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Sample records for wave-front correction system

  1. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2014-01-01

    medium on the transmitted radiation WF;•  the lack of a reference source at the wavelength of trasnmitted laser radiation, which is required to implement methods for adaptive correction of the distorted WF;•  the unique to laser systems additional distorting factors available in transmission systems.These distorting factors include:• length of the optical path due to need in spatial diversity of high power laser source with a large number of matching optical elements;• thermal self-action of power laser radiation in the transport path of the radiation before its entry into forming optical system;• instability of spatio-temporal characteristics of the laser radiation source itself to take a turn for the worse conditions of radiation transmission both inside the optical path, and in the free atmosphere;• thermal irregularities and thermal deformation.It is shown that the adaptive systems differ from the active optics in that radiation wave front distortion is corrected in real time per totality of distorting factors (not only on the effect of the atmosphere with the speed ten times exceeding the effect of distortion itself. Here, the correction quality is estimated by criterion of the primary image quality.In this case, the correction continuously takes into account data about optical system parameters such as current space, temperature, time, and adjusting, thereby supporting the high quality of images under the action of distorting factors.The paper formulates and proposes the basic postulates of adaptive correction.Postulates are a set of statements and assertions, allowing us to implement effective means of adaptive correction of distortions.The paper also shows the real capabilities the methods and means of adaptive optics offer in case of efficient use of laser radiation power and what ways are possible to solve these tasks. First of all, these are:- forming a system of assumptions and minimization of distortions in the optical path, which includes a

  2. Image system analysis of human eye wave-front aberration on the basis of HSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ancheng

    2017-07-01

    Hartmann-Shack sensor (HSS) has been used in objective measurement of human eye wave-front aberration, but the research on the effects of sampling point size on the accuracy of the result has not been reported. In this paper, point spread function (PSF) of the whole system mathematical model was obtained via measuring the optical imaging system structure of human eye wave-front aberration measurement. The impact of Airy spot size on the accuracy of system was analyzed. Statistics study show that the geometry of Airy spot size of the ideal light source sent from eye retina formed on the surface of HSS is far smaller than the size of the HSS sample point image used in the experiment. Therefore, the effect of Airy spot on the precision of the system can be ignored. This study theoretically and experimentally justifies the reliability and accuracy of human eye wave-front aberration measurement based on HSS.

  3. Adapting Wave-front Algorithms to Efficiently Utilize Systems with Deep Communication Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbyson, Darren J.; Lang, Michael; Pakin, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale systems increasingly exhibit a differential between intra-chip and inter-chip communication performance especially in hybrid systems using accelerators. Processor cores on the same socket are able to communicate at lower latencies, and with higher bandwidths, than cores on different sockets either within the same node or between nodes. A key challenge is to efficiently use this communication hierarchy and hence optimize performance. We consider here the class of applications that contains wavefront processing. In these applications data can only be processed after their upstream neighbors have been processed. Similar dependencies result between processors in which communication is required to pass boundary data downstream and whose cost is typically impacted by the slowest communication channel in use. In this work we develop a novel hierarchical wave-front approach that reduces the use of slower communications in the hierarchy but at the cost of additional steps in the parallel computation and higher use of on-chip communications. This tradeoff is explored using a performance model. An implementation using the Reverse-acceleration programming model on the petascale Roadrunner system demonstrates a 27% performance improvement at full system-scale on a kernel application. The approach is generally applicable to large-scale multi-core and accelerated systems where a differential in system communication performance exists.

  4. Wave front sensing for next generation earth observation telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvit, J.-M.; Thiebaut, C.; Latry, C.; Blanchet, G.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution observations systems are highly dependent on optics quality and are usually designed to be nearly diffraction limited. Such a performance allows to set a Nyquist frequency closer to the cut off frequency, or equivalently to minimize the pupil diameter for a given ground sampling distance target. Up to now, defocus is the only aberration that is allowed to evolve slowly and that may be inflight corrected, using an open loop correction based upon ground estimation and refocusing command upload. For instance, Pleiades satellites defocus is assessed from star acquisitions and refocusing is done with a thermal actuation of the M2 mirror. Next generation systems under study at CNES should include active optics in order to allow evolving aberrations not only limited to defocus, due for instance to in orbit thermal variable conditions. Active optics relies on aberration estimations through an onboard Wave Front Sensor (WFS). One option is using a Shack Hartmann. The Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor could be used on extended scenes (unknown landscapes). A wave-front computation algorithm should then be implemented on-board the satellite to provide the control loop wave-front error measure. In the worst case scenario, this measure should be computed before each image acquisition. A robust and fast shift estimation algorithm between Shack-Hartmann images is then needed to fulfill this last requirement. A fast gradient-based algorithm using optical flows with a Lucas-Kanade method has been studied and implemented on an electronic device developed by CNES. Measurement accuracy depends on the Wave Front Error (WFE), the landscape frequency content, the number of searched aberrations, the a priori knowledge of high order aberrations and the characteristics of the sensor. CNES has realized a full scale sensitivity analysis on the whole parameter set with our internally developed algorithm.

  5. Iterative wave-front reconstruction in the Fourier domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charlotte Z; Correia, Carlos M; Sauvage, Jean-François; Neichel, Benoit; Fusco, Thierry

    2017-05-15

    The use of Fourier methods in wave-front reconstruction can significantly reduce the computation time for large telescopes with a high number of degrees of freedom. However, Fourier algorithms for discrete data require a rectangular data set which conform to specific boundary requirements, whereas wave-front sensor data is typically defined over a circular domain (the telescope pupil). Here we present an iterative Gerchberg routine modified for the purposes of discrete wave-front reconstruction which adapts the measurement data (wave-front sensor slopes) for Fourier analysis, fulfilling the requirements of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and providing accurate reconstruction. The routine is used in the adaptation step only and can be coupled to any other Wiener-like or least-squares method. We compare simulations using this method with previous Fourier methods and show an increase in performance in terms of Strehl ratio and a reduction in noise propagation for a 40×40 SPHERE-like adaptive optics system. For closed loop operation with minimal iterations the Gerchberg method provides an improvement in Strehl, from 95.4% to 96.9% in K-band. This corresponds to ~ 40 nm improvement in rms, and avoids the high spatial frequency errors present in other methods, providing an increase in contrast towards the edge of the correctable band.

  6. A hybrid active optical system for wave front preservation and variable focal distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocco, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.cocco@elettra.trieste.i [Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Bortoletto, Gianluca; Sergo, Rudi; Sostero, Giovanni; Cudin, Ivan [Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, 34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-05-01

    A new Free Electron Laser (FEL) user facility, named FERMI-Elettra, is under construction at Sincrotrone Trieste (Italy). It is based on a seeded scheme to provide an almost perfect transform limited beam with fully spatial coherence. The wavelength range will be 100-3 nm with fundamental and will go down to 1 nm by using higher harmonics. It will be operative by autumn 2010. The exceptional characteristics of the source must be preserved until the experimental chamber, where a large set of different experiments will be performed. This condition poses very tight requirements to the design of the beamlines and, in particular, to the focusing optics. Here we will present the active optics system developed for Fermi but intended to be used also on the Elettra beamlines. It is based on the adoption of a hybrid active system composed by UHV compatible stepping motors and piezo ceramic actuators. These mirrors are supposed to provide focal distances from 0.8 m to infinity with an angle of incidence up to a few degrees and residual shape errors below 10 or 5 nm (depending on the wavelength). In this way it is possible to work with an almost perfect focused coherent beam as well as with a uniform defocused or unfocused image. The metrology results on the first 400 mm long mirror will be shown and the actuator system described. A strain gauge assembly, calibrated in Elettra by means of a long trace profiler, and controlled by a custom made electronic system developed by us, is used as a direct in situ encoder.

  7. Characteristic wave fronts in magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, V.V.; Sharma, V.D.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the process of steepening or flattening of the characteristic wave fronts in a plane and cylindrically symmetric motion of an ideal plasma is investigated. This aspect of the problem has not been considered until now. Remarkable differences between plane, cylindrical diverging, and cylindrical converging waves are discovered. The discontinuity in the velocity gradient at the wave front is shown to satisfy a Bernoulli-type equation. The discussion of the solutions of such equations reported in the literature is shown to be incomplete, and three general theorems are established. 18 refs

  8. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  9. A Method and an Apparatus for Generating a Phase-Modulated Wave Front of Electromagnetic Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and a system for generating a phase-modulated wave front. According to the present invention, the spatial phase-modulation is not performed on the different parts of the wave front individually as in known POSLMs. Rather, the spatial phase-modulation of the...

  10. Sismonaute. Un système pour la détection et l'interprétation des fronts d'onde en simulation sismique Sismonaute. A System for Detecting and Interpreting Wave Fronts in Seismic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junker U.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous développons un système, dénommé SISMONAUTE, d'aide aux géophysiciens pour l'étude de la propagation des ondes dans un modèle postulé de sous-sol. Le système suit les fronts d'onde dans une série d'instantanés 2D produits par un simulateur numérique. De plus, il rétablit l'historique de l'onde, c'est-à-dire la séquence des réflexions, transmissions et diffractions qui représente des transformations qualitatives de l'onde. Cet historique est essentiel pour la comparaison des sismogrammes simulés et observés. Nous utilisons pour interpréter les données de simulation un système dirigé par les connaissances qui applique le raisonnement causal pour prédire, à chaque stade, de nouveaux fronts d'onde. Ces fronts prédits permettent une détection guidée des fronts d'onde sur les instantanés. We are developing a system, called SISMONAUTE, that supports a geophysicist in studying the propagation of waves in a postulated model of the subsoil. The system tracks the wave fronts in a sequence of 2D-snapshots produced by a numerical simulator. Furthermore, it recovers the history of a wave, i. e. the sequence of reflections, transmissions, and diffractions which represents qualitative changes of the wave. This history is essential for comparing simulated and observed seismograms. We use a knowledge-driven approach to interpret the simulated data. Using causal reasoning, the system predicts new wave fronts in each step. These predicted fronts enable a guided detection of wave fronts in the snapshots.

  11. An accurate optical design method for synchrotron radiation beamlines with wave-front aberration theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaojiang, E-mail: slsyxj@nus.edu.sg; Diao, Caozheng; Breese, Mark B. H. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117603 (Singapore)

    2016-07-27

    An aberration calculation method which was developed by Lu [1] can treat individual aberration term precisely. Spectral aberration is the linear sum of these aberration terms, and the aberrations of multi-element systems also can be calculated correctly when the stretching ratio, defined herein, is unity. Evaluation of focusing mirror-grating systems which are optimized according to Lu’s method, along with the Light Path Function (LPF) and the Spot Diagram method (SD) are discussed to confirm the advantage of Lu’s methodology. Lu’s aberration terms are derived from a precise wave-front treatment, whereas the terms of the power series expansion of the light path function do not yield an accurate sum of the aberrations. Moreover, Lu’s aberration terms can be individually optimized. This is not possible with the analytical spot diagram formulae.

  12. Multigrid preconditioned conjugate-gradient method for large-scale wave-front reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Vogel, Curtis R; Ellerbroek, Brent L

    2002-09-01

    We introduce a multigrid preconditioned conjugate-gradient (MGCG) iterative scheme for computing open-loop wave-front reconstructors for extreme adaptive optics systems. We present numerical simulations for a 17-m class telescope with n = 48756 sensor measurement grid points within the aperture, which indicate that our MGCG method has a rapid convergence rate for a wide range of subaperture average slope measurement signal-to-noise ratios. The total computational cost is of order n log n. Hence our scheme provides for fast wave-front simulation and control in large-scale adaptive optics systems.

  13. Traveling wave front solutions in lateral-excitatory neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittipong Ruktamatakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the shape of traveling wave front solutions to a neuronal model with the connection function to be of lateral excitation type. This means that close connecting cells have an inhibitory influence, while cells that aremore distant have an excitatory influence. We give results on the shape of the wave fronts solutions, which exhibit different shapes depend ing on the size of a threshold parameter.

  14. 5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yujiang; Gajewski, Dirk

    2017-11-01

    Most 5-D interpolation and regularization techniques reconstruct the missing data in the frequency domain by using mathematical transforms. An alternative type of interpolation methods uses wave-front attributes, that is, quantities with a specific physical meaning like the angle of emergence and wave-front curvatures. In these attributes structural information of subsurface features like dip and strike of a reflector are included. These wave-front attributes work on 5-D data space (e.g. common-midpoint coordinates in x and y, offset, azimuth and time), leading to a 5-D interpolation technique. Since the process is based on stacking next to the interpolation a pre-stack data enhancement is achieved, improving the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of interpolated and recorded traces. The wave-front attributes are determined in a data-driven fashion, for example, with the Common Reflection Surface (CRS method). As one of the wave-front-attribute-based interpolation techniques, the 3-D partial CRS method was proposed to enhance the quality of 3-D pre-stack data with low S/N. In the past work on 3-D partial stacks, two potential problems were still unsolved. For high-quality wave-front attributes, we suggest a global optimization strategy instead of the so far used pragmatic search approach. In previous works, the interpolation of 3-D data was performed along a specific azimuth which is acceptable for narrow azimuth acquisition but does not exploit the potential of wide-, rich- or full-azimuth acquisitions. The conventional 3-D partial CRS method is improved in this work and we call it as a wave-front-attribute-based 5-D interpolation (5-D WABI) as the two problems mentioned above are addressed. Data examples demonstrate the improved performance by the 5-D WABI method when compared with the conventional 3-D partial CRS approach. A comparison of the rank-reduction-based 5-D seismic interpolation technique with the proposed 5-D WABI method is given. The comparison reveals that

  15. Least-squares wave-front reconstruction of Shack-Hartmann sensors and shearing interferometers using multigrid techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    This article details a multigrid algorithm that is suitable for least-squares wave-front reconstruction of Shack-Hartmann and shearing interferometer wave-front sensors. The algorithm detailed in this article is shown to scale with the number of subapertures in the same fashion as fast Fourier transform techniques, making it suitable for use in applications requiring a large number of subapertures and high Strehl ratio systems such as for high spatial frequency characterization of high-density plasmas, optics metrology, and multiconjugate and extreme adaptive optics systems

  16. Null geodesics and wave front singularities in the Gödel space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Thomas P.; Roebuck, Kevin; Grotzke, Eric

    2018-01-01

    We explore wave fronts of null geodesics in the Gödel metric emitted from point sources both at, and away from, the origin. For constant time wave fronts emitted by sources away from the origin, we find cusp ridges as well as blue sky metamorphoses where spatially disconnected portions of the wave front appear, connect to the main wave front, and then later break free and vanish. These blue sky metamorphoses in the constant time wave fronts highlight the non-causal features of the Gödel metric. We introduce a concept of physical distance along the null geodesics, and show that for wave fronts of constant physical distance, the reorganization of the points making up the wave front leads to the removal of cusp ridges.

  17. Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, A. Yu

    2009-01-01

    The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.

  18. A spiral wave front beacon for underwater navigation: transducer prototypes and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowicz, Benjamin R; Hefner, Brian T

    2012-05-01

    Transducers for acoustic beacons which can produce outgoing signals with wave fronts whose horizontal cross sections are circular or spiral are studied experimentally. A remote hydrophone is used to determine its aspect relative to the transducers by comparing the phase of the circular signal to the phase of the spiral signal. The transducers for a "physical-spiral" beacon are made by forming a strip of 1-3 piezocomposite transducer material around either a circular or spiral backing. A "phased-spiral" beacon is made from an array of transducer elements which can be driven either in phase or staggered out of phase so as to produce signals with either a circular or spiral wave front. Measurements are made to study outgoing signals and their usefulness in determining aspect angle. Vertical beam width is also examined and phase corrections applied when the hydrophone is out of the horizontal plane of the beacon. While numerical simulations indicate that the discontinuity in the physical-spiral beacon introduces errors into the measured phase, damping observed at the ends of the piezocomposite material is a more significant source of error. This damping is also reflected in laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of the transducer's surface velocity.

  19. How reflected wave fronts dynamically establish Hooke's law in a spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahy, Stephen; O'Riordan, John; O'Sullivan, Colm; Twomey, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A simple benchtop experiment in which a moving cart collides with a fixed spring is described. Force-time and force-distance data recorded during the collision display the transit of compression wave fronts through the spring following impact. These data can be used by students to develop a computational model of the dynamics of this simple mass-spring-sensor system using a simple application of the wave equation and thereby develop an intriguing picture of how a spring realizes Hooke's law approximately in this dynamic physical problem. (paper)

  20. Precursor of transition to turbulence: spatiotemporal wave front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, S; Sengupta, T K

    2014-04-01

    To understand transition to turbulence via 3D disturbance growth, we report here results obtained from the solution of Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) to reproduce experimental results obtained by minimizing background disturbances and imposing deterministic excitation inside the shear layer. A similar approach was adopted in Sengupta and Bhaumik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 154501 (2011)], where a route of transition from receptivity to fully developed turbulent stage was explained for 2D flow in terms of the spatio-temporal wave-front (STWF). The STWF was identified as the unit process of 2D turbulence creation for low amplitude wall excitation. Theoretical prediction of STWF for boundary layer was established earlier in Sengupta, Rao, and Venkatasubbaiah [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 224504 (2006)] from the Orr-Sommerfeld equation as due to spatiotemporal instability. Here, the same unit process of the STWF during transition is shown to be present for 3D disturbance field from the solution of governing NSE.

  1. Correlation Wave-Front Sensing Algorithms for Shack-Hartmann-Based Adaptive Optics using a Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poynee, L A

    2003-01-01

    Shack-Hartmann based Adaptive Optics system with a point-source reference normally use a wave-front sensing algorithm that estimates the centroid (center of mass) of the point-source image 'spot' to determine the wave-front slope. The centroiding algorithm suffers for several weaknesses. For a small number of pixels, the algorithm gain is dependent on spot size. The use of many pixels on the detector leads to significant propagation of read noise. Finally, background light or spot halo aberrations can skew results. In this paper an alternative algorithm that suffers from none of these problems is proposed: correlation of the spot with a ideal reference spot. The correlation method is derived and a theoretical analysis evaluates its performance in comparison with centroiding. Both simulation and data from real AO systems are used to illustrate the results. The correlation algorithm is more robust than centroiding, but requires more computation

  2. The Geometry of the Semiclassical Wave Front Set for Schrödinger Eigenfunctions on the Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardin, Franco, E-mail: cardin@math.unipd.it; Zanelli, Lorenzo, E-mail: lzanelli@math.unipd.it [University of Padova, Department of Mathematics “Tullio Levi Civita” (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    This paper deals with the phase space analysis for a family of Schrödinger eigenfunctions ψ{sub ℏ} on the flat torus #Mathematical Double-Struck Capital T#{sup n} = (ℝ/2πℤ){sup n} by the semiclassical Wave Front Set. We study those ψ{sub ℏ} such that WF{sub ℏ}(ψ{sub ℏ}) is contained in the graph of the gradient of some viscosity solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. It turns out that the semiclassical Wave Front Set of such Schrödinger eigenfunctions is stable under viscous perturbations of Mean Field Game kind. These results provide a further viewpoint, and in a wider setting, of the link between the smooth invariant tori of Liouville integrable Hamiltonian systems and the semiclassical localization of Schrödinger eigenfunctions on the torus.

  3. Preconditioned conjugate gradient wave-front reconstructors for multiconjugate adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Vogel, Curtis R.

    2003-09-01

    Multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems with 104-105 degrees of freedom have been proposed for future giant telescopes. Using standard matrix methods to compute, optimize, and implement wave-front control algorithms for these systems is impractical, since the number of calculations required to compute and apply the reconstruction matrix scales respectively with the cube and the square of the number of adaptive optics degrees of freedom. We develop scalable open-loop iterative sparse matrix implementations of minimum variance wave-front reconstruction for telescope diameters up to 32 m with more than 104 actuators. The basic approach is the preconditioned conjugate gradient method with an efficient preconditioner, whose block structure is defined by the atmospheric turbulent layers very much like the layer-oriented MCAO algorithms of current interest. Two cost-effective preconditioners are investigated: a multigrid solver and a simpler block symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BSGS) sweep. Both options require off-line sparse Cholesky factorizations of the diagonal blocks of the matrix system. The cost to precompute these factors scales approximately as the three-halves power of the number of estimated phase grid points per atmospheric layer, and their average update rate is typically of the order of 10-2 Hz, i.e., 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than the typical 103 Hz temporal sampling rate. All other computations scale almost linearly with the total number of estimated phase grid points. We present numerical simulation results to illustrate algorithm convergence. Convergence rates of both preconditioners are similar, regardless of measurement noise level, indicating that the layer-oriented BSGS sweep is as effective as the more elaborated multiresolution preconditioner.

  4. Mathematical Methods in Wave Propagation: Part 2--Non-Linear Wave Front Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Alan

    1971-01-01

    The paper presents applications and methods of analysis for non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The paper is concluded by an account of wave front analysis as applied to the piston problem of gas dynamics. (JG)

  5. Wave Front Sets with respect to the Iterates of an Operator with Constant Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the wave front set WF*P(u with respect to the iterates of a hypoelliptic linear partial differential operator with constant coefficients of a classical distribution u∈′(Ω in an open set Ω in the setting of ultradifferentiable classes of Braun, Meise, and Taylor. We state a version of the microlocal regularity theorem of Hörmander for this new type of wave front set and give some examples and applications of the former result.

  6. Theoretical Analysis of Interferometer Wave Front Tilt and Fringe Radiant Flux on a Rectangular Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Konstantin Fuss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical analysis of mirror tilt in a Michelson interferometer and its effect on the radiant flux over the active area of a rectangular photodetector or image sensor pixel. It is relevant to sensor applications using homodyne interferometry where these opto-electronic devices are employed for partial fringe counting. Formulas are derived for radiant flux across the detector for variable location within the fringe pattern and with varying wave front angle. The results indicate that the flux is a damped sine function of the wave front angle, with a decay constant of the ratio of wavelength to detector width. The modulation amplitude of the dynamic fringe pattern reduces to zero at wave front angles that are an integer multiple of this ratio and the results show that the polarity of the radiant flux changes exclusively at these multiples. Varying tilt angle causes radiant flux oscillations under an envelope curve, the frequency of which is dependent on the location of the detector with the fringe pattern. It is also shown that a fringe count of zero can be obtained for specific photodetector locations and wave front angles where the combined effect of fringe contraction and fringe tilt can have equal and opposite effects. Fringe tilt as a result of a wave front angle of 0.05° can introduce a phase measurement difference of 16° between a photodetector/pixel located 20 mm and one located 100 mm from the optical origin.

  7. Sorting method to extend the dynamic range of the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Junwon; Shack, Roland V.; Descour, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a simple and powerful algorithm to extend the dynamic range of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. In a conventional Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor the dynamic range is limited by the f-number of a lenslet, because the focal spot is required to remain in the area confined by the single lenslet. The sorting method proposed here eliminates such a limitation and extends the dynamic range by tagging each spot in a special sequence. Since the sorting method is a simple algorithm that does not change the measurement configuration, there is no requirement for extra hardware, multiple measurements, or complicated algorithms. We not only present the theory and a calculation example of the sorting method but also actually implement measurement of a highly aberrated wave front from nonrotational symmetric optics

  8. Density-wave fronts on the brink of wet granular condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Zippelius, Andreas; Sand lab @ University of Bayreuth Team

    2017-11-01

    From sand dunes to Faraday heaping, driven granular matter, i.e., large agglomeration of macroscopic particles, is rich pattern forming system. When a granular material is partially wet (e.g., wet sand on the beach), a different pattern forming scenario arises due to the cohesive particle-particle interactions. Here, we focus on the formation of density-wave fronts in an oscillated wet granular layer undergoing a gas-liquid-like transition. The threshold of the instability is governed by the amplitude of the vertical vibrations. Fronts, which are curved into a spiral shape, propagate coherently along the circular rim of the container with leading edges. They are stable beyond a critical distance from the container center. Based on the measurement of the critical distance and the rotation frequency, we propose a model for the pattern formation by considering the competition between the time scale for the collapse of cohesive particles and that of the energy injection resisting this process. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Grant No. HU1939 4-1).

  9. Wave fronts and spatiotemporal chaos in an array of coupled Lorenz oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazo, Diego; Montejo, Noelia; Perez-Munuzuri, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    The effects of coupling strength and single-cell dynamics (SCD) on spatiotemporal pattern formation are studied in an array of Lorenz oscillators. Different spatiotemporal structures (stationary patterns, propagating wave fronts, short wavelength bifurcation) arise for bistable SCD, and two well differentiated types of spatiotemporal chaos for chaotic SCD (in correspondence with the transition from stationary patterns to propagating fronts). Wave-front propagation in the bistable regime is studied in terms of global bifurcation theory, while a short wavelength pattern region emerges through a pitchfork bifurcation

  10. Food systems in correctional settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smoyer, Amy; Kjær Minke, Linda

    management of food systems may improve outcomes for incarcerated people and help correctional administrators to maximize their health and safety. This report summarizes existing research on food systems in correctional settings and provides examples of food programmes in prison and remand facilities......Food is a central component of life in correctional institutions and plays a critical role in the physical and mental health of incarcerated people and the construction of prisoners' identities and relationships. An understanding of the role of food in correctional settings and the effective......, including a case study of food-related innovation in the Danish correctional system. It offers specific conclusions for policy-makers, administrators of correctional institutions and prison-food-service professionals, and makes proposals for future research....

  11. How Reflected Wave Fronts Dynamically Establish Hooke's Law in a Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Stephen; O'Riordan, John; O'Sullivan, Colm; Twomey, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A simple benchtop experiment in which a moving cart collides with a fixed spring is described. Force-time and force-distance data recorded during the collision display the transit of compression wave fronts through the spring following impact. These data can be used by students to develop a computational model of the dynamics of this simple…

  12. Wave-front reversal in a copper-vapor active medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkin, F.V.; Savranskii, V.V.; Shafeev, G.A.

    1981-09-01

    The implementation of wave-front reversal in a copper-vapor laser resonator is reported. The frequencies of the signal wave and the reversed wave are the same, and the dependence of reversed-signal power on input-signal power has a threshold character. Photographs of the reconstructed object image upon insertion of a distorting phase plate into the resonator are presented.

  13. Tool to estimate optical metrics from summary wave-front analysis data in the human eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Purpose Studies in the field of cataract and refractive surgery often report only summary wave-front analysis data data that are too condensed to allow for a retrospective calculation of metrics relevant to visual perception. The aim of this study was to develop a tool that can be used to estimate

  14. Preconditioned conjugate gradient wave-front reconstructors for multiconjugate adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent L; Vogel, Curtis R

    2003-09-10

    Multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems with 10(4)-10(5) degrees of freedom have been proposed for future giant telescopes. Using standard matrix methods to compute, optimize, and implement wavefront control algorithms for these systems is impractical, since the number of calculations required to compute and apply the reconstruction matrix scales respectively with the cube and the square of the number of adaptive optics degrees of freedom. We develop scalable open-loop iterative sparse matrix implementations of minimum variance wave-front reconstruction for telescope diameters up to 32 m with more than 10(4) actuators. The basic approach is the preconditioned conjugate gradient method with an efficient preconditioner, whose block structure is defined by the atmospheric turbulent layers very much like the layer-oriented MCAO algorithms of current interest. Two cost-effective preconditioners are investigated: a multigrid solver and a simpler block symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BSGS) sweep. Both options require off-line sparse Cholesky factorizations of the diagonal blocks of the matrix system. The cost to precompute these factors scales approximately as the three-halves power of the number of estimated phase grid points per atmospheric layer, and their average update rate is typically of the order of 10(-2) Hz, i.e., 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than the typical 10(3) Hz temporal sampling rate. All other computations scale almost linearly with the total number of estimated phase grid points. We present numerical simulation results to illustrate algorithm convergence. Convergence rates of both preconditioners are similar, regardless of measurement noise level, indicating that the layer-oriented BSGS sweep is as effective as the more elaborated multiresolution preconditioner.

  15. Sparse aperture differential piston measurements using the pyramid wave-front sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Chen, Xinyang; Yan, Zhaojun; Zheng, Lixin; Agapito, Guido; Wang, Chaoyan; Zhu, Nenghong; Zhu, Liyun; Cai, Jianqing; Tang, Zhenghong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we report on the laboratory experiment we settled in the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) to investigate the pyramid wave-front sensor (WFS) ability to measure the differential piston on a sparse aperture. The ultimate goal is to verify the ability of the pyramid WFS work in close loop to perform the phasing of the primary mirrors of a sparse Fizeau imaging telescope. In the experiment we installed on the optical bench we performed various test checking the ability to flat the wave-front using a deformable mirror and to measure the signal of the differential piston on a two pupils setup. These steps represent the background from which we start to perform full close loop operation on multiple apertures. These steps were also useful to characterize the achromatic double pyramids (double prisms) manufactured in the SHAO optical workshop.

  16. Wave fronts, pulses and wave trains in photoexcited superlattices behaving as excitable or oscillatory media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, J I; Bonilla, L L; Grahn, H T

    2011-01-01

    Undoped and strongly photoexcited semiconductor superlattices with field-dependent recombination behave as excitable or oscillatory media with spatially discrete nonlinear convection and diffusion. Infinitely long, dc-current-biased superlattices behaving as excitable media exhibit wave fronts with increasing or decreasing profiles, whose velocities can be calculated by means of asymptotic methods. These superlattices can also support pulses of the electric field. Pulses moving downstream with the flux of electrons can be constructed from their component wave fronts, whereas pulses advancing upstream do so slowly and experience saltatory motion: they change slowly in long intervals of time separated by fast transitions during which the pulses jump to the previous superlattice period. Photoexcited superlattices can also behave as oscillatory media and exhibit wave trains. (paper)

  17. Inaccuracy caused by the use of thermodynamic equation inside shock wave front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yukio; Abe, Akihisa; Tokushima, Koji; Arathoon, P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the difference between shock temperatures predicted by an equation for temperature inside a steady wave front and the Walsh-Christian equation. Calculations are for yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia, which shows an elastic-plastic and a phase transition: Thus the shock waves treated are multiple structure waves composed of one to three steady wave fronts. The evaluated temperature was 3350K at the minimum specific volume of 0.1175 cm 3 /g (or maximum Hugoniot shock pressure of 140GPa) considered in the present examination, while the temperature predicted by the Walsh-Christian equation under identical conditions was 2657K. The cause of the large temperature discrepancy is considered to be that the present model treats nonequilibrium states inside steady waves

  18. Measurement of the wave-front aberration of the eye by a fast psychophysical procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.C.; Marcos, S.; Webb, R.H.; Burns, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    We used a fast psychophysical procedure to determine the wave-front aberrations of the human eye in vivo. We measured the angular deviation of light rays entering the eye at different pupillary locations by aligning an image of a point source entering the pupil at different locations to the image of a fixation cross entering the pupil at a fixed location. We fitted the data to a Zernike series to reconstruct the wave-front aberrations of the pupil. With this technique the repeatability of the measurement of the individual coefficients was 0.019 μm. The standard deviation of the overall wave-height estimation across the pupil is less than 0.3 μm. Since this technique does not require the administration of pharmacological agents to dilate the pupil, we were able to measure the changes in the aberrations of the eye during accommodation. We found that administration of even a mild dilating agent causes a change in the aberration structure of the eye. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  19. Tunable modulation of refracted lamb wave front facilitated by adaptive elastic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shilong; Xu, Jiawen; Tang, J.

    2018-01-01

    This letter reports designs of adaptive metasurfaces capable of modulating incoming wave fronts of elastic waves through electromechanical-tuning of their cells. The proposed elastic metasurfaces are composed of arrayed piezoelectric units with individually connected negative capacitance elements that are online tunable. By adjusting the negative capacitances properly, accurately formed, discontinuous phase profiles along the elastic metasurfaces can be achieved. Subsequently, anomalous refraction with various angles can be realized on the transmitted lowest asymmetric mode Lamb wave. Moreover, designs to facilitate planar focal lenses and source illusion devices can also be accomplished. The proposed flexible and versatile strategy to manipulate elastic waves has potential applications ranging from structural fault detection to vibration/noise control.

  20. State equations and stability of shock wave fronts in homogeneous and heterogeneous metallic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, Jean-Pierre

    1977-01-01

    This research thesis in physical sciences reports a theoretical and experimental study of some mechanical and thermodynamic aspects related to a shock wave propagation in homogeneous and heterogeneous metallic media: state equations, stability and instability of shock wave fronts. In the first part, the author reports the study of the Grueneisen coefficient for some metallic elements with known static and dynamic compression properties. The second part reports the experimental investigation of dynamic compressibility of some materials (lamellar Al-Cu compounds). The front shock wave propagation has been visualised, and experimental Hugoniot curves are compared with those deduced from a developed numeric model and other models. The bismuth Hugoniot curve is also determined, and the author compares the existence and nature of phase transitions obtained by static and dynamic compression

  1. Analysis of the dependence of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave in space plasma on the particle momentum along the wave front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erokhin, A. N., E-mail: nerokhin@mx.iki.rssi.ru [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Zol’nikova, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation); Erokhin, N. S. [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear nonstationary second-order equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory, the dynamics of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across the external magnetic field in space plasma is analyzed as a function of the electron momentum along the wave front. Numerical calculations show that, for strongly relativistic initial values of the electron momentum component along the wave front g{sub y}(0) (the other parameters of the problem being the same), electrons are trapped into the regime of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration within a certain interval of the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory. It is assumed in the calculations that vertical bar Ψ(0) vertical bar ≤ π. For strongly relativistic values of g{sub y}(0), electrons are immediately trapped by the wave for 19% of the initial values of the phase Ψ(0) (favorable phases). For the rest of the values of Ψ(0), trapping does not occur even at long times. This circumstance substantially simplifies estimations of the wave damping due to particle acceleration in subsequent calculations. The dynamics of the relativistic factor and the components of the electron velocity and momentum under surfatron acceleration is also analyzed. The obtained results are of interest for the development of modern concepts of possible mechanisms of generation of ultrarelativistic particle fluxes in relatively calm space plasma, as well as for correct interpretation of observational data on the fluxes of such particles and explanation of possible reasons for the deviation of ultrarelativistic particle spectra detected in the heliosphere from the standard power-law scalings and the relation of these variations to space weather and large-scale atmospheric processes similar to tropical cyclones.

  2. Analysis of the dependence of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave in space plasma on the particle momentum along the wave front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, A. N.; Zol’nikova, N. N.; Erokhin, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear nonstationary second-order equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory, the dynamics of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across the external magnetic field in space plasma is analyzed as a function of the electron momentum along the wave front. Numerical calculations show that, for strongly relativistic initial values of the electron momentum component along the wave front g y (0) (the other parameters of the problem being the same), electrons are trapped into the regime of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration within a certain interval of the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory. It is assumed in the calculations that vertical bar Ψ(0) vertical bar ≤ π. For strongly relativistic values of g y (0), electrons are immediately trapped by the wave for 19% of the initial values of the phase Ψ(0) (favorable phases). For the rest of the values of Ψ(0), trapping does not occur even at long times. This circumstance substantially simplifies estimations of the wave damping due to particle acceleration in subsequent calculations. The dynamics of the relativistic factor and the components of the electron velocity and momentum under surfatron acceleration is also analyzed. The obtained results are of interest for the development of modern concepts of possible mechanisms of generation of ultrarelativistic particle fluxes in relatively calm space plasma, as well as for correct interpretation of observational data on the fluxes of such particles and explanation of possible reasons for the deviation of ultrarelativistic particle spectra detected in the heliosphere from the standard power-law scalings and the relation of these variations to space weather and large-scale atmospheric processes similar to tropical cyclones

  3. Wave front engineering by means of diffractive optical elements for applications in microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojoc, Dan; Ferrari, Enrico; Garbin, Valeria; Cabrini, Stefano; Carpentiero, Alessandro; Prasciolu, Mauro; Businaro, Luca; Kaulich, Burchard; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2006-05-01

    We present a unified view regarding the use of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) for microscopy applications a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum. The unified treatment is realized through the design and fabrication of DOE through which wave front beam shaping is obtained. In particular we show applications ranging from micromanipulation using optical tweezers to X-ray differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. We report some details on the design and physical implementation of diffractive elements that beside focusing perform also other optical functions: beam splitting, beam intensity and phase redistribution or mode conversion. Laser beam splitting is used for multiple trapping and independent manipulation of spherical micro beads and for direct trapping and manipulation of biological cells with non-spherical shapes. Another application is the Gauss to Laguerre-Gaussian mode conversion, which allows to trap and transfer orbital angular momentum of light to micro particles with high refractive index and to trap and manipulate low index particles. These experiments are performed in an inverted optical microscope coupled with an infrared laser beam and a spatial light modulator for DOEs implementation. High resolution optics, fabricated by means of e-beam lithography, are demonstrated to control the intensity and the phase of the sheared beams in X-ray DIC microscopy. DIC experiments with phase objects reveal a dramatic increase in image contrast compared to bright-field X-ray microscopy.

  4. Deleterious mutations can surf to high densities on the wave front of an expanding population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Justin M J; Münkemüller, Tamara; Burton, Olivia J; Best, Alex; Dytham, Calvin; Johst, Karin

    2007-10-01

    There is an increasing recognition that evolutionary processes play a key role in determining the dynamics of range expansion. Recent work demonstrates that neutral mutations arising near the edge of a range expansion sometimes surf on the expanding front leading them rather than that leads to reach much greater spatial distribution and frequency than expected in stationary populations. Here, we extend this work and examine the surfing behavior of nonneutral mutations. Using an individual-based coupled-map lattice model, we confirm that, regardless of its fitness effects, the probability of survival of a new mutation depends strongly upon where it arises in relation to the expanding wave front. We demonstrate that the surfing effect can lead to deleterious mutations reaching high densities at an expanding front, even when they have substantial negative effects on fitness. Additionally, we highlight that this surfing phenomenon can occur for mutations that impact reproductive rate (i.e., number of offspring produced) as well as mutations that modify juvenile competitive ability. We suggest that these effects are likely to have important consequences for rates of spread and the evolution of spatially expanding populations.

  5. Thermal conductivity of molten KNO3-NaNO2 mixtures measured with wave-front shearing interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwadate, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Kazutaka; Okada, Isao.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal conductivities are estimated from data obtained by wave-front shearing interferomety using available data on the density and the heat capacity. The thermal diffusivities and the thermal conductivities of molten KNO 3 -NaNO 2 mixtures increase and decrease slightly with a rise of temperature depending on the molar ratio of KNO 3 to NaNO 2 . They are expressed as linear functions of temperature as shown in Table 3. The results suggest that the ionic melts containing the ions of smaller mass have the larger thermal conductivities. The thermal conductivities of the mixture melts deviate negatively from the additivity. The validity of the proposed theories to the KNO 3 -NaNO 2 system has been studied in which the effects of mass, melting point, and density on thermal conductivity are taken into account. The formula of heat transfer proposed by Rao is best applicable to the thermal conductivity of the mixture. Our result is well expressed by the following formula, K = 2742.T sub(m)sup(1/2).rho sub(m)sup(2/3)/M sup(7/6), where K is the thermal conductivity, T sub(m) the molting point, rho sub(m) the density at T sub(m), and M the mean mass (averaged molecular weight), while the constant is 2742 instead of 2090 according to Rao. Whereas the thermal conductivity of pure alkali nitrate correlates linearly with the ultrasonic sound velocity, this relation does not hold in the molten KNO 3 -NaNO 2 mixture. The additivity rule can be applied to the sound velocity, but not to the thermal conductivity owing to its excess conductivity. (author)

  6. CORRECTION SYSTEMS UPGRADE FOR THE SNS RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAPAPHILIPPOU, Y.; GARDNER, C.J.; LEE, Y.Y.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    In view of the changes in the design of the SNS ring from the original FODO lattice [l] to the 220m hybrid lattice [2] and finally 1.3GeV compatible 248m ring [3], complementary studies have been undertaken, in order to upgrade its correction packages. We review the evolution of the correction systems and present the accelerator physics studies for the adopted schemes and powering plan

  7. Detector correction in large container inspection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kang Ke Jun; Chen Zhi Qiang

    2002-01-01

    In large container inspection systems, the image is constructed by parallel scanning with a one-dimensional detector array with a linac used as the X-ray source. The linear nonuniformity and nonlinearity of multiple detectors and the nonuniform intensity distribution of the X-ray sector beam result in horizontal striations in the scan image. This greatly impairs the image quality, so the image needs to be corrected. The correction parameters are determined experimentally by scaling the detector responses at multiple points with logarithm interpolation of the results. The horizontal striations are eliminated by modifying the original image data with the correction parameters. This method has proven to be effective and applicable in large container inspection systems

  8. Pump depletion limited evolution of the relativistic plasma wave-front in a forced laser-wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, F; Clayton, C E; Marsh, K A; Pak, A E; Ralph, J E; Joshi, C; Lopes, N C

    2009-01-01

    In a forced laser-wakefield accelerator experiment (Malka et al 2002 Science 298 1596) where the length of the pump laser pulse is a few plasma periods long, the leading edge of the laser pulse undergoes frequency downshifting and head erosion as the laser energy is transferred to the wake. Therefore, after some propagation distance, the group velocity of the leading edge of the pump pulse-and thus of the driven electron plasma wave-will slow down. This can have implications for the dephasing length of the accelerated electrons and therefore needs to be understood experimentally. We have carried out an experimental investigation where we have measured the velocity v f of the 'wave-front' of the plasma wave driven by a nominally 50 fs (full width half maximum), intense (a 0 ≅ 1), 0.815 μm laser pulse. To determine the speed of the wave front, time- and space-resolved refractometry, interferometry and Thomson scattering were used. Although a laser pulse propagating through a relatively low-density plasma (n e = 1.3 x 10 19 cm -3 ) showed no measurable changes in v f over 1.3 mm (and no accelerated electrons), a high-density plasma (n e = 5 x 10 19 cm -3 ) generated accelerated electrons and showed a continuous change in v f as the laser pulse propagated through the plasma. Possible causes and consequences of the observed v f evolution are discussed.

  9. The fast correction coil feedback control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffield, F.; Caporaso, G.; Zentler, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A model-based feedback control system has been developed to correct beam displacement errors in the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) electron beam accelerator. The feedback control system drives an X/Y dipole steering system that has a 40-MHz bandwidth and can produce ±300-Gauss-cm dipole fields. A simulator was used to develop the control algorithm and to quantify the expected performance in the presence of beam position measurement noise and accelerator timing jitter. The major problem to date has been protecting the amplifiers from the voltage that is inductively coupled to the steering bars by the beam. 3 refs., 8 figs

  10. Methods of orbit correction system optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Yu-Chiu.

    1997-01-01

    Extracting optimal performance out of an orbit correction system is an important component of accelerator design and evaluation. The question of effectiveness vs. economy, however, is not always easily tractable. This is especially true in cases where betatron function magnitude and phase advance do not have smooth or periodic dependencies on the physical distance. In this report a program is presented using linear algebraic techniques to address this problem. A systematic recipe is given, supported with quantitative criteria, for arriving at an orbit correction system design with the optimal balance between performance and economy. The orbit referred to in this context can be generalized to include angle, path length, orbit effects on the optical transfer matrix, and simultaneous effects on multiple pass orbits

  11. Open quantum systems and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Barzegar, Alireza

    Quantum effects can be harnessed to manipulate information in a desired way. Quantum systems which are designed for this purpose are suffering from harming interaction with their surrounding environment or inaccuracy in control forces. Engineering different methods to combat errors in quantum devices are highly demanding. In this thesis, I focus on realistic formulations of quantum error correction methods. A realistic formulation is the one that incorporates experimental challenges. This thesis is presented in two sections of open quantum system and quantum error correction. Chapters 2 and 3 cover the material on open quantum system theory. It is essential to first study a noise process then to contemplate methods to cancel its effect. In the second chapter, I present the non-completely positive formulation of quantum maps. Most of these results are published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2009b,a], except a subsection on geometric characterization of positivity domain of a quantum map. The real-time formulation of the dynamics is the topic of the third chapter. After introducing the concept of Markovian regime, A new post-Markovian quantum master equation is derived, published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2005a]. The section of quantum error correction is presented in three chapters of 4, 5, 6 and 7. In chapter 4, we introduce a generalized theory of decoherence-free subspaces and subsystems (DFSs), which do not require accurate initialization (published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2005b]). In Chapter 5, we present a semidefinite program optimization approach to quantum error correction that yields codes and recovery procedures that are robust against significant variations in the noise channel. Our approach allows us to optimize the encoding, recovery, or both, and is amenable to approximations that significantly improve computational cost while retaining fidelity (see [Kosut et al., 2008] for a published version). Chapter 6 is devoted to a theory of quantum error correction (QEC

  12. Pump depletion limited evolution of the relativistic plasma wave-front in a forced laser-wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, F; Clayton, C E; Marsh, K A; Pak, A E; Ralph, J E; Joshi, C [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lopes, N C [Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: cclayton@ucla.edu

    2009-02-15

    In a forced laser-wakefield accelerator experiment (Malka et al 2002 Science 298 1596) where the length of the pump laser pulse is a few plasma periods long, the leading edge of the laser pulse undergoes frequency downshifting and head erosion as the laser energy is transferred to the wake. Therefore, after some propagation distance, the group velocity of the leading edge of the pump pulse-and thus of the driven electron plasma wave-will slow down. This can have implications for the dephasing length of the accelerated electrons and therefore needs to be understood experimentally. We have carried out an experimental investigation where we have measured the velocity v{sub f} of the 'wave-front' of the plasma wave driven by a nominally 50 fs (full width half maximum), intense (a{sub 0} {approx_equal} 1), 0.815 {mu}m laser pulse. To determine the speed of the wave front, time- and space-resolved refractometry, interferometry and Thomson scattering were used. Although a laser pulse propagating through a relatively low-density plasma (n{sub e} = 1.3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) showed no measurable changes in v{sub f} over 1.3 mm (and no accelerated electrons), a high-density plasma (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) generated accelerated electrons and showed a continuous change in v{sub f} as the laser pulse propagated through the plasma. Possible causes and consequences of the observed v{sub f} evolution are discussed.

  13. Ocular aberrations with ray tracing and Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensors: Does polarization play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Susana; Diaz-Santana, Luis; Llorente, Lourdes; Dainty, Chris

    2002-06-01

    Ocular aberrations were measured in 71 eyes by using two reflectometric aberrometers, employing laser ray tracing (LRT) (60 eyes) and a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (S-H) (11 eyes). In both techniques a point source is imaged on the retina (through different pupil positions in the LRT or a single position in the S-H). The aberrations are estimated by measuring the deviations of the retinal spot from the reference as the pupil is sampled (in LRT) or the deviations of a wave front as it emerges from the eye by means of a lenslet array (in the S-H). In this paper we studied the effect of different polarization configurations in the aberration measurements, including linearly polarized light and circularly polarized light in the illuminating channel and sampling light in the crossed or parallel orientations. In addition, completely depolarized light in the imaging channel was obtained from retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence. The intensity distribution of the retinal spots as a function of entry (for LRT) or exit pupil (for S-H) depends on the polarization configuration. These intensity patterns show bright corners and a dark area at the pupil center for crossed polarization, an approximately Gaussian distribution for parallel polarization and a homogeneous distribution for the autofluorescence case. However, the measured aberrations are independent of the polarization states. These results indicate that the differences in retardation across the pupil imposed by corneal birefringence do not produce significant phase delays compared with those produced by aberrations, at least within the accuracy of these techniques. In addition, differences in the recorded aerial images due to changes in polarization do not affect the aberration measurements in these reflectometric aberrometers.

  14. MATLAB based beam orbit correction system of HLS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shichuan; Liu Gongfa; Xuan Ke; Li Weimin; Wang Lin; Wang Jigang; Li Chuan; Bao Xun; Guo Weiqun

    2006-01-01

    The distortion of closed orbit usually causes much side effect which is harmful to synchrotron radiation source such as HLS, so it is necessary to correct the distortion of closed orbit. In this paper, the correction principle, development procedure and test of MATLAB based on beam orbit correction system of HLS storage ring are described. The correction system is consisted of the beam orbit measure system, corrector magnet system and the control system, and the beam orbit correction code based on MATLAB is working on the operation interface. The data of the beam orbit are analyzed and calculated firstly, and then the orbit is corrected by changing corrector strength via control system. The test shows that the distortion of closed orbit is from max 4.468 mm before correction to max 0.299 mm after correction as well as SDEV is from 2.986 mm to 0.087 mm. So the correction system reaches the design goal. (authors)

  15. Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.].......[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.]....

  16. Spherical aberration and other higher-order aberrations in the human eye : from summary wave-front analysis data to optical variables relevant to visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Wave-front analysis data from the human eye are commonly presented using the aberration coefficient c(4)(0) (primary spherical aberration) together with an overall measure of all higher-order aberrations. If groups of subjects are compared, however, the relevance of an observed difference cannot

  17. [Systems analysis of colour music corrective effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumeniuk, V A; Batova, N Ia; Mel'nikova, T S; Glazachev, O S; Golubeva, N K; Klimina, N V; Hubner, P

    1998-01-01

    In the context of P. K. Anokhin's theory of functional systems, the corrective effects of various combinations of medical therapeutical resonance music (MTRM) and dynamic colour exposure were analyzed. As compared to rehabilitative music programmes, MRTM was shown to have a more pronounced relaxing effect as manifested both in the optimization of emotion and in the activity of autonomic regulation of cardiovascular functions. On combined MRTM and dynamic colour flow exposures, the relaxing effect is most marked. In the examinees, the personality and situation anxieties diminish, mood improves, cardiovascular parameters become normal, the rate of metabolic processes and muscular rigidity reduce, the spectral power of alpha-rhythm increases, these occurring predominantly in the anterior region of the brain. The findings suggest the high efficiency of the chosen way of normalizing the functional status of man.

  18. Towards Compensation Correctness in Interactive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cátia; Ferreira, Carla

    One fundamental idea of service-oriented computing is that applications should be developed by composing already available services. Due to the long running nature of service interactions, a main challenge in service composition is ensuring correctness of failure recovery. In this paper, we use a process calculus suitable for modelling long running transactions with a recovery mechanism based on compensations. Within this setting, we discuss and formally state correctness criteria for compensable processes compositions, assuming that each process is correct with respect to failure recovery. Under our theory, we formally interpret self-healing compositions, that can detect and recover from failures, as correct compositions of compensable processes.

  19. Orbit correction system for the SSC interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Pilat, F.; Ritson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we review our design of the orbit correction system for the SSC interaction regions, and discuss the principles of the local orbit correction at the IP. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  20. 76 FR 50726 - Integrated System Power Rates: Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates: Correction AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of public review and comment; Correction... date listed for the combined Public Information and Comment Forum (Forum) was erroneously listed in the...

  1. Interacting wave fronts and rarefaction waves in a second order model of nonlinear thermoviscous fluids : Interacting fronts and rarefaction waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2011-01-01

    A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves the Hami...... is proposed. The dynamics of the rarefaction wave is approximated by a collective coordinate approach in the energy balance equation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.......A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves...... the Hamiltonian structure, in contrast to the Kuznetsov equation, a model often used in nonlinear acoustics. An exact traveling wave front solution is derived from a generalized traveling wave assumption for the velocity potential. Numerical studies of the evolution of a number of arbitrary initial conditions...

  2. Thermal conductivity of molten KNO/sub 3/-NaNO/sub 2/ mixtures measured with wave-front shearing interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwadate, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Kazutaka [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. of Nuclear Reactor; Okada, Isao

    1982-06-01

    The thermal conductivities are estimated from data obtained by wave-front shearing interferomety using available data on the density and the heat capacity. The thermal diffusivities and the thermal conductivities of molten KNO/sub 3/-NaNO/sub 2/ mixtures increase and decrease slightly with a rise of temperature depending on the molar ratio of KNO/sub 3/ to NaNO/sub 2/. They are expressed as linear functions of temperature as shown in Table 3. The results suggest that the ionic melts containing the ions of smaller mass have the larger thermal conductivities. The thermal conductivities of the mixture melts deviate negatively from the additivity. The validity of the proposed theories to the KNO/sub 3/-NaNO/sub 2/ system has been studied in which the effects of mass, melting point, and density on thermal conductivity are taken into account. The formula of heat transfer proposed by Rao is best applicable to the thermal conductivity of the mixture. Our result is well expressed by the following formula, K = 2742.T sub(m)sup(1/2).rho sub(m)sup(2/3)/M sup(7/6), where K is the thermal conductivity, T sub(m) the molting point, rho sub(m) the density at T sub(m), and M the mean mass (averaged molecular weight), while the constant is 2742 instead of 2090 according to Rao. Whereas the thermal conductivity of pure alkali nitrate correlates linearly with the ultrasonic sound velocity, this relation does not hold in the molten KNO/sub 3/-NaNO/sub 2/ mixture. The additivity rule can be applied to the sound velocity, but not to the thermal conductivity owing to its excess conductivity.

  3. Simulated human eye retina adaptive optics imaging system based on a liquid crystal on silicon device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Baoguang; Cao Zhaoliang; Mu Quanquan; Hu Lifa; Li Chao; Xuan Li

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain a clear image of the retina of model eye, an adaptive optics system used to correct the wave-front error is introduced in this paper. The spatial light modulator that we use here is a liquid crystal on a silicon device instead of a conversional deformable mirror. A paper with carbon granule is used to simulate the retina of human eye. The pupil size of the model eye is adjustable (3-7 mm). A Shack–Hartman wave-front sensor is used to detect the wave-front aberration. With this construction, a value of peak-to-valley is achieved to be 0.086 λ, where λ is wavelength. The modulation transfer functions before and after corrections are compared. And the resolution of this system after correction (691p/m) is very close to the dirraction limit resolution. The carbon granule on the white paper which has a size of 4.7 μm is seen clearly. The size of the retina cell is between 4 and 10 mu;m. So this system has an ability to image the human eye's retina. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  4. A proposed orbit and vertical dispersion correction system for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, E.; Cornacchia, M.; King, A.S.; Lee, M.J.

    1978-07-01

    The proposed arrangement of position monitors and dipole magnets for the closed orbit correction system in PEP is described. The computer code ALIGN, which simulates and corrects closed orbit displacements, has been used to study the most effective layout of monitors and correctors. The vertical dispersion function has been computed before and after closed orbit correction. The results indicate that the residual vertical dispersion after the orbit is corrected could exceed the tolerable values. A correction procedure for the vertical dispersion has been studied with the compute code CO-OP and this scheme of correction has been verified experimentally in SPEAR. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  5. 28 CFR 25.10 - Correction of erroneous system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.10 Correction of erroneous system information. (a) An individual may request the reason for the denial from the agency that... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correction of erroneous system...

  6. Photonic crystal carpet: Manipulating wave fronts in the near field at 1.55 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, G.; Hofman, M.; Śmigaj, W.; Kadic, M.; Chang, T.-M.; Mélique, X.; Lippens, D.; Vanbésien, O.; Cluzel, B.; de Fornel, F.; Guenneau, S.; Gralak, B.

    2013-09-01

    Ground-plane cloaks, which transform a curved mirror into a flat one, and recently reported at wavelengths ranging from the optical to the visible spectrum, bring the realm of optical illusion a step closer to reality. However, all carpet-cloaking experiments have thus far been carried out in the far field. Here, we demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) of an irregular shape made of a honeycomb array of air holes can scatter waves in the near field like a PC with a flat boundary at stop band frequencies. This mirage effect relies upon a specific arrangement of dielectric pillars placed at the nodes of a quasiconformal grid dressing the PC. Our carpet is experimentally shown to flatten the scattered wave fronts of a PC with a bump throughout the range of wavelengths from 1520 to 1580 nm within the stop band extending from 1280 to 1940 nm. The device has been fabricated using a single-mask advanced nanoelectronics technique on III-V semiconductors and the near field measurements have been carried out in order to image the wave fronts’ curvatures around the telecommunication wavelength 1550 nm. Interestingly, comparisons of our near-field experimental results with full-wave simulations suggest the relatively low aspect ratio of the fabricated carpet (pillars have 200 nm diameter and 2 μm height) makes it inherently three dimensional. Moreover, this carpet is constrained to normal incidence. We therefore propose an elaborated design of the carpet (with pillars of varying radii) which should work at different angles of incidence.

  7. Preliminary results of a high-resolution refractometer using the Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor: part I Resultados preliminares com refratrômetro de alta resolução, usando sensor de frente de onda de Hartmann-Shack: parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Carvalho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this project we are developing an instrument for measuring the wave-front aberrations of the human eye using the Hartmann-Shack sensor. A laser source is directed towards the eye and its diffuse reflection at the retina generates an approximately spherical wave-front inside the eye. This wave-front travels through the different components of the eye (vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, and cornea and then leaves the eye carrying information about the aberrations caused by these components. Outside the eye there is an optical system composed of an array of microlenses and a CCD camera. The wave-front hits the microlens array and forms a pattern of spots at the CCD plane. Image processing algorithms detect the center of mass of each spot and this information is used to calculate the exact wave-front surface using least squares approximation by Zernike polynomials. We describe here the details of the first phase of this project, i. e., the construction of the first generation of prototype instruments and preliminary results for an artificial eye calibrated with different ametropias, i. e., myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.Neste projeto estamos desenvolvendo instrumento para medidas das aberrações de frente de onda do olho humano usando um sensor Hartmann-Shack. Uma fonte de luz laser é direcionada ao olho e sua reflexão difusa na retina gera frente de onda aproximadamente esférica dentro do olho. Esta frente de onda atravessa os diferentes componentes do olho (humor vítreo, lente, humor aquoso e córnea trazendo informações sobre as aberrações ópticas causadas por estes componentes. No meio externo ao olho existe sistema óptico formado por uma matriz de microlentes e uma câmera CCD. A frente de onda incide nesta matriz e forma um padrão aproximadamente matricial de "spots" no plano do CCD. Algoritmos de processamento de imagens são utilizados para detectar os centróides de cada "spot" e esta informação é utilizada para

  8. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kanhirodan, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  9. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  10. From Operating-System Correctness to Pervasively Verified Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Matthias; Schirmer, Norbert W.; Schmidt, Mareike

    Though program verification is known and has been used for decades, the verification of a complete computer system still remains a grand challenge. Part of this challenge is the interaction of application programs with the operating system, which is usually entrusted with retrieving input data from and transferring output data to peripheral devices. In this scenario, the correct operation of the applications inherently relies on operating-system correctness. Based on the formal correctness of our real-time operating system Olos, this paper describes an approach to pervasively verify applications running on top of the operating system.

  11. Nonlinear waves in reaction-diffusion systems: The effect of transport memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, K. K.; Hurd, A. J.; Kenkre, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of determining stress distributions in granular materials, we study the effect of finite transport correlation times on the propagation of nonlinear wave fronts in reaction-diffusion systems. We obtain results such as the possibility of spatial oscillations in the wave-front shape for certain values of the system parameters and high enough wave-front speeds. We also generalize earlier known results concerning the minimum wave-front speed and shape-speed relationships stemming from the finiteness of the correlation times. Analytic investigations are made possible by a piecewise linear representation of the nonlinearity. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. Nonlinear waves in reaction-diffusion systems: The effect of transport memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, K. K.; Hurd, A. J.; Kenkre, V. M.

    2000-04-01

    Motivated by the problem of determining stress distributions in granular materials, we study the effect of finite transport correlation times on the propagation of nonlinear wave fronts in reaction-diffusion systems. We obtain results such as the possibility of spatial oscillations in the wave-front shape for certain values of the system parameters and high enough wave-front speeds. We also generalize earlier known results concerning the minimum wave-front speed and shape-speed relationships stemming from the finiteness of the correlation times. Analytic investigations are made possible by a piecewise linear representation of the nonlinearity.

  13. Maintenance performance improvement with System Dynamics : A Corrective Maintenance showcase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, R.E.M.; Van Daalen, C.E.; Koene, E.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of an analysis of a Corrective Maintenance process to realize performance improvement. The Corrective Maintenance process is supported by SAP, which has indicated the performance realisation problem. System Dynamics is used in a Group Model Building process to

  14. Correction of chromatic abberation in electrostatic lense systems containing quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranova, L.A.; Ul'yanova, N.S.; Yavor, S.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Possibility of chromatic abberation correction in immersion systems consisting of axysimmetric and quadrupole lenses is shown. Concrete examples are presented. A number of new directions in science and technique, using ion beams are intensively developed presently. When using them accute necessity arises in chromatic abberation correction, while large-scale energy scattering is observed as a rule in such cases

  15. Correct-by-design output feedback of LTI systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haesaert, S.; Abate, A.; van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art correct-by-design controllers are designed for full-state measurable systems. This work extends the applicability of correct-by-design controllers to partially observable linear, time-invariant (LTI) models. Towards the certification of the synthesised controllers,

  16. Coulomb corrections for interferometry analysis of expanding hadron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyukov, Yu.M.; Lednicky, R.; Pluta, J.; Erazmus, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Akkelin, S.V. [ITP, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-09-01

    The problem of the Coulomb corrections to the two-boson correlation functions for the systems formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions is considered for large effective system volumes. The modification of the standard zero-distance correction (so called Gamow or Coulomb factor) has been proposed for such a kind of systems. For the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} and K{sup +}K{sup +} correlation functions the analytical calculations of the Coulomb correction are compared with the exact numerical results. (author). 20 refs.

  17. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter modules stored at CERN. The larger modules belong to the Barrel, whereas the smaller ones are for the two Extended Barrels. (The article was about the completion of the 64 modules for one of the latter.) The photo on the first page of the Bulletin n°26/2002, from 24 July 2002, illustrating the article «The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.

  18. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Gorelik, G., & Shackelford, T.K. (2011. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 564–587: The authors wish to correct an omission in citation to the existing literature. In the final paragraph on p. 570, we neglected to cite Burch and Gallup (2006 [Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G., Jr. (2006. The psychobiology of human semen. In S. M. Platek & T. K. Shackelford (Eds., Female infidelity and paternal uncertainty (pp. 141–172. New York: Cambridge University Press.]. Burch and Gallup (2006 reviewed the relevant literature on FSH and LH discussed in this paragraph, and should have been cited accordingly. In addition, Burch and Gallup (2006 should have been cited as the originators of the hypothesis regarding the role of FSH and LH in the semen of rapists. The authors apologize for this oversight.

  19. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photo on the second page of the Bulletin n°48/2002, from 25 November 2002, illustrating the article «Spanish Visit to CERN» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.   The Spanish delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology), Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader at CERN, Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish Delegate to Council, Manuel Delfino, IT Division Leader at CERN, and Gonzalo León, Secretary-General of Scientific Policy to the Minister.

  20. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Tagler, M. J., and Jeffers, H. M. (2013. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity. Evolutionary Psychology, 11, 821–832: The authors wish to correct values in the originally published manuscript. Specifically, incorrect 95% confidence intervals around the Cohen's d values were reported on page 826 of the manuscript where we reported the within-sex simple effects for the significant Participant Sex × Infidelity Type interaction (first paragraph, and for attitudes toward partner infidelity (second paragraph. Corrected values are presented in bold below. The authors would like to thank Dr. Bernard Beins at Ithaca College for bringing these errors to our attention. Men rated sexual infidelity significantly more distressing (M = 4.69, SD = 0.74 than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 4.32, SD = 0.92, F(1, 322 = 23.96, p < .001, d = 0.44, 95% CI [0.23, 0.65], but there was little difference between women's ratings of sexual (M = 4.80, SD = 0.48 and emotional infidelity (M = 4.76, SD = 0.57, F(1, 322 = 0.48, p = .29, d = 0.08, 95% CI [−0.10, 0.26]. As expected, men rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.44, SD = 0.70 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.66, SD = 1.37, F(1, 322 = 120.00, p < .001, d = 1.12, 95% CI [0.85, 1.39]. Although women also rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.40, SD = 0.62 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.09, SD = 1.10, this difference was not as large and thus in the evolutionary theory supportive direction, F(1, 322 = 72.03, p < .001, d = 0.77, 95% CI [0.60, 0.94].

  1. Geometrical E-beam proximity correction for raster scan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belic, Nikola; Eisenmann, Hans; Hartmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas

    1999-04-01

    High pattern fidelity is a basic requirement for the generation of masks containing sub micro structures and for direct writing. Increasing needs mainly emerging from OPC at mask level and x-ray lithography require a correction of the e-beam proximity effect. The most part of e-beam writers are raster scan system. This paper describes a new method for geometrical pattern correction in order to provide a correction solution for e-beam system that are not able to apply variable doses.

  2. Generalized Tellegen Principle and Physical Correctness of System Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Cerny

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new problem of physical correctness detection in the area of strictly causal system representations. The proposed approach to the problem solution is based on generalization of Tellegen's theorem well known from electrical engineering. Consequently, mathematically as well as physically correct results are obtained. Some known and often used system representation structures are discussed from the developed point of view as an addition.

  3. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996; as amended March 2010). CAU 562 consists of 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site. Site characterization activities were performed in 2009 and 2010, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 562. The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives is summarized. (1) CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot, will be clean closed by removing shot. (2) CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain, will be clean closed by removing paint and contaminated soil. As a best management practice (BMP), asbestos tile will be removed. (3) CAS 02-59-01, Septic System, will be clean closed by removing septic tank contents. As a BMP, the septic tank will be removed. (4) CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain, contains no contaminants of concern (COCs) above action levels. No further action is required; however, as a BMP, the concrete drain will be removed. (5) CAS 02-60-02, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. As a BMP, the drain grates and drain pipe will be removed. (6) CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. As a BMP, the steam cleaning sump grate and outfall pipe will be removed. (7) CAS 02-60-04, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. (8) CAS 02-60-05, French Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. (9) CAS 02-60-06, French Drain, contains no COCs above action levels. No further action is required. (10) CAS 02-60-07, French Drain, requires no further action. The french drain identified in historical documentation was not located during corrective action investigation

  4. Adaptive self-correcting control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    A control system for regulating a controlled device or process, such as a turbofan engine, produces independent multiple estimates of one or more controlled variables of the device or process by combining the signals from a plurality of feedback sensors, which provide information related to the controlled variables, in weighted nonordered pairs. The independent multiple estimates of each controlled variable are combined into a weighted average, and individual estimates which differ by more than a specified amount from the weighted average are edited and temporarily removed from consideration. A revised weighted average value of each controlled variable is then produced, and this value is used to limit or control operation of the device or process. Adaptive trim is provided to compensate for changes in the device or process being controlled, such as engine deterioration, by slowly trimming each individual estimate toward the mean, and includes error compensation which constrains the weighted sum of the adaptive trims to equal zero, thereby preventing the adaptive trim from changing the operating level of the device or process. A secondary editing circuit based on a majority rule principle identifies a failed feedback sensor and permanently excludes all individual estimates of the controlled variable based on the failed sensor. Editing boundaries are increased and adaptive trim rate is varied when a transient occurs in the operation of the device or process. Further transient compensation may be required for a system with more severe transient requirements, and this invention includes compensation to selected feedback parameters such as turbine temperature to account for differences between steady state and transient values

  5. Coordinated joint motion control system with position error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, George L.

    2016-04-05

    Disclosed are an articulated hydraulic machine supporting, control system and control method for same. The articulated hydraulic machine has an end effector for performing useful work. The control system is capable of controlling the end effector for automated movement along a preselected trajectory. The control system has a position error correction system to correct discrepancies between an actual end effector trajectory and a desired end effector trajectory. The correction system can employ one or more absolute position signals provided by one or more acceleration sensors supported by one or more movable machine elements. Good trajectory positioning and repeatability can be obtained. A two joystick controller system is enabled, which can in some cases facilitate the operator's task and enhance their work quality and productivity.

  6. System and method for correcting attitude estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josselson, Robert H. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system includes an angular rate sensor disposed in a vehicle for providing angular rates of the vehicle, and an instrument disposed in the vehicle for providing line-of-sight control with respect to a line-of-sight reference. The instrument includes an integrator which is configured to integrate the angular rates of the vehicle to form non-compensated attitudes. Also included is a compensator coupled across the integrator, in a feed-forward loop, for receiving the angular rates of the vehicle and outputting compensated angular rates of the vehicle. A summer combines the non-compensated attitudes and the compensated angular rates of the to vehicle to form estimated vehicle attitudes for controlling the instrument with respect to the line-of-sight reference. The compensator is configured to provide error compensation to the instrument free-of any feedback loop that uses an error signal. The compensator may include a transfer function providing a fixed gain to the received angular rates of the vehicle. The compensator may, alternatively, include a is transfer function providing a variable gain as a function of frequency to operate on the received angular rates of the vehicle.

  7. From a Proven Correct Microkernel to Trustworthy Large Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronick, June

    The seL4 microkernel was the world's first general-purpose operating system kernel with a formal, machine-checked proof of correctness. The next big step in the challenge of building truly trustworthy systems is to provide a framework for developing secure systems on top of seL4. This paper first gives an overview of seL4's correctness proof, together with its main implications and assumptions, and then describes our approach to provide formal security guarantees for large, complex systems.

  8. Method and system of doppler correction for mobile communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georghiades, Costas N. (Inventor); Spasojevic, Predrag (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Doppler correction system and method comprising receiving a Doppler effected signal comprising a preamble signal (32). A delayed preamble signal (48) may be generated based on the preamble signal (32). The preamble signal (32) may be multiplied by the delayed preamble signal (48) to generate an in-phase preamble signal (60). The in-phase preamble signal (60) may be filtered to generate a substantially constant in-phase preamble signal (62). A plurality of samples of the substantially constant in-phase preamble signal (62) may be accumulated. A phase-shifted signal (76) may also be generated based on the preamble signal (32). The phase-shifted signal (76) may be multiplied by the delayed preamble signal (48) to generate an out-of-phase preamble signal (80). The out-of-phase preamble signal (80) may be filtered to generate a substantially constant out-of-phase preamble signal (82). A plurality of samples of the substantially constant out-of-phase signal (82) may be accumulated. A sum of the in-phase preamble samples and a sum of the out-of-phase preamble samples may be normalized relative to each other to generate an in-phase Doppler estimator (92) and an out-of-phase Doppler estimator (94).

  9. Coulomb corrections for interferometry analysis of expanding hadron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyukov, Yu.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics of National Acad. Sci., Kiev (Ukraine); Lednicky, R. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees]|[Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Akkelin, S.V. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Teoreticheskoj Fiziki; Pluta, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees]|[Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Erazmus, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees

    1998-10-01

    The problem of the Coulomb corrections to the two-boson correlation functions for the systems formed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions is considered for large effective volumes predicted in the realistic evolution scenarios taking into account the collective flows. A simple modification of the standard zero-distance correction (so called Gamow or Coulomb factor) has been proposed for such a kind of systems. For {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} and K{sup +}K{sup +} correlation functions this approximate analytical approach is compared with the exact numerical results and a good agreement is found for typical conditions at SPS, RHIC and even LHC energies. (author) 21 refs.

  10. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON LHC INTERACTION REGION CORRECTION SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; WEI, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Workshop on LHC Interaction Region Correction Systems was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, on 6 and 7 May 1999. It was attended by 25 participants from 5 institutions. The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at collision energy is limited by the field quality of the interaction region quadrupoles and dipoles. In three sessions the workshop addressed the field quality of the these magnets, reviewed the principles and efficiency of global and local correction schemes and finalized a corrector layout. The session on Field Quality Issues, chaired by J. Strait (FNAL), discussed the progress made by KEK and FNAL in achieving the best possible field quality in the interaction region quadrupoles. Results of simulation studies were presented that assess the effects of magnetic field errors with simulation studies. Attention was given to the uncertainties in predicting and measuring field errors. The session on Global Correction, chaired by J.-P. Koutchouk (CERN), considered methods of reducing the nonlinear detuning or resonance driving terms in the accelerator one-turn map by either sorting or correcting. The session also discussed the crossing angle dependence of the dynamic aperture and operational experience from LEP. The session on Local Correction, chaired by T. Taylor (CERN), discussed the location, strength and effectiveness of multipole correctors in the interaction regions for both proton and heavy ion operation. Discussions were based on technical feasibility considerations and dynamic aperture requirements. The work on linear corrections in the interaction regions was reviewed

  11. Liquid scintillation counting system with automatic gain correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic liquid scintillation counting apparatus is described including a scintillating medium in the elevator ram of the sample changing apparatus. An appropriate source of radiation, which may be the external source for standardizing samples, produces reference scintillations in the scintillating medium which may be used for correction of the gain of the counting system

  12. Energy efficiency of error correction on wireless systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Since high error rates are inevitable to the wireless environment, energy-efficient error-control is an important issue for mobile computing systems. We have studied the energy efficiency of two different error correction mechanisms and have measured the efficiency of an implementation in software.

  13. Simultaneous versus Sequential Accelerated Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking and Wave Front Guided PRK for Treatment of Keratoconus: Objective and Subjective Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Samra, Waleed Ali; El Emam, Dalia Sabry; Farag, Rania Kamel; Abouelkheir, Hossam Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Aim . To compare objective and subjective outcome after simultaneous wave front guided (WFG) PRK and accelerated corneal cross-linking (CXL) in patients with progressive keratoconus versus sequential WFG PRK 6 months after CXL. Methods . 62 eyes with progressive keratoconus were divided into two groups; the first including 30 eyes underwent simultaneous WFG PRK with accelerated CXL. The second including 32 eyes underwent subsequent WFG PRK performed 6 months later after accelerated CXL. Visual, refractive, topographic, and aberrometric data were determined preoperatively and during 1-year follow-up period and the results compared in between the 2 studied groups. Results . All evaluated visual, refractive, and aberrometric parameters demonstrated highly significant improvement in both studied groups (all P PRK and accelerated CXL is an effective and safe option to improve the vision in mild to moderate keratoconus. In one-year follow-up, there is no statistically significant difference between the simultaneous and sequential procedure.

  14. The vibration compensation system for ARGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, D.; Gaessler, W.; Borelli, J.; Kulas, M.

    2011-09-01

    For every adaptive optics system telescope vibrations can strongly reduce the performance. This is true for the receiver part of the system i.e. the telescope and wave front sensor part as well as for the transmitter part in the case of a laser guide star system. Especially observations in deep fields observed with a laser guide star system without any tip-tilt star will be greatly spoiled by telescope vibrations. The ARGOS GLAO system actually being built for the LBT aims to implement this kind of mode where wave front correction will rely purely on signals from the laser beacons. To remove the vibrations from the uplink path a vibration compensation system will be installed. This system uses accelerometers to measure the vibrations and corrects their effect with a small fast tip-tilt mirror. The controller of the system is built based on the assumption that the vibrations take place at a few distinct frequencies. Here I present a lab set-up of this system and show first results of the performance.

  15. Using modeling to develop and evaluate a corrective action system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.

    1995-01-01

    At a former trucking facility in EPA Region 4, a corrective action system was installed to remediate groundwater and soil contaminated with gasoline and fuel oil products released from several underground storage tanks (USTs). Groundwater modeling was used to develop the corrective action plan and later used with soil vapor modeling to evaluate the systems effectiveness. Groundwater modeling was used to determine the effects of a groundwater recovery system on the water table at the site. Information gathered during the assessment phase was used to develop a three dimensional depiction of the subsurface at the site. Different groundwater recovery schemes were then modeled to determine the most effective method for recovering contaminated groundwater. Based on the modeling and calculations, a corrective action system combining soil vapor extraction (SVE) and groundwater recovery was designed. The system included seven recovery wells, to extract both soil vapor and groundwater, and a groundwater treatment system. Operation and maintenance of the system included monthly system sampling and inspections and quarterly groundwater sampling. After one year of operation the effectiveness of the system was evaluated. A subsurface soil gas model was used to evaluate the effects of the SVE system on the site contamination as well as its effects on the water table and groundwater recovery operations. Groundwater modeling was used in evaluating the effectiveness of the groundwater recovery system. Plume migration and capture were modeled to insure that the groundwater recovery system at the site was effectively capturing the contaminant plume. The two models were then combined to determine the effects of the two systems, acting together, on the remediation process

  16. An alternative ionospheric correction model for global navigation satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. M.; Jakowski, N.

    2015-04-01

    The ionosphere is recognized as a major error source for single-frequency operations of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). To enhance single-frequency operations the global positioning system (GPS) uses an ionospheric correction algorithm (ICA) driven by 8 coefficients broadcasted in the navigation message every 24 h. Similarly, the global navigation satellite system Galileo uses the electron density NeQuick model for ionospheric correction. The Galileo satellite vehicles (SVs) transmit 3 ionospheric correction coefficients as driver parameters of the NeQuick model. In the present work, we propose an alternative ionospheric correction algorithm called Neustrelitz TEC broadcast model NTCM-BC that is also applicable for global satellite navigation systems. Like the GPS ICA or Galileo NeQuick, the NTCM-BC can be optimized on a daily basis by utilizing GNSS data obtained at the previous day at monitor stations. To drive the NTCM-BC, 9 ionospheric correction coefficients need to be uploaded to the SVs for broadcasting in the navigation message. Our investigation using GPS data of about 200 worldwide ground stations shows that the 24-h-ahead prediction performance of the NTCM-BC is better than the GPS ICA and comparable to the Galileo NeQuick model. We have found that the 95 percentiles of the prediction error are about 16.1, 16.1 and 13.4 TECU for the GPS ICA, Galileo NeQuick and NTCM-BC, respectively, during a selected quiet ionospheric period, whereas the corresponding numbers are found about 40.5, 28.2 and 26.5 TECU during a selected geomagnetic perturbed period. However, in terms of complexity the NTCM-BC is easier to handle than the Galileo NeQuick and in this respect comparable to the GPS ICA.

  17. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563, Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 563 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 563 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Site characterization activities were performed in 2007, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the CAU 563 Corrective Action Decision Document. The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives is summarized below. CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank, contains no contaminants of concern (COCs) above action levels. No further action is required for this site; however, as a best management practice (BMP), all aboveground features (e.g., riser pipes and bumper posts) will be removed, the septic tank will be removed, and all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout. CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool, contains no COCs above action levels. No further action is required for this site; however, as a BMP, all aboveground features (e.g., riser pipes and bumper posts) will be removed, the cesspool will be abandoned by filling it with sand or native soil, and all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout. CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks, will be clean closed by excavating approximately 4 cubic yards (yd3) of arsenic- and chromium-impacted soil. In addition, as a BMP, the liquid in the South Tank will be removed, the North Tank will be removed or filled with grout and left in place, the South Tank will be filled with grout and left in place, all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout or similar material, approximately 10 yd3 of chlordane-impacted soil will be excavated, and debris within the CAS boundary will be removed. CAS 12

  18. Needed improvements in the development of systemic corrective actions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campisi, John A.

    2009-07-01

    There are indications that corrective actions, as implemented at Sandia National Laboratories are not fully adequate. Review of independent audits spanning multiple years provides evidence of recurring issues within the same or similar operations and programs. Several external audits have directly called into question the ability Sandia's assessment and evaluation processes to prevent recurrence. Examples of repeated findings include lockout/tagout programs, local exhaust ventilation controls and radiological controls. Recurrence clearly shows that there are underlying systemic factors that are not being adequately addressed by corrective actions stemming from causal analyses. Information suggests that improvements in the conduct of causal analyses and, more importantly, in the development of subsequent corrective actions are warranted. Current methodolgies include Management Oversight Risk Tree, developed in the early 1970s and Systemic Factors Analysis. Recommendations for improvements include review of other causal analysis systems, training, improved formality of operations, improved documentation, and a corporate method that uses truly systemic solutions. This report was written some years ago and is being published now to form the foundation for current, follow-on reports being developed. Some outdated material is recognized but is retained for report completeness.

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151, Septic Systems and Discharge Area, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 151 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada

  20. Petawatt laser system for fast ignitor studies at ILE, Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Fujita, H.

    2003-01-01

    A petawatt laser system has been developed for the fast ignitor studies. Three new technologies were introduced; an optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA) in the front end for suppression of prepulse below 10 -8 the main pulse, a deformable mirror for correction of wave front distortion and the chirped pulse amplification in the GEKKO-XII. The system delivered successfully the output energy of 420 J in 470 fs on target, which corresponds to the focal intensity of more than 10 20 W/cm 2 . By using the PW laser, the heating experiments of the high density plasma imploded by GEKKO-XII started. (author)

  1. Improving Transgender Healthcare in the New York City Correctional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Mohamed; Ayad, John; Tungol, Jose Gabriel; MacDonald, Ross; Dickey, Nathaniel; Venters, Homer

    2016-04-01

    Correctional settings create unique challenges for patients with special needs, including transgender patients, who have an increased rate of overall discrimination, sexual abuse, healthcare disparities, and improper housing. As part of our correctional health quality improvement process, we sought to review and evaluate the adequacy of care for transgender patients in the New York City jail system. Using correctional pharmacy records, transgender patients receiving hormonal treatment were identified. A brief in-person survey was conducted to evaluate their care in the community before incarceration, medical care in jail, and experience in the jail environment. Survey findings and analysis of transgender patient healthcare-related complaints revealed opportunities for improvements in the provision of care and staff understanding of this population. Utilizing these findings, we conducted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) trainings in all 12 jail clinics for medical, nursing, and mental health staff. Three months after LGBT training, patient complaints dropped by over 50%. After the development and implementation of a newly revised transgender healthcare policy, complaints dropped to zero within 6 months. Our efforts to assess the quality of care provided to transgender patients revealed significant areas for improvement. Although we have made important gains in providing quality care through the implementation of policies and procedures rooted in community standards and the express wishes of our patients, we continue to engage this patient population to identify other issues that impact their health and well-being in the jail environment.

  2. Simultaneous versus Sequential Accelerated Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking and Wave Front Guided PRK for Treatment of Keratoconus: Objective and Subjective Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Ali Abou Samra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare objective and subjective outcome after simultaneous wave front guided (WFG PRK and accelerated corneal cross-linking (CXL in patients with progressive keratoconus versus sequential WFG PRK 6 months after CXL. Methods. 62 eyes with progressive keratoconus were divided into two groups; the first including 30 eyes underwent simultaneous WFG PRK with accelerated CXL. The second including 32 eyes underwent subsequent WFG PRK performed 6 months later after accelerated CXL. Visual, refractive, topographic, and aberrometric data were determined preoperatively and during 1-year follow-up period and the results compared in between the 2 studied groups. Results. All evaluated visual, refractive, and aberrometric parameters demonstrated highly significant improvement in both studied groups (all P<0.001. A significant improvement was observed in keratometric and Q values. The improvement in all parameters was stable till the end of follow-up. Likewise, no significant difference was determined in between the 2 groups in any of recorded parameters. Subjective data revealed similarly significant improvement in both groups. Conclusions. WFG PRK and accelerated CXL is an effective and safe option to improve the vision in mild to moderate keratoconus. In one-year follow-up, there is no statistically significant difference between the simultaneous and sequential procedure.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 555: Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 555: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 555 is located in Areas 1, 3 and 6 of the NTS, which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and is comprised of the five corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-59-01, Area 1 Camp Septic System; (2) CAS 03-59-03, Core Handling Building Septic System; (3) CAS 06-20-05, Birdwell Dry Well; (4) CAS 06-59-01, Birdwell Septic System; and (5) CAS 06-59-02, National Cementers Septic System. An FFACO modification was approved on December 14, 2005, to include CAS 06-20-05, Birdwell Dry Well, as part of the scope of CAU 555. The work scope was expanded in this document to include the investigation of CAS 06-20-05. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 555 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI

  4. Correction of the closed orbit and vertical dispersion and the tuning and field correction system in ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1979-01-01

    Each ring in ISABELLE will have 10 separately powered systematic field correction coils to make required corrections which are the same in corresponding magnets around the ring. These corrections include changing the ν-value, shaping the working line in ν-space, correction of field errors due to iron saturation effects, the conductor arrangements, the construction of the coil ends, diamagnetic effects in the superconductor and to rate-dependent induced currents. The twelve insertion quadrupoles in the insertion surrounding each crossing point will each have a quadrupole trim coil. The closed orbit will be controlled by a system of 84 horizontal dipole coils and 90 vertical dipole coils in each ring, each coil being separately powered. This system of dipole coils will also be used to correct the vertical dispersion at the crossing points. Two families of skew quadrupoles per ring will be provided for correction of the coupling between the horizontal and vertical motions. Although there will be 258 separately powered correction coils in each ring

  5. 78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Management Planning; Correction AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: This..., revising, and monitoring land management plans (the planning rule). The National Forest Management Act... Land Management Planning Rule Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement of January 2012. List...

  6. Gamma camera system with improved means for correcting nonuniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, K.; Jeppesen, J.

    1979-01-01

    In a gamma camera system, means are provided for correcting nonuniformity or lack of correspondence between the positions of scintillations and their calculated and displayed by x-y coordinates. In an accumulation mode, pulse counts corresponding with scintillations in various areas of the radiation field are stored in memory locations corresponding with their locations in the radiation field. A uniform radiation source is presented to the detectors during the accumulation is interrupted at which time other locations have fewer counts in them. In the run mode, counts are stored in corresponding locations of a memory and these counts are compared continuously with those stored in the accumulation mode. Means are provided for injecting a number of counts during the run mode proportional to the difference between the counts accumulated during the accumulation mode in a given area increment and the counts that should have been obtained from a uniform source

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-28

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

  8. Shock waves in collective field theories for many particle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, F; Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K

    1980-10-01

    We find shock wave solutions to collective field equations for quantum mechanical many particle system. Importance of the existence of a ''tension'' working on the surface of the shock-wave front is pointed out.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563, Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). The corrective action sites (CASs) for CAU 563 are located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and are comprised of the following four sites: •03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank •03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool •12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks •12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the four CASs within CAU 563. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 17 through November 19, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 563 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2007). Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 563 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 563 revealed the following: •CASs 03-04-02, 03-59-05, and 12-60-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. •CAS 12-59-01 contains arsenic and chromium contamination above FALs in surface and near-surface soils surrounding a stained location within the site. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at CAS 12-59-01, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 563.

  10. Local Dynamic Reactive Power for Correction of System Voltage Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    Distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as local voltage collapse. Local voltage collapse is occurring in part because modern air conditioner compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage dip than older motors. These motors can stall in less than 3 cycles (.05s) when a fault, such as on the sub-transmission system, causes voltage to sag to 70 to 60%. The reasons for this susceptibility are discussed in the report. During the local voltage collapse, voltages are depressed for a period of perhaps one or two minutes. There is a concern that these local events are interacting together over larger areas and may present a challenge to system reliability. An effective method of preventing local voltage collapse is the use of voltage regulation from Distributed Energy Resources (DER) that can supply or absorb reactive power. DER, when properly controlled, can provide a rapid correction to voltage dips and prevent motor stall. This report discusses the phenomenon and causes of local voltage collapse as well as the control methodology we have developed to counter voltage sag. The problem is growing because of the use of low inertia, high efficiency air conditioner (A/C) compressor motors and because the use of electric A/C is growing in use and becoming a larger percentage of system load. A method for local dynamic voltage regulation is discussed which uses reactive power injection or absorption from local DER. This method is independent, rapid, and will not interfere with conventional utility system voltage control. The results of simulations of this method are provided. The method has also been tested at the ORNL s Distributed Energy Communications and Control (DECC) Laboratory using our research inverter and synchronous condenser. These systems at the DECC Lab are interconnected to an actual distribution system, the ORNL distribution system, which is fed from TVA s 161kV sub-transmission backbone. The test results

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krause

    2010-08-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) presents information supporting the selection of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) leading to the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 562 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 02-26-11, Lead Shot • 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain • 02-59-01, Septic System • 02-60-01, Concrete Drain • 02-60-02, French Drain • 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain • 02-60-04, French Drain • 02-60-05, French Drain • 02-60-06, French Drain • 02-60-07, French Drain • 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall • 23-99-06, Grease Trap • 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of CAAs for the 13 CASs within CAU 562. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 27, 2009, through May 12, 2010, as set forth in the CAU 562 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether COCs are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. A data quality assessment (DQA) performed on the CAU 562 data demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at 10 of the 13 CASs in CAU 562, and thus corrective

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 555: Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 555: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 555 is located in Areas 1, 3 and 6 of the NTS, which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and is comprised of the five corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-59-01, Area 1 Camp Septic System; (2) CAS 03-59-03, Core Handling Building Septic System; (3) CAS 06-20-05, Birdwell Dry Well; (4) CAS 06-59-01, Birdwell Septic System; and (5) CAS 06-59-02, National Cementers Septic System. An FFACO modification was approved on December 14, 2005, to include CAS 06-20-05, Birdwell Dry Well, as part of the scope of CAU 555. The work scope was expanded in this document to include the investigation of CAS 06-20-05. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 555 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by

  13. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell email = campbek@nv.doe.gov

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site.

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection[NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site

  16. Research on the Phase Aberration Correction with a Deformable Mirror Controlled by a Genetic Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, P; Hu, S J; Chen, S Q; Yang, W; Xu, B; Jiang, W H

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve laser beam quality, a real number encoding genetic algorithm based on adaptive optics technology was presented. This algorithm was applied to control a 19-channel deformable mirror to correct phase aberration in laser beam. It is known that when traditional adaptive optics system is used to correct laser beam wave-front phase aberration, a precondition is to measure the phase aberration information in the laser beam. However, using genetic algorithms, there is no necessary to know the phase aberration information in the laser beam beforehand. The only parameter need to know is the Light intensity behind the pinhole on the focal plane. This parameter was used as the fitness function for the genetic algorithm. Simulation results show that the optimal shape of the 19-channel deformable mirror applied to correct the phase aberration can be ascertained. The peak light intensity was improved by a factor of 21, and the encircled energy strehl ratio was increased to 0.34 from 0.02 as the phase aberration was corrected with this technique

  17. Gamma camera correction system and method for using the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inbar, D.; Gafni, G.; Grimberg, E.; Bialick, K.; Koren, J.

    1986-01-01

    A gamma camera is described which consists of: (a) a detector head that includes photodetectors for producing output signals in response to radiation stimuli which are emitted by a radiation field and which interact with the detector head and produce an event; (b) signal processing circuitry responsive to the output signals of the photodetectors for producing a sum signal that is a measure of the total energy of the event; (c) an energy discriminator having a relatively wide window for comparison with the sum signal; (d) the signal processing circuitry including coordinate computation circuitry for operating on the output signals, and calculating an X,Y coordinate of an event when the sum signal lies within the window of the energy discriminator; (e) an energy correction table containing spatially dependent energy windows for producing a validation signal if the total energy of an event lies within the window associated with the X,Y coordinates of the event; (f) the signal processing circuitry including a dislocation correction table containing spatially dependent correction factors for converting the X,Y coordinates of an event to relocated coordinates in accordance with correction factors determined by the X,Y coordinates; (g) a digital memory for storing a map of the radiation field; and (h) means for recording an event at its relocated coordinates in the memory if the energy correction table produces a validation signal

  18. Space Active Optics: toward optimized correcting mirrors for future large spaceborne observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gérard; Liotard, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Wave-front correction in optical instruments is often needed, either to compensate Optical Path Differences, off-axis aberrations or mirrors deformations. Active optics techniques are developed to allow efficient corrections with deformable mirrors. In this paper, we will present the conception of particular deformation systems which could be used in space telescopes and instruments in order to improve their performances while allowing relaxing specifications on the global system stability. A first section will be dedicated to the design and performance analysis of an active mirror specifically designed to compensate for aberrations that might appear in future 3m-class space telescopes, due to lightweight primary mirrors, thermal variations or weightless conditions. A second section will be dedicated to a brand new design of active mirror, able to compensate for given combinations of aberrations with a single actuator. If the aberrations to be corrected in an instrument and their evolutions are known in advance, an optimal system geometry can be determined thanks to the elasticity theory and Finite Element Analysis.

  19. Impact of correction tables of heterogeneities in radiotherapy planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragonezi, Aline; Santos, Thallis A.; Tokarski, Marcio; Biazotto, Bruna

    2016-01-01

    It has been acquired different tomographic images of a phantom with known heterogeneities, varying parameters of acquisition. With these images, it was possible to get Hounsfield unit of regions where the electronic density is known and, with these data, to make inhomogeneity correction's table. These tables showed variations in the response of Hounsfield unit when varying kVp (5,3%) and filters, both physical (12,3%) as image's reconstruction (5,6%).It was evaluated the differences in the calculation of doses using every correction's tables made, observing differences up to 0,5% in the calculated dose. (author)

  20. Energy Efficient Error-Correcting Coding for Wireless Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.

    2010-01-01

    The wireless channel is a hostile environment. The transmitted signal does not only suffers multi-path fading but also noise and interference from other users of the wireless channel. That causes unreliable communications. To achieve high-quality communications, error correcting coding is required

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  2. Dynamics of interface in three-dimensional anisotropic bistable reaction-diffusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of dynamics of interface (wave front) in three-dimensional (3D) reaction-diffusion (RD) system for bistable media with anisotropy constructed by means of anisotropic surface tension. An equation of motion for the wave front is derived to carry out stability analysis of transverse perturbations, which discloses mechanism of pattern formation such as labyrinthine in 3D bistable media. Particularly, the effects of anisotropy on wave propagation are studied. It was found that, sufficiently strong anisotropy can induce dynamical instabilities and lead to breakup of the wave front. With the fast-inhibitor limit, the bistable system can further be described by a variational dynamics so that the boundary integral method is adopted to study the dynamics of wave fronts.

  3. 75 FR 27401 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Storage Casks: NUHOMS[reg] HD System Revision 1; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... HD spent fuel storage cask system. This action is necessary to correctly specify the effective date... on May 6, 2010 (75 FR 24786), that amends the regulations that govern storage of spent nuclear fuel...

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2010-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 560 comprises seven corrective action sites (CASs): •03-51-01, Leach Pit •06-04-02, Septic Tank •06-05-03, Leach Pit •06-05-04, Leach Bed •06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System •06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond •06-59-05, Control Point Septic System The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 560 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 7, 2008, through February 24, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. •If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 560 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: •No contamination exceeding the FALs was identified at CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and 06-59-04. •The soil at the base of the leach pit chamber at CAS 06-05-03 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 5 to 20 feet (ft) below ground surface. The contamination is confined laterally to the walls of the

  5. Weighing black holes using open-loop focus corrections for LGS-AO observations of galaxy nuclei at Gemini Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Krajnovic, Davor; Cappellari, Michele; Trujillo, Chadwick; Christou, Julian; Davies, Roger L.

    2010-07-01

    We present observations of early-type galaxies with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) obtained at Gemini North telescope using the NIFS integral field unit (IFU). We employ an innovative technique where the focus compensation due to the changing distance to the sodium layer is made 'open loop', allowing the extended galaxy nucleus to be used only for tip-tilt correction. The purpose of these observations is to determine high spatial resolution stellar kinematics within the nuclei of these galaxies to determine the masses of the super-massive black holes. The resulting data have spatial resolution of 0.2" FWHM or better. This is sufficient to positively constrain the presence of the central black hole in even low-mass early-type galaxies, suggesting that larger samples of such objects could be observed with this technique in the future. The open-loop focus correction technique is a supported queue-observing mode at Gemini, significantly extending the sky coverage in particular for faint, extended guide sources. We also provide preliminary results from tests combining tip/tilt correction from the Gemini peripheral guider with on-axis LGS. The current test system demonstrates feasibility of this mode, providing about a factor 2-3 improvement over natural seeing. With planned upgrades to the peripheral wave-front sensor, we hope to provide close to 100% sky coverage with low Strehl corrections, or 'improved seeing', significantly increasing flux concentration for deep field and extended object studies.

  6. Correctness and efficiency : the two faces of systems analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Jansen-Vullers, M.H.; Valstar, A.

    2002-01-01

    In operations research and in computer science systems are modelled in order to determine system parameters or to derive properties ofthe systems. Although the objects of study in both disciplines have much in common their approaches are quite different and the gap between the Iwo worlds does not

  7. Shielding correction to bodywork of in-situ object counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Tiancheng; Chen Wei; Long Bin; Su Chuanying; Wu Rui; Jia Mingyan; Cheng Jianping

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the methods of experiment and calculation for shielding correction to the bodywork of in-situ object counting system (ISOCS) using a plane source of 152 Eu. The shielding correction coefficients were obtained in the conditions that the HPGe detector of BE5030 with the collimators of 50 mm-90 degree, 50 mm-30 degree or 50 mm-180 degree, and the detector distance 58.2 cm from ground surface. The relationships between the shielding correction coefficients and γ-ray energies were fitted by the least square method, for the shielding correction calculation of any energy within 122-1 408 keV by interpolation. (authors)

  8. Professional Development: A Capacity-Building Model for Juvenile Correctional Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Clark, Heather Griller; Schoenfeld, Naomi A.

    2009-01-01

    Youth in correctional facilities experience a broad range of educational, psychological, medical, and social needs. Professional development, a systemic process that improves the likelihood of student success by enhancing educator abilities, is a powerful way to positively affect student outcomes in correctional settings. This article offers a…

  9. 75 FR 61356 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... thermal desorber residual solids with Hazardous Waste Numbers: F037, F038, K048, K049, K050, and K051. In... and correcting it in Table 1 of appendix IX to part 261--Waste Excluded Under Sec. Sec. 260.20 and 260...

  10. An Opportunistic Error Correction Layer for OFDM Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel cross layer scheme to lower power consumption of ADCs in OFDM systems, which is based on resolution adaptive ADCs and Fountain codes. The key part in the new proposed system is that the dynamic range of ADCs can be reduced by discarding the packets which are

  11. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 427: Area 3 septic waste system numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Compound, specifically Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 427, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit Work Plan, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada divides investigative activities at TTR into Source Groups. The Septic Tanks and Lagoons Group consists of seven CAUs. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is one of three septic waste system CAUs in TTR Area 3. Corrective Action Unit Numbers 405 and 428 will be investigated at a future data. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is comprised of Septic Waste Systems Number 2 and 6 with respective CAS Numbers 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06

  12. A lateral chromatic aberration correction system for ultrahigh-definition color video camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takayuki; Shimamoto, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Ryohei; Mitani, Kohji; Nojiri, Yuji

    2006-02-01

    We have developed color camera for an 8k x 4k-pixel ultrahigh-definition video system, which is called Super Hi- Vision, with a 5x zoom lens and a signal-processing system incorporating a function for real-time lateral chromatic aberration correction. The chromatic aberration of the lens degrades color image resolution. So in order to develop a compact zoom lens consistent with ultrahigh-resolution characteristics, we incorporated a real-time correction function in the signal-processing system. The signal-processing system has eight memory tables to store the correction data at eight focal length points on the blue and red channels. When the focal length data is inputted from the lens control units, the relevant correction data are interpolated from two of eights correction data tables. This system performs geometrical conversion on both channels using this correction data. This paper describes that the correction function can successfully reduce the lateral chromatic aberration, to an amount small enough to ensure the desired image resolution was achieved over the entire range of the lens in real time.

  13. Developing an effective corrective action process : lessons learned from operating a confidential close call reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    In 2007, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) launched : C3RS, the Confidential Close Call Reporting System, as a : demonstration project to learn how to facilitate the effective : reporting and implementation of corrective actions, and assess t...

  14. 75 FR 60125 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records Notices; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Department of Treasury, Financial Management System, see TREASURY/FMS.014, or any successor TREASURY/FMS... uses was improperly identified and this notice corrects that paragraphing error. We have also clarified...

  15. Opportunistic error correction for OFDM-based DVB systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2013-01-01

    DVB-T2 (second generation terrestrial digital video broadcasting) employs LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) codes combined with BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquengham) codes, which has a better performance in comparison to convolutional and Reed-Solomon codes used in other OFDM-based DVB systems. However,

  16. Distributed Beacon Requirements for Branch Point Tolerant Laser Beam Compensation in Extended Atmospheric Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zetterlind, Virgil

    2002-01-01

    .... A least squares reconstructor is implemented for comparison. System performance is presented for various scenarios, including correction time-delays, wave-front sensor noise, and extended beacons...

  17. Evaluation of the global orbit correction algorithm for the APS real-time orbit feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.; Evans, K. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The APS real-time orbit feedback system uses 38 correctors per plane and has available up to 320 rf beam position monitors. Orbit correction is implemented using multiple digital signal processors. Singular value decomposition is used to generate a correction matrix from a linear response matrix model of the storage ring lattice. This paper evaluates the performance of the APS system in terms of its ability to correct localized and distributed sources of orbit motion. The impact of regulator gain and bandwidth, choice of beam position monitors, and corrector dynamics are discussed. The weighted least-squares algorithm is reviewed in the context of local feedback

  18. THE COUPLING CORRECTION SYSTEM AT RHIC: RESULTS FOR THE RUN 2000 AND PLANS FOR 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, F.; Fischer, W.; Peggs, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Tepikian, S.

    2001-01-01

    The RHIC coupling correction system has been commissioned during the Year 2000 run, which marked the successful first year of operation of the machine. The RHIC coupling correction system is described with particular emphasis on its flexibility, which allows using both global and local coupling compensation techniques. Coupling measurements and correction data are presented for the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings, together with the procedure used to reduce the minimum tune separation to 0.001, the typical resolution for tune measurements during run 2000. They further demonstrate how local coupling compensation in the interaction region substantially reduces the strength of the skew quadrupole families used for global coupling compensation

  19. Color correction for chromatic distortion in a multi-wavelength digital holographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Li-Chien; Huang, Yi-Lun; Tu, Han-Yen; Lai, Xin-Ji; Cheng, Chau-Jern

    2011-01-01

    A multi-wavelength digital holographic (MWDH) system has been developed to record and reconstruct color images. In comparison to working with digital cameras, however, high-quality color reproduction is difficult to achieve, because of the imperfections from the light sources, optical components, optical recording devices and recording processes. Thus, we face the problem of correcting the colors altered during the digital holographic process. We therefore propose a color correction scheme to correct the chromatic distortion caused by the MWDH system. The scheme consists of two steps: (1) creating a color correction profile and (2) applying it to the correction of the distorted colors. To create the color correction profile, we generate two algorithms: the sequential algorithm and the integrated algorithm. The ColorChecker is used to generate the distorted colors and their desired corrected colors. The relationship between these two color patches is fixed into a specific mathematical model, the parameters of which are estimated, creating the profile. Next, the profile is used to correct the color distortion of images, capturing and preserving the original vibrancy of the reproduced colors for different reconstructed images

  20. Distortion definition and correction in off-axis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Simioni, Emanuele; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Off-axis optical configurations are becoming more and more used in a variety of applications, in particular they are the most preferred solution for cameras devoted to Solar System planets and small bodies (i.e. asteroids and comets) study. Off-axis designs, being devoid of central obstruction, are able to guarantee better PSF and MTF performance, and thus higher contrast imaging capabilities with respect to classical on-axis designs. In particular they are suitable for observing extended targets with intrinsic low contrast features, or scenes where a high dynamical signal range is present. Classical distortion theory is able to well describe the performance of the on-axis systems, but it has to be adapted for the off-axis case. A proper way to deal with off-axis distortion definition is thus needed together with dedicated techniques to accurately measure and hence remove the distortion effects present in the acquired images. In this paper, a review of the distortion definition for off-axis systems will be given. In particular the method adopted by the authors to deal with the distortion related issues (definition, measure, removal) in some off-axis instruments will be described in detail.

  1. Limitations and corrections in measuring dynamic characteristics of structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, P.L.

    1978-10-01

    The work deals with limitations encountered in measuring the dynamic characteristics of structural systems. Structural loading and response are measured by transducers possessing multiple resonant frequencies in their transfer function. In transient environments, the resultant signals from these transducers are shown to be analytically unpredictable in amplitude level and frequency content. Data recorded during nuclear effects simulation testing on structures are analyzed. Results of analysis can be generalized to any structure which encounters dynamic loading. Methods to improve the recorded data are described which can be implemented on a frequency selective basis during the measurement process. These improvements minimize data distortion attributable to the transfer characteristics of the measuring transducers

  2. Corrective maintenance support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, Tetsuo

    1996-01-01

    With increase of share of nuclear power generation in electric power supply in Japan, requirement for further safe operation and improvement of economics for the nuclear power plants is promoting. The pressed water type (PWR) nuclear power plant in operation in Japan reaches to 22 sets, application rate of the instruments is 74% as mean value for 7 years since 1989 and in high level, which is due to a result of preventive maintenance in ordinary and periodical inspections. The present state of maintenance at the nuclear power plant is mainly preventive maintenance, which is mainly conducted in a shape of time planning maintenance but partially in a shape of state monitoring maintenance for partial rotating appliances. Concretely speaking, the periodical inspection was planned on a base of daily inspection and a long term program on maintenance, and executed on a base of feedback function to think of the long term program again by evaluating the periodical inspection results. Here were introduced on the monitoring diagnosis and periodical inspection regionalization equipment, fatigue monitoring system, automatic supersonic wave damage inspection equipment for reactor, steam evaporator heat conductive tube inspection equipment, automatic testing equipment for measuring controller, air working valve property testing equipment, as maintaining support system in the PW generation plant. (G.K.)

  3. Dispatching power system for preventive and corrective voltage collapse problem in a deregulated power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemadi, Nasser Ahmed

    generation capability to specific generators to allow a load flow solution to be obtained. The minimum control solvability problem can also obtain solution of the load flow without curtailing transactions that shed load and generation as recommended by VSSAD. A minimum control solvability problem will be implemented as a corrective control, that will achieve the above objectives by using minimum control changes. The control includes; (1) voltage setpoint on generator bus voltage terminals; (2) under load tap changer tap positions and switchable shunt capacitors; and (3) active generation at generator buses. The minimum control solvability problem uses the VSSAD recommendation to obtain the feasible stable starting point but completely eliminates the impossible or onerous recommendation made by VSSAD. This thesis reviews the capabilities of Voltage Stability Security Assessment and Diagnosis and how it can be used to implement a contingency selection module for the Open Access System Dispatch (OASYDIS). The OASYDIS will also use the corrective control computed by Security Constrained Dispatch. The corrective control would be computed off line and stored for each contingency that produces voltage instability. The control is triggered and implemented to correct the voltage instability in the agent experiencing voltage instability only after the equipment outage or operating changes predicted to produce voltage instability have occurred. The advantages and the requirements to implement the corrective control are also discussed.

  4. 78 FR 73696 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction AGENCY: Social Security... published a final rule document extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the...) extending the expiration date of the Mental Disorders body system in the Listing of Impairments (listings...

  5. 48 CFR 2945.104 - Review and correction of contractors' property control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review and correction of... contractors' property control systems. When the Government's property administrator determines that review and... administrator must review the system to determine whether the contractor will be able to meet the requirements...

  6. Quantum correction and ordering parameter for systems connected by a general point canonical transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyu Hwang; Hong, Suc Kyoung; Um, Chung In; George, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    With quantum operators corresponding to functions of the canonical variables, Schroedinger equations are constructed for systems corresponding to classical systems connected by a general point canonical transformation. Using the operator connecting quantum states between systems before and after the transformation, the quantum correction term and ordering parameter are obtained

  7. The Creation of Differential Correction Systems and the Systems of Global Navigation Satellite System Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polishchuk, G. M; Kozlov, V. I; Urlichich, Y. M; Dvorkin, V. V; Gvozdev, V. V

    2002-01-01

    ... for the Russian Federation and a system of global navigation satellite system monitoring. These projects are some of the basic ones in the Federal program "Global Navigation System," aimed at maintenance and development of the GLONASS system...

  8. An embedded optical tracking system for motion-corrected magnetic resonance imaging at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jessica; Siegert, Thomas; Reimer, Enrico; Labadie, Christian; Maclaren, Julian; Herbst, Michael; Zaitsev, Maxim; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Prospective motion correction using data from optical tracking systems has been previously shown to reduce motion artifacts in MR imaging of the head. We evaluate a novel optical embedded tracking system. The home-built optical embedded tracking system performs image processing within a 7 T scanner bore, enabling high speed tracking. Corrected and uncorrected in vivo MR volumes are acquired interleaved using a modified 3D FLASH sequence, and their image quality is assessed and compared. The latency between motion and correction of the slice position was measured to be (19 ± 5) ms, and the tracking noise has a standard deviation no greater than 10 μm/0.005° during conventional MR scanning. Prospective motion correction improved the edge strength by 16 % on average, even though the volunteers were asked to remain motionless during the acquisitions. Using a novel method for validating the effectiveness of in vivo prospective motion correction, we have demonstrated that prospective motion correction using motion data from the embedded tracking system considerably improved image quality.

  9. Discussion on Boiler Efficiency Correction Method with Low Temperature Economizer-Air Heater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liu; Xing-sen, Yang; Fan-jun, Hou; Zhi-hong, Hu

    2017-05-01

    This paper pointed out that it is wrong to take the outlet flue gas temperature of low temperature economizer as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation based on GB10184-1988. What’s more, this paper proposed a new correction method, which decomposed low temperature economizer-air heater system into two hypothetical parts of air preheater and pre condensed water heater and take the outlet equivalent gas temperature of air preheater as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation. This method makes the boiler efficiency calculation more concise, with no air heater correction. It has a positive reference value to deal with this kind of problem correctly.

  10. Feasibility Study of Correcting Circuit Scheme for Automatic Control System of Total Air in Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of investigations on dynamic characteristics automatic control system (ACS for total air consumption (TAC in a boiler with corrections for О2 and СО. From transition process point of view the ACS TAC with correction for СО is considered as the most optimum one as with disturbance attack on fuel expenditure so discharging beyond boiler furnace.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred N. Wickline

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 516 is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) 03-59-01 - Bldg 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 - Bldg 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 - Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 - Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 - Clean Out Box and Piping; and (7) 22-19-04 - Vehicle Decontamination Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of an acceptable corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 516. Corrective action investigation activities were performed between July 22 and August 14, 2003, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Supplemental sampling was conducted in late 2003 and early 2004.

  12. 75 FR 27463 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS[supreg] HD System Revision 1; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... fuel storage casks to add revision 1 to the NUHOMS HD spent fuel storage cask system. This action is... Federal Register on May 7, 2010 (75 FR 25120), that proposes to amend the regulations that govern storage...

  13. The data correction algorithms in sup 6 sup 0 Co train inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan Ya Ding; LiuXiMing; Miao Ji Cheng

    2002-01-01

    Because of the physical characteristics of the sup 6 sup 0 Co train inspection system and the application of high-speed data collection system based on current integral, the original images have been distorted in a certain degree. Authors investigate into the reasons why the distortion comes into being, and accordingly present the data correction algorithm

  14. 78 FR 47210 - National Practitioner Data Bank and Privacy Act; Exempt Records System; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... reference cited in the Privacy Act regulations. The National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) system of records... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 5b RIN 0906-AA97 National Practitioner Data Bank and Privacy Act; Exempt Records System; Technical Correction AGENCY: Health Resources and Services...

  15. Real-time distortion correction for visual inspection systems based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Danhua; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Chen, Xiaodong; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-03-01

    Visual inspection is a kind of new technology based on the research of computer vision, which focuses on the measurement of the object's geometry and location. It can be widely used in online measurement, and other real-time measurement process. Because of the defects of the traditional visual inspection, a new visual detection mode -all-digital intelligent acquisition and transmission is presented. The image processing, including filtering, image compression, binarization, edge detection and distortion correction, can be completed in the programmable devices -FPGA. As the wide-field angle lens is adopted in the system, the output images have serious distortion. Limited by the calculating speed of computer, software can only correct the distortion of static images but not the distortion of dynamic images. To reach the real-time need, we design a distortion correction system based on FPGA. The method of hardware distortion correction is that the spatial correction data are calculated first under software circumstance, then converted into the address of hardware storage and stored in the hardware look-up table, through which data can be read out to correct gray level. The major benefit using FPGA is that the same circuit can be used for other circularly symmetric wide-angle lenses without being modified.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Septic Systems' and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank; (2) CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool; (3) CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks; and (4) CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Closure activities were conducted from September to November 2009 in accordance with the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 563. The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure.

  17. Correction of head movements in positron emission tomography using point source tracking system: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarparvar, Babak; Shamsaei, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The motion of the head during brain positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions has been identified as a source of artifact in the reconstructed image. In this study, a method is described to develop an image-based motion correction technique for correcting the post-acquisition data without using external optical motion-tracking system such as POLARIS. In this technique, GATE has been used to simulate PET brain scan using point sources mounted around the head to accurately monitor the position of the head during the time frames. The measurement of head motion in each frame showed a transformation in the image frame matrix, resulting in a fully corrected data set. Using different kinds of phantoms and motions, the accuracy of the correction method is tested and its applicability to experimental studies is demonstrated as well.

  18. Accuracy Improvement of Multi-Axis Systems Based on Laser Correction of Volumetric Geometric Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleshevsky, V. I.; Sokolov, V. A.; Pimushkin, Ya I.

    2018-04-01

    The article describes a volumetric geometric errors correction method for CNC- controlled multi-axis systems (machine-tools, CMMs etc.). The Kalman’s concept of “Control and Observation” is used. A versatile multi-function laser interferometer is used as Observer in order to measure machine’s error functions. A systematic error map of machine’s workspace is produced based on error functions measurements. The error map results into error correction strategy. The article proposes a new method of error correction strategy forming. The method is based on error distribution within machine’s workspace and a CNC-program postprocessor. The postprocessor provides minimal error values within maximal workspace zone. The results are confirmed by error correction of precision CNC machine-tools.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2005-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, in Areas 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 224 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); (2) 03-05-01, Leachfield; (3) 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; (4) 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); (5) 06-05-01, Leachfield; (6) 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; (7) 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; (8) 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (9) 23-05-02, Leachfield. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the nine CASs within CAU 224. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 10, 2004, through January 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Investigation Plan.

  20. Multi-axial correction system in the treatment of radial club hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Suneel B; Kamath, Atul F; Sehgal, Kriti; Horn, B David; Hosalkar, Harish S

    2009-12-01

    Radial club hand is a well-recognized congenital malformation characterized by hypoplasia of bone and soft tissue on the radial aspect of the forearm and hand. The modalities of treatment have traditionally varied from stretching casts with soft-tissue procedures to the use of multiple corrective osteotomies. These osteotomies can be stabilized by a variety of methods, including external fixators that allow the possibility of gradual distraction with neohistiogenesis. This current study outlines the usage of one such device (multi-axial correction system [MAC]) in the management of deformity associated with severe radial club hand. Three consecutive cases of unilateral or bilateral severe (Bayne type IV) congenital radial club hand were corrected using MAC fixation in the last 5 years. This is a retrospective review of all three cases. Data parameters included: patient demographics, presentation findings, degree of deformity, amount of correction/lengthening, length of procedure, length of treatment, and associated complications. The surgical technique is described in detail for the benefit of the readership. The three patients with severe congenital radial club hand had a total of four limb involvements that underwent correction using osteotomies and usage of the MAC device for external fixation. All three patients underwent successful correction of deformity with the restoration of alignment, lengthening of forearm for improvement of function, and stabilization of the wrist (mean duration, mean lengthening, mean time to consolidation). The MAC system was well tolerated in all patients and associated complications were limited. The MAC fixator seems to be a good alternative modality of stabilization and correction for severe congenital radial club hand deformities. Its usage is fairly simple and it provides the ease of application of a mono-lateral fixator with far superior three-dimensional control, like the circular external fixator. We recommend that

  1. Correction of Sample-Time Error for Time-Interleaved Sampling System Using Cubic Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Guo-jie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sample-time errors can greatly degrade the dynamic range of a time-interleaved sampling system. In this paper, a novel correction technique employing a cubic spline interpolation is proposed for inter-channel sample-time error compensation. The cubic spline interpolation compensation filter is developed in the form of a finite-impulse response (FIR filter structure. The correction method of the interpolation compensation filter coefficients is deduced. A 4GS/s two-channel, time-interleaved ADC prototype system has been implemented to evaluate the performance of the technique. The experimental results showed that the correction technique is effective to attenuate the spurious spurs and improve the dynamic performance of the system.

  2. Failure Detection of Composites with Control System Corrective Response in Drone System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bowkett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a novel method for the detection of damage in carbon composites as used in drone frames. When damage is detected a further novel corrective response is initiated in the quadcopter flight controller to switch from a four-arm control system to a three-arm control system. This is made possible as a symmetrical frame is utilized, which allows for a balanced weight distribution between both the undamaged quadcopter and the fallback tri-copter layout. The resulting work allows for continued flight where this was not previously possible. Further developing work includes improved flight stability with the aid of an underslung load model. This is beneficial to the quadcopter as a damaged arm attached to the main body by the motor wires behaves as an underslung load. The underslung load works are also transferable in a dual master and slave drone system where the master drone transports a smaller slave drone by a tether, which acts as an underslung load.

  3. Research on correction algorithm of laser positioning system based on four quadrant detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingsong; Meng, Xiangyong; Qian, Weixian; Cai, Guixia

    2018-02-01

    This paper first introduces the basic principle of the four quadrant detector, and a set of laser positioning experiment system is built based on the four quadrant detector. Four quadrant laser positioning system in the actual application, not only exist interference of background light and detector dark current noise, and the influence of random noise, system stability, spot equivalent error can't be ignored, so it is very important to system calibration and correction. This paper analyzes the various factors of system positioning error, and then propose an algorithm for correcting the system error, the results of simulation and experiment show that the modified algorithm can improve the effect of system error on positioning and improve the positioning accuracy.

  4. Correction of Pressure Drop in Steam and Water System in Performance Test of Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinglong; Zhao, Xianqiao; Hou, Fanjun; Wu, Xiaowu; Wang, Feng; Hu, Zhihong; Yang, Xinsen

    2018-01-01

    Steam and water pressure drop is one of the most important characteristics in the boiler performance test. As the measuring points are not in the guaranteed position and the test condition fluctuation exsits, the pressure drop test of steam and water system has the deviation of measuring point position and the deviation of test running parameter. In order to get accurate pressure drop of steam and water system, the corresponding correction should be carried out. This paper introduces the correction method of steam and water pressure drop in boiler performance test.

  5. SFCSD: A Self-Feedback Correction System for DNS Based on Active and Passive Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Caiyun; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Junpeng; Sun, Yong; Zou, Xueqiang

    2017-01-01

    Domain Name System (DNS), one of the important infrastructure in the Internet, was vulnerable to attacks, for the DNS designer didn't take security issues into consideration at the beginning. The defects of DNS may lead to users' failure of access to the websites, what's worse, users might suffer a huge economic loss. In order to correct the DNS wrong resource records, we propose a Self-Feedback Correction System for DNS (SFCSD), which can find and track a large number of common websites' dom...

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  7. On the Correctness of Real-Time Modular Computer Systems Modeling with Stopwatch Automata Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alevtina B. Glonina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a schedulability analysis problem for real-time modular computer systems (RT MCS. A system configuration is called schedulable if all the jobs finish within their deadlines. The authors propose a stopwatch automata-based general model of RT MCS operation. A model instance for a given RT MCS configuration is a network of stopwatch automata (NSA and it can be built automatically using the general model. A system operation trace, which is necessary for checking the schedulability criterion, can be obtained from the corresponding NSA trace. The paper substantiates the correctness of the proposed approach. A set of correctness requirements to models of system components and to the whole system model were derived from RT MCS specifications. The authors proved that if all models of system components satisfy the corresponding requirements, the whole system model built according to the proposed approach satisfies its correctness requirements and is deterministic (i.e. for a given configuration a trace generated by the corresponding model run is uniquely determined. The model determinism implies that any model run can be used for schedulability analysis. This fact is crucial for the approach efficiency, as the number of possible model runs grows exponentially with the number of jobs in a system. Correctness requirements to models of system components models can be checked automatically by a verifier using observer automata approach. The authors proved by using UPPAAL verifier that all the developed models of system components satisfy the corresponding requirements. User-defined models of system components can be also used for system modeling if they satisfy the requirements.

  8. FUNCTIONS OF THE HEAD OF SPECIAL (CORRECTIONAL) EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION ON PERFECTION OF ESTIMATION OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Voynelenko Natalya Vaselyevna

    2012-01-01

    In article the maintenance of activity of the head of special (correctional) educational institution on the organization of estimation of quality of educational system is discussed. The model of joint activity of participants of educational process on estimation of educational objects, as component of system of quality management in Educational institution is presented. Functions of estimation of educational system in activity of the head of educational institution are formulated.

  9. Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neural development status of the visual system of children (around 8 years old) using contrast sensitivity. We achieved this by eliminating the influence of higher order aberrations (HOAs) with adaptive optics correction. We measured HOAs, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of six children and five adults with both corrected and uncorrected HOAs. We found that when HOAs were corrected, children and adults both showed improvements in MTF and CSF. However, the CSF of children was still lower than the adult level, indicating the difference in contrast sensitivity between groups cannot be explained by differences in optical factors. Further study showed that the difference between the groups also could not be explained by differences in non-visual factors. With these results we concluded that the neural systems underlying vision in children of around 8 years old are still immature in contrast sensitivity. PMID:24732728

  10. Efficacy of an ICALL Tutoring System and Process-Oriented Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inn-Chull

    2016-01-01

    A Web-based form-focused intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) tutoring system equipped with a process-oriented corrective feedback function was developed to investigate the extent to which such a program may serve as a viable method of teaching grammar to Korean secondary and elementary students. The present study was also…

  11. Warehousing Human Beings: A Review of the New York State Correctional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, New York.

    In 1970, the New York Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights undertook a study of the State Department of Correctional Services. Using information obtained from observations and from interviews with officials, staff, and inmates, the investigation focused upon the impact of the system on minorities and women. In the…

  12. The Role of the Environmental Health Specialist in the Penal and Correctional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; Gordon, Theodore J.

    1976-01-01

    Implementing a health and hygiene program in penal systems necessitates coordinating the entire staff. Health specialists could participate in facility planning and management, policy formation, and evaluation of medical care, housekeeping, and food services. They could also serve as liaisons between correctional staff and governmental or…

  13. Vertex corrections to the mean-field electrical conductivity in disordered electron systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Vladislav; Janiš, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 17 (2013), "175502-1"-"175502-10" ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : disordered electron systems * electrical conductivity * vertex corrections Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2013

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (sm b ullet) CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System (sm b ullet) CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping (sm b ullet) CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-06-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental corrective action alternatives. Corrective Action Unit 151 is located in Areas 2, 12, 18, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 151 is comprised of the nine Corrective Action Sites (CAS) listed below: (1) 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; (8) 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed); and (9) 20-19-02, Photochemical Drain. The CASs within CAU 151 are discharge and collection systems. Corrective Action Site 02-05-01 is located in Area 2 and is a well-water collection pond used as a part of the Nash test. Corrective Action Sites 12-03-01, 12-04-01, 12-04-02, 12-04-03, and 12-47-01 are located in Area 12 and are comprised of sewage lagoons, septic tanks, associated piping, and two sumps. The features are a part of the Area 12 Camp housing and administrative septic systems. Corrective Action Sites 18-03-01 and 18-99-09 are located in the Area 17 Camp in Area 18. These sites are sewage lagoons and associated piping. The origin and terminus of CAS 18-99-09 are unknown; however, the type and configuration of the pipe indicates that it may be a part of the septic systems in Area 18. Corrective Action Site 20-19-02 is located in the Area 20 Camp. This site is comprised of a surface discharge of photoprocessing chemicals.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITLV

    1999-01-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428, Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 428 consists of Corrective Action Sites 03- 05- 002- SW01 and 03- 05- 002- SW05, respectively known as Area 3 Septic Waste System 1 and Septic Waste System 5. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada , Rev. 1 (DOE/ NV, 1998c). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 428. A system of leachfields and associated collection systems was used for wastewater disposal at Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990 to replace the discrete septic waste systems. Operations within various buildings at Area 3 generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters potentially contaminated with contaminants of potential concern and disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. Corrective Action Unit 428 is composed of two leachfield systems in the northern portion of Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern for the site include oil/ diesel range total petroleum hydrocarbons, and Resource Conservation

  17. Haptic Data Processing for Teleoperation Systems: Prediction, Compression and Error Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-young

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores haptic data processing methods for teleoperation systems, including prediction, compression, and error correction. In the proposed haptic data prediction method, unreliable network conditions, such as time-varying delay and packet loss, are detected by a transport layer protocol. Given the information from the transport layer, a Bayesian approach is introduced to predict position and force data in haptic teleoperation systems. Stability of the proposed method within stoch...

  18. The Saturne beam measurement system for orbit corrections and high and low intensity beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueurce, L.; Nakach, A.; Sole, J.

    1980-07-01

    This paper summarizes the dipolar and multipolar correction system and the main beam diagnostics of Saturne II: wide-band RF electrostatic pick-up electrode for observation of bunches, beam position and tune measurement systems, special electrodes for observation of emittance blow-up when particles cross a resonance line. For low intensity beams, special electrodes and electronics have been developed. All this instrumentation is computer controlled

  19. CORRECTION OF FORECASTS OF INTERRELATED CURRENCY PAIRS IN TERMS OF SYSTEMS OF BALANCE RATIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Gertsekovich D. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the problem of exchange rates forecast is logically considered a) traditionally as a task of forecast on the base of «stand-alone» equations of autoregression for each currency pair and b) as a result of forecast correction of autoregression equations system on the base of boundary conditions of balance ratios systems. As a criterion for quality of forecast constructed with empirical models we take the sum of deficiency quadrates of forecasts estimated for deductive currency pai...

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 500: Test Cell A Septic System, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 500 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site, CAS 25-04-05. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 500. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed between February and May 1999, which showed no evidence of soil contamination at this site. The clean closure justification for CAU 500 is based on these results. Analytes detected were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CAU 500, and it was determined that the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90 for any of the soil samples collected. COCs were identified only within the septic tank and distribution box at the CAU. No COCs were identified outside these two areas; therefore, no corrective action was necessary for the soil. Closure activities were performed to address the COCs identified within the septic tank and distribution box. The DOE/NV recommended that neither corrective action nor a corrective action plan was required at CAU 500. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 500, and the septic tank and distribution box have been closed in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site

  1. Clinical introduction of image lag correction for a cone beam CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, Uros; Ploeger, Lennert S.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Herk, Marcel van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Image lag in the flat-panel detector used for Linac integrated cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has a degrading effect on CBCT image quality. The most prominent visible artifact is the presence of bright semicircular structure in the transverse view of the scans, known also as radar artifact. Several correction strategies have been proposed, but until now the clinical introduction of such corrections remains unreported. In November 2013, the authors have clinically implemented a previously proposed image lag correction on all of their machines at their main site in Amsterdam. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of the correction on the quality of CBCT images and evaluate the required calibration frequency. Methods: Image lag was measured in five clinical CBCT systems (Elekta Synergy 4.6) using an in-house developed beam interrupting device that stops the x-ray beam midway through the data acquisition of an unattenuated beam for calibration. A triple exponential falling edge response was fitted to the measured data and used to correct image lag from projection images with an infinite response. This filter, including an extrapolation for saturated pixels, was incorporated in the authors’ in-house developed clinical CBCT reconstruction software. To investigate the short-term stability of the lag and associated parameters, a series of five image lag measurement over a period of three months was performed. For quantitative analysis, the authors have retrospectively selected ten patients treated in the pelvic region. The apparent contrast was quantified in polar coordinates for scans reconstructed using the parameters obtained from different dates with and without saturation handling. Results: Visually, the radar artifact was minimal in scans reconstructed using image lag correction especially when saturation handling was used. In patient imaging, there was a significant reduction of the apparent contrast from 43 ± 16.7 to

  2. Clinical introduction of image lag correction for a cone beam CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Uros; Ploeger, Lennert S; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    Image lag in the flat-panel detector used for Linac integrated cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has a degrading effect on CBCT image quality. The most prominent visible artifact is the presence of bright semicircular structure in the transverse view of the scans, known also as radar artifact. Several correction strategies have been proposed, but until now the clinical introduction of such corrections remains unreported. In November 2013, the authors have clinically implemented a previously proposed image lag correction on all of their machines at their main site in Amsterdam. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of the correction on the quality of CBCT images and evaluate the required calibration frequency. Image lag was measured in five clinical CBCT systems (Elekta Synergy 4.6) using an in-house developed beam interrupting device that stops the x-ray beam midway through the data acquisition of an unattenuated beam for calibration. A triple exponential falling edge response was fitted to the measured data and used to correct image lag from projection images with an infinite response. This filter, including an extrapolation for saturated pixels, was incorporated in the authors' in-house developed clinical cbct reconstruction software. To investigate the short-term stability of the lag and associated parameters, a series of five image lag measurement over a period of three months was performed. For quantitative analysis, the authors have retrospectively selected ten patients treated in the pelvic region. The apparent contrast was quantified in polar coordinates for scans reconstructed using the parameters obtained from different dates with and without saturation handling. Visually, the radar artifact was minimal in scans reconstructed using image lag correction especially when saturation handling was used. In patient imaging, there was a significant reduction of the apparent contrast from 43 ± 16.7 to 15.5 ± 11.9 HU without the

  3. Application Research of Fault Tree Analysis in Grid Communication System Corrective Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhenwei; Kang, Mei

    2018-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply the fault tree analysis method to the corrective maintenance field of grid communication system. Through the establishment of the fault tree model of typical system and the engineering experience, the fault tree analysis theory is used to analyze the fault tree model, which contains the field of structural function, probability importance and so on. The results show that the fault tree analysis can realize fast positioning and well repairing of the system. Meanwhile, it finds that the analysis method of fault tree has some guiding significance to the reliability researching and upgrading f the system.

  4. Note: An improved calibration system with phase correction for electronic transformers with digital output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Han-miao; Li, Hong-bin

    2015-08-01

    The existing electronic transformer calibration systems employing data acquisition cards cannot satisfy some practical applications, because the calibration systems have phase measurement errors when they work in the mode of receiving external synchronization signals. This paper proposes an improved calibration system scheme with phase correction to improve the phase measurement accuracy. We employ NI PCI-4474 to design a calibration system, and the system has the potential to receive external synchronization signals and reach extremely high accuracy classes. Accuracy verification has been carried out in the China Electric Power Research Institute, and results demonstrate that the system surpasses the accuracy class 0.05. Furthermore, this system has been used to test the harmonics measurement accuracy of all-fiber optical current transformers. In the same process, we have used an existing calibration system, and a comparison of the test results is presented. The system after improvement is suitable for the intended applications.

  5. Note: An improved calibration system with phase correction for electronic transformers with digital output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Han-miao, E-mail: chenghanmiao@hust.edu.cn; Li, Hong-bin, E-mail: lihongbin@hust.edu.cn [CEEE of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-08-15

    The existing electronic transformer calibration systems employing data acquisition cards cannot satisfy some practical applications, because the calibration systems have phase measurement errors when they work in the mode of receiving external synchronization signals. This paper proposes an improved calibration system scheme with phase correction to improve the phase measurement accuracy. We employ NI PCI-4474 to design a calibration system, and the system has the potential to receive external synchronization signals and reach extremely high accuracy classes. Accuracy verification has been carried out in the China Electric Power Research Institute, and results demonstrate that the system surpasses the accuracy class 0.05. Furthermore, this system has been used to test the harmonics measurement accuracy of all-fiber optical current transformers. In the same process, we have used an existing calibration system, and a comparison of the test results is presented. The system after improvement is suitable for the intended applications.

  6. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.2940 Section 60.2940 Protection of Environment... monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.1730 Section 60.1730 Protection of Environment... continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 62.15185 Section 62.15185 Protection of Environment... make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.3039 Section 60.3039 Protection of Environment... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b...

  10. [Signal analysis and spectrum distortion correction for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei-Yi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jun-Qing; Liang, Bo

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, the signal of a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) trace gas sensing system, which has a wavelength modulation with a wide range of modulation amplitudes, is studied based on Fourier analysis method. Theory explanation of spectrum distortion induced by laser intensity amplitude modulation is given. In order to rectify the spectrum distortion, a method of synchronous amplitude modulation suppression by a variable optical attenuator is proposed. To validate the method, an experimental setup is designed. Absorption spectrum measurement experiments on CO2 gas were carried out. The results show that the residual laser intensity modulation amplitude of the experimental system is reduced to -0.1% of its original value and the spectrum distortion improvement is 92% with the synchronous amplitude modulation suppression. The modulation amplitude of laser intensity can be effectively reduced and the spectrum distortion can be well corrected by using the given correction method and system. By using a variable optical attenuator in the TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) system, the dynamic range requirements of photoelectric detector, digital to analog converter, filters and other aspects of the TDLAS system are reduced. This spectrum distortion correction method can be used for online trace gas analyzing in process industry.

  11. Bistable front dynamics in a contractile medium: Travelling wave fronts and cortical advection define stable zones of RhoA signaling at epithelial adherens junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnar, Srikanth; Yap, Alpha S.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical coherence of cell layers is essential for epithelia to function as tissue barriers and to control active tissue dynamics during morphogenesis. RhoA signaling at adherens junctions plays a key role in this process by coupling cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion together with actomyosin contractility. Here we propose and analyze a mathematical model representing core interactions involved in the spatial localization of junctional RhoA signaling. We demonstrate how the interplay between biochemical signaling through positive feedback, combined with diffusion on the cell membrane and mechanical forces generated in the cortex, can determine the spatial distribution of RhoA signaling at cell-cell junctions. This dynamical mechanism relies on the balance between a propagating bistable signal that is opposed by an advective flow generated by an actomyosin stress gradient. Experimental observations on the behavior of the system when contractility is inhibited are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the model. PMID:28273072

  12. Bistable front dynamics in a contractile medium: Travelling wave fronts and cortical advection define stable zones of RhoA signaling at epithelial adherens junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Priya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical coherence of cell layers is essential for epithelia to function as tissue barriers and to control active tissue dynamics during morphogenesis. RhoA signaling at adherens junctions plays a key role in this process by coupling cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion together with actomyosin contractility. Here we propose and analyze a mathematical model representing core interactions involved in the spatial localization of junctional RhoA signaling. We demonstrate how the interplay between biochemical signaling through positive feedback, combined with diffusion on the cell membrane and mechanical forces generated in the cortex, can determine the spatial distribution of RhoA signaling at cell-cell junctions. This dynamical mechanism relies on the balance between a propagating bistable signal that is opposed by an advective flow generated by an actomyosin stress gradient. Experimental observations on the behavior of the system when contractility is inhibited are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the model.

  13. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S.

    1993-02-01

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. ne particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turn while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  14. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S. (Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, Dallas, Texas 75237 (United States))

    1993-12-25

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. The particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turns while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  15. Solution of a Two-Dimensionel Problem on the Motion of a Heat Wave Front with the use of Power Series and the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazakov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a nonlinear parabolic equation describing the process of heat conduction for the case of the power dependence of the heat conductivity factor on temperature. Besides heat distribution in space, it describes filtration of a polytropic gas in a porous medium, whereupon, in the English-language literature, this equation is generally referred to as the porous medium equation. A distinctive feature of this equation is the degeneration of its parabolic type when the required function becomes zero, whereupon the equation acquires some properties typical of first-order equations. Particularly, in some cases, it proves possible to substantiate theorems of the existence and uniqueness of heat-wave (filtration-wave type solutions for it. This paper proves a theorem of the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the problem of the motion of a heat wave with a specified front in the instance of two independent variables. At that, since the front has the form of a closed plane curve, a transition t o the polar coordinate system is performed. The solution is constructed in the form of a series, a constructible recurrent procedure for calculating its coefficients being proposed. The series convergence is proved by the majorant method. A boundary-element-based computation algorithm in the form of a computer program has been developed and implemented to solve the problem under study. Test examples are considered, the calculations made by a program designed by the authors being compared with the truncated series. A good agreement of the obtained results has been established.

  16. Assessment of the NASA Space Shuttle Program's Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsmeryer, D. J.; Schreiner, J. A.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents the general findings and recommendations of the Design for Safety Programs Study of the Space Shuttle Programs (SSP) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. The goals of this Study were: to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP's PRACA systems, and to recommend enhancements addressing specific deficiencies in preparation for future system upgrades. The Study determined that the extant SSP PRACA systems accomplished a project level support capability through the use of a large pool of domain experts and a variety of distributed formal and informal database systems. This operational model is vulnerable to staff turnover and loss of the vast corporate knowledge that is not currently being captured by the PRACA system. A need for a Program-level PRACA system providing improved insight, unification, knowledge capture, and collaborative tools was defined in this study.

  17. Power Factor Correction Capacitors for Multiple Parallel Three-Phase ASD Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Today’s three-phase Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems still employ Diode Rectifiers (DRs) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) as the front-end converters due to structural and control simplicity, small volume, low cost, and high reliability. However, the uncontrollable DRs and phase......-controllable SCRs bring side-effects by injecting high harmonics to the grid, which will degrade the system performance in terms of lowering the overall efficiency and overheating the system if remain uncontrolled or unattenuated. For multiple ASD systems, certain harmonics in the entire system can be mitigated...... the power factor, passive capacitors can be installed, which yet can trigger the system resonance. Hence, this paper analyzes the resonant issues in multiple ASD systems with power factor correction capacitors. Potential damping solutions are summarized. Simulations are carried out, while laboratory tests...

  18. Political Correctness and the System of Education: Selected Examples and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Rojek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing political correctness in the context of education. Political correctness has already been widely studied and commented on; however, the phenomenon has received surprisingly little attention in relation to schooling and, particularly, teachers. In the Polish system of education, political correctness is manifest first of all in the overt policy applied by people in charge of education, who refrain from using terminology of e.g. “free market,” “commercial value,” “product,” “competition,” or “profit,” which could be unfavourably received or assessed by teachers. It turns out that political correctness, though founded upon proper assumptions and ideally contributing to common good, can be incorrectly understood or used for political purposes, and thus lose its initial sense, thwart communication between politicians and teachers and hinder their mutual understanding or even render it impossible. This paper attempts to reveal yet another set of conditions, this time the language-related ones, in which contemporary teachers work.

  19. Electron beam position stabilization with a piezo-electric optical correction system

    CERN Document Server

    Averett, T; McKeown, R D; Pitt, M

    1999-01-01

    A piezo-electrically controlled optical correction system was successfully used to reduce the helicity-correlated pulse-to-pulse position differences of a laser spot to better than +-100 nm at a pulse rate of 600 Hz. Using a simple feedback algorithm, average position differences of DELTA x-bar=-3.5+-4.2 nm and DELTA y-bar=2.6+-6.6 nm were obtained over a 6 h period. This optical correction system was successfully used in the polarized electron source at the Bates Linear Accelerator Center to stabilize the position of the electron beam during the recent SAMPLE experiment. Because this experiment measures a parity violating signal at the 10 sup - sup 6 level, it is sensitive to systematic effects which are correlated with the helicity of the incident electrons. One potentially large systematic effect is the helicity-correlated motion of the incident electron beam. By using this optical correction system, electron beam position differences at the location of the experiment were routinely kept well below +-100 n...

  20. Creating an isotopically similar Earth-Moon system with correct angular momentum from a giant impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Bryant M.; Petz, Jonathan M.; Sumpter, William J.; Turner, Ty R.; Smith, Edward L.; Fain, Baylor G.; Hutyra, Taylor J.; Cook, Scott A.; Gresham, John H.; Hibbs, Michael F.; Goderya, Shaukat N.

    2018-04-01

    The giant impact hypothesis is the dominant theory explaining the formation of our Moon. However, the inability to produce an isotopically similar Earth-Moon system with correct angular momentum has cast a shadow on its validity. Computer-generated impacts have been successful in producing virtual systems that possess many of the observed physical properties. However, addressing the isotopic similarities between the Earth and Moon coupled with correct angular momentum has proven to be challenging. Equilibration and evection resonance have been proposed as means of reconciling the models. In the summer of 2013, the Royal Society called a meeting solely to discuss the formation of the Moon. In this meeting, evection resonance and equilibration were both questioned as viable means of removing the deficiencies from giant impact models. The main concerns were that models were multi-staged and too complex. We present here initial impact conditions that produce an isotopically similar Earth-Moon system with correct angular momentum. This is done in a single-staged simulation. The initial parameters are straightforward and the results evolve solely from the impact. This was accomplished by colliding two roughly half-Earth-sized impactors, rotating in approximately the same plane in a high-energy, off-centered impact, where both impactors spin into the collision.

  1. Local blur analysis and phase error correction method for fringe projection profilometry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li; Da, Feipeng

    2018-05-20

    We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors. For defocus phenomenon, this method can be directly applied. With the aid of spatially varying point spread functions and local frontal plane assumption, experiments show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the system errors and improve the final reconstruction accuracy in various scenes. For a subsurface scattering scenario, if the translucent object is dominated by multiple scattering, the proposed method can also be applied to correct systematic errors once the bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function of the object material is measured.

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision No. 1 (9/2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This corrective action investigation plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 262 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): Underground Storage Tank (25-02-06), Septic Systems A and B (25-04-06), Septic System (25-04-07), Leachfield (25-05-03), Leachfield (25-05-05), Leachfield (25-05-06), Radioactive Leachfield (25-05-08), Leachfield (25-05-12), and Dry Well (25-51-01). Situated in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), sites addressed by CAU 262 are located at the Reactor-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Test Cell C; and Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facilities. The R-MAD, Test Cell C, and E-MAD facilities supported nuclear rocket reactor and engine testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The activities associated with the testing program were conducted between 1958 and 1973. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the site include oil/diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and tritium. The scope of the corrective action field investigation at the CAU will include the inspection of portions of the collection systems, sampling the contents of collection system features in situ of leachfield logging materials, surface soil sampling, collection of samples of soil underlying the base of inlet and outfall ends of septic tanks and outfall ends of diversion structures and distribution boxes, collection of soil samples from biased or a combination of

  3. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.1240 Section 60.1240 Protection of Environment... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1240 How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous...

  4. Neutron interference by division of wave front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.G.; Kearney, P.D.; Opat, G.I.; Cimmimo, A.

    1981-01-01

    The highly successful perfect cyrstal neutron interferometer of the type first developed by Bonse and Rauch exhibits interference by amplitude division. It relies on dynamical Bragg diffraction in a highly perfect single crystal to provide the beamsplitting. This type of interferometer, topologically analogous to the Nach-Zehnder interferometer of classical optics, has been employed in a variety of interesting experiments using thermal neutrons. Its shortcomings, however, are its extreme sensitivity to mechanical and thermal disturbances, and its applicability only to wavelegths shorter than the Bragg cutoff (6.27 Angstrom in silicon). The authors discuss a novel type of neutron interferometer which was constructed and tested employing a split cylindrical zone plate with neutrons of 20 Angstrom wavelength. Its performance and relative merits are discussed

  5. Wave Front Sensor for Solar Concentrator Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    terrestrial-based and space-based. Both types of concentrator can be either imaging or nonimaging and they can be rigid or inflatable. Other...and T is the temperature of the absorber and propellant. In (5), Iin is input intensity with effects of the optical path through the concentrator acting...Hartmann in 1900 and was used for checking optical telescopes for aberrations. It was an array of holes in a plate placed in front of the mirror of

  6. A practical head tracking system for motion correction in neurological SPECT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, R.R.; Eberl, S.; Meikle, S.; Hutton, B.F.; Braun, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Patient motion during data acquisition can degrade the quality of SPECT and PET images. Techniques for motion correction in neurological studies in both modalities based on continuous monitoring of head position have been proposed. However difficulties in developing suitable head tracking systems have so far impeded clinical implementations. We have developed a head tracking system based on the mechanical ADL-1 tracker (Shooting Star Technology, Rosedale, Canada) on a Trionix triple-head SPECT camera A software driver running on a SUN Sparc host computer communicates with the tracker over a serial line providing up to 300 updates per second with angular and positional resolutions of 0.05 degrees and 0.2 mm respectively. The SUN Sparc workstation which acquires the SPECT study also communicates with the tracker, eliminating synchronisation problems. For motion correction, the motion parameters provided by the tracker within its own coordinate system must be converted to the camera's coordinate system. The conversion requires knowledge of the rotational relationships between the two coordinate systems and the displacement of their origins, both of which are determined from a calibration procedure. The tracker has been tested under clinical SPECT imaging conditions with a 3D Hoffman brain phantom. Multiple SPECT acquisitions were performed. After each acquisition the phantom was moved to a new position and orientation. Motion parameters reported by the tracker for each applied movement were compared with those obtained by applying an automated image registration program to the sequential reconstructed studies. Maximum differences were < 0.5 degrees and < 2mm, within the expected errors of the registration procedure. We conclude that this tracking system will be suitable for clinical evaluation of motion correction in SPECT and PET

  7. Office of River Protection Integrated Safety Management System Phase 1 Verification Corrective Action Plan; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLARK, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan is to demonstrate the OW planned and/or completed actions to implement ISMS as well as prepare for the RPP ISMS Phase II Verification scheduled for August, 1999. This Plan collates implied or explicit ORP actions identified in several key ISMS documents and aligns those actions and responsibilities perceived necessary to appropriately disposition all ISM Phase II preparation activities specific to the ORP. The objective will be to complete or disposition the corrective actions prior to the commencement of the ISMS Phase II Verification. Improvement products/tasks not slated for completion prior to the RPP Phase II verification will be incorporated as corrective actions into the Strategic System Execution Plan (SSEP) Gap Analysis. Many of the business and management systems that were reviewed in the ISMS Phase I verification are being modified to support the ORP transition and are being assessed through the SSEP. The actions and processes identified in the SSEP will support the development of the ORP and continued ISMS implementation as committed to be complete by end of FY-2000

  8. Office of River Protection Integrated Safety Management System Phase 1 Verification Corrective Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLARK, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan is to demonstrate the OW planned and/or completed actions to implement ISMS as well as prepare for the RPP ISMS Phase II Verification scheduled for August, 1999. This Plan collates implied or explicit ORP actions identified in several key ISMS documents and aligns those actions and responsibilities perceived necessary to appropriately disposition all ISM Phase II preparation activities specific to the ORP. The objective will be to complete or disposition the corrective actions prior to the commencement of the ISMS Phase II Verification. Improvement products/tasks not slated for completion prior to the RPP Phase II verification will be incorporated as corrective actions into the Strategic System Execution Plan (SSEP) Gap Analysis. Many of the business and management systems that were reviewed in the ISMS Phase I verification are being modified to support the ORP transition and are being assessed through the SSEP. The actions and processes identified in the SSEP will support the development of the ORP and continued ISMS implementation as committed to be complete by end of FY-2000

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-15

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 562 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 562 consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot · CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain · CAS 02-59-01, Septic System · CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain · CAS 02-60-02, French Drain · CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain · CAS 02-60-04, French Drain · CAS 02-60-05, French Drain · CAS 02-60-06, French Drain · CAS 02-60-07, French Drain · CAS 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall · CAS 23-99-06, Grease Trap · CAS 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls Closure activities began in October 2011 and were completed in April 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 562 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste and hazardous waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: · A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 562 · The transfer of CAU 562 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO

  10. Automated aberration correction of arbitrary laser modes in high numerical aperture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Julian; Waller, Erik H; Von Freymann, Georg

    2016-12-12

    Controlling the point-spread-function in three-dimensional laser lithography is crucial for fabricating structures with highest definition and resolution. In contrast to microscopy, aberrations have to be physically corrected prior to writing, to create well defined doughnut modes, bottlebeams or multi foci modes. We report on a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for spatial-light-modulator based automated aberration compensation to optimize arbitrary laser-modes in a high numerical aperture system. Using circularly polarized light for the measurement and first-guess initial conditions for amplitude and phase of the pupil function our scalar approach outperforms recent algorithms with vectorial corrections. Besides laser lithography also applications like optical tweezers and microscopy might benefit from the method presented.

  11. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 7. Additive Error Correction for Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy YATSUK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since during design it is impossible to use the uncertainty approach because the measurement results are still absent and as noted the error approach that can be successfully applied taking as true the nominal value of instruments transformation function. Limiting possibilities of additive error correction of measuring instruments for Cyber-Physical Systems are studied basing on general and special methods of measurement. Principles of measuring circuit maximal symmetry and its minimal reconfiguration are proposed for measurement or/and calibration. It is theoretically justified for the variety of correction methods that minimum additive error of measuring instruments exists under considering the real equivalent parameters of input electronic switches. Terms of self-calibrating and verification the measuring instruments in place are studied.

  12. New component-based normalization method to correct PET system models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, Shoko; Miyoshi, Yuji; Suga, Mikio; Yamaya, Taiga; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tashima, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Normalization correction is necessary to obtain high-quality reconstructed images in positron emission tomography (PET). There are two basic types of normalization methods: the direct method and component-based methods. The former method suffers from the problem that a huge count number in the blank scan data is required. Therefore, the latter methods have been proposed to obtain high statistical accuracy normalization coefficients with a small count number in the blank scan data. In iterative image reconstruction methods, on the other hand, the quality of the obtained reconstructed images depends on the system modeling accuracy. Therefore, the normalization weighing approach, in which normalization coefficients are directly applied to the system matrix instead of a sinogram, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose a new component-based normalization method to correct system model accuracy. In the proposed method, two components are defined and are calculated iteratively in such a way as to minimize errors of system modeling. To compare the proposed method and the direct method, we applied both methods to our small OpenPET prototype system. We achieved acceptable statistical accuracy of normalization coefficients while reducing the count number of the blank scan data to one-fortieth that required in the direct method. (author)

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224 is located in Areas 02, 03, 05, 06, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is situated approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 224 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Decon Pad and Septic Systems and is comprised of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); CAS 03-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; CAS 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); CAS 06-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; CAS 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; CAS 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and CAS 23-05-02, Leachfield. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 02-04-01, 03-05-01, 06-03-01, 11-04-01, and 23-05-02 is no further action. As a best management practice, the septic tanks and distribution box were removed from CASs 02-04-01 and 11-04-01 and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste. The NDEP-approved correction action alternative for CASs 05-04-01, 06-05-01, 06-17-04, and 06-23-01 is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of radiologically and pesticide-impacted soil and debris. CAU 224 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 224 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 224 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 60 cubic yards (yd3) of mixed waste in the form of soil and debris; approximately 70 yd 3 of sanitary waste in the form of soil, liquid from septic tanks, and concrete debris; approximately 10 yd 3 of hazardous waste in the form of pesticide-impacted soil; approximately 0.5 yd 3 of universal waste in the form of

  14. Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo; Verter, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In an initial investigation, remotely sensed surface temperature is assimilated into a coupled atmosphere/land global data assimilation system, with explicit accounting for biases in the model state. In this scheme, an incremental bias correction term is introduced in the model's surface energy budget. In its simplest form, the algorithm estimates and corrects a constant time mean bias for each gridpoint; additional benefits are attained with a refined version of the algorithm which allows for a correction of the mean diurnal cycle. The method is validated against the assimilated observations, as well as independent near-surface air temperature observations. In many regions, not accounting for the diurnal cycle of bias caused degradation of the diurnal amplitude of background model air temperature. Energy fluxes collected through the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) are used to more closely inspect the surface energy budget. In general, sensible heat flux is improved with the surface temperature assimilation, and two stations show a reduction of bias by as much as 30 Wm(sup -2) Rondonia station in Amazonia, the Bowen ratio changes direction in an improvement related to the temperature assimilation. However, at many stations the monthly latent heat flux bias is slightly increased. These results show the impact of univariate assimilation of surface temperature observations on the surface energy budget, and suggest the need for multivariate land data assimilation. The results also show the need for independent validation data, especially flux stations in varied climate regimes.

  15. Implementation of Coupled Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Global Atmospheric Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovich, Jon; Bosilovich, M.; Chern, Jiun-dar; daSilva, Arlindo

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NCAR Finite Volume GCM (fvGCM) with the NCAR CLM (Community Land Model) version 2.0 was integrated into the NASA/GMAO Finite Volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS). A new method was developed for coupled skin temperature assimilation and bias correction where the analysis increment and bias correction term is passed into the CLM2 and considered a forcing term in the solution to the energy balance. For our purposes, the fvDAS CLM2 was run at 1 deg. x 1.25 deg. horizontal resolution with 55 vertical levels. We assimilate the ISCCP-DX (30 km resolution) surface temperature product. The atmospheric analysis was performed 6-hourly, while the skin temperature analysis was performed 3-hourly. The bias correction term, which was updated at the analysis times, was added to the skin temperature tendency equation at every timestep. In this presentation, we focus on the validation of the surface energy budget at the in situ reference sites for the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Period (CEOP). We will concentrate on sites that include independent skin temperature measurements and complete energy budget observations for the month of July 2001. In addition, MODIS skin temperature will be used for validation. Several assimilations were conducted and preliminary results will be presented.

  16. Coulomb corrections to nuclear scattering lengths and effective ranges for weakly bound systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mur, V.D.; Popov, V.S.; Sergeev, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A procedure is considered for extracting the purely nuclear scattering length as and effective range rs (which correspond to a strong-interaction potential Vs with disregarded Coulomb interaction) from the experimentally determined nuclear quantities acs and rcs, which are modified by Coulomb interaction. The Coulomb renormalization of as and rs is especially strong if the system under study involves a level with energy close to zero (on the nuclear scale). This applies to formulas that determine the Coulomb renormalization of the low-energy parameters of s scattering (l=0). Detailed numerical calculations are performed for coefficients appearing in the equations that determine Coulomb corrections for various models of the potential Vs(r). This makes it possible to draw qualitative conclusions that the dependence of Coulomb corrections on the form of the strong-interaction potential and, in particular, on its small-distance behavior. A considerable enhancement of Coulomb corrections to the effective range rs is found for potentials with a barrier

  17. Improved Model for Depth Bias Correction in Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhu Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR bathymetry (ALB is efficient and cost effective in obtaining shallow water topography, but often produces a low-accuracy sounding solution due to the effects of ALB measurements and ocean hydrological parameters. In bathymetry estimates, peak shifting of the green bottom return caused by pulse stretching induces depth bias, which is the largest error source in ALB depth measurements. The traditional depth bias model is often applied to reduce the depth bias, but it is insufficient when used with various ALB system parameters and ocean environments. Therefore, an accurate model that considers all of the influencing factors must be established. In this study, an improved depth bias model is developed through stepwise regression in consideration of the water depth, laser beam scanning angle, sensor height, and suspended sediment concentration. The proposed improved model and a traditional one are used in an experiment. The results show that the systematic deviation of depth bias corrected by the traditional and improved models is reduced significantly. Standard deviations of 0.086 and 0.055 m are obtained with the traditional and improved models, respectively. The accuracy of the ALB-derived depth corrected by the improved model is better than that corrected by the traditional model.

  18. Attenuation correction with region growing method used in the positron emission mammography imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-Yue; Li, Lin; Yin, Peng-Fei; Yun, Ming-Kai; Chai, Pei; Huang, Xian-Chao; Sun, Xiao-Li; Wei, Long

    2015-10-01

    The Positron Emission Mammography imaging system (PEMi) provides a novel nuclear diagnosis method dedicated for breast imaging. With a better resolution than whole body PET, PEMi can detect millimeter-sized breast tumors. To address the requirement of semi-quantitative analysis with a radiotracer concentration map of the breast, a new attenuation correction method based on a three-dimensional seeded region growing image segmentation (3DSRG-AC) method has been developed. The method gives a 3D connected region as the segmentation result instead of image slices. The continuity property of the segmentation result makes this new method free of activity variation of breast tissues. The threshold value chosen is the key process for the segmentation method. The first valley in the grey level histogram of the reconstruction image is set as the lower threshold, which works well in clinical application. Results show that attenuation correction for PEMi improves the image quality and the quantitative accuracy of radioactivity distribution determination. Attenuation correction also improves the probability of detecting small and early breast tumors. Supported by Knowledge Innovation Project of The Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-EW-N06)

  19. Correcting surface solar radiation of two data assimilation systems against FLUXNET observations in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Shoudong

    2013-09-01

    Solar radiation at the Earth's surface is an important driver of meteorological and ecological processes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the reanalysis solar radiation produced by NARR (North American Regional Reanalysis) and MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) against the FLUXNET measurements in North America. We found that both assimilation systems systematically overestimated the surface solar radiation flux on the monthly and annual scale, with an average bias error of +37.2 Wm-2 for NARR and of +20.2 Wm-2 for MERRA. The bias errors were larger under cloudy skies than under clear skies. A postreanalysis algorithm consisting of empirical relationships between model bias, a clearness index, and site elevation was proposed to correct the model errors. Results show that the algorithm can remove the systematic bias errors for both FLUXNET calibration sites (sites used to establish the algorithm) and independent validation sites. After correction, the average annual mean bias errors were reduced to +1.3 Wm-2 for NARR and +2.7 Wm-2 for MERRA. Applying the correction algorithm to the global domain of MERRA brought the global mean surface incoming shortwave radiation down by 17.3 W m-2 to 175.5 W m-2. Under the constraint of the energy balance, other radiation and energy balance terms at the Earth's surface, estimated from independent global data products, also support the need for a downward adjustment of the MERRA surface solar radiation.

  20. Reliable software systems via chains of object models with provably correct behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakhnis, A.; Yakhnis, V.

    1996-01-01

    This work addresses specification and design of reliable safety-critical systems, such as nuclear reactor control systems. Reliability concerns are addressed in complimentary fashion by different fields. Reliability engineers build software reliability models, etc. Safety engineers focus on prevention of potential harmful effects of systems on environment. Software/hardware correctness engineers focus on production of reliable systems on the basis of mathematical proofs. The authors think that correctness may be a crucial guiding issue in the development of reliable safety-critical systems. However, purely formal approaches are not adequate for the task, because they neglect the connection with the informal customer requirements. They alleviate that as follows. First, on the basis of the requirements, they build a model of the system interactions with the environment, where the system is viewed as a black box. They will provide foundations for automated tools which will (a) demonstrate to the customer that all of the scenarios of system behavior are presented in the model, (b) uncover scenarios not present in the requirements, and (c) uncover inconsistent scenarios. The developers will work with the customer until the black box model will not possess scenarios (b) and (c) above. Second, the authors will build a chain of several increasingly detailed models, where the first model is the black box model and the last model serves to automatically generated proved executable code. The behavior of each model will be proved to conform to the behavior of the previous one. They build each model as a cluster of interactive concurrent objects, thus they allow both top-down and bottom-up development

  1. Scatter correction using a primary modulator on a clinical angiography C-arm CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Bastian; Berger, Martin; Maier, Andreas; Kachelrieß, Marc; Ritschl, Ludwig; Müller, Kerstin; Choi, Jang-Hwan; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2017-09-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) suffers from a large amount of scatter, resulting in severe scatter artifacts in the reconstructions. Recently, a new scatter correction approach, called improved primary modulator scatter estimation (iPMSE), was introduced. That approach utilizes a primary modulator that is inserted between the X-ray source and the object. This modulation enables estimation of the scatter in the projection domain by optimizing an objective function with respect to the scatter estimate. Up to now the approach has not been implemented on a clinical angiography C-arm CT system. In our work, the iPMSE method is transferred to a clinical C-arm CBCT. Additional processing steps are added in order to compensate for the C-arm scanner motion and the automatic X-ray tube current modulation. These challenges were overcome by establishing a reference modulator database and a block-matching algorithm. Experiments with phantom and experimental in vivo data were performed to evaluate the method. We show that scatter correction using primary modulation is possible on a clinical C-arm CBCT. Scatter artifacts in the reconstructions are reduced with the newly extended method. Compared to a scan with a narrow collimation, our approach showed superior results with an improvement of the contrast and the contrast-to-noise ratio for the phantom experiments. In vivo data are evaluated by comparing the results with a scan with a narrow collimation and with a constant scatter correction approach. Scatter correction using primary modulation is possible on a clinical CBCT by compensating for the scanner motion and the tube current modulation. Scatter artifacts could be reduced in the reconstructions of phantom scans and in experimental in vivo data. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  4. Problems of Aero-optics and Adaptive Optical Systems: Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shanin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical review gives the basic concepts of the aero-optics problem arising from the radiation propagation in the region of the boundary layers of a laser installation carrier aircraft. Estimates the radiation wave front distortions at its propagation in the near and far field. Presents main calculation approaches and methods to solve the gas-dynamic and optical problems in propagating laser radiation. Conducts a detailed analysis of the flows and their generating optical aberrations introduced by the aircraft turret (a projection platform of the on-board laser. Considers the effect of various factors (shock wave, difference in wall and flow temperatures on the flow pattern and the optical aberrations. Provides research data on the aero-optics obtained in the flying laboratory directly while in flight. Briefly considers the experimental research methods, diagnostic equipment, and synthesis of results while studying the aero-optics problem. Discusses some methods for mitigating the aerodynamic effects on the light propagation under flight conditions. Presents data about the passive, active, and hybrid effects on the flow in the boundary layers in order to reduce aberrations through improving the flow aerodynamics.The paper considers operation of adaptive optical systems under conditions of aero-optical distortions. Presents the study results concerning the reduction of the aero-optics effect on the characteristics of radiation in far field. Gives some research results regarding the effect on the efficiency of the adaptive system of a laser beam jitter and a time delay in the feedback signal transmission, which occur under application conditions. Provides data on adaptive correction of aero-optical wave fronts of radiation. Considers some application aspects in control systems of the on-board adaptive optics of adaptive filtration as a way to improve the efficiency of adaptive optical systems. The project in mind is to use obtained results

  5. Quantum corrections for the phase diagram of systems with competing order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N. L., Jr.; Continentino, Mucio A.; Barci, Daniel G.

    2018-06-01

    We use the effective potential method of quantum field theory to obtain the quantum corrections to the zero temperature phase diagram of systems with competing order parameters. We are particularly interested in two different scenarios: regions of the phase diagram where there is a bicritical point, at which both phases vanish continuously, and the case where both phases coexist homogeneously. We consider different types of couplings between the order parameters, including a bilinear one. This kind of coupling breaks time-reversal symmetry and it is only allowed if both order parameters transform according to the same irreducible representation. This occurs in many physical systems of actual interest like competing spin density waves, different types of orbital antiferromagnetism, elastic instabilities of crystal lattices, vortices in a multigap SC and also applies to describe the unusual magnetism of the heavy fermion compound URu2Si2. Our results show that quantum corrections have an important effect on the phase diagram of systems with competing orders.

  6. Quantum corrections for the phase diagram of systems with competing order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N L; Continentino, Mucio A; Barci, Daniel G

    2018-06-06

    We use the effective potential method of quantum field theory to obtain the quantum corrections to the zero temperature phase diagram of systems with competing order parameters. We are particularly interested in two different scenarios: regions of the phase diagram where there is a bicritical point, at which both phases vanish continuously, and the case where both phases coexist homogeneously. We consider different types of couplings between the order parameters, including a bilinear one. This kind of coupling breaks time-reversal symmetry and it is only allowed if both order parameters transform according to the same irreducible representation. This occurs in many physical systems of actual interest like competing spin density waves, different types of orbital antiferromagnetism, elastic instabilities of crystal lattices, vortices in a multigap SC and also applies to describe the unusual magnetism of the heavy fermion compound URu 2 Si 2 . Our results show that quantum corrections have an important effect on the phase diagram of systems with competing orders.

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-01-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1[SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5[SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office[DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ((micro)g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the discharge

  8. Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bliss, E.S.; Long, T.W.; Orham, E.L.; Presta, R.W.; Swift, C.D.; Ward, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    We have developed an adaptive optics system that corrects up to five waves of 2nd-order and 3rd-order aberrations in a high-power laser beam to less than 1/10th wave RMS. The wavefront sensor is a Hartmann sensor with discrete lenses and position-sensitive photodiodes; the deformable mirror uses piezoelectric actuators with feedback from strain gauges bonded to the stacks. The controller hardware uses a VME bus. The system removes thermally induced aberrations generated in the master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains of a dye laser, as well as aberrations generated in beam combiners and vacuum isolation windows for average output powers exceeding 1 kW. The system bandwidth is 1 Hz, but higher bandwidths are easily attainable

  9. Lightweight and Statistical Techniques for Petascale Debugging: Correctness on Petascale Systems (CoPS) Preliminry Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Supinski, B R; Miller, B P; Liblit, B

    2011-09-13

    Petascale platforms with O(10{sup 5}) and O(10{sup 6}) processing cores are driving advancements in a wide range of scientific disciplines. These large systems create unprecedented application development challenges. Scalable correctness tools are critical to shorten the time-to-solution on these systems. Currently, many DOE application developers use primitive manual debugging based on printf or traditional debuggers such as TotalView or DDT. This paradigm breaks down beyond a few thousand cores, yet bugs often arise above that scale. Programmers must reproduce problems in smaller runs to analyze them with traditional tools, or else perform repeated runs at scale using only primitive techniques. Even when traditional tools run at scale, the approach wastes substantial effort and computation cycles. Continued scientific progress demands new paradigms for debugging large-scale applications. The Correctness on Petascale Systems (CoPS) project is developing a revolutionary debugging scheme that will reduce the debugging problem to a scale that human developers can comprehend. The scheme can provide precise diagnoses of the root causes of failure, including suggestions of the location and the type of errors down to the level of code regions or even a single execution point. Our fundamentally new strategy combines and expands three relatively new complementary debugging approaches. The Stack Trace Analysis Tool (STAT), a 2011 R&D 100 Award Winner, identifies behavior equivalence classes in MPI jobs and highlights behavior when elements of the class demonstrate divergent behavior, often the first indicator of an error. The Cooperative Bug Isolation (CBI) project has developed statistical techniques for isolating programming errors in widely deployed code that we will adapt to large-scale parallel applications. Finally, we are developing a new approach to parallelizing expensive correctness analyses, such as analysis of memory usage in the Memgrind tool. In the first two

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-09-16

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  12. Correction of Bowtie-Filter Normalization and Crescent Artifacts for a Clinical CBCT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Kong, Vic; Huang, Ke; Jin, Jian-Yue

    2017-02-01

    To present our experiences in understanding and minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a clinical cone beam computed tomography system. Bowtie-filter position and profile variations during gantry rotation were studied. Two previously proposed strategies (A and B) were applied to the clinical cone beam computed tomography system to correct bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. Physical calibration and analytical approaches were used to minimize the norm phantom misalignment and to correct for bowtie-filter normalization artifacts. A combined procedure to reduce bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts was proposed and tested on a norm phantom, CatPhan, and a patient and evaluated using standard deviation of Hounsfield unit along a sampling line. The bowtie-filter exhibited not only a translational shift but also an amplitude variation in its projection profile during gantry rotation. Strategy B was better than strategy A slightly in minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, possibly because it corrected the amplitude variation, suggesting that the amplitude variation plays a role in bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. The physical calibration largely reduced the misalignment-induced bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, and the analytical approach further reduced bowtie-filter normalization artifacts. The combined procedure minimized both bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, with Hounsfield unit standard deviation being 63.2, 45.0, 35.0, and 18.8 Hounsfield unit for the best correction approaches of none, bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts + bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, respectively. The combined procedure also demonstrated reduction of bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a CatPhan and a patient. We have developed a step

  13. Geometrical correction of the e-beam proximity effect for raster scan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belic, Nikola; Eisenmann, Hans; Hartmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas

    1999-06-01

    Increasing demands on pattern fidelity and CD accuracy in e- beam lithography require a correction of the e-beam proximity effect. The new needs are mainly coming from OPC at mask level and x-ray lithography. The e-beam proximity limits the achievable resolution and affects neighboring structures causing under- or over-exposion depending on the local pattern densities and process settings. Methods to compensate for this unequilibrated does distribution usually use a dose modulation or multiple passes. In general raster scan systems are not able to apply variable doses in order to compensate for the proximity effect. For system of this kind a geometrical modulation of the original pattern offers a solution for compensation of line edge deviations due to the proximity effect. In this paper a new method for the fast correction of the e-beam proximity effect via geometrical pattern optimization is described. The method consists of two steps. In a first step the pattern dependent dose distribution caused by back scattering is calculated by convolution of the pattern with the long range part of the proximity function. The restriction to the long range part result in a quadratic sped gain in computing time for the transformation. The influence of the short range part coming from forward scattering is not pattern dependent and can therefore be determined separately in a second step. The second calculation yields the dose curve at the border of a written structure. The finite gradient of this curve leads to an edge displacement depending on the amount of underground dosage at the observed position which was previously determined in the pattern dependent step. This unintended edge displacement is corrected by splitting the line into segments and shifting them by multiples of the writers address grid to the opposite direction.

  14. Optimization of Peptide Nucleic Acid Antisense Oligonucleotides for Local and Systemic Dystrophin Splice Correction in the mdx Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, HaiFang; Betts, Corinne; Saleh, Amer F; Ivanova, Gabriela D; Lee, Hyunil; Seow, Yiqi; Kim, Dalsoo; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew JA

    2010-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) have the capacity to alter the processing of pre-mRNA transcripts in order to correct the function of aberrant disease-related genes. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle degenerative disease that arises from mutations in the DMD gene leading to an absence of dystrophin protein. AOs have been shown to restore the expression of functional dystrophin via splice correction by intramuscular and systemic delivery in animal models of DMD and in DMD patients via intramuscular administration. Major challenges in developing this splice correction therapy are to optimize AO chemistry and to develop more effective systemic AO delivery. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) AOs are an alternative AO chemistry with favorable in vivo biochemical properties and splice correcting abilities. Here, we show long-term splice correction of the DMD gene in mdx mice following intramuscular PNA delivery and effective splice correction in aged mdx mice. Further, we report detailed optimization of systemic PNA delivery dose regimens and PNA AO lengths to yield splice correction, with 25-mer PNA AOs providing the greatest splice correcting efficacy, restoring dystrophin protein in multiple peripheral muscle groups. PNA AOs therefore provide an attractive candidate AO chemistry for DMD exon skipping therapy. PMID:20068555

  15. Lowered threshold energy for femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in a water based eye model by aberration correction with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Géneaux, Romain; Günther, Axel; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-06-01

    In femtosecond laser ophthalmic surgery tissue dissection is achieved by photodisruption based on laser induced optical breakdown. In order to minimize collateral damage to the eye laser surgery systems should be optimized towards the lowest possible energy threshold for photodisruption. However, optical aberrations of the eye and the laser system distort the irradiance distribution from an ideal profile which causes a rise in breakdown threshold energy even if great care is taken to minimize the aberrations of the system during design and alignment. In this study we used a water chamber with an achromatic focusing lens and a scattering sample as eye model and determined breakdown threshold in single pulse plasma transmission loss measurements. Due to aberrations, the precise lower limit for breakdown threshold irradiance in water is still unknown. Here we show that the threshold energy can be substantially reduced when using adaptive optics to improve the irradiance distribution by spatial beam shaping. We found that for initial aberrations with a root-mean-square wave front error of only one third of the wavelength the threshold energy can still be reduced by a factor of three if the aberrations are corrected to the diffraction limit by adaptive optics. The transmitted pulse energy is reduced by 17% at twice the threshold. Furthermore, the gas bubble motions after breakdown for pulse trains at 5 kilohertz repetition rate show a more transverse direction in the corrected case compared to the more spherical distribution without correction. Our results demonstrate how both applied and transmitted pulse energy could be reduced during ophthalmic surgery when correcting for aberrations. As a consequence, the risk of retinal damage by transmitted energy and the extent of collateral damage to the focal volume could be minimized accordingly when using adaptive optics in fs-laser surgery.

  16. The significance of "geothermal microzonation" for the correct planning of low-grade source geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Belfiore, Giuseppe Maria; Campisano, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the environmental-friendly energy systems are solar thermal technologies, photovoltaic and wind power, other advantageous technologies exist, although they have not found wide development in countries such as Italy. Given the almost absent environmental impact and the rather favorable cost/benefit ratio, low-enthalpy geothermal systems are, however, likely to be of strategic importance also in Italy during the next years. The importance of geology for a sustainable exploitation of the ground through geothermal systems from low-grade sources is becoming paramount. Specifically, understanding of the lithological characteristics of the subsurface along with structures and textures of rocks is essential for a correct planning of the probe/geo-exchanger field and their associated ground source heat pumps. The complex geology of Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy), which includes volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic units over limited extension, poses the question of how thermal conductivity of rocks is variable at the scale of restricted areas (even within the same municipality). This is the innovative concept of geothermal microzonation, i.e., how variable is the geothermal potential as a function of geology at the microscale. Some pilot areas have been therefore chosen to test how the geological features of the subsurface can influence the low-enthalpy geothermal potential of an area. Our geologically based evaluation and micro-zonation of the low-grade source geothermal potential of the selected areas have been verified to be fundamental for optimization of all the main components of a low-enthalpy geothermal system. Saving realization costs and limiting the energy consumption through correct sizing of the system are main ambitions to have sustainable development of this technology with intensive utilization of the subsurface. The variegated territory of countries such as Italy implies that these goals can be only reached if, primarily, the geological features

  17. A Correction Equation for Jump Height Measured Using the Just Jump System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John J; Jones, Paul A; Comfort, Paul

    2016-05-01

    To determine the concurrent validity and reliability of the popular Just Jump system (JJS) for determining jump height and, if necessary, provide a correction equation for future reference. Eighteen male college athletes performed 3 bilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs) on 2 JJSs (alternative method) that were placed on top of a force platform (criterion method). Two JJSs were used to establish consistency between systems. Jump height was calculated from flight time obtained from the JJS and force platform. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) demonstrated excellent within-session reliability of the CMJ height measurement derived from both the JJS (ICC = .96, P jump height (0.46 ± 0.09 m vs 0.33 ± 0.08 m) than the force platform (P jump height = (0.8747 × alternative jump height) - 0.0666. The JJS provides a reliable but overestimated measure of jump height. It is suggested, therefore, that practitioners who use the JJS as part of future work apply the correction equation presented in this study to resultant jump-height values.

  18. Pharmacological Correction of the Negative Effect of Acetylsalicylic Acid on the Energy-Generating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Udut, ScD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper demonstrates the effect of ASA and its combination with SUC on the energy-producing system of rat heart mitochondria as well as an assessment of SUC preventive application effect on ASA pharmacokinetic parameters. Experiments conducted on outbred male albino rats (200-250 g on a model of a xenobiotic load induced by seven days of intragastric injections of acetylsalicylic acid at a dose of 250 mg/kg have shown inhibition of the oxygen consumption rates in the heart mitochondria as well as a limitation of the succinate-dependent substrate oxidation pathways and a decrease in the mitochondria ATP/ADP coefficient. Succinic acid (50 mg/kg for 7 days was injected as a preventive medication to correct the mitochondrial bioenergetics revealed. A comparative research of the pharmacokinetics of acetylsalicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid against the background of succinic acid performed on the model of rabbits has shown total similarity in the parameters analyzed. This fact demonstrates the possibility of prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction using the intermediate Krebs cycle. SUC as preventive medication promotes the elimination of ASA-induced negative metabolic shifts in the rat heart mitochondria by normalizing the succinate- and NAD-dependent respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and therefore, it finds good use in the correction of ASA-induced negative side-effects of an energy-generating system

  19. Preservation of correctness during system reconfiguration in Data Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieba, Bogumil; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    This paper addresses dynamic reconfiguration of distributed systems that use a publish/subscribe (pub/sub) middleware. The objective of dynamic reconfiguration is to evolve incrementally from one system configuration to another at run-time in order to e.g., ensure the reliability of the system. The

  20. A modified error correction protocol for CCITT signalling system no. 7 on satellite links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuer, Dieter; Quernheim, Ulrich

    1991-10-01

    Comite Consultatif International des Telegraphe et Telephone (CCITT) Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) provides a level 2 error correction protocol particularly suited for links with propagation delays higher than 15 ms. Not being originally designed for satellite links, however, the so called Preventive Cyclic Retransmission (PCR) Method only performs well on satellite channels when traffic is low. A modified level 2 error control protocol, termed Fix Delay Retransmission (FDR) method is suggested which performs better at high loads, thus providing a more efficient use of the limited carrier capacity. Both the PCR and the FDR methods are investigated by means of simulation and results concerning throughput, queueing delay, and system delay, respectively. The FDR method exhibits higher capacity and shorter delay than the PCR method.

  1. Asynchronous error-correcting secure communication scheme based on fractional-order shifting chaotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Luo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel digital secure communication scheme is firstly proposed. Different from the usual secure communication schemes based on chaotic synchronization, the proposed scheme employs asynchronous communication which avoids the weakness of synchronous systems and is susceptible to environmental interference. Moreover, as to the transmission errors and data loss in the process of communication, the proposed scheme has the ability to be error-checking and error-correcting in real time. In order to guarantee security, the fractional-order complex chaotic system with the shifting of order is utilized to modulate the transmitted signal, which has high nonlinearity and complexity in both frequency and time domains. The corresponding numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the scheme.

  2. Modeling and Performance of Bonus-Malus Systems: Stationarity versus Age-Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Asmussen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a bonus-malus system in car insurance, the bonus class of a customer is updated from one year to the next as a function of the current class and the number of claims in the year (assumed Poisson. Thus the sequence of classes of a customer in consecutive years forms a Markov chain, and most of the literature measures performance of the system in terms of the stationary characteristics of this Markov chain. However, the rate of convergence to stationarity may be slow in comparison to the typical sojourn time of a customer in the portfolio. We suggest an age-correction to the stationary distribution and present an extensive numerical study of its effects. An important feature of the modeling is a Bayesian view, where the Poisson rate according to which claims are generated for a customer is the outcome of a random variable specific to the customer.

  3. Lessons Learned for Cx PRACA. Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelle, Pido I.; Ratterman, Christian; Gibbs, Cecil

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System (Cx PRACA). The goal of the Cx PRACA is to incorporate Lessons learned from the Shuttle, ISS, and Orbiter programs by creating a single tool for managing the PRACA process, that clearly defines the scope of PRACA applicability and what must be reported, and defines the ownership and responsibility for managing the PRACA process including disposition approval authority. CxP PRACA is a process, supported by a single information gathering data module which will be integrated with a single CxP Information System, providing interoperability, import and export capability making the CxP PRACA a more effective and user friendly technical and management tool.

  4. CORRECTION OF FORECASTS OF INTERRELATED CURRENCY PAIRS IN TERMS OF SYSTEMS OF BALANCE RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertsekovich D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of exchange rates forecast is logically considered a traditionally as a task of forecast on the base of «stand-alone» equations of autoregression for each currency pair and b as a result of forecast correction of autoregression equations system on the base of boundary conditions of balance ratios systems. As a criterion for quality of forecast constructed with empirical models we take the sum of deficiency quadrates of forecasts estimated for deductive currency pairs. Practical approval confirmed that deductive models meet common requirements, provide accepted precision, show resistance to initial data and are free from series of deficiency of one index. However, extreme forecast errors tell that practical application of the approach offered needs further improvement.

  5. Interim Corrective Measures Work Plan for the Expanded Bioventing System Eglin Main Base Old Fire Training Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This interim corrective measures work plan (ICM work plan) presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils at the Eglin Main Base Old Fire Training Area (old Eglin FTA...

  6. TWO-LAYER PHASE COMPENSATING INTERFERENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiy V. Nikandrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of optical interferential coatings, giving the possibility to form the wave front without the change of energy characteristics of the incident and reflected radiation. Correction is achieved due to the layer, which thickness is a function of coordinate of an optical element surface. Selection technique is suggested for refractive index materials, forming two-layer interference coating that creates a coating with a constant coefficient of reflection on the surface of the optical element. By this procedure the change of coefficient of reflection for the optical element surface, arising because of the variable thickness is eliminated. Magnesium oxide and zirconium dioxide were used as the film-forming materials. The paper presents experimentally obtained thickness distribution of the layer, which is a part of the phase compensating coating. A new class of optical coatings proposed in the paper can find its application for correcting the form of a wave front.

  7. Development of a Regularized Dynamic System Response Curve for Real-Time Flood Forecasting Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqun Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic system response curve (DSRC is commonly applied as a real-time flood forecasting error correction method to improve the accuracy of real-time flood forecasting. It has been widely recognized that the least squares (OLS/LS method, employed by DSRC, breaks down ill-posed problems, and therefore, the DSRC method may lead to deterioration in performance caused by meaningless solutions. To address this problem, a diagnostically theoretical analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the numerical solution of the Fredholm equation of the first kind and the DSRC method. The analysis clearly demonstrates the derivation of the problem and has implications for an improved approach. To overcome the unstable problem, a new method using regularization techniques (Tikhonov regularization and L-Curve criterion is proposed. Moreover, in this study, to improve the performance of hydrological models, the new method is used as an error correction method to correct a variable from a hydrological model. The proposed method incorporates the information from a hydrological model structure. Based on the analysis of the hydrological model, the free water storage of the Xinanjiang rainfall-runoff (XAJ model is corrected to improve the model’s performance. A numerical example and a real case study are presented to compare the two methods. Results from the numerical example indicate that the mean Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency value (NSE of the regularized DSRC method (RDSRC decreased from 0.99 to 0.55, while the mean NSE of DSRC decreased from 0.98 to −1.84 when the noise level was increased. The overall performance measured by four different criteria clearly demonstrates the robustness of the RDSRC method. Similar results were obtained for the real case study. The mean NSE of 35 flood events obtained by RDSRC method was 0.92, which is significantly higher than the mean NSE of DSRC (0.7. The results demonstrate that the RDSRC method is much

  8. A Realization of Bias Correction Method in the GMAO Coupled System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yehui; Koster, Randal; Wang, Hailan; Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max

    2018-01-01

    Over the past several decades, a tremendous effort has been made to improve model performance in the simulation of the climate system. The cold or warm sea surface temperature (SST) bias in the tropics is still a problem common to most coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs). The precipitation biases in CGCMs are also accompanied by SST and surface wind biases. The deficiencies and biases over the equatorial oceans through their influence on the Walker circulation likely contribute the precipitation biases over land surfaces. In this study, we introduce an approach in the CGCM modeling to correct model biases. This approach utilizes the history of the model's short-term forecasting errors and their seasonal dependence to modify model's tendency term and to minimize its climate drift. The study shows that such an approach removes most of model climate biases. A number of other aspects of the model simulation (e.g. extratropical transient activities) are also improved considerably due to the imposed pre-processed initial 3-hour model drift corrections. Because many regional biases in the GEOS-5 CGCM are common amongst other current models, our approaches and findings are applicable to these other models as well.

  9. Review of technological advancements in calibration systems for laser vision correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Verma, Shwetabh

    2018-02-01

    Using PubMed and our internal database, we extensively reviewed the literature on the technological advancements in calibration systems, with a motive to present an account of the development history, and latest developments in calibration systems used in refractive surgery laser systems. As a second motive, we explored the clinical impact of the error introduced due to the roughness in ablation and its corresponding effect on system calibration. The inclusion criterion for this review was strict relevance to the clinical questions under research. The existing calibration methods, including various plastic models, are highly affected by various factors involved in refractive surgery, such as temperature, airflow, and hydration. Surface roughness plays an important role in accurate measurement of ablation performance on calibration materials. The ratio of ablation efficiency between the human cornea and calibration material is very critical and highly dependent on the laser beam characteristics and test conditions. Objective evaluation of the calibration data and corresponding adjustment of the laser systems at regular intervals are essential for the continuing success and further improvements in outcomes of laser vision correction procedures.

  10. Error Correction and Calibration of a Sun Protection Measurement System for Textile Fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, A.R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Clothing is increasingly being labelled with a Sun Protection Factor number which indicates the protection against sunburn provided by the textile fabric. This Factor is obtained by measuring the transmittance of samples of the fabric in the ultraviolet region (290-400 nm). The accuracy and hence the reliability of the label depends on the accuracy of the measurement. Some sun protection measurement systems quote a transmittance accuracy at 2%T of ± 1.5%T. This means a fabric classified under the Australian standard (AS/NZ 4399:1996) with an Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) of 40 would have an uncertainty of +15 or -10. This would not allow classification to the nearest 5, and a UVR protection category of 'excellent protection' might in fact be only 'very good protection'. An accuracy of ±0.1%T is required to give a UPF uncertainty of ±2.5. The measurement system then does not contribute significantly to the error, and the problems are now limited to sample conditioning, position and consistency. A commercial sun protection measurement system has been developed by Camspec Ltd which used traceable neutral density filters and appropriate design to ensure high accuracy. The effects of small zero offsets are corrected and the effect of the reflectivity of the sample fabric on the integrating sphere efficiency is measured and corrected. Fabric orientation relative to the light patch is considered. Signal stability is ensured by means of a reference beam. Traceable filters also allow wavelength accuracy to be conveniently checked. (author)

  11. Error Correction and Calibration of a Sun Protection Measurement System for Textile Fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, A.R.L

    2000-07-01

    Clothing is increasingly being labelled with a Sun Protection Factor number which indicates the protection against sunburn provided by the textile fabric. This Factor is obtained by measuring the transmittance of samples of the fabric in the ultraviolet region (290-400 nm). The accuracy and hence the reliability of the label depends on the accuracy of the measurement. Some sun protection measurement systems quote a transmittance accuracy at 2%T of {+-} 1.5%T. This means a fabric classified under the Australian standard (AS/NZ 4399:1996) with an Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) of 40 would have an uncertainty of +15 or -10. This would not allow classification to the nearest 5, and a UVR protection category of 'excellent protection' might in fact be only 'very good protection'. An accuracy of {+-}0.1%T is required to give a UPF uncertainty of {+-}2.5. The measurement system then does not contribute significantly to the error, and the problems are now limited to sample conditioning, position and consistency. A commercial sun protection measurement system has been developed by Camspec Ltd which used traceable neutral density filters and appropriate design to ensure high accuracy. The effects of small zero offsets are corrected and the effect of the reflectivity of the sample fabric on the integrating sphere efficiency is measured and corrected. Fabric orientation relative to the light patch is considered. Signal stability is ensured by means of a reference beam. Traceable filters also allow wavelength accuracy to be conveniently checked. (author)

  12. Design and Implementation of an Online Auxiliary System for Correcting Japanese Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqin; Jiang, Guohai; Han, Lanling; Lin, Mingxing

    2013-01-01

    In language learning, error correction information given by teachers for student compositions is of great value in both teaching and learning. However, in traditional paper-based error correction mode, error correction information is easily lost and cannot be fed back to students systematically. The aim of this research is to provide maximum…

  13. Implementation of real-time nonuniformity correction with multiple NUC tables using FPGA in an uncooled imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gyong Jin; Kim, Lyang-June; Sheen, Sue-Ho; Koo, Gyou-Phyo; Jin, Sang-Hun; Yeo, Bo-Yeon; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of Non Uniformity Correction (NUC). Two point correction and one point correction with shutter were carried out in an uncooled imaging system which will be applied to a missile application. To design a small, light weight and high speed imaging system for a missile system, SoPC (System On a Programmable Chip) which comprises of FPGA and soft core (Micro-blaze) was used. Real time NUC and generation of control signals are implemented using FPGA. Also, three different NUC tables were made to make the operating time shorter and to reduce the power consumption in a large range of environment temperature. The imaging system consists of optics and four electronics boards which are detector interface board, Analog to Digital converter board, Detector signal generation board and Power supply board. To evaluate the imaging system, NETD was measured. The NETD was less than 160mK in three different environment temperatures.

  14. Dynamical Response of Catalytic Systems in a CS Corrected Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Boothroyd, Chris

    2010-01-01

    . In a catalytic reactor, the particles tend to sinter under reaction conditions resulting in the formation of larger particles and a loss of catalytic activity. Several models of sintering in different systems have been put forward [4,5]. However, most investigations have been post mortem studies, revealing only...... energies and energy barriers for sintering processes can be studied. The surface structures of catalytic materials are highly dependent on the surrounding atmosphere. The combined capabilities of ETEM and image CS correction provide unique possibilities to study this relationship. However, in order...... as function of Ar pressure in the pole piece gap. References [1] I. Chorkendorff and J.W. Niemantsverdriet, Concepts of Modern Catalysis and Kinetics, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2003. [2] www.nacatsoc.org [3] A.K. Datye, J. Catal. 216 (2003) 144. [4] J.T. Richardson and J.G. Crump, J. Catal. 56 (1979) 417. [5] C. H...

  15. Empirical correction of crosstalk in a low-background germanium γ-γ analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keillor, M.E.; Erikson, L.E.; Aalseth, C.E.; Day, A.R.; Fuller, E.S.; Glasgow, B.D.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hossbach, T.W.; Mizouni, L.K.; Myers, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is currently developing a custom software suite capable of automating many of the tasks required to accurately analyze coincident signals within gamma spectrometer arrays. During the course of this work, significant crosstalk was identified in the energy determination for spectra collected with a new low-background intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array at PNNL. The HPGe array is designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive γ-γ coincidence detection. The first half of the array, a single cryostat containing seven HPGe crystals, was recently installed into a new shallow underground laboratory facility. This update will present a brief review of the germanium array, describe the observed crosstalk, and present a straight-forward empirical correction that significantly reduces the impact of this crosstalk on the spectroscopic performance of the system. (author)

  16. Joint channel/frequency offset estimation and correction for coherent optical FBMC/OQAM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daobin; Yuan, Lihua; Lei, Jingli; wu, Gang; Li, Suoping; Ding, Runqi; Wang, Dongye

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we focus on analysis of the preamble-based joint estimation for channel and laser-frequency offset (LFO) in coherent optical filter bank multicarrier systems with offset quadrature amplitude modulation (CO-FBMC/OQAM). In order to reduce the noise impact on the estimation accuracy, we proposed an estimation method based on inter-frame averaging. This method averages the cross-correlation function of real-valued pilots within multiple FBMC frames. The laser-frequency offset is estimated according to the phase of this average. After correcting LFO, the final channel response is also acquired by averaging channel estimation results within multiple frames. The principle of the proposed method is analyzed theoretically, and the preamble structure is thoroughly designed and optimized to suppress the impact of inherent imaginary interference (IMI). The effectiveness of our method is demonstrated numerically using different fiber and LFO values. The obtained results show that the proposed method can improve transmission performance significantly.

  17. Analytical approach to chromatic correction in the final focus system of circular colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Cai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A conventional final focus system in particle accelerators is systematically analyzed. We find simple relations between the parameters of two focus modules in the final telescope. Using the relations, we derive the chromatic Courant-Snyder parameters for the telescope. The parameters are scaled approximately according to (L^{*}/β_{y}^{*}δ, where L^{*} is the distance from the interaction point to the first quadrupole, β_{y}^{*} the vertical beta function at the interaction point, and δ the relative momentum deviation. Most importantly, we show how to compensate its chromaticity order by order in δ by a traditional correction module flanked by an asymmetric pair of harmonic multipoles. The method enables a circular Higgs collider with 2% momentum aperture and illuminates a path forward to 4% in the future.

  18. Research of beam hardening correction method for CL system based on SART algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Daquan; Wang Yaxiao; Que Jiemin; Sun Cuili; Wei Cunfeng; Wei Long

    2014-01-01

    Computed laminography (CL) is a non-destructive testing technique for large objects, especially for planar objects. Beam hardening artifacts were wildly observed in the CL system and significantly reduce the image quality. This study proposed a novel simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) based beam hardening correction (BHC) method for the CL system, namely the SART-BHC algorithm in short. The SART-BHC algorithm took the polychromatic attenuation process in account to formulate the iterative reconstruction update. A novel projection matrix calculation method which was different from the conventional cone-beam or fan-beam geometry was also studied for the CL system. The proposed method was evaluated with simulation data and experimental data, which was generated using the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4 and a bench-top CL system, respectively. All projection data were reconstructed with SART-BHC algorithm and the standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. The reconstructed images show that beam hardening artifacts are greatly reduced with the SART-BHC algorithm compared to the FBP algorithm. The SART-BHC algorithm doesn't need any prior know-ledge about the object or the X-ray spectrum and it can also mitigate the interlayer aliasing. (authors)

  19. Object-oriented wavefront correction in an asymmetric amplifying high-power laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Deen; Zhang, Xin; Dai, Wanjun; Hu, Dongxia; Xue, Qiao; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Junpu; Zeng, Fa; Wang, Shenzhen; Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo

    2018-05-01

    An object-oriented wavefront control method is proposed aiming for excellent near-field homogenization and far-field distribution in an asymmetric amplifying high-power laser system. By averaging the residual errors of the propagating beam, smaller pinholes could be employed on the spatial filters to improve the beam quality. With this wavefront correction system, the laser performance of the main amplifier system in the Shen Guang-III laser facility has been improved. The residual wavefront aberration at the position of each pinhole is below 2 µm (peak-to-valley). For each pinhole, 95% of the total laser energy is enclosed within a circle whose diameter is no more than six times the diffraction limit. At the output of the main laser system, the near-field modulation and contrast are 1.29% and 7.5%, respectively, and 95% of the 1ω (1053 nm) beam energy is contained within a 39.8 µrad circle (6.81 times the diffraction limit) under a laser fluence of 5.8 J cm-2. The measured 1ω focal spot size and near-field contrast are better than the design values of the Shen Guang-III laser facility.

  20. Fault Detection and Correction for the Solar Dynamics Observatory Attitude Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.; Kenney, Thomas M.; Maldonado, Manuel D.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory is an Explorer-class mission that will launch in early 2009. The spacecraft will operate in a geosynchronous orbit, sending data 24 hours a day to a devoted ground station in White Sands, New Mexico. It will carry a suite of instruments designed to observe the Sun in multiple wavelengths at unprecedented resolution. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly includes four telescopes with focal plane CCDs that can image the full solar disk in four different visible wavelengths. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment will collect time-correlated data on the activity of the Sun's corona. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager will enable study of pressure waves moving through the body of the Sun. The attitude control system on Solar Dynamics Observatory is responsible for four main phases of activity. The physical safety of the spacecraft after separation must be guaranteed. Fine attitude determination and control must be sufficient for instrument calibration maneuvers. The mission science mode requires 2-arcsecond control according to error signals provided by guide telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, one of the three instruments to be carried. Lastly, accurate execution of linear and angular momentum changes to the spacecraft must be provided for momentum management and orbit maintenance. In thsp aper, single-fault tolerant fault detection and correction of the Solar Dynamics Observatory attitude control system is described. The attitude control hardware suite for the mission is catalogued, with special attention to redundancy at the hardware level. Four reaction wheels are used where any three are satisfactory. Four pairs of redundant thrusters are employed for orbit change maneuvers and momentum management. Three two-axis gyroscopes provide full redundancy for rate sensing. A digital Sun sensor and two autonomous star trackers provide two-out-of-three redundancy for fine attitude determination. The use of software to maximize

  1. MEDICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRECTION AND REHABILITATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH SOMATOFORM DYSFUNCTION OF VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Syusyuka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurocirculatory dystonia (NCD takes one of the leading positions among different extragenital diseases in pregnant women, and it promotes complications of pregnancy, labor and postpartum period. NCD which is included into the diagnostic section “Somatoform vegetative dysfunction” – is polyetiologic functional disease of cardiovascular system based on disorders of neuroendocrine regulation with multiple and various clinical signs that become worse in stress influence. Object of the work – is to estimate influence of medical and psychological correction program on the psycho-emotional state and rate of gestation complications in pregnant women with somatoform dysfunction of vegetative nervous system (SDVNS. Materials and methods of investigations There 56 pregnant women with NCD and it is the evidence of somatoform dysfunction of vegetative nervous system within gestation period of 12-34 weeks were examined in the study. Presence of this extragenital pathology was clinically proved by therapeutist. I group included 29 pregnant women who participated in the complex program of medical and psychological correction and sanatorium rehabilitation. II group included 27 pregnant women having rehabilitation in accord with standards of sanatorium-resort therapy. Control group comprised 24 somatically healthy pregnant women. Level of trait and state anxiety were estimated under methods of Spielberg-Hanin. Estimation of type of attitude towards the disease and of other associated personal attitudes was carried out using Personality Questionnaire of the V.M. Bekhterev Institute (PQBI. Results and their discussion. High rate of combination of SDVNS with various somatic pathology both in group I and group II was found (86.2% and 85.2% correspondingly. By comparing the results before sanatorium health improvement it was defined that average and high levels of state anxiety were dominating in all groups (group І - 91.7%, group II – 85% and

  2. Quantitative study of FORC diagrams in thermally corrected Stoner– Wohlfarth nanoparticles systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Biasi, E.; Curiale, J.; Zysler, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of FORC diagrams is becoming increasingly popular among researchers devoted to magnetism and magnetic materials. However, a thorough interpretation of this kind of diagrams, in order to achieve quantitative information, requires an appropriate model of the studied system. For that reason most of the FORC studies are used for a qualitative analysis. In magnetic systems thermal fluctuations 'blur' the signatures of the anisotropy, volume and particle interactions distributions, therefore thermal effects in nanoparticles systems conspire against a proper interpretation and analysis of these diagrams. Motivated by this fact, we have quantitatively studied the degree of accuracy of the information extracted from FORC diagrams for the special case of single-domain thermal corrected Stoner– Wohlfarth (easy axes along the external field orientation) nanoparticles systems. In this work, the starting point is an analytical model that describes the behavior of a magnetic nanoparticles system as a function of field, anisotropy, temperature and measurement time. In order to study the quantitative degree of accuracy of our model, we built FORC diagrams for different archetypical cases of magnetic nanoparticles. Our results show that from the quantitative information obtained from the diagrams, under the hypotheses of the proposed model, is possible to recover the features of the original system with accuracy above 95%. This accuracy is improved at low temperatures and also it is possible to access to the anisotropy distribution directly from the FORC coercive field profile. Indeed, our simulations predict that the volume distribution plays a secondary role being the mean value and its deviation the only important parameters. Therefore it is possible to obtain an accurate result for the inversion and interaction fields despite the features of the volume distribution. - Highlights: • Quantify the degree of accuracy of the information obtained using the FORC diagrams.

  3. On-line core monitoring system based on buckling corrected modified one group model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Fernando S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors require core monitoring during plant operation. To provide safe, clean and reliable core continuously evaluate core conditions. Currently, the reactor core monitoring process is carried out by nuclear code systems that together with data from plant instrumentation, such as, thermocouples, ex-core detectors and fixed or moveable In-core detectors, can easily predict and monitor a variety of plant conditions. Typically, the standard nodal methods can be found on the heart of such nuclear monitoring code systems. However, standard nodal methods require large computer running times when compared with standards course-mesh finite difference schemes. Unfortunately, classic finite-difference models require a fine mesh reactor core representation. To override this unlikely model characteristic we can usually use the classic modified one group model to take some account for the main core neutronic behavior. In this model a course-mesh core representation can be easily evaluated with a crude treatment of thermal neutrons leakage. In this work, an improvement made on classic modified one group model based on a buckling thermal correction was used to obtain a fast, accurate and reliable core monitoring system methodology for future applications, providing a powerful tool for core monitoring process. (author)

  4. Customized lingual bracket system and skeletal anchorage system for open bite correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Inami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We treated a female patient with open bite and high-angle Class II Division 2 malocclusion using fully customized lingual appliances, orthodontic anchor screws (OAS, and a skeletal anchorage system (SAS. By carefully controlling torque, anchorage, and vertical skeletal and dental factors, we were able to obtain proper anterior coupling. Even after the retention phase of treatment, the occlusion was maintained, indicating that we provided proper treatment according to the properly designed treatment plan. This also indicates that cases with an extremely high level of difficulty, as in the present case with high-angle retrognathic mandible and open bite, can be treated by combining the Incognito appliance (a fully customized lingual bracket appliance with a SAS and OAS.

  5. Software-controlled, highly automated intrafraction prostate motion correction with intrafraction stereographic targeting: System description and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanga, Theodore F.; Boer, Hans C. J. de; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Os, Marjolein J. H. van; Incrocci, Luca; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A new system for software-controlled, highly automated correction of intrafraction prostate motion,'' intrafraction stereographic targeting'' (iSGT), is described and evaluated. Methods: At our institute, daily prostate positioning is routinely performed at the start of treatment beam using stereographic targeting (SGT). iSGT was implemented by extension of the SGT software to facilitate fast and accurate intrafraction motion corrections with minimal user interaction. iSGT entails megavoltage (MV) image acquisitions with the first segment of selected IMRT beams, automatic registration of implanted markers, followed by remote couch repositioning to correct for intrafraction motion above a predefined threshold, prior to delivery of the remaining segments. For a group of 120 patients, iSGT with corrections for two nearly lateral beams was evaluated in terms of workload and impact on effective intrafraction displacements in the sagittal plane. Results: SDs of systematic (Σ) and random (σ) displacements relative to the planning CT measured directly after initial SGT setup correction were eff eff eff eff eff eff < 0.7 mm, requiring corrections in 82.4% of the fractions. Because iSGT is highly automated, the extra time added by iSGT is <30 s if a correction is required. Conclusions: Without increasing imaging dose, iSGT successfully reduces intrafraction prostate motion with minimal workload and increase in fraction time. An action level of 2 mm is recommended.

  6. Productivity changes in OECD healthcare systems: bias-corrected Malmquist productivity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younhee; Oh, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Minah

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates productivity changes in the healthcare systems of 30 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries over the 2002-2012 periods. The bootstrapped Malmquist approach is used to estimate bias-corrected indices of healthcare performance in productivity, efficiency and technology by modifying the original distance functions. Two inputs (health expenditure and school life expectancy) and two outputs (life expectancy at birth and infant mortality rate) are used to calculate productivity growth. There are no perceptible trends in productivity changes over the 2002-2012 periods, but positive productivity improvement has been noticed for most OECD countries. The result also informs considerable variations in annual productivity scores across the countries. Average annual productivity growth is evenly yielded by efficiency and technical changes, but both changes run somewhat differently across the years. The results of this study assert that policy reforms in OECD countries have improved productivity growth in healthcare systems over the past decade. Countries that lag behind in productivity growth should benchmark peer countries' practices to increase performance by prioritizing an achievable trajectory based on socioeconomic conditions. For example, relatively inefficient countries in this study indicate higher income inequality, corresponding to inequality and health outcomes studies. Although income inequality and globalization are not direct measures to estimate healthcare productivity in this study, these issues could be latent factors to explain cross-country healthcare productivity for future research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Wavefront correction system based on an equilateral triangular arrangement of actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bergum, J.W.; Kartz, M.W.; Presta, R.W.; Swift, C.D.

    1993-02-01

    Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) requires the copropagation of multiple beams at different wavelengths and at average powers exceeding 1 kW. Although mirror coatings are used that absorb less than one part in 10 5 , the beams still suffer from thermally induced phase distortions, both in the dye amplifiers and in transmissive optics, such as beam combiners and vacuum windows. These aberrations are 2nd-order and 3rd-order and can reach 5 waves peak-to-valley (p-v), which causes the beam to distort and break up when propagated over large distances. The magnitude of the aberrations scales with power, with time constants on the order of 30 seconds. Previous adaptive systems that have been developed corrected these thermally induced phase distortions of both 2nd-order and 3rd-order; however, these systems had limited spatial resolution and in some cases marginal stability. The authors have developed a new adaptive optics system where both the actuators of the deformable mirror and the lenslets of the Hartmann sensor are arranged with centers at the vertices of equilateral triangles. The wavefront sensor is a video Hartmann sensor that also uses an equilateral array of lenslets. The controller hardware uses a VME bus. The design minimizes the generation of reflected wavefronts higher than first order across each lenslet for large excursions of actuators from positions where the mirror is flat and, thus maximizes the precision of the slopes measured by the Hartmann sensor. The design is also immune to the waffle mode that is present in the reconstructors of adaptive optics systems where actuators are arranged in a square array

  8. Digital Elevation Model Correction for the thalweg values of Obion River system, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullo, T. T.; Bhuyian, M. N. M.; Hawkins, S. A.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Obion River system is located in North-West Tennessee and discharges into the Mississippi River. To facilitate US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to estimate water availability for agricultural consumption a one-dimensional HEC-RAS model has been proposed. The model incorporates the major tributaries (north and south), main stem of Obion River along with a segment of the Mississippi River. A one-meter spatial resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used as the primary source of topographic data. LiDAR provides fine-resolution terrain data over given extent. However, it lacks in accurate representation of river bathymetry due to limited penetration beyond a certain water depth. This reduces the conveyance along river channel as represented by the DEM and affects the hydrodynamic modeling performance. This research focused on proposing a method to overcome this issue and test the qualitative improvement by the proposed method over an existing technique. Therefore, objective of this research is to compare effectiveness of a HEC-RAS based bathymetry optimization method with an existing hydraulic based DEM correction technique (Bhuyian et al., 2014) for Obion River system in Tennessee. Accuracy of hydrodynamic simulations (upon employing bathymetry from respective sources) would be regarded as the indicator of performance. The aforementioned river system includes nine major reaches with a total river length of 310 km. The bathymetry of the river was represented via 315 cross sections equally spaced at about one km. This study targeted to selecting best practice for treating LiDAR based terrain data over complex river system at a sub-watershed scale.

  9. Correct measurement of RF-exposure, caused by modern broadband radio systems; Korrekte Erfassung der Immissionen von modernen, breitbandigen Funksystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuschek, M. [Fachhochschule Deggendorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Correct measurement of exposure, caused by modern broadband radio systems (UMTS, DAB, DVB-T, WLAN) requires special measuring-techniques. Looking at UMTS mobile communication systems as example, in this article the minimum requirements on measuring equipment will be shown. Additional hints were given, in which way an extrapolation of measurement field-levels to maximum installation power is possible. (orig.)

  10. Long-range corrected density functional theory study on static second hyperpolarizabilities of singlet diradical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Ryohei; Bonness, Sean; Yoneda, Kyohei; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Masayoshi; Botek, Edith; Champagne, Benoît; Kubo, Takashi; Kamada, Kenji; Ohta, Koji; Tsuneda, Takao

    2010-03-07

    Within the spin-unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) the long-range correction (LC) scheme combined with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr exchange-correlation functional, referred to as LC-UBLYP method, has been applied to the calculation of the second hyperpolarizability (gamma) of open-shell singlet diradical systems of increasing complexity and has demonstrated good performance: (i) for the simplest H(2) dissociation model, the gamma values calculated by the LC-UBLYP method significantly overshoot the full configuration interaction result but reproduce qualitatively the evolution of gamma as a function of the diradical character, (ii) for small singlet diradical 1,3-dipole systems, the diradical character dependence of gamma determined by the UCCSD and UCCSD(T) reference methods is reproduced semiquantitatively by the LC-UBLYP method except in the small diradical character region, where the spin-unrestricted solutions coincide with spin-restricted solutions, (iii) the LC-UBLYP method also closely reproduces the UCCSD(T) results on the diradical character dependence of gamma of the p-quinodimethane model system, particularly in the intermediate and large diradical character regions, whereas it shows an abrupt change for a diradical character (y) close to 0.2 originating from the triplet instability, (iv) the reliability of LC-UBLYP to reproduce reference coupled cluster results on open-shell singlet systems with intermediate and large diradical characters has also been substantiated in the case of gamma of 1,4-bis-(imidazol-2-ylidene)-cyclohexa-2,5-diene (BI2Y), then (v), for real systems built from a pair of phenalenyl radicals separated by a conjugated linker, the LC-UBLYP results have been found to closely match the UBHandHLYP values-which, for small systems are in good agreement with those obtained using correlated molecular orbital methods-whereas the UB3LYP results can be much different. These results are not only important from the viewpoint of an efficient

  11. Numerical model and analysis of an energy-based system using microwaves for vision correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertaub, Radha; Ryan, Thomas P.

    2009-02-01

    A treatment system was developed utilizing a microwave-based procedure capable of treating myopia and offering a less invasive alternative to laser vision correction without cutting the eye. Microwave thermal treatment elevates the temperature of the paracentral stroma of the cornea to create a predictable refractive change while preserving the epithelium and deeper structures of the eye. A pattern of shrinkage outside of the optical zone may be sufficient to flatten the central cornea. A numerical model was set up to investigate both the electromagnetic field and the resultant transient temperature distribution. A finite element model of the eye was created and the axisymmetric distribution of temperature calculated to characterize the combination of controlled power deposition combined with surface cooling to spare the epithelium, yet shrink the cornea, in a circularly symmetric fashion. The model variables included microwave power levels and pulse width, cooling timing, dielectric material and thickness, and electrode configuration and gap. Results showed that power is totally contained within the cornea and no significant temperature rise was found outside the anterior cornea, due to the near-field design of the applicator and limited thermal conduction with the short on-time. Target isothermal regions were plotted as a result of common energy parameters along with a variety of electrode shapes and sizes, which were compared. Dose plots showed the relationship between energy and target isothermic regions.

  12. Range walk error correction and modeling on Pseudo-random photon counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shanshan; Chen, Qian; He, Weiji

    2017-08-01

    Signal to noise ratio and depth accuracy are modeled for the pseudo-random ranging system with two random processes. The theoretical results, developed herein, capture the effects of code length and signal energy fluctuation are shown to agree with Monte Carlo simulation measurements. First, the SNR is developed as a function of the code length. Using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GMAPDs), longer code length is proven to reduce the noise effect and improve SNR. Second, the Cramer-Rao lower bound on range accuracy is derived to justify that longer code length can bring better range accuracy. Combined with the SNR model and CRLB model, it is manifested that the range accuracy can be improved by increasing the code length to reduce the noise-induced error. Third, the Cramer-Rao lower bound on range accuracy is shown to converge to the previously published theories and introduce the Gauss range walk model to range accuracy. Experimental tests also converge to the presented boundary model in this paper. It has been proven that depth error caused by the fluctuation of the number of detected photon counts in the laser echo pulse leads to the depth drift of Time Point Spread Function (TPSF). Finally, numerical fitting function is used to determine the relationship between the depth error and the photon counting ratio. Depth error due to different echo energy is calibrated so that the corrected depth accuracy is improved to 1cm.

  13. Method and system for correcting an aberration of a beam of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A beam of charged particles is deflected in a closed path such as a square over a cross wire grid, for example, at a constant velocity by an X Y deflection system. A small high frequency jitter is added at both axes of deflection to cause oscillation of the beam at 45deg to the X and Y axes. From the time that the leading edge of the oscillating beam passes over the wire until the trailing edge of the beam passes over the wire, an envelope of the oscillations produced by the jitter is obtained. A second envelope is obtained when the leading edge of the beam exits from being over the wire until the trailing edge of the beam ceases to be over the wire. Thus, a pair of envelopes is produced as the beam passes over each wire of the grid. The number of pulses exceeding ten percent of the peak voltage in the eight envelopes produced by the beam completing a cycle in its closed path around the grid are counted and compared with those counted during the previous cycle of the beam moving in its closed path over the grid. As the number of pulses decreases, the quality of the focus of the beam increases so that correction signals are applied to the focus coil in accordance with whether the number of pulses is increasing or decreasing

  14. Gait phase detection from sciatic nerve recordings in functional electrical stimulation systems for foot drop correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Jun-Uk; Song, Kang-Il; Han, Sungmin; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Choi, Kuiwon; Youn, Inchan; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kang, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Dosik

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous afferent activities recorded by a nerve cuff electrode have been used to detect the stance phase in a functional electrical stimulation system for foot drop correction. However, the implantation procedure was difficult, as the cuff electrode had to be located on the distal branches of a multi-fascicular nerve to exclude muscle afferent and efferent activities. This paper proposes a new gait phase detection scheme that can be applied to a proximal nerve root that includes cutaneous afferent fibers as well as muscle afferent and efferent fibers. To test the feasibility of this scheme, electroneurogram (ENG) signals were measured from the rat sciatic nerve during treadmill walking at several speeds, and the signal properties of the sciatic nerve were analyzed for a comparison with kinematic data from the ankle joint. On the basis of these experiments, a wavelet packet transform was tested to define a feature vector from the sciatic ENG signals according to the gait phases. We also propose a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier and investigate whether it could be used successfully to discriminate feature vectors into the stance and swing phases. In spite of no significant differences in the rectified bin-integrated values between the stance and swing phases, the sciatic ENG signals could be reliably classified using the proposed wavelet packet transform and GMM classification methods. (paper)

  15. Method and system for correcting an aberration of a beam of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-06-20

    A beam of charged particles is deflected in a closed path such as a square over a cross wire grid, for example, at a constant velocity by an X Y deflection system. A small high frequency jitter is added at both axes of deflection to cause oscillation of the beam at 45deg to the X and Y axes. From the time that the leading edge of the oscillating beam passes over the wire until the trailing edge of the beam passes over the wire, an envelope of the oscillations produced by the jitter is obtained. A second envelope is obtained when the leading edge of the beam exits from being over the wire until the trailing edge of the beam ceases to be over the wire. Thus, a pair of envelopes is produced as the beam passes over each wire of the grid. The number of pulses exceeding ten percent of the peak voltage in the eight envelopes produced by the beam completing a cycle in its closed path around the grid are counted and compared with those counted during the previous cycle of the beam moving in its closed path over the grid. As the number of pulses decreases, the quality of the focus of the beam increases so that correction signals are applied to the focus coil in accordance with whether the number of pulses is increasing or decreasing.

  16. Relativistic duality, and relativistic and radiative corrections for heavy-quark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.; Durand, L.

    1982-01-01

    We give a JWKB proof of a relativistic duality relation which relates an appropriate energy average of the physical cross section for e + e - →qq-bar bound states→hadrons to the same energy average of the perturbative cross section for e + e - →qq-bar. We show that the duality relation can be used effectively to estimate relativistic and radiative corrections for bound-quark systems to order α/sub s//sup ts2/. We also present a formula which relates the square of the ''large'' 3 S 1 Salpeter-Bethe-Schwinger wave function for zero space-time separation of the quarks to the square of the nonrelativistic Schroedinger wave function at the origin for an effective potential which reproduces the relativistic spectrum. This formula allows one to use the nonrelativistic wave functions obtained in potential models fitted to the psi and UPSILON spectra to calculate relativistic leptonic widths for qq-bar states via a relativistic version of the van Royen--Weisskopf formula

  17. Enabling vendor independent photoacoustic imaging systems with asynchronous laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yixuan; Zhang, Haichong K.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2018-02-01

    Channel data acquisition, and synchronization between laser excitation and PA signal acquisition, are two fundamental hardware requirements for photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Unfortunately, however, neither is equipped by most clinical ultrasound scanners. Therefore, less economical specialized research platforms are used in general, which hinders a smooth clinical transition of PA imaging. In previous studies, we have proposed an algorithm to achieve PA imaging using ultrasound post-beamformed (USPB) RF data instead of channel data. This work focuses on enabling clinical ultrasound scanners to implement PA imaging, without requiring synchronization between the laser excitation and PA signal acquisition. Laser synchronization is inherently consisted of two aspects: frequency and phase information. We synchronize without communicating the laser and the ultrasound scanner by investigating USPB images of a point-target phantom in two steps. First, frequency information is estimated by solving a nonlinear optimization problem, under the assumption that the segmented wave-front can only be beamformed into a single spot when synchronization is achieved. Second, after making frequencies of two systems identical, phase delay is estimated by optimizing the image quality while varying phase value. The proposed method is validated through simulation, by manually adding both frequency and phase errors, then applying the proposed algorithm to correct errors and reconstruct PA images. Compared with the ground truth, simulation results indicate that the remaining errors in frequency correction and phase correction are 0.28% and 2.34%, respectively, which affirm the potential of overcoming hardware barriers on PA imaging through software solution.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-28

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Septic Systems” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank · CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool · CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks · CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Closure activities were conducted from September to November 2009 in accordance with the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 563. The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure.

  19. Method and system for automatically correcting aberrations of a beam of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The location of a beam of charged particles within a deflection field is determined by its orthogonal deflection voltages. With the location of the beam in the field, correction currents are supplied to a focus coil and to each of a pair of stigmator coils to correct for change of focal length and astigmatism due to the beam being deflected away from the center of its deflection field

  20. Using Analysis Increments (AI) to Estimate and Correct Systematic Errors in the Global Forecast System (GFS) Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, K.; Kalnay, E.; Carton, J.; Yang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Systematic forecast errors, arising from model deficiencies, form a significant portion of the total forecast error in weather prediction models like the Global Forecast System (GFS). While much effort has been expended to improve models, substantial model error remains. The aim here is to (i) estimate the model deficiencies in the GFS that lead to systematic forecast errors, (ii) implement an online correction (i.e., within the model) scheme to correct GFS following the methodology of Danforth et al. [2007] and Danforth and Kalnay [2008, GRL]. Analysis Increments represent the corrections that new observations make on, in this case, the 6-hr forecast in the analysis cycle. Model bias corrections are estimated from the time average of the analysis increments divided by 6-hr, assuming that initial model errors grow linearly and first ignoring the impact of observation bias. During 2012-2016, seasonal means of the 6-hr model bias are generally robust despite changes in model resolution and data assimilation systems, and their broad continental scales explain their insensitivity to model resolution. The daily bias dominates the sub-monthly analysis increments and consists primarily of diurnal and semidiurnal components, also requiring a low dimensional correction. Analysis increments in 2015 and 2016 are reduced over oceans, which is attributed to improvements in the specification of the SSTs. These results encourage application of online correction, as suggested by Danforth and Kalnay, for mean, seasonal and diurnal and semidiurnal model biases in GFS to reduce both systematic and random errors. As the error growth in the short-term is still linear, estimated model bias corrections can be added as a forcing term in the model tendency equation to correct online. Preliminary experiments with GFS, correcting temperature and specific humidity online show reduction in model bias in 6-hr forecast. This approach can then be used to guide and optimize the design of sub

  1. Determination of data correction coefficients and the sensitivities of the KIER air-borne gamma-ray spectrometer survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.H.; Cho, D.H.; Park, Y.S.

    1982-01-01

    In air-borne gamma-ray spectrometer survey, the observed data must be corrected for the background, Compton scattering and flight altitude. And the corrected data are usually converted into the radiometric elements equivalents of the ground, using the sensitivities of the survey system. Accordingly, the correction coefficients and the sensitivities are determined as follows for the KIER air-borne survey system. The stripping or Compton scattering coefficients α, β and γ at the ground level were first determined on the basis of the gamma-ray count rates due to the 5 concrete calibration pads of the Soosaek Airbase, together with the radiometric elements concentrations of the core samples taken from the pads. As for the determination of the exponential altitude coefficients anti μ(K), anti μ(U), anti μ(Th) and anti μ(Tc), the count rates observed over the Hongseong Test Strip of about 3 km length were used after they had been corrected for the background and Compton scattering. The background count rates mainly caused by the air-craft as well as cosmic radiations were determined with the data taken over the West Sea near Anmyon Island, Chung-cheongnam-do. And the corrected count rates observed over the Strip, combined with the average radiometric elements concentrations of the Strip, yielded the sensitivities k(K), k(U) and k(Th) at the 400 feet flight altitude. (author)

  2. The application of pulsed concentrated solar radiation with the purpose of immune system correction of rheumatic arthritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shonazarov, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    The investigation results of dosed pulsed concentrated solar radiation(PCSR) influence to rheumatic arthritis patients are given. It was obtained that PCSR especially in the complex with balneological physiotherapy factors corrects regulator functions of cell link and decreases the density of humoral link of immune system. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs

  3. The petroleum products financial system in the law of finances for 2003 and the correcting law of finances for 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    To analyze to petroleum products financial system in the framework of the law of finances for 2003 and the corrective law of finances for 2002, the document presents the simplification measures, the measures for the planning and the prorogation of past dispositions, juridical references, the biofuels, and some elements of macro-economical framework. (A.L.B.)

  4. Simultaneous evaluation of the shell and pairing corrections to the nuclear deformation energy: the case of odd-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamouda, N [Laboratoire de Physique Theoique, Faculte des Sciences, USTHB BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Algers (Algeria); Oudih, M R [CRNA, 2. Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algers (Algeria)

    2002-09-15

    A method of simultaneous evaluation of the shell and pairing corrections to the nuclear deformation energy, recently proposed for the even-even nuclei, is generalized to the case of odd systems. {sup *} By means of the blocked-level technique, a level density with explicit dependence on pairing correlations is defined. The microscopic corrections to the deformation energy are then determined by a procedure which is analogous to that of Strutinsky. The method is applied to the ground state of Europium isotopes using the single-particle energies of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  5. Simultaneous evaluation of the shell and pairing corrections to the nuclear deformation energy: the case of odd-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    A method of simultaneous evaluation of the shell and pairing corrections to the nuclear deformation energy, recently proposed for the even-even nuclei, is generalized to the case of odd systems. * By means of the blocked-level technique, a level density with explicit dependence on pairing correlations is defined. The microscopic corrections to the deformation energy are then determined by a procedure which is analogous to that of Strutinsky. The method is applied to the ground state of Europium isotopes using the single-particle energies of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental values

  6. Novel anthropomorphic hip phantom corrects systemic interscanner differences in proximal femoral vBMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaretti, S; Saeed, I; Burghardt, A J; Lang, T; Carpenter, R D; Yu, L; Bruesewitz, M; Khosla, S

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is increasingly used in osteoporosis studies to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone quality and strength. However, QCT is confronted by technical issues in the clinical research setting, such as potentially confounding effects of body size on vBMD measurements and lack of standard approaches to scanner cross-calibration, which affects measurements of vBMD in multicenter settings. In this study, we addressed systematic inter-scanner differences and subject-dependent body size errors using a novel anthropomorphic hip phantom, containing a calibration hip to estimate correction equations, and a contralateral test hip to assess the quality of the correction. We scanned this phantom on four different scanners and we applied phantom-derived corrections to in vivo images of 16 postmenopausal women scanned on two scanners. From the phantom study, we found that vBMD decreased with increasing phantom size in three of four scanners and that inter-scanner variations increased with increasing phantom size. In the in vivo study, we observed that inter-scanner corrections reduced systematic inter-scanner mean vBMD differences but that the inter-scanner precision error was still larger than expected from known intra-scanner precision measurements. In conclusion, inter-scanner corrections and body size influence should be considered when measuring vBMD from QCT images. (paper)

  7. Reparameterization invariance of NRQED self-energy corrections and improved theory for excited D states in hydrogenlike systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wundt, Benedikt J.; Jentschura, Ulrich D.

    2008-01-01

    Canonically, the quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections in bound systems have been evaluated in photon energy regularization, i.e., using a noncovariant overlapping parameter that separates the high-energy relativistic scales of the virtual quanta from the nonrelativistic domain. Here, we calculate the higher-order corrections to the one-photon self-energy calculation with three different overlapping parameters (photon energy, photon mass and dimensional regularization) and demonstrate the reparameterization invariance of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED) using this particular example. We also present new techniques for the calculation of the low-energy part of this correction, which lead to results for the Lamb shift of highly excited states that are important for high-precision spectroscopy

  8. Reparameterization invariance of NRQED self-energy corrections and improved theory for excited D states in hydrogenlike systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wundt, Benedikt J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Jentschura, Ulrich D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.jentschura@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2008-01-24

    Canonically, the quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections in bound systems have been evaluated in photon energy regularization, i.e., using a noncovariant overlapping parameter that separates the high-energy relativistic scales of the virtual quanta from the nonrelativistic domain. Here, we calculate the higher-order corrections to the one-photon self-energy calculation with three different overlapping parameters (photon energy, photon mass and dimensional regularization) and demonstrate the reparameterization invariance of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED) using this particular example. We also present new techniques for the calculation of the low-energy part of this correction, which lead to results for the Lamb shift of highly excited states that are important for high-precision spectroscopy.

  9. Noninvasive Ventilatory Correction as an Adjunct to an Experimental Systemic Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Barlinn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in patients with acute ischemic stroke and associated with early clinical deterioration and poor functional outcome. However, noninvasive ventilatory correction is hardly considered as a complementary treatment option during the treatment phase of acute ischemic stroke. Summary of Case. A 55-year-old woman with an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA and enrolled into a thrombolytic research study. During tPA infusion, she became drowsy, developed apnea episodes, desaturated and neurologically deteriorated without recanalization, re-occlusion or intracerebral hemorrhage. Urgent noninvasive ventilatory correction with biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP reversed neurological fluctuation. Her MCA completely recanalized 24 hours later. Conclusions. Noninvasive ventilatory correction should be considered more aggressively as a complementary treatment option in selected acute stroke patients. Early initiation of BiPAP can stabilize cerebral hemodynamics and may unmask the true potential of other therapies.

  10. Correction method of slit modulation transfer function on digital medical imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Min; Jung, Hoi Woun; Min, Jung Whan; Im, Eon Kyung

    2006-01-01

    By using CR image pixel data, We examined the way how to calculate the MTF and digital characteristic curve. It can be changed to the text-file (Excel) from a pixel data which was printed with a digital x-ray equipment. In this place, We described the way how to figure out and correct the sharpness of a digital images of the MTF from FUJITA. Excel program was utilized to calculate from radiography of slit. Digital characteristic curve, Line Spread Function, Discrete Fourier Transform, Fast Fourier Transform digital specification curve, were indicated in regular sequence. A big advantage of this method, It can be understood easily and you can get results without costly program an without full knowledge of computer language. It shows many different values by using different correction methods. Therefore we need to be handy with appropriate correction method and we should try many experiments to get a precise MTF figures

  11. [Correction of syndrome-associated metabolic disturbances in patients with erosive and ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭsinova, A S; Efimenko, N V

    2009-01-01

    Correction of syndrome-associated metabolic disturbances in patients with erosive and ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal system was achieved by inclusion of moderately mineralized drinking water (Essentuki No 4 and the like), low-sulfide mineral baths, and essential phospholipids in the system of combined sanatorium-and-spa treatment. This approach allowed metabolic status of the patients to be improved and peroxide homeostasis stabilized. Moreover, it had generalized beneficial effect on the pathological process.

  12. Possibility of organic mineral water 'Naftusia Zbrutschanska' helps in correction of immune system with of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raksha-Slyusareva, E.A.; Slyusarev, A.A.; Malygina, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    Changing of hemato-immunological state of Chernobyl clean uppers, and conventional heals population, living in Donbass eco crisis region under influence of organic mineral water 'Naftusia Zbrutschanska' was detected. It was registries that including of organic mineral water 'Naftusia Zbrutschanska' in to the complex treatment of Chernobyl clean uppers or for immune correction of conventional heals population corrected not only red and white blood, but immunological state too. Especial after course of the organic mineral water 'Naftusia Zbrutschanska' the considers of lymphocyte populations, restarted to normal date or with tendency to norm

  13. Mindfulness Meditation as an Adjunct Approach to Treatment within the Correctional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafoe, Terra; Stermac, Lana

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy and relapse prevention represent the correctional gold standard in treatment, while the principles of risk, need, and responsivity are widely recognized as essential for reducing recidivism. Addressing responsivity has become difficult as the number of inmates with mental health diagnoses continues to rise,…

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action at the Test Cell A Leachfield System and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The Test Cell A Leachfield System is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 261. Remediation of CAU 261 is required under the FFACO (1996). CAU 261 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 261 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASS): CAS 25-05-01, Leachfield; and CAS 25-05-07, Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (Figures 2 and 3). Test Cell A was operated during the 1960s and 1970s to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Various operations within Building 3124 at Test Cell A resulted in liquid waste releases to the Leachfield and the AWLP. The following existing site conditions were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999): Soil in the leachfield was found to exceed the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preliminary remediation goals for semi volatile organic compounds, and background concentrations for strontium-90; Soil below the sewer pipe and approximately 4.5 meters (m) (15 feet [ft]) downstream of the initial outfall was found to exceed background concentrations for cesium-137 and strontium-90; Sludge in the leachfield septic tank was found to exceed the NDEP Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons and to contain americium-241, cesium-137, uranium-234, uranium-238, potassium-40, and strontium-90; No constituents of concern (COC) were identified at the AWLP. The NDEP-approved CADD (DOWNV, 1999) recommended Corrective Action Alternative 2, ''Closure of the Septic Tank and Distribution Box

  15. An artificial vision-based control system for automatic heliostat positioning offset correction in a central receiver solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dept. de Lenguajes y Computacion, La Canada Almeria (Spain); Rubio, F.R.; Lara, P.J.; Arahal, M.R.; Camacho, E.F.; Lopez, M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Sevilla (Spain); Valverde, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA-CIEMAT), Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a simplified and automatic heliostat positioning offset correction control system using artificial vision techniques and common CCD devices. The heliostats of a solar power plant reflect solar radiation onto a receiver (in this case, a volumetric receiver) placed at the top of a tower in order to provide a desired energy flux distribution correlated with the coolant flow (in this case air mass flow) through the receiver, usually in an open loop control configuration. There exist error sources that increase the complexity of the control system, some of which are systematic ones, mainly due to tolerances, wrong mirror facets alignment (optical errors), errors due to the approximations made when calculating the solar position, etc., that produce errors (offsets) in the heliostat orientation (aiming point). The approximation adopted in this paper is based on the use of a B/W CCD camera to correct these deviations in an automatic way imitating the same procedure followed by the operators. The obtained images are used to estimate the distance between the sunbeam centroid projected by the heliostats and a target placed on the tower, this distance thus is used for low accuracy offset correction purposes. Basic threshold-based image processing techniques are used for automatic correction. (Author)

  16. The structure of an expert system to diagnose and supply a corrective procedure for nuclear power plant malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Stasenko, J.E.; Hashemi, S.; Bhatnagar, R.; Yamada, N.; Punch, W.F. III.

    1987-01-01

    Two prototype knowledge based systems have been developed at the Ohio State University. These systems were the result of collaboration between the Nuclear Engineering Program and the Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR). The first system uses hierarchical classification to diagnose malfunctions of the coolant system in a General Electric Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The second system provides a plan of action, through a process of dynamic procedure synthesis, to stabilize the plant once an abnormal transient has occurred. The objective of this paper is to discuss a structure that will integrate the two systems. The combined system will be capable of informing plant personnel about the nature of malfunctions, and of supplying to the operator the most direct corrective procedure available. Two important features of the integrated system are faulty sensor detection, based on malfunction context and unlike sensor data, and procedure synthesis based on the initial state of the plant

  17. Self-interaction error in density functional theory: a mean-field correction for molecules and large systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo; Chermette, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Corrections to the self-interaction error which is rooted in all standard exchange-correlation functionals in the density functional theory (DFT) have become the object of an increasing interest. After an introduction reminding the origin of the self-interaction error in the DFT formalism, and a brief review of the self-interaction free approximations, we present a simple, yet effective, self-consistent method to correct this error. The model is based on an average density self-interaction correction (ADSIC), where both exchange and Coulomb contributions are screened by a fraction of the electron density. The ansatz on which the method is built makes it particularly appealing, due to its simplicity and its favorable scaling with the size of the system. We have tested the ADSIC approach on one of the classical pathological problem for density functional theory: the direct estimation of the ionization potential from orbital eigenvalues. A large set of different chemical systems, ranging from simple atoms to large fullerenes, has been considered as test cases. Our results show that the ADSIC approach provides good numerical values for all the molecular systems, the agreement with the experimental values increasing, due to its average ansatz, with the size (conjugation) of the systems

  18. Automated aberration correction of arbitrary laser modes in high numerical aperture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hering, Julian; Waller, Erik H.; Freymann, Georg von

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the point-spread-function in three-dimensional laser lithography is crucial for fabricating structures with highest definition and resolution. In contrast to microscopy, aberrations have to be physically corrected prior to writing, to create well defined doughnut modes, bottlebeams or multi foci modes. We report on a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for spatial-light-modulator based automated aberration compensation to optimize arbitrary laser-modes in a high numerical aperture...

  19. Correction of auto interaction in the formalism of the local spin density: molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.K. de.

    1987-01-01

    The auto-insertion correction proposed by Perdew and Zunger is introduced in the multiple scattering. The orbital spin relaxation is analyzed and this model is applied to the molecules = CH 4 , SiH 4 , GeH 4 as well as for the molecular compound GaAs with seventeen atoms in the [1Ga4As12Ga] configuration. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  20. Evaluation of a three-dimensional ultrasound localisation system incorporating probe pressure correction for use in partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E J; Symonds-Taylor, R; Treece, G M; Gee, A H; Prager, R W; Brabants, P; Evans, P M

    2009-10-01

    This work evaluates a three-dimensional (3D) freehand ultrasound-based localisation system with new probe pressure correction for use in partial breast irradiation. Accuracy and precision of absolute position measurement was measured as a function of imaging depth (ID), object depth, scanning direction and time using a water phantom containing crossed wires. To quantify the improvement in accuracy due to pressure correction, 3D scans of a breast phantom containing ball bearings were obtained with and without pressure. Ball bearing displacements were then measured with and without pressure correction. Using a single scan direction (for all imaging depths), the mean error was <1.3 mm, with the exception of the wires at 68.5 mm imaged with an ID of 85 mm, which gave a mean error of -2.3 mm. Precision was greater than 1 mm for any single scan direction. For multiple scan directions, precision was within 1.7 mm. Probe pressure corrections of between 0 mm and 2.2 mm have been observed for pressure displacements of 1.1 mm to 4.2 mm. Overall, anteroposterior position measurement accuracy increased from 2.2 mm to 1.6 mm and to 1.4 mm for the two opposing scanning directions. Precision is comparable to that reported for other commercially available ultrasound localisation systems, provided that 3D image acquisition is performed in the same scan direction. The existing temporal calibration is imperfect and a "per installation" calibration would further improve the accuracy and precision. Probe pressure correction was shown to improve the accuracy and will be useful for the localisation of the excision cavity in partial breast radiotherapy.

  1. Quantum corrections to ward identities of chronological AVV- and AAA-current correlators for nondegenerate many-fermion systems in the four-dimensional world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheryavij, V.Yi.

    1994-01-01

    The explicit form of nontrivial quantum corrections to Ward identities for AVV- and AAA-current correlators in the four-dimensional world for nondegenerate many-fermion systems of general type is obtained. The characteristics of all nontrivial quantum corrections for nondegenerate two-flavour fermion systems are classified and described. In particular, the well-known results follow from ours for the trivial quantum corrections (anomalies) in the case of the degenerate spectrum of fermion masses

  2. Evaluation of metal artifacts in MVCT systems using a model based correction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, M. R.; Mackenzie, M.; Fallone, B. G.; Rathee, S. [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a model based image reconstruction method in reducing metal artifacts in the megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images of a phantom representing bilateral hip prostheses and to compare with the filtered-backprojection (FBP) technique. Methods: An iterative maximum likelihood polychromatic algorithm for CT (IMPACT) is used with an additional model for the pair/triplet production process and the energy dependent response of the detectors. The beam spectra for an in-house bench-top and TomoTherapy Trade-Mark-Sign MVCTs are modeled for use in IMPACT. The empirical energy dependent response of detectors is calculated using a constrained optimization technique that predicts the measured attenuation of the beam by various thicknesses (0-24 cm) of solid water slabs. A cylindrical (19.1 cm diameter) plexiglass phantom containing various cylindrical inserts of relative electron densities 0.295-1.695 positioned between two steel rods (2.7 cm diameter) is scanned in the bench-top MVCT that utilizes the bremsstrahlung radiation from a 6 MeV electron beam passed through 4 cm solid water on the Varian Clinac 2300C and in the imaging beam of the TomoTherapy Trade-Mark-Sign MVCT. The FBP technique in bench-top MVCT reconstructs images from raw signal normalized to air scan and corrected for beam hardening using a uniform plexiglass cylinder (20 cm diameter). The IMPACT starts with a FBP reconstructed seed image and reconstructs the final image in 150 iterations. Results: In both MVCTs, FBP produces visible dark shading in the image connecting the steel rods. In the IMPACT reconstructed images this shading is nearly removed and the uniform background is restored. The average attenuation coefficients of the inserts and the background are very close to the corresponding values in the absence of the steel inserts. In the FBP images of the bench-top MVCT, the shading causes 4%-9.5% underestimation of electron density at the central inserts

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiason, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well

  4. A graphics processing unit accelerated motion correction algorithm and modular system for real-time fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Hampson, Michelle; Qiu, Maolin; Bhawnani, Jitendra; Constable, R Todd; Papademetris, Xenophon

    2013-07-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) has recently gained interest as a possible means to facilitate the learning of certain behaviors. However, rt-fMRI is limited by processing speed and available software, and continued development is needed for rt-fMRI to progress further and become feasible for clinical use. In this work, we present an open-source rt-fMRI system for biofeedback powered by a novel Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated motion correction strategy as part of the BioImage Suite project ( www.bioimagesuite.org ). Our system contributes to the development of rt-fMRI by presenting a motion correction algorithm that provides an estimate of motion with essentially no processing delay as well as a modular rt-fMRI system design. Using empirical data from rt-fMRI scans, we assessed the quality of motion correction in this new system. The present algorithm performed comparably to standard (non real-time) offline methods and outperformed other real-time methods based on zero order interpolation of motion parameters. The modular approach to the rt-fMRI system allows the system to be flexible to the experiment and feedback design, a valuable feature for many applications. We illustrate the flexibility of the system by describing several of our ongoing studies. Our hope is that continuing development of open-source rt-fMRI algorithms and software will make this new technology more accessible and adaptable, and will thereby accelerate its application in the clinical and cognitive neurosciences.

  5. Theoretical determination of gamma spectrometry systems efficiency based on probability functions. Application to self-attenuation correction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.barrera@uca.es [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, University of Cadiz, Avda, Universidad de Cadiz 10, 11519 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Suarez-Llorens, Alfonso [Facultad de Ciencias, University of Cadiz, Avda, Rep. Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Alonso, José J.; Vidal, Juan [CEIMAR, University of Cadiz, Avda, Rep. Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2017-05-11

    A generic theoretical methodology for the calculation of the efficiency of gamma spectrometry systems is introduced in this work. The procedure is valid for any type of source and detector and can be applied to determine the full energy peak and the total efficiency of any source-detector system. The methodology is based on the idea of underlying probability of detection, which describes the physical model for the detection of the gamma radiation at the particular studied situation. This probability depends explicitly on the direction of the gamma radiation, allowing the use of this dependence the development of more realistic and complex models than the traditional models based on the point source integration. The probability function that has to be employed in practice must reproduce the relevant characteristics of the detection process occurring at the particular studied situation. Once the probability is defined, the efficiency calculations can be performed in general by using numerical methods. Monte Carlo integration procedure is especially useful to perform the calculations when complex probability functions are used. The methodology can be used for the direct determination of the efficiency and also for the calculation of corrections that require this determination of the efficiency, as it is the case of coincidence summing, geometric or self-attenuation corrections. In particular, we have applied the procedure to obtain some of the classical self-attenuation correction factors usually employed to correct for the sample attenuation of cylindrical geometry sources. The methodology clarifies the theoretical basis and approximations associated to each factor, by making explicit the probability which is generally hidden and implicit to each model. It has been shown that most of these self-attenuation correction factors can be derived by using a common underlying probability, having this probability a growing level of complexity as it reproduces more precisely

  6. RCM optimization of a system under both preventive and corrective maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bris, R.; Cepin, M.

    2005-01-01

    Testing and maintenance activities of power electrical equipment are an important potential for both risk and cost reduction. A multi-objective maintenance optimization method is presented based on the Genetic Algorithms (GA) technique. The method determines the optimal schedule of preventive maintenance actions based on minimization both selected risk measure and cost. Applied cost model takes into account both preventive and corrective maintenance. This paper also presents application of the methodology to optimize maintenance of a real distribution network 22 kV. Conclusions and recommendations for practice are made on the basis of obtained results. (author)

  7. Offset correction system for 128-channel self-triggering readout chip with in-channel 5-bit energy measurement functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otfinowski, P., E-mail: potfin@agh.edu.pl; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Kasinski, K.

    2015-04-21

    We report on a novel, two-stage 8-bit trimming solution dedicated for multichannel systems with reduced trim DAC area occupancy. The presented design was used for comparator offset correction in a 128-channel particle tracking, self-triggering readout system and manufactured in 180 nm CMOS process. The 8-bit trim DAC has a range of ±165 mV, current consumption of 3.2 µA and occupies an area of 37 µm×17 µm in each channel, which corresponds to a 6-bit conventional current steering DAC with similar linearity.

  8. The free electron laser: a system capable of determining the gold standard in laser vision correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W. Craig; Rose, John G.; Chang, Daniel H.; Proia, Alan D.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction. In laser vision correction surgery, lasers are generally utilized based on their beam-tissue interactions and corneal absorption characteristics. Therefore, the free electron laser, with its ability to provide broad wavelength tunability, is a unique research tool for investigating wavelengths of possible corneal ablation. Methods. Mark III free electron laser wavelengths between 2.94 and 6.7 μm were delivered in serial 0.1 μm intervals to corneas of freshly enucleated porcine globes. Collateral damage, ablation depth, and ablation diameter were measured in histologic sections. Results. The least collateral damage (12-13 μm) was demonstrated at three wavelengths: 6.0, 6.1 (amide I), and 6.3 μm. Minimal collateral damage (15 μm) was noted at 2.94 μm (OH-stretch) and at 6.2 μm. Slightly greater collateral damage was noted at 6.45 μm (amide II), as well as at the 5.5-5.7 μm range, but this was still substantially less than the collateral damage noted at the other wavelengths tested. Conclusions. Our results suggest that select mid-infrared wavelengths have potential for keratorefractive surgery and warrant additional study. Further, the free electron laser's ability to allow parameter adjustment in the far-ultraviolet spectrum may provide unprecedented insights toward establishing the gold-standard parameters for laser vision correction surgery

  9. Correction of over and under exposure images using multiple lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jonghoon; Fujii, Hiromitsu; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    When images are acquired in bright condition, it can cause a loss of highlight details (over exposure) in bright area and a loss of shadow details (under exposure) in dark area. Over and under exposure causes a big problem when people investigate dangerous place like Fukushima nuclear power plant through the camera attached remote control robot. In this paper, we propose a method to correct the over and under exposure image to solve the problem. The image processing consists of four steps. Firstly, multiple images are acquired by alternately turning on and off each illumination which set in different positions. Then the image obtained first is defined as input image 1, the image obtained second is defined as input image 2 and the image obtained N-th is defined as input image N. Secondly, luminance of the images is corrected. Thirdly, over and under exposure regions in the image are extracted from the input image 1. Finally, the over and under exposure regions in the input image 1 are compensated by other images. The results show that the over and under exposure regions in the input image are recovered by our proposed method. (author)

  10. Systems analysis determining critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions on ASST magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, C.S.

    1993-04-01

    During the assembly process through the completion of the Accelerator Surface String Test (ASST) phase one test, Magnet Systems Division Reliability Engineering has tracked all the known discrepancies utilizing the Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) and data base. This paper discusses the critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions (lessons learned) based on actual data for the ASST magnets. The ASST magnets include seven Brookhaven Lab Dipoles (DCA-207 through 213), fourteen Fermi Lab Dipoles (DCA-310 through 323) and five Lawrence Berkeley Lab Quadrupoles (QCC-402 through 406). Between all the ASST magnets built there were one hundred eighty six (186) class one discrepancies reported out of approximately eleven hundred total discrepancy reports. The class one or critical discrepancies are defined as form, fit, function, safety or reliability problem. Each and every ASST magnet is considered a success, as they all achieved the quench performance requirements and were capable of being incorporated into the string test. This paper also discuss some specific magnet discrepancies, including failure cause(s), corrective action and possible open issues

  11. Systems analysis determining critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions on ASST magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    During the assembly process through the completion of the Accelerator Surface String Test (ASST) phase one test, Magnet Systems Division Reliability Engineering has tracked all the known discrepancies utilizing the Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) and data base. This paper discusses the critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions (lessons learned) based on actual data for the ASST magnets. The ASST magnets include seven Brookhaven Lab Dipoles (DCA-207 through 213), fourteen Fermi Lab Dipoles (DCA-310 through 323) and five Lawrence Berkeley Lab Quadrupoles (QCC-402 through 406). Between all the ASST magnets built there were one hundred eighty six (186) class one discrepancies reported out of approximately eleven hundred total discrepancy reports. The class one or critical discrepancies are defined as form, fit, function, safety or reliability problem. Each and every ASST magnet is considered a success, as they all achieved the quench performance requirements and were capable of being incorporated into the string test. This paper will also discuss some specific magnet discrepancies, including failure cause(s), corrective action and possible open issues

  12. Determination of serum aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: A comparison between Zeeman and continuum background correction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Pamela C. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Parsons, Patrick J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Lead Poisoning/Trace Elements Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States)], E-mail: patrick.parsons@wadsworth.org

    2007-03-15

    Excessive exposure to aluminum (Al) can produce serious health consequences in people with impaired renal function, especially those undergoing hemodialysis. Al can accumulate in the brain and in bone, causing dialysis-related encephalopathy and renal osteodystrophy. Thus, dialysis patients are routinely monitored for Al overload, through measurement of their serum Al. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is widely used for serum Al determination. Here, we assess the analytical performances of three ETAAS instruments, equipped with different background correction systems and heating arrangements, for the determination of serum Al. Specifically, we compare (1) a Perkin Elmer (PE) Model 3110 AAS, equipped with a longitudinally (end) heated graphite atomizer (HGA) and continuum-source (deuterium) background correction, with (2) a PE Model 4100ZL AAS equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) and longitudinal Zeeman background correction, and (3) a PE Model Z5100 AAS equipped with a HGA and transverse Zeeman background correction. We were able to transfer the method for serum Al previously established for the Z5100 and 4100ZL instruments to the 3110, with only minor modifications. As with the Zeeman instruments, matrix-matched calibration was not required for the 3110 and, thus, aqueous calibration standards were used. However, the 309.3-nm line was chosen for analysis on the 3110 due to failure of the continuum background correction system at the 396.2-nm line. A small, seemingly insignificant overcorrection error was observed in the background channel on the 3110 instrument at the 309.3-nm line. On the 4100ZL, signal oscillation was observed in the atomization profile. The sensitivity, or characteristic mass (m{sub 0}), for Al at the 309.3-nm line on the 3110 AAS was found to be 12.1 {+-} 0.6 pg, compared to 16.1 {+-} 0.7 pg for the Z5100, and 23.3 {+-} 1.3 pg for the 4100ZL at the 396.2-nm line. However, the instrumental detection

  13. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 11. Remote Error Correction of Measuring Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy YATSUK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The multi-channel measuring instruments with both the classical structure and the isolated one is identified their errors major factors basing on general it metrological properties analysis. Limiting possibilities of the remote automatic method for additive and multiplicative errors correction of measuring instruments with help of code-control measures are studied. For on-site calibration of multi- channel measuring instruments, the portable voltage calibrators structures are suggested and their metrological properties while automatic errors adjusting are analysed. It was experimentally envisaged that unadjusted error value does not exceed ± 1 mV that satisfies most industrial applications. This has confirmed the main approval concerning the possibilities of remote errors self-adjustment as well multi- channel measuring instruments as calibration tools for proper verification.

  14. Thermal Band Atmospheric Correction Using Atmospheric Profiles Derived from Global Positioning System Radio Occultation and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Stewart, Randy; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    This Rapid Prototyping Capability study explores the potential to use atmospheric profiles derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation measurements and by AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) onboard the Aqua satellite to improve surface temperature retrieval from remotely sensed thermal imagery. This study demonstrates an example of a cross-cutting decision support technology whereby NASA data or models are shown to improve a wide number of observation systems or models. The ability to use one data source to improve others will be critical to the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) where a large number of potentially useful systems will require auxiliary datasets as input for decision support. Atmospheric correction of thermal imagery decouples TOA radiance and separates surface emission from atmospheric emission and absorption. Surface temperature can then be estimated from the surface emission with knowledge of its emissivity. Traditionally, radiosonde sounders or atmospheric models based on radiosonde sounders, such as the NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) READY (Real-time Environmental Application and Display sYstem), provide the atmospheric profiles required to perform atmospheric correction. Unfortunately, these types of data are too spatially sparse and too infrequently taken. The advent of high accuracy, global coverage, atmospheric data using GPS radio occultation and AIRS may provide a new avenue for filling data input gaps. In this study, AIRS and GPS radio occultation derived atmospheric profiles from the German Aerospace Center CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload), the Argentinean Commission on Space Activities SAC-C (Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C), and the pair of NASA GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are used as input data in atmospheric radiative transport modeling based on the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric

  15. The structure of an expert system to diagnose and supply a corrective procedure for nuclear power plant malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Stasenko, J.E.; Hashemi, S.; Bhatnagar, R.; Punch, W.F. III; Yamada, N.

    1987-01-01

    During the past two years, two prototype knowledge based systems have been developed at the Ohio State University. These systems were the result of collaboration between the Nuclear Engineering Program and the Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR). The first system uses hierarchical classification to diagnose malfunctions of the coolant system in a General Electric Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The second system provides a plan of action, through a process of dynamic procedure management, to stabilize the plant once an abnormal transient has occurred. The objective of this paper is to discuss the structure that has been designed to integrate the two systems. The combined system will be capable of informing plant personnel about the nature of malfunctions, and of supplying to the operator the most direct corrective procedure available. Two important features of the integrated system are faulty sensor detection, based on malfunction context and unlike sensor data, and procedure management based on the initial state of the plant. Since the two knowledge based systems were developed separately, the integration has required a separate component currently under development, the Plant Status Monitoring System (PSMS). The task of PSMS is to monitor plant parameters in order to detect an abnormal condition developing within the plant. Based on the nature of the event, PSMS is capable of directing control to either the procedure management or diagnosis component. The integrated system plays only an advisory role, and any suggested action would be executed by the plant personnel

  16. A pipelined architecture for real time correction of non-uniformity in infrared focal plane arrays imaging system using multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liang; Fu, Zhuang; Zhao, YanZheng; Yang, JunYan

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes a kind of pipelined electric circuit architecture implemented in FPGA, a very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI), which efficiently deals with the real time non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithm for infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA). Dual Nios II soft-core processors and a DSP with a 64+ core together constitute this image system. Each processor undertakes own systematic task, coordinating its work with each other's. The system on programmable chip (SOPC) in FPGA works steadily under the global clock frequency of 96Mhz. Adequate time allowance makes FPGA perform NUC image pre-processing algorithm with ease, which has offered favorable guarantee for the work of post image processing in DSP. And at the meantime, this paper presents a hardware (HW) and software (SW) co-design in FPGA. Thus, this systematic architecture yields an image processing system with multiprocessor, and a smart solution to the satisfaction with the performance of the system.

  17. NVL-C: Static Analysis Techniques for Efficient, Correct Programming of Non-Volatile Main Memory Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Computer architecture experts expect that non-volatile memory (NVM) hierarchies will play a more significant role in future systems including mobile, enterprise, and HPC architectures. With this expectation in mind, we present NVL-C: a novel programming system that facilitates the efficient and correct programming of NVM main memory systems. The NVL-C programming abstraction extends C with a small set of intuitive language features that target NVM main memory, and can be combined directly with traditional C memory model features for DRAM. We have designed these new features to enable compiler analyses and run-time checks that can improve performance and guard against a number of subtle programming errors, which, when left uncorrected, can corrupt NVM-stored data. Moreover, to enable recovery of data across application or system failures, these NVL-C features include a flexible directive for specifying NVM transactions. So that our implementation might be extended to other compiler front ends and languages, the majority of our compiler analyses are implemented in an extended version of LLVM's intermediate representation (LLVM IR). We evaluate NVL-C on a number of applications to show its flexibility, performance, and correctness.

  18. Data compression/error correction digital test system. Appendix 2: Theory of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An overall block diagram of the DC/EC digital system test is shown. The system is divided into two major units: the transmitter and the receiver. In operation, the transmitter and receiver are connected only by a real or simulated transmission link. The system inputs consist of: (1) standard format TV video, (2) two channels of analog voice, and (3) one serial PCM bit stream.

  19. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    In the published version of this paper, the name of author Emanuele Di Angelantonio was misspelled. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.......In the published version of this paper, the name of author Emanuele Di Angelantonio was misspelled. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article....

  20. Author Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D S; Löscher, C R; Krahmann, G

    2018-01-01

    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.......A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper....

  1. Common-mode Voltage Reduction in a Motor Drive System with a Power Factor Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adabi, J.; Boora, A.A.; Zare, F.

    2012-01-01

    Common-mode voltage generated by a power converter in combination with parasitic capacitive couplings is a potential source of shaft voltage in an AC motor drive system. In this study, a three-phase motor drive system supplied with a single-phase AC-DC diode rectifier is investigated in order...... to reduce shaft voltage in a three-phase AC motor drive system. In this topology, the AC-DC diode rectifier influences the common-mode voltage generated by the inverter because the placement of the neutral point is changing in different rectifier circuit states. A pulse width modulation technique...

  2. Fluorescence Sensors for Early Detection of Nitrification in Drinking Water Distribution Systems – Interference Corrections (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrification event detection in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification eve...

  3. Fluorescence Sensors for Early Detection of Nitrification in Drinking Water Distribution Systems – Interference Corrections (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrification event detection in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification eve...

  4. Corrective Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System Site FT-03, Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... The primary objectives of the bioventing system upgrade are to: ̂ Deliver oxygen to additional areas of the site that have subsurface soils contaminated with fuel hydrocarbons that did not receive...

  5. Hospital's activity-based financing system and manager-physician [corrected] interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainich, David; Leleu, Hervé; Mauleon, Ana

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the consequences of the introduction of an activity-based reimbursement system on the behavior of physicians and hospital's managers. We consider a private for-profit sector where both hospitals and physicians are initially paid on a fee-for-service basis. We show that the benefit of the introduction of an activity-based system depends on the type of interaction between managers and physicians (simultaneous or sequential decision-making games). It is shown that, under the activity-based system, a sequential interaction with physician leader could be beneficial for both agents in the private sector. We further model an endogenous timing game à la Hamilton and Slutsky (Games Econ Behav 2: 29-46, 1990) in which the type of interaction is determined endogenously. We show that, under the activity-based system, the sequential interaction with physician leader is the unique subgame perfect equilibrium.

  6. Real Time Trajectory Correction System Of Optical Head In Laser Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieszyński Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of laser welding technology requires that the laser beam is guided through the whole length of the joint with sufficiently high accuracy. This paper describes result of research on development of optomechatronic system that allows for the precise positioning of the laser head’s TCP point on the edge of welded elements during laser processing. The developed system allows for compensation of workpiece’s fixture inaccuracies, precast distortions and workpiece deformations occurring during the process.

  7. Previously Identified Deficiencies Not Corrected in the General Fund Enterprise Business System Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Army AAA Report No. A-2009-0226- FFM , “Examination of Federal Financial Management Improvement Act Compliance - Test Validation General Fund Enterprise...Business System Release 1.2,” September 30, 2009 AAA Report No. A-2009-0231- FFM , “General Fund Enterprise Business System - Federal Financial...Management Improvement Act Compliance Examination of Release 1.3 Functionality,” September 30, 2009 AAA Report No. A-2009-0232- FFM , “General Fund

  8. Correction of the counting up number by dead time in detector systems for radiograph images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerdeira E, A.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Estrada, M.; Luca, A. de

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the dead time in a detection system by counting up of particles and the contribution of this error in the final image resolution is analysed. It is given a statistical criteria for the optimization of electronic parameters such as dead time and counting up memory which help in the implementation of these systems with the minimum necessary characteristics which satisfy the resolution requirements. (Author)

  9. Photometric correction for an optical CCD-based system based on the sparsity of an eight-neighborhood gray gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    In an optical measurement and analysis system based on a CCD, due to the existence of optical vignetting and natural vignetting, photometric distortion, in which the intensity falls off away from the image center, affects the subsequent processing and measuring precision severely. To deal with this problem, an easy and straightforward method used for photometric distortion correction is presented in this paper. This method introduces a simple polynomial fitting model of the photometric distortion function and employs a particle swarm optimization algorithm to get these model parameters by means of a minimizing eight-neighborhood gray gradient. Compared with conventional calibration methods, this method can obtain the profile information of photometric distortion from only a single common image captured by the optical CCD-based system, with no need for a uniform luminance area source used as a standard reference source and relevant optical and geometric parameters in advance. To illustrate the applicability of this method, numerical simulations and photometric distortions with different lens parameters are evaluated using this method in this paper. Moreover, the application example of temperature field correction for casting billets also demonstrates the effectiveness of this method. The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to achieve the maximum absolute error for vignetting estimation of 0.0765 and the relative error for vignetting estimation from different background images of 3.86%.

  10. Reliability problems in the recirculated cooling water system at Cernavoda NPP and corrective maintenance operations adopted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucur, Ionel; Metes, Mircea

    2002-01-01

    Between February 18 and March 5, 2002 the Unit 1 of Cernavoda NPP was shutdown in an un-planned outage necessary to repair a crack on the piping of the Recirculated Cooling Water System. The large pipe diameter and the requirement of maintaining the system in operation during the outage, imposed a special technology for fixing the leak (isolation of the line with ice plugs). The paper presents information about the performed repair work. After repair operations the failed duct was checked by non-destructive methods and the results were submitted and approved by regulation authorities. The repair was considered successfully completed and the Unit restarted on March 5, 2002 at 0.57 am when the electric generator was switched on in parallel to the national electric power system. (authors)

  11. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  12. A Novel System for Correction of Relative Angular Displacement between Airborne Platform and UAV in Target Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a system and method for correction of relative angular displacements between an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV and its onboard strap-down photoelectric platform to improve localization accuracy. Because the angular displacements have an influence on the final accuracy, by attaching a measuring system to the platform, the texture image of platform base bulkhead can be collected in a real-time manner. Through the image registration, the displacement vector of the platform relative to its bulkhead can be calculated to further determine angular displacements. After being decomposed and superposed on the three attitude angles of the UAV, the angular displacements can reduce the coordinate transformation errors and thus improve the localization accuracy. Even a simple kind of method can improve the localization accuracy by 14.3%.

  13. End of FY2014 Report - Filter Measurement System for Nuclear Material Storage Canisters (Including Altitude Correction for Filter Pressure Drop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Two LANL FTS (Filter Test System ) devices for nuclear material storage canisters are fully operational. One is located in PF-4 ( i.e. the TA-55 FTS) while the other is located at the Radiation Protection Division’s Aerosol Engineering Facility ( i.e. the TA-3 FTS). The systems are functionally equivalent , with the TA-3 FTS being the test-bed for new additions and for resolving any issues found in the TA-55 FTS. There is currently one unresolved issue regarding the TA-55 FTS device. The canister lid clamp does not give a leak tight seal when testing the 1 QT (quart) or 2 QT SAVY lids. An adapter plate is being developed that will ensure a correct test configuration when the 1 or 2 QT SAVY lid s are being tested .

  14. Visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping and global positioning system correction for geo-localization of a mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrabah, Sid Ahmed; Baudoin, Yvan; Sahli, Hichem

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an approach combining visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping (V-SLAM) and global positioning system (GPS) correction for accurate multi-sensor localization of an outdoor mobile robot in geo-referenced maps. The proposed framework combines two extended Kalman filters (EKF); the first one, referred to as the integration filter, is dedicated to the improvement of the GPS localization based on data from an inertial navigation system and wheels' encoders. The second EKF implements the V-SLAM process. The linear and angular velocities in the dynamic model of the V-SLAM EKF filter are given by the GPS/INS/Encoders integration filter. On the other hand, the output of the V-SLAM EKF filter is used to update the dynamics estimation in the integration filter and therefore the geo-referenced localization. This solution increases the accuracy and the robustness of the positioning during GPS outage and allows SLAM in less featured environments

  15. Correction: A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

    2016-12-22

    Correction for 'A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide' by Chee Koon Ng et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 11842-11845.

  16. Modeling and performance of Bonus-Malus Systems: Stationarity versus age-correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren

    In a bonus-malus system in car insurance, the bonus class of a customer is updated from a year to the next as a function of the current class and the number of claims in the year (assumed Poisson). Thus the sequence of classes of a customer in consecutive years forms a Markov chain, and most of t...

  17. The importance of correct specification of tribological parameters in dynamical systems modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaci, S.; Ciornei, F. C.; Romanu, I. C.; Ciornei, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    When modelling the behaviour of dynamical systems, the friction phenomenon cannot be neglected. Dry and fluid friction may occur, but dry friction has more severe effects upon the behaviour of the systems, based on the fact that the introduced discontinuities are more important. In the modelling of dynamical systems, dry friction is the main cause of occurrence of the bifurcation phenomenon. These aspects become more complex if, in the case of dry friction, static and dynamic frictions are put forward. The behaviour of a simple dynamical system is studied, consisting in a prismatic body linked to the ground by a spring, placed on a conveyor belt. The theoretical model is described by a nonlinear differential equation which after numerical integration leads to the conclusion that the steady motion of the prism is an un-damped oscillatory motion. The system was qualitatively modelled using specialised software for dynamical analysis. It was impractical to obtain a steady uniform translational motion of a rigid, therefore the conveyor belt was replaced by a metallic disc in uniform rotation motion. The attempts to compare the CAD model to the theoretical model were unsuccessful because the efforts of selecting the tribological parameters directed to the conclusion that the motion of the prism is a damped oscillation. To decide which of the methods depicts reality, a test-rig was assembled and it indicated a sustained oscillation. The conclusion is that the model employed by the dynamical analysis software cannot describe the actual model and a more complex model is required in the description of the friction phenomenon.

  18. Study and distortion correction in a selective dissemination of information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Queiroz, I.O. de.

    1978-03-01

    The Selective Dissemination of Information (S D I) system of the Nuclear Information Center (Brazil) was presented, and some parameters, for the evaluation of performance and distortion were defined. These parameters were quantified for a sample of 35 user's profiles and 25.818 documents. Possible distortion factors were analysed, and some were selected, so that they could be automatically processed. The 35 profiles were up-dated by use of two algorithms developed for this purpose. For the up-dated profiles new values of the parameters were determined and showed that distortion decreased and efficiency improved. Critical points of the system were identified and new studies, on topics investigated superficially, were proposed. (Author) [pt

  19. Quality Assurance of Ultrasound Imaging Systems for Target Localization and Online Setup Corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Wolfgang A.; Orton, Nigel P.

    2008-01-01

    We describe quality assurance paradigms for ultrasound imaging systems for target localization (UISTL). To determine the absolute localization accuracy of a UISTL, an absolute coordinate system can be established in the treatment room and spherical targets at various depths can be localized. To test the ability of such a system to determine the magnitude of internal organ motion, a phantom that mimics the human male pelvic anatomy can be used to simulate different organ motion ranges. To assess the interuser variability of ultrasound (US) guidance, different experienced users can independently determine the daily organ shifts for the same patients for a number of consecutive fractions. The average accuracy for a UISTL for the localization of spherical targets at various depths has been found to be 0.57 ± 0.47 mm in each spatial dimension for various focal depths. For the phantom organ motion test it was found that the true organ motion could be determined to within 1.0 mm along each axis. The variability between different experienced users who localized the same 5 patients for five consecutive fractions was small in comparison to the indicated shifts. In addition to the quality assurance tests that address the ability of a UISTL to accurately localize a target, a thorough quality assurance program should also incorporate the following two aspects to ensure consistent and accurate localization in daily clinical use: (1) adequate training and performance monitoring of users of the US target localization system, and (2) prescreening of patients who may not be good candidates for US localization

  20. The Fallacious Ressocializing Ideology of Imprisonment: An Analysis of the Brazilian Correctional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Kazmierczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideological significance in Brazilian prison system reality, usually, fulfills a purpose only expected in criminal conviction sentencing according to deprivation of freedom. Thus, there is a misunderstandig of the rehabilitation concept withspace not your discourse of application. Because of that, the current research based on literature review method aims to achieve a constitutional reinterpretation of Brazilian criminal system andof its ideological significance, as well as analyzing a review and election of legal goods (bem jurídico that are under the protection of criminal law. The overcrowding and the lack of minimal conditions are clearly shown in INFOPENs numbers, astounding numbers, which provides us an overview of this unfortunate reality. Restructuring this system is only one of the possible solutions to this problem, and, in addition to it, a constitutional review over the entire Criminal Justice is imperious to avoid a sort of segregation that, unfortunately, might be originated by the pacifying instrument itself (the criminal law, with a critical analysis about valuating and electing the legal interests that are legally protected, as well as a new interpretation of the wrongdoing, rejecting the mere comparison between the facts and the cold text of the law once taught by the classical formalistic doctrine, bringing up a constitutional perspective, so that the criminal standards can be examined in a way that takes evaluative aspects into consideration (in a materialistic and guarantistic ways, presuming that although there is, implicitly or explicitly, an attack to the law (wrongdoing, we cant move away from the idea that the agreement must be privileged as a possibility in a matter of solving criminal issues.

  1. Resolving time of scintillation camera-computer system and methods of correction for counting loss, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Takeshi; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Matsumoto, Toru

    1975-01-01

    Following the previous work, counting-rate performance of camera-computer systems was investigated for two modes of data acquisition. The first was the ''LIST'' mode in which image data and timing signals were sequentially stored on magnetic disk or tape via a buffer memory. The second was the ''HISTOGRAM'' mode in which image data were stored in a core memory as digital images and then the images were transfered to magnetic disk or tape by the signal of frame timing. Firstly, the counting-rates stored in the buffer memory was measured as a function of display event-rates of the scintillation camera for the two modes. For both modes, stored counting-rated (M) were expressed by the following formula: M=N(1-Ntau) where N was the display event-rates of the camera and tau was the resolving time including analog-to-digital conversion time and memory cycle time. The resolving time for each mode may have been different, but it was about 10 μsec for both modes in our computer system (TOSBAC 3400 model 31). Secondly, the date transfer speed from the buffer memory to the external memory such as magnetic disk or tape was considered for the two modes. For the ''LIST'' mode, the maximum value of stored counting-rates from the camera was expressed in terms of size of the buffer memory, access time and data transfer-rate of the external memory. For the ''HISTOGRAM'' mode, the minimum time of the frame was determined by size of the buffer memory, access time and transfer rate of the external memory. In our system, the maximum value of stored counting-rates were about 17,000 counts/sec. with the buffer size of 2,000 words, and minimum frame time was about 130 msec. with the buffer size of 1024 words. These values agree well with the calculated ones. From the author's present analysis, design of the camera-computer system becomes possible for quantitative dynamic imaging and future improvements are suggested. (author)

  2. Wavefront Tilt And Beam Walk Correction For A Pulsed Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosewcz, Mike; Tyburski, Joe

    1986-05-01

    The Lockheed Beam Alignment Assembly (BAA) is designed to be a space qualifiable, long life, low bandwidth beam stabilization system. The BAA will stabilize a wandering pulsed laser beam with an input beam tilt of ±750 microradians and translation of ±2.5 mm by two orders of magnitude at the bandwidth of interest. A bandwidth of three hertz was selected to remove laser and optical train thermal drifts and launch induced strain effects. The lambda over twenty RMS wavefront will be maintained in the optics at full power under vacuum test, to demonstrate space qualifiability and optical performance.

  3. Time based room correction system for low frequencies using multiple loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2007-01-01

      Improving sound from loudspeakers in a room is a big issue. We are facing a rather complicated and serious problem, as one can experience very big variations in sound pressure level - up to 30 dB - in a room, especially at low frequencies. An innovative way of looking at the problem in the time......-domain by the construction of a finite-difference time-domain approximation program (FDTD) has lead to a novel and simple solution also working in the time-domain called Controlled Acoustically Bass System (CABS). Working in the time-domain CABS includes additional cancelling loudspeakers at the back wall in order to remove...

  4. Correction Method of Wiener Spectrum (WS) on Digital Medical Imaging Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Ki Sung; Kim, You Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Noise evaluation for an image has been performed by root mean square (RMS) granularity, autocorrelation function (ACF), and Wiener spectrum. RMS granularity stands for standard deviation of photon data and ACF is acquired by integration of 1 D function of distance variation. Fourier transform of ACF results in noise power spectrum which is called Wiener spectrum in image quality evaluation. Wiener spectrum represents noise itself. In addition, along with MTF, it is an important factor to produce detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The proposed evaluation method using Wiener spectrum is expected to contribute to educate the concept of Wiener spectrum in educational organizations, choose the appropriate imaging detectors for clinical applications, and maintain image quality in digital imaging systems.

  5. A system dynamics analysis of energy consumption and corrective policies in Iranian iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Nastaran; Seifi, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Iron and steel industry is the most energy intensive industrial sector in Iran. Long time subsidized energy has led to low energy efficiency in this industry. The sudden subsidy reform of energy prices in Iran is expected to have a great impact on steel production and energy consumption. A system dynamics model is presented in this paper to analyze steel demand, production and energy consumption in an integrated framework. A co-flow structure is used to show how subsidy reform affects energy consumption in the long run. The main focus of this paper is on direct and indirect natural gas consumption in the steel industry. Scrap based Electric Arc Furnace technology has been evaluated as an energy efficient way for steel making. The energy consumption in steel industry is estimated under various steel production and export scenarios while taking into account new energy prices to see the outlook of possible energy demand in steel industry over next 20 years. For example it is shown that under reference production scenario, potential reduction in gas consumption forced by complete removal of energy subsidy and utilizing scrap could lead to 85 billion cubic meters of gas saving over the next 20 years. -- Highlights: ► We develop a system dynamics model to analyze steel demand, production and energy consumption in Iran. ► Various scenarios have been simulated to see the energy demand of Iranian steel industry over the next 20 years. ► A co-flow structure is used to show how subsidy reform would affect energy consumption in the long run. ► A co-flow structure has been built into the SD model to formulate consumers' behavior in response to energy prices. ► Scrap based Electric Arc Furnace technology has been evaluated as an energy efficient alternative for steel making.

  6. Functional requirements for the man-vehicle systems research facility. [identifying and correcting human errors during flight simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.; Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.; Jex, H. R.; Mcruer, D. T.; Schulman, T. M.; Stapleford, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center proposed a man-vehicle systems research facility to support flight simulation studies which are needed for identifying and correcting the sources of human error associated with current and future air carrier operations. The organization of research facility is reviewed and functional requirements and related priorities for the facility are recommended based on a review of potentially critical operational scenarios. Requirements are included for the experimenter's simulation control and data acquisition functions, as well as for the visual field, motion, sound, computation, crew station, and intercommunications subsystems. The related issues of functional fidelity and level of simulation are addressed, and specific criteria for quantitative assessment of various aspects of fidelity are offered. Recommendations for facility integration, checkout, and staffing are included.

  7. A rigorous approach to facilitate and guarantee the correctness of the genetic testing management in human genome information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Luciano V; Malkowski, Simon; Braghetto, Kelly R; Passos-Bueno, Maria R; Zatz, Mayana; Pu, Calton; Ferreira, João E

    2011-12-22

    Recent medical and biological technology advances have stimulated the development of new testing systems that have been providing huge, varied amounts of molecular and clinical data. Growing data volumes pose significant challenges for information processing systems in research centers. Additionally, the routines of genomics laboratory are typically characterized by high parallelism in testing and constant procedure changes. This paper describes a formal approach to address this challenge through the implementation of a genetic testing management system applied to human genome laboratory. We introduced the Human Genome Research Center Information System (CEGH) in Brazil, a system that is able to support constant changes in human genome testing and can provide patients updated results based on the most recent and validated genetic knowledge. Our approach uses a common repository for process planning to ensure reusability, specification, instantiation, monitoring, and execution of processes, which are defined using a relational database and rigorous control flow specifications based on process algebra (ACP). The main difference between our approach and related works is that we were able to join two important aspects: 1) process scalability achieved through relational database implementation, and 2) correctness of processes using process algebra. Furthermore, the software allows end users to define genetic testing without requiring any knowledge about business process notation or process algebra. This paper presents the CEGH information system that is a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) based on a formal framework to support genetic testing management for Mendelian disorder studies. We have proved the feasibility and showed usability benefits of a rigorous approach that is able to specify, validate, and perform genetic testing using easy end user interfaces.

  8. Systemic Correction of Murine Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV by an AAV-Mediated Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Haiqing; Zhang, Quan; Brooks, Elizabeth D; Yang, Chunyu; Thurberg, Beth L; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2017-03-01

    Deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) causes glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV), which is characterized by the accumulation of a less branched, poorly soluble form of glycogen called polyglucosan (PG) in multiple tissues. This study evaluates the efficacy of gene therapy with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector in a mouse model of adult form of GSD IV (Gbe1 ys/ys ). An AAV serotype 9 (AAV9) vector containing a human GBE expression cassette (AAV-GBE) was intravenously injected into 14-day-old Gbe1 ys/ys mice at a dose of 5 × 10 11 vector genomes per mouse. Mice were euthanized at 3 and 9 months of age. In the AAV-treated mice at 3 months of age, GBE enzyme activity was highly elevated in heart, which is consistent with the high copy number of the viral vector genome detected. GBE activity also increased significantly in skeletal muscles and the brain, but not in the liver. The glycogen content was reduced to wild-type levels in muscles and significantly reduced in the liver and brain. At 9 months of age, though GBE activity was only significantly elevated in the heart, glycogen levels were significantly reduced in the liver, brain, and skeletal muscles of the AAV-treated mice. In addition, the AAV treatment resulted in an overall decrease in plasma activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and creatine kinase, and a significant increase in fasting plasma glucose concentration at 9 months of age. This suggests an alleviation of damage and improvement of function in the liver and muscles by the AAV treatment. This study demonstrated a long-term benefit of a systemic injection of an AAV-GBE vector in Gbe1 ys/ys mice.

  9. Quality assurance system to correct for errors arising from couch rotation in linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezovich, Ivan A.; Pareek, Prem N.; Plott, W. Eugene; Jennelle, Richard L. S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this project was the development of a quality assurance (QA) system that would provide geographically accurate targeting for linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (LBSR). Methods and Materials: The key component of our QA system is a novel device (Alignment Tool) for expedient measurement of gantry and treatment table excursions (wobble) during rotation. The Alignment Tool replaces the familiar pencil-shaped pointers with a ball pointer that is used with the field light of the accelerator to indicate alignment of beam and target. Wobble is measured prior to each patient treatment and analyzed together with the BRW coordinates of the target by a spreadsheet. The corrections required to compensate for any imprecision are identified, and a printout generated indicating the floor stand coordinates for each couch angle used to place the target at isocenter. Results: The Alignment Tool has an inherent accuracy of measurement better than 0.1 mm. The overall targeting error of our QA method, found by evaluating 177 target simulator films of 55 foci in 40 randomly selected patients, was 0.47 ± 0.23 mm. The Alignment Tool was also valuable during installation of the floor stand and a supplemental collimator for the accelerator. Conclusions: The QA procedure described allows accurate targeting in LBSR, even when couch rotation is imprecise. The Alignment Tool can facilitate the installation of any stereotactic irradiation system, and can be useful for annual QA checks as well as in the installation and commissioning of new accelerators

  10. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Blaser, Martin J.; Thorsen, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The originally published version of this Article contained an incorrect version of Figure 3 that was introduced following peer review and inadvertently not corrected during the production process. Both versions contain the same set of abundance data, but the incorrect version has the children...

  11. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachsbart, Friederike; Dose, Janina; Gentschew, Liljana

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Robert Häsler, which was incorrectly given as Robert Häesler. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article....

  12. Correction to

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roehle, Robert; Wieske, Viktoria; Schuetz, Georg M

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this article, published on 19 March 2018, unfortunately contained a mistake. The following correction has therefore been made in the original: The names of the authors Philipp A. Kaufmann, Ronny Ralf Buechel and Bernhard A. Herzog were presented incorrectly....

  13. Simplied formula for the illuminance in an optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, D.G.; Shealy, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A formula is derived for the illuminance at any surface in an optical system. By tracing a single ray one can compute the flux density at the image plane or any other position along the ray. The formula involves the ratio of the products of the principal curvatures of the wave front as it approaches each surface to products of the same qualitities after the wave front is refracted at each surface. A procedure is presented for determining the required principal curvatures by generalizing the Coddinton equations to multiple surfaces for both meridional and skew rays. Results are applicable to both sphreical and aspherical surfaces. Since principal radii of curvature specify points on the caustic surfaces, the formula and computation procedure automatically yields the equations for caustic surfaces as a by-product. To illustrate the computation procedure the illuminance and caustic surfaces are derived for an aspherical singlet

  14. Wigner transformation in curved space-time and the curvature correction of the Vlasov equation for semiclassical gravitating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.

    1985-01-01

    A covariant generalization of the Wigner transformation of quantum equations is proposed for gravitating many-particle systems, which modifies the Einstein-Liouville equations for the coupled gravity-matter problem by inclusion of quantum effects of the matter moving in its self-consistent classical gravitational field, in order to extend their realm of validity to higher particle densities. The corrections of the Vlasov equation (Liouville equation in one-particle phase space) are exhibited as combined effects of quantum mechanics and the curvature of space-time arranged in a semiclassical expansion in powers of h 2 , the first-order term of which is explicitly calculated. It is linear in the Riemann tensor and in its gradient; the Riemann tensor occurs in a similar position as the tensor of the Yang-Mills field strength in a corresponding Vlasov equation for systems with local gauge invariance in the purely classical limit. The performance of the Wigner transformation is based on expressing the equation of motion for the two-point function of the Klein-Gordon field, in particular the Beltrami operator, in terms of a midpoint and a distance vector covariantly defined for the two points. This implies the calculation of deviations of the geodesic between these points, the standard concept of which has to be refined to include infinitesimal variations of the second order. A differential equation for the second-order deviation is established

  15. Fluorescence Sensors for Early Detection of Nitrification in Drinking Water Distribution Systems - Interference Corrections and Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T. D.; Pifer, A.; Chowdhury, Z.; Wahman, D.; Zhang, W.; Fairey, J.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of nitrification events in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification events that necessitate extensive flushing, resulting in the loss of billions of gallons of finished water. Biological techniques used to quantify the activity of nitrifying bacteria are impractical for real-time monitoring because they require significant laboratory efforts and/or lengthy incubation times. At present, DWU and CoH regularly rely on physicochemical parameters including total chlorine and monochloramine residual, and free ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate as indicators of nitrification, but these metrics lack specificity to nitrifying bacteria. To improve detection of nitrification in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems, we seek to develop a real-time fluorescence-based sensor system to detect the early onset of nitrification events by measuring the fluorescence of soluble microbial products (SMPs) specific to nitrifying bacteria. Preliminary data indicates that fluorescence-based metrics have the sensitivity to detect these SMPs in the early stages of nitrification, but several remaining challenges will be explored in this presentation. We will focus on benchtop and sensor results from ongoing batch and annular reactor experiments designed to (1) identify fluorescence wavelength pairs and data processing techniques suitable for measurement of SMPs from nitrification and (2) assess and correct potential interferences, such as those from monochloramine, pH, iron, nitrite, nitrate and humic substances. This work will serve as the basis for developing fluorescence sensor packages for full-scale testing and validation in the DWU and CoH systems. Findings from this research could be leveraged to identify nitrification events in their early stages, facilitating proactive

  16. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ...

  17. Correction and validation of 14C chronologies in lake basins, with reference to modern hydrogeological and geochemical systems - examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, E.; Bergonzini, L.; Travi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The primary question before establishing any accurate, confident timescale for palaeo-environmental reconstructions based on lacustrine sediments consists in the definition of the original signature of the TDIC (Total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon) of the lake water from which authigenic compounds are fog ned. This 'carbon' fingerprint of the TDIC may originate from: - The direct exchange with atmospheric CO 2 ; - The admixture of dead dissolved carbon (for example through the leaching of ancient carbonated rocks on the watershed brought to the lake via tributaries) implying the non-equilibrium, and then the ageing, of lake surface waters; - Hydrogeological features of the lake system, such as (i) the connection of the lake waters with extended, shallow aquifers in which the radioactive 14 C decay already occurs, or (ii) high hydraulic gradient (mountain landscape) precluding water-rock interaction at the basin scale; - Deep 14 C-free CO 2 rising along faults in volcanic/tectonic areas, labelled with specific, although wide, ranges of δ 13 C values from 0 to -9%o PDB. Previous and on-going works on lakes in key regions have highlighted that, although each lake constitute a specific case study, they can be gathered in groups representing typical cases of distortion of the 14 C cycle in lacustrine systems: - eg Lake Bangong (Western Tibet): deep CO 2 at the lake bottom, and corrections of the chronology based on the 13 C/ 14 C couple and on a regression equation defined on datings... - eg Lake Abiyata (East African Rift): ageing of the authigenic carbonates due to the mixing, at the water/sediment interface, of the lake water and the 14 C-depleted regional groundwater; - eg Lake Langano (East African Rift): deep CO 2 at the lake bottom and correction of the ageing of the lake surface water by a black-boxes model which provide a step-by-step calculation including the 14 C input of atmospheric nuclear weapon tests in the 1960's and the lake turn-over; - eg Lake Aibi

  18. One-step genetic correction of hemoglobin E/beta-thalassemia patient-derived iPSCs by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapanitch, Methichit; Damkham, Nattaya; Potirat, Ponthip; Trakarnsanga, Kongtana; Janan, Montira; U-Pratya, Yaowalak; Kheolamai, Pakpoom; Klincumhom, Nuttha; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2018-02-26

    Thalassemia is the most common genetic disease worldwide; those with severe disease require lifelong blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy. The definitive cure for thalassemia is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is limited due to lack of HLA-matched donors and the risk of post-transplant complications. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offers prospects for autologous cell-based therapy which could avoid the immunological problems. We now report genetic correction of the beta hemoglobin (HBB) gene in iPSCs derived from a patient with a double heterozygote for hemoglobin E and β-thalassemia (HbE/β-thalassemia), the most common thalassemia syndrome in Thailand and Southeast Asia. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the hemoglobin E mutation from one allele of the HBB gene by homology-directed repair with a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide template. DNA sequences of the corrected iPSCs were validated by Sanger sequencing. The corrected clones were differentiated into hematopoietic progenitor and erythroid cells to confirm their multilineage differentiation potential and hemoglobin expression. The hemoglobin E mutation of HbE/β-thalassemia iPSCs was seamlessly corrected by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The corrected clones were differentiated into hematopoietic progenitor cells under feeder-free and OP9 coculture systems. These progenitor cells were further expanded in erythroid liquid culture system and developed into erythroid cells that expressed mature HBB gene and HBB protein. Our study provides a strategy to correct hemoglobin E mutation in one step and these corrected iPSCs can be differentiated into hematopoietic stem cells to be used for autologous transplantation in patients with HbE/β-thalassemia in the future.

  19. Traveling wave fronts and the transition to saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, S.; Peschanski, R.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a general method to study the solutions to nonlinear QCD evolution equations, based on a deep analogy with the physics of traveling waves. In particular, we show that the transition to the saturation regime of high energy QCD is identical to the formation of the front of a traveling wave. Within this physical picture, we provide the expressions for the saturation scale and the gluon density profile as a function of the total rapidity and the transverse momentum. The application to the Balitskii-Kovchegov equation for both fixed and running coupling constants confirms the effectiveness of this method

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, DOE/NV--528 UPDATED WITH TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ITLV

    1998-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) addresses one of three leachfield systems associated with Test Cell A, which is located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (see Leachfield Work Plan Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 500 is comprised of the Test Cell A Septic System (CAS 25-04-05) and the associated leachfield system presented in Figure 1-1 (FFACO, 1996). The leachfield is located 60 meters (m) (200 feet [ft]) southeast of the Building 3124 gate, and approximately 45 m (150 ft) southwest of Building 3116 at Test Cell A. Test Cell A operated during the 1960s to support nuclear rocket reactor testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) (SNPO, 1970). Various operations within Buildings 3113B (Mechanical Equipment Room), 3115 (Helium Compressor Station), 3116 (Pump House), a water tank drain and overflow, a ''yard and equipment drain system'' outside of Building 3116, and a trailer have resulted in potentially hazardous effluent releases to the leachfield system (DOE, 1988a). The leachfield system components include discharge lines, manways, a septic tank, an outfall line, a diversion chamber, and a 15 by 30 m (50 by 100 ft) leachfield (see Leachfield Work Plan Figure 3-1 for explanation of terminology). In addition, engineering drawings show an outfall system that may or may not be connected to the CAU 500 leachfield. In general, effluent contributed to the leachfield was sanitary wastewater associated with floor drains, toilet and lavatory facilities in Building 3113B and floor drains in the remaining source buildings. The surface and subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system, outfall, and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) generated by support activities associated with Test Cell A reactor testing operations.

  1. Order 1/N corrections to the time-dependent Hartree approximation for a system of N+1 oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaila, B.; Dawson, J.F.; Cooper, F.

    1997-01-01

    We solve numerically to order 1/N the time evolution of a quantum dynamical system of N oscillators of mass m coupled quadratically to a massless dynamic variable. We use Schwingers closed time path formalism to derive the equations. We compare two methods which differ by terms of order 1/N 2 . The first method is a direct perturbation theory in 1/N using the path integral. The second solves exactly the theory defined by the effective action to order 1/N. We compare the results of both methods as a function of N. At N=1, where we expect the expansion to be quite innacurate, we compare our results to an exact numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation. In this case we find that when the two methods disagree they also diverge from the exact answer. We also find at N=1 that the 1/N corrected evolutions track the exact answer for the expectation values much longer than the mean field (N=∞) result. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. An enhanced rheometer inertia correction procedure (ERIC) for the study of gelling systems using combined motor-transducer rheometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. E.; Holder, A. J.; Hawkins, K. M.; Williams, P. R.; Curtis, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The rheological characterisation of viscoelastic materials undergoing a sol-gel transition at the Gel Point (GP) has important applications in a wide range of industrial, biological, and clinical environments and can provide information regarding both kinetic and microstructural aspects of gelation. The most rigorous basis for identifying the GP involves exploiting the frequency dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the complex shear modulus of the critical gel (the system at the GP) measured under small amplitude oscillatory shear conditions. This approach to GP identification requires that rheological data be obtained over a range of oscillatory shear frequencies. Such measurements are limited by sample mutation considerations (at low frequencies) and, when experiments are conducted using combined motor-transducer (CMT) rheometers, by instrument inertia considerations (at high frequencies). Together, sample mutation and inertia induced artefacts can lead to significant errors in the determination of the GP. Overcoming such artefacts is important, however, as the extension of the range of frequencies available to the experimentalist promises both more accurate GP determination and the ability to study rapidly gelling samples. Herein, we exploit the frequency independent viscoelastic properties of the critical gel to develop and evaluate an enhanced rheometer inertia correction procedure. The procedure allows acquisition of valid GP data at previously inaccessible frequencies (using CMT rheometers) and is applied in a study of the concentration dependence of bovine gelatin gelation GP parameters. A previously unreported concentration dependence of the stress relaxation exponent (α) for critical gelatin gels has been identified, which approaches a limiting value (α = 0.7) at low gelatin concentrations, this being in agreement with previous studies and theoretical predictions for percolating systems at the GP.

  3. ICT: isotope correction toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: https://github.com/jungreuc/isotope_correction_toolbox/ {christian.jungreuthmayer@boku.ac.at,juergen.zanghellini@boku.ac.at} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Electroweak corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenakker, W.J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The prospect of high accuracy measurements investigating the weak interactions, which are expected to take place at the electron-positron storage ring LEP at CERN and the linear collider SCL at SLAC, offers the possibility to study also the weak quantum effects. In order to distinguish if the measured weak quantum effects lie within the margins set by the standard model and those bearing traces of new physics one had to go beyond the lowest order and also include electroweak radiative corrections (EWRC) in theoretical calculations. These higher-order corrections also can offer the possibility of getting information about two particles present in the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model (GSW), but not discovered up till now, the top quark and the Higgs boson. In ch. 2 the GSW standard model of electroweak interactions is described. In ch. 3 some special techniques are described for determination of integrals which are responsible for numerical instabilities caused by large canceling terms encountered in the calculation of EWRC effects, and methods necessary to get hold of the extensive algebra typical for EWRC. In ch. 4 various aspects related to EWRC effects are discussed, in particular the dependence of the unknown model parameters which are the masses of the top quark and the Higgs boson. The processes which are discussed are production of heavy fermions from electron-positron annihilation and those of the fermionic decay of the Z gauge boson. (H.W.). 106 refs.; 30 figs.; 6 tabs.; schemes

  5. Improved hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of gene-corrected beta-thalassemia induced pluripotent stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bing; Fan, Yong; He, Wenyin; Zhu, Detu; Niu, Xiaohua; Wang, Ding; Ou, Zhanhui; Luo, Min; Sun, Xiaofang

    2015-05-01

    The generation of beta-thalassemia (β-Thal) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), subsequent homologous recombination-based gene correction of disease-causing mutations/deletions in the β-globin gene (HBB), and their derived hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation offers an ideal therapeutic solution for treating this disease. However, the hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs has not been well evaluated in the previous studies. In this study, we used the latest gene-editing tool, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9), to correct β-Thal iPSCs; gene-corrected cells exhibit normal karyotypes and full pluripotency as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) showed no off-targeting effects. Then, we evaluated the differentiation efficiency of the gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs. We found that during hematopoietic differentiation, gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs showed an increased embryoid body ratio and various hematopoietic progenitor cell percentages. More importantly, the gene-corrected β-Thal iPSC lines restored HBB expression and reduced reactive oxygen species production compared with the uncorrected group. Our study suggested that hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of β-Thal iPSCs was greatly improved once corrected by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the information gained from our study would greatly promote the clinical application of β-Thal iPSC-derived HSCs in transplantation.

  6. Changes of lipoperoxidation and antioxidant system in pariodontal tissues in experimental bronchial asthma under conditions of chronic periodonitis and correction of these changes with thiotriazoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhailo Reheda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the results of the research of changes in indices of lipid peroxidation (conjugated dienes and malondialdehide and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ceruloplasmin systems in guinea pigs’ periodontal soft tissues in experimental bronchial asthma in the dynamics of asthma under conditions of chronic periodontitis and correction of these changes with thiotriazoline. The research was conducted on 50 male guinea pigs weighting 250-270 g, divided into 5 groups: I – intact guinea pigs (n=10, II – guinea pigs (n=10 with asthma under conditions of chronic periodontitis before correction (4th day, III - guinea pigs (n=10 with asthma under conditions of chronic periodontitis before correction (18th day, IV - guinea pigs (n=10 with asthma under conditions of chronic periodontitis before correction (25 th day, V - guinea pigs (n=10 with asthma under conditions of chronic periodontitis after correction (25th day. The results of experimental studies showed the significant increase of conjugated dienes and malondialdehide levels in animal’s periodontal soft tissues at all observed stages of asthma development under conditions of chronic periodontitis before the correction as compared with control group. Intensive synthesis of LPO’s products caused increase on 4th day with further decrease on 18th and 25th days of activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ceruloplasmin in animal’s periodontal soft tissues before the correction as compared with indices of the control group. After correction with thiotriazoline the the results showed decrease of indices of LPO and increase of activity levels of antioxidant enzymes.

  7. Simulation of co-phase error correction of optical multi-aperture imaging system based on stochastic parallel gradient decent algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Ma, Haotong; Luo, Chuanxin

    2016-10-01

    The optical multi-aperture imaging system is an effective way to magnify the aperture and increase the resolution of telescope optical system, the difficulty of which lies in detecting and correcting of co-phase error. This paper presents a method based on stochastic parallel gradient decent algorithm (SPGD) to correct the co-phase error. Compared with the current method, SPGD method can avoid detecting the co-phase error. This paper analyzed the influence of piston error and tilt error on image quality based on double-aperture imaging system, introduced the basic principle of SPGD algorithm, and discuss the influence of SPGD algorithm's key parameters (the gain coefficient and the disturbance amplitude) on error control performance. The results show that SPGD can efficiently correct the co-phase error. The convergence speed of the SPGD algorithm is improved with the increase of gain coefficient and disturbance amplitude, but the stability of the algorithm reduced. The adaptive gain coefficient can solve this problem appropriately. This paper's results can provide the theoretical reference for the co-phase error correction of the multi-aperture imaging system.

  8. Long term follow up after surgery in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries with a right ventricle in the systemic circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); S.J. Head (Stuart); P.L. de Jong (Peter); M. Witsenburg (Maarten); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAim of the study: To investigate the long-term outcome of surgical treatment for congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA), in patients with biventricular repair with the right ventricle as systemic ventricle.Methods: A total of 32 patients with CCTGA were

  9. The 3D Pelvic Inclination Correction System (PICS): A universally applicable coordinate system for isovolumetric imaging measurements, tested in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Caecilia S; Williamson, Tom; Winklehner, Thomas; Lisse, Sean; Fink, Daniel; DeLancey, John O L; Betschart, Cornelia

    2017-07-01

    In pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the organs are pushed downward along the lines of gravity, so measurements along this longitudinal body axis are desirable. We propose a universally applicable 3D coordinate system that corrects for changes in pelvic inclination and that allows the localization of any point in the pelvis at rest or under dynamic conditions on magnetic resonance images (MRI) of pelvic floor disorders in a scanner- and software independent manner. The proposed 3D coordinate system called 3D Pelvic Inclination Correction System (PICS) is constructed utilizing four bony landmark points, with the origin set at the inferior pubic point, and three additional points at the sacrum (sacrococcygeal joint) and both ischial spines, which are clearly visible on MRI images. The feasibility and applicability of the moving frame was evaluated using MRI datasets from five women with pelvic organ prolapse, three undergoing static MRI and two undergoing dynamic MRI of the pelvic floor in a supine position. The construction of the coordinate system was performed utilizing the selected landmarks, with an initial implementation completed in MATLAB. In all cases the selected landmarks were clearly visible, with the construction of the 3D PICS and measurement of pelvic organ positions performed without difficulty. The resulting distance from the organ position to the horizontal PICS plane was compared to a traditional measure based on standard measurements in 2D slices. The two approaches demonstrated good agreement in each of the cases. The developed approach makes quantitative assessment of pelvic organ position in a physiologically relevant 3D coordinate system possible independent of pelvic movement relative to the scanner. It allows the accurate study of the physiologic range of organ location along the body axis ("up or down") as well as defects of the pelvic sidewall or birth-related pelvic floor injuries outside the midsagittal plane, not possible before in a 2D

  10. Tuning dispersion correction in DFT-D2 for metal-molecule interactions: A tailored reparameterization strategy for the adsorption of aromatic systems on Ag(1 1 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, Eduardo; Muñoz-García, Ana B.; Barone, Vincenzo; Vittadini, Andrea; Casarin, Maurizio; Forrer, Daniel; Pavone, Michele

    2018-02-01

    Common local and semi-local density functionals poorly describe the molecular physisorption on metal surfaces due to the lack of dispersion interactions. In the last decade, several correction schemes have been proposed to amend this fundamental flaw of Density Functional Theory. Using the prototypical case of aromatic molecules adsorbed on Ag(1 1 1), we discuss the accuracy of different dispersion-correction methods and present a reparameterization strategy for the simple and effective DFT-D2. For the adsorption of different aromatic systems on the same metallic substrate, good results at feasible computational costs are achieved by means of a fitting procedure against MP2 data.

  11. CT vs 68Ge attenuation correction in a combined PET/CT system: evaluation of the effect of lowering the CT tube current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, Ehab; Hany, Thomas F.; Burger, Cyrill; Treyer, Valerie; Schulthess von, Gustav K.; Buck, Alfred; Lonn, Albert H.R.

    2002-01-01

    With the introduction of combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) systems, several questions have to be answered. In this work we addressed two of these questions: (a) to what value can the CT tube current be reduced while still yielding adequate maps for the attenuation correction of PET emission scans and (b) how do quantified uptake values in tumours derived from CT and germanium-68 attenuation correction compare. In 26 tumour patients, multidetector CT scans were acquired with 10, 40, 80 and 120 mA (CT 10 , CT 40 , CT 80 and CT 120 ) and used for the attenuation correction of a single FDG PET emission scan, yielding four PET scans designated PET CT10 -PET CT120 . In 60 tumorous lesions, FDG uptake and lesion size were quantified on PET CT10 -PET CT120 . In another group of 18 patients, one CT scan acquired with 80 mA and a standard transmission scan acquired using 68 Ge sources were employed for the attenuation correction of the FDG emission scan (PET CT80 , PET 68Ge ). Uptake values and lesion size in 26 lesions were compared on PET CT80 and PET 68Ge . In the first group of patients, analysis of variance revealed no significant effect of CT current on tumour FDG uptake or lesion size. In the second group, tumour FDG uptake was slightly higher using CT compared with 68 Ge attenuation correction, especially in lesions with high FDG uptake. Lesion size was similar on PET CT80 and PET 68Ge . In conclusion, low CT currents yield adequate maps for the attenuation correction of PET emission scans. Although the discrepancy between CT- and 68 Ge-derived uptake values is probably not relevant in most cases, it should be kept in mind if standardised uptake values derived from CT and 68 Ge attenuation correction are compared. (orig.)

  12. Long-term Associations of an Early Corrected Ventricular Septal Defect and Stress Systems of Child and Mother at Primary School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonawski, Valeska; Vollmer, Laura; Köhler-Jonas, Nicola; Rohleder, Nicolas; Golub, Yulia; Purbojo, Ariawan; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut; Cesnjevar, Robert A; Kratz, Oliver; Eichler, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital heart defect, with larger VSDs typically being corrected with an open-heart surgery during infancy. Long-term consequences of a VSD-corrective surgery on stress systems of child and mother are still unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the associations of an early corrected VSD and diurnal cortisol release of child and mother. 26 children (12 boys) between 6 and 9 years old, who underwent surgery for an isolated VSD within the first 3 years of life, and their mothers participated in the study. Their diurnal cortisol profiles were compared to a sex-, age-, and socioeconomic status-matched healthy control group. Within the VSD group, associations between cortisol and characteristics of surgery and hospitalization were investigated. Child and mother psychopathological symptoms were considered as a possible interfering mechanism of altered cortisol profiles. Diurnal cortisol profiles of children with an early corrected VSD did not differ from those of controls. However, mothers of affected children exhibited higher cortisol levels in the morning ( p  early corrected VSD, in terms of comparable diurnal cortisol profiles with healthy controls, according to a comparable mother-rated psychopathology. Mothers of affected children reveal altered diurnal cortisol levels, without differences in self-rated psychopathology. This divergence should be clarified in future research.

  13. THE IMPACT OF THE CONVERSION OF HISTORICAL COST TO CORRECTED CURRENT COST ON RETURN ON ASSETS AND EQUITY: ANALYSIS FROM DUPONT SYSTEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Silva da Penha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical cost is the most used form of accounting valuation, but it does not reflect the effect of currency in time. The Theory of Corrected Current Cost, albeit with limitations, may show evidence of real and relevant accounting information of the entity. In this context, a question can be formulated: What is the impact of the conversion of historical cost to corrected current cost in return on assets and equity? In order to answer this question, the DuPont system was applied in a model company as a tool for analysis. The results showed that the return of assets at historical cost and corrected current cost were 12.11% and 3.14%, respectively, a decrease of 74.07%, and the result of the return on equity, the historical cost and corrected current cost were 20.59% and 4.96%, respectively, decreased 75.91%. Based on these variations it is observed that the impacts of the conversion of the corrected current cost were significant,confirming the importance of the adoption of this practice, whenever possible.

  14. Comparison of the accuracy of two conventional phenotypic methods and two MALDI-TOF MS systems with that of DNA sequencing analysis for correctly identifying clinically encountered yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Qiao-Ting; Lee, Tai-Fen; Teng, Shih-Hua; Peng, Li-Yun; Chen, Ping-Hung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of species-level identification of two commercially available matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems (Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS) and two conventional phenotypic methods (Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID) with that of rDNA gene sequencing analysis among 200 clinical isolates of commonly encountered yeasts. The correct identification rates of the 200 yeast isolates to species or complex (Candida parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex and C. rugosa complex) levels by the Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS (using in vitro devices [IVD] database), Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID (Sabouraud's dextrose agar) systems were 92.5%, 79.5%, 89%, and 74%, respectively. An additional 72 isolates of C. parapsilosis complex and 18 from the above 200 isolates (30 in each of C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis) were also evaluated separately. Bruker Biotyper system could accurately identify all C. parapsilosis complex to species level. Using Vitek 2 MS (IVD) system, all C. parapsilosis but none of C. metapsilosis, or C. orthopsilosis could be accurately identified. Among the 89 yeasts misidentified by the Vitek 2 MS (IVD) system, 39 (43.8%), including 27 C. orthopsilosis isolates, could be correctly identified Using the Vitek MS Plus SARAMIS database for research use only. This resulted in an increase in the rate of correct identification of all yeast isolates (87.5%) by Vitek 2 MS. The two species in C. guilliermondii complex (C. guilliermondii and C. fermentati) isolates were correctly identified by cluster analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper system. Based on the results obtained in the current study, MALDI-TOF MS systems present a promising alternative for the routine identification of yeast species, including clinically commonly and rarely encountered yeast species and several species belonging to C. parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex

  15. Comparison of the accuracy of two conventional phenotypic methods and two MALDI-TOF MS systems with that of DNA sequencing analysis for correctly identifying clinically encountered yeasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Ting Chao

    Full Text Available We assessed the accuracy of species-level identification of two commercially available matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS systems (Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS and two conventional phenotypic methods (Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID with that of rDNA gene sequencing analysis among 200 clinical isolates of commonly encountered yeasts. The correct identification rates of the 200 yeast isolates to species or complex (Candida parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex and C. rugosa complex levels by the Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS (using in vitro devices [IVD] database, Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID (Sabouraud's dextrose agar systems were 92.5%, 79.5%, 89%, and 74%, respectively. An additional 72 isolates of C. parapsilosis complex and 18 from the above 200 isolates (30 in each of C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis were also evaluated separately. Bruker Biotyper system could accurately identify all C. parapsilosis complex to species level. Using Vitek 2 MS (IVD system, all C. parapsilosis but none of C. metapsilosis, or C. orthopsilosis could be accurately identified. Among the 89 yeasts misidentified by the Vitek 2 MS (IVD system, 39 (43.8%, including 27 C. orthopsilosis isolates, could be correctly identified Using the Vitek MS Plus SARAMIS database for research use only. This resulted in an increase in the rate of correct identification of all yeast isolates (87.5% by Vitek 2 MS. The two species in C. guilliermondii complex (C. guilliermondii and C. fermentati isolates were correctly identified by cluster analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper system. Based on the results obtained in the current study, MALDI-TOF MS systems present a promising alternative for the routine identification of yeast species, including clinically commonly and rarely encountered yeast species and several species belonging to C. parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii

  16. Text Induced Spelling Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from a very large corpus of raw text, without supervision, and contains word

  17. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  18. Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.; Kartz, M.; Behrendt, W.

    1996-10-01

    The laser wavefront of the NIF Beamlet demonstration system is corrected for static aberrations with a wavefront control system. The system operates closed loop with a probe beam prior to a shot and has a loop bandwidth of about 3 Hz. However, until recently the wavefront control system was disabled several minutes prior to the shot to allow time to manually reconfigure its attenuators and probe beam insertion mechanism to shot mode. Thermally-induced dynamic variations in gas density in the Beamlet main beam line produce significant wavefront error. After about 5-8 seconds, the wavefront error has increased to a new, higher level due to turbulence- induced aberrations no longer being corrected- This implies that there is a turbulence-induced aberration noise bandwidth of less than one Hertz, and that the wavefront controller could correct for the majority of turbulence-induced aberration (about one- third wave) by automating its reconfiguration to occur within one second of the shot, This modification was recently implemented on Beamlet; we call this modification the t 0 -1 system

  19. Development of a compact HTS lead unit for the SC correction coils of the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zhanguo, E-mail: zhanguo.zong@kek.jp; Ohuchi, Norihito; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Arimoto, Yasushi

    2016-09-11

    Forty-three superconducting (SC) correction coils with maximum currents of about 60 A are installed in the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system. Current leads to energize the SC correction coils should have an affordable heat load and fit the spatial constraints in the service cryostat where the current leads are installed. To address the requirements, design optimization of individual lead was performed with vapor cooled current lead made of a brass material, and a compact unit was designed to accommodate eight current leads together in order to be installed with one port in the service cryostat. The 2nd generation high temperature SC (HTS) tape was adopted and soldered at the cold end of the brass current lead to form a hybrid HTS lead structure. A prototype of the compact lead unit with HTS tape was constructed and tested with liquid helium (LHe) environment. This paper presents a cryogenic measurement system to simulate the real operation conditions in the service cryostat, and analysis of the experimental results. The measured results showed excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In total, 11 sets of the compact HTS lead units were constructed for the 43 SC correction coils at KEK. One set from the mass production was tested in cryogenic conditions, and exhibited the same performance as the prototype. The compact HTS lead unit can feed currents to four SC correction coils simultaneously with the simple requirement of controlling and monitoring helium vapor flow, and has a heat load of about 0.762 L/h in terms of LHe consumption. - Highlights: • The requirements of the SC correction coils on current leads are introduced. • The optimum design of the brass vapor cooled current lead is described. • The compact structure of eight leads with HTS tape is presented. • The theoretical, numerical, and experimental results are compared. • The current lead heat load is evaluated for cryogenic system.

  20. ADVANTAGES OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICAL ELEMENTS APPLICATION IN SIMPLE OPTICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Zoric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of diffractive optical elements on the optical aberrations. The correction of optical aberrations was investigated in the simple optical systems with one and two lenses (singlet and doublet. The advantages of diffractive optical elements are their ability to generate arbitrary complex wave fronts from a piece of optical material that is essentially flat. The optical systems consisting of the standard surfaces were designed and optimized by using the same starting points. Further, the diffractive and aspheric surfaces were introduced into the developed systems. The resulting hybrid systems were optimized. To compare the complicity of the development of narrow field systems and wide field optical systems, the optimization has been done separately for these two types of the instruments. The optical systems were designed by using special Optical Design Software. Тhe characteristics of designed diffractive surfaces were controlled in Software DIFSYS 2.30. Due to the application of diffractive optical elements the longitudinal chromatic aberration was 5 times reduced for the narrow field systems. The absolute value of Seidel coefficient related to the spherical aberration was reduced in the range of 0.03. Considering that diffractive optical elements have the known disadvantages, like possible parasitic diffraction orders and probable decrease of the transmission, we also developed and analyzed the optical systems with combined aspheric and diffractive surfaces. A combination of the aspheric and diffractive surfaces in the optical disk system of the disk reading lens, gave cutting down of the longitudinal color aberrations almost 15 times on-axis, comparing to the lens consisting of the aspherical and standard surfaces. All of the designed diffractive optical elements possess the parameters within the fabrication limits.

  1. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  2. Automatic computation of radiative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Nakazawa, N.; Kaneko, T.

    1997-01-01

    Automated systems are reviewed focusing on their general structure and requirement specific to the calculation of radiative corrections. Detailed description of the system and its performance is presented taking GRACE as a concrete example. (author)

  3. Doppler distortion correction based on microphone array and matching pursuit algorithm for a wayside train bearing monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xingchen; Hu, Zhiyong; He, Qingbo; Zhang, Shangbin; Zhu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Doppler distortion and background noise can reduce the effectiveness of wayside acoustic train bearing monitoring and fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a method of combining a microphone array and matching pursuit algorithm to overcome these difficulties. First, a dictionary is constructed based on the characteristics and mechanism of a far-field assumption. Then, the angle of arrival of the train bearing is acquired when applying matching pursuit to analyze the acoustic array signals. Finally, after obtaining the resampling time series, the Doppler distortion can be corrected, which is convenient for further diagnostic work. Compared with traditional single-microphone Doppler correction methods, the advantages of the presented array method are its robustness to background noise and its barely requiring pre-measuring parameters. Simulation and experimental study show that the proposed method is effective in performing wayside acoustic bearing fault diagnosis. (paper)

  4. Doppler distortion correction based on microphone array and matching pursuit algorithm for a wayside train bearing monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingchen; Hu, Zhiyong; He, Qingbo; Zhang, Shangbin; Zhu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Doppler distortion and background noise can reduce the effectiveness of wayside acoustic train bearing monitoring and fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a method of combining a microphone array and matching pursuit algorithm to overcome these difficulties. First, a dictionary is constructed based on the characteristics and mechanism of a far-field assumption. Then, the angle of arrival of the train bearing is acquired when applying matching pursuit to analyze the acoustic array signals. Finally, after obtaining the resampling time series, the Doppler distortion can be corrected, which is convenient for further diagnostic work. Compared with traditional single-microphone Doppler correction methods, the advantages of the presented array method are its robustness to background noise and its barely requiring pre-measuring parameters. Simulation and experimental study show that the proposed method is effective in performing wayside acoustic bearing fault diagnosis.

  5. Logarithmic corrections to the uncertainty principle and infinitude of the number of bound states of n-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.F.; Coutinho, F.A.B.; Malta, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that critical long distance behaviour for a two-body potential, defining the finiteness or infinitude of the number of negative eigenvalues of Schrodinger operators in ν-dimensions, are given by v sub(k) (r) = - [ν-2/2r] 2 - 1/(2rlnr) 2 + ... - 1/(2rlnr.lnlnr...ln sub(k)r) 2 where k=0,1... for ν not=2 and k=1,2... if ν=2. This result is a consequence of logarithmic corrections to an inequality known as Uncertainty Principle. If the continuum threshold in the N-body problem is defined by a two-cluster break up our results generate corrections to the existing sufficient conditions for the existence of infinitely many bound states. (Author) [pt

  6. Spec Rekindled-A Simple Torque Correction Mechanics for Transposed Teeth in Conjunction with Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Maurya, Raj Kumar; Thakkar, Surbhi

    2016-12-01

    Complete transposition of teeth is a rather rare phenomenon. After correction of transposed and malaligned lateral incisor and canine, attainment of appropriate individual antagonistic tooth torque is indispensable, which many orthodontists consider to be a herculean task. Here, a novel method is proposed which demonstrates the use of Spec reverse torquing auxillary as an effective adjunctive aid in conjunction with pre-adjusted edgewise brackets.

  7. A Budget Impact Analysis of Newly Available Hepatitis C Therapeutics and the Financial Burden on a State Correctional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John T; Rich, Josiah D; Brockmann, Bradley W; Vohr, Fred; Spaulding, Anne; Montague, Brian T

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection continues to disproportionately affect incarcerated populations. New HCV drugs present opportunities and challenges to address HCV in corrections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of the treatment costs for HCV infection in a state correctional population through a budget impact analysis comparing differing treatment strategies. Electronic and paper medical records were reviewed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C within the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. Three treatment strategies were evaluated as follows: (1) treating all chronically infected persons, (2) treating only patients with demonstrated fibrosis, and (3) treating only patients with advanced fibrosis. Budget impact was computed as the percentage of pharmacy and overall healthcare expenditures accrued by total drug costs assuming entirely interferon-free therapy. Sensitivity analyses assessed potential variance in costs related to variability in HCV prevalence, genotype, estimated variation in market pricing, length of stay for the sentenced population, and uptake of newly available regimens. Chronic HCV prevalence was estimated at 17% of the total population. Treating all sentenced inmates with at least 6 months remaining of their sentence would cost about $34 million-13 times the pharmacy budget and almost twice the overall healthcare budget. Treating inmates with advanced fibrosis would cost about $15 million. A hypothetical 50% reduction in total drug costs for future therapies could cost $17 million to treat all eligible inmates. With immense costs projected with new treatment, it is unlikely that correctional facilities will have the capacity to treat all those afflicted with HCV. Alternative payment strategies in collaboration with outside programs may be necessary to curb this epidemic. In order to improve care and treatment delivery, drug costs also need to be seriously reevaluated to be more accessible and equitable now that HCV

  8. Detection of correct and incorrect measurements in real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems by applying a postprocessing support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Yenny; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Lorencio, Carol; Bondia, Jorge; Vehi, Josep

    2013-07-01

    Support vector machines (SVMs) are an attractive option for detecting correct and incorrect measurements in real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems (RTCGMSs), because their learning mechanism can introduce a postprocessing strategy for imbalanced datasets. The proposed SVM considers the geometric mean to obtain a more balanced performance between sensitivity and specificity. To test this approach, 23 critically ill patients receiving insulin therapy were monitored over 72 h using an RTCGMS, and a dataset of 537 samples, classified according to International Standards Organization (ISO) criteria (372 correct and 165 incorrect measurements), was obtained. The results obtained were promising for patients with septic shock or with sepsis, for which the proposed system can be considered as reliable. However, this approach cannot be considered suitable for patients without sepsis.

  9. Adaptation of penelope Monte Carlo code system to the absorbed dose metrology: characterization of high energy photon beams and calculations of reference dosimeter correction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurier, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis has been performed in the framework of national reference setting-up for absorbed dose in water and high energy photon beam provided with the SATURNE-43 medical accelerator of the BNM-LPRI (acronym for National Bureau of Metrology and Primary standard laboratory of ionising radiation). The aim of this work has been to develop and validate different user codes, based on PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system, to determine the photon beam characteristics and calculate the correction factors of reference dosimeters such as Fricke dosimeters and graphite calorimeter. In the first step, the developed user codes have permitted the influence study of different components constituting the irradiation head. Variance reduction techniques have been used to reduce the calculation time. The phase space has been calculated for 6, 12 and 25 MV at the output surface level of the accelerator head, then used for calculating energy spectra and dose distributions in the reference water phantom. Results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements. The second step has been devoted to develop an user code allowing calculation correction factors associated with both BNM-LPRI's graphite and Fricke dosimeters thanks to a correlated sampling method starting with energy spectra obtained in the first step. Then the calculated correction factors have been compared with experimental and calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code system. The good agreement, between experimental and calculated results, leads to validate simulations performed with the PENELOPE code system. (author)

  10. Temperature Data Assimilation with Salinity Corrections: Validation for the NSIPP Ocean Data Assimilation System in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, 1993-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troccoli, Alberto; Rienecker, Michele M.; Keppenne, Christian L.; Johnson, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) has developed an Ocean data assimilation system to initialize the quasi-isopycnal ocean model used in our experimental coupled-model forecast system. Initial tests of the system have focused on the assimilation of temperature profiles in an optimal interpolation framework. It is now recognized that correction of temperature only often introduces spurious water masses. The resulting density distribution can be statically unstable and also have a detrimental impact on the velocity distribution. Several simple schemes have been developed to try to correct these deficiencies. Here the salinity field is corrected by using a scheme which assumes that the temperature-salinity relationship of the model background is preserved during the assimilation. The scheme was first introduced for a zlevel model by Troccoli and Haines (1999). A large set of subsurface observations of salinity and temperature is used to cross-validate two data assimilation experiments run for the 6-year period 1993-1998. In these two experiments only subsurface temperature observations are used, but in one case the salinity field is also updated whenever temperature observations are available.

  11. STeP: A Tool for the Development of Provably Correct Reactive and Real-Time Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manna, Zohar

    1999-01-01

    This research is directed towards the implementation of a comprehensive toolkit for the development and verification of high assurance reactive systems, especially concurrent, real time, and hybrid systems...

  12. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.

    1991-01-01

    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  13. Scatter and crosstalk corrections for 99mTc/123I dual-radionuclide imaging using a CZT SPECT system with pinhole collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Peng; Hutton, Brian F.; Holstensson, Maria; Ljungberg, Michael; Hendrik Pretorius, P.; Prasad, Rameshwar; Liu, Chi; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Thorn, Stephanie L.; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The energy spectrum for a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has a low energy tail due to incomplete charge collection and intercrystal scattering. Due to these solid-state detector effects, scatter would be overestimated if the conventional triple-energy window (TEW) method is used for scatter and crosstalk corrections in CZT-based imaging systems. The objective of this work is to develop a scatter and crosstalk correction method for 99m Tc/ 123 I dual-radionuclide imaging for a CZT-based dedicated cardiac SPECT system with pinhole collimators (GE Discovery NM 530c/570c). Methods: A tailing model was developed to account for the low energy tail effects of the CZT detector. The parameters of the model were obtained using 99m Tc and 123 I point source measurements. A scatter model was defined to characterize the relationship between down-scatter and self-scatter projections. The parameters for this model were obtained from Monte Carlo simulation using SIMIND. The tailing and scatter models were further incorporated into a projection count model, and the primary and self-scatter projections of each radionuclide were determined with a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative estimation approach. The extracted scatter and crosstalk projections were then incorporated into MLEM image reconstruction as an additive term in forward projection to obtain scatter- and crosstalk-corrected images. The proposed method was validated using Monte Carlo simulation, line source experiment, anthropomorphic torso phantom studies, and patient studies. The performance of the proposed method was also compared to that obtained with the conventional TEW method. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and line source experiment demonstrated that the TEW method overestimated scatter while their proposed method provided more accurate scatter estimation by considering the low energy tail effect. In the phantom study, improved defect contrasts were observed with both

  14. Scatter and crosstalk corrections for {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I dual-radionuclide imaging using a CZT SPECT system with pinhole collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Peng [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hutton, Brian F. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Holstensson, Maria [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm 14186 (Sweden); Ljungberg, Michael [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund 222 41 (Sweden); Hendrik Pretorius, P. [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Prasad, Rameshwar; Liu, Chi, E-mail: chi.liu@yale.edu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Thorn, Stephanie L.; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J. [Department of Internal Medicine, Yale Translational Research Imaging Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The energy spectrum for a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has a low energy tail due to incomplete charge collection and intercrystal scattering. Due to these solid-state detector effects, scatter would be overestimated if the conventional triple-energy window (TEW) method is used for scatter and crosstalk corrections in CZT-based imaging systems. The objective of this work is to develop a scatter and crosstalk correction method for {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 123}I dual-radionuclide imaging for a CZT-based dedicated cardiac SPECT system with pinhole collimators (GE Discovery NM 530c/570c). Methods: A tailing model was developed to account for the low energy tail effects of the CZT detector. The parameters of the model were obtained using {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I point source measurements. A scatter model was defined to characterize the relationship between down-scatter and self-scatter projections. The parameters for this model were obtained from Monte Carlo simulation using SIMIND. The tailing and scatter models were further incorporated into a projection count model, and the primary and self-scatter projections of each radionuclide were determined with a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) iterative estimation approach. The extracted scatter and crosstalk projections were then incorporated into MLEM image reconstruction as an additive term in forward projection to obtain scatter- and crosstalk-corrected images. The proposed method was validated using Monte Carlo simulation, line source experiment, anthropomorphic torso phantom studies, and patient studies. The performance of the proposed method was also compared to that obtained with the conventional TEW method. Results: Monte Carlo simulations and line source experiment demonstrated that the TEW method overestimated scatter while their proposed method provided more accurate scatter estimation by considering the low energy tail effect. In the phantom study, improved defect contrasts were

  15. Conceptual model of a logical system processor of selection to electrical filters for correction of harmonics in low voltage lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastre, Arlys; Torriente, Ives; Méndez, Erik F.; Cordovés, Alexis

    2017-06-01

    In the present investigation, the authors propose a conceptual model for the analysis and the decision making of the corrective models to use in the mitigation of the harmonic distortion. The authors considered the setting of conventional models, and such adaptive models like the filters incorporation to networks neuronal artificial (RNA's) for the mitigating effect. In addition to the present work is a showing of the experimental model that learns by means of a flowchart denoting the need to use artificial intelligence skills for the exposition of the proposed model. The other aspect considered and analyzed are the adaptability and usage of the same, considering a local reference of the laws and lineaments of energy quality that demands the Department of Electricity and Energy Renewable (MEER) of Equator.

  16. Evaluation of dose calculation algorithms using the treatment planning system Xi O with tissue heterogeneity correction turned on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, Leandro R.; Barbi, Gustavo L.; Silva, Wiliam T.; Reis, Eduardo G.F.; Borges, Leandro F.; Bertucci, Edenyse C.; Maciel, Marina F.; Amaral, Leonardo L.

    2011-01-01

    Since the cross-section for various radiation interactions is dependent upon tissue material, the presence of heterogeneities affects the final dose delivered. This paper aims to analyze how different treatment planning algorithms (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Clarkson) work when heterogeneity corrections are used. To that end, a farmer-type ionization chamber was positioned reproducibly (during the time of CT as well as irradiation) inside several phantoms made of aluminum, bone, cork and solid water slabs. The percent difference between the dose measured and calculated by the various algorithms was less than 5%.The convolution method shows better results for high density materials (difference ∼1 %), whereas the Superposition algorithm is more accurate for low densities (around 1,1%). (author)

  17. The concept of power correction techniques and its use in the reactor regulation and protection systems in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaswani, P.D.; Kelkar, M.G.; Ghoshal, B.; Ashok Kumar, B.

    2010-01-01

    Reactor Power Measurement is an essential part of the Reactor Power Control Loop in PHWRs. None of the available power measuring sensor offers characteristics which allow their direct use in the Reactor Power Control Loop. Thermal power, which is considered as relatively accurate, suffers from measurement delays and is used only as reference. Neutronic power sensors like Ion Chambers and Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) which sense instantaneous power suffer from inaccuracies. A technique is required which makes use of both types-reference power and instantaneous power to extract real power information from the signals. This paper describes techniques to calibrate (correct) neutronic power that with the thermal reference power signals. The paper also brings out limitation of the calibration technique. (author)

  18. WE-E-18A-07: MAGIC: Multi-Acquisition Gain Image Correction for Mobile X-Ray Systems with Intrinsic Localization Crosshairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y; Sharp, G [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Gain calibration for X-ray imaging systems with movable flat panel detectors (FPD) and intrinsic crosshairs is a challenge due to the geometry dependence of the heel effect and crosshair artifact. This study aims to develop a gain correction method for such systems by implementing the multi-acquisition gain image correction (MAGIC) technique. Methods: Raw flat-field images containing crosshair shadows and heel effect were acquired in 4 different FPD positions with fixed exposure parameters. The crosshair region was automatically detected and substituted with interpolated values from nearby exposed regions, generating a conventional single-image gain-map for each FPD position. Large kernel-based correction was applied to these images to correct the heel effect. A mask filter was used to invalidate the original cross-hair regions previously filled with the interpolated values. A final, seamless gain-map was created from the processed images by either the sequential filling (SF) or selective averaging (SA) techniques developed in this study. Quantitative evaluation was performed based on detective quantum efficiency improvement factor (DQEIF) for gain-corrected images using the conventional and proposed techniques. Results: Qualitatively, the MAGIC technique was found to be more effective in eliminating crosshair artifacts compared to the conventional single-image method. The mean DQEIF over the range of frequencies from 0.5 to 3.5 mm-1 were 1.09±0.06, 2.46±0.32, and 3.34±0.36 in the crosshair-artifact region and 2.35±0.31, 2.33±0.31, and 3.09±0.34 in the normal region, for the conventional, MAGIC-SF, and MAGIC-SA techniques, respectively. Conclusion: The introduced MAGIC technique is appropriate for gain calibration of an imaging system associated with a moving FPD and an intrinsic crosshair. The technique showed advantages over a conventional single image-based technique by successfully reducing residual crosshair artifacts, and higher image quality

  19. Correlation of Hope and Self-Efficacy With Job Satisfaction, Job Stress, and Organizational Commitment for Correctional Officers in the Taiwan Prison System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Fang Mei; Guo, Gwo Jen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlation of hope and self-efficacy with job satisfaction, job stress, and organizational commitment for correctional officers in the Taiwan prison system while controlling for the shared effects of the nature of the institution (i.e., for male or female inmates) and personal characteristics of the officers (i.e., gender, age, and years of work experience). Hope in the context of this study refers to a cognitive set and motivational state that involves reciprocal interaction between goal-directed energy (agency) and planned pathways to meet the goals (pathway). It is a personality trait of hopefulness, rather than having hope for the prisoners restructuring their future. Self-efficacy refers to the belief that individuals have regarding their ability to perform necessary tasks to achieve goals. Although they share similar constructs, hope theory places emphasis on cross-situational goal-directed thought, whereas the concept of self-efficacy focuses on situation-specific goals. The participants were 133 correctional personnel from two correctional institutions, one with male inmates and the other with female inmates, in central Taiwan. The results of ordinary least squares regression analysis indicated that hope had a significant positive association with job satisfaction and a significant negative association with job stress. Self-efficacy had a significant positive association with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Finally, job satisfaction had a significant positive association with organizational commitment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A geometrical correction for the inter- and intra-molecular basis set superposition error in Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations for large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Holger; Grimme, Stefan

    2012-04-21

    A semi-empirical counterpoise-type correction for basis set superposition error (BSSE) in molecular systems is presented. An atom pair-wise potential corrects for the inter- and intra-molecular BSSE in supermolecular Hartree-Fock (HF) or density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This geometrical counterpoise (gCP) denoted scheme depends only on the molecular geometry, i.e., no input from the electronic wave-function is required and hence is applicable to molecules with ten thousands of atoms. The four necessary parameters have been determined by a fit to standard Boys and Bernadi counterpoise corrections for Hobza's S66×8 set of non-covalently bound complexes (528 data points). The method's target are small basis sets (e.g., minimal, split-valence, 6-31G*), but reliable results are also obtained for larger triple-ζ sets. The intermolecular BSSE is calculated by gCP within a typical error of 10%-30% that proves sufficient in many practical applications. The approach is suggested as a quantitative correction in production work and can also be routinely applied to estimate the magnitude of the BSSE beforehand. The applicability for biomolecules as the primary target is tested for the crambin protein, where gCP removes intramolecular BSSE effectively and yields conformational energies comparable to def2-TZVP basis results. Good mutual agreement is also found with Jensen's ACP(4) scheme, estimating the intramolecular BSSE in the phenylalanine-glycine-phenylalanine tripeptide, for which also a relaxed rotational energy profile is presented. A variety of minimal and double-ζ basis sets combined with gCP and the dispersion corrections DFT-D3 and DFT-NL are successfully benchmarked on the S22 and S66 sets of non-covalent interactions. Outstanding performance with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 0.51 kcal/mol (0.38 kcal/mol after D3-refit) is obtained at the gCP-corrected HF-D3/(minimal basis) level for the S66 benchmark. The gCP-corrected B3LYP-D3/6-31G* model

  1. A geometrical correction for the inter- and intra-molecular basis set superposition error in Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations for large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Holger; Grimme, Stefan

    2012-04-01

    A semi-empirical counterpoise-type correction for basis set superposition error (BSSE) in molecular systems is presented. An atom pair-wise potential corrects for the inter- and intra-molecular BSSE in supermolecular Hartree-Fock (HF) or density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This geometrical counterpoise (gCP) denoted scheme depends only on the molecular geometry, i.e., no input from the electronic wave-function is required and hence is applicable to molecules with ten thousands of atoms. The four necessary parameters have been determined by a fit to standard Boys and Bernadi counterpoise corrections for Hobza's S66×8 set of non-covalently bound complexes (528 data points). The method's target are small basis sets (e.g., minimal, split-valence, 6-31G*), but reliable results are also obtained for larger triple-ζ sets. The intermolecular BSSE is calculated by gCP within a typical error of 10%-30% that proves sufficient in many practical applications. The approach is suggested as a quantitative correction in production work and can also be routinely applied to estimate the magnitude of the BSSE beforehand. The applicability for biomolecules as the primary target is tested for the crambin protein, where gCP removes intramolecular BSSE effectively and yields conformational energies comparable to def2-TZVP basis results. Good mutual agreement is also found with Jensen's ACP(4) scheme, estimating the intramolecular BSSE in the phenylalanine-glycine-phenylalanine tripeptide, for which also a relaxed rotational energy profile is presented. A variety of minimal and double-ζ basis sets combined with gCP and the dispersion corrections DFT-D3 and DFT-NL are successfully benchmarked on the S22 and S66 sets of non-covalent interactions. Outstanding performance with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 0.51 kcal/mol (0.38 kcal/mol after D3-refit) is obtained at the gCP-corrected HF-D3/(minimal basis) level for the S66 benchmark. The gCP-corrected B3LYP-D3/6-31G* model

  2. Systeme de fautes et correction phonetique par la methode verbo-tonale des francophones belges qui apprenent l'espagnol (Phonetic Correction and the Verbo-tonal Method for Teaching Spanish to French-speaking Belgians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Padilla, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Describes experiments in the field of phonetic correction. Several techniques used at the University of Mons for teaching Spanish pronunciation to French-speaking Belgians are explained. (Text is in French.) (PMP)

  3. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  4. Method and System for Dynamic Automated Corrections to Weather Avoidance Routes for Aircraft in En Route Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, B. David (Inventor); Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic weather route system automatically analyzes routes for in-flight aircraft flying in convective weather regions and attempts to find more time and fuel efficient reroutes around current and predicted weather cells. The dynamic weather route system continuously analyzes all flights and provides reroute advisories that are dynamically updated in real time while the aircraft are in flight. The dynamic weather route system includes a graphical user interface that allows users to visualize, evaluate, modify if necessary, and implement proposed reroutes.

  5. Rigorous control of logarithmic corrections in four-dimensional phi4 spin systems. II. Critical behavior of susceptibility and correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, T.; Tasaki, H.

    1987-01-01

    Continuing the analysis started in Part I of this work, they investigate critical phenomena in weakly coupled phi 4 spin systems in four dimensions. Concerning the critical behavior of the susceptibility and the correlation length (in the high-temperature phase), the existence of logarithmic corrections to their mean field type behavior is rigorously shown (i.e., they prove chi(t) ∼ t -1 absolute value 1n t/sup 1/3/, zeta(t) ∼ t/sup -1/2/ absolute value of ln t/sup 1/6/)

  6. Correction of PF in systems with presence of harmonics; Correccion de FP en sistemas con presencia de armonicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IMELHIA

    2005-07-01

    This document sets an example of a typical industrial plant and everything that this implies such as: an equivalent circuit and the form in which it acts as a source of harmonic currents, the initial problem: correction of the PF, the line current of this device, the current waveform (fundamental, fundamental plus fifth harmonica, h1 + h5 + h7, h1 {yields} h13 or h1 {yields} h25), the representation of harmonics, the Fourier series, the total distortion of the harmonics (THD), the classification of the harmonics, the capacitors, the reactance, the tuned filters h5 and h7, the high tension contaminated network, the extension of the network in LT, the intensities and the reactors banks. [Spanish] Este documento nos pone un ejemplo de una planta industrial tipica y todo lo que esta implica como: un circuito equivalente y la forma en que actua como una fuente de corrientes armonicas, el problema inicial: correccion FP, la corriente de linea de este dispositivo, la forma de onda en corriente (fundamental, fundamental mas quinta armonica, h1 + h5 + h7, h1 ? h13 o h1 ? h25), la representacion de armonicas, las series de Fourier, la distorsion total de las armonicas (THD), la clasificacion de las armonicas, los capacitores, la reactancia, los filtros sintonizados h5 y h7, la red de alta tension contaminada, la extension de red en BT, las intensidades y los bancos reactores.

  7. Universal modeling of weak antilocalization corrections in quasi-two-dimensional electron systems using predetermined return orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, A.; Koga, T.

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a method to calculate the weak localization and antilocalization corrections based on the real-space simulation, where we provide 147 885 predetermined return orbitals of quasi-two-dimensional electrons with up to 5000 scattering events that are repeatedly used. Our model subsumes that of Golub [L. E. Golub, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235310 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevB.71.235310] when the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is assumed. Our computation is very simple, fast, and versatile, where the numerical results, obtained all at once, cover wide ranges of the magnetic field under various one-electron interactions H' exactly. Thus, it has straightforward extensibility to incorporate interactions other than the Rashba SOI, such as the linear and cubic Dresselhaus SOIs, Zeeman effect, and even interactions relevant to the valley and pseudo spin degrees of freedom, which should provide a unique tool to study new classes of materials like emerging 2D materials. Using our computation, we also demonstrate the robustness of a persistent spin helix state against the cubic Dresselhaus SOI.

  8. Monte Carlo simulated corrections for beam commissioning measurements with circular and MLC shaped fields on the CyberKnife M6 System: a study including diode, microchamber, point scintillator, and synthetic microdiamond detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescon, P.; Kilby, W.; Noll, J. M.; Masi, L.; Satariano, N.; Russo, S.

    2017-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate correction factors for output factor (OF), percentage depth-dose (PDD), and off-axis ratio (OAR) measurements with the CyberKnife M6 System. These include the first such data for the InCise MLC. Simulated detectors include diodes, air-filled microchambers, a synthetic microdiamond detector, and point scintillator. Individual perturbation factors were also evaluated. OF corrections show similar trends to previous studies. With a 5 mm fixed collimator the diode correction to convert a measured OF to the corresponding point dose ratio varies between  -6.1% and  -3.5% for the diode models evaluated, while in a 7.6 mm  ×  7.7 mm MLC field these are  -4.5% to  -1.8%. The corresponding microchamber corrections are  +9.9% to  +10.7% and  +3.5% to  +4.0%. The microdiamond corrections have a maximum of  -1.4% for the 7.5 mm and 10 mm collimators. The scintillator corrections are  15%, reducing to    d max were  M6 Systems and retrospectively checking estimated corrections used previously. We recommend the PDD and OAR corrections are used to guide detector selection and inform the evaluation of results rather than to explicitly correct measurements.

  9. Youth with Disabilities in the Corrections System: Prevalence Rates and Identification Issues. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Cindy Wheeler; Griller-Clark, Heather M.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, reviews current data on disabilities requiring special education and related supports. Statistics on the prevalence of juvenile crime are followed by statistics on the prevalence of special education disabilities in the system, specifically specific…

  10. Optics for five-dimensional measurement for correction of vertical displacement error due to attitude of floating body in superconducting magnetic levitation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Fuyuhiko; Morokuma, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    An improved optical system for five-dimensional measurement has been developed for the correction of vertical displacement error due to the attitude change of a superconducting floating body that shows five degrees of freedom besides a vertical displacement of 10 mm. The available solid angle for the optical measurement is extremely limited because of the cryogenic laser interferometer sharing the optical window of a vacuum chamber in addition to the basic structure of the cryogenic vessel for liquid helium. The aim of the design was to develop a more practical as well as better optical system compared with the prototype system. Various artifices were built into this optical system and the result shows a satisfactory performance and easy operation overcoming the extremely severe spatial difficulty in the levitation system. Although the system described here is specifically designed for our magnetic levitation system, the concept and each artifice will be applicable to the optical measurement system for an object in a high-vacuum chamber and/or cryogenic vessel where the available solid angle for an optical path is extremely limited

  11. Pilot Project to Optimize Ground Water Remediation Systems at RCRA Corrective Action Facilities: Summary Report and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on previous success with conducting independent optimization evaluations at Fund-lead pump and treat sites (i.e., those sites with pump and treat systems funded and managed by Superfund and the States), the EPA Office of Superfund .....

  12. Corrective actions to gas accumulation in safety injection system pipings of PWRs and gas void detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    In the US, gas accumulation events of safety injection systems of PWRs during plant operation are continuously reported. As the events may result in loss of safety function, the USNRC is alerting licensees by Information Notices. The cause of the events is coolant leakage to interfacing systems with lower pressure, or gas dissolution of primary coolant by partial pressure drop. In this study, it was clarified by the evaluation of the cause of the events of US plants, gas accumulation in piping between an accumulator and Residual Heat Removal System should be quantitatively investigated regarding Japanese plants. Also, effectiveness of ultrasonic testing which is used for monthly gas accumulation surveillance in US plants was demonstrated using a model loop. In addition, the method was confirmed applicable by an experiment carried out at INSS to detect cavitation voids in piping systems. (author)

  13. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Post-closure inspection requirements for the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 (Corrective Action Unit[CAU] 427) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427. Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-561. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 16, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Inspection Plan) was approved by the NDEP on August 27, 1999. The annual post-closure inspection at CAU 427 consists of the following: Verification of the presence of all leachfield and septic tank below-grade markers; Verification that the warning signs are in-place, intact, and readable; and Visual observation of the soil and asphalt cover for indications of subsidence, erosion, and unauthorized use. The site inspections were conducted on June 20, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. No maintenance or repairs were conducted at the site. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. Copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachments C

  14. On microscopic simulations of systems with model chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, J.; Gorecka, J.N.

    1998-01-01

    Large scale computer simulations of model chemical systems play the role of idealized experiments in which theories may be tested. In this paper we present two applications of microscopic simulations based on the reactive hard sphere model. We investigate the influence of internal fluctuations on an oscillating chemical system and observe how they modify the phase portrait of it. Another application, we consider, is concerned with the propagation of a chemical wave front associated with a thermally activated reaction. It is shown that the nonequilibrium effects increase the front velocity if compared with the velocity of the front generated by a nonactivated process characterized by the same rate constant. (author)

  15. Image correction during large and rapid B(0) variations in an open MRI system with permanent magnets using navigator echoes and phase compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yu; Xie, Haibin; Li, Gengying

    2009-09-01

    An open permanent magnet system with vertical B(0) field and without self-shielding can be quite susceptible to perturbations from external magnetic sources. B(0) variation in such a system located close to a subway station was measured to be greater than 0.7 microT by both MRI and a fluxgate magnetometer. This B(0) variation caused image artifacts. A navigator echo approach that monitored and compensated the view-to-view variation in magnetic resonance signal phase was developed to correct for image artifacts. Human brain imaging experiments using a multislice gradient-echo sequence demonstrated that the ghosting and blurring artifacts associated with B(0) variations were effectively removed using the navigator method.

  16. The impact of reflectivity correction and conversion methods to improve precipitation estimation by weather radar for an extreme low-land Mesoscale Convective System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands. For most of the country this led to over 15 hours of near-continuous precipitation, which resulted in total event accumulations exceeding 150 mm in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Such accumulations belong to the largest sums ever recorded in this country and gave rise to local flooding. Measuring precipitation by weather radar within such mesoscale convective systems is known to be a challenge, since measurements are affected by multiple sources of error. For the current event the operational weather radar rainfall product only estimated about 30% of the actual amount of precipitation as measured by rain gauges. In the current presentation we will try to identify what gave rise to such large underestimations. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two different groups: 1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements taken, and 2) errors related to the conversion of reflectivity values in rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates. To correct for the first group of errors, the quality of the weather radar reflectivity data was improved by successively correcting for 1) clutter and anomalous propagation, 2) radar calibration, 3) wet radome attenuation, 4) signal attenuation and 5) the vertical profile of reflectivity. Such consistent corrections are generally not performed by operational meteorological services. Results show a large improvement in the quality of the precipitation data, however still only ~65% of the actual observed accumulations was estimated. To further improve the quality of the precipitation estimates, the second group of errors are corrected for by making use of disdrometer measurements taken in close vicinity of the radar. Based on these data the parameters of a normalized drop size distribution are estimated for the total event as well as for each precipitation type separately (convective

  17. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  18. Effects of the Thyroid Status Correction on the Functional State of Digestive System in Children with Diffuse Nontoxic Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ye. Mamenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effects of the diffuse non-toxic goiter treatment on the functional state of the digestive system in children. Materials and methods. The screening survey was based on lunior comprehensive schools (695 children aged 5–11 years: questioning of families, anthropometry and examination of children, detection of ioduria, palpation of the thyroid gland. In-depth examination of children with goiter (n = 88: ultrasonography of the thyroid gland and the digestive system, determination of levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, serotonin, melatonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide. Results. The high incidence of non-toxic diffuse goiter (25.8 %, associated with a reduction in functional activity of the thyroid gland to the minimum thyroid dysfunction (42.0 % and subclinical hypothyroidism (10.2 %, was detected in school-aged children. The presence of goiter leads to a static increase of the chances for functional gastrointestinal disorders developing (odds ratio 2.33, p = 0.000, mainly due to the hypokinetic conditions. The administration of potassium iodide preparations leads to the decreasing in goiter rate in high compliance up to the 27.3 % and to the normalization of the functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system (thyroid stimulating hormone — 1.66 mIU/L, that is associated with increased level of serotonin (6.14 ng/ml and vasoactive intestinal peptide (117.86 ng/ml and decreased melatonin concentration (2.5 pmol/l. In children who consistently for six months received preparations of potassium iodide, along with the normalization of thyroid status we noted the decrease of the frequency of complaints from the digestive system. Conclusions. The treatment of diffuse nontoxic goiter by potassium iodide preparations allows to achieve reduction of thyroid size and to normalize functional activity of thyroid-pituitary system. Increase in the functional activity of the pituitary-thyroid system helps reduce the

  19. SU-F-T-143: Implementation of a Correction-Based Output Model for a Compact Passively Scattered Proton Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, S; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y; Ferreira, C; Islam, M; Lau, A; Jin, H [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Keeling, V [Carti, Inc., Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To commission and investigate the accuracy of an output (cGy/MU) prediction model for a compact passively scattered proton therapy system. Methods: A previously published output prediction model (Sahoo et al, Med Phys, 35, 5088–5097, 2008) was commissioned for our Mevion S250 proton therapy system. This model is a correction-based model that multiplies correction factors (d/MUwnc=ROFxSOBPF xRSFxSOBPOCFxOCRxFSFxISF). These factors accounted for changes in output due to options (12 large, 5 deep, and 7 small), modulation width M, range R, off-center, off-axis, field-size, and off-isocenter. In this study, the model was modified to ROFxSOBPFxRSFxOCRxFSFxISF-OCFxGACF by merging SOBPOCF and ISF for simplicity and introducing a gantry angle correction factor (GACF). To commission the model, outputs over 1,000 data points were taken at the time of the system commissioning. The output was predicted by interpolation (1D for SOBPF, FSF, and GACF; 2D for RSF and OCR) with inverse-square calculation (ISF-OCR). The outputs of 273 combinations of R and M covering total 24 options were measured to test the model. To minimize fluence perturbation, scattered dose from range compensator and patient was not considered. The percent differences between the predicted (P) and measured (M) outputs were calculated to test the prediction accuracy ([P-M]/Mx100%). Results: GACF was required because of up to 3.5% output variation dependence on the gantry angle. A 2D interpolation was required for OCR because the dose distribution was not radially symmetric especially for the deep options. The average percent differences were −0.03±0.98% (mean±SD) and the differences of all the measurements fell within ±3%. Conclusion: It is concluded that the model can be clinically used for the compact passively scattered proton therapy system. However, great care should be taken when the field-size is less than 5×5 cm{sup 2} where a direct output measurement is required due to substantial

  20. The impact of reflectivity correction and accounting for raindrop size distribution variability to improve precipitation estimation by weather radar for an extreme low-land mesoscale convective system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Pieter; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-11-01

    Between 25 and 27 August 2010 a long-duration mesoscale convective system was observed above the Netherlands, locally giving rise to rainfall accumulations exceeding 150 mm. Correctly measuring the amount of precipitation during such an extreme event is important, both from a hydrological and meteorological perspective. Unfortunately, the operational weather radar measurements were affected by multiple sources of error and only 30% of the precipitation observed by rain gauges was estimated. Such an underestimation of heavy rainfall, albeit generally less strong than in this extreme case, is typical for operational weather radar in The Netherlands. In general weather radar measurement errors can be subdivided into two groups: (1) errors affecting the volumetric reflectivity measurements (e.g. ground clutter, radar calibration, vertical profile of reflectivity) and (2) errors resulting from variations in the raindrop size distribution that in turn result in incorrect rainfall intensity and attenuation estimates from observed reflectivity measurements. A stepwise procedure to correct for the first group of errors leads to large improvements in the quality of the estimated precipitation, increasing the radar rainfall accumulations to about 65% of those observed by gauges. To correct for the second group of errors, a coherent method is presented linking the parameters of the radar reflectivity-rain rate (Z - R) and radar reflectivity-specific attenuation (Z - k) relationships to the normalized drop size distribution (DSD). Two different procedures were applied. First, normalized DSD parameters for the whole event and for each precipitation type separately (convective, stratiform and undefined) were obtained using local disdrometer observations. Second, 10,000 randomly generated plausible normalized drop size distributions were used for rainfall estimation, to evaluate whether this Monte Carlo method would improve the quality of weather radar rainfall products. Using the

  1. Effect of dispersive long-range corrections to the pressure tensor: The vapour-liquid interfacial properties of the Lennard-Jones system revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J., E-mail: felipe@uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Centro de Investigación de Física Teórica y Matemática, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Mendiboure, B. [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes et leurs Réservoirs, UMR5150, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, B. P. 1155, Pau Cedex 64014 (France); Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I. [Centro de Investigación de Física Teórica y Matemática, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-11-14

    We propose an extension of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janeček [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264–6269 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] to account for the intermolecular potential energy of spherical, rigid, and flexible molecular systems, to deal with the contributions to the microscopic components of the pressure tensor due to the dispersive long-range corrections. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of spherical Lennard-Jones molecules with different cutoff distances, r{sub c} = 2.5, 3, 4, and 5σ. In addition, we have also considered cutoff distances r{sub c} = 2.5 and 3σ in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections proposed in this work. The normal and tangential microscopic components of the pressure tensor are obtained using the mechanical or virial route in combination with the recipe of Irving and Kirkwood, while the macroscopic components are calculated using the Volume Perturbation thermodynamic route proposed by de Miguel and Jackson [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164109 (2006)]. The vapour-liquid interfacial tension is evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the Test-Area methodology. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles, coexistence densities, vapour pressure, critical temperature and density, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying particular attention to the effect of the cutoff distance and the long-range corrections on these properties. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cutoff distance (at fixed temperature) is to sharpen the vapour-liquid interface, to decrease the vapour pressure, and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. As a result, the interfacial

  2. Effect of dispersive long-range corrections to the pressure tensor: The vapour-liquid interfacial properties of the Lennard-Jones system revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J.; Mendiboure, B.; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extension of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janeček [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264–6269 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] to account for the intermolecular potential energy of spherical, rigid, and flexible molecular systems, to deal with the contributions to the microscopic components of the pressure tensor due to the dispersive long-range corrections. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of spherical Lennard-Jones molecules with different cutoff distances, r c = 2.5, 3, 4, and 5σ. In addition, we have also considered cutoff distances r c = 2.5 and 3σ in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections proposed in this work. The normal and tangential microscopic components of the pressure tensor are obtained using the mechanical or virial route in combination with the recipe of Irving and Kirkwood, while the macroscopic components are calculated using the Volume Perturbation thermodynamic route proposed by de Miguel and Jackson [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164109 (2006)]. The vapour-liquid interfacial tension is evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the Test-Area methodology. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles, coexistence densities, vapour pressure, critical temperature and density, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying particular attention to the effect of the cutoff distance and the long-range corrections on these properties. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cutoff distance (at fixed temperature) is to sharpen the vapour-liquid interface, to decrease the vapour pressure, and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. As a result, the interfacial thickness

  3. Lacrimal system pathology in patients with malignant thyroid tumors after radioactive iodine therapy, and its correction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Yu. Beldovskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Radioactive iodine therapy after thyroidectomy is the standard of differentiated thyroid cancer treatment in the modern world. Main dose-dependent side effects described in the literature include: sialadenitis, xerostomia, taste and/or odor loss, swelling of surrounding tissues. Ophthalmic complications are rarely reported. Aim. To assess the lacrimal system condition in patients after radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Material and methods. The study included 17 patients (34 eyes. There were female patients aged 19 to 43 years (mean age was 31 years who underwent a course of radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer. All of them complained of periodic or constant tearing in the period from 2 months to 1 year after therapy course. In four patients, there was a permanent or periodic mucopurulent discharge when pressing on the lacrimal sac area. All patients underwent a standard ophthalmological examination, including visual acuity testing, anterior segment biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, and tear production tests. Dye disappearance test, Jones I and II tests, lacrimal pathways irrigation, and, if necessary, cone-ray computer tomography with preliminary lacrimal pathways contrasting were performed to evaluate the tear outflow abnormalities. Results. Tear production disorders were detected in 20 eyes (58.8% (among them, moderate dry eye syndrome was diagnosed in 3 cases; tear outflow pathology was revealed in 14 eyes (41.2% (namely naso-lacrimal duct obstruction and stenosis, and chronic purulent dacryocystitis. For patients with tear production pathology artificial tears were prescribed, and endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy was performed in cases of tear outflow disturbances. Conclusion. The use of radioactive iodine in doses exceeding 80 mCi leads to the development of lacrimal system pathology: dry eye syndrome of various severity, and tear outflow disorders. Lacrimal system pathology significantly worsens

  4. Application of the correction factor for radiation qualityKq in dosimetry with pencil-type ionization chambers using a Tandem system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, Ladyjane Pereira; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    The pencil-type ionization chamber widely used in computed tomography (CT) dosimetry, is a measuring instrument that has a cylindrical shape and provides uniform response independent of the angle of incidence of ionizing radiation. Calibration and measurements performed with the pencil-type ionization chamber are done in terms of Kerma product in air-length (P k,l ) and values are given in Gy.cm. To obtain the values of (P k,l ) during clinical measurements, the readings performed with the ionization chamber are multiplied by the calibration coefficient (N k,l ) and the correction factor C for quality (K q ) which are given in Calibration certificates of the chambers. The application of the correction factor for radiation quality K q is done as a function of the effective energy of the beam that is determined by the Half Value layer (HVL) calculation. In order to estimate the HVL values in this work, a Tandem system made up of cylindrical aluminum and PMMA absorber layers was used as a low cost and easy to apply method. From the Tandem curve, it was possible to construct the calibration curve and obtain the appropriate K q to the beam of the computed tomography equipment studied. (author)

  5. Application of the correction factor for radiation qualityK{sub q} in dosimetry with pencil-type ionization chambers using a Tandem system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Ladyjane Pereira; Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque, E-mail: lpfontes@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The pencil-type ionization chamber widely used in computed tomography (CT) dosimetry, is a measuring instrument that has a cylindrical shape and provides uniform response independent of the angle of incidence of ionizing radiation. Calibration and measurements performed with the pencil-type ionization chamber are done in terms of Kerma product in air-length (P{sub k,l}) and values are given in Gy.cm. To obtain the values of (P{sub k,l}) during clinical measurements, the readings performed with the ionization chamber are multiplied by the calibration coefficient (N{sub k,l}) and the correction factor C for quality (K{sub q}) which are given in Calibration certificates of the chambers. The application of the correction factor for radiation quality K{sub q} is done as a function of the effective energy of the beam that is determined by the Half Value layer (HVL) calculation. In order to estimate the HVL values in this work, a Tandem system made up of cylindrical aluminum and PMMA absorber layers was used as a low cost and easy to apply method. From the Tandem curve, it was possible to construct the calibration curve and obtain the appropriate K{sub q} to the beam of the computed tomography equipment studied. (author)

  6. Intermittently-visual Tracking Experiments Reveal the Roles of Error-correction and Predictive Mechanisms in the Human Visual-motor Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshikatsu; Tamura, Yurie; Sase, Kazuya; Sugawara, Ken; Sawada, Yasuji

    Prediction mechanism is necessary for human visual motion to compensate a delay of sensory-motor system. In a previous study, “proactive control” was discussed as one example of predictive function of human beings, in which motion of hands preceded the virtual moving target in visual tracking experiments. To study the roles of the positional-error correction mechanism and the prediction mechanism, we carried out an intermittently-visual tracking experiment where a circular orbit is segmented into the target-visible regions and the target-invisible regions. Main results found in this research were following. A rhythmic component appeared in the tracer velocity when the target velocity was relatively high. The period of the rhythm in the brain obtained from environmental stimuli is shortened more than 10%. The shortening of the period of rhythm in the brain accelerates the hand motion as soon as the visual information is cut-off, and causes the precedence of hand motion to the target motion. Although the precedence of the hand in the blind region is reset by the environmental information when the target enters the visible region, the hand motion precedes the target in average when the predictive mechanism dominates the error-corrective mechanism.

  7. A web-based Tamsui River flood early-warning system with correction of real-time water stage using monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, H. Y.; Lin, Y. J.; Chang, H. K.; Shang, R. K.; Kuo, H. C.; Lai, J. S.; Tan, Y. C.

    2017-12-01

    Taiwan encounters heavy rainfalls frequently. There are three to four typhoons striking Taiwan every year. To provide lead time for reducing flood damage, this study attempt to build a flood early-warning system (FEWS) in Tanshui River using time series correction techniques. The predicted rainfall is used as the input for the rainfall-runoff model. Then, the discharges calculated by the rainfall-runoff model is converted to the 1-D river routing model. The 1-D river routing model will output the simulating water stages in 487 cross sections for the future 48-hr. The downstream water stage at the estuary in 1-D river routing model is provided by storm surge simulation. Next, the water stages of 487 cross sections are corrected by time series model such as autoregressive (AR) model using real-time water stage measurements to improve the predicted accuracy. The results of simulated water stages are displayed on a web-based platform. In addition, the models can be performed remotely by any users with web browsers through a user interface. The on-line video surveillance images, real-time monitoring water stages, and rainfalls can also be shown on this platform. If the simulated water stage exceeds the embankments of Tanshui River, the alerting lights of FEWS will be flashing on the screen. This platform runs periodically and automatically to generate the simulation graphic data of flood water stages for flood disaster prevention and decision making.

  8. Atomic and molecular physics - Ions in solids - Laser systems. Courses, corrected exercises and problems Level M1/M2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, Georgette-Laura; Moncorge, Richard; Chesnel, Jean-Yves; Adoui, Lamri; Lelievre, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    This document proposes the table of contents and a brief presentation of a course book for students in atomic and molecular physics. After some generalities on energy quantification and on photon momentum / Compton Effect, the different chapters address topics like hydrogen and helium atoms, alkalis, alkaline-earth, atoms with several valence electrons, the atom-radiation interaction, molecule and ion spectroscopy in solids, and the most significant laser systems using an active media based on atoms, ions or molecules in a diluted environment. Each chapter contains exercises and problems

  9. Comparison of systemic right ventricular function in transposition of the great arteries after atrial switch and congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Michael; Kilner, Philip J; Sahn, David J; Litt, Harold I; Valsangiacomo-Buechel, Emanuela R; Sheehan, Florence H

    2017-12-01

    In patients with transposition of the great arteries corrected by interatrial baffle (TGA) and those with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) the right ventricle (RV) is subjected to systemic pressure and fails prematurely. Previous studies have demonstrated RV dysfunction may be more pronounced in patients with TGA. The present study sought to compare patients with TGA and ccTGA using three-dimensional (3D) techniques to comprehensively analyze the shape, volume, global and regional function in the systemic RV. We compared RV size, shape, and regional and global function in 25 patients with TGA, 17 patients with ccTGA, and 9 normal subjects. The RVs were reconstructed from cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images for 3D analyses. Compared to normal, the RV in TGA and ccTGA was dilated, rounded, and reduced in function. Compared to each other, TGA and ccTGA patients had similar RV size and shape. Global RV function was lower in TGA than ccTGA when assessed from ejection fraction (EF) (30 ± 7 vs. 35 ± 7, p = 0.02) and from normalized tricuspid annular systolic plane excursion (TAPSE) (0.10 ± 0.04 vs. 0.18 ± 0.04, p < 0.01). Basilar RV function was poorer in the TGA patients when compared to ccTGA. The systemic RVs in both TGA and ccTGA are dilated, spherical, and poorly functioning. Compared to ccTGA, TGA RVs have reduced TAPSE and worse basilar hypokinesis.

  10. How to correct long-term system externality of large scale wind power development by a capacity mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in electricity markets in the presence of large-scale wind power development. The success of renewable promotion schemes adds a new dimension to ensuring long-term security of supply. It necessitates designing second-best policies to prevent large-scale wind power development from distorting long-run equilibrium prices and investments in conventional generation and in particular in peaking units. We rely upon a long-term simulation model which simulates electricity market players' investment decisions in a market regime and incorporates large-scale wind power development either in the presence of either subsidised wind production or in market-driven development. We test the use of capacity mechanisms to compensate for the long-term effects of large-scale wind power development on the system reliability. The first finding is that capacity mechanisms can help to reduce the social cost of large scale wind power development in terms of decrease of loss of load probability. The second finding is that, in a market-based wind power deployment without subsidy, wind generators are penalized for insufficient contribution to the long term system's reliability. (authors)

  11. Imbalance of kallikrein-kinin system in chronic pancreatitis combined with obesity and results of its comprehensive correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Babinets

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases in general therapeutic practice. Significant role in the onset and progression of chronic pancreatitis is played by the activation of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS, which is involved in the development of inflammation, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, immune responses, the formation of pain, etc. Objective: to investigate the dynamics of indicators of the kallikrein-kinin system when using metadoxine in the comprehensive therapy of patients with chronic biliary pancreatitis associated with obesity. Materials and methods. 75 patients with chronic biliary pancreatitis combined with obesity were examined. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group (30 people received the standard treatment. The second group (45 people received the standard treatment and metadoxine. Results. Analyzing the results, it has been found a reliable positive dynamics of KKS indices in both groups after the treatment. However, patients in the second group showed a more significant positive dynamics of KKS parameters: the level of proteolytic activity has decreased by 9.0 %, the kallikrein — by 20.0 %, a1-proteinase inhibitor — by 7.2 %, and prekallikrein has increased by 6.4 %, a2-macroglobulin — by 10.8 %, kininase II — by 10.7 % as compared to group 1. Conclusions. The use of methadoxine in the comprehensive therapy of patients with chronic biliary pancreatitis associated with obesity contributed to a significant increase in the effectiveness of conventional treatment.

  12. Determination of Rectification Corrections for Semi Gantry Crane Rail Axes in the Local 3D Coordinate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipiak Daria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic tacheometers are currently the standard instruments used in geodetic work, including also geodetic engineering measurements. The main advantage connected with this equipment is among others high accuracy of the measurement and thus high accuracy of the final determinations represented for example by the points’ coordinates. One of many applications of the tacheometers is the measurement of crane rail axes. This measurement is based on polar method and it allows to get the spatial coordinates of points in 3D local system. The standard technology of measurement of crane rail axes and development of its calculations’ results is well-known and widely presented in the subject literature. At the same time new methods of observations results evaluation are developing.

  13. Femtosecond resolution timing jitter correction on a TW scale Ti:sapphire laser system for FEL pump-probe experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatari Divall, Marta; Mutter, Patrick; Divall, Edwin J; Hauri, Christoph P

    2015-11-16

    Intense ultrashort pulse lasers are used for fs resolution pump-probe experiments more and more at large scale facilities, such as free electron lasers (FEL). Measurement of the arrival time of the laser pulses and stabilization to the machine or other sub-systems on the target, is crucial for high time-resolution measurements. In this work we report on a single shot, spectrally resolved, non-collinear cross-correlator with sub-fs resolution. With a feedback applied we keep the output of the TW class Ti:sapphire amplifier chain in time with the seed oscillator to ~3 fs RMS level for several hours. This is well below the typical pulse duration used at FELs and supports fs resolution pump-probe experiments. Short term jitter and long term timing drift measurements are presented. Applicability to other wavelengths and integration into the timing infrastructure of the FEL are also covered to show the full potential of the device.

  14. The efficiency calibration and development of environmental correction factors for an in situ high-resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. Absolute efficiency calibration of the GSLS was performed using simple cylindrical borehole geometry. The calibration source incorporated naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) that emitted photons ranging from 186-keV to 2,614-keV. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software. A linear relationship was found between increasing source thickness and relative photon fluence rates at the detector. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, relative photon fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Attenuation effects due to iron, water, PVC, and concrete cylindrical shields were found to agree with previous studies. Regression analyses produced energy-dependent equations for efficiency corrections applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs collected under non-standard borehole conditions

  15. Entire solutions of a diffusive and competitive Lotka–Volterra type system with nonlocal delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingxin; Lv, Guangying

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the entire solution of a diffusive and competitive Lotka–Volterra type system with nonlocal delays. The existence of the entire solution is proved by transforming the system with nonlocal delays to a four-dimensional system without delay and using the comparing argument and the sub-super-solution method. Here an entire solution means a classical solution defined for all space and time variables, which behaves as two wave fronts coming from both sides of the x-axis

  16. Overuse of helicopter transport in the minimally injured: A health care system problem that should be corrected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Gary A; Friese, Randall S; Khalil, Mazhar; Ibrahim-Zada, Irada; Zangbar, Bardiya; Hashmi, Ammar; Tang, Andrew; O'Keeffe, Terrence; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Green, Donald J; Gries, Lynn; Joseph, Bellal; Rhee, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Mortality benefit has been demonstrated for trauma patients transported via helicopter but at great cost. This study identified patients who did not benefit from helicopter transport to our facility and demonstrates potential cost savings when transported instead by ground. We performed a 6-year (2007-2013) retrospective analysis of all trauma patients presenting to our center. Patients with a known mode of transfer were included in the study. Patients with missing data and those who were dead on arrival were excluded from the study. Patients were then dichotomized into helicopter transfer and ground transfer groups. A subanalysis was performed between minimally injured patients (ISS helicopter and 76.7% (3,992) were transferred via ground transport. Helicopter-transferred patients had longer hospital (p = 0.001) and intensive care unit (p = 0.001) stays. There was no difference in mortality between the groups (p = 0.6).On subanalysis of minimally injured patients there was no difference in hospital length of stay (p = 0.1) and early discharge (p = 0.6) between the helicopter transfer and ground transfer group. Average helicopter transfer cost at our center was $18,000, totaling $4,860,000 for 270 minimally injured helicopter-transferred patients. Nearly one third of patients transported by helicopter were minimally injured. Policies to identify patients who do not benefit from helicopter transport should be developed. Significant reduction in transport cost can be made by judicious selection of patients. Education to physicians calling for transport and identification of alternate means of transportation would be both safe and financially beneficial to our system. Epidemiologic study, level III. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  17. Correction: The role of coupled positive feedback in the expression of the SPI1 type three secretion system in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Saini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common food-borne pathogen that induces inflammatory diarrhea and invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type three secretion system (T3SS encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1. The genes encoding the SPI1 T3SS are tightly regulated by a network of interacting transcriptional regulators involving three coupled positive feedback loops. While the core architecture of the SPI1 gene circuit has been determined, the relative roles of these interacting regulators and associated feedback loops are still unknown. To determine the function of this circuit, we measured gene expression dynamics at both population and single-cell resolution in a number of SPI1 regulatory mutants. Using these data, we constructed a mathematical model of the SPI1 gene circuit. Analysis of the model predicted that the circuit serves two functions. The first is to place a threshold on SPI1 activation, ensuring that the genes encoding the T3SS are expressed only in response to the appropriate combination of environmental and cellular cues. The second is to amplify SPI1 gene expression. To experimentally test these predictions, we rewired the SPI1 genetic circuit by changing its regulatory architecture. This enabled us to directly test our predictions regarding the function of the circuit by varying the strength and dynamics of the activating signal. Collectively, our experimental and computational results enable us to deconstruct this complex circuit and determine the role of its individual components in regulating SPI1 gene expression dynamics.

  18. NWS Corrections to Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Form B-14 is the National Weather Service form entitled 'Notice of Corrections to Weather Records.' The forms are used to make corrections to observations on forms...

  19. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ...

  20. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Jaw Surgery Download Download the ebook for further information Corrective jaw, or orthognathic surgery is performed by ... your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  1. Effects of dynamical paths on the energy gap and the corrections to the free energy in path integrals of mean-field quantum spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yang Wei

    2018-03-01

    In current studies of mean-field quantum spin systems, much attention is placed on the calculation of the ground-state energy and the excitation gap, especially the latter, which plays an important role in quantum annealing. In pure systems, the finite gap can be obtained by various existing methods such as the Holstein-Primakoff transform, while the tunneling splitting at first-order phase transitions has also been studied in detail using instantons in many previous works. In disordered systems, however, it remains challenging to compute the gap of large-size systems with specific realization of disorder. Hitherto, only quantum Monte Carlo techniques are practical for such studies. Recently, Knysh [Nature Comm. 7, 12370 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms12370] proposed a method where the exponentially large dimensionality of such systems is condensed onto a random potential of much lower dimension, enabling efficient study of such systems. Here we propose a slightly different approach, building upon the method of static approximation of the partition function widely used for analyzing mean-field models. Quantum effects giving rise to the excitation gap and nonextensive corrections to the free energy are accounted for by incorporating dynamical paths into the path integral. The time-dependence of the trace of the time-ordered exponential of the effective Hamiltonian is calculated by solving a differential equation perturbatively, yielding a finite-size series expansion of the path integral. Formulae for the first excited-state energy are proposed to aid in computing the gap. We illustrate our approach using the infinite-range ferromagnetic Ising model and the Hopfield model, both in the presence of a transverse field.

  2. CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CAR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rohne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper the important .issues involved in successfully implementing corrective action systems in quality management are discussed. The work is based on experience in implementing and operating such a system in an automotive manufacturing enterprise in South Africa. The core of a corrective action system is good documentation, supported by a computerised information system. Secondly, a systematic problem solving methodology is essential to resolve the quality related problems identified by the system. In the following paragraphs the general corrective action process is discussed and the elements of a corrective action system are identified, followed by a more detailed discussion of each element. Finally specific results from the application are discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belangrike oorwegings by die suksesvolle implementering van korrektiewe aksie stelsels in gehaltebestuur word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Die werk is gebaseer op ondervinding in die implementering en bedryf van so 'n stelsel by 'n motorvervaardiger in Suid Afrika. Die kern van 'n korrektiewe aksie stelsel is goeie dokumentering, gesteun deur 'n gerekenariseerde inligtingstelsel. Tweedens is 'n sistematiese probleemoplossings rnetodologie nodig om die gehalte verwante probleme wat die stelsel identifiseer aan te spreek. In die volgende paragrawe word die algemene korrektiewe aksie proses bespreek en die elemente van die korrektiewe aksie stelsel geidentifiseer. Elke element word dan in meer besonderhede bespreek. Ten slotte word spesifieke resultate van die toepassing kortliks behandel.

  3. Quantum error correction for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2013-01-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future. (review article)

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of Atlas-based Attenuation Correction for Brain PET in an Integrated Time-of-Flight PET/MR Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaewon; Jian, Yiqiang; Jenkins, Nathaniel; Behr, Spencer C; Hope, Thomas A; Larson, Peder E Z; Vigneron, Daniel; Seo, Youngho

    2017-07-01

    Purpose To assess the patient-dependent accuracy of atlas-based attenuation correction (ATAC) for brain positron emission tomography (PET) in an integrated time-of-flight (TOF) PET/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system. Materials and Methods Thirty recruited patients provided informed consent in this institutional review board-approved study. All patients underwent whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) followed by TOF PET/MR imaging. With use of TOF PET data, PET images were reconstructed with four different attenuation correction (AC) methods: PET with patient CT-based AC (CTAC), PET with ATAC (air and bone from an atlas), PET with ATAC patientBone (air and tissue from the atlas with patient bone), and PET with ATAC boneless (air and tissue from the atlas without bone). For quantitative evaluation, PET mean activity concentration values were measured in 14 1-mL volumes of interest (VOIs) distributed throughout the brain and statistical significance was tested with a paired t test. Results The mean overall difference (±standard deviation) of PET with ATAC compared with PET with CTAC was -0.69 kBq/mL ± 0.60 (-4.0% ± 3.2) (P PET with ATAC boneless (-9.4% ± 3.7) was significantly worse than that of PET with ATAC (-4.0% ± 3.2) (P PET with ATAC patientBone (-1.5% ± 1.5) improved over that of PET with ATAC (-4.0% ± 3.2) (P PET/MR imaging achieves similar quantification accuracy to that from CTAC by means of atlas-based bone compensation. However, patient-specific anatomic differences from the atlas causes bone attenuation differences and misclassified sinuses, which result in patient-dependent performance variation of ATAC. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  5. Simulation of eye-tracker latency, spot size, and ablation pulse depth on the correction of higher order wavefront aberrations with scanning spot laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueeler, Michael; Mrochen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this theoretical work was to investigate the robustness of scanning spot laser treatments with different laser spot diameters and peak ablation depths in case of incomplete compensation of eye movements due to eye-tracker latency. Scanning spot corrections of 3rd to 5th Zernike order wavefront errors were numerically simulated. Measured eye-movement data were used to calculate the positioning error of each laser shot assuming eye-tracker latencies of 0, 5, 30, and 100 ms, and for the case of no eye tracking. The single spot ablation depth ranged from 0.25 to 1.0 microm and the spot diameter from 250 to 1000 microm. The quality of the ablation was rated by the postoperative surface variance and the Strehl intensity ratio, which was calculated after a low-pass filter was applied to simulate epithelial surface smoothing. Treatments performed with nearly ideal eye tracking (latency approximately 0) provide the best results with a small laser spot (0.25 mm) and a small ablation depth (250 microm). However, combinations of a large spot diameter (1000 microm) and a small ablation depth per pulse (0.25 microm) yield the better results for latencies above a certain threshold to be determined specifically. Treatments performed with tracker latencies in the order of 100 ms yield similar results as treatments done completely without eye-movement compensation. CONCWSIONS: Reduction of spot diameter was shown to make the correction more susceptible to eye movement induced error. A smaller spot size is only beneficial when eye movement is neutralized with a tracking system with a latency <5 ms.

  6. Understanding the many-body expansion for large systems. III. Critical role of four-body terms, counterpoise corrections, and cutoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Yu; Herbert, John M

    2017-10-28

    Papers I and II in this series [R. M. Richard et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 014108 (2014); K. U. Lao et al., ibid. 144, 164105 (2016)] have attempted to shed light on precision and accuracy issues affecting the many-body expansion (MBE), which only manifest in larger systems and thus have received scant attention in the literature. Many-body counterpoise (CP) corrections are shown to accelerate convergence of the MBE, which otherwise suffers from a mismatch between how basis-set superposition error affects subsystem versus supersystem calculations. In water clusters ranging in size up to (H 2 O) 37 , four-body terms prove necessary to achieve accurate results for both total interaction energies and relative isomer energies, but the sheer number of tetramers makes the use of cutoff schemes essential. To predict relative energies of (H 2 O) 20 isomers, two approximations based on a lower level of theory are introduced and an ONIOM-type procedure is found to be very well converged with respect to the appropriate MBE benchmark, namely, a CP-corrected supersystem calculation at the same level of theory. Results using an energy-based cutoff scheme suggest that if reasonable approximations to the subsystem energies are available (based on classical multipoles, say), then the number of requisite subsystem calculations can be reduced even more dramatically than when distance-based thresholds are employed. The end result is several accurate four-body methods that do not require charge embedding, and which are stable in large basis sets such as aug-cc-pVTZ that have sometimes proven problematic for fragment-based quantum chemistry methods. Even with aggressive thresholding, however, the four-body approach at the self-consistent field level still requires roughly ten times more processors to outmatch the performance of the corresponding supersystem calculation, in test cases involving 1500-1800 basis functions.

  7. Understanding the many-body expansion for large systems. III. Critical role of four-body terms, counterpoise corrections, and cutoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Yu; Herbert, John M.

    2017-10-01

    Papers I and II in this series [R. M. Richard et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 014108 (2014); K. U. Lao et al., ibid. 144, 164105 (2016)] have attempted to shed light on precision and accuracy issues affecting the many-body expansion (MBE), which only manifest in larger systems and thus have received scant attention in the literature. Many-body counterpoise (CP) corrections are shown to accelerate convergence of the MBE, which otherwise suffers from a mismatch between how basis-set superposition error affects subsystem versus supersystem calculations. In water clusters ranging in size up to (H2O)37, four-body terms prove necessary to achieve accurate results for both total interaction energies and relative isomer energies, but the sheer number of tetramers makes the use of cutoff schemes essential. To predict relative energies of (H2O)20 isomers, two approximations based on a lower level of theory are introduced and an ONIOM-type procedure is found to be very well converged with respect to the appropriate MBE benchmark, namely, a CP-corrected supersystem calculation at the same level of theory. Results using an energy-based cutoff scheme suggest that if reasonable approximations to the subsystem energies are available (based on classical multipoles, say), then the number of requisite subsystem calculations can be reduced even more dramatically than when distance-based thresholds are employed. The end result is several accurate four-body methods that do not require charge embedding, and which are stable in large basis sets such as aug-cc-pVTZ that have sometimes proven problematic for fragment-based quantum chemistry methods. Even with aggressive thresholding, however, the four-body approach at the self-consistent field level still requires roughly ten times more processors to outmatch the performance of the corresponding supersystem calculation, in test cases involving 1500-1800 basis functions.

  8. SU-F-J-211: Scatter Correction for Clinical Cone-Beam CT System Using An Optimized Stationary Beam Blocker with a Single Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, X; Zhang, Z; Xie, Y [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, GuangDong (China); Gong, S; Niu, T [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhou, Q [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: X-ray scatter photons result in significant image quality degradation of cone-beam CT (CBCT). Measurement based algorithms using beam blocker directly acquire the scatter samples and achieve significant improvement on the quality of CBCT image. Within existing algorithms, single-scan and stationary beam blocker proposed previously is promising due to its simplicity and practicability. Although demonstrated effectively on tabletop system, the blocker fails to estimate the scatter distribution on clinical CBCT system mainly due to the gantry wobble. In addition, the uniform distributed blocker strips in our previous design results in primary data loss in the CBCT system and leads to the image artifacts due to data insufficiency. Methods: We investigate the motion behavior of the beam blocker in each projection and design an optimized non-uniform blocker strip distribution which accounts for the data insufficiency issue. An accurate scatter estimation is then achieved from the wobble modeling. Blocker wobble curve is estimated using threshold-based segmentation algorithms in each projection. In the blocker design optimization, the quality of final image is quantified using the number of the primary data loss voxels and the mesh adaptive direct search algorithm is applied to minimize the objective function. Scatter-corrected CT images are obtained using the optimized blocker. Results: The proposed method is evaluated using Catphan@504 phantom and a head patient. On the Catphan©504, our approach reduces the average CT number error from 115 Hounsfield unit (HU) to 11 HU in the selected regions of interest, and improves the image contrast by a factor of 1.45 in the high-contrast regions. On the head patient, the CT number error is reduced from 97 HU to 6 HU in the soft tissue region and image spatial non-uniformity is decreased from 27% to 5% after correction. Conclusion: The proposed optimized blocker design is practical and attractive for CBCT guided radiation

  9. SU-F-J-211: Scatter Correction for Clinical Cone-Beam CT System Using An Optimized Stationary Beam Blocker with a Single Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, X; Zhang, Z; Xie, Y; Gong, S; Niu, T; Zhou, Q

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray scatter photons result in significant image quality degradation of cone-beam CT (CBCT). Measurement based algorithms using beam blocker directly acquire the scatter samples and achieve significant improvement on the quality of CBCT image. Within existing algorithms, single-scan and stationary beam blocker proposed previously is promising due to its simplicity and practicability. Although demonstrated effectively on tabletop system, the blocker fails to estimate the scatter distribution on clinical CBCT system mainly due to the gantry wobble. In addition, the uniform distributed blocker strips in our previous design results in primary data loss in the CBCT system and leads to the image artifacts due to data insufficiency. Methods: We investigate the motion behavior of the beam blocker in each projection and design an optimized non-uniform blocker strip distribution which accounts for the data insufficiency issue. An accurate scatter estimation is then achieved from the wobble modeling. Blocker wobble curve is estimated using threshold-based segmentation algorithms in each projection. In the blocker design optimization, the quality of final image is quantified using the number of the primary data loss voxels and the mesh adaptive direct search algorithm is applied to minimize the objective function. Scatter-corrected CT images are obtained using the optimized blocker. Results: The proposed method is evaluated using Catphan@504 phantom and a head patient. On the Catphan©504, our approach reduces the average CT number error from 115 Hounsfield unit (HU) to 11 HU in the selected regions of interest, and improves the image contrast by a factor of 1.45 in the high-contrast regions. On the head patient, the CT number error is reduced from 97 HU to 6 HU in the soft tissue region and image spatial non-uniformity is decreased from 27% to 5% after correction. Conclusion: The proposed optimized blocker design is practical and attractive for CBCT guided radiation

  10. Existence and exponential stability of traveling waves for delayed reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Tzi-Sheng; Yu, Zhixian

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the existence and exponential stability of traveling wave solutions for general delayed multi-component reaction-diffusion systems. Following the monotone iteration scheme via an explicit construction of a pair of upper and lower solutions, we first obtain the existence of monostable traveling wave solutions connecting two different equilibria. Then, applying the techniques of weighted energy method and comparison principle, we show that all solutions of the Cauchy problem for the considered systems converge exponentially to traveling wave solutions provided that the initial perturbations around the traveling wave fronts belong to a suitable weighted Sobolev space.

  11. Multipath Suppression with an Absorber for UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2017-01-01

    The deflection of a wind turbine blade can be monitored with an ultra-wideband (UWB) deflection sensing system which consists of one transmitting antenna at the blade tip and two receiving antennas at the blade root. The blade deflection is calculated by two estimated tip-root antenna distances...... verifications of the proposed method are carried out with different full-blade measurements. From all the results, it is found that the proposed technique can efficiently suppress multipath for the in-blade tip antenna, and improve the pulse wave front fidelity, so that the UWB sensing system can also...

  12. Using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system technique for crosstalk correction in simultaneous {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 201}Tl SPECT imaging: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidary, Saeed, E-mail: saeedheidary@aut.ac.ir; Setayeshi, Saeed, E-mail: setayesh@aut.ac.ir

    2015-01-11

    This work presents a simulation based study by Monte Carlo which uses two adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) for cross talk compensation of simultaneous {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 201}Tl dual-radioisotope SPECT imaging. We have compared two neuro-fuzzy systems based on fuzzy c-means (FCM) and subtractive (SUB) clustering. Our approach incorporates eight energy-windows image acquisition from 28 keV to 156 keV and two main photo peaks of {sup 201}Tl (77±10% keV) and {sup 99m}Tc (140±10% keV). The Geant4 application in emission tomography (GATE) is used as a Monte Carlo simulator for three cylindrical and a NURBS Based Cardiac Torso (NCAT) phantom study. Three separate acquisitions including two single-isotopes and one dual isotope were performed in this study. Cross talk and scatter corrected projections are reconstructed by an iterative ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm which models the non-uniform attenuation in the projection/back-projection. ANFIS-FCM/SUB structures are tuned to create three to sixteen fuzzy rules for modeling the photon cross-talk of the two radioisotopes. Applying seven to nine fuzzy rules leads to a total improvement of the contrast and the bias comparatively. It is found that there is an out performance for the ANFIS-FCM due to its acceleration and accurate results.

  13. A New Method to Detect and Correct the Critical Errors and Determine the Software-Reliability in Critical Software-System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krini, Ossmane; Börcsök, Josef

    2012-01-01

    In order to use electronic systems comprising of software and hardware components in safety related and high safety related applications, it is necessary to meet the Marginal risk numbers required by standards and legislative provisions. Existing processes and mathematical models are used to verify the risk numbers. On the hardware side, various accepted mathematical models, processes, and methods exist to provide the required proof. To this day, however, there are no closed models or mathematical procedures known that allow for a dependable prediction of software reliability. This work presents a method that makes a prognosis on the residual critical error number in software. Conventional models lack this ability and right now, there are no methods that forecast critical errors. The new method will show that an estimate of the residual error number of critical errors in software systems is possible by using a combination of prediction models, a ratio of critical errors, and the total error number. Subsequently, the critical expected value-function at any point in time can be derived from the new solution method, provided the detection rate has been calculated using an appropriate estimation method. Also, the presented method makes it possible to make an estimate on the critical failure rate. The approach is modelled on a real process and therefore describes two essential processes - detection and correction process.

  14. Vision-based measurement system for structural vibration monitoring using non-projection quasi-interferogram fringe density enhanced by spectrum correction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun; Lu, Huancai; Zhuang, Yizhou; Fu, Xinbin

    2017-01-01

    A non-projection fringe vision measurement system suitable for vibration monitoring was proposed by using the concept of a 2D optical coherence vibration tomography (2D-OCVT) technique. An artificial quasi-interferogram fringe pattern (QIFP), similar to the interferogram of the 2D-OCVT system, was pasted onto the surface of a vibrating structure as a sensor. Image sequences of the QIFP were captured by a high-speed CMOS camera that worked as a detector. It was possible to obtain both the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration simultaneously. The in-plane vibration was obtained by tracking the center of the imaged QIFP using an image cross-correlation method, whilst the out-of-plane vibration was obtained from the changes in period density of the imaged QIFP. The influence of the noise sources from the CMOS image sensor, together with the effect of the imaging distance, the period density of the QIFP and also the key parameters of the fringe density enhanced by the spectrum correction method on the accuracy of the displacement measurement, were investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. Compared with the results from a conventional accelerometer-based measurement system, the proposed method was demonstrated to be an effective and accurate technique for measuring structural vibration without introducing any extra mass from the accelerometer. The significant advantages of this method include its simple installation and real-time dynamic response measurement capability, making the measurement system ideal for the low- and high-frequency vibration monitoring of engineering structures. (paper)

  15. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.G.

    1991-04-01

    A number of correction magnets are required for the advanced photon source (APS) machine to correct the beam. There are five kinds of correction magnets for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring (PAR). Table I shoes a summary of the correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. For the storage ring, the displacement of the quadrupole magnets due to the low frequency vibration below 25 Hz has the most significant effect on the stability of the positron closed orbit. The primary external source of the low frequency vibration is the ground motion of approximately 20 μm amplitude, with frequency components concentrated below 10 Hz. These low frequency vibrations can be corrected by using the correction magnets, whose field strengths are controlled individually through the feedback loop comprising the beam position monitoring system. The correction field require could be either positive or negative. Thus for all the correction magnets, bipolar power supplies (BPSs) are required to produce both polarities of correction fields. Three different types of BPS are used for all the correction magnets. Type I BPSs cover all the correction magnets for the storage ring, except for the trim dipoles. The maximum output current of the Type I BPS is 140 Adc. A Type II BPS powers a trim dipole, and its maximum output current is 60 Adc. The injector synchrotron and PAR correction magnets are powered form Type III BPSs, whose maximum output current is 25 Adc

  16. Multilingual text induced spelling correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a multilingual, language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from raw text corpora, without supervision, and contains word unigrams

  17. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-10-20

    We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.

  18. Corrections to primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Kolb, E.W.; Gleeson, A.M.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Teplitz, V.L.; Turner, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The changes in primordial nucleosynthesis resulting from small corrections to rates for weak processes that connect neutrons and protons are discussed. The weak rates are corrected by improved treatment of Coulomb and radiative corrections, and by inclusion of plasma effects. The calculations lead to a systematic decrease in the predicted 4 He abundance of about ΔY = 0.0025. The relative changes in other primoridal abundances are also 1 to 2%

  19. Advanced hardware design for error correcting codes

    CERN Document Server

    Coussy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This book provides thorough coverage of error correcting techniques. It includes essential basic concepts and the latest advances on key topics in design, implementation, and optimization of hardware/software systems for error correction. The book’s chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in this field. Topics include evolution of error correction techniques, industrial user needs, architectures, and design approaches for the most advanced error correcting codes (Polar Codes, Non-Binary LDPC, Product Codes, etc). This book provides access to recent results, and is suitable for graduate students and researchers of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. • Examines how to optimize the architecture of hardware design for error correcting codes; • Presents error correction codes from theory to optimized architecture for the current and the next generation standards; • Provides coverage of industrial user needs advanced error correcting techniques.

  20. Class action litigation in correctional psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Jeffrey L

    2002-01-01

    Class action litigation has been instrumental in jail and prison reform during the past two decades. Correctional mental health systems have significantly benefited from such litigation. Forensic psychiatrists have been crucial in the litigation process and the subsequent evolution of correctional mental health care systems. This article summarizes information concerning basic demographics of correctional populations and costs of correctional health care and provides a brief history of such litigation. The role of psychiatric experts, with particular reference to standards of care, is described. Specifically discussed are issues relevant to suicide prevention, the prevalence of mentally ill inmates in supermax prisons, and discharge planning.

  1. Evaluation of a transvaginal mesh delivery system for the correction of pelvic organ prolapse: subjective and objective findings at least 1 year after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culligan, Patrick J; Littman, Paul M; Salamon, Charbel G; Priestley, Jennifer L; Shariati, Amir

    2010-11-01

    We sought to track objective and subjective outcomes ≥1 year after transvaginal mesh system to correct prolapse. This was a retrospective cohort study of 120 women who received a transvaginal mesh procedure (Avaulta Solo, CR Bard Inc, Covington, GA). Outcomes were pelvic organ prolapse quantification values; Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Short Form 20/Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, Short Form 7 scores; and a surgical satisfaction survey. "Surgical failure" was defined as pelvic organ prolapse quantification point >0, and/or any reports of vaginal bulge. Of 120 patients, 116 (97%) were followed up for a mean of 14.4 months (range, 12-30). In all, 74 patients had only anterior mesh, 21 only posterior mesh, and 21 both meshes. Surgical cure rate was 81%. Surgical failure was more common if preoperative point C ≥+2 (35% vs 16%; P = .04). Mesh erosion and de novo pain occurred in 11.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Short Form 20/Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, Short Form 7 scores improved (P < .01). Objective and subjective improvements occurred at ≥1 year, yet failure rates were high when preoperative point C was ≥+2. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correction to toporek (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Reports an error in "Pedagogy of the privileged: Review of Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom" by Rebecca L. Toporek (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2014[Oct], Vol 20[4], 621-622). This article was originally published online incorrectly as a Brief Report. The article authored by Rebecca L. Toporek has been published correctly as a Book Review in the October 2014 print publication (Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 621-622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036529). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-42484-006.) Reviews the book, Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom edited by Kim A. Case (2013). The purpose of this book is to provide a collection of resources for those teaching about privilege directly, much of this volume may be useful for expanding the context within which educators teach all aspects of psychology. Understanding the history and systems of psychology, clinical practice, research methods, assessment, and all the core areas of psychology could be enhanced by consideration of the structural framework through which psychology has developed and is maintained. The book presents a useful guide for educators, and in particular, those who teach about systems of oppression and privilege directly. For psychologists, this guide provides scholarship and concrete strategies for facilitating students' awareness of multiple dimensions of privilege across content areas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr., Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer

    2009-01-31

    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock’s ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock’s primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of

  4. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr, Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock's ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock's primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of stratigraphic

  5. Publisher Correction: Predicting unpredictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.

    2018-06-01

    In this News & Views article originally published, the wrong graph was used for panel b of Fig. 1, and the numbers on the y axes of panels a and c were incorrect; the original and corrected Fig. 1 is shown below. This has now been corrected in all versions of the News & Views.

  6. Fourier optical cryptosystem using complex spatial modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkadi, T; Koppa, P

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to enhance the security level of a Fourier optical encryption system. Therefore we propose a Mach–Zehnder interferometer based encryption setup. The input data is organized in a binary array, and it is encoded in the two wave fronts propagated in the arms of the interferometer. Both input wave fronts are independently encrypted by Fourier systems, hence the proposed method has two encryption keys. During decryption, the encrypted wave fronts are propagated through the interferometer setup. The interference pattern of the output shows the reconstructed data in cases where the correct decryption Fourier keys are used. We propose a novel input image modulation method with a user defined phase parameter. We show that the security level of the proposed cryptosystem can be enhanced by an optimally chosen phase parameter. (paper)

  7. Correct liquid scintillation counting of steroids and glycosides in RIA samples: a comparison of xylene-based, dioxane-based and colloidal counting systems. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spolders, H.

    1977-01-01

    In RIA, the following parameters are important for accurate liquid scintillation counting. (1) Absence of chemiluminescence. (2) Stability of count rate. (3) Dissolving properties for the sample. For samples with varying colours, a quench correction must be applied. For any type of accurate quench correction, a homogeneous sample is necessary. This can be obtained if proteins and the buffer can be dissolved completely in the scintillator solution. In this paper, these criteria are compared in xylene-based, dioxane-based and colloidal scintillation solutions for either bound or free antigens of different polarity. The labelling radioisotope used was 3 H. Using colloidal scintillators with plasma and buffer samples, phasing or sedimentation of salt or proteins sometimes occurs. The influence of sedimentation or phasing on count rate stability and correct quench correction is illustrated by varying the ratio between the scintillator solution and a RIA sample containing a semi-polar steroid aldosterone. (author)

  8. Semi-analytic approach to higher-order corrections in simple muonic bound systems: vacuum polarization, self-energy and radiative-recoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentschura, U.D. [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla MO65409 (United States); Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Universitat Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Wundt, B.J. [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla MO65409 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The current discrepancy of theory and experiment observed recently in muonic hydrogen necessitates a reinvestigation of all corrections to contribute to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen ({mu}H), muonic deuterium ({mu}D), the muonic {sup 3}He ion (denoted here as {mu}{sup 3}He{sup +}), as well as in the muonic {sup 4}He ion ({mu}{sup 4}He{sup +}). Here, we choose a semi-analytic approach and evaluate a number of higher-order corrections to vacuum polarization (VP) semi-analytically, while remaining integrals over the spectral density of VP are performed numerically. We obtain semi-analytic results for the second-order correction, and for the relativistic correction to VP. The self-energy correction to VP is calculated, including the perturbations of the Bethe logarithms by vacuum polarization. Sub-leading logarithmic terms in the radiative-recoil correction to the 2S-2P Lamb shift of order {alpha}(Z{alpha}){sup 5{mu}3}ln(Z{alpha})/(m{sub {mu}mN}) where {alpha} is the fine structure constant, are also obtained. All calculations are nonperturbative in the mass ratio of orbiting particle and nucleus. (authors)

  9. Semi-analytic approach to higher-order corrections in simple muonic bound systems: vacuum polarization, self-energy and radiative-recoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentschura, U.D.; Wundt, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    The current discrepancy of theory and experiment observed recently in muonic hydrogen necessitates a reinvestigation of all corrections to contribute to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen (μH), muonic deuterium (μD), the muonic 3 He ion (denoted here as μ 3 He + ), as well as in the muonic 4 He ion (μ 4 He + ). Here, we choose a semi-analytic approach and evaluate a number of higher-order corrections to vacuum polarization (VP) semi-analytically, while remaining integrals over the spectral density of VP are performed numerically. We obtain semi-analytic results for the second-order correction, and for the relativistic correction to VP. The self-energy correction to VP is calculated, including the perturbations of the Bethe logarithms by vacuum polarization. Sub-leading logarithmic terms in the radiative-recoil correction to the 2S-2P Lamb shift of order α(Zα) 5 μ 3 ln(Zα)/(m μ m N ) where α is the fine structure constant, are also obtained. All calculations are nonperturbative in the mass ratio of orbiting particle and nucleus. (authors)

  10. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  11. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  12. The mercury laser system - An average power, gas-cooled, Yb:S-FAP based system with frequency conversion and wavefront correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibeau, C.; Bayramian, A.; Armstrong, P.; Ault, E.; Beach, R.; Benapfl, M.; Campbell, R.; Dawson, J.; Ebbers, C.; Freitas, B.; Kent, R.; Liao, Z.; Ladran, T.; Menapace, J.; Molander, B.; Moses, E.; Oberhelman, S.; Payne, S.; Peterson, N.; Schaffers, K.; Stolz, C.; Sutton, S.; Tassano, J.; Telford, S.; Utterback, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Randles, M. [Northrop Grumman Space Technologies, Charlotte, NC (United States); Chain, B.; Fei, Y. [Crystal Photonics, Sanford, Fl (United States)

    2006-06-15

    We report on the operation of the Mercury laser with fourteen 4*6 cm{sup 2} Yb:S-FAP amplifier slabs pumped by eight 100 kW peak power diode arrays. The system was continuously run at 55 J and 10 Hz for several hours, (2*10{sup 5} cumulative shots) with over 80% of the energy in a 6 times diffraction limited spot at 1.047 {mu}m. Improved optical quality was achieved in Yb:S-FAP amplifiers with magneto-rheological finishing, a deterministic polishing method. In addition, average power frequency conversion employing YCOB crystal was demonstrated at 50% conversion efficiency or 22.6 J at 10 Hz. (authors)

  13. Analyses of PWR spent fuel composition using SCALE and SWAT code systems to find correction factors for criticality safety applications adopting burnup credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Sung; Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki; Okuno, Hiroshi; Nomura, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    The isotopic composition calculations were performed for 26 spent fuel samples from the Obrigheim PWR reactor and 55 spent fuel samples from 7 PWR reactors using the SAS2H module of the SCALE4.4 code system with 27, 44 and 238 group cross-section libraries and the SWAT code system with the 107 group cross-section library. For the analyses of samples from the Obrigheim PWR reactor, geometrical models were constructed for each of SCALE4.4/SAS2H and SWAT. For the analyses of samples from 7 PWR reactors, the geometrical model already adopted in the SCALE/SAS2H was directly converted to the model of SWAT. The four kinds of calculation results were compared with the measured data. For convenience, the ratio of the measured to calculated values was used as a parameter. When the ratio is less than unity, the calculation overestimates the measurement, and the ratio becomes closer to unity, they have a better agreement. For many important nuclides for burnup credit criticality safety evaluation, the four methods applied in this study showed good coincidence with measurements in general. More precise observations showed, however: (1) Less unity ratios were found for Pu-239 and -241 for selected 16 samples out of the 26 samples from the Obrigheim reactor (10 samples were deselected because their burnups were measured with Cs-137 non-destructive method, less reliable than Nd-148 method the rest 16 samples were measured with); (2) Larger than unity ratios were found for Am-241 and Cm-242 for both the 16 and 55 samples; (3) Larger than unity ratios were found for Sm-149 for the 55 samples; (4) SWAT was generally accompanied by larger ratios than those of SAS2H with some exceptions. Based on the measured-to-calculated ratios for 71 samples of a combined set in which 16 selected samples and 55 samples were included, the correction factors that should be multiplied to the calculated isotopic compositions were generated for a conservative estimate of the neutron multiplication factor

  14. [The role of information and training for workers on the correct use of earplugs in assessing real noise attenuation with E-A-RfitTM system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Filippo; Aloise, Ingrid; Labianca, Graziano; Gaccione, Vincenzo; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Cardascia, Francesco; Garavaglia, Michela; Germano, Candida; Dentamaro, Antonella; Di Lorenzo, Luigi

    2015-07-08

    Laboratory levels of perceived noise attenuation as heard using earplugs are always higher than the real levels that can be achieved at the workplace. The employer is bound by law to supply individual hearing protection devices (HPDs), to assess their efficiency and efficacy, and also to inform and train workers on the correct use of HPDs. This study assessed the real "personal attenuation rating" (PAR) of HPDs  used by workers at the workplace, before (PAR A) and after (PAR B) specific and individual training. These values were also compared with the theoretical  "single number rating" (SNR) provided by the manufacturer. The study covered all the 65 male employees of an awnings factory, using the E-A-RfitTM computerized method, which can measure PARs, based on the difference between sound pressures recorded by an "outside" microphone and an "inside" microphone placed in the auditory canal, with earplugs inserted, before (PAR A) and after (PAR B), i.e., the specific and individual training described above. PARs B were always definitely higher than PARs A, both for all tested frequencies and the corresponding average values, which were automatically detected by E-A-RfitTM. Furthermore the same PARs B were  decidedly lower than the respective SNRs supplied by the manufacturer on the basis of laboratory assessments. These data prove that specific and individual training for workers improves the performance of earplugs, contributing to a more appropriate secondary prevention of the effects of noise on hearing; they also prove that the real attenuation recorded in workers are always lower than those supplied by the manufacturer of the devices. It is recommended that the E-A-RfitTM system, which allowed these results to be achieved objectively, should be normally used to assess exposure to noise in workers, when HPDs are worn.

  15. Application of the correction's system of bottom by deuterium's lamp of a spectrophotometer of atomic absorption to the obtaining of ultraviolet spectrums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Chaves, Alberto Enrique

    2002-01-01

    The correction system of bottom by lamp of deuterium's arch of a spectrophotometer of atomic absorption has been utilized with sweep's capacity of wavelength to get spectrums of ultraviolet absorption of samples in gaseous phase, whether in presence as in absence of flame, in the region between 200 nm and 365 nm. The spectral information was obtained after of a process of electronic subtraction of the source's signal, except for the source's signal plus the sample and its subsequent analysis by a programmed data's processor to give a report in terms of wavelength. The spectrums obtained in absence of flame were practiced in samples contained in a gas's sell for infrared spectroscopy with polyethylene's windows, it is located of the burner and directly in front to the radiation's beam, comparable spectrums with the reported in the literature were obtained and with a bigger resolution than the measure with an conventional ultraviolet absorption's spectrophotometer utilized like reference. The spectrums in presence of flame have been of flame have been obtained from dissolved samples and directly suctioned, it achieves to obtain spectral information that is normally not detected conveniently when it performs qualitative analysis by emission of flame in elements such like zinc, lead, cobalt, mercury and nickel among other. The information obtained on this way has been utilized like an alternative method to the elemental analysis by humid way with a view to increase the reliability of the results that have been utilized like basis in the determination of the tariff classification of imported or exported products. (Author) [es

  16. THE CARMA PAIRED ANTENNA CALIBRATION SYSTEM: ATMOSPHERIC PHASE CORRECTION FOR MILLIMETER WAVE INTERFEROMETRY AND ITS APPLICATION TO MAPPING THE ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY ARP 193

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B. Ashley; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Curley, Roger; Pound, Marc W.; Mundy, Lee G.; Teng, Stacy H.; Teuben, Peter J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Carpenter, John M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Peréz, Laura M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Lamb, James W.; Woody, David P.; Leitch, Erik M.; Muchovej, Stephen J.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States); Bock, Douglas C.-J. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Plambeck, Richard L. [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marrone, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2016-01-15

    Phase fluctuations introduced by the atmosphere are the main limiting factor in attaining diffraction limited performance in extended interferometric arrays at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. We report the results of C-PACS, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy Paired Antenna Calibration System. We present a systematic study of several hundred test observations taken during the 2009–2010 winter observing season where we utilize CARMA's eight 3.5 m antennas to monitor an atmospheric calibrator while simultaneously acquiring science observations with 6.1 and 10.4 m antennas on baselines ranging from a few hundred meters to ∼2 km. We find that C-PACS is systematically successful at improving coherence on long baselines under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We find that the angular separation between the atmospheric calibrator and target source is the most important consideration, with consistently successful phase correction at CARMA requiring a suitable calibrator located ≲6° away from the science target. We show that cloud cover does not affect the success of C-PACS. We demonstrate C-PACS in typical use by applying it to the observations of the nearby very luminous infrared galaxy Arp 193 in {sup 12}CO(2-1) at a linear resolution of ≈70 pc (0.″12 × 0.″18), 3 times better than previously published molecular maps of this galaxy. We resolve the molecular disk rotation kinematics and the molecular gas distribution and measure the gas surface densities and masses on 90 pc scales. We find that molecular gas constitutes ∼30% of the dynamical mass in the inner 700 pc of this object with a surface density ∼10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −2}; we compare these properties to those of the starburst region of NGC 253.

  17. Adaptation of penelope Monte Carlo code system to the absorbed dose metrology: characterization of high energy photon beams and calculations of reference dosimeter correction factors; Adaptation du code Monte Carlo penelope pour la metrologie de la dose absorbee: caracterisation des faisceaux de photons X de haute energie et calcul de facteurs de correction de dosimetres de reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurier, J

    1999-05-28

    This thesis has been performed in the framework of national reference setting-up for absorbed dose in water and high energy photon beam provided with the SATURNE-43 medical accelerator of the BNM-LPRI (acronym for National Bureau of Metrology and Primary standard laboratory of ionising radiation). The aim of this work has been to develop and validate different user codes, based on PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system, to determine the photon beam characteristics and calculate the correction factors of reference dosimeters such as Fricke dosimeters and graphite calorimeter. In the first step, the developed user codes have permitted the influence study of different components constituting the irradiation head. Variance reduction techniques have been used to reduce the calculation time. The phase space has been calculated for 6, 12 and 25 MV at the output surface level of the accelerator head, then used for calculating energy spectra and dose distributions in the reference water phantom. Results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements. The second step has been devoted to develop an user code allowing calculation correction factors associated with both BNM-LPRI's graphite and Fricke dosimeters thanks to a correlated sampling method starting with energy spectra obtained in the first step. Then the calculated correction factors have been compared with experimental and calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code system. The good agreement, between experimental and calculated results, leads to validate simulations performed with the PENELOPE code system. (author)

  18. 7 CFR 1730.25 - Corrective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrective action. 1730.25 Section 1730.25... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE Operations and Maintenance Requirements § 1730.25 Corrective action. (a) For any items on the RUS Form 300 rated unsatisfactory (i.e., 0 or 1) by the borrower...

  19. 9 CFR 417.3 - Corrective actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrective actions. 417.3 Section 417.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.3 Corrective actions. (a) The written HACCP plan...

  20. Opportunistic Error Correction for WLAN Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2008-01-01

    The current error correction layer of IEEE 802.11a WLAN is designed for worst case scenarios, which often do not apply. In this paper, we propose a new opportunistic error correction layer based on Fountain codes and a resolution adaptive ADC. The key part in the new proposed system is that only

  1. Correction of Neonatal Hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moskalev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of hydroxyethyl starch solution (6% refortane, Berlin-Chemie versus fresh frozen plasma used to correct neonatal hypovolemia.Materials and methods. In 12 neonatal infants with hypoco-agulation, hypovolemia was corrected with fresh frozen plasma (10 ml/kg body weight. In 13 neonates, it was corrected with 6% refortane infusion in a dose of 10 ml/kg. Doppler echocardiography was used to study central hemodynamic parameters and Doppler study was employed to examine regional blood flow in the anterior cerebral and renal arteries.Results. Infusion of 6% refortane and fresh frozen plasma at a rate of 10 ml/hour during an hour was found to normalize the parameters of central hemodynamics and regional blood flow.Conclusion. Comparative analysis of the findings suggests that 6% refortane is the drug of choice in correcting neonatal hypovolemia. Fresh frozen plasma should be infused in hemostatic disorders. 

  2. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surgery. It is important to understand that your treatment, which will probably include orthodontics before and after ... to realistically estimate the time required for your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided ...

  3. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... misalignment of jaws and teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may ... indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery: Difficulty chewing, or biting food Difficulty swallowing Chronic jaw or ...

  4. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Corrective Jaw ...

  5. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) to correct a wide range of minor and ... when sleeping, including snoring) Your dentist, orthodontist and OMS will work together to determine whether you are ...

  6. MONOTONIC DERIVATIVE CORRECTION FOR CALCULATION OF SUPERSONIC FLOWS WITH SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Numerical solution methods of gas dynamics problems based on exact and approximate solution of Riemann problem are considered. We have developed an approach to the solution of Euler equations describing flows of inviscid compressible gas based on finite volume method and finite difference schemes of various order of accuracy. Godunov scheme, Kolgan scheme, Roe scheme, Harten scheme and Chakravarthy-Osher scheme are used in calculations (order of accuracy of finite difference schemes varies from 1st to 3rd. Comparison of accuracy and efficiency of various finite difference schemes is demonstrated on the calculation example of inviscid compressible gas flow in Laval nozzle in the case of continuous acceleration of flow in the nozzle and in the case of nozzle shock wave presence. Conclusions about accuracy of various finite difference schemes and time required for calculations are made. Main Results. Comparative analysis of difference schemes for Euler equations integration has been carried out. These schemes are based on accurate and approximate solution for the problem of an arbitrary discontinuity breakdown. Calculation results show that monotonic derivative correction provides numerical solution uniformity in the breakdown neighbourhood. From the one hand, it prevents formation of new points of extremum, providing the monotonicity property, but from the other hand, causes smoothing of existing minimums and maximums and accuracy loss. Practical Relevance. Developed numerical calculation method gives the possibility to perform high accuracy calculations of flows with strong non-stationary shock and detonation waves. At the same time, there are no non-physical solution oscillations on the shock wave front.

  7. Impact of correction tables of heterogeneities in radiotherapy planning systems; Impacto das tabelas de correcao de heterogeneidades em sistemas de planejamento radioterapico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragonezi, Aline; Santos, Thallis A.; Tokarski, Marcio; Biazotto, Bruna [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    It has been acquired different tomographic images of a phantom with known heterogeneities, varying parameters of acquisition. With these images, it was possible to get Hounsfield unit of regions where the electronic density is known and, with these data, to make inhomogeneity correction's table. These tables showed variations in the response of Hounsfield unit when varying kVp (5,3%) and filters, both physical (12,3%) as image's reconstruction (5,6%).It was evaluated the differences in the calculation of doses using every correction's tables made, observing differences up to 0,5% in the calculated dose. (author)

  8. Operator quantum error-correcting subsystems for self-correcting quantum memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The most general method for encoding quantum information is not to encode the information into a subspace of a Hilbert space, but to encode information into a subsystem of a Hilbert space. Recently this notion has led to a more general notion of quantum error correction known as operator quantum error correction. In standard quantum error-correcting codes, one requires the ability to apply a procedure which exactly reverses on the error-correcting subspace any correctable error. In contrast, for operator error-correcting subsystems, the correction procedure need not undo the error which has occurred, but instead one must perform corrections only modulo the subsystem structure. This does not lead to codes which differ from subspace codes, but does lead to recovery routines which explicitly make use of the subsystem structure. Here we present two examples of such operator error-correcting subsystems. These examples are motivated by simple spatially local Hamiltonians on square and cubic lattices. In three dimensions we provide evidence, in the form a simple mean field theory, that our Hamiltonian gives rise to a system which is self-correcting. Such a system will be a natural high-temperature quantum memory, robust to noise without external intervening quantum error-correction procedures

  9. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  10. LiDAR-based 2D Localization and Mapping System using Elliptical Distance Correction Models for UAV Wind Turbine Blade Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Ivan Adriyanov; Madsen, Claus B.

    2017-01-01

    for on-site outdoor localization and mapping in low feature environment using the inexpensive RPLIDAR and an 9-DOF IMU. Our algorithm geometrically simplifies the wind turbine blade 2D cross-section to an elliptical model and uses it for distance and shape correction. We show that the proposed algorithm...

  11. Comparison of the FFT/matrix inversion and system matrix techniques for higher-order probe correction in spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    correction of general high-order probes, including non-symmetric dual-polarized antennas with independent ports. The investigation was carried out by processing with each technique the same measurement data for a challenging case with an antenna under test significantly offset from the center of rotation...

  12. Correctional Practitioners on Reentry: A Missed Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Gunnison

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the literature on reentry of formerly incarcerated individuals revolves around discussions of failures they incur during reintegration or the identification of needs and challenges that they have during reentry from the perspective of community corrections officers. The present research fills a gap in the reentry literature by examining the needs and challenges of formerly incarcerated individuals and what makes for reentry success from the perspective of correctional practitioners (i.e., wardens and non-wardens. The views of correctional practitioners are important to understand the level of organizational commitment to reentry and the ways in which social distance between correctional professionals and their clients may impact reentry success. This research reports on the results from an email survey distributed to a national sample of correctional officials listed in the American Correctional Association, 2012 Directory. Specifically, correctional officials were asked to report on needs and challenges facing formerly incarcerated individuals, define success, identify factors related to successful reentry, recount success stories, and report what could be done to assist them in successful outcomes. Housing and employment were raised by wardens and corrections officials as important needs for successful reentry. Corrections officials adopted organizational and systems perspectives in their responses and had differing opinions about social distance. Policy implications are presented.

  13. QED radiative corrections under the SANC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christova, P.

    2003-01-01

    Automatic calculations of the QED radiative corrections in the framework of the SANC computer system is described. A collection of the computer programs written in FORM3 language is aimed at compiling a database of analytic results to be used to theoretically support the experiments on high-energy accelerators. Presented here is the scheme of automatic analytical calculations of the QED radiative corrections to the fermionic decays of the Z, H and W boson in the framework of the SANC system

  14. A hybrid numerical method for orbit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.; Himel, T.; Shoaee, H.

    1997-09-01

    The authors describe a simple hybrid numerical method for beam orbit correction in particle accelerators. The method overcomes both degeneracy in the linear system being solved and respects boundaries on the solution. It uses the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to find and remove the null-space in the system, followed by a bounded Linear Least Squares analysis of the remaining recast problem. It was developed for correcting orbit and dispersion in the B-factory rings

  15. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  16. Generalised Batho correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddon, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    There are various approximate algorithms available to calculate the radiation dose in the presence of a heterogeneous medium. The Webb and Fox product over layers formulation of the generalised Batho correction factor requires determination of the number of layers and the layer densities for each ray path. It has been shown that the Webb and Fox expression is inefficient for the heterogeneous medium which is expressed as regions of inhomogeneity rather than layers. The inefficiency of the layer formulation is identified as the repeated problem of determining for each ray path which inhomogeneity region corresponds to a particular layer. It has been shown that the formulation of the Batho correction factor as a product over inhomogeneity regions avoids that topological problem entirely. The formulation in terms of a product over regions simplifies the computer code and reduces the time required to calculate the Batho correction factor for the general heterogeneous medium. (U.K.)

  17. THE SECONDARY EXTINCTION CORRECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariasen, W. H.

    1963-03-15

    It is shown that Darwin's formula for the secondary extinction correction, which has been universally accepted and extensively used, contains an appreciable error in the x-ray diffraction case. The correct formula is derived. As a first order correction for secondary extinction, Darwin showed that one should use an effective absorption coefficient mu + gQ where an unpolarized incident beam is presumed. The new derivation shows that the effective absorption coefficient is mu + 2gQ(1 + cos/sup 4/2 theta )/(1 plus or minus cos/sup 2/2 theta )/s up 2/, which gives mu + gQ at theta =0 deg and theta = 90 deg , but mu + 2gQ at theta = 45 deg . Darwin's theory remains valid when applied to neutron diffraction. (auth)

  18. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  19. Bryant J. correction formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.

    1990-03-01

    For the practical application of the method proposed by J. Bryant, the authors carried out a series of small corrections, related with the bottom, the dead time of the detectors and channels, with the resolution time of the coincidences, with the accidental coincidences, with the decay scheme and with the gamma efficiency of the beta detector beta and the beta efficiency beta of the gamma detector. The calculation of the correction formula is presented in the development of the present report, being presented 25 combinations of the probability of the first existent state at once of one disintegration and the second state at once of the following disintegration. (Author)

  20. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...