TE waveform defibrillators. Forty-four patients received 130 shocks from TE defibrillators; 42 patients received 108 shocks from DS defibrillators. There were no significant differences in time from arrest to first shock (8.0 vs 8.1 minutes), nor were there any differences in the size of the communities involved. The shocks resulted in the following rhythms: organized rhythm: TE: 15 of 130 (12%), DS: 24 of 108 (22%), p = 0.10 (NS); persistent VF: TE: 85 of 130 (65%), DS: 45 of 108 (42%), p <0.01; asystole: TE: 30 of 130 (23%), DS: 39 of 108 (36%), p = NS; and survival to hospital discharge: TE: 5 of 44 (11%), DS: 8 of 42 (19%), p = NS. We conclude that DS waveforms terminated VF more frequently than TE, but there was no significant difference in resumption of an organized rhythm or survival. A prospective comparison of these 2 waveforms is needed.

  1. Surface Fitting Filtering of LIDAR Point Cloud with Waveform Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, S.; Li, P.; Xu, Q.; Wang, D.; Li, P.

    2017-09-01

    Full-waveform LiDAR is an active technology of photogrammetry and remote sensing. It provides more detailed information about objects along the path of a laser pulse than discrete-return topographic LiDAR. The point cloud and waveform information with high quality can be obtained by waveform decomposition, which could make contributions to accurate filtering. The surface fitting filtering method with waveform information is proposed to present such advantage. Firstly, discrete point cloud and waveform parameters are resolved by global convergent Levenberg Marquardt decomposition. Secondly, the ground seed points are selected, of which the abnormal ones are detected by waveform parameters and robust estimation. Thirdly, the terrain surface is fitted and the height difference threshold is determined in consideration of window size and mean square error. Finally, the points are classified gradually with the rising of window size. The filtering process is finished until window size is larger than threshold. The waveform data in urban, farmland and mountain areas from "WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research)" are selected for experiments. Results prove that compared with traditional method, the accuracy of point cloud filtering is further improved and the proposed method has highly practical value.

  2. Waveform LiDAR across forest biomass gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, P. M.; Nelson, R. F.; Dubayah, R.; Sun, G.; Ranson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed information on the quantity and distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) is needed to understand how it varies across space and changes over time. Waveform LiDAR data is routinely used to derive the heights of scattering elements in each illuminated footprint, and the vertical structure of vegetation is related to AGB. Changes in LiDAR waveforms across vegetation structure gradients can demonstrate instrument sensitivity to land cover transitions. A close examination of LiDAR waveforms in footprints across a forest gradient can provide new insight into the relationship of vegetation structure and forest AGB. In this study we use field measurements of individual trees within Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) footprints along transects crossing forest to non-forest gradients to examine changes in LVIS waveform characteristics at sites with low (LVIS waveforms to detect the forest AGB interval along a forest - non-forest transition in which the LVIS waveform lose the ability to discern differences in AGB. Our results help identify the lower end the forest biomass range that a ~20m footprint waveform LiDAR can detect, which can help infer accumulation of biomass after disturbances and during forest expansion, and which can guide the use of LiDAR within a multi-sensor fusion biomass mapping approach.

  3. Influence of L-carnitine supplementation on serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haohai; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Hanbin; Zhang, Jiping; Zhao, Wenchang

    2013-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that L-carnitine plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism of hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, there are still some reservations about its benefits. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on lipid profile in HD patients. Literature search was performed to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of L-carnitine on the lipid profile of subjects. Two independent authors used an Excel file to extract data and assess trials quality. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final lipid measurements between the intervention and control groups. The meta-analysis was performed with the fixed-effects model or random-effects model according to heterogeneity. Twelve studies with a total of 391 patients met the inclusion criteria. The use of L-carnitine was not associated with a reduction in the total cholesterol (SMD, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.31 to 0.09), HDL-cholesterol (SMD, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.39), VLDL-cholesterol (SMD, 0.54; 95% CI, -0.06 to 1.14), and the serum triglycerides (SMD, -0.12; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.12). However, L-carnitine can significantly decrease the LDL-cholesterol (SMD, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.06) in HD patients. In a subgroup meta-analysis, a significant LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of L-carnitine supplementation was observed in intravenous application group, and patients with longer interventional duration and renal diseases. The limited evidence suggests that there was no effect of L-carnitine on serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. By contrast, this meta-analysis suggests a promising effect of L-carnitine on LDL-cholesterol. Further large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials are urgently needed

  4. Influence of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohai Huang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that L-carnitine plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism of hemodialysis (HD patients. However, there are still some reservations about its benefits. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on lipid profile in HD patients. Methods: Literature search was performed to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of L-carnitine on the lipid profile of subjects. Two independent authors used an Excel file to extract data and assess trials quality. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final lipid measurements between the intervention and control groups. The meta-analysis was performed with the fixed-effects model or random-effects model according to heterogeneity. Results: Twelve studies with a total of 391 patients met the inclusion criteria. The use of L-carnitine was not associated with a reduction in the total cholesterol (SMD, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.31 to 0.09, HDL-cholesterol (SMD, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.39, VLDL-cholesterol (SMD, 0.54; 95% CI, -0.06 to 1.14, and the serum triglycerides (SMD, -0.12; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.12. However, L-carnitine can significantly decrease the LDL-cholesterol (SMD, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.06 in HD patients. In a subgroup meta-analysis, a significant LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of L-carnitine supplementation was observed in intravenous application group, and patients with longer interventional duration and renal diseases. Conclusion: The limited evidence suggests that there was no effect of L-carnitine on serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. By contrast, this meta-analysis suggests a promising effect of L-carnitine on LDL-cholesterol. Further large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials are urgently needed

  5. Assessment of the potential diagnostic value of serum p53 antibody for cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutant p53 protein over-expression has been reported to induce serum antibodies against p53. We assessed the diagnostic precision of serum p53 (s-p53 antibodies for diagnosis of cancer patients and compared the positive rates of the s-p53 antibody in different types of cancers. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and Embase, through May 31, 2012. Studies were assessed for quality using QUADAS (quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy. The positive likelihood ratio (PLR and negative likelihood ratio (NLR were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures using diagnostic odds ratios (DORs and Area under the curve(AUC. Meta regression and subgroup analyses were done, and heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. RESULTS: Of 1089 studies initially identified, 100 eligible studies with 23 different types of tumor met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis (cases = 15953, controls = 8694. However, we could conduct independent meta analysis on only 13 of 36 types of tumors. Approximately 56% (56/100 of the included studies were of high quality (QUADAS score≥8. The summary estimates for quantitative analysis of serum p53 antibody in the diagnosis of cancers were: PLR 5.75 (95% CI: 4.60-7.19, NLR 0.81 (95%CI: 0.79-0.83 and DOR 7.56 (95% CI: 6.02-9.50. However, for the 13 types of cancers on which meta-analysis was conducted, the ranges for PLR (2.33-11.05, NLR (0.74-0.97, DOR (2.86-13.80, AUC(0.29-0.81, and positive rate (4.47%-28.36% indicated significant heterogeneity. We found that breast, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, hepatic, lymphoma, lung and ovarian cancer had relatively reasonable diagnostic accuracy. The remaining results of the five types of cancers suggested that s-p53 antibody had limited value. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests that s-p53 antibody has potential diagnostic value for cancer, especially for breast, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, hepatic

  6. ORA waveform-derived biomechanical parameters to distinguish normal from keratoconic eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA; Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, NY to distinguish between normal and keratoconic eyes, by comparing pressure and waveform signal-derived parameters. METHODS: This retrospective comparative case series study included 112 patients with normal corneas and 41 patients with bilateral keratoconic eyes. One eye from each subject was randomly selected for analysis. Keratoconus diagnosis was based on clinical examinations, including Placido disk-based corneal topography and rotating Scheimpflug corneal tomography. Data from the ORA best waveform score (WS measurements were extracted using ORA software. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldman-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg, cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc, and 37 parameters derived from the waveform signal were analyzed. Differences in the distributions among the groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were calculated. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between keratoconic and normal eyes were found in all parameters (p<0.05 except IOPcc and W1. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC was greater than 0.85 for 11 parameters, including CH (0.852 and CRF (0.895. The parameters related to the area under the waveform peak during the second and first applanations (p2area and p1area had the best performances, with AUROCs of 0.939 and 0.929, respectively. The AUROCs for CRF, p2area, and p1area were significantly greater than that for CH. CONCLUSION: There are significant differences in biomechanical metrics between normal and keratoconic eyes. Compared with the pressure-derived parameters, corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor, novel waveform-derived ORA parameters provide better identification of keratoconus.

  7. Averaging methods for extracting representative waveforms from motor unit action potential trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanda, Armando; Navallas, Javier; Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Rodriguez-Carreño, Ignacio; Gila, Luis

    2015-08-01

    In the context of quantitative electromyography (EMG), it is of major interest to obtain a waveform that faithfully represents the set of potentials that constitute a motor unit action potential (MUAP) train. From this waveform, various parameters can be determined in order to characterize the MUAP for diagnostic analysis. The aim of this work was to conduct a thorough, in-depth review, evaluation and comparison of state-of-the-art methods for composing waveforms representative of MUAP trains. We evaluated nine averaging methods: Ensemble (EA), Median (MA), Weighted (WA), Five-closest (FCA), MultiMUP (MMA), Split-sweep median (SSMA), Sorted (SA), Trimmed (TA) and Robust (RA) in terms of three general-purpose signal processing figures of merit (SPMF) and seven clinically-used MUAP waveform parameters (MWP). The convergence rate of the methods was assessed as the number of potentials per MUAP train (NPM) required to reach a level of performance that was not significantly improved by increasing this number. Test material comprised 78 MUAP trains obtained from the tibialis anterioris of seven healthy subjects. Error measurements related to all SPMF and MWP parameters except MUAP amplitude descended asymptotically with increasing NPM for all methods. MUAP amplitude showed a consistent bias (around 4% for EA and SA and 1-2% for the rest). MA, TA and SSMA had the lowest SPMF and MWP error figures. Therefore, these methods most accurately preserve and represent MUAP physiological information of utility in clinical medical practice. The other methods, particularly WA, performed noticeably worse. Convergence rate was similar for all methods, with NPM values averaged among the nine methods, which ranged from 10 to 40, depending on the waveform parameter evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  9. Investigation of the interaction of naringin palmitate with bovine serum albumin: spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine serum albumin (BSA contains high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds and has been used to replace human serum albumin (HSA, as these two compounds share a similar structure. Naringin palmitate is a modified product of naringin that is produced by an acylation reaction with palmitic acid, which is considered to be an effective substance for enhancing naringin lipophilicity. In this study, the interaction of naringin palmitate with BSA was characterised by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between naringin palmitate and BSA under physiological conditions, and differences in naringin and naringin palmitate affinities for BSA were further compared and analysed. The formation of naringin palmitate-BSA was revealed by fluorescence quenching, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV was found to decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting that a static quenching mechanism was involved. The changes in enthalpy (ΔH and entropy (ΔS for the interaction were detected at -4.11 ± 0.18 kJ·mol(-1 and -76.59 ± 0.32 J·mol(-1·K(-1, respectively, which indicated that the naringin palmitate-BSA interaction occurred mainly through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond formation. The negative free energy change (ΔG values of naringin palmitate at different temperatures suggested a spontaneous interaction. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the α-helical content of BSA decreased after interacting with naringin palmitate. Displacement studies suggested that naringin palmitate was partially bound to site I (subdomain IIA of the BSA, which was also substantiated by the molecular docking studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, naringin palmitate was transported by BSA and was easily removed afterwards. As a consequence, an extension of naringin applications for use in food, cosmetic

  10. Correlation analysis of preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-jun; Wang, Hai-yong; Teng, Li-song

    2013-08-27

    To investigate the prediction value of preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level for the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), by comparing pathological characteristics, recurrence rate and survival rate after hepatectomy. 108 cases of HCC patients who received liver resection in our hospital from 2005 to 2011 were enrolled in this study. According to preoperative serum AFP level, the patients were divided into AFP ≤ 20 ng/mL group, AFP 20 to 400 ng/mL group and AFP > 400 ng/mL group, and the clinicopathological and cytopathological features were compared. All the patients were followed up for 24 months, the postoperative recurrence rates and survival rates were compared and analyzed, and the risk factors for HCC postoperative survival rate were studied by multifactor regression analysis. Of the 108 cases of HCC patients, there were 42 cases in AFP ≤20 ng/mL group, 28 cases in AFP 20-400 ng/mL group and 39 cases in AFP > 400 ng/mL group. It was shown that cell differentiation degrees (χ² = 20.198, P = 0.000) and microvascular invasion rates (χ² = 20.358, P = 0.000) were significantly different among the three groups. The AFP ≤ 20 ng/mL group showed higher cell differentiation degrees and significantly lower microvascular invasion rates compared to the other groups (P AFP ≤ 20 ng/mL group had lower postoperative 2-year recurrence rate, and higher 18-month survival rate and 24-month survival rate than the other two groups (P AFP level (> 400 ng/mL) were closely correlated with HCC postoperative survival rate (P AFP level has considerable predictive value for the malignant feature and prognosis of HCC. It is suggested that HCC patients with no contraindication of operation and serum AFP ≤ 20 ng/mL can benefit most from primary treatment of hepatectomy. While HCC patients with serum AFP higher than 20 ng/mL need comprehensive therapy besides surgical resection and close follow up.

  11. Ultra High Voltage Surge Waveforms Measurement Using an Optical Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco G. PEÑA-LECONA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra high voltage surge waveforms measurement by means of a portable optical transducer is presented. The sensor system uses a transducer element based on the longitudinal electro-optic effect with a double pass configuration to obtain a better sensitivity. The transducer head is allocated to one meter of distance from the generating element of electric field and it is able to measure waveform surges from 515 kV up to 1090 kV with fast response. It is demonstrated that the telemetry of ultra high voltage surge waveforms can be successfully done by means of this proposed optical transducer.

  12. Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Field

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform’s value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mc_{fit} online operations, where c_{fit} denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 10^{5}M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in

  13. Molecularly imprinted solid phase microextraction fiber for trace analysis of catecholamines in urine and serum samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinfeng; Xu, Shuxia; Lim, Jae-Min; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2012-09-15

    A selective and flexible monolithic moleculary imprinted polymer (MIP) fiber was developed in batch for solid phase microextraction (SPME) of catecholamines (CAs), i.e., dopamine (DA), epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE), and coupled with capillary electrophoresis (CE) for trace analysis of urine and serum samples. The polymer fiber was synthesized in-situ simply using a flexible capillary as a mold and the polymerization protocols and SPME experimental conditions were examined in detail. The reproducibility of fiber to fiber fabrication (n=5) was in range of 5.9-9.8% for three CAs. The fiber also shows high stability without any deterioration of extraction performance after 30 times use. Under the established optimum conditions, the limits of detection for DA, E, and NE were 7.4, 4.8, and 7.1 nmol L(-1), respectively, with the enhancement factor over 100 after MIP-SPME. The specific selectivity to three CAs was discovered with the developed MIP fibers compared with non-imprinted polymer (NIP) fiber. Finally, the MIP fibers were successfully applied for selective extraction of CAs in urine and serum samples with the relative recoveries ranging from 85% to 103%. The fabricated MIP-fibers were promising in preparation of biological samples in batch followed by CE-UV detection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome: an analysis by structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenli; Song, Kun; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Qing; Li, Wen; Jiao, Huanli; Wang, Guolin; Huang, Guowei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the nature of the relationships between uric acid and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. Body mass index, waist circumference, serum uric acid, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, and blood pressure were measured in 13,811 subjects aged between 18 and 85 years of age. Two structural equation models (SEMs) were used to test a hypothesis regarding the linking roles of uric acid in the occurrence of MetS components in male and female separately. The findings of the SEM demonstrated that increased uric acid level was associated with fasting glucose (beta = 0.221, P uric acid level was associated with decreased fasting glucose (beta = -0.071, P uric acid and lipid profiles than those between uric acid and other MetS components. By using SEM, we were able to confirm the intimate relationships between uric acid and MetS components, particularly in women. The associations between uric acid and MetS components were gender specific, and the nature of such association requires further exploration. Copyright © 2012 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Potentiometric flow injection analysis of mebeverine hydrochloride in serum and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hosny; Issa, Yousry M; Abu-Shawish, Hazem M

    2005-01-04

    Four PVC membrane electrodes for the determination of mebeverine hydrochloride (MvCl) were fabricated and fully characterized in terms of composition, life span, usable pH range, working concentration range and temperature. The membranes of these electrodes consist of mebeverinium-silicotungstate (Mv-ST), silicomolybdate (Mv-SM), phosphotungstate (Mv-PT), or phosphomolybdate (Mv-PM) ion-associations dispersed in PVC matrix with dibutyl phthalate plasticizer. The electrodes showed near-Nernstian response over the concentration range of 4.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-2)M MvCl and were applied to the potentiometric determination of mebeverinium ion in pharmaceutical preparations, serum and urine in steady state and flow injection (FI) conditions with average recoveries of 96.4-102 % and relative standard deviations of 0.132-1.86%. The electrodes exhibit good selectivity for MvCl with respect to a large number of inorganic cations, organic cations, sugars and amino acids. The sensitivities of these electrodes are high enough to measure as low as 1.86 microg/ml of MvCl which permit the determination of the Ksp values of the ion-associates used. The proposed potentiometric methods offer the advantages of simplicity, accuracy, automation feasibility and applicability to turbid and colored sample solutions.

  16. Biomarker identification and pathway analysis of preeclampsia based on serum metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; He, Ping; Tan, Yong; Xu, Dongying

    2017-03-25

    Preeclampsia presents serious risk of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers for the detection of preeclampsia are critical for risk assessment and targeted intervention. The goal of this study is to screen potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of preeclampsia and to illuminate the pathogenesis of preeclampsia development based on the differential expression network. Two groups of subjects, including healthy pregnant women, subjects with preeclampsia, were recruited for this study. The metabolic profiles of all of the subjects' serum were obtained by liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Correlation between metabolites was analyzed by bioinformatics technique. Results showed that the PC(14:0/00), proline betaine and proline were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for preeclampsia diagnosis and prognosis. Perturbation of corresponding biological pathways, such as iNOS signaling, nitric oxide signaling in the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial dysfunction were responsible for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study indicated that the metabolic profiling had a good clinical significance in the diagnosis of preeclampsia as well as in the study of its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the hydration water around bovine serum albumin using terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Jordan W; Meliga, Stefano; Ferachou, Denis; Cinque, Gianfelice; Zeitler, J Axel; Falconer, Robert J

    2014-01-09

    Terahertz spectroscopy was used to study the absorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water. The Diamond Light Source operating in a low alpha mode generated coherent synchrotron radiation that covered a useable spectral bandwidth of 0.3-3.3 THz (10-110 cm(-1)). As the BSA concentration was raised, there was a nonlinear change in absorption inconsistent with Beer's law. At low BSA concentrations (0-1 mM), the absorption remained constant or rose slightly. Above a concentration of 1 mM BSA, a steady decrease in absorption was observed, which was followed by a plateau that started at 2.5 mM. Using a overlapping hydration layer model, the hydration layer was estimated to extend 15 Å from the protein. Calculation of the corrected absorption coefficient (αcorr) for the water around BSA by subtracting the excluded volume of the protein provides an alternative approach to studying the hydration layer that provides evidence for complexity in the population of water around BSA.

  18. Subjective loudness of "minimized" sonic boom waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S

    1978-12-01

    For very long supersonic aircraft the "midfield" sonic boom signature may not have evolved fully into an N wave at ground level. Thus in current boom minimization techniques the shape of the aircraft may be tailored to optimize this midfield wave form for reduced subjective loudness. The present investigation tests a family of "flat-top" waveforms cited by Darden: all but one have a front shock height (deltapSH) less than the peak amplitude (deltapMAX). For equal subjective loudness, "flat top" vs N wave (peak overpressure deltapN), the peak amplitude of the "flat top" signature was found to be substantially higher than that of the N wave; thus for equal peak amplitude the "flat-top" signature was quieter. The results for equal loudness were well fitted by an emperical law deltapSH + 0.11deltapMAX = deltapN; the equivalence shows how the front shock amplitude (deltapSH) dominates the loudness. All this was found compatible with predictions by the method of Johnson and Robinson.

  19. STEREO Observations of Turbulent Solar Wind Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Paul J.; Goetz, Keith; Monson, Steven J.

    2017-04-01

    Studies of solar wind turbulence have heretofore concentrated on Kolmogorov-type studies of the full MHD equations, without regard to the separate modes of the possible solutions. Further understanding of the nonlinear processes of the cascade, and especially transference of wave energy to particles, would seem to depend on more detailed understanding of the waves, their modes and their separate electric and magnetic fields. . A part of the SWAVES experiment on the STEREO spacecraft was designed to study the waves in the dissipation region of the turbulence spectrum. However, compatibility with SECCHI, the optical sensors, required that only monopole antennas could be accommodated, and these respond both to electric fields and to density fluctuations. This seemed to require that one measure four quantities with only three signals. After several years, the response of the antennas to density fluctuations was reduced, due to changes in photoemission coefficients, and measurement of separate electric fields became possible. It is found that sometimes there are short periods when a sinusoidal waveform appears which seems sufficiently pure to represent a single mode. Results of study of the fields of such waves will be presented.

  20. Full Waveform Inversion Using Nonlinearly Smoothed Wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.

    2017-05-26

    The lack of low frequency information in the acquired data makes full waveform inversion (FWI) conditionally converge to the accurate solution. An initial velocity model that results in data with events within a half cycle of their location in the observed data was required to converge. The multiplication of wavefields with slightly different frequencies generates artificial low frequency components. This can be effectively utilized by multiplying the wavefield with itself, which is nonlinear operation, followed by a smoothing operator to extract the artificially produced low frequency information. We construct the objective function using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefields with a global-correlation norm to properly handle the energy imbalance in the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Similar to the multi-scale strategy, we progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the multiplied wavefield to welcome higher resolution. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. Examples on the Marmousi 2 model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FWI method to mitigate the cycle-skipping problem in the case of a lack of low frequency information.

  1. The change of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yong-Chao; Chen, Yin-Ling; Pan, Yan-Hong; Tian, Fang; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was used meta-analysis to investigate changes of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Relevant literatures were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, CNKI, WanFang and Chinese-Cqvip databases (published from January 1, 1999 to September 30, 2016). Eligible reports were included for pooled analysis of serum TNF-α level and subgroup analysis was performed in relation with age, disease duration and ethnicity. A total of 23 articles (1631 T1DM cases, 1429 healthy controls) were included for this meta-analysis. Compared with the controls, the patients had significantly increased serum TNF-α level (P analysis of different age, disease duration and ethnicity (with the exception of Asian) (all P analysis indicated that age (P = 0.680), disease duration (P = 0.957), and ethnicity (P = 0.526) of patients were not significant impact factors for the high heterogeneity. The results were stable according to the sensitivity analysis and no publication bias existed in this meta-analysis. Serum TNF-α level in T1DM patients has significantly elevated among all age, disease duration and ethnicity groups.

  2. The change of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chao Qiao

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was used meta-analysis to investigate changes of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Relevant literatures were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, CNKI, WanFang and Chinese-Cqvip databases (published from January 1, 1999 to September 30, 2016. Eligible reports were included for pooled analysis of serum TNF-α level and subgroup analysis was performed in relation with age, disease duration and ethnicity.A total of 23 articles (1631 T1DM cases, 1429 healthy controls were included for this meta-analysis. Compared with the controls, the patients had significantly increased serum TNF-α level (P < 0.001. Similar results were also found among all subgroup analysis of different age, disease duration and ethnicity (with the exception of Asian (all P < 0.05. Regression analysis indicated that age (P = 0.680, disease duration (P = 0.957, and ethnicity (P = 0.526 of patients were not significant impact factors for the high heterogeneity. The results were stable according to the sensitivity analysis and no publication bias existed in this meta-analysis.Serum TNF-α level in T1DM patients has significantly elevated among all age, disease duration and ethnicity groups.

  3. The natural combination of full and image-based waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-06-01

    Integrating migration velocity analysis and full waveform inversion can help reduce the high non-linearity of the classic full waveform inversion objective function. The combination of inverting for the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model using a dual objective function that is sensitive to both components is still very expensive and have produced mixed results. We develop an approach that includes both components integrated to complement each other. We specifically utilize the image to generate reflections in our synthetic data only when the velocity model is not capable of producing such reflections. As a result, we get the migration velocity analysis working when we need it, and we mitigate its influence when the velocity model produces accurate reflections (possibly first for the low frequencies). This is achieved using a novel objective function that includes both objectives. Applications to a layered model and the Marmousi model demonstrate the main features of the approach. © 2015 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  4. Analysis of polar lipids in the serum from rats fed shiitake by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanggong; Peng, Min; Ronis, Martin; Badger, Thomas; Fang, Nianbai

    2010-12-22

    Consumption of a shiitake mushroom diet has been reported to have effects on serum phospholipids. However, much less is known about the effect on serum polar lipids including lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. In the present study, the effects of a shiitake diet were evaluated on the basis of identification and quantification of individual polar lipid components in rat serum using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. By comparison with standards and published data, 50 lysophospholipids and 32 free fatty acids were identified, and the concentrations of 27 polar lipids in rat serum were determined. Shiitake diets decreased the levels of all individual polar lipid components in the serum of male rat. The total level of serum polar lipids in males fed 4% shiitake diets (1365.71 mol/L) was significantly lower than that of the control (2270.26 mol/L). However, shiitake diets did not significantly affect the levels of serum polar lipids in female rats.

  5. Spectroscopic analysis on the binding interaction of biologically active pyrimidine derivative with bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas D. Suryawanshi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A biologically active antibacterial reagent, 2–amino-6-hydroxy–4–(4-N, N-dimethylaminophenyl-pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (AHDMAPPC, was synthesized. It was employed to investigate the binding interaction with the bovine serum albumin (BSA in detail using different spectroscopic methods. It exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus which are common food poisoning bacteria. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence quenching of model carrier protein BSA by AHDMAPPC was due to static quenching. The site binding constants and number of binding sites (n≈1 were determined at three different temperatures based on fluorescence quenching results. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH, free energy (ΔG and entropy change (ΔS for the reaction were calculated to be 15.15 kJ/mol, –36.11 kJ/mol and 51.26 J/mol K according to van't Hoff equation, respectively. The results indicated that the reaction was an endothermic and spontaneous process, and hydrophobic interactions played a major role in the binding between drug and BSA. The distance between donor and acceptor is 2.79 nm according to Förster's theory. The alterations of the BSA secondary structure in the presence of AHDMAPPC were confirmed by UV–visible, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. All these results indicated that AHDMAPPC can bind to BSA and be effectively transported and eliminated in the body. It can be a useful guideline for further drug design.

  6. Analysis of clinical features of five multiple sclerosis patients with positive serum aquaporin 4 antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang HE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical features of multiple sclerosis (MS patients with positive serum aquaporin 4 (AQP4 antibody.  Methods A total of 18 MS patients who had been diagnosed in accord with McDonald Criteria (2010 were enrolled and were divided into AQP4 positive group (N = 5 and AQP4 negative group (N = 13. In combination with accessory examination, clinical features and laboratory data of MS patients were correlatively studied between 2 groups in association with follow-up study in Outpatient Clinic.  Results Five seropositive patients, including 2 men and 3 women, were collected. The median age of onset was 43 years and the median clinical course was 4 months. Compared with patients with negative AQP4 antibody, MS patients with positive AQP4 antibody demonstrated increased spinal cord lesions and optic nerve involvement. MRI revealed multiple abnormal long T1 and long T2 signals in brain and cervicothoracic spinal cord (3/5, and multiple  abnormal long T1 and long T2 signals in cervicothoracic spinal cord (2/5 in seropositive group. Relatively more patients in seropositive group had increased cerebral spinal fluid (CSF IgG index (4/4 and 24 h intrathecal IgG synthesis rate (3/4, and positive oligoclonal bands (OBs, 3/4. Two patients presented with positive anti-nuclear antibody (ANA and one Sjögren's syndrome (SS in seropositive group.  Conclusions There were some differences in clinical features between AQP4 antibody positive MS and classical MS, suggesting distinctive pathogenesis may exist between these two entities, which need to be emphasized and treated accordingly from the diagnostic and therapeutic points of view. HE Yang and YANG Ting-ting contributed equally to this studyDOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.012

  7. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Findings from the Swedish AMORIS Study and a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Sagoo, Harkiran K; Hamza, Mustafa; Melvin, Jennifer; Holmberg, Lars; Garmo, Hans; Malmström, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2016-09-06

    To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and albumin. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between total and albumin-corrected calcium and breast cancer risk. For the systematic review, an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify other prospective cohorts assessing the relationship between serum calcium and breast cancer risk. We pooled the results of our AMORIS cohort with other eligible studies in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. I² test was used to assess heterogeneity. In the AMORIS study, 10,863 women were diagnosed with breast cancer (mean follow-up: 19 years). We found an inverse association between total serum calcium and breast cancer when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88-0.99, p value for trend 0.04) and similar results using albumin-corrected calcium. In the systematic review, we identified another two prospective cohorts evaluating pre-diagnostic serum total calcium and breast cancer. Combining these studies and our findings in AMORIS in a meta-analysis showed a protective effect of serum calcium against breast cancer, with a summary RR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66-0.97). No substantial heterogeneity was observed. Our findings in AMORIS and the meta-analysis support an inverse association between serum calcium and breast cancer risk, which warrants mechanistic investigations.

  8. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Findings from the Swedish AMORIS Study and a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Wulaningsih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and albumin. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between total and albumin-corrected calcium and breast cancer risk. For the systematic review, an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify other prospective cohorts assessing the relationship between serum calcium and breast cancer risk. We pooled the results of our AMORIS cohort with other eligible studies in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity. In the AMORIS study, 10,863 women were diagnosed with breast cancer (mean follow-up: 19 years. We found an inverse association between total serum calcium and breast cancer when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, p value for trend 0.04 and similar results using albumin-corrected calcium. In the systematic review, we identified another two prospective cohorts evaluating pre-diagnostic serum total calcium and breast cancer. Combining these studies and our findings in AMORIS in a meta-analysis showed a protective effect of serum calcium against breast cancer, with a summary RR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66–0.97. No substantial heterogeneity was observed. Our findings in AMORIS and the meta-analysis support an inverse association between serum calcium and breast cancer risk, which warrants mechanistic investigations.

  9. Theoretical performance of reiterated LMMSE filtering and coded radar waveforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggiano, M.; Stolp, E.; Van Genderen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveforms offer strong advantages for integrated communication and radar systems. However, they exhibit inherent high-range sidelobes after matched filtering when standard communication constellation symbols are used for the coding of the carriers.

  10. ENHANCED COMPONENT DETECTION ALGORITHM OF FULL-WAVEFORM LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When full-waveform LiDAR (FW-LiDAR data are applied to extract the component feature information of interest targets, there exist a problem of components lost during the waveform decomposition procedure, which severely constrains the performance of subsequent targets information extraction. Focusing on the problem above, an enhance component detection algorithm, which combines Finite Mixed Method (FMM, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithm and Penalized Minimum Matching Distance (PMMD,is proposed in this paper. All of the algorithms for parameters initialization, waveform decomposition and missing component detection have been improved, which greatly increase the precision of component detection, and guarantee the precision of waveform decomposition that could help the weak information extraction of interest targets. The effectiveness of this method is verified by the experimental results of simulation and measured data.

  11. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-01-13

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  12. Serum dickkopf-1 as a biomarker in screening gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bin Liang, Liansheng Zhong, Qun He, Shaocheng Wang, Zhongcheng Pan, Tianjiao Wang, Yujie Zhao Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Biochip Center, Ministry of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Objective: Despite advances in the early diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI cancers, these cancers are often being detected rather late in their course. Emerging published data on the accuracy of dickkopf-1 (DKK1 for diagnosing GI cancers are inconsistent. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of DKK1 in the diagnosis of GI cancers. Methods: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WANFANG databases was conducted to identify the related studies published before May 1, 2015, which investigated the diagnostic value of serum DKK1 for GI cancers. The methodological quality of each study was assessed according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 checklist. The diagnostic performance was pooled and analyzed using a bivariate model. Publication bias was evaluated with the Deeks’ funnel test. Results: A total of 15 studies with 5,076 participants were finally identified for the meta-analysis. The pooled results of sensitivity (SEN, specificity (SPE, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio for DKK1 test were 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–0.74, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.89–0.91, 7.72 (95% CI: 4.90–12.14, 0.29 (95% CI: 0.22–0.39, and 28.95 (95% CI: 16.25–51.65 for diagnosis of GI cancers, respectively. The area under the summary receiver–operating characteristic curve was 0.8901. The SEN of DKK1 in diagnosis of gastric cancer and pancreatic cancer may be higher than hepatocellular carcinoma, and the SPE in pancreatic cancer subgroup was lower than hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric cancer subgroups. Conclusion: The currently

  13. Evaluation of Individual and Combined Applications of Serum Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical value of Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP to detect early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been questioned due to its low sensitivity and specificity found in recent years. Other than AFP, several new serum biomarkers including the circulating AFP isoform AFP-L3, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP and Golgi protein-73 (GP73 have been identified as useful HCC markers. In this investigation, we review the current knowledge about these HCC-related biomarkers, and sum up the results of our meta-analysis on studies that have addressed the utility of these biomarkers in early detection and prognostic prediction of HCC. A systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library was performed for articles published in English from 1999 to 2012, focusing on serum biomarkers for HCC detection. Data on sensitivity and specificity of tests were extracted from 40 articles that met the inclusion criteria, and the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (sROC was obtained. A meta-analysis was carried out in which the area under the curve (AUC for each biomarker or biomarker combinations (AFP, DCP, GP73, AFP-L3, AFP + DCP, AFP + AFP-L3, and AFP + GP73 was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different biomarker tests. The AUC of AFP, DCP, GP73, AFP-L3, AFP + DCP, AFP + AFP-L3, and AFP + GP73 are 0.835, 0.797, 0.914, 0.710, 0.874, 0.748, and 0.932 respectively. A combination of AFP + GP73 is superior to AFP in detecting HCC and differentiating HCC patients from non-HCC patients, and may prove to be a useful marker in the diagnosis and screening of HCC. In addition, the AUC of GP73, AFP + DCP and AFP + GP73 are better than that of AFP. The clinical value of GP73, AFP + DCP, or AFP + GP73 as serological markers for HCC diagnosis needs to be addressed further in future studies.

  14. Application of special waveform signals for eddy current testing of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V. V.; Gracheva, Ya. J.; Egorov, A. V.; Lependin, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for multifrequency eddy current testing based on special waveform excitation signals. Digital processing of received signals provides data for experimental hodographs of a "sensor - testing sample" system. Hodographs for the testing of samples of aluminum materials with an applied dielectric layer demonstrates the reliability of the proposed approach. The application of principal component analysis improves the identification and differentiation of testing parameters. The obtained results can be used in systems for nondestructive testing of metallic materials and products.

  15. An Initialization Technique for the Waveform-Relaxation Circuit Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, S. E.-D.; Al-Karim, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the Cairo University Waveform Relaxation (CUWORX) simulator. In order to accelerate the convergence of the waveform relaxation (WR) in the presence of logic feedback, CUWORK is initialized via a logic simulator. This logic initialization scheme is shown to be highly effective for digital synchronous circuits. Additionally, this logic initialization scheme preserves fully the multi-rate properties of the WR algorithm.

  16. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang

    2016-09-06

    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  17. Information Encoding on a Pseudo Random Noise Radar Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    antenna under test AWG arbitrary waveform generator AWGN additive white Gaussian noise BPSK binary phase shift keying CDMA code division multiple...focused on the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and code division multiple access ( CDMA ) waveforms. The Ohio State University has...components into a single unit allows for a more mobile compact platform. The plan is diagrammed in Figure 3.5. Figure 3.5: Planned modifications to

  18. Fusion of synthetic aperture radiometer and noise waveform SAR images

    OpenAIRE

    Lukin, Konstantin A.; Kudriashov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Noise waveform SAR generates 2D SAR images of a scene. Advanced radiometric SAR imaging provides information on the objects thermal radiation, angular coordinates and even range. The brightness temperatures of rough and smooth surfaces are different. An active, noise waveform, operating mode of bistatic radiometer, based on antennae with beam synthesis, is considered with respect to the roughness criteria. The optimal and quasi-optimal algorithms for fusion of radiometric and SAR images are p...

  19. Full Waveform Inversion Using Oriented Time Migration Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2016-04-12

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) for reflection events is limited by its linearized update requirements given by a process equivalent to migration. Unless the background velocity model is reasonably accurate the resulting gradient can have an inaccurate update direction leading the inversion to converge into what we refer to as local minima of the objective function. In this thesis, I first look into the subject of full model wavenumber to analysis the root of local minima and suggest the possible ways to avoid this problem. And then I analysis the possibility of recovering the corresponding wavenumber components through the existing inversion and migration algorithms. Migration can be taken as a generalized inversion method which mainly retrieves the high wavenumber part of the model. Conventional impedance inversion method gives a mapping relationship between the migration image (high wavenumber) and model parameters (full wavenumber) and thus provides a possible cascade inversion strategy to retrieve the full wavenumber components from seismic data. In the proposed approach, consider a mild lateral variation in the model, I find an analytical Frechet derivation corresponding to the new objective function. In the proposed approach, the gradient is given by the oriented time-domain imaging method. This is independent of the background velocity. Specifically, I apply the oriented time-domain imaging (which depends on the reflection slope instead of a background velocity) on the data residual to obtain the geometrical features of the velocity perturbation. Assuming that density is constant, the conventional 1D impedance inversion method is also applicable for 2D or 3D velocity inversion within the process of FWI. This method is not only capable of inverting for velocity, but it is also capable of retrieving anisotropic parameters relying on linearized representations of the reflection response. To eliminate the cross-talk artifacts between different parameters, I

  20. Fast prediction and evaluation of gravitational waveforms using surrogate models

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Scott E; Hesthaven, Jan S; Kaye, Jason; Tiglio, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and in more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced-order model that can be used as a surrogate for the true/fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform's value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order m L + m c_f online operations where c_f denotes the fitting function operation ...

  1. Design and Testing of Space Telemetry SCA Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Dale J.; Handler, Louis M.; Quinn, Todd M.

    2006-01-01

    A Software Communications Architecture (SCA) Waveform for space telemetry is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The space telemetry waveform is implemented in a laboratory testbed consisting of general purpose processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The radio hardware is integrated with an SCA Core Framework and other software development tools. The waveform design is described from both the bottom-up signal processing and top-down software component perspectives. Simulations and model-based design techniques used for signal processing subsystems are presented. Testing with legacy hardware-based modems verifies proper design implementation and dynamic waveform operations. The waveform development is part of an effort by NASA to define an open architecture for space based reconfigurable transceivers. Use of the SCA as a reference has increased understanding of software defined radio architectures. However, since space requirements put a premium on size, mass, and power, the SCA may be impractical for today s space ready technology. Specific requirements for an SCA waveform and other lessons learned from this development are discussed.

  2. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2011-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion, with reduced local minima. We propose a waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase objective function in the frequency-domain. The unwrapped phase, or what we call the instantaneous traveltime, is given by the imaginary part of dividing the derivative of the wavefield with respect to the angular frequency by the wavefield itself. As a result, the objective function is given a traveltime-like function, which allows us to smooth it and reduce its nonlinearity. The gradient of the objective function is computed using the back-propagation algorithm based on the adjoint-state technique. We apply both our waveform inversion algorithm using the unwrapped phase and the conventional waveform inversion and show that our inversion algorithm gives better convergence to the true model than the conventional waveform inversion. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Full Elastic Waveform Search Engine for Near Surface Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    For processing land seismic data, the near-surface problem is often very complex and may severely affect our capability to image the subsurface. The current state-of-the-art technology for near surface imaging is the early arrival waveform inversion that solves an acoustic wave-equation problem. However, fitting land seismic data with acoustic wavefield is sometimes invalid. On the other hand, performing elastic waveform inversion is very time-consuming. Similar to a web search engine, we develop a full elastic waveform search engine that includes a large database with synthetic elastic waveforms accounting for a wide range of interval velocity models in the CMP domain. With each CMP gather of real data as an entry, the search engine applies Multiple-Randomized K-Dimensional (MRKD) tree method to find approximate best matches to the entry in about a second. Interpolation of the velocity models at CMP positions creates 2D or 3D Vp, Vs, and density models for the near surface area. The method does not just return one solution; it gives a series of best matches in a solution space. Therefore, the results can help us to examine the resolution and nonuniqueness of the final solution. Further, this full waveform search method can avoid the issues of initial model and cycle skipping that the method of full waveform inversion is difficult to deal with.

  4. Adaptive Waveform Design for Cognitive Radar in Multiple Targets Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of cognitive radar (CR waveform optimization design for target detection and estimation in multiple extended targets situations is investigated. This problem is analyzed in signal-dependent interference, as well as additive channel noise for extended targets with unknown target impulse response (TIR. To address this problem, an improved algorithm is employed for target detection by maximizing the detection probability of the received echo on the promise of ensuring the TIR estimation precision. In this algorithm, an additional weight vector is introduced to achieve a trade-off among different targets. Both the estimate of TIR and transmit waveform can be updated at each step based on the previous step. Under the same constraint on waveform energy and bandwidth, the information theoretical approach is also considered. In addition, the relationship between the waveforms that are designed based on the two criteria is discussed. Unlike most existing works that only consider single target with temporally correlated characteristics, waveform design for multiple extended targets is considered in this method. Simulation results demonstrate that compared with linear frequency modulated (LFM signal, waveforms designed based on maximum detection probability and maximum mutual information (MI criteria can make radar echoes contain more multiple-target information and improve radar performance as a result.

  5. Optimal current waveforms for brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle, Nicholas; Boyd, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we give energy-optimal current waveforms for a permanent magnet synchronous motor that result in a desired average torque. Our formulation generalises previous work by including a general back-electromotive force (EMF) wave shape, voltage and current limits, an arbitrary phase winding connection, a simple eddy current loss model, and a trade-off between power loss and torque ripple. Determining the optimal current waveforms requires solving a small convex optimisation problem. We show how to use the alternating direction method of multipliers to find the optimal current in milliseconds or hundreds of microseconds, depending on the processor used, which allows the possibility of generating optimal waveforms in real time. This allows us to adapt in real time to changes in the operating requirements or in the model, such as a change in resistance with winding temperature, or even gross changes like the failure of one winding. Suboptimal waveforms are available in tens or hundreds of microseconds, allowing for quick response after abrupt changes in the desired torque. We demonstrate our approach on a simple numerical example, in which we give the optimal waveforms for a motor with a sinusoidal back-EMF, and for a motor with a more complicated, nonsinusoidal waveform, in both the constant-torque region and constant-power region.

  6. 3D Electric Waveforms of Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Electric fields provide the major coupling between the turbulence of the solar wind and particles. A large part of the turbulent spectrum of fluctuations in the solar wind is thought to be kinetic Alfvén waves; however, whistlers have recently been found to be important. In this article, we attempt to determine the mode identification of individual waveforms using the three-dimensional antenna system of the SWaves experiments on the STEREO spacecraft. Samples are chosen using waveforms with an apparent periodic structure, selected visually. The short antennas of STEREO respond to density fluctuations and to electric fields. Measurement of four quantities using only three antennas presents a problem. Methods to overcome or to ignore this difficulty are presented. We attempt to decide whether the waveforms correspond to the whistler mode or the Alfvén mode by using the direction of rotation of the signal. Most of the waveforms are so oblique—nearly linearly polarized—that the direction cannot be determined. However, about one third of the waveforms can be identified, and whistlers and Alfvén waves are present in roughly equal numbers. The selected waveforms are very intense but intermittent and are orders of magnitude stronger than the average, yet their accumulated signal accounts for a large fraction of the average. The average, however, is supposed to be the result of a turbulent mixture of many waves, not short coherent events. This presents a puzzle for future work.

  7. Graph-Laplacian features for neural waveform classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Yasser; Papamichalis, Panos E; Spence, Larry

    2011-05-01

    Analysis of extracellular recordings of neural action potentials (known as spikes) is highly dependent upon the accuracy of neural waveform classification, commonly referred to as spike sorting. Feature extraction is an important stage of this process because it can limit the quality of clustering that is performed in the feature space. Principal components analysis (PCA) is the most commonly used feature extraction method employed for neural spike recordings. To improve upon PCA's feature extraction performance for neural spike sorting, we revisit the PCA procedure to analyze its weaknesses and describe an improved feature extraction method. This paper proposes a linear feature extraction technique that we call graph-Laplacian features, which simultaneously minimizes the graph Laplacian and maximizes variance. The algorithm's performance is compared with PCA and a wavelet-coefficient-based feature extraction algorithm on simulated single-electrode neural data. A cluster-quality metric is proposed to quantitatively measure the algorithm performance. The results show that the proposed algorithm produces more compact and well-separated clusters compared to the other approaches. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Detection of mouse cough based on sound monitoring and respiratory airflow waveforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Chen

    Full Text Available Detection for cough in mice has never yielded clearly audible sounds, so there is still a great deal of debates as to whether mice can cough in response to tussive stimuli. Here we introduce an approach for detection of mouse cough based on sound monitoring and airflow signals. 40 Female BALB/c mice were pretreated with normal saline, codeine, capasazepine or desensitized with capsaicin. Single mouse was put in a plethysmograph, exposed to aerosolized 100 µmol/L capsaicin for 3 min, followed by continuous observation for 3 min. Airflow signals of total 6 min were recorded and analyzed to detect coughs. Simultaneously, mouse cough sounds were sensed by a mini-microphone, monitored manually by an operator. When manual and automatic detection coincided, the cough was positively identified. Sound and sound waveforms were also recorded and filtered for further analysis. Body movements were observed by operator. Manual versus automated counts were compared. Seven types of airflow signals were identified by integrating manual and automated monitoring. Observation of mouse movements and analysis of sound waveforms alone did not produce meaningful data. Mouse cough numbers decreased significantly after all above drugs treatment. The Bland-Altman and consistency analysis between automatic and manual counts was 0.968 and 0.956. The study suggests that the mouse is able to present with cough, which could be detected by sound monitoring and respiratory airflow waveform changes.

  9. Prognostic role of serum C-reactive protein in esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Y

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ying Huang,1 Ji-Feng Feng,2 Jin-Shi Liu,2 Qi-Xun Chen21Department of Operating Theatre, 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Recent studies have shown that C-reactive protein (CRP is a useful predictive factor in several cancers; however, its role in esophageal cancer (EC is controversial.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science to analyze the prognostic value of serum CRP in patients with EC. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between serum CRP and overall survival (OS in patients with EC.Results: A total of eight studies involving 1,471 patients were included in our study. Our pooled results demonstrated that a high level of serum CRP was associated with poor OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–1.57, I2=81.3%, P<0.0001. Subgroup analyses were performed in further investigations. When the patients were segregated according to treatment, pathological type, and cut-off level, high levels of serum CRP were found to be significantly correlated with OS.Conclusion: Our meta-analysis revealed that high levels of serum CRP were significantly associated with poor OS in patients with EC.Keywords: CRP, esophageal cancer, meta-analysis

  10. Quantitative proteomic analysis of serum from pregnant women carrying a fetus with conotruncal heart defect using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed proteins from serum of pregnant women carrying a conotruncal heart defects (CTD fetus, using proteomic analysis.The study was conducted using a nested case-control design. The 5473 maternal serum samples were collected at 14-18 weeks of gestation. The serum from 9 pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus, 10 with another CHD (ACHD fetus, and 11 with a normal fetus were selected from the above samples, and analyzed by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(2D LC-MS/MS. The differentially expressed proteins identified by iTRAQ were further validated with Western blot.A total of 105 unique proteins present in the three groups were identified, and relative expression data were obtained for 92 of them with high confidence by employing the iTRAQ-based experiments. The downregulation of gelsolin in maternal serum of fetus with CTD was further verified by Western blot.The identification of differentially expressed protein gelsolin in the serum of the pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus by using proteomic technology may be able to serve as a foundation to further explore the biomarker for detection of CTD fetus from the maternal serum.

  11. Meta-analysis of serum non-ceruloplasmin copper in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squitti, Rosanna; Simonelli, Ilaria; Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Siotto, Mariacristina; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Rembach,