WorldWideScience

Sample records for wave-dispersed third-order nonlinear

  1. Oscillation criteria for third order delay nonlinear differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Elabbasy

    2012-01-01

    via comparison with some first differential equations whose oscillatory characters are known. Our results generalize and improve some known results for oscillation of third order nonlinear differential equations. Some examples are given to illustrate the main results.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and third-order nonlinear optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... the past, several strategies have been evolved to enhance the third-order nonlinear ..... retical fit using the formulation given in ref. [22]. Fit param- ..... Acknowledgement. The corresponding author acknowledges the financial.

  3. Embedded solitons in the third-order nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Debabrata; Ali, Sk Golam; Talukdar, B

    2008-01-01

    We work with a sech trial function with space-dependent soliton parameters and envisage a variational study for the nonlinear Schoedinger (NLS) equation in the presence of third-order dispersion. We demonstrate that the variational equations for pulse evolution in this NLS equation provide a natural basis to derive a potential model which can account for the existence of a continuous family of embedded solitons supported by the third-order NLS equation. Each member of the family is parameterized by the propagation velocity and co-efficient of the third-order dispersion

  4. Ultrafast third-order nonlinearity of silver nanospheres and nanodiscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Chari, Rama; Oak, Shrikant M [Ultrafast Studies Section, Laser Physics Application Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2007-08-08

    We have measured and compared the absolute values of nonlinear susceptibility of colloidal solutions containing silver nanospheres and nanodiscs at their respective plasmon peaks using a femtosecond laser. The nonlinear process responsible for the laser-induced grating formation in the sample is determined to be of third order. The ratio between the third-order susceptibility (|{chi}{sup (3)}|) and the linear absorption coefficient ({alpha}) of the nanodiscs at 590 nm is three times than that of the similar ratio for nanospheres at 398 nm. Using a randomly oriented ellipsoidal model, we have shown that the increase in |{chi}{sup (3)}|/{alpha} for a nanodisc at 590 nm can be attributed to the change in the field enhancement factor with shape.

  5. Ultrafast third-order nonlinearity of silver nanospheres and nanodiscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Chari, Rama; Oak, Shrikant M

    2007-01-01

    We have measured and compared the absolute values of nonlinear susceptibility of colloidal solutions containing silver nanospheres and nanodiscs at their respective plasmon peaks using a femtosecond laser. The nonlinear process responsible for the laser-induced grating formation in the sample is determined to be of third order. The ratio between the third-order susceptibility (|χ (3) |) and the linear absorption coefficient (α) of the nanodiscs at 590 nm is three times than that of the similar ratio for nanospheres at 398 nm. Using a randomly oriented ellipsoidal model, we have shown that the increase in |χ (3) |/α for a nanodisc at 590 nm can be attributed to the change in the field enhancement factor with shape

  6. Third order nonlinear optical properties of a paratellurite single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclère, J.-R.; Hayakawa, T.; Roginskii, E. M.; Smirnov, M. B.; Mirgorodsky, A.; Couderc, V.; Masson, O.; Colas, M.; Noguera, O.; Rodriguez, V.; Thomas, P.

    2018-05-01

    The (a,b) plane angular dependence of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, χ(3) , of a c-cut paratellurite (α-TeO2) single crystal was quantitatively evaluated here by the Z-scan technique, using a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser operated at 800 nm. In particular, the mean value Re( ⟨χ(3)⟩a,b )(α-TeO2) of the optical tensor has been extracted from such experiments via a direct comparison with the data collected for a fused silica reference glass plate. A R e (⟨χ(3)⟩(a,b )(α-TeO2)):R e (χ(3))(SiO2 glass) ratio roughly equal to 49.1 is found, and our result compares thus very favourably with the unique experimental value (a ratio of ˜50) reported by Kim et al. [J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 76, 2486 (1993)] for a pure TeO2 glass. In addition, it is shown that the angular dependence of the phase modulation within the (a,b) plane can be fully understood in the light of the strong dextro-rotatory power known for TeO2 materials. Taking into account the optical activity, some analytical model serving to estimate the diagonal and non-diagonal components of the third order nonlinear susceptibility tensor has been thus developed. Finally, Re( χxxxx(3) ) and Re( χxxyy(3) ) values of 95.1 ×10-22 m 2/V2 and 42.0 ×10-22 m2/V2 , respectively, are then deduced for a paratellurite single crystal, considering fused silica as a reference.

  7. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of ADP crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxia; Wang, Zhengping; Chai, Xiangxu; Sun, Yuxiang; Sui, Tingting; Sun, Xun; Xu, Xinguang

    2018-05-01

    By using the Z-scan method, we investigated the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of ADP crystal at different wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm) and different orientations ([001], [100], [110], I and II). The experimental data were fitted by NLO theory, to give out the two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient β 2 and the nonlinear refractive index n 2. When the light source changed from a 40 ps, 1064 nm fundamental laser to a 30 ps, 355 nm third-harmonic-generation (THG) laser, the β 2 value increased about 5 times (0.2 × 10‑2 → 1 × 10‑2 cm GW‑1), and the n 2 value increased about 1.5 times (1.5 × 10‑16 → 2.2 × 10‑16 cm2 W‑1). Among all of the orientations, the [110] sample exhibits the smallest β 2, and the second smallest n 2. It indicates that this orientation and its surroundings will be the preferred directions for high-power laser applications of ADP crystal.

  8. Third-order nonlinear differential operators preserving invariant subspaces of maximal dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Gai-Zhu; Zhang Shun-Li; Li Yao-Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, third-order nonlinear differential operators are studied. It is shown that they are quadratic forms when they preserve invariant subspaces of maximal dimension. A complete description of third-order quadratic operators with constant coefficients is obtained. One example is given to derive special solutions for evolution equations with third-order quadratic operators. (general)

  9. Evaluation of polymer based third order nonlinear integrated optics devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, A.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Blom, F.C.; Horst, F.; Horst, F.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; van Schoot, J.B.P.; van Schoot, J.B.P.; Lambeck, Paul; Popma, T.J.A.; Diemeer, Mart

    Nonlinear polymers are promising materials for high speed active integrated optics devices. In this paper we evaluate the perspectives polymer based nonlinear optical devices can offer. Special attention is directed to the materials aspects. In our experimental work we applied mainly Akzo Nobel DANS

  10. Pressure tunable cascaded third order nonlinearity and temporal pulse switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberger, Falk; Bache, Morten; Minardi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Effects based on the χ(3)-nonlinearity are arguably the most commonly discussed nonlinear interactions in photonics. In the description of pulse propagation, however, the generation of the third harmonic (TH) is commonly neglected, because it is strongly phase mismatched in most materials...

  11. Z-scan: A simple technique for determination of third-order optical nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Vijender, E-mail: chahal-gju@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Science, N.C. College of Engineering, Israna, Panipat-132107, Haryana (India); Aghamkar, Praveen, E-mail: p-aghamkar@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa-125055, Haryana (India)

    2015-08-28

    Z-scan is a simple experimental technique to measure intensity dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of third-order nonlinear optical materials. This technique is used to measure the sign and magnitude of both real and imaginary part of the third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of nonlinear optical materials. In this paper, we investigate third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ag-polymer composite film by using single beam z-scan technique with Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser (λ=532 nm) at 5 ns pulse. The values of nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of permethylazine were found to be 9.64 × 10{sup −7} cm/W, 8.55 × 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2}/W and 5.48 × 10{sup −10} esu, respectively.

  12. Computational studies of third-order nonlinear optical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuj Kumar

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... Department of Physics, Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, Raghogarh,. Guna 473 226, India. ∗ ... properties and other molecular properties of the organic nonlinear optical crystal 2-aminopyridinium p- toluenesulphonate ... nal processing, optical limiting, optical logic gates, laser radiation ...

  13. Ablation and optical third-order nonlinearities in Ag nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Torres-Torres

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Torres-Torres1, Néstor Peréa-López2, Jorge Alejandro Reyes-Esqueda3, Luis Rodríguez-Fernández3, Alejandro Crespo-Sosa3, Juan Carlos Cheang-Wong3, Alicia Oliver31Section of Graduate Studies and Research, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute, Zacatenco, Distrito Federal, Mexico; 2Laboratory for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research and Advanced Materials Department, IPICYT, Camino a la Presa San Jose, San Luis Potosi, Mexico; 3Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, D.F. 01000, MéxicoAbstract: The optical damage associated with high intensity laser excitation of silver nanoparticles (NPs was studied. In order to investigate the mechanisms of optical nonlinearity of a nanocomposite and their relation with its ablation threshold, a high-purity silica sample implanted with Ag ions was exposed to different nanosecond and picosecond laser irradiations. The magnitude and sign of picosecond refractive and absorptive nonlinearities were measured near and far from the surface plasmon resonance (SPR of the Ag NPs with a self-diffraction technique. Saturable optical absorption and electronic polarization related to self-focusing were identified. Linear absorption is the main process involved in nanosecond laser ablation, but nonlinearities are important for ultrashort picosecond pulses when the absorptive process become significantly dependent on the irradiance. We estimated that near the resonance, picosecond intraband transitions allow an expanded distribution of energy among the NPs, in comparison to the energy distribution resulting in a case of far from resonance, when the most important absorption takes place in silica. We measured important differences in the ablation threshold and we estimated that the high selectiveness of the SPR of Ag NPs as well as their corresponding optical nonlinearities can be strongly significant for laser

  14. Evaluation of third order nonlinear optical parameters of CdS/PVA nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    CdS nanoparticles dispersed in PVA are prepared by Chemical method at room temperature. The nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear absorption (β), nonlinear refractive index (n 2 ) and nonlinear susceptibility (χ 3 ) are calculated for this sample by using Z-scan technique. CdS/PVA samples show the two photon absorption mechanism. The third order nonlinear susceptibility is calculated from n 2 and β and is found to be of the order of 10 −7 – 10 −8 m 2 /V 2 . The larger value of third order nonlinear susceptibility is due to dielectric and quantum confinement effect

  15. Periodic solutions of certain third order nonlinear differential systems with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejumola, H.O.; Afuwape, A.U.

    1990-12-01

    This paper investigates the existence of 2π-periodic solutions of systems of third-order nonlinear differential equations, with delay, under varied assumptions. The results obtained extend earlier works of Tejumola and generalize to third order systems those of Conti, Iannacci and Nkashama as well as DePascale and Iannacci and Iannacci and Nkashama. 16 refs

  16. ON THE BOUNDEDNESS AND THE STABILITY OF SOLUTION TO THIRD ORDER NON-LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the global asymptotic stability,boundedness as well as the ultimate boundedness of solutions to a general third order nonlinear differential equation,using complete Lyapunov function.

  17. The third order nonlinear susceptibility of InAs at infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musayev, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear susceptibilities of the third order and coefficient of nonlinear absorption in InAs n-type with a different degree of a doping have been measured. The values of the third order nonlinear susceptibilities have derived from these measurements essentially exceed the values calculated on the basis of model featuring nonlinear susceptibility of electrons, being in conduction-band nonparabolicity. It has been shown that the observable discrepancy has been eliminated, if in calculation a dissipation of energy of electrons has been considered. Growth of efficiency at four-wave mixingin narrow-gap semiconductors has been restricted to nonlinear absorption of interacting waves

  18. Optimized nonlinear inversion of surface-wave dispersion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raykova, Reneta B.

    2014-01-01

    A new code for inversion of surface wave dispersion data is developed to obtain Earth’s crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. The author developed Optimized Non–Linear Inversion ( ONLI ) software, based on Monte-Carlo search. The values of S–wave velocity VS and thickness h for a number of horizontal homogeneous layers are parameterized. Velocity of P–wave VP and density ρ of relevant layers are calculated by empirical or theoretical relations. ONLI explores parameters space in two modes, selective and full search, and the main innovation of software is evaluation of tested models. Theoretical dispersion curves are calculated if tested model satisfied specific conditions only, reducing considerably the computation time. A number of tests explored impact of parameterization and proved the ability of ONLI approach to deal successfully with non–uniqueness of inversion problem. Key words: Earth’s structure, surface–wave dispersion, non–linear inversion, software

  19. Surface plasmon enhanced third-order optical nonlinearity of Ag nanocomposite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Vijender [Department of Applied Science, N.C. College of Engineering, Israna, Panipat 132107, Haryana (India); Aghamkar, Praveen, E-mail: p-aghamkar@yahoo.in [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa 125055, Haryana (India)

    2014-03-17

    We obtain a large third-order optical nonlinearity (χ{sup (3)} ≈ 10{sup −10}esu) of silver nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol/tetraethyl orthosilicate matrix using single beam z-scan technique at 532 nm by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. We have shown that mechanisms responsible for third-order optical nonlinearity of Ag nanocomposite film are reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and self-defocusing in the purlieu of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Optical band-gap and width of SPR band of Ag nanocomposite film decrease with increasing silver concentration, which leads to enhancement of local electric field and hence third-order optical nonlinearity. Optical limiting, due to RSA has also been demonstrated at 532 nm.

  20. Surface plasmon enhanced third-order optical nonlinearity of Ag nanocomposite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vijender; Aghamkar, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    We obtain a large third-order optical nonlinearity (χ (3)  ≈ 10 −10 esu) of silver nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol/tetraethyl orthosilicate matrix using single beam z-scan technique at 532 nm by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. We have shown that mechanisms responsible for third-order optical nonlinearity of Ag nanocomposite film are reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and self-defocusing in the purlieu of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Optical band-gap and width of SPR band of Ag nanocomposite film decrease with increasing silver concentration, which leads to enhancement of local electric field and hence third-order optical nonlinearity. Optical limiting, due to RSA has also been demonstrated at 532 nm

  1. Evaluation of third order nonlinear optical parameters of CdS/PVA nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mamta [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Department of Applied Sciences (Physics), UIET, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in, E-mail: surya-tr@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    CdS nanoparticles dispersed in PVA are prepared by Chemical method at room temperature. The nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear absorption (β), nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and nonlinear susceptibility (χ{sup 3}) are calculated for this sample by using Z-scan technique. CdS/PVA samples show the two photon absorption mechanism. The third order nonlinear susceptibility is calculated from n{sub 2} and β and is found to be of the order of 10{sup −7} – 10{sup −8} m{sup 2}/V{sup 2}. The larger value of third order nonlinear susceptibility is due to dielectric and quantum confinement effect.

  2. Alkali-Responsive Absorption Spectra and Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities of Imino Squaramides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhong-Yu; Xu Song; Zhou Xin-Yu; Zhang Fu-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Third-order optical nonlinearities and dynamic responses of two imino squaramides under neutral and base conditions were studied using the femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing technique at 800 nm. Ultrafast optical responses have been observed and the magnitude of the second-order hyperpolarizabilities of the squaramides has been measured to be as large as 10 −31 esu. The absorption spectra, color of solution, and third-order optical nonlinearities of two imino squaramides change with the addition of sodium hydroxide. The γ value under the base condition for each dye is approximately 1.25 times larger than that under neutral conditions. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  3. Participation of the Third Order Optical Nonlinearities in Nanostructured Silver Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Solid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Torres-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the transmittance modulation of optical signals in a nanocomposite integrated by two different silver doped zinc oxide thin solid films. An ultrasonic spray pyrolysis approach was employed for the preparation of the samples. Measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical response at a nonresonant 532 nm wavelength of excitation were performed using a vectorial two-wave mixing. It seems that the separated contribution of the optical nonlinearity associated with each film noticeable differs in the resulting nonlinear effects with respect to the additive response exhibited by the bilayer system. An enhancement of the optical Kerr nonlinearity is predicted for prime number arrays of the studied nanoclusters in a two-wave interaction. We consider that the nanostructured morphology of the thin solid films originates a strong modification of the third-order optical phenomena exhibited by multilayer films based on zinc oxide.

  4. Nonlinear absorption and receptivity of the third order in InAs infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musayev, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear absorption and receptivity of the third order and coefficient nonlinear absorption in InAs n-type with different degree of alloying was measured. Obtained score considerably exceed sense, calculated on the basis of the models describing nonlinear receptivity of electrons, situated in the nonparabolic area of conductivity. It was shown that, observable deviations withdraw; if in the calculation apply energy dissipation of electrons. Growth of the efficiency under four-wave interaction in low-energy-gap semiconductors confines nonlinear absorption of interacting waves

  5. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin sputtered gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Aloukos, P.; Couris, S.; Kaminska, E.; Piotrowska, A.; Dynowska, E.

    2007-07-01

    Au films of thickness ranging between 5 and 52 nm were prepared by sputtering on quartz substrates and their third-order nonlinear optical response was investigated by Optical Kerr effect (OKE) and Z-scan techniques using 532 nm, 35 ps laser pulses. All prepared films were characterized by XRD, AFM and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry while their third-order susceptibility χ(3) was measured and found to be of the order of 10 -9 esu. The real and imaginary parts of the third-order susceptibility were found in very good agreement with experimental results and theoretical predictions reported by Smith et al. [D.D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R.W. Boyd, Y.K. Cambell, L.A. Baker, R.M. Crooks, M. George, J. Appl. Phys. 86 (1999) 6200].

  6. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of C{sub 60}-derived nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangang, Wan [Nanjing Univ. (China). National Lab. of Solid State Microstructures; [Center for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology of Microstructures, Nanjing (China); Jinming, Dong [Nanjing Univ. (China). National Lab. of Solid State Microstructures; [Center for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology of Microstructures, Nanjing (China); Jie, Jiang [Nanjing Univ., JS (China). Dept. of Physics; Xing, D Y [Nanjing Univ., JS (China). Dept. of Physics

    1997-02-01

    Using the extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model and the sum-over-state (SOS) method, we have calculated the third-order nonlinear polarizability {gamma} and its dispersion spectra for C{sub 60}-derived nanotubes, which is one of the narrowest tubes. Our numerical calculations indicate that both symmetry and size of the nanotubes have great effect on the third-order nonlinear polarizability {gamma} spectra. We find that with increasing size, both static {gamma} values and dynamical response peak values increase. When the atom number of the C{sub 60}-derived nanotubes is 140, the static {gamma} value is about 65 times larger than that of C{sub 60}, and the highest peak value of {gamma} (at 3{omega} = 3.52 eV) is about three orders larger than that of C{sub 60}. So, C{sub 60}-derived nanotubes may become a kind of good nonlinear optical materials. (orig.)

  7. Validity testing of third-order nonlinear models for synchronous generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjona, M.A. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Instituto Tecnologico de La Laguna Torreon, Coah. (Mexico); Escarela-Perez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Energia, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa, C.P. 02200 (Mexico); Espinosa-Perez, G. [Division de Estudios Posgrado de la Facultad de Ingenieria Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Alvarez-Ramirez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana -Iztapalapa, Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    Third-order nonlinear models are commonly used in control theory for the analysis of the stability of both open-loop and closed-loop synchronous machines. However, the ability of these models to describe the electrical machine dynamics has not been tested experimentally. This work focuses on this issue by addressing the parameters identification problem for third-order models for synchronous generators. For a third-order model describing the dynamics of power angle {delta}, rotor speed {omega} and quadrature axis transient EMF E{sub q}{sup '}, it is shown that the parameters cannot be identified because of the effects of the unknown initial condition of E{sub q}{sup '}. To avoid this situation, a model that incorporates the measured electrical power dynamics is considered, showing that state measurements guarantee the identification of the model parameters. Data obtained from a 7 kVA lab-scale synchronous generator and from a 150 MVA finite-element simulation were used to show that, at least for the worked examples, the estimated parameters display only moderate variations over the operating region. This suggests that third-order models can suffice to describe the main dynamical features of synchronous generators, and that third-order models can be used to design and tune power system stabilizers and voltage regulators. (author)

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure, growth, optical and third order nonlinear optical studies of 8HQ2C5N single crystal - An efficient third-order nonlinear optical material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya Bharathi, M.; Ahila, G.; Mohana, J. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600005 (India); Chakkaravarthi, G. [Department of Physics, CPCL Polytechnic College, Chennai 600068 (India); Anbalagan, G., E-mail: anbu24663@yahoo.co.in [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2017-05-01

    A neoteric organic third order nonlinear optical material 8-hydroxyquinolinium 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate dihydrate (8HQ2C5N) was grown by slow cooling technique using ethanol: water (1:1) mixed solvent. The calculated low value of average etch pit solidity (4.12 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup −2}) indicated that the title crystal contain less defects. From the single crystal X-ray diffraction data, it was endowed that 8HQ2C5N crystal belongs to the monoclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P2{sub 1}/c and the cell parameters values, a = 9.6546 (4) Ǻ, b = 7.1637(3) Ǻ, c = 24.3606 (12) Ǻ, α = γ = 90°, β = 92.458(2)° and volume = 1683.29(13) Ǻ{sup 3}. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum were used to affirm the functional group of the title compound. The chemical structure of 8HQ2C5N was scrutinized by {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR spectral analysis and thermal stability through the differential scanning calorimetry study. Using optical studies the lower cut-off wavelength and optical band gap of 8HQ2C5N were found to be 364 nm and 3.17 eV respectively. Using the single oscillator model suggested by Wemple – Didomenico, the oscillator energy (E{sub o}), the dispersion energy (E{sub d}) and static dielectric constant (ε{sub o}) were estimated. The third-order susceptibility were determined as Im χ{sup (3)} = 2.51 × 10{sup −5} esu and Re χ{sup (3)} = 4.46 × 10{sup −7} esu. The theoretical third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)} was calculated and the results were compared with experimental value. Photoluminescence spectrum of 8HQ2C5N crystal showed the yellow emission. The crystal had the single shot laser damage threshold of 5.562 GW/cm{sup 2}. Microhardness measurement showed that 8HQ2C5N belongs to a soft material category. - Highlights: • A new organic single crystals were grown and the crystal structure was reported. • Crystal possess, good transmittance, thermal and mechanical stability. • Single shot LDT value is found to be

  9. Chaos control of third-order phase-locked loops using backstepping nonlinear controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, Ahmad M.; Harb, Bassam A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous study showed that a third-order phase-locked loop (PLL) with sinusoidal phase detector characteristics experienced a Hopf bifurcation point as well as chaotic behavior. As a result, this behavior drives the PLL to the out-of-lock (unstable) state. The analysis was based on a modern nonlinear theory such as bifurcation and chaos. The main goal of this paper is to control this chaotic behavior. A nonlinear controller based on the theory of backstepping is designed. The study showed the effectiveness of the designed nonlinear controller in controlling the undesirable unstable behavior and pulling the PLL back to the in-lock state

  10. Third-order nonlinearity of Er3+-doped lead phosphate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C. C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Guedes Da Silva, Ilde [ORNL; Siqueira, J. P. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; Misoguti, L. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; Zilio, S. C. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The third-order optical susceptibility and dispersion of the linear refractive index of Er3+-doped lead phosphate glass were measured in the wavelength range between 400 and 1940 nm by using the spectrally resolved femtosecond Maker fringes technique. The nonlinear refractive index obtained from the third-order susceptibility was found to be five times higher than that of silica, indicating that Er3+-doped lead phosphate glass is a potential candidate to be used as the base component for the fabrication of photonic devices. For comparison purposes, the Z-scan technique was also employed to obtain the values of the nonlinear refractive index of E-doped lead phosphate glass at several wavelengths, and the values obtained using the two techniques agree to within 15%.

  11. Zeolite Y Films as Ideal Platform for Evaluation of Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are ideal host material for generation and stabilization of regular ultrasmall quantum dots (QDs array with the size below 1.5 nm. Quantum dots (QDs with high density and extinction absorption coefficient have been expected to give high level of third-order nonlinear optical (3rd-NLO and to have great potential applications in optoelectronics. In this paper, we carried out a systematic elucidation of the third-order nonlinear optical response of various types of QDs including PbSe, PbS, CdSe, CdS, ZnSe, ZnS, Ag2Se, and Ag2S by manipulation of QDs into zeolites Y pores. In this respect, we could demonstrate that the zeolite offers an ideal platform for capability comparison 3rd-NLO response of various types of QDs with high sensitivities.

  12. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of the poly(methyl methacrylate)-phenothiazinium dye hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ru; Lu, Yue-Ting; Yan, Bao-Long; Lu, Jian-Mei; Wu, Xing-Zhi; Song, Ying-Lin; Ge, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) films doped with charge flowable 3,7-di(piperidinyl)phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, which tested by Z-scan method with nanosecond laser beam at 532 nm, are reported. Large third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities (up to 10 −7 esu) and high second hyperpolarizabilities (up to 10 −27 esu) are found. The third-order nonlinear absorptions change from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with different percentage of the phenothiazinium dye in the poly(methyl methacrylate) films, which can be explained by the accumulation phenomenon of the phenothiazinium. The results suggest that the phenothiazinium salt is a promising material for third order non-linear applications. - Highlights: • Phenothiazinium containing optical films • Strong third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption • Large third-order NLO susceptibilities

  13. Oscillation criteria for third order nonlinear delay differential equations with damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said R. Grace

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This note is concerned with the oscillation of third order nonlinear delay differential equations of the form \\[\\label{*} \\left( r_{2}(t\\left( r_{1}(ty^{\\prime}(t\\right^{\\prime}\\right^{\\prime}+p(ty^{\\prime}(t+q(tf(y(g(t=0.\\tag{\\(\\ast\\}\\] In the papers [A. Tiryaki, M. F. Aktas, Oscillation criteria of a certain class of third order nonlinear delay differential equations with damping, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 325 (2007, 54-68] and [M. F. Aktas, A. Tiryaki, A. Zafer, Oscillation criteria for third order nonlinear functional differential equations, Applied Math. Letters 23 (2010, 756-762], the authors established some sufficient conditions which insure that any solution of equation (\\(\\ast\\ oscillates or converges to zero, provided that the second order equation \\[\\left( r_{2}(tz^{\\prime }(t\\right^{\\prime}+\\left(p(t/r_{1}(t\\right z(t=0\\tag{\\(\\ast\\ast\\}\\] is nonoscillatory. Here, we shall improve and unify the results given in the above mentioned papers and present some new sufficient conditions which insure that any solution of equation (\\(\\ast\\ oscillates if equation (\\(\\ast\\ast\\ is nonoscillatory. We also establish results for the oscillation of equation (\\(\\ast\\ when equation (\\(\\ast\\ast\\ is oscillatory.

  14. Microscopic cascading of second-order molecular nonlinearity: New design principles for enhancing third-order nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, Alexander; Autschbach, Jochen; Boyd, Robert W; Prasad, Paras N

    2010-04-12

    Herein, we develop a phenomenological model for microscopic cascading and substantiate it with ab initio calculations. It is shown that the concept of local microscopic cascading of a second-order nonlinearity can lead to a third-order nonlinearity, without introducing any new loss mechanisms that could limit the usefulness of our approach. This approach provides a new molecular design protocol, in which the current great successes achieved in producing molecules with extremely large second-order nonlinearity can be used in a supra molecular organization in a preferred orientation to generate very large third-order response magnitudes. The results of density functional calculations for a well-known second-order molecule, (para)nitroaniline, show that a head-to-tail dimer configuration exhibits enhanced third-order nonlinearity, in agreement with the phenomenological model which suggests that such an arrangement will produce cascading due to local field effects.

  15. Large third-order optical nonlinearity of silver colloids in silica glasses synthesized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Binita; Chakraborty, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    Silver ion implantations in fused silica glasses have been made to synthesize silver nanocluster-glass composites and a combination of 'Anti-Resonant Interferometric Nonlinear Spectroscopy (ARINS)' and 'Z-scan' techniques has been employed for the measurement of the third-order optical susceptibility of these nanocomposites. The ARINS technique utilizes the dressing of two unequal-intensity counter-propagating pulsed optical beams with differential nonlinear phases, which occurs upon traversing the sample. This difference in phase manifests itself in the intensity-dependent transmission, measurement of which enables us to extract the values of nonlinear refractive index (η 2 ) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), finally yielding the real and imaginary parts of the third-order dielectric susceptibility (χ (3) ). The real and imaginary parts of χ (3) are obtained in the orders of 10 -10 e.s.u for silver nanocluster-glass composites. The present value of χ (3) , to our knowledge, is extremely accurate and much more reliable compared to the values previously obtained by other workers for similar silver-glass nanocomposites using only Z-scan technique. Optical nonlinearity has been explained to be due to two-photon absorption in the present nanocomposite glasses and is essentially of electronic origin.

  16. Third-order nonlinear optical studies of anthraquinone dyes using a CW He–Ne laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramodini, S; Poornesh, P

    2014-01-01

    We present investigations on the third-order optical nonlinearity and optical power limiting of anthraquinone dyes. Z-scan measurements were performed using a continuous wave He–Ne laser at 633 nm wavelength as an excitation source. The nonlinear refraction studies exhibited self-defocusing behavior of the dyes. The nonlinear absorption in the dyes was dominated by a reverse saturable absorption process. Self-diffraction ring patterns were observed due to the change in refractive index and thermal lensing. Increase of the electron donating ability of the substituents resulted in enhanced values of the nonlinear optical parameters, establishing the structure–property relationship. The optical limiting study revealed that the dyes possess a lower limiting threshold and clamping level which is very important for eye and sensor protection. Hence, the dyes investigated here emerge as promising candidates for future opto-electronic and photonic device applications such as optical power limiters. (paper)

  17. Third-order nonlinear optical studies of anthraquinone dyes using a CW He-Ne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present investigations on the third-order optical nonlinearity and optical power limiting of anthraquinone dyes. Z-scan measurements were performed using a continuous wave He-Ne laser at 633 nm wavelength as an excitation source. The nonlinear refraction studies exhibited self-defocusing behavior of the dyes. The nonlinear absorption in the dyes was dominated by a reverse saturable absorption process. Self-diffraction ring patterns were observed due to the change in refractive index and thermal lensing. Increase of the electron donating ability of the substituents resulted in enhanced values of the nonlinear optical parameters, establishing the structure-property relationship. The optical limiting study revealed that the dyes possess a lower limiting threshold and clamping level which is very important for eye and sensor protection. Hence, the dyes investigated here emerge as promising candidates for future opto-electronic and photonic device applications such as optical power limiters.

  18. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M. [Optics and Materials Group–OPTMA, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, CAIXA POSTAL 2051, 57061-970 Maceió (Brazil); Wender, Heberton [Brazilian Synchrotron National Laboratory (LNLS), CNPEM, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Department of Physics, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, 79070-900, Campo Grande (Brazil); Teixeira, Sergio R. [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Dupont, Jairton [Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  19. Study of third order nonlinearity of chalcogenide thin films using third harmonic generation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Sunita; Mohan, Devendra; Kumar, Manish; Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    Third order nonlinear susceptibility of (GeSe3.5)100-xBix (x = 0, 10, 14) and ZnxSySe100-x-y (x = 2, y = 28; x = 4, y = 20; x = 6, y = 12; x = 8, y = 4) amorphous chalcogenide thin films prepared using thermal evaporation technique is estimated. The dielectric constant at incident and third harmonic wavelength is calculated using "PARAV" computer program. 1064 nm wavelength of Nd: YAG laser is incident on thin film and third harmonic signal at 355 nm wavelength alongwith fundamental light is obtained in reflection that is separated from 1064 nm using suitable optical filter. Reflected third harmonic signal is measured to trace the influence of Bi and Zn on third order nonlinear susceptibility and is found to increase with increase in Bi and Zn content in (GeSe3.5)100-xBix, and ZnxSySe100-x-y chalcogenide thin films respectively. The excellent optical nonlinear property shows the use of chalcogenide thin films in photonics for wavelength conversion and optical data processing.

  20. Explicit formulation of second and third order optical nonlinearity in the FDTD framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varin, Charles; Emms, Rhys; Bart, Graeme; Fennel, Thomas; Brabec, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is a flexible and powerful technique for rigorously solving Maxwell's equations. However, three-dimensional optical nonlinearity in current commercial and research FDTD softwares requires solving iteratively an implicit form of Maxwell's equations over the entire numerical space and at each time step. Reaching numerical convergence demands significant computational resources and practical implementation often requires major modifications to the core FDTD engine. In this paper, we present an explicit method to include second and third order optical nonlinearity in the FDTD framework based on a nonlinear generalization of the Lorentz dispersion model. A formal derivation of the nonlinear Lorentz dispersion equation is equally provided, starting from the quantum mechanical equations describing nonlinear optics in the two-level approximation. With the proposed approach, numerical integration of optical nonlinearity and dispersion in FDTD is intuitive, transparent, and fully explicit. A strong-field formulation is also proposed, which opens an interesting avenue for FDTD-based modelling of the extreme nonlinear optics phenomena involved in laser filamentation and femtosecond micromachining of dielectrics.

  1. Third-order optical nonlinearity of N-doped graphene oxide nanocomposites at different GO ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiagar, Salimeh; Abrinaei, Fahimeh

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, the influence of GO ratios on the structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of nitrogen-doped graphene oxide nanocomposites (N-GO NCs) has been studied. N-GO NCs were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM results confirmed the reduction of GO by nitrogen doping. The energy band gaps of N-GO NCs calculated from UV-Vis analyzed by using Tauc plot. To obtain further insight into potential optical changes in the N-GO NCs by increasing GO contents, Z-scan analysis was performed with nanosecond Nd-YAG laser at 532 nm. The nonlinear absorption coefficient, β, and nonlinear refractive index, n2, for N-GO NCs at the laser intensity of 113 MW/cm were measured and an increase was observed in both parameters after addition of nitrogen to GO. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of N-GO NCs were measured in the order of 10-9 esu. The results showed that N-GO NCs have negative nonlinearity which can be controlled by GO contents to obtain the highest values for nonlinear optical parameters. The nonlinear optical results not only imply that N-GO NCs can serve as an important material in the advancing of optoelectronics but also open new possibilities for the design of new graphene-based materials by variation of N and GO ratios as well as manufacturing conditions.

  2. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-09-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  3. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10 -5 cm 2 /W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  4. Syntheses, structures and third-order non-linear optical properties of homometal clusters containing molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Lu Jing; Cui Xiaobing; Xu Jiqing; Li Kechang; Sun Huaying; Li Guanghua; Pan Lingyun; Yang Qingxin

    2005-01-01

    Both the homometal cluster [P(ph 4 )] 2 [Mo 2 O 2 (μ-S) 2 (S 2 ) 2 ] (1) and [Mo 2 O 2 (μ-S) 2 (Et 2 dtc) 2 ] (2) (Et 2 dtc=diethyl-dithiocarbamate) were successfully synthesized by low-temperature solid-state reactions. X-ray single-crystal diffraction studies suggest that compound (1) is a dinuclear anion cluster, and compound (2) is a dinuclear neutral cluster. The two compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and UV-Vis spectra. The third-order non-linear optical (NLO) properties of the clusters were also investigated and all exhibited nice non-linear absorption and self-defocusing performance with moduli of the hyperpolarizabilities 5.145x10 -30 esu for (1) and 5.428x10 -30 esu for (2)

  5. Stability analysis of embedded solitons in the generalized third-order nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.; Yang Jianke

    2005-01-01

    We study the generalized third-order nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation which admits a one-parameter family of single-hump embedded solitons. Analyzing the spectrum of the linearization operator near the embedded soliton, we show that there exists a resonance pole in the left half-plane of the spectral parameter, which explains linear stability, rather than nonlinear semistability, of embedded solitons. Using exponentially weighted spaces, we approximate the resonance pole both analytically and numerically. We confirm in a near-integrable asymptotic limit that the resonance pole gives precisely the linear decay rate of parameters of the embedded soliton. Using conserved quantities, we qualitatively characterize the stable dynamics of embedded solitons

  6. Third-order perturbations of a zero-pressure cosmological medium: Pure general relativistic nonlinear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2005-01-01

    We consider a general relativistic zero-pressure irrotational cosmological medium perturbed to the third order. We assume a flat Friedmann background but include the cosmological constant. We ignore the rotational perturbation which decays in expanding phase. In our previous studies we discovered that, to the second-order perturbation, except for the gravitational wave contributions, the relativistic equations coincide exactly with the previously known Newtonian ones. Since the Newtonian second-order equations are fully nonlinear, any nonvanishing third- and higher-order terms in the relativistic analyses are supposed to be pure relativistic corrections. In this work, we derive such correction terms appearing in the third order. Continuing our success in the second-order perturbations, we take the comoving gauge. We discover that the third-order correction terms are of φ v order higher than the second-order terms where φ v is a gauge-invariant combination related to the three-space curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge; compared with the Newtonian potential, we have δΦ∼(3/5)φ v to the linear order. Therefore, the pure general relativistic effects are of φ v order higher than the Newtonian ones. The corrections terms are independent of the horizon scale and depend only on the linear-order gravitational potential (curvature) perturbation strength. From the temperature anisotropy of cosmic microwave background, we have (δT/T)∼(1/3)δΦ∼(1/5)φ v ∼10 -5 . Therefore, our present result reinforces our previous important practical implication that near the current era one can use the large-scale Newtonian numerical simulation more reliably even as the simulation scale approaches near (and goes beyond) the horizon

  7. On the physical contributions to the third-order nonlinear optical response in plasmonic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Hernández, Roberto Carlos; Gleason-Villagran, Roberto; Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis; Crespo-Sosa, Alejandro; Cheang-Wong, Juan Carlos; López-Suárez, Alejandra; Oliver, Alicia; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge Alejandro; Torres-Torres, Carlos; Rangel-Rojo, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Au and Ag isotropic and anisotropic nanocomposites were prepared using the ion implantation technique. Their optical properties were studied at several wavelengths in the optical range 300–800 nm, across their plasmon resonances. The linear regime was characterized by measuring the absorption spectrum and the third-order nonlinear regime by means of the Z-scan technique using a tunable picosecond pulsed laser system (26 ps). Open-aperture Z-scan traces show a superposition of different optical nonlinear absorption (NLA) processes in the whole range studied. We associate these phenomena with the excitation of inter- and intra-band electronic transitions, which contribute with a positive sign to NLA, and to the formation of hot-electrons, which contribute with opposite sign to NLA. Closed-aperture traces for measuring nonlinear refraction (NLR) show different signs for Au and Ag samples, and a change of sign in Au is found when purely inter-band transitions are excited. In this work, for the appropriate wavelength, it is worth remarking on the free-electron response to the exciting light and its strong contribution to the nonlinear optical properties for low (intra-band) and high (hot-electrons) irradiances. (paper)

  8. A third-order asymptotic solution of nonlinear standing water waves in Lagrangian coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang-Yih, Chen; Hung-Chu, Hsu

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions up to third-order which describe irrotational finite amplitude standing waves are derived in Lagrangian coordinates. The analytical Lagrangian solution that is uniformly valid for large times satisfies the irrotational condition and the pressure p = 0 at the free surface, which is in contrast with the Eulerian solution existing under a residual pressure at the free surface due to Taylor's series expansion. In the third-order Lagrangian approximation, the explicit parametric equation and the Lagrangian wave frequency of water particles could be obtained. In particular, the Lagrangian mean level of a particle motion that is a function of vertical label is found as a part of the solution which is different from that in an Eulerian description. The dynamic properties of nonlinear standing waves in water of a finite depth, including particle trajectory, surface profile and wave pressure are investigated. It is also shown that the Lagrangian solution is superior to an Eulerian solution of the same order for describing the wave shape and the kinematics above the mean water level. (general)

  9. Photo-physics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delysse, Stephane

    1997-01-01

    We study some aspects of the nonlinear picosecond photo-physics in organic dyes using Kerr ellipsometry. The aim is to establish link between the photo-physics and nonlinear optics in these compounds. First, we study coherent processes directly linked to the third-order susceptibility. Thus, we measure two-photon absorption spectra of large internal charge transfer dyes. We take into account all coupling between three electronic states which can interfere to explain the particular response of some stilbene dyes. On the second hand, we expose a more photophysical approach to determine the S 1 → S n transition energies and moments using the measurement of excited state absorption cross sections. These results allow the prediction of the susceptibilities relevant to alternative nonlinear optical methods. Nevertheless, the stationary approach hides the complex relaxation processes which can take place in organic dyes. As an illustration, we study the formation and disappearance of a TICT (Twisted intramolecular charge transfer) in a pyrylium salt in solvents of increasing viscosity. (author) [fr

  10. Physical origin of third order non-linear optical response of porphyrin nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongwaketsi, N.; Khamlich, S.; Pranaitis, M.; Sahraoui, B.; Khammar, F.; Garab, G.; Sparrow, R.; Maaza, M.

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear optical properties of porphyrin nanorods were studied using Z-scan, Second and Third harmonic generation techniques. We investigated in details the heteroaggregate behaviour formation of [H 4 TPPS 4 ] 2- and [SnTPyP] 2+ mixture by means of the UV-VIS spectroscopy and aggregates structure and morphology by transmission electron microscopy. The porphyrin nanorods under investigation were synthesized by self assembly and molecular recognition method. They have been optimized in view of future application in the construction of the light harvesting system. The focus of this study was geared towards understanding the influence of the type of solvent used on these porphyrins nanorods using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Highlights: ► We synthesized porphyrin nanorods by self assembly and molecular recognition method. ► TEM images confirmed solid cylindrical shapes. ► UV-VIS spectroscopy showed the decrease in the absorbance peaks of the precursors. ► The enhanced third-order nonlinearities were observed.

  11. Dynamics of solitons and quasisolitons of the cubic third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, V.I.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Shagalov, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of soliton and quasisoliton solutions of the cubic third-order nonlinear Schrodinger equation is studied. Regular solitons exist due to a balance between the nonlinear terms and (linear) third-order dispersion; they are not important at small alpha (3) (alpha (3) is the coefficient...... in the third derivative term) and vanish at alpha3 -->0. The most essential, at small alpha (3), is a quasisoliton emitting resonant radiation (resonantly radiating soliton). Its relationship with the other (steady) quasisoliton, called embedded soliton, is studied analytically and also in numerical...

  12. Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting behavior of alkali metal complexes of p-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, M.; Vinitha, G.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.; Anandan, P.; Ravi, G.

    2015-10-01

    Optical nonlinearity of metal complexes of p-nitrophenolate (M=Li, Na and K) in ethanol is studied by using a continuous wave (cw) diode pumped Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 50 mW). The predominant mechanism of observed nonlinearity is thermal in origin. The nonlinear refractive index and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of the samples were found to be in the order of 10-8 cm2/W and 10-3 cm/W respectively. Magnitude of third-order optical parameters varies according to the choice of alkali metal chosen for metal complex formation of p-nitrophenolate. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility was found to be in the order of 10-6 esu. The observed saturable absorption and the self-defocusing effect were used to demonstrate the optical limiting action at 532 nm by using the same cw laser beam.

  13. On the Asymptotic Properties of Nonlinear Third-Order Neutral Delay Differential Equations with Distributed Deviating Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youliang Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the asymptotic properties of solutions to a third-order nonlinear neutral delay differential equation with distributed deviating arguments. Several new theorems are obtained which ensure that every solution to this equation either is oscillatory or tends to zero. Two illustrative examples are included.

  14. The behavior of steady quasisolitons near the limit cases of third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, V.I.; Shagalov, A.G.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of steady quasisoliton solutions to the extended third-order nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation is studied in two cases: (i) when the coefficients in the equation approach the Hirota conditions, and (ii) near the limit of the regular NLS equation. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier...

  15. Experimental study of the third-order nonlinearity of atomic and molecular gases using 10-μm laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, J. J.; Tochitsky, S. Ya.; Welch, E. C.; Joshi, C.

    2018-04-01

    We present measurements of the third-order optical nonlinearity of Kr, Xe, N2, O2, and air at a wavelength near 10 µm by using four-wave mixing of ˜15 -GW /c m2 , 200-ps (full width at half maximum) C O2 laser pulses. Measurements in molecular gases resulted in an asymmetric four-wave mixing spectrum indicating that the nonlinear response is strongly affected by the delayed, rotational contribution to the effective nonlinear refractive index. Within the uncertainty of our measurements, we have found that the long-wavelength nonlinear refractive indices of these gases are consistent with measurements performed in the near IR.

  16. Large third-order optical nonlinearity in vertically oriented mesoporous silica thin films embedded with Ag nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Min; Liu, Qiming, E-mail: qmliu@whu.edu.cn [Wuhan University, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology (China)

    2016-12-15

    Taking advantage of the channel confinement of mesoporous films to prevent the agglomeration of Ag nanoparticles to achieve large third-order optical nonlinearity in amorphous materials, Ag-loaded composite mesoporous silica film was prepared by the electrochemical deposition method on ITO substrate. Ag ions were firstly transported into the channels of mesoporous film by the diffusion and binding force of channels, which were reduced to nanoparticles by applying suitable voltage. The existence and uniform distribution of Ag nanoparticles ranging in 1–10 nm in the mesoporous silica thin films were exhibited by UV spectrophotometer, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The third-order optical nonlinearity induced by Ag nanoparticles was studied by the Z-scan technique. Due to the local field surface plasmon resonance, the maximum third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of Ag-loaded composite mesoporous silica film is 1.53×10{sup −10} esu, which is 1000 times larger than that of the Ag-contained chalcogenide glasses which showed large nonlinearity in amorphous materials.

  17. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of GeSe2-Ga2Se3-PbI2 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Gao; Liu Cunming; Luo Lan; Chen Wei

    2010-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of new selenium-based GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glasses have been measured using the optical Kerr effect (OKE) technique, with picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses. The 0.70GeSe 2 -0.15Ga 2 Se 3 -0.15PbI 2 glass has the largest third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility in GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glass system with χ (3) of 5.28x10 12 esu. In addition, the response time of glasses is sub-picosecond, which is predominantly associated with electron cloud. Local structure of the glasses has been identified by using Raman studies, while the origins of the observed nonlinear optical response are discussed. The [Ge(Ga)Se 4 ] tetrahedral and lone-pair electrons from highly polarizable Pb atom in glasses play an important role in enhanced NLO response. These results as well as their good chemical stability indicate that GeSe 2 -Ga 2 Se 3 -PbI 2 glasses are promising materials for photonic applications of third-order nonlinear optical signal processing.

  18. Nonlinear perturbations of differential operators with nontrivial kernel and applications to third order periodic boundary value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afuwape, A.U.; Omari, P.

    1987-11-01

    This paper deals with the solvability of the nonlinear operator equations in normed spaces Lx=EGx+f, where L is a linear map with possible nontrivial kernel. Applications are given to the existence of periodic solutions for the third order scalar differential equation x'''+ax''+bx'+cx+g(t,x)=p(t), under various conditions on the interaction of g(t,x)/x with spectral configurations of a, b and c. (author). 48 refs

  19. Spectral dependence of third-order nonlinear optical properties in InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, H.; Lee, M.-T.; Chang, Y.-M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the nonlinear optical properties of InN measured in a wide near-infrared spectral range with the femtosecond Z-scan technique. The above-bandgap nonlinear absorption in InN is found to originate from the saturation of absorption by the band-state-filling and its cross-section increases drastically near the bandgap energy. With below-bandgap excitation, the nonlinear absorption undergoes a transition from saturation absorption (SA) to reverse-SA (RSA), attributed to the competition between SA of band-tail states and two-photon-related RSA. The measured large nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10 −10 cm 2 /W indicates InN as a potential material for all-optical switching and related applications

  20. Green synthesis and third-order nonlinear optical properties of 6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) hexyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baili; Geng, Feng; Luo, Xuan; Zhong, Quanjie; Zhang, Qingjun; Fang, Yu; Huang, Chuanqun; Yang, Ruizhuang; Shao, Ting; Chen, Shufan

    2016-10-01

    An extremely simple and green approach for the synthesis of photoelectric material 6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) hexy-acetate (CHA) has been described in detail. The molecular structure of CHA was identified with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. The optical absorption of CHA was recorded using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum. Notably, the reaction was accomplished in water medium instead of traditional toxic solvents (e.g., benzene and chloroform). The yield of CHA is up to 99%, which is increased by 13% compared with the traditional method. The approach developed by us makes it possible to achieve commercial production of CHA. Moreover, the thermal stability of CHA was studied with thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) method. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of CHAn (obtained by new method) and CHAt (obtained by traditional method) have been studied by a Z-scan technique at 440 nm. The thermal decomposition temperature is above 200 °C. The third-order NLO of CHAn and CHAt are the same. The third-order NLO susceptibility χ (3) and two photon Figures of Merit (FOMs) of CHA are 1.58 × 10-8 (esu) and 4.55, respectively. The results reveal that CHA may be a promising candidate for all-optical switching application.

  1. Growth and Characterization of Lithium Potassium Phthalate (LiKP) Single Crystals for Third Order Nonlinear Optical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, B.; Mohan, R. [Preidency College, Bangalore (India); Raj, S. Gokul [RR and Dr. SR Technical Univ., Avadi (India); Kumar, G. Ramesh [Anna Univ., Arni (India)

    2012-11-15

    Single crystals of lithium potassium phthalate (LiKP) were successfully grown from aqueous solution by solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The lithium potassium phthalate C{sub 16} H{sub 12} K Li{sub 3} O{sub 11} belongs to triclinic system with the following unit-cell dimensions at 298(2) K; a = 7.405(5) A; b = 9.878(5) A; c = 13.396(5) A; α = 71.778(5) .deg.; β = 87.300(5) .deg.; γ = 85.405(5) .deg.; having a space group P1. Mass spectrometric analysis provides the molecular weight of the compound and possible ways of fragmentations occurs in the compound. Thermal stability of the crystal was also studied by both simultaneous TGA/DTA analyses. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows a good transparency in the whole of Visible and as well as in the near IR range. Third order nonlinear optical studies have also been studied by Z-scan technique. Nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refractive index were found out and the third order bulk susceptibility of compound was also estimated.

  2. Single-photon blockade in a hybrid cavity-optomechanical system via third-order nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bijita; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2018-04-01

    Photon statistics in a weakly driven optomechanical cavity, with Kerr-type nonlinearity, are analyzed both analytically and numerically. The single-photon blockade effect is demonstrated via calculations of the zero-time-delay second-order correlation function g (2)(0). The analytical results obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation are in complete conformity with the results obtained through numerical solution of the quantum master equation. A systematic study on the parameter regime for observing photon blockade in the weak coupling regime is reported. The parameter regime where the photon blockade is not realizable due to the combined effect of nonlinearities owing to the optomechanical coupling and the Kerr-effect is demonstrated. The experimental feasibility with state-of-the-art device parameters is discussed and it is observed that photon blockade could be generated at the telecommunication wavelength. An elaborate analysis of the thermal effects on photon antibunching is presented. The system is found to be robust against pure dephasing-induced decoherences and thermal phonon number fluctuations.

  3. Bulk crystal growth and their effective third order nonlinear optical properties of 2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM) single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, A.; Kalainathan, S.

    2018-04-01

    2-(4-fluorobenzylidene) malononitrile (FBM), an organic third order nonlinear (TONLO) single crystal with the dimensions of 32 × 7 × 11 mm3, has been successfully grown in acetone solution by slow evaporation technique at 35 °C. The crystal system (triclinic), space group (P-1) and crystalline purity of the titular crystal were measured by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. The molecular weight and the multiple functional groups of the FBM material were confirmed through the mass and FT-IR spectral analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study enroles that the FBM crystal exhibits excellent transparency (83%) in the entire visible and near infra-red region with a wide bandgap 2.90 eV. The low dielectric constant (εr) value of FBM crystal is appreciable for microelectronics industry applications. Thermal stability and melting point (130.09 °C) were ascertained by TGA-DSC analysis. The laser-induced surface damage threshold (LDT) value of FBM specimen is found to be 2.14 GW/cm2, it is fairly good compared to other reported NLO crystals. The third - order nonlinear optical character of the FBM crystal was confirmed through the typical single beam Z-scan technique. All these finding authorized that the organic crystal of FBM is favorably suitable for NLO applications.

  4. Third-order nonlinearities and structural features in Langmuir-Blodgett films of 1-benzyl-9-hydrofullerene-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihong Ma; Liying Liu; Xingze Lu

    1995-01-01

    Third-order nonlinear susceptibilities χ xxxx (3) (-3ω; ω, ω, ω) have been deduced by measuring third-harmonic generation in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of 1-benzyl-9-hydrofullerene-60 (C 60 -Be). The structural features of the condensed layer at the air-water interface and LB films of the C 60 -Be were investigated by small angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD) and optical measurements. The third-order nonlinear susceptibilities (χ (3) ) were obtained by measuring the THG intensities in LB films of C 60 -Be and comparing with that of CS 2 used as the reference. The value of χ xxxx (3) (2.1 x 10 -11 esu) was deduced at a 65 nm thick films. The χ (3) is attributed to a three-photon near resonance at the energy level of 29410 cm -1 . A new-type of two-chain amphiphilic molecule 1,10-bistearyl-4,6,13, 15-tetra-18-nitrogencrown-6 (NC) was used as insert material to construct mixed C 60 -Be/NC LB films. Our π-A, UV-visible absorption and SAXD measurements showed that the structural improvement in the mixed C 60 -Be/NC LB films was realized by insertion of the C 60 -Be molecules between the two hydrophobic chains of the NC molecules

  5. Structural characterizations, Hirshfeld surface analyses, and third-order nonlinear optical properties of two novel chalcone derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidur, Shivaraj R.; Jahagirdar, Jitendra R.; Patil, Parutagouda Shankaragouda; Chia, Tze Shyang; Quah, Ching Kheng

    2018-01-01

    We report synthesis, characterizations, structure-property relationships, and third-order nonlinear optical studies for two new chalcone derivatives, (2E)-1-(anthracen-9-yl)-3-(4-bromophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (Br-ANC) and (2E)-1-(anthracen-9-yl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (Cl-ANC). These derivatives were crystallized in the centrosymmetric monoclinic P21/c crystal structure. The intermolecular interactions of both the crystals were visualized by Hirshfeld surface analyses (HSA). The crystals are thermally stable up to their melting points (180.82 and 191.16 °C for Cl-ANC and Br-ANC, respectively). The geometry optimizations, FT-IR spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectra, electronic absorption spectra, electronic transitions, and HOMO-LUMO energy gaps were studied by Density Functional Theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p) level. The theoretical results provide excellent agreement with experimental findings. The electric dipole moments, static polarizabilities, molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP) and global chemical reactivity descriptors (GCRD) were also theoretically computed. The materials exhibited good nonlinear absorption (NLA), nonlinear refraction (NLR) and optical limiting (OL) behavior under diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) continuous wave (CW) laser excitation (532 nm and 200 mW). The NLO parameters such as NLA coefficient (β∼10-5 cmW-1), NLR index (n2∼10-10 cm2 W-1) and third-order NLO susceptibilities (χ(3) ∼10-7 esu) were measured. Further, we estimated one-photon and two-photon figures of merit, which satisfy the demands (W > 1 and T < 1) for all-optical switching. Thus, the present chalcone derivatives with anthracene moiety are potential materials for OL and optical switching applications.

  6. Third-order optical nonlinearities in bulk and fs-laser inscribed waveguides in strengthened alkali aluminosilcate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Almeida, Juliana M. P.; Martins, Renato J.; De Boni, Leonardo; Arnold, Craig B.; Mendonca, Cleber R.

    2018-01-01

    The development of advanced photonics devices requires materials with large optical nonlinearities, fast response times and high optical transparency, while at the same time allowing for the micro/nano-processing needed for integrated photonics. In this context, glasses have been receiving considerable attention given their relevant optical properties which can be specifically tailored by compositional control. Corning Gorilla® Glass (strengthened alkali aluminosilicate glass) is well-known for its use as a protective screen in mobile devices, and has attracted interest as a potential candidate for optical devices. Therefore, it is crucial not only to expand the knowledge on the fabrication of waveguides in Gorilla Glass under different regimes, but also to determine its nonlinear optical response, both using fs-laser pulses. Thus, this paper reports, for the first time, characterization of the third-order optical nonlinearities of Gorilla Glass, as well as linear and nonlinear characterization of waveguide written with femtosecond pulses under the low repetition rate regime (1 kHz).

  7. Synthesis, growth, crystal structure, optical and third order nonlinear optical properties of quinolinium derivative single crystal: PNQI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthigha, S.; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2018-03-01

    An organic quinolinium derivative nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, 1-ethyl-2-[2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-vinyl]-quinolinium iodide (PNQI) was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Formation of a crystalline compound was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The quinolinium compound PNQI crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system with a centrosymmetric space group of P-1 symmetry. The molecular structure of PNQI was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. The thermal properties of the crystal have been investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. The optical characteristics obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectral data were described and the cut-off wavelength observed at 506 nm. The etching study was performed to analyse the growth features of PNQI single crystal. The third order NLO properties such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear susceptibility (χ (3)) of the crystal were investigated using Z-scan technique at 632.8 nm of Hesbnd Ne laser.

  8. Third-order-accurate numerical methods for efficient, large time-step solutions of mixed linear and nonlinear problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    There is an increasing need for more accurate numerical methods for large-scale nonlinear magneto-fluid turbulence calculations. These methods should not only increase the current state of the art in terms of accuracy, but should also continue to optimize other desired properties such as simplicity, minimized computation, minimized memory requirements, and robust stability. This includes the ability to stably solve stiff problems with long time-steps. This work discusses a general methodology for deriving higher-order numerical methods. It also discusses how the selection of various choices can affect the desired properties. The explicit discussion focuses on third-order Runge-Kutta methods, including general solutions and five examples. The study investigates the linear numerical analysis of these methods, including their accuracy, general stability, and stiff stability. Additional appendices discuss linear multistep methods, discuss directions for further work, and exhibit numerical analysis results for some other commonly used lower-order methods.

  9. Near resonant and nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities of colloidal InP/ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Yang, X.; He, T. C.; Gao, Y.; Demir, H. V.; Sun, X. W.; Sun, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality colloidal InP/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) using Z-scan technique with femtosecond pulses. The two-photon absorption cross-sections as high as 6.2 × 103 GM are observed at 800 nm (non-resonant regime) in InP/ZnS QDs with diameter of 2.8 nm, which is even larger than those of CdSe, CdS, and CdTe QDs at similar sizes. Furthermore, both of the 2.2 nm and 2.8 nm-sized InP/ZnS QDs exhibit strong saturable absorption in near resonant regime, which is attributed to large exciton Bohr radius in this material. These results strongly suggest the promising potential of InP/ZnS QDs for widespread applications, especially in two-photon excited bio-imaging and saturable absorbing.

  10. Preparation and third-order nonlinear optical property of poly(urethane-imide containing dispersed red chromophore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel poly(urethane-imide (PUI containing dispersed red chromophore was synthesized. The PUI was characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, DSC and TGA. The results of DSC and TGA indicated that the PUI exhibited high thermal stability up to its glass-transition temperature (Tg of 196°C and 5% heat weight loss temperature of 229°C. According to UV-Vis spectrum and working curve, the maximum molar absorption coefficient and absorption wavelength were measured. They were used to calculate the third-order nonlinear optical coefficient χ(3. At the same time, the chromophore density of PUI, nonlinear refractive index coefficient and molecular hyperpolarizability of PUI were obtained. The fluorescence spectra of PUI and model compound DR-19 were determined at excitation wavelength 300 nm. The electron donor and acceptor in polymer formed the exciplex through the transfer of the electric charges. The results show that the poly(urethane-imide is a promising candidate for application in optical devices.

  11. Ultrafast carrier dynamics and third-order nonlinear optical properties of AgInS2/ZnS nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuai; Yang, Yang; Wang, Junzhong; Tang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Guo Ping

    2018-06-01

    Broad photoluminescence (PL) emission, a large Stokes shift and extremely long-lived radiative lifetimes are the characteristics of ternary I–III–VI semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), such as CuInS2 and AgInS2. However, the lack of understanding regarding the intriguing PL mechanisms and photo-carrier dynamics limits their further applications. Here, AgInS2 and AgInS2/ZnS NCs were chemically synthesized and their carrier dynamics were studied by time-resolved PL spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the surface defect state, which contributed dominantly to the non-radiative decay processes, was effectively passivated through ZnS alloying. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was also used to investigate the carrier dynamics, revealing the electron storage at the surface state and donor state. Furthermore, the two photon absorption properties of AgInS2 and AgInS2/ZnS NCs were measured using an open-aperture Z-scan technique. The improved third-order nonlinear susceptibility {χ }(3) of AgInS2 through ZnS alloying demonstrates potential application in two photon PL biological imaging.

  12. Studies on third-order optical nonlinearity and power limiting of conducting polymers using the z-scan technique for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodini, S.; Sudhakar, Y. N.; SelvaKumar, M.; Poornesh, P.

    2014-04-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of third-order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting of the conducting polymers poly (aniline-co-o-anisidine) and poly (aniline-co-pyrrole). Nonlinear optical studies were carried out by employing the z-scan technique using a He-Ne laser operating in continuous wave mode at 633 nm. The copolymers exhibited a reverse saturable absorption process and self-defocusing properties under the experimental conditions. The estimated values of βeff, n2 and χ(3) were found to be of the order of 10-2 cm W-1, 10-5 esu and 10-7 esu respectively. Self-diffraction rings were observed due to refractive index change when exposed to the laser beam. The copolymers possess a lower limiting threshold and clamping level, which is essential to a great extent for power limiting devices. Therefore, copolymers of aniline emerge as a potential candidate for nonlinear optical device applications.

  13. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of open-shell supermolecular systems composed of acetylene linked phenalenyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masayoshi; Kishi, Ryohei; Yoneda, Kyohei; Inoue, Yudai; Inui, Tomoya; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Kubo, Takashi; Champagne, Benoît

    2011-08-11

    The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, at the molecular level, the static second hyperpolarizabilities, γ, of supermolecular systems composed of phenalenyl and pyrene rings linked by acetylene units are investigated by employing the long-range corrected spin-unrestricted density functional theory, LC-UBLYP, method. The phenalenyl based superethylene, superallyl, and superbutadiene in their lowest spin states have intermediate diradical characters and exhibit larger γ values than the closed-shell pyrene based superpolyene systems. The introduction of a positive charge into the phenalenyl based superallyl radical changes the sign of γ and enhances its amplitude by a factor of 35. Although such sign inversion is also observed in the allyl radical and cation systems in their ground state equilibrium geometries, the relative amplitude of γ is much different, that is, |γ(regular allyl cation)/γ(regular allyl radical)| = 0.61 versus |γ(phenalenyl based superallyl cation)/γ(phenalenyl based superallyl radical)| = 35. In contrast, the model ethylene, allyl radical/cation, and butadiene systems with stretched carbon-carbon bond lengths (2.0 Å), having intermediate diradical characters, exhibit similar γ features to those of the phenalenyl based superpolyene systems. This exemplifies that the size dependence of γ as well as its sign change by introducing a positive charge on the phenalenyl based superpolyene systems originate from their intermediate diradical characters. In addition, the change from the lowest to the highest π-electron spin states significantly reduces the γ amplitudes of the neutral phenalenyl based superpolyene systems. For phenalenyl based superallyl cation, the sign inversion of γ (from negative to positive) is observed upon switching between the singlet and triplet states, which is predicted to be associated with a modification of the balance between the positive and negative contributions to γ. The present study paves the way

  14. Solitonic dynamics and excitations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with third-order dispersion in non-Hermitian PT-symmetric potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yan, Zhenya

    2016-03-22

    Solitons are of the important significant in many fields of nonlinear science such as nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, plamas physics, biology, fluid mechanics, and etc. The stable solitons have been captured not only theoretically and experimentally in both linear and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations in the presence of non-Hermitian potentials since the concept of the parity-time -symmetry was introduced in 1998. In this paper, we present novel bright solitons of the NLS equation with third-order dispersion in some complex -symmetric potentials (e.g., physically relevant -symmetric Scarff-II-like and harmonic-Gaussian potentials). We find stable nonlinear modes even if the respective linear -symmetric phases are broken. Moreover, we also use the adiabatic changes of the control parameters to excite the initial modes related to exact solitons to reach stable nonlinear modes. The elastic interactions of two solitons are exhibited in the third-order NLS equation with -symmetric potentials. Our results predict the dynamical phenomena of soliton equations in the presence of third-order dispersion and -symmetric potentials arising in nonlinear fiber optics and other physically relevant fields.

  15. Diagnostic study of the roughness surface effect of zirconium on the third-order nonlinear-optical properties of thin films based on zinc oxide nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahedi, K.; Addou, M.; El Jouad, M.; Sofiani, Z.; Alaoui Lamrani, M.; El Habbani, T.; Fellahi, N.; Bayoud, S.; Dghoughi, L.; Sahraoui, B.; Essaidi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zirconium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 500 deg. C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. Effects of zirconium doping agent and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG) technique. The best value of nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3) was obtained from the doped films with less roughness. A strong third order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3) = 20.12 x 10 -12 (esu) of the studied films was found for the 3% doped sample.

  16. Studies on third-order optical nonlinearity and power limiting of conducting polymers using the z-scan technique for nonlinear optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramodini, S; Poornesh, P; Sudhakar, Y N; SelvaKumar, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of third-order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting of the conducting polymers poly (aniline-co-o-anisidine) and poly (aniline-co-pyrrole). Nonlinear optical studies were carried out by employing the z-scan technique using a He–Ne laser operating in continuous wave mode at 633 nm. The copolymers exhibited a reverse saturable absorption process and self-defocusing properties under the experimental conditions. The estimated values of β eff , n 2 and χ (3) were found to be of the order of 10 −2  cm W −1 , 10 -5  esu and 10 −7  esu respectively. Self-diffraction rings were observed due to refractive index change when exposed to the laser beam. The copolymers possess a lower limiting threshold and clamping level, which is essential to a great extent for power limiting devices. Therefore, copolymers of aniline emerge as a potential candidate for nonlinear optical device applications. (paper)

  17. Non-critically phase-matched second harmonic generation and third order nonlinearity in organic crystal glucuronic acid γ-lactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Katturi, Naga Krishnakanth; Soma, Venugopal Rao; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2017-12-01

    The linear, second order, and third order nonlinear optical properties of glucuronic acid γ-lactone single crystals were investigated. The optic axes and principal dielectric axes were identified through optical conoscopy and the principal refractive indices were obtained using the Brewster's angle method. Conic sections were observed which is perceived to be due to spontaneous non-collinear phase matching. The direction of collinear phase matching was determined and the deff evaluated in this direction was 0.71 pm/V. Open and closed aperture Z-scan measurements with femtosecond pulses revealed high third order nonlinearity in the form of self-defocusing, two-photon absorption, as well as saturable absorption.

  18. Twin Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear m-Point Boundary Value Problem for Third-Order p-Laplacian Dynamic Equations on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several existence theorems of twin positive solutions are established for a nonlinear m-point boundary value problem of third-order p-Laplacian dynamic equations on time scales by using a fixed point theorem. We present two theorems and four corollaries which generalize the results of related literature. As an application, an example to demonstrate our results is given. The obtained conditions are different from some known results.

  19. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of 1,3-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one under femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidur, Shivaraj R.; Patil, Parutagouda Shankaragouda; Rao, S. Venugopal

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) studies of 1,3-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (abbreviated as VDMC). The chalcone was synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation method. The third-order nonlinear optical properties were evaluated using standard, well-known Z-scan technique under femtosecond laser regime (150 fs, 900 nm) with two different laser repetition rates 500 Hz and 80 MHz. Open aperture studies showed that the molecule possess two photon absorption with the coefficients in the order 10-9 cmW-1. The closed aperture studies have resulted the negative nonlinear refraction with the coefficients in the order 10-14 cm2W-1. The two-photon absorption cross sections were estimated. Optical limiting properties have been studied and the limiting threshold values were found to be in the range 0.86-2.3 mJ/cm2, which suggests that VDMC has better applications in the field of nonlinear optics.

  20. Large third-order nonlinearity of nonpolar A-plane GaN film at 800 nm determined by Z-scan technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Han, Xiangyun

    2014-09-01

    We report an investigation on the optical third-order nonlinear property of the nonpolar A-plane GaN film. The film sample with a thickness of ~2 μm was grown on an r-plane sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system. By performing the Z-scan method combined with a mode-locked femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 50 fs), the optical nonlinearity of the nonpolar A-plane GaN film was measured with the electric vector E of the laser beam being polarized parallel (//) and perpendicular (⊥) to the c axis of the film. The results show that both the third-order nonlinear absorption coefficient β and the nonlinear refractive index n2 of the sample film possess negative and large values, i.e. β// = -135 ± 29 cm/GW, n2// = -(4.0 ± 0.3) × 10-3 cm2/GW and β⊥ = -234 ± 29 cm/GW, n2⊥ = -(4.9 ± 0.4) × 10-3 cm2/GW, which are much larger than those of conventional C-plane GaN film, GaN bulk, and even the other oxide semiconductors.

  1. Mechano-optic logic gate controlled by third-order nonlinear optical properties in a rotating ZnO:Au thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo-Delgado, C; Torres-Torres, C; García-Merino, J A; García-Gil, C I; Khomenko, A V; Trejo-Valdez, M; Martínez-Gutiérrez, H; Torres-Martínez, R

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by a ZnO thin solid film deposited on a SnO 2 substrate are presented. The samples were prepared by a spray pyrolysis processing route. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and UV–Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out. The picosecond response at 1064 nm was explored by the z-scan technique. A large optical Kerr effect with two-photon absorption was obtained. The inhibition of the nonlinear optical absorption together with a noticeable enhancement in the optical Kerr effect in the sample was achieved by the incorporation of Au nanoparticles into the ZnO film. Additionally, a two-wave mixing configuration at 532 nm was performed and an optical Kerr effect was identified as the main cause of the nanosecond third-order optical nonlinearity. The relaxation time of the photothermal response of the sample was estimated to be about 1 s when the sample was excited by nanosecond single-shots. The rotation of the sample during the nanosecond two-wave mixing experiments was analyzed. It was stated that a non-monotonic relation between rotating frequency and pulse repetition rate governs the thermal contribution to the nonlinear refractive index exhibited by a rotating film. Potential applications for switching photothermal interactions in rotating samples can be contemplated. A rotary logic system dependent on Kerr transmittance in a two-wave mixing experiment was proposed. (paper)

  2. Control of optical bistability and third-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triangular quantum dot molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Si-Cong; Tong, Cun-Zhu; Zhang, Jin-Long; Shan, Xiao-Nan; Fu, Xi-Hong; Zeng, Yu-Gang; Qin, Li; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Wan, Ren-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The optical bistability of a triangular quantum dot molecules embedded inside a unidirectional ring cavity is studied. The type, the threshold and the hysteresis loop of the optical bistability curves can be modified by the tunneling parameters, as well as the probe laser field. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the medium are also studied to interpret the corresponding results. The physical interpretation is that the tunneling can induce the quantum interference, which modifies the linear and the nonlinear response of the medium. As a consequence, the characteristics of the optical bistability are changed. The scheme proposed here can be utilized for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process

  3. Multifunctional Bi2ZnOB2O6 single crystals for second and third order nonlinear optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, K.; Kasprowicz, D.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.; Gindre, D.; Sahraoui, B.

    2013-01-01

    Bi 2 ZnOB 2 O 6 nonlinear optical single crystals were grown by means of the Kyropoulos method from stoichiometric melt. The second and third harmonic generation (SHG/THG) of Bi 2 ZnOB 2 O 6 crystals were investigated by the SHG/THG Maker fringes technique. Moreover, SHG microscopy studies were carried out providing two-dimensional SHG images as a function of the incident laser polarization. The high nonlinear optical efficiency combined with the possibility to grow high quality crystals make Bi 2 ZnOB 2 O 6 an excellent candidate for photonic applications

  4. Diagnostic study of the roughness surface effect of zirconium on the third-order nonlinear-optical properties of thin films based on zinc oxide nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahedi, K., E-mail: bahedikhadija@yahoo.com [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences BP 133 Kenitra 14000, Maroc (Morocco); Addou, M.; El Jouad, M.; Sofiani, Z.; Alaoui Lamrani, M.; El Habbani, T.; Fellahi, N.; Bayoud, S.; Dghoughi, L. [Laboratoire Optoelectronique et Physico-chimie des Materiaux Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences BP 133 Kenitra 14000, Maroc (Morocco); Sahraoui, B.; Essaidi, Z. [Laboratoire POMA, UMR CNRS 6136, Universite d' Angers 2, Bd Lavoisier, 49045 France (France)

    2009-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zirconium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 500 deg. C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. Effects of zirconium doping agent and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG) technique. The best value of nonlinear optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} was obtained from the doped films with less roughness. A strong third order nonlinear optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} = 20.12 x 10{sup -12} (esu) of the studied films was found for the 3% doped sample.

  5. Measurement of third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP using extended Z-scan technique with elliptical polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masaki; Shinozaki, Tomohisa; Hara, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Kazunuki; Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-01

    The elliptical polarization dependence of the two-photon absorption coefficient β in InP has been measured by the extended Z-scan technique for thick materials in the wavelength range from 1640 to 1800 nm. The analytical formula of the Z-scan technique has been extended with consideration of multiple reflections. The Z-scan results have been fitted very well by the formula and β has been evaluated accurately. The three independent elements of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP have also been determined accurately from the elliptical polarization dependence of β.

  6. Synthesis, spectral and third-order nonlinear optical properties of terpyridine Zn(II) complexes based on carbazole derivative with polyether group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ming; Liu, Yanqiu; Wang, Hui; Luo, Junshan; Li, Dandan; Zhang, Shengyi; Li, Shengli; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2015-01-01

    Four novel Zn(II) terpyridine complexes (ZnLCl2, ZnLBr2, ZnLI2, ZnL(SCN)2) based on carbazole derivative group were designed, synthesized and fully characterized. Their photophysical properties including absorption and one-photon excited fluorescence, two-photon absorption (TPA) and optical power limiting (OPL) were further investigated systematically and interpreted on the basis of theoretical calculations (TD-DFT). The influences of different solvents on the absorption and One-Photon Excited Fluorescence (OPEF) spectral behavior, quantum yields and the lifetime of the chromophores have been investigated in detail. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated by open/closed aperture Z-scan measurements using femtosecond pulse laser in the range from 680 to 1080 nm. These results revealed that ZnLCl2 and ZnLBr2 exhibited strong two-photon absorption and ZnLCl2 showed superior optical power limiting property.

  7. Studies on the growth aspects, structural, thermal, dielectric and third order nonlinear optical properties of solution grown 4-methylpyridinium p-nitrophenolate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S. Reena; Kalaiyarasi, S.; Zahid, I. MD.; Kumar, R. Mohan

    2016-11-01

    An ionic organic optical crystal of 4-methylpyridinium p-nitrophenolate was grown from methanol by slow evaporation method at ambient temperature. Powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed the crystal system and its crystalline perfection. The rocking curve recorded from HRXRD study confirmed the crystal quality. FTIR spectral analysis confirmed the functional groups present in the title compound. UV-visible spectral study revealed the optical window and band gap of grown crystal. The thermal, electrical and surface laser damage threshold properties of harvested crystal were examined by using TGA/DTA, LCR/Impedance Analyzer and Nd:YAG laser system respectively. The third order nonlinear optical property of grown crystal was elucidated by Z-scan technique.

  8. Synthesis, optical, experimental and theoretical investigation of third order nonlinear optical properties of 8-hydroxyquinolinium 2-carboxy-6-nitrophthalate monohydrate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, M. Divya; Bhuvaneswari, R.; Srividya, J.; Vinitha, G.; Prithiviraajan, R. N.; Anbalagan, G.

    2018-02-01

    Single crystals of 8-hydroxyquinolinium 2-carboxy-6-nitrophthalate monohydrate (8HQNP) were obtained from slow evaporation solution growth method using methanol-water (1:1) as a solvent. Powder X-ray diffraction was utilized to compute the unit cell parameters and dislocation density of 8HQNP crystal. The crystalline perfection of the as-grown crystal was investigated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The molecular structure was analyzed by identifying the functional groups from FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The cut-off wavelength and the corresponding optical band gap obtained from an optical spectrum were 376 nm and 3.29 eV respectively. The dispersion nature of refractive index was investigated by the single-oscillator Wemple and Di-Domenico model. Red emission was observed in the photoluminescence spectrum when excited with 376 nm. The low birefringence and high laser damage threshold (8.538 GW/cm2) values dictate the suitability of the crystal for optical devices. Z-scan studies revealed the third order nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and refractive index (n2) of the 8HQNP crystal. The theoretical value of third order nonlinear susceptibility obtained from density function theory is good accordance with the experimental value. The frontier molecular orbital energy gap decreases with increasing external electric field in different directions which attributed to the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability. The grown title crystal is thermally stable up to 102 °C which was identified using thermal analysis. Mechanical strength of 8HQNP was estimated by using Vicker's microhardness studies.

  9. Study of the electrical and nanosecond third order nonlinear optical properties of ZnO films doped with Au and Pt nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trejo-Valdez, Martin, E-mail: martin.trejo@laposte.net [ESIQIE, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, D.F. 07738, México (Mexico); Sobral, Hugo [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-186, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Martínez-Gutiérrez, Hugo [Centro de Nanociencias y Micro y Nanotecnologías del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, D.F. 07738, México (Mexico); Torres-Torres, Carlos [Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, ESIME ZAC, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, D.F. 07738, México (Mexico)

    2016-04-30

    Zinc oxide films doped with platinum and gold nanoparticles were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates. A titanium dioxide sol–gel solution containing gold and platinum aqueous ions was employed for synthesizing the nanoparticles by ultraviolet-light irradiation. The conductive properties of the samples were characterized by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. Our results showed that the impedance of zinc oxide films doped with metallic nanoparticles was, by far, lower than typical measurements in zinc oxide films. A strong enhancement in the nanosecond nonlinear optical response was also obtained in the studied metallic doped films. A vectorial two-mixing experiment performed at 532 nm and 4 ns allowed us to evaluate the sample with a third order optical nonlinearity described by approximately | χ{sub 1111}{sup (3)}| = 2.6 × 10{sup −8} esu. - Highlights: • ZnO films doped with Pt and Au nanoparticles were synthetized. • The inclusion of metallic nanoparticles in the film improves optical nonlinearities. • Conductivity of the films was enhanced by the contribution of the nanoparticles.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical investigations of the structure, electronic properties and third-order nonlinearity optics (NLO) of M(DPIP)₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Tang, Guodong; Kou, ShanShan; Culnane, Lance F; Zhang, Yu; Song, Yinglin; Li, Rongqing; Wei, Changmei

    2015-03-15

    Three complexes of M(DPIP)2 (M=Cu, Co, Zn as 1, 2, 3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, thermogravimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Their nonlinear optical properties were measured by the Z-scan technique and yielded a normalized transmittance of about 70% for complex 1 (45 μJ pulse), and 93% for complex 3 (68 μJ pulse at the focus point). The nonlinear absorption coefficient, β, is 1.4×10(-11) m/W for 1 and 5.6×10(-13) m/W for 3, and the third-order nonlinear refraction index, n2, is 1.0×10(-18) m(2)/W for 3. Complex 1 shows self-defocusing property, while complex 3 exhibits self-focusing property. The thermogravimetric results show that the frame structure of compounds 1-3 begin to collapse at 400, 250 and 280°C, respectively, which suggests that they elicit excellent thermal stability. This research aims to provide better understanding of these compounds, and offer preliminary explanations for the significant differences between compounds 1-3, in order to potentially help in the designing of future novel materials with NLO properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical investigations of the structure, electronic properties and third-order nonlinearity optics (NLO) of M(DPIP)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Tang, Guodong; Kou, ShanShan; Culnane, Lance F.; Zhang, Yu; Song, Yinglin; Li, Rongqing; Wei, Changmei

    2015-03-01

    Three complexes of M(DPIP)2 (M = Cu, Co, Zn as 1, 2, 3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, thermogravimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Their nonlinear optical properties were measured by the Z-scan technique and yielded a normalized transmittance of about 70% for complex 1 (45 μJ pulse), and 93% for complex 3 (68 μJ pulse at the focus point). The nonlinear absorption coefficient, β, is 1.4 × 10-11 m/W for 1 and 5.6 × 10-13 m/W for 3, and the third-order nonlinear refraction index, n2, is 1.0 × 10-18 m2/W for 3. Complex 1 shows self-defocusing property, while complex 3 exhibits self-focusing property. The thermogravimetric results show that the frame structure of compounds 1-3 begin to collapse at 400, 250 and 280 °C, respectively, which suggests that they elicit excellent thermal stability. This research aims to provide better understanding of these compounds, and offer preliminary explanations for the significant differences between compounds 1-3, in order to potentially help in the designing of future novel materials with NLO properties.

  12. Nonlinear Optical Properties of XPh4 (X = B-, C, N+, P+): A New Class of Molecules with a Negative Third-Order Polarizability

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2015-06-22

    Organic π-conjugated materials have been widely used for a variety of nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. Molecules with negative real components Re(γ) of the third-order polarizability, which leads to nonlinear refraction in macroscopic systems, have important benefits for several NLO applications. However, few organic systems studied to date have negative Re(γ) in the long wavelength limit, and all inorganic materials show positive nonlinear refraction in this limit. Here, we introduce a new class of molecules of the form X(C6H5)4, where X = B-, C, N+, and P+, that have negative Re(γ). The molecular mechanism for the NLO properties in these systems is very different from those in typical linear conjugated systems: these systems have a band of excited states involving single-electron excitations within the π-system, several of which have significant coupling to the ground state. Thus, Re(γ) cannot be understood in terms of a simplified essential-state model and must be analyzed in the context of the full sum-over-states expression. Although Re(γ) is significantly smaller than that of other commonly-studied NLO chromophores, the introduction of a new molecular architecture offering the potential for a negative Re(γ) introduces new avenues of molecular design for NLO applications.

  13. Nonlinear Optical Properties of XPh4 (X = B-, C, N+, P+): A New Class of Molecules with a Negative Third-Order Polarizability

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.; Ensley, Trenton R.; Hu, Honghua; Hagan, David J.; Risko, Chad; Van Stryland, Eric W.; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Organic π-conjugated materials have been widely used for a variety of nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. Molecules with negative real components Re(γ) of the third-order polarizability, which leads to nonlinear refraction in macroscopic systems, have important benefits for several NLO applications. However, few organic systems studied to date have negative Re(γ) in the long wavelength limit, and all inorganic materials show positive nonlinear refraction in this limit. Here, we introduce a new class of molecules of the form X(C6H5)4, where X = B-, C, N+, and P+, that have negative Re(γ). The molecular mechanism for the NLO properties in these systems is very different from those in typical linear conjugated systems: these systems have a band of excited states involving single-electron excitations within the π-system, several of which have significant coupling to the ground state. Thus, Re(γ) cannot be understood in terms of a simplified essential-state model and must be analyzed in the context of the full sum-over-states expression. Although Re(γ) is significantly smaller than that of other commonly-studied NLO chromophores, the introduction of a new molecular architecture offering the potential for a negative Re(γ) introduces new avenues of molecular design for NLO applications.

  14. Bulk monocrystal growth, optical, dielectric, third order nonlinear, thermal and mechanical studies on HCl added L-alanine: An organic NLO material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkir, Mohd, E-mail: shkirphysics@gmail.com [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S., E-mail: dr_isyahia@yahoo.com [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Al-Qahtani, A.M.A. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-12-01

    In the current work, good quality bulk size (∼32 mm × 23 mm × 10 mm) single crystals of HCl added L-alanine with well-defined morphology are successfully grown using slow evaporation technique. Crystal structure and other structural parameters were evaluated from X-ray diffraction data. Vibrational assessment of the grown crystal was done by FT-Raman analysis. The presence of chlorine and good quality of the grown crystal was confirmed by SEM/EDX analysis. Solid state UV–Vis–NIR diffused reflectance was measured and direct and indirect optical band gap was calculated using Kubelka-Munk relation and found to be 5.64 and 5 eV respectively. Dielectric measurement was carried out in high frequency range. Third order nonlinear optical susceptibility value was found to be enhanced from 1.91 × 10{sup −6} (pure) to 8.6 × 10{sup −6} esu (LAHCl). Good thermal stability of grown crystals was confirmed from DSC analysis. The enhancement in mechanical strength and crystalline perfection was also observed. - Highlights: • Bulk size (32 mm × 23 mm × 10 mm), good crystalline perfection HCl added L-alanine monocrystal is grown. • The shift in X-ray diffraction and vibrational peaks confirms the interaction of HCl. • The high optical transparency and band gap confirms its application in optoelectronic devices. • Third order NLO properties are found to be enhanced in HCl added L-alanine crystals. • The mechanical strength of the grown crystals is found to be enhanced due HCl addition.

  15. 4-N, N-bis(4-methoxylphenyl) aniline substituted anthraquinone: X-ray crystal structures, theoretical calculations and third-order nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhang, Dingfeng; Zhou, Yecheng; Zheng, Yusen; Cao, Liu; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Lu, Fushen

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, mono- and di-4-N,N-bis(4-methoxylphenyl)aniline-substituted anthraquinone have been designed and synthesized through Suzuki reaction. For mono-4-N,N-bis(4-methoxylphenyl)aniline-substituted anthraquinone, polymorphous crystal structures have been obtained in different crystallization conditions. Electrochemical characterization combined with theoretical calculation suggests that the addition of a second triphenylamine unit causes a larger band gap with higher lying LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) and HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital). The linear optical property shows that the introduction of a second triphenylamine unit bring about a significant hyperchromic effect with the extinction coefficients increasing from 11199 M-1 cm-1 to 22136 M-1 cm-1. The third-order nonlinear optical properties indicate that the introduction of a second triphenylamine unit lead to a much larger nonlinear absorption coefficient and two-photon absorption cross section, with the relevant value increasing from 2.04 × 10-12 cm W-1 to 3.91 × 10-12 cm W-1, and from 148 GM to 286 GM, respectively.

  16. Tunability of Open-Shell Character, Charge Asymmetry, and Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Covalently Linked (Hetero)Phenalenyl Dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamida, Yuka; Kishi, Ryohei; Fukuda, Kotaro; Matsui, Hiroshi; Takamuku, Shota; Yamane, Masaki; Tonami, Takayoshi; Nakano, Masayoshi

    2018-02-06

    Tunability of the open-shell character, charge asymmetry, and third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of covalently linked (hetero)phenalenyl dimers are investigated by using the density functional theory method. By changing the molecular species X and substitution position (i, j) for the linker part, a variety of intermonomer distances R and relative alignments between the phenalenyl dimers can be realized from the geometry optimizations, resulting in a wide-range tuning of diradical character y and charge asymmetry. It is found that the static second hyperpolarizabilities along the stacking direction, γ yyyy , are one-order enhanced for phenalenyl dimer systems exhibiting intermediate y, a feature that is in good agreement with the "y-γ correlation". By replacing the central carbon atoms of the phenalenyl rings with a boron or a nitrogen, we have also designed covalently linked heterophenalenyl dimers. The introduction of such a charge asymmetry to the open-shell systems, which leads to closed-shell ionic ground states, is found to further enhance the γ yyyy values of the systems having longer intermonomer distance R with intermediate ionic character, that is, charge asymmetry. The present results demonstrate a promising potential of covalently linked NLO dimers with intermediate open-shell/ionic characters as a new building block of highly efficient NLO systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Preparation and characterization of RF magnetron sputtered CuO/CaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films with enhanced third-order nonlinear optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Congfei; Liang, Xiaojuan, E-mail: lxj6126@126.com; Hu, Guangcai; Hu, Xie; Chen, Xipeng; Li, Pengzhi; Xiang, Weidong, E-mail: xiangweidong001@126.com

    2017-04-15

    The titanate, is a material of interest for various energy applications, including photovoltaics, catalysts, and high-rate energy storage devices. Herein, its related materials, CuO/CaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} [CCTO] thin films, were successfully fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering assisted with subsequent oxygen annealing. This obtained CCTO thin films were then systemically studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scan electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that CuO and CaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} (001) particles were closely accumulated together on the surface of the substrate in the annealing process after comparing with that of the as-prepared thin film, which was verified by SEM and AFM results. Furthermore, we investigated the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the as-prepared and annealed CCTO thin film by means of the Z-scan technique using 650 nm femtosecond laser pulse. Post-deposition oxygen annealing was found to modify the morphological characteristics of the films, resulting in enhancing their NLO properties. The observation of NLO performance of annealed CCTO thin film indicates that RF magnetron sputtering is a feasible method for the fabrication of optical thin films, which can be expanded to fabricate other NLO materials from the corresponding dispersions. Naturally, we concluded that the CCTO thin film occupy a better NLO property, and thus enlarge its application in nonlinear optics. - Highlights: • The CCTO thin film was prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering and oxygen annealing. • The film was prepared on the SrTiO{sub 3}(100) substrates with a Ca{sub 2}CuO{sub 3} target. • The oxygen annealing was found can effectively enhance the film quality and NLO property. • The film was characterized using XPS, SEM, AFM, TEM, XRD and Z-scan techniques.

  18. Third order differential equations with delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Liška

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the oscillation and asymptotic properties of solutions of certain nonlinear third order differential equations with delay. In particular, we extend results of I. Mojsej (Nonlinear Analysis 68, 2008 and we improve conditions on the property B of N. Parhi and S. Padhi (Indian J. Pure Appl. Math., 33, 2002.

  19. Nonlinear permittivity spectra of supercooled ionic liquids: Observation of a "hump" in the third-order permittivity spectra and comparison to double-well potential models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, L N; Burghaus, O; Roling, B

    2017-04-21

    We have measured the third-order permittivity spectra ε 3 3 of a monocationic and of a dicationic liquid close to the glass transition temperature by applying ac electric fields with large amplitudes up to 180 kV/cm. A peak ("hump") in the modulus of ε 3 3 is observed for a mono-cationic liquid after subtraction of the dc contribution from the imaginary part of ε 3 3 . We show that the origin of this experimental "hump" is a peak in the imaginary part of ε 3 3 , with the peak height strongly increasing with decreasing temperature. Overall, the spectral shape of the third-order permittivity of both ionic liquids is similar to the predictions of a symmetric double well potential model, although this model does not predict a "hump" in the modulus. In contrast, an asymmetric double well potential model predicts a "hump," but the spectral shape of both the real and imaginary part of ε 3 3 deviates significantly from the experimental spectra. These results show that not only the modulus of ε 3 3 but also its phase is an important quantity when comparing experimental results with theoretical predictions.

  20. Polythiophene derivative functionalized with disperse red 1 chromophore: Its third-order nonlinear optical properties through Z-scan technique under continuous and femtosecond irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza-Rubí, R. M. A.; Güizado-Rodríguez, M.; Mayorga-Cruz, D.; Basurto-Pensado, M. A.; Guerrero-Álvarez, J. A.; Ramos-Ortiz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Maldonado, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    A copolymer of 3-hexylthiophene and thiophene functionalized with disperse red 1, poly(3-HT-co-TDR1), was synthesized. Chemical structure, molecular weight distribution, optical and thermal properties of this copolymer were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, GPC and DSC-TGA. An optical nonlinear analysis by Z-scan method was also performed for both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed laser pumping. In the CW regime the nonlinearities were evaluated in solid films, and a negative nonlinear refractive index in the range 2.7-4.1 × 10-4 cm2/W was obtained. These values are notoriously high and allowed to observe self-defocusing effects at very low laser intensities: below 1 mW. Further, nonlinear self-phase modulation patterns, during laser irradiation, were also observed. In the pulsed excitation the nonlinear response was evaluated in solution resulting in large two-photon absorption cross section of 5725 GM for the whole copolymer chain and with a value of 232 GM per repeated monomeric unit.

  1. Investigation on the growth, spectral, lifetime, mechanical analysis and third-order nonlinear optical studies of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid single crystal: A promising material for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Sangeetha, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear optical bulk single crystal of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid (LMDMA) has been grown by slow solvent evaporation technique using water as solvent at ambient temperature. The crystallized LMDMA single crystal subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirmed monoclinic system with the acentric space group P21. The FTIR analysis gives information about the modes of vibration in the various functional groups present in LMDMA. The UV-visible spectral analysis assessed the optical quality and linear optical properties such as extinction coefficient, reflectance, refractive index and from which optical conductivity and electric susceptibility were also evaluated. The frequency doubling efficiency was observed using Kurtz Perry powder technique. A multiple shot laser was utilized to evaluate the laser damage threshold energy of the crystal. Discrete thermodynamic properties were carried out by TG-DTA studies. The hardness, Meyer's index, yield strength, elastic stiffness constant, Knoop hardness, fracture toughness and brittleness index were analyzed using Vickers microhardness tester. Layer growth pattern and the surface defect were examined by chemical etching studies using optical microscope. Fluorescence emission spectrum was recorded and lifetime was also studied. The electric field response of crystal was investigated from the dielectric studies at various temperatures at different frequencies. The third-order nonlinear optical response in LMDMA has been investigated using Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm and nonlinear parameters such as refractive index (n2), absorption coefficient (β) and susceptibility (χ3) investigated extensively for they are in optical phase conjucation, high-speed optical switches and optical dielectric devices.

  2. Intermediate Ce{sup 3+} defect level induced photoluminescence and third-order nonlinear optical effects in TiO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, S.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Mujeeb, A. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, International School of Photonics, Cochin, Kerala (India)

    2014-02-15

    We report on the linear and nonlinear optical studies of TiO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites. It was found that the band gap of the nanocomposite can be tuned by varying Ce/Ti content. Nonlinear absorption characteristics of these samples were studied by employing open aperture Z-scan technique using an Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns, 10 Hz). It has been observed that as the CeO{sub 2} amount increases, band gap of the nanocomposites decreases and the reason proposed for the change in band gap is the smudging of localised states of Ce{sup 3+} into the forbidden energy gap, thus acting as the intermediate state. Fluorescence studies confirmed the above argument. Nonlinear investigation revealed that with increase in the CeO{sub 2} amount, the two-photon absorption coefficient increased due to the modification of TiO{sub 2} dipole symmetry. Suitable candidature of the nanocomposites for the fabrication of nonlinear optical devices was proved by determining the optical limiting threshold. (orig.)

  3. Effect of nano particle sizes on the third-order optical non-linearities and nanostructure of copolymer P3HT:PCBM thin film for organic photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, Hussain Ali; Ajeel, Khalid I.; Lazim, Haidar Gazy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Active layer (P3HT:PCBM) has been deposited on substrate type by spin coating at 1000 rpm. • The device was completed by evaporating a 60 nm thick, circular gold electrodes onto the P3HT:PCBM. • Nonlinear refractive indices of the three particle sizes are found to be of the order of 10"−"7 cm"2/W - Abstract: Organic solar cells are based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid with methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction. An inverted structure has been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide, as the electron transport layer, which was prepared on either the Indium Tin Oxide coated glass (ITO—glass), or Silicon wafer, as well as on glass substrates by the sol–gel method, at different spin speed, using the spin-coating system. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and on the optical properties of TiO_2 layer, was investigated using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible spectrophotometer. The samples were examined to feature currents and voltages, in the darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell. The highest open-circuit voltage, V_o_c, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39%, fabricated with 90 nm, respectively. The non-linear optical properties of nano-anatase TiO_2 sol–gel, were investigated at different particle sizes, using the z-scan technique.

  4. Synthesis, growth, structure and characterization of 1-Ethyl-2-(2-p-tolyl-vinyl)-pyridinium iodide (TASI) – An efficient material for third-order nonlinear optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivetha, K. [Centre for Crystal Growth, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Kalainathan, S., E-mail: kalainathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Yamada, M. [Research Center for Engineering Science, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Akita University, 1-1 Tegatagakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Kondo, Y. [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Akita University, 1-1 Tegatagakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Hamada, F. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Akita University, 1-1 Tegatagakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    A new organic stilbazolium derivative, 1-Ethyl-2-(2-p-tolyl-vinyl)-pyridinium iodide (TASI), was grown from methanol:acetonitrile (1:3) mixed solvent by slow evaporation technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that TASI crystallizes in triclinic system with a centrosymmetric space group P-1. The molecular structure and the presence of expected functional groups of TASI were confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic studies. The HOMO and LUMO energies influence the charge transfer takes place within the molecule. The grown crystal was thermally stable up to 210 °C as determined by TG/DTA analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study showed that the grown crystal was transparent in the wavelength range of 438–1100 nm. Mechanical behaviour and surface laser damage threshold were studied to find the suitability of the grown crystal for device fabrication. Studies of its third-order nonlinear optical properties using a Z-scan technique demonstrates that TASI crystal is capable of exhibiting reverse saturable absorption and self-focusing performance with the second-order molecular hyperpolarizability (γ) 4.983 × 10{sup −34} esu. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility of TASI was found to be 8.931 × 10{sup −6} esu, which is higher than a few other stilbazolium derivative crystals. - Highlights: • TASI is a new organic stilbazolium derivative and was grown by slow evaporation technique. • HOMO-LUMO analysis helps to explain charge transfer interaction within the molecule. • The grown crystal has 80% transmittance in the visible and near-IR spectral range. • Thermally, electrically and mechanically efficient for NLO applications. • Z-scan measurements reveal the aptness of the grown crystal for third order NLO applications.

  5. Effect of nano particle sizes on the third-order optical non-linearities and nanostructure of copolymer P3HT:PCBM thin film for organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badran, Hussain Ali, E-mail: badran_hussein@yahoo.com [Basrah University, Education College for Pure Sciences, Physics Department, Basrah (Iraq); Ajeel, Khalid I. [Basrah University, Education College for Pure Sciences, Physics Department, Basrah (Iraq); Lazim, Haidar Gazy [Misan University, Basic Education College, Science Department, Misan (Iraq)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Active layer (P3HT:PCBM) has been deposited on substrate type by spin coating at 1000 rpm. • The device was completed by evaporating a 60 nm thick, circular gold electrodes onto the P3HT:PCBM. • Nonlinear refractive indices of the three particle sizes are found to be of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/W - Abstract: Organic solar cells are based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid with methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction. An inverted structure has been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide, as the electron transport layer, which was prepared on either the Indium Tin Oxide coated glass (ITO—glass), or Silicon wafer, as well as on glass substrates by the sol–gel method, at different spin speed, using the spin-coating system. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and on the optical properties of TiO{sub 2} layer, was investigated using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible spectrophotometer. The samples were examined to feature currents and voltages, in the darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell. The highest open-circuit voltage, V{sub oc}, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39%, fabricated with 90 nm, respectively. The non-linear optical properties of nano-anatase TiO{sub 2} sol–gel, were investigated at different particle sizes, using the z-scan technique.

  6. Effect of TiO2 on thermal, structural and third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ca-La-B-O glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Sontakke, Atul D.; Annapurna, K.

    2010-01-01

    A series of calcium lanthanum metaborate glasses in the composition (wt%) of 23.88CaO-28.33La 2 O 3 -47.79B 2 O 3 modified with TiO 2 up to 20 wt% are prepared by a melt quenching technique to study the influence of TiO 2 on their thermal, structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies have demonstrated significant effects due to the presence of TiO 2 on the glass forming ability and crystallization situations. The glass with 15 wt% TiO 2 has achieved a eutectic composition and also exhibited a better glass forming ability among the glasses studied. The FT-IR spectra of these glasses show mainly vibration modes corresponding to stretching of BO 3 trigonal, BO 4 tetrahedral units and of B-O-B bending bonds. At higher concentrations of TiO 2 , development of vibration band around 400 cm -1 has indicated the formation of TiO 6 structural units in the glass network. The red shift of optical absorption edge (UV cutoff) shows a monotonous decrease in direct and indirect optical band gap energies (E opt ) with an increase of TiO 2 content in the glasses based on their absorption spectra. The optical transparency of these glasses is found to be varied from 64 to 87% within the wavelength range 450-1100 nm depending on the TiO 2 content. Besides these studies, linear refractive indices, the nonlinear optical properties of these glasses have also been evaluated.

  7. Molecular structure of hybrid imino-chalcone in the solid state: X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy study and third-order nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, J. M. F.; Santos, F. G.; Vaz, W. F.; Cunha, C. E. P.; Silveira, R. G.; Anjos, M. M.; Campos, C. E. M.; Oliveira, G. R.; Martins, F. T.; da Silva, C. C.; Valverde, C.; Baseia, B.; Napolitano, H. B.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive structural study of the compound (2E)-1-((E)-4-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino)phenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one was carried out in this work. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), NMR, Raman and Infrared spectroscopies, and DFT calculations were performed for characterization of this iminochalcone hybrid. Intermolecular interactions were described by Hirshfeld surface analysis derived from crystal structure. Reactivity and intramolecular charge transfer were investigated using the frontier molecular orbitals and molecular electrostatic potential. In addition, we have calculated the Nonlinear Optical Properties at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311+g(d) level of theory in the presence of different solvents (gas-phase, acetone, chloroform, dichloromethane, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanol, methanol, and water), being found meaningful NLO parameters for our compound. At last, there is a good agreement between calculated and experimental IR spectrum, allowing the assignment of some of normal vibrational modes of the iminochalcone hybrid.

  8. Investigation on the behavioral difference in third order nonlinearity and optical limiting of Mn0.55Cu0.45Fe2O4 nanoparticles annealed at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, S.; Manikandan, N.; Vinitha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Mn0.55Cu0.45Fe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation method. The obtained samples were annealed at different temperatures (500 °C to 1250 °C). All annealed samples were characterized for their structural, magnetic, linear and non-linear optical properties. XRD results confirm single phase cubic spinel structure only for samples annealed at 800 °C and 1250 °C. The average crystallite sizes of the samples are in the range of 11-37 nm. HR-SEM image of the sample annealed at 800 °C exposed spherical morphology. The quantitative analysis of EDX results is close to the expected values. Bandgaps were evaluated from UV-DRS. The FTIR spectrum showing the essential peaks around 452.1 and 567.2 cm-1 prove the formation of spinel nanoparticles. In PL spectrum, a broad emission peak is attained in visible region at 485 nm. The saturation magnetization (M s), coercivity (H c) and remanence magnetization (M r) are obtained from the hysteresis curve. Nonlinear absorption coefficients (10-4 cm W-1), nonlinear indices of refraction (10-8 cm2 W-1) and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities (10-6 esu) are determined using Z-scan experiment. CW laser beam is utilized to study the optical limiting characteristics and the results prove these materials to be a potential candidate for device applications like optical switches and power limiters.

  9. Langmuir wave dispersion relation in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouazene, M.; Annou, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Langmuir wave dispersion relation is derived in partially ionized plasmas, where free electrons are confined to move in a nearest neighbor ions' potential well. The equilibrium velocity distribution function experiences then, a departure from Maxwell distribution function. The effect of the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function on the Langmuir phase and group velocities as well as the phase matching conditions and the nonlinear growth rate of decay instability is investigated. The proposed Langmuir wave dispersion relation is relevant to dense and cryogenic plasmas.

  10. Third-order susceptibility of gold for ultrathin layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This Letter presents an experimental study of nonlinear plasmonic effects in gold-stripe waveguides. The optical characterization is performed by a picosecond laser and reveals two nonlinear effects related to propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons: nonlinear power transmission...... of plasmonic modes and spectral broadening of plasmonic modes. The experimental values of the third-order susceptibility of the gold layers are extracted. They exhibit a clear dependence on layer thickness. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  11. Growth, spectral, optical, laser damage threshold and DFT investigations on 2-amino 4-methyl pyridinium 4-methoxy benzoate (2A4MP4MB): A potential organic third order nonlinear optical material for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, M.; Karthick, S.; Thirupugalmani, K.; Babu, B.; Vinitha, G.

    2018-05-01

    In present investigation, single crystals of organic charge transfer complex, 2-amino-4-methyl pyridinium-4-methoxy benzoate (2A4MP4MB) was grown by controlled slow evaporation solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent at room temperature. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed the crystal system and lattice parameters of 2A4MP4MB. The crystalline nature, presence of various vibrational modes and other chemical bonds in the compound have been recognized and confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques respectively. The presence of various proton and carbon positions in title compound was confirmed using 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. The wide optical operating window and cut-off wavelength were identified and band gap value of the title compound was calculated using UV-vis-NIR study. The specific heat capacity (cp) values of the title compound, 1.712 J g-1·K-1 at 300 K and 13.6 J g-1 K-1 at 433 K (melting point) were measured using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies (MDSC). From Z-scan study, nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) values were determined. The self-defocusing effect and saturable absorption behavior of the material were utilized to exhibit the optical limiting action at λ = 532 nm by employing the same continuous wave (cw) Nd: YAG laser source. The laser damage threshold (LDT) study of title compound was carried out using Nd: YAG laser of 532 nm wavelength. The Vickers' micro hardness test was carried out at room temperature and obtained results were investigated using classical Meyer's law. In addition, DFT calculations were carried out for the first time for this compound. These characterization studies performed on the title compound planned to probe the valuable and safe region of optical, thermal and mechanical properties to improve efficacy of 2A4MP4MB single crystals in optoelectronic device

  12. Databases of surface wave dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Boschi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations of seismic surface waves provide the most important constraint on the elastic properties of the Earth’s lithosphere and upper mantle. Two databases of fundamental mode surface wave dispersion were recently compiled and published by groups at Harvard (Ekström et al., 1997 and Utrecht/Oxford (Trampert and Woodhouse, 1995, 2001, and later employed in 3-d global tomographic studies. Although based on similar sets of seismic records, the two databases show some significant discrepancies. We derive phase velocity maps from both, and compare them to quantify the discrepancies and assess the relative quality of the data; in this endeavour, we take careful account of the effects of regularization and parametrization. At short periods, where Love waves are mostly sensitive to crustal structure and thickness, we refer our comparison to a map of the Earth’s crust derived from independent data. On the assumption that second-order effects like seismic anisotropy and scattering can be neglected, we find the measurements of Ekström et al. (1997 of better quality; those of Trampert and Woodhouse (2001 result in phase velocity maps of much higher spatial frequency and, accordingly, more difficult to explain and justify geophysically. The discrepancy is partly explained by the more conservative a priori selection of data implemented by Ekström et al. (1997. Nevertheless, it becomes more significant with decreasing period, which indicates that it could also be traced to the different measurement techniques employed by the authors.

  13. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-10-06

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  14. Experimental determination of third-order elastic constants of diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J M; Gupta, Y M

    2011-03-25

    To determine the nonlinear elastic response of diamond, single crystals were shock compressed along the [100], [110], and [111] orientations to 120 GPa peak elastic stresses. Particle velocity histories and elastic wave velocities were measured by using laser interferometry. The measured elastic wave profiles were used, in combination with published acoustic measurements, to determine the complete set of third-order elastic constants. These constants represent the first experimental determination, and several differ significantly from those calculated by using theoretical models.

  15. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  16. Optofluidic third order distributed feedback dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    which has a refractive index lower than that of the polymer. In combination with a third order DFB grating, formed by the array of nanofluidic channels, this yields a low threshold for lasing. The laser is straightforward to integrate on lab-on-a-chip microsystems where coherent, tunable light......This letter describes the design and operation of a polymer-based third order distributed feedback (DFB) microfluidic dye laser. The device relies on light confinement in a nanostructured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels is filled by capillary action with a liquid dye solution...

  17. Decay ratio for third order Brownian oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, H.; Kanemoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained the analytical expressions of the decay ratios for two types of third order Brownian oscillators which are generalizations of the second order Brownian oscillator driven by the Gaussian-white noise. The resulting expressions will provide us useful baseline information for more complicated practical problems and their applications

  18. Novel third-order Lovelock wormhole solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we consider wormhole geometries in third-order Lovelock gravity and investigate the possibility that these solutions satisfy the energy conditions. In this framework, by applying a specific equation of state, we obtain exact wormhole solutions, and by imposing suitable values for the parameters of the theory, we find that these geometries satisfy the weak energy condition in the vicinity of the throat, due to the presence of higher-order curvature terms. Finally, we trace out a numerical analysis, by assuming a specific redshift function, and find asymptotically flat solutions that satisfy the weak energy condition throughout the spacetime.

  19. Transposes, L-Eigenvalues and Invariants of Third Order Tensors

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Liqun

    2017-01-01

    Third order tensors have wide applications in mechanics, physics and engineering. The most famous and useful third order tensor is the piezoelectric tensor, which plays a key role in the piezoelectric effect, first discovered by Curie brothers. On the other hand, the Levi-Civita tensor is famous in tensor calculus. In this paper, we study third order tensors and (third order) hypermatrices systematically, by regarding a third order tensor as a linear operator which transforms a second order t...

  20. Blind third-order dispersion estimation based on fractional Fourier transformation for coherent optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Guo, Peng; Yang, Aiying; Qiao, Yaojun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a blind third-order dispersion estimation method based on fractional Fourier transformation (FrFT) in optical fiber communication system. By measuring the chromatic dispersion (CD) at different wavelengths, this method can estimation dispersion slope and further calculate the third-order dispersion. The simulation results demonstrate that the estimation error is less than 2 % in 28GBaud dual polarization quadrature phase-shift keying (DP-QPSK) and 28GBaud dual polarization 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM) system. Through simulations, the proposed third-order dispersion estimation method is shown to be robust against nonlinear and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. In addition, to reduce the computational complexity, searching step with coarse and fine granularity is chosen to search optimal order of FrFT. The third-order dispersion estimation method based on FrFT can be used to monitor the third-order dispersion in optical fiber system.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and third-order nonlinear optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the other hand, our investigation reveals that the spectral dispersion characteristic of γ for silver nanoparticles-coated PDA nanovesicles is qualitatively similar to that observed for the uncoated PDA nanovesicles but bears no resemblance to that observed in silver nanoparticles. The presence of silver nanoparticles ...

  2. Expanded porphyrins as third order non-linear optical materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    function correlations ... An understanding of the structure–function corre- lations of these expanded porphyrins is an important first step for ... where χ (2) and χ (3) are the quadratic χ (2) (first- order) and χ (3) cubic (second-order) susceptibilities.

  3. Some third order rotatable designs in five dimensions | Mutiso | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... performed according to our dimensional designs need not be discarded. These deisgns require a smaller number of points than most of the available five dimensional third order rotatable designs. Keywords: third order; rotatable designs; four dimensions; five dimensions; sequential > East African Journal of Statistics Vol.

  4. Application of third order stochastic dominance algorithm in investments ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the use of third order stochastic dominance in ranking Investment alternatives, using TSD algorithms (Levy, 2006for testing third order stochastic dominance. The main goal of using TSD rule is minimization of efficient investment set for investor with risk aversion, who prefers more money and likes positive skew ness.

  5. Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, L-H; Kuang, L-M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a ghost imaging scheme with third-order correlated thermal light. We show that it is possible to produce the spatial information of an object at two different places in a nonlocal fashion by means of a third-order correlated imaging process with a third-order correlated thermal source and third-order correlation measurement. Concretely, we propose a protocol to create two ghost images at two different places from one object. This protocol involves two optical configurations. We derive the Gaussian thin lens equations and plot the geometrical optics of the ghost imaging processes for the two configurations. It is indicated that third-order correlated ghost imaging with thermal light exhibits richer correlated imaging effects than second-order correlated ghost imaging with thermal light

  6. Third order TRANSPORT with MAD [Methodical Accelerator Design] input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes computer-aided design codes for particle accelerators. Among the topics discussed are: input beam description; parameters and algebraic expressions; the physical elements; beam lines; operations; and third-order transfer matrix

  7. Anisotropic Third-Order Regularization for Sparse Digital Elevation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan; Morel, Jean-Michel; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2013-01-01

    features of the contours while ensuring smoothness across level lines. We propose an anisotropic third-order model and an efficient method to adaptively estimate both the surface and the anisotropy. Our experiments show that the approach outperforms AMLE

  8. Hojman's theorem of the third-order ordinary differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Sheng, Lü; Hong-Bin, Zhang; Shu-Long, Gu

    2009-01-01

    This paper extends Hojman's conservation law to the third-order differential equation. A new conserved quantity is constructed based on the Lie group of transformation generators of the equations of motion. The generators contain variations of the time and generalized coordinates. Two independent non-trivial conserved quantities of the third-order ordinary differential equation are obtained. A simple example is presented to illustrate the applications of the results. (general)

  9. Dynamics of platicons due to third-order dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Valery E.; Cherenkov, Artem V.; Shitikov, Artem E.; Bilenko, Igor A.; Gorodetsky, Michael L.

    2017-07-01

    Dynamics of platicons caused by the third-order dispersion is studied. It is shown that under the influence of the third-order dispersion platicons obtain angular velocity depending both on dispersion and on detuning value. A method of tuning of platicon associated optical frequency comb repetition rate is proposed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  10. Extension of relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics to third order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El, Andrej; Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Following the procedure introduced by Israel and Stewart, we expand the entropy current up to the third order in the shear stress tensor π αβ and derive a novel third-order evolution equation for π αβ . This equation is solved for the one-dimensional Bjorken boost-invariant expansion. The scaling solutions for various values of the shear viscosity to the entropy density ratio η/s are shown to be in very good agreement with those obtained from kinetic transport calculations. For the pressure isotropy starting with 1 at τ 0 =0.4 fm/c, the third-order corrections to Israel-Stewart theory are approximately 10% for η/s=0.2 and more than a factor of 2 for η/s=3. We also estimate all higher-order corrections to Israel-Stewart theory and demonstrate their importance in describing highly viscous matters.

  11. Third order mode laser diode: design of a twin photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducci, S.; Berger, V.; Rossi, A. de; Ortiz, V.; Calligaro, M.; Vinter, B.; Nagle, J.; Berger, V.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the lasing action on a third order waveguide mode in a laser diode. The AlGaAs heterostructure has been designed to achieve a parametric emission of photons pairs through modal phase matching. This device is very compact and does not generate coupling loss between the laser source and the non-linear waveguide. It is the first step on the way to design a twin photon micro-source. (A.C.)

  12. Convergence of third order correlation energy in atoms and molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kalju; Granovsky, Alex A; Noga, Jozef

    2007-01-30

    We have investigated the convergence of third order correlation energy within the hierarchies of correlation consistent basis sets for helium, neon, and water, and for three stationary points of hydrogen peroxide. This analysis confirms that singlet pair energies converge much slower than triplet pair energies. In addition, singlet pair energies with (aug)-cc-pVDZ and (aug)-cc-pVTZ basis sets do not follow a converging trend and energies with three basis sets larger than aug-cc-pVTZ are generally required for reliable extrapolations of third order correlation energies, making so the explicitly correlated R12 calculations preferable.

  13. Taub-NUT black holes in third order Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Dehghani, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the existence of Taub-NUT solutions in third order Lovelock gravity with cosmological constant, and obtain the general form of these solutions in eight dimensions. We find that, as in the case of Gauss-Bonnet gravity and in contrast with the Taub-NUT solutions of Einstein gravity, the metric function depends on the specific form of the base factors on which one constructs the circle fibration. Thus, one may say that the independence of the NUT solutions on the geometry of the base space is not a robust feature of all generally covariant theories of gravity and is peculiar to Einstein gravity. We find that when Einstein gravity admits non-extremal NUT solutions with no curvature singularity at r=N, then there exists a non-extremal NUT solution in third order Lovelock gravity. In 8-dimensional spacetime, this happens when the metric of the base space is chosen to be CP 3 . Indeed, third order Lovelock gravity does not admit non-extreme NUT solutions with any other base space. This is another property which is peculiar to Einstein gravity. We also find that the third order Lovelock gravity admits extremal NUT solution when the base space is T 2 xT 2 xT 2 or S 2 xT 2 xT 2 . We have extended these observations to two conjectures about the existence of NUT solutions in Lovelock gravity in any even-dimensional spacetime

  14. Third-Order Matching in the Polymorphic Lambda Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springintveld, J.

    We show that it is decidable whether a third-order matching problem in the polymorphic lambda calculus has a solution. The proof is constructive in the sense that an algorithm can be extracted from it that, given such a problem, returns a substitution if it has a solution and fail otherwise.

  15. A new third order rotatable design in five dimensions through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments of this kind could be widely applicable in human medicine, veterinary medicine, agriculture and in general, product research-innovation development for optimum resource utilisation based industrialisation process in line with the Kenya Vision 2030. In this paper, a third order rotatable design in five dimensions ...

  16. An accurate scheme by block method for third order ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems of ordinary differential equations is presented in this paper. The approach of collocation approximation is adopted in the derivation of the scheme and then the scheme is applied as simultaneous integrator to special third order initial value problem of ordinary differential equations. This implementation strategy is ...

  17. MPDATA: Third-order accuracy for variable flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waruszewski, Maciej; Kühnlein, Christian; Pawlowska, Hanna; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2018-04-01

    This paper extends the multidimensional positive definite advection transport algorithm (MPDATA) to third-order accuracy for temporally and spatially varying flows. This is accomplished by identifying the leading truncation error of the standard second-order MPDATA, performing the Cauchy-Kowalevski procedure to express it in a spatial form and compensating its discrete representation-much in the same way as the standard MPDATA corrects the first-order accurate upwind scheme. The procedure of deriving the spatial form of the truncation error was automated using a computer algebra system. This enables various options in MPDATA to be included straightforwardly in the third-order scheme, thereby minimising the implementation effort in existing code bases. Following the spirit of MPDATA, the error is compensated using the upwind scheme resulting in a sign-preserving algorithm, and the entire scheme can be formulated using only two upwind passes. Established MPDATA enhancements, such as formulation in generalised curvilinear coordinates, the nonoscillatory option or the infinite-gauge variant, carry over to the fully third-order accurate scheme. A manufactured 3D analytic solution is used to verify the theoretical development and its numerical implementation, whereas global tracer-transport benchmarks demonstrate benefits for chemistry-transport models fundamental to air quality monitoring, forecasting and control. A series of explicitly-inviscid implicit large-eddy simulations of a convective boundary layer and explicitly-viscid simulations of a double shear layer illustrate advantages of the fully third-order-accurate MPDATA for fluid dynamics applications.

  18. Third-order theory for multi-directional irregular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A new third-order solution for multi-directional irregular water waves in finite water depth is presented. The solution includes explicit expressions for the surface elevation, the amplitude dispersion and the vertical variation of the velocity potential. Expressions for the velocity potential at...

  19. Third-order monochromatic aberrations via Fermat's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasco, A.; Romano, A.

    2006-01-01

    By Fermat's principle and particular optical paths, which are not rays, a new aberration function is introduced. This function allows to derive, without resorting to the whole Hamiltonian formalism, the third-order geometrical aberrations of an optical system with a symmetry of revolution

  20. Magnetic field induced third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation in a ZnMgSe strained quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J. Abraham Hudson, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com; Peter, A. John, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, SSM Institute of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-624002 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}Se/Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.

  1. Dynamical Tangles in Third-Order Oscillator with Single Jump Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Petržela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution brings a deep and detailed study of the dynamical behavior associated with nonlinear oscillator described by a single third-order differential equation with scalar jump nonlinearity. The relative primitive geometry of the vector field allows making an exhaustive numerical analysis of its possible solutions, visualizations of the invariant manifolds, and basins of attraction as well as proving the existence of chaotic motion by using the concept of both Shilnikov theorems. The aim of this paper is also to complete, carry out and link the previous works on simple Newtonian dynamics, and answer the question how individual types of the phenomenon evolve with time via understandable notes.

  2. Third-order gap plasmon based metasurfaces for visible light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshpande, Rucha Anil; Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    with different dimensions, to operate as a polarization beam splitter for linearly polarized light. The fabricated polarization beam splitter is characterized using a super-continuum light source at normal light incidence and found to exhibit a polarization contrast ratio of up to 40 dB near the design...... of the performance of polarization beam splitters based on third-order GSP resonance as well as other potential applications of the suggested approach....... by an optically thick gold film are calculated for the operation wavelength of 633 nm. Exploiting the occurrence of the third-order GSP resonance for nanobricks having their lengths close to 300 nm, we design the phase-gradient metasurface, representing an array of (450 x 2250 nm2) supercells made of 5 nanobricks...

  3. Brown's TRANSPORT up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jiawen; Xie Xi; Qiao Qingwen

    1991-01-01

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, etc., including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effects by artificial intelligence, outputing automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  4. Brown's transport up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jiawen; Xie Xi; Qiao Qingwen

    1992-01-01

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effect by artificial intelligence, outputting automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  5. Computer program 'TRIO' for third order calculation of ion trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takekiyo; Matsuda, Hisashi; Fujita, Yoshitaka; Wollnik, H.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program for the calculation of ion trajectory is described. This program ''TRIO'' (Third Order Ion Optics) is applicable to any ion optical system consisting of drift spaces, cylindrical or toroidal electric sector fields, homogeneous or inhomogeneous magnetic sector fields, magnetic and electrostatic Q-lenses. The influence of the fringing field is taken into consideration. A special device is introduced to the method of matrix multiplication to shorten the calculation time and the required time proves to be about 40 times shorter than the ordinary method as a result. The trajectory calculation is possible to execute with accuracy up to third order. Any one of three dispersion bases, momentum, energy, mass and energy, is possible to be selected. Full LIST of the computer program and an example are given. (auth.)

  6. Study on evaluation methods for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Tao, X.; Kayen, R.; Shi, H.; Yan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic is the key step for detecting S-wave velocity structure. By comparing the dispersion curves directly with the spectra analysis of surface waves (SASW) method, rather than comparing the S-wave velocity structure, the validity and precision of microtremor-array method (MAM) can be evaluated more objectively. The results from the China - US joint surface wave investigation in 26 sites in Tangshan, China, show that the MAM has the same precision with SASW method in 83% of the 26 sites. The MAM is valid for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic testing and has great application potentiality for site S-wave velocity structure detection.

  7. Autonomous third-order duffing-holmes type chaotic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Tamaseviciute, E; Mykolaitis, G

    2009-01-01

    feedback loop. In contrast to many other autonomous chaotic oscillators, including linear unstable resonators and nonlinear damping loops, the novel circuit is based on nonlinear resonator and linear damping loop in the negative feedback. SPICE simulation and hardware experimental investigations...

  8. Third-order differential ladder operators and supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, J; Negro, J

    2008-01-01

    Hierarchies of one-dimensional Hamiltonians in quantum mechanics admitting third-order differential ladder operators are studied. Each Hamiltonian has associated three-step Darboux (pseudo)-cycles and Painleve IV equations as a closure condition. The whole hierarchy is generated applying some operations on the cycles. These operations are investigated in the frame of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and mainly involve algebraic manipulations. A consistent geometric representation for the hierarchy and cycles is built that also helps in understanding the operations. Three kinds of hierarchies are distinguished and a realization based on the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian is supplied, giving an interpretation for the spectral properties of the Hamiltonians of each hierarchy

  9. Anisotropic Third-Order Regularization for Sparse Digital Elevation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of interpolating a surface based on sparse data such as individual points or level lines. We derive interpolators satisfying a list of desirable properties with an emphasis on preserving the geometry and characteristic features of the contours while ensuring smoothness across level lines. We propose an anisotropic third-order model and an efficient method to adaptively estimate both the surface and the anisotropy. Our experiments show that the approach outperforms AMLE and higher-order total variation methods qualitatively and quantitatively on real-world digital elevation data. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Systems of conservation laws with third-order Hamiltonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferapontov, Evgeny V.; Pavlov, Maxim V.; Vitolo, Raffaele F.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate n-component systems of conservation laws that possess third-order Hamiltonian structures of differential-geometric type. The classification of such systems is reduced to the projective classification of linear congruences of lines in P^{n+2} satisfying additional geometric constraints. Algebraically, the problem can be reformulated as follows: for a vector space W of dimension n+2 , classify n-tuples of skew-symmetric 2-forms A^{α } \\in Λ ^2(W) such that φ _{β γ }A^{β }\\wedge A^{γ }=0, for some non-degenerate symmetric φ.

  11. Driven similarity renormalization group: Third-order multireference perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2017-03-28

    A third-order multireference perturbation theory based on the driven similarity renormalization group (DSRG-MRPT3) approach is presented. The DSRG-MRPT3 method has several appealing features: (a) it is intruder free, (b) it is size consistent, (c) it leads to a non-iterative algorithm with O(N 6 ) scaling, and (d) it includes reference relaxation effects. The DSRG-MRPT3 scheme is benchmarked on the potential energy curves of F 2 , H 2 O 2 , C 2 H 6 , and N 2 along the F-F, O-O, C-C, and N-N bond dissociation coordinates, respectively. The nonparallelism errors of DSRG-MRPT3 are consistent with those of complete active space third-order perturbation theory and multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles and show significant improvements over those obtained from DSRG second-order multireference perturbation theory. Our efficient implementation of the DSRG-MRPT3 based on factorized electron repulsion integrals enables studies of medium-sized open-shell organic compounds. This point is demonstrated with computations of the singlet-triplet splitting (Δ ST =E T -E S ) of 9,10-anthracyne. At the DSRG-MRPT3 level of theory, our best estimate of the adiabatic Δ ST is 3.9 kcal mol -1 , a value that is within 0.1 kcal mol -1 from multireference coupled cluster results.

  12. Criticality in third order lovelock gravity and butterfly effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2018-01-01

    We study third order Lovelock Gravity in D = 7 at the critical point which three (A)dS vacua degenerate into one. We see there is not propagating graviton at the critical point. And also we compute the butterfly velocity for this theory at the critical point by considering the shock wave solutions near horizon, this is important to note that although there is no propagating graviton at the critical point, due to boundary gravitons the butterfly velocity is non-zero. Finally we observe that the butterfly velocity for third order Lovelock Gravity at the critical point in D = 7 is less than the butterfly velocity for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity at the critical point in D = 7 which is less than the butterfly velocity in D = 7 for Einstein Gravity, v B E.H > v B E.G.B > v B 3rdLovelock . Maybe we can conclude that by adding higher order curvature corrections to Einstein Gravity the butterfly velocity decreases. (orig.)

  13. Effect of third-order aberrations on dynamic accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Norberto; Rucker, Frances J; Stark, Lawrence R; Badar, Mustanser; Borgovan, Theodore; Burke, Sean; Kruger, Philip B

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the potential for the third-order aberrations coma and trefoil to provide a signed cue to accommodation. It is first demonstrated theoretically (with some assumptions) that the point spread function is insensitive to the sign of spherical defocus in the presence of odd-order aberrations. In an experimental investigation, the accommodation response to a sinusoidal change in vergence (1-3D, 0.2Hz) of a monochromatic stimulus was obtained with a dynamic infrared optometer. Measurements were obtained in 10 young visually normal individuals with and without custom contact lenses that induced low and high values of r.m.s. trefoil (0.25, 1.03 microm) and coma (0.34, 0.94 microm). Despite variation between subjects, we did not find any statistically significant increase or decrease in the accommodative gain for low levels of trefoil and coma, although effects approached or reached significance for the high levels of trefoil and coma. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that the presence of Zernike third-order aberrations on the eye does not seem to play a crucial role in the dynamics of the accommodation response.

  14. Criticality in third order lovelock gravity and butterfly effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M. [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2018-01-15

    We study third order Lovelock Gravity in D = 7 at the critical point which three (A)dS vacua degenerate into one. We see there is not propagating graviton at the critical point. And also we compute the butterfly velocity for this theory at the critical point by considering the shock wave solutions near horizon, this is important to note that although there is no propagating graviton at the critical point, due to boundary gravitons the butterfly velocity is non-zero. Finally we observe that the butterfly velocity for third order Lovelock Gravity at the critical point in D = 7 is less than the butterfly velocity for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity at the critical point in D = 7 which is less than the butterfly velocity in D = 7 for Einstein Gravity, v{sub B}{sup E.H} > v{sub B}{sup E.G.B} > v{sub B}{sup 3rdLovelock}. Maybe we can conclude that by adding higher order curvature corrections to Einstein Gravity the butterfly velocity decreases. (orig.)

  15. Criticality in third order lovelock gravity and butterfly effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2018-01-01

    We study third order Lovelock Gravity in D=7 at the critical point which three (A)dS vacua degenerate into one. We see there is not propagating graviton at the critical point. And also we compute the butterfly velocity for this theory at the critical point by considering the shock wave solutions near horizon, this is important to note that although there is no propagating graviton at the critical point, due to boundary gravitons the butterfly velocity is non-zero. Finally we observe that the butterfly velocity for third order Lovelock Gravity at the critical point in D=7 is less than the butterfly velocity for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity at the critical point in D=7 which is less than the butterfly velocity in D = 7 for Einstein Gravity, vB^{E.H}>vB^{E.G.B}>vB^{3rd Lovelock} . Maybe we can conclude that by adding higher order curvature corrections to Einstein Gravity the butterfly velocity decreases.

  16. Einstein-Weyl spaces and third-order differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, K. P.

    2000-08-01

    The three-dimensional null-surface formalism of Tanimoto [M. Tanimoto, "On the null surface formalism," Report No. gr-qc/9703003 (1997)] and Forni et al. [Forni et al., "Null surfaces formation in 3D," J. Math Phys. (submitted)] are extended to describe Einstein-Weyl spaces, following Cartan [E. Cartan, "Les espaces généralisées et l'integration de certaines classes d'equations différentielles," C. R. Acad. Sci. 206, 1425-1429 (1938); "La geometria de las ecuaciones diferenciales de tercer order," Rev. Mat. Hispano-Am. 4, 1-31 (1941)]. In the resulting formalism, Einstein-Weyl spaces are obtained from a particular class of third-order differential equations. Some examples of the construction which include some new Einstein-Weyl spaces are given.

  17. Quadratic third-order tensor optimization problem with quadratic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Quadratically constrained quadratic programs (QQPs problems play an important modeling role for many diverse problems. These problems are in general NP hard and numerically intractable. Semidenite programming (SDP relaxations often provide good approximate solutions to these hard problems. For several special cases of QQP, e.g., convex programs and trust region subproblems, SDP relaxation provides the exact optimal value, i.e., there is a zero duality gap. However, this is not true for the general QQP, or even the QQP with two convex constraints, but a nonconvex objective.In this paper, we consider a certain QQP where the variable is neither vector nor matrix but a third-order tensor. This problem can be viewed as a generalization of the ordinary QQP with vector or matrix as it's variant. Under some mild conditions, we rst show that SDP relaxation provides exact optimal solutions for the original problem. Then we focus on two classes of homogeneous quadratic tensor programming problems which have no requirements on the constraints number. For one, we provide an easily implemental polynomial time algorithm to approximately solve the problem and discuss the approximation ratio. For the other, we show there is no gap between the SDP relaxation and itself.

  18. Testing quantum mechanics using third-order correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsler, P.

    1996-01-01

    Semiclassical theories similar to stochastic electrodynamics are widely used in optics. The distinguishing feature of such theories is that the quantum uncertainty is represented by random statistical fluctuations. They can successfully predict some quantum-mechanical phenomena; for example, the squeezing of the quantum uncertainty in the parametric oscillator. However, since such theories are not equivalent to quantum mechanics, they will not always be useful. Complex number representations can be used to exactly model the quantum uncertainty, but care has to be taken that approximations do not reduce the description to a hidden variable one. This paper helps show the limitations of open-quote open-quote semiclassical theories,close-quote close-quote and helps show where a true quantum-mechanical treatment needs to be used. Third-order correlations are a test that provides a clear distinction between quantum and hidden variable theories in a way analogous to that provided by the open-quote open-quote all or nothing close-quote close-quote Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger test of local hidden variable theories. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Optical nonclassicality test based on third-order intensity correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Di Franco, C.; Kim, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    We develop a nonclassicality criterion for the interference of three delayed, but otherwise identical, light fields in a three-mode Bell interferometer. We do so by comparing the prediction of quantum mechanics with those of a classical framework in which independent sources emit electric fields with random phases. In particular, we evaluate third-order correlations among output intensities as a function of the delays, and show how the presence of a correlation revival for small delays cannot be explained by the classical model of light. The observation of a revival is thus a nonclassicality signature, which can be achieved only by sources with a photon-number statistics that is highly sub-Poissonian. Our analysis provides strong evidence for the nonclassicality of the experiment discussed by Menssen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 153603 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.153603], and shows how a collective "triad" phase affects the interference of any three or more light fields, irrespective of their quantum or classical character.

  20. Stabilization of third-order bilinear systems using constant controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Golubev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the zero equilibrium stabilization for dynamical systems that have control input singularities. A dynamical system with scalar control input is called nonregular if the coefficient of input becomes null on a subset of the phase space that contains the origin. One of the classes of nonregular dynamical systems is represented by bilinear systems. In case of second-order bilinear systems the necessary and sufficient conditions for the zero equilibrium stabilizability are known in the literature. However, in general case the stabilization problem in the presence of control input singularities has not been solved yet.In this note we solve the problem of the zero equilibrium stabilization for the third-order bilinear dynamical systems given in a canonical form. The solution is found in the class of constant controls. The necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the zero equilibrium stabilizability of the bilinear systems in question.The dependence of the zero equilibrium stabilizability on system parameter values is analyzed. The general criteria of stabilizability by means of constant controls are given for the bilinear systems in question. In case when all the system parameters have nonzero values the necessary and sufficient stabilizability conditions are proved. The case when some of the parameters are equal to zero is also considered.Further research can be focused on extending the obtained results to a higher-order case of bilinear and affine dynamical systems. The solution of the considered stabilization problem should also be found not only within constant controls but also in a class of state feedbacks, particularly, in the case when stabilizing constant control does not exist.One of the potential application areas for the obtained theoretical results is automatic control of technical plants like unmanned aerial vehicles and mobile robots.

  1. A third-order class-D amplifier with and without ripple compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen M.; du Toit Mouton, H.

    2018-06-01

    We analyse the nonlinear behaviour of a third-order class-D amplifier, and demonstrate the remarkable effectiveness of the recently introduced ripple compensation (RC) technique in reducing the audio distortion of the device. The amplifier converts an input audio signal to a high-frequency train of rectangular pulses, whose widths are modulated according to the input signal (pulse-width modulation) and employs negative feedback. After determining the steady-state operating point for constant input and calculating its stability, we derive a small-signal model (SSM), which yields in closed form the transfer function relating (infinitesimal) input and output disturbances. This SSM shows how the RC technique is able to linearise the small-signal response of the device. We extend this SSM through a fully nonlinear perturbation calculation of the dynamics of the amplifier, based on the disparity in time scales between the pulse train and the audio signal. We obtain the nonlinear response of the amplifier to a general audio signal, avoiding the linearisation inherent in the SSM; we thereby more precisely quantify the reduction in distortion achieved through RC. Finally, simulations corroborate our theoretical predictions and illustrate the dramatic deterioration in performance that occurs when the amplifier is operated in an unstable regime. The perturbation calculation is rather general, and may be adapted to quantify the way in which other nonlinear negative-feedback pulse-modulated devices track a time-varying input signal that slowly modulates the system parameters.

  2. Diophantine non-integrability of a third-order recurrence with the Laurent property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A N W

    2006-01-01

    We consider a one-parameter family of third-order nonlinear recurrence relations. Each member of this family satisfies the singularity confinement test, has a conserved quantity, and moreover has the Laurent property: all of the iterates are Laurent polynomials in the initial data. However, we show that these recurrences are not Diophantine integrable according to the definition proposed by Halburd (2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 L1). Explicit bounds on the asymptotic growth of the heights of iterates are obtained for a special choice of initial data. As a by-product of our analysis, infinitely many solutions are found for a certain family of Diophantine equations, studied by Mordell, that includes Markoff's equation. (letter to the editor)

  3. A circuit-level analysis of third order intermodulation mechanisms in CMOS mixers using time-invariant power and Volterra series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakian, P.; Mahmoudi, R.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    An in-depth analysis is performed on the third-order intermodulation distortions (IMD3) in the switching pair of active CMOS mixers. The nonlinear time-varying switching pair is described by a hypothetical circuit composed of a nonlinear time-invariant circuit cascaded with a linear time-varying

  4. Third order dielectric susceptibility in a model quantum paraelectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martonak, R.; Tosatti, E.

    1996-02-01

    In the context of perovskite quantum paraelectrics, we study the effects of a quadrupolar interaction J q , in addition to the standard dipolar one J d . We concentrate here on the nonlinear dielectric response χ (3) P , as the main response function sensitive to quadrupolar (in our case antiquadrupolar) interactions. We employ a 3D quantum four-state lattice model and mean-field theory. The results show that inclusion of quadrupolar coupling of moderate strength (J q ∼ 1/4J d ) is clearly accompanied by a double change of sign of χ (3) P from negative to positive, near the quantum temperature T Q where the quantum paraelectric behaviour sets in. We fit our χ (3) to recent experimental data for SrTiO 3 , where the sign change is identified close to T Q ∼ 37 K. (author). 40 refs, 2 figs

  5. Positive solutions of boundary value problem for singular positone and semi-positone third-order difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai Gongqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article studies the boundary value problems for the third-order nonlinear singular difference equations Δ 3 u ( i - 2 + λ a ( i f ( i , u ( i = 0 , i ∈ [ 2 , T + 2 ] , satisfying five kinds of different boundary value conditions. This article shows the existence of positive solutions for positone and semi-positone type. The nonlinear term may be singular. Two examples are also given to illustrate the main results. The arguments are based upon fixed point theorems in a cone. MSC [2008]: 34B15; 39A10.

  6. Increased P-wave dispersion a risk for atrial fibrillation in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğrul, İlker; Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Karagöz, Tevfik; Kanbur, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that a prolonged P-wave dispersion is a risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate P-wave dispersion in adolescents with anorexia nervosa at diagnosis. We evaluated electrocardiographic findings, particularly the P-wave dispersion, at initial assessment in 47 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Comparison of P-wave dispersion between adolescents with anorexia nervosa and controls showed a statistically significant higher P-wave dispersion in patients with anorexia nervosa (72 ± 16.3 msec) when compared to the control group (43.8 ± 9.5 msec). Percent of body weight lost, lower body mass index, and higher weight loss rate in the patients with anorexia nervosa had no effect on P-wave dispersion. Due to the fact that anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rate we believe that cardiac pathologies such as atrial fibrillation must also be considered in the medical evaluation.

  7. P Wave Dispersion is Increased in Pulmonary Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Ozmen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The right atrium pressure load is increased in pulmonary stenosis (PS that is a congenital anomaly and this changes the electrophysiological characteristics of the atria. However, there is not enough data on the issue of P wave dispersion (PWD in PS. Methods: Forty- two patients diagnosed as having valvular PS with echocardiography and 33 completely healthy individuals as the control group were included in the study. P wave duration, p wave maximum (p max and p minimum (p min were calculated from resting electrocariography (ECG obtained at the rate of 50 mm/sec. P wave dispersion was derived by subtracting p min from p max. The mean pressure gradient (MPG at the pulmonary valve, structure of the valve and diameters of the right and left atria were measured with echocardiography. The data from two groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test and correlation analysis was performed with the Pearson correlation technique. Results: There wasn’t any statistically significance in the comparison of age, left atrial diameter and p min between two groups. While the MPG at the pulmonary valve was 43.11 ± 18.8 mmHg in PS patients, it was 8.4 ± 4.5 mmHg in the control group. While p max was 107.1 ± 11.5 in PS group, it was 98.2 ± 5.1 in control group (p=0.01, PWD was 40.4 ± 1.2 in PS group, and 27.2 ± 9.3 in the control group (p=0.01Moreover, while the diameter of the right atrium in PS group was greater than that of the control group, (38.7 ± 3.9 vs 30.2 ± 2.5, p=0.02. We detected a correlation between PWD and pressure gradient in regression analysis. Conclusion: P wave dispersion and p max are increased in PS. While PWD was correlated with the pressure gradient that is the degree of narrowing, it was not correlated with the diameters of the right and left atria.

  8. Application of matriciant method for calculation of the third order aberration coefficients for magnetic field with regard to boundary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordik, S.N.; Ponomarev, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    To study nonlinear dynamics of charged particles in magnetic sector analyzers one applied the matriciant method. When calculating matriciants (transfer matrices) one took account of the boundary-value effects associated with the effect of scattering field, as well as, the higher harmonics of the sector magnetic field up to the third order inclusive. In case of the rectangular distribution of field components along the optical axis one obtained analytical expressions for all aberration coefficients up to the third order exclusive. To simulate the real field with the width of scattering field not equal to zero one applied smooth distribution of components for which calculation of similar aberration coefficients was conducted using the conservative numerical method [ru

  9. Comparison of third-order plasma wave echoes with ballistic second-order plasma wave echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppert, H.D.; Schuelter, H.; Wiesemann, K.

    1982-01-01

    The apparent dispersion of third-order plasma wave echoes observed in a high frequency plasma is compared with that of simultaneously observed ballistic second-order echoes. Amplitude and wavelength of third-order echoes are found to be always smaller than those of second-order echoes, however, the dispersion curves of both types of echoes are very similar. These observations are in qualitative agreement with calculations of special ballistic third-order echoes. The ballistic nature of the observed third-order echoes may, therefore, be concluded from these measurements. (author)

  10. A third-order KdV solution for internal solitary waves and its application in the numerical wave tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicheng Meng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A third-order KdV solution to the internal solitary wave is derived by a new method based on the weakly nonlinear assumptions in a rigid-lid two-layer system. The solution corrects an error by Mirie and Su (1984. A two-dimensional numerical wave tank has been established with the help of the open source CFD library OpenFOAM and the third-party software waves2Foam. Various analytical solutions, including the first-order to third-order KdV solutions, the eKdV solution and the MCC solution, have been used to initialise the flow fields in the CFD simulations of internal solitary waves. Two groups including 11 numerical cases have been carried out. In the same group, the initial wave amplitudes are the same but the implemented analytical solutions are different. The simulated wave profiles at different moments have been presented. The relative errors in terms of the wave amplitude between the last time step and the initial input have been analysed quantitatively. It is found that the third-order KdV solution results in the most stable internal solitary wave in the numerical wave tank for both small-amplitude and finite-amplitude cases. The finding is significant for the further simulations involving internal solitary waves.

  11. P-wave dispersion in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, R; Akbay, E; Camsari, A; Ozcan, T

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure maximum P wave duration (Pmax) and P wave dispersion (PWD), which can be indicators for the risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation when increased, and to reveal their relationship with thyroid hormone levels in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Seventy-one patients with sublinical thyrotoxicosis (34 endogenous, 37 exogenous) and 69 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin) on electrocardiogram recordings were measured and PWD was calculated as Pmax-Pmin. Pmax (pendogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with the control group. Pmax (pexogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis compared with the control group. Pmax (p=0.710) and PWD (p=0.127) were not significantly different in patients with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients. Pmax and PWD negatively associated with TSH in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. In the present study, we observed that Pmax and PWD were longer in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Lack of a difference in Pmax and PWD between patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism seems to support the idea that hormone levels rather than the etiology of thyrotoxicosis affect the heart.

  12. Role of third-order dispersion in chirped Airy pulse propagation in single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wangyang; Wang, Lei; Wen, Shuangchun

    2018-04-01

    The dynamic propagation of the initial chirped Airy pulse in single-mode fibers is studied numerically, special attention being paid to the role of the third-order dispersion (TOD). It is shown that for the positive TOD, the Airy pulse experiences inversion irrespective of the sign of initial chirp. The role of TOD in the dynamic propagation of the initial chirped Airy pulse depends on the combined sign of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) and the initial chirp. If the GVD and chirp have the opposite signs, the chirped Airy pulse compresses first and passes through a breakdown area, then reconstructs a new Airy pattern with opposite acceleration, with the breakdown area becoming small and the main peak of the new Airy pattern becoming asymmetric with an oscillatory structure due to the positive TOD. If the GVD and chirp have the same signs, the finite-energy Airy pulse compresses to a focal point and then inverses its acceleration, in the case of positive TOD, the distance to the focal point becoming smaller. At zero-dispersion point, the finite-energy Airy pulse inverses to the opposite acceleration at a focal point, with the tight-focusing effect being reduced by initial chirp. Under the effect of negative TOD, the initial chirped Airy pulse disperses and the lobes split. In addition, in the anomalous dispersion region, for strong nonlinearity, the initial chirped Airy pulse splits and enters a soliton shedding regime.

  13. Third-Order Density Perturbation and One-Loop Power Spectrum in Dark-Energy-Dominated Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the third-order density perturbation and the one-loop correction to the linear power spectrum in the dark-energy cosmological model. Our main interest is to understand the dark-energy effect on baryon acoustic oscillations in a quasi-nonlinear regime ($k \\approx 0.1h$/Mpc). Analytical solutions and simple fitting formulae are presented for the dark-energy model with the general time-varying equation of state $w(a)$. It turns out that the power spectrum coincides with the approx...

  14. Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of thin film containing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, PR China; Changzhou Expansion New Stuff Technology Limited Company, Changzhou 213122, PR China; Department of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022, PR China; Department of ...

  15. Waves, conservation laws and symmetries of a third-order nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    order is under consideration. Important properties concerning advanced character such like conservation laws and the equation of continuity are given. Characteristic wave properties such like dispersion relations and both the group and phase ...

  16. Waves, conservation laws and symmetries of a third-order nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    We observe that a linear part of the wave vector is overlaid. .... Eq.(1) admits the three-dimensional Lie algebra L of its classical ...... He did his diploma thesis titled 'Systematic in the physics of elementary particles focusing the quarkonium ...

  17. Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of thin film containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-11-08

    Nov 8, 2011 ... resonant conditions. The temporal profile of DFWM signal was obtained with a time resolution of 0·3 ps (FWHM), ... in the probability of absorption and emission of light. In the ... The wavelength of the laser was adjusted to 760 nm. .... distribution of different arrangements) of the dye molecules on the glass ...

  18. The Relationship Between Aging and P Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Barutçu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF, commonly observed in advanced ages, displays striking age dependent increase and increased P wave dispersion (PWD has been shown to be a predictor of AF. In this studywe sought to determine whether P wave duration and PWD increase with aging. Method and Results: Eighty-three elderly subjects (group-I mean age 75±8 years and 40 healthy young subjects (group-II, mean age 37±6 years participated in this study. 12-lead ECG recorded at a paper speed of 50mm/s was obtained from each participant. Maximum (Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin was measured manually with a caliper and the difference between two values was defined asPWD. Pmax and PWD were significantly higher in group-I compared to group-II. (98±8 vs. 93±8 p=0.01, 41±12 vs. 34±13 p=0.002, respectively. Among the elderly population when those with cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, coronary artery disease and heart failure were excluded, Pmax and PWD were still significantly higher than the young population. (Pmax: 98±7 vs. 93±7, p=0.02 and PWD: 42±11 vs. 34±13, p=0.002. Moreover, on correlation analysis a positive correlation was detected between Pmaxand PWD and aging. (r=0.29, p=0.004; r=0.30, p=0.003 respectively.Conclusion: PWD shows age dependent increase and may be a useful marker for estimation the risk of developing AF seen in advanced ages.

  19. Third-order optical susceptibility in polythiophene thin films prepared by spin-coating from high-boiling-point solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Shinke, Wataru; Nagase, Takashi; Murakami, Shuichi; Naito, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the enhancements in the third-order optical susceptibility (χ (3) ) of spin-coated thin films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) using an anhydrous solvent with a high boiling point. The χ (3) value was found to be enhanced as the boiling point of the solvent increased. In this study, the largest value of χ (3) was obtained for thin films that were spin-coated in an inert atmosphere using anhydrous dichlorobenzene and then was subsequently exposed to its vapor for 1 h. The maximum value of the imaginary part of χ (3) was determined to be 1.8 × 10 -9 esu, which is more than three times greater than that of thin films spin-coated in an ambient atmosphere using a solvent with a low boiling point, such as chloroform. - Highlights: • Enhancements in nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer were examined. • Thin films were fabricated by spin-coating using a solvent with a high boiling point. • The third-order optical susceptibility increased with increasing boiling point. • An additional enhancement was obtained by the vapor-treatment technique. • These thin films were sufficiently homogeneous for use in nonlinear optical devices

  20. Correlation effects of third-order perturbation in the extended Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, G.Z.; Nie, H.Q.; Li, L.; Zhang, K.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Using the local approach, a third-order perturbation calculation has been performed to investigate the effects of intra-atomic electron correlation and electron and spin correlation between nearest neighbour sites in the extended Hubbard model. It was found that significant correction of the third order over the second order results and, in comparison with the results of the third-order perturbation where only the intra-atomic electron correlation is included, the influence of the electron and spin correlation between nearest neighbour sites on the correlation energy is non-negligible. 17 refs., 3 figs

  1. Free vibration analysis of beams by using a third-order shear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Free vibrations of beams; the third-order shear deformation theory; ... Thus, a shear correction factor is required to compensate for the error because of ...... Wang C M, Kitipornchai S 2003 Vibration of Timoshenko beams with internal hinge.

  2. Two new solutions to the third-order symplectic integration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsu, Reima

    2009-01-01

    Two new solutions are obtained for the symplecticity conditions of explicit third-order partitioned Runge-Kutta time integration method. One of them has larger stability limit and better dispersion property than the Ruth's method.

  3. Third-order ordinary differential equations Y”' = f(x, y, y'', y′”) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dimensional symmetry algebra. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 34A05, 34A25, 53A55, 76M60. Key words: Linearization, third order ODEs, point transformation, contact transformation, Lie symmetries, relative differential invariants.

  4. A time correlation function theory describing static field enhanced third order optical effects at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neipert, Christine; Space, Brian

    2006-12-14

    Sum vibrational frequency spectroscopy, a second order optical process, is interface specific in the dipole approximation. At charged interfaces, there exists a static field, and as a direct consequence, the experimentally detected signal is a combination of enhanced second and static field induced third order contributions. There is significant evidence in the literature of the importance/relative magnitude of this third order contribution, but no previous molecularly detailed approach existed to separately calculate the second and third order contributions. Thus, for the first time, a molecularly detailed time correlation function theory is derived here that allows for the second and third order contributions to sum frequency vibrational spectra to be individually determined. Further, a practical, molecular dynamics based, implementation procedure for the derived correlation functions that describe the third order phenomenon is also presented. This approach includes a novel generalization of point atomic polarizability models to calculate the hyperpolarizability of a molecular system. The full system hyperpolarizability appears in the time correlation functions responsible for third order contributions in the presence of a static field.

  5. Third-order elastic moduli for alkali-halide crystals possessing the sodium chloride structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, U.

    2010-01-01

    The values of third-order elastic moduli for alkali halides, having NaCl-type crystal structure are calculated according to the Born-Mayer potential model, considering the repulsive interactions up to the second nearest neighbours and calculating the values of the potential parameters for each crystal, independently, from the compressibility data. This work presents the first published account of the calculation of the third-order elastic moduli taking the actual value of the potential parameter unlike the earlier works. Third-order elastic constants have been computed for alkali halides at 0 and 300 K. The results of the third-order elastic constants are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. Very good agreement between experimental and theoretical third-order elastic constant data (except C 123 ) is found. We have also computed the values of the pressure derivatives of second-order elastic constants and Anderson-Grueneisen parameter for alkali halides, which agree reasonably well with the experimental values, indicating the satisfactory nature of our computed data for third-order elastic constants.

  6. P-wave dispersion: relationship to left ventricular function in sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguanobi, N I; Onwubere, B J; Ike, S O; Anisiuba, B C; Ejim, E C; Ibegbulam, O G

    2011-01-01

    The prognostic implications of P-wave dispersion in patients with a variety of cardiac disease conditions are increasingly being recognised. The relationship between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular function in sickle cell anaemia is unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular function in adult Nigerian sickle cell anaemia patients. Between February and August 2007, a total of 62 sickle cell anaemia patients (aged 18-44 years; mean 28.27 ± 5.58) enrolled in the study. These were drawn from patients attending the adult sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. An equal number of age- and gender-matched normal subjects served as controls. All the participants were evaluated with electrocardiography and echocardiography. P-wave dispersion was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum P-wave duration measured in a 12-lead electrocardiogram. P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Significant correlation was demonstrated between P-wave dispersion and age in the patients (r = 0.387; p = 0.031). A comparison of subsets of sickle cell anaemia patients and controls with comparable haematocrit values (30-35%) showed significantly higher P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion in the patients than in the controls. The P-wave duration in patients and controls, respectively, was 111.10 ± 14.53 ms and 89.14 ± 16.45 ms (t = 3.141; p = 0.006). P-wave dispersion was 64.44 ± 15.86 ms in the patients and 36.43 ± 10.35 ms in the controls (t = 2.752; p = 0.013). Significant negative correlation was found between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular transmitral E/A ratio (r = -0.289; p = 0.023). These findings suggest that P-wave dispersion could be useful in the evaluation of sickle cell patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Further prospective studies are recommended to evaluate

  7. Algebraic Properties of First Integrals for Scalar Linear Third-Order ODEs of Maximal Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Mahomed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By use of the Lie symmetry group methods we analyze the relationship between the first integrals of the simplest linear third-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs and their point symmetries. It is well known that there are three classes of linear third-order ODEs for maximal cases of point symmetries which are 4, 5, and 7. The simplest scalar linear third-order equation has seven-point symmetries. We obtain the classifying relation between the symmetry and the first integral for the simplest equation. It is shown that the maximal Lie algebra of a first integral for the simplest equation y′′′=0 is unique and four-dimensional. Moreover, we show that the Lie algebra of the simplest linear third-order equation is generated by the symmetries of the two basic integrals. We also obtain counting theorems of the symmetry properties of the first integrals for such linear third-order ODEs. Furthermore, we provide insights into the manner in which one can generate the full Lie algebra of higher-order ODEs of maximal symmetry from two of their basic integrals.

  8. Characterization of Symmetry Properties of First Integrals for Submaximal Linearizable Third-Order ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Mahomed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between first integrals of submaximal linearizable third-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs and their symmetries is investigated. We obtain the classifying relations between the symmetries and the first integral for submaximal cases of linear third-order ODEs. It is known that the maximum Lie algebra of the first integral is achieved for the simplest equation and is four-dimensional. We show that for the other two classes they are not unique. We also obtain counting theorems of the symmetry properties of the first integrals for these classes of linear third-order ODEs. For the 5 symmetry class of linear third-order ODEs, the first integrals can have 0, 1, 2, and 3 symmetries, and for the 4 symmetry class of linear third-order ODEs, they are 0, 1, and 2 symmetries, respectively. In the case of submaximal linear higher-order ODEs, we show that their full Lie algebras can be generated by the subalgebras of certain basic integrals.

  9. Lagrangian analysis of invariant third-order equations of motion in relativistic classical particle mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsyuk, R.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    The problem on the existence of the invariant third-order Euler-Poisson equations in the pseudo-Euclidean space is investigated. The locally variational problem is determined by the Lagrangian density over the space of the second-order jets. The one - parameter family of the invariant third-order Euler-Poisson equations is groved to be the only one in the three-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. No invariant third-order Euler-Poisson equations exist in the four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. It is shown that the Mathisson equation and the equation of geodesic circles in particular cases may be considered in the context of the Ostrogradiskij mechanics and the Kavaguchi geometry

  10. Third-order aberration-free ion-optical system for an electromagnetic isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavet, I.

    1982-12-01

    The essential qualities required of a production isotope separator are high output and high enrichment factor. For this purpose, the imaging system should have as little geometric aberration as possible. In the proposed system, consisting of a homogeneous sector-type analyzing magnet, the beam is crossed in the axial direction at the entrance boundary of the magnetic field and the incidence to this boundary is normal. It is shown that for this case all radial aberrations to the ''practical'' third order can be eliminated provided four optical conditions are satisfied: two related to heterogeneous aberration terms in addition to the two conditions related to the second and third order homogeneous aperture aberration terms. The resulting equations take into account the magnetic fringe-field effects to the third order. (author)

  11. Instability of black strings in the third-order Lovelock theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Alex; Henríquez-Báez, Carla; Lagos, Marcela; Oliva, Julio; Vera, Aldo

    2016-05-01

    We show that homogeneous black strings of third-order Lovelock theory are unstable under s-wave perturbations. This analysis is done in dimension D =9 , which is the lowest dimension that allows the existence of homogeneous black strings in a theory that contains only the third-order Lovelock term in the Lagrangian. As is the case in general relativity, the instability is produced by long wavelength perturbations and it stands for the perturbative counterpart of a thermal instability. We also provide a comparative analysis of the instabilities of black strings at a fixed radius in general relativity, Gauss-Bonnet, and third-order Lovelock theories. We show that the minimum critical wavelength that triggers the instability grows with the power of the curvature defined in the Lagrangian. The maximum exponential growth during the time of the perturbation is the largest in general relativity and it decreases with the number of curvatures involved in the Lagrangian.

  12. Third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion in thin optical fibers as a photon-triplet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Maria [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico); Departamento de Optica, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732, BC 22860 Ensenada (Mexico); Garay-Palmett, Karina; U' Ren, Alfred B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2011-09-15

    We study the third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion (TOSPDC) process, as a means to generate entangled photon triplets. Specifically, we consider thin optical fibers as the nonlinear medium to be used as the basis for TOSPDC in configurations where phase matching is attained through the use of more than one fiber transverse modes. Our analysis in this paper, which follows from our earlier paper [Opt. Lett. 36, 190-192 (2011)], aims to supply experimentalists with the details required in order to design a TOSPDC photon-triplet source. Specifically, our analysis focuses on the photon triplet state, on the rate of emission, and on the TOSPDC phase-matching characteristics for the cases of frequency-degenerate and frequency nondegenerate TOSPDC.

  13. Mixed convection peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid with an induced magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Saima

    2013-01-01

    This research is concerned with the peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid in an asymmetric channel. The governing equations of third order nanofluid are modelled in wave frame of reference. Effect of induced magnetic field is considered. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number situation is tackled. Numerical solutions of the governing problem are computed and analyzed. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion of nano particles are particularly emphasized. Physical quantities such as velocity, pressure rise, temperature, induced magnetic field and concentration distributions are discussed.

  14. Mixed convection peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid with an induced magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Noreen

    Full Text Available This research is concerned with the peristaltic flow of third order nanofluid in an asymmetric channel. The governing equations of third order nanofluid are modelled in wave frame of reference. Effect of induced magnetic field is considered. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number situation is tackled. Numerical solutions of the governing problem are computed and analyzed. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion of nano particles are particularly emphasized. Physical quantities such as velocity, pressure rise, temperature, induced magnetic field and concentration distributions are discussed.

  15. Photoionization and third-order susceptibility of a neutral donor in ZnS/InP/ZnSe core/shell spherical quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenfang

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of a neutral donor in a ZnS/InP/ZnSe core/shell spherical quantum dot have been investigated using the variational method and the compact density-matrix approach. Two parametric potential is chosen as a confinement potential for the shell. Considering the band structure of the system it is assumed that electron is localized in InP shell. It is assumed that the impurity is located in the center of quantum dot core (ZnS). The photoionization cross section as well as the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of third harmonic generation has been calculated. The results show that the photoionization and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of a donor in a core/shell spherical quantum dot are strongly affected by the shell thickness. We found that small applied shell thickness will lead to a significant blue shift of the peak positions in the optical spectrum. This kind of structure gives an opportunity to tune and control the photoionization and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of third harmonic generation of a donor impurity by changing the shell thickness

  16. Evaluation of QT and P wave dispersion and mean platelet volume among inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yuksel; Soylu, Aliye; Eren, Gulay A; Poturoglu, Sule; Dolapcioglu, Can; Sonmez, Kenan; Duman, Habibe; Sevindir, Isa

    2011-01-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) number of thromboembolic events are increased due to hypercoagulupathy and platelet activation. Increases in mean platelet volume (MPV) can lead to platelet activation, this leads to thromboembolic events and can cause acute coronary syndromes. In IBD patients, QT-dispersion and P-wave dispersion are predictors of ventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrilation; MPV is accepted as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes, we aimed at evaluating the correlations of these with the duration of disease, its localization and activity. The study group consisted of 69 IBD (Ulcerative colitis n: 54, Crohn's Disease n: 15) patients and the control group included 38 healthy individuals. Disease activity was evaluated both endoscopically and clinically. Patients with existing cardiac conditions, those using QT prolonging medications and having systemic diseases, anemia and electrolyte imbalances were excluded from the study. QT-dispersion, P-wave dispersion and MPV values of both groups were compared with disease activity, its localization, duration of disease and the antibiotics used. The P-wave dispersion values of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Duration of the disease was not associated with QT-dispersion, and MPV levels. QT-dispersion, P-wave dispersion, MPV and platelet count levels were similar between the active and in mild ulcerative colitis patients. QT-dispersion levels were similar between IBD patients and the control group. No difference was observed between P-wave dispersion, QT-dispersion and MPV values; with regards to disease duration, disease activity, and localization in the study group (p>0.05). P-wave dispersion which is accepted as a risk factor for the development of atrial fibirilation was found to be high in our IBD patients. This demonstrates us that the risk of developing atrial fibrillation may be high in patients with IBD. No significant difference was found in the QT

  17. An algorithm for solving initial value problems of third order ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We propose an implicit multi-step method for the solution of initial value problems (IVPs) of third order ordinary differential equations (ODE) which does not require reducing the ODE to first order before solving. The development of the method is based on collocation of the differential system and interpolation of the ...

  18. Multi-octave analog photonic link with improved second- and third-order SFDRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qinggui; Gao, Yongsheng; Fan, Yangyu; He, You

    2018-03-01

    The second- and third-order spurious free dynamic ranges (SFDRs) are two key performance indicators for a multi-octave analogy photonic link (APL). The linearization methods for either second- or third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD2 or IMD3) have been intensively studied, but the simultaneous suppression for the both were merely reported. In this paper, we propose an APL with improved second- and third-order SFDRs for multi-octave applications based on two parallel DPMZM-based sub-APLs. The IMD3 in each sub-APL is suppressed by properly biasing the DPMZM, and the IMD2 is suppressed by balanced detecting the two sub-APLs. The experiment demonstrates significant suppression ratios for both the IMD2 and IMD3 after linearization in the proposed link, and the measured second- and third-order SFDRs with the operating frequency from 6 to 40 GHz are above 91 dB ṡHz 1 / 2 and 116 dB ṡHz 2 / 3, respectively.

  19. A Three Step Explicit Method for Direct Solution of Third Order ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study produces a three step discrete Linear Multistep Method for Direct solution of third order initial value problems of ordinary differential equations of the form y'''= f(x,y,y',y''). Taylor series expansion technique was adopted in the development of the method. The differential system from the basis polynomial function to ...

  20. Breakdown of the single-exchange approximation in third-order symmetry-adapted perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M

    2012-03-22

    We report third-order symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) calculations for several dimers whose intermolecular interactions are dominated by induction. We demonstrate that the single-exchange approximation (SEA) employed to derive the third-order exchange-induction correction (E(exch-ind)((30))) fails to quench the attractive nature of the third-order induction (E(ind)((30))), leading to one-dimensional potential curves that become attractive rather than repulsive at short intermolecular separations. A scaling equation for (E(exch-ind)((30))), based on an exact formula for the first-order exchange correction, is introduced to approximate exchange effects beyond the SEA, and qualitatively correct potential energy curves that include third-order induction are thereby obtained. For induction-dominated systems, our results indicate that a "hybrid" SAPT approach, in which a dimer Hartree-Fock calculation is performed in order to obtain a correction for higher-order induction, is necessary not only to obtain quantitative binding energies but also to obtain qualitatively correct potential energy surfaces. These results underscore the need to develop higher-order exchange-induction formulas that go beyond the SEA. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  1. Third-order operator-differential equations with discontinuous coefficients and operators in the boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araz R. Aliev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a third-order operator-differential equation on the semi-axis with a discontinuous coefficient and boundary conditions which include an abstract linear operator. Sufficient conditions for the well-posed and unique solvability are found by means of properties of the operator coefficients in a Sobolev-type space.

  2. On method of solving third-order ordinary differential equations directly using Bernstein polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataybeh, S. N.; Hashim, I.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose for the first time a method based on Bernstein polynomials for solving directly a class of third-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). This method gives a numerical solution by converting the equation into a system of algebraic equations which is solved directly. Some numerical examples are given to show the applicability of the method.

  3. Third-order least squares modelling of milling state term for improved computation of stability boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Ozoegwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The general least squares model for milling process state term is presented. A discrete map for milling stability analysis that is based on the third-order case of the presented general least squares milling state term model is first studied and compared with its third-order counterpart that is based on the interpolation theory. Both numerical rate of convergence and chatter stability results of the two maps are compared using the single degree of freedom (1DOF milling model. The numerical rate of convergence of the presented third-order model is also studied using the two degree of freedom (2DOF milling process model. Comparison gave that stability results from the two maps agree closely but the presented map demonstrated reduction in number of needed calculations leading to about 30% savings in computational time (CT. It is seen in earlier works that accuracy of milling stability analysis using the full-discretization method rises from first-order theory to second-order theory and continues to rise to the third-order theory. The present work confirms this trend. In conclusion, the method presented in this work will enable fast and accurate computation of stability diagrams for use by machinists.

  4. Observation of spin-wave dispersion in Nd-Fe-B magnets using neutron Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Inami, N.; Saito, K.; Takeichi, Y.; Kawana, D.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Manabe, A.; Kato, A.; Kaneko, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The low-energy spin-wave dispersion in polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets was observed using neutron Brillouin scattering (NBS). Low-energy spin-wave excitations for the lowest acoustic spin-wave mode were clearly observed. From the spin-wave dispersion, we were able to determine the spin-wave stiffness constant D sw (100.0 ± 4.9 meV.Å 2 ) and the exchange stiffness constant A (6.6 ± 0.3 pJ/m)

  5. Wave dispersion relation of two-dimensional plasma crystals in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, G.; Konopka, U.; Morfill, G.

    2004-01-01

    The wave dispersion relation in a two-dimensional strongly coupled plasma crystal is studied by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation taking into account a constant magnetic field parallel to the crystal normal. The expression for the wave dispersion relation clearly shows that high-frequency and low-frequency branches exist as a result of the coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes due to the Lorenz force acting on the dust particles. The high-frequency and the low-frequency branches are found to belong to right-hand and left-hand polarized waves, respectively

  6. Imaging the Earth's anisotropic structure with Bayesian Inversion of fundamental and higher mode surface-wave dispersion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenna, Matteo; Lebedev, Sergei; Celli, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    We develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of fundamental and higher mode phase-velocity curves for radially and azimuthally anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. In the inversions of Rayleigh- and Love-wave dispersion curves for radially anisotropic structure, we obtain probabilistic 1D radially anisotropic shear-velocity profiles of the isotropic average Vs and anisotropy (or Vsv and Vsh) as functions of depth. In the inversions for azimuthal anisotropy, Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves at different azimuths are inverted for the vertically polarized shear-velocity structure (Vsv) and the 2-phi component of azimuthal anisotropy. The strength and originality of the method is in its fully non-linear approach. Each model realization is computed using exact forward calculations. The uncertainty of the models is a part of the output. In the inversions for azimuthal anisotropy, in particular, the computation of the forward problem is performed separately at different azimuths, with no linear approximations on the relation of the Earth's elastic parameters to surface wave phase velocities. The computations are performed in parallel in order reduce the computing time. We compare inversions of the fundamental mode phase-velocity curves alone with inversions that also include overtones. The addition of higher modes enhances the resolving power of the anisotropic structure of the deep upper mantle. We apply the inversion method to phase-velocity curves in a few regions, including the Hangai dome region in Mongolia. Our models provide constraints on the Moho depth, the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary, and the alignment of the anisotropic fabric and the direction of current and past flow, from the crust down to the deep asthenosphere.

  7. Computationally efficient near-field source localization using third-order moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Guohong; Sun, Xiaoying

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a third-order moment-based estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm is proposed for passive localization of near-field sources. By properly choosing sensor outputs of the symmetric uniform linear array, two special third-order moment matrices are constructed, in which the steering matrix is the function of electric angle γ, while the rotational factor is the function of electric angles γ and ϕ. With the singular value decomposition (SVD) operation, all direction-of-arrivals (DOAs) are estimated from a polynomial rooting version. After substituting the DOA information into the steering matrix, the rotational factor is determined via the total least squares (TLS) version, and the related range estimations are performed. Compared with the high-order ESPRIT method, the proposed algorithm requires a lower computational burden, and it avoids the parameter-match procedure. Computer simulations are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  8. The third order correction on Hawking radiation and entropy conservation during black hole evaporation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hao-Peng; Liu, Wen-Biao, E-mail: wbliu@bnu.edu.cn

    2016-08-10

    Using Parikh–Wilczek tunneling framework, we calculate the tunneling rate from a Schwarzschild black hole under the third order WKB approximation, and then obtain the expressions for emission spectrum and black hole entropy to the third order correction. The entropy contains four terms including the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy, the logarithmic term, the inverse area term, and the square of inverse area term. In addition, we analyse the correlation between sequential emissions under this approximation. It is shown that the entropy is conserved during the process of black hole evaporation, which consists with the request of quantum mechanics and implies the information is conserved during this process. We also compare the above result with that of pure thermal spectrum case, and find that the non-thermal correction played an important role.

  9. Third-order optical intensity correlation measurements of pseudo-thermal light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi-Hao; Wu Wei; Meng Shao-Ying; Li Ming-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Third-order Hanbrury Brown—Twiss and double-slit interference experiments with a pseudo-thermal light are performed by recording intensities in single, double and triple optical paths, respectively. The experimental results verifies the theoretical prediction that the indispensable condition for achieving a interference pattern or ghost image in Nth-order intensity correlation measurements is the synchronous detection of the same light field by each reference detector, no matter the intensities recorded in one, or two, or N optical paths. It is shown that, when the reference detectors are scanned in the opposite directions, the visibility and resolution of the third-order spatial correlation function of thermal light is much better than that scanned in the same direction, but it is no use for obtaining the Nth-order interference pattern or ghost image in the thermal Nth-order interference or ghost imaging. (general)

  10. Models for Master-Slave Clock Distribution Networks with Third-Order Phase-Locked Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Piqueira, José Roberto Castilho; de Carvalho Freschi, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the processing and transmission of clock signals in networks of geographically distributed nodes, in order to derive conditions for frequency and phase synchronization between the nodes. The focus is on the master-slave architecture, which presents a priority scheme of clock distribution. One-way master-slave (OWMS ) and two-way master-slave (TWMS) chains are studied, considering that the slave nodes are third-order phase-locked loops...

  11. Comparison of second and third orders Runge-Kutta methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is concerned with the analysis of second and third orders Runge- Kutta formulae capable of solving initial value problems in Ordinary Differential Equations of the form: y1 = f(x, y), y(x0) = y0, a £ x £ b. The intention is to find out which of these two orders can improve the performance of results when implemented ...

  12. Symplectic and trigonometrically fitted symplectic methods of second and third order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monovasilis, Th.; Simos, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems by symplectic and trigonometrically symplectic method is considered in this Letter. We construct new symplectic and trigonometrically symplectic methods of second and third order. We apply our new methods as well as other existing methods to the numerical integration of the harmonic oscillator, the 2D harmonic oscillator with an integer frequency ratio and an orbit problem studied by Stiefel and Bettis

  13. Enhancement of third-order harmonic generation by interaction of two IR femtosecond filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z Y; Ding, P J; Shi, Y C; Lu, X; Liu, Q C; Sun, S H; Ding, B W; Hu, B T; Liu, X L

    2012-01-01

    Three orders of magnitude in the enhancement of the third-order harmonic (TH) generation induced by the interaction of two femtosecond filaments crossing with small angles in the air is achieved. The dependences of the TH generation on the time delay, the relative polarization, the input laser intensity ratios between the probe and pump beam are measured with the crossing angle of 3.5deg , and the results with quasi-vertical crossing angle are also shown for comparison

  14. Third order effects generated by refractive lenses on sub 20 femtosecond optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Silva, F C; Rosete-Aguilar, M; Garduno-Mejia, J; Gonzalez-Galicia, M A; Bruce, N C; Ortega-Martinez, R

    2011-01-01

    When using lenses to focus ultra-short pulses, chromatic aberration produces pulse spreading, after propagation through the lens. The focusing of ultra-short pulses has been analyzed by using Fourier optics where the field amplitude of the pulse is evaluated around the focal region of the lens by performing a third order expansion on the wave number around the central frequency of the carrier. In the literature, the pulse focusing in the neighborhood of the focal region of the lens has been calculated by expanding the wave number up to second order. The second order approximation works for pulses with a duration greater than 20fs, or pulses propagating through low dispersion materials; but, it is necessary to do third order approximation for pulses with a shorter duration, or propagating through highly dispersive materials. In this paper we analyze 15fs and 20fs pulses, with a carrier wavelength of 810nm, at the paraxial focal plane of singlets and achromatic doublets. The analysis includes the third order GVD and the results are compared with those obtained when the wave number is expanded up to second order.

  15. Interplay between Graph Topology and Correlations of Third Order in Spiking Neuronal Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Jovanović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of processes evolving on networks has recently become a very popular research field, not only because of the rich mathematical theory that underpins it, but also because of its many possible applications, a number of them in the field of biology. Indeed, molecular signaling pathways, gene regulation, predator-prey interactions and the communication between neurons in the brain can be seen as examples of networks with complex dynamics. The properties of such dynamics depend largely on the topology of the underlying network graph. In this work, we want to answer the following question: Knowing network connectivity, what can be said about the level of third-order correlations that will characterize the network dynamics? We consider a linear point process as a model for pulse-coded, or spiking activity in a neuronal network. Using recent results from theory of such processes, we study third-order correlations between spike trains in such a system and explain which features of the network graph (i.e. which topological motifs are responsible for their emergence. Comparing two different models of network topology-random networks of Erdős-Rényi type and networks with highly interconnected hubs-we find that, in random networks, the average measure of third-order correlations does not depend on the local connectivity properties, but rather on global parameters, such as the connection probability. This, however, ceases to be the case in networks with a geometric out-degree distribution, where topological specificities have a strong impact on average correlations.

  16. Interplay between Graph Topology and Correlations of Third Order in Spiking Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Stojan; Rotter, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The study of processes evolving on networks has recently become a very popular research field, not only because of the rich mathematical theory that underpins it, but also because of its many possible applications, a number of them in the field of biology. Indeed, molecular signaling pathways, gene regulation, predator-prey interactions and the communication between neurons in the brain can be seen as examples of networks with complex dynamics. The properties of such dynamics depend largely on the topology of the underlying network graph. In this work, we want to answer the following question: Knowing network connectivity, what can be said about the level of third-order correlations that will characterize the network dynamics? We consider a linear point process as a model for pulse-coded, or spiking activity in a neuronal network. Using recent results from theory of such processes, we study third-order correlations between spike trains in such a system and explain which features of the network graph (i.e. which topological motifs) are responsible for their emergence. Comparing two different models of network topology-random networks of Erdős-Rényi type and networks with highly interconnected hubs-we find that, in random networks, the average measure of third-order correlations does not depend on the local connectivity properties, but rather on global parameters, such as the connection probability. This, however, ceases to be the case in networks with a geometric out-degree distribution, where topological specificities have a strong impact on average correlations.

  17. A covariant Poisson deformation quantization with separation of variables up to the third order

    OpenAIRE

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    We give a simple formula for the operator C_3 of the standard deformation quantization with separation of variables on a K\\"ahler manifold M. Unlike C_1 and C_2, this operator can not be expressed in terms of the K\\"ahler-Poisson tensor on M. We modify C_3 to obtain a covariant deformation quantization with separation of variables up to the third order which is expressed in terms of the Poisson tensor on M and thus can be defined on an arbitrary complex manifold endowed with a Poisson bivecto...

  18. Limit cycles from a cubic reversible system via the third-order averaging method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linping Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the bifurcation of limit cycles from a cubic integrable and non-Hamiltonian system. By using the averaging theory of the first and second orders, we show that under any small cubic homogeneous perturbation, at most two limit cycles bifurcate from the period annulus of the unperturbed system, and this upper bound is sharp. By using the averaging theory of the third order, we show that two is also the maximal number of limit cycles emerging from the period annulus of the unperturbed system.

  19. First integrals and parametric solutions of third-order ODEs admitting {\\mathfrak{sl}(2, {R})}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, A.; Muriel, C.

    2017-05-01

    A complete set of first integrals for any third-order ordinary differential equation admitting a Lie symmetry algebra isomorphic to sl(2, {R}) is explicitly computed. These first integrals are derived from two linearly independent solutions of a linear second-order ODE, without additional integration. The general solution in parametric form can be obtained by using the computed first integrals. The study includes a parallel analysis of the four inequivalent realizations of sl(2, {R}) , and it is applied to several particular examples. These include the generalized Chazy equation, as well as an example of an equation which admits the most complicated of the four inequivalent realizations.

  20. Third-order WKBJ eigenvalues for Lennard-Jones and Varshni V potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesarwani, R.N.; Varshni, Y.P.

    1978-01-01

    The WKBJ method is applied to the third order for obtaining the eigenvalues for the fifth potential of Varshni, and the relevant integrals are analytically evaluated. Numerical results are obtained for the Lennard-Jones Potential, which is a special case of the Varshni V potential, and are compared to the results of Harrison and Bernstein obtained by a numerical integration of the wave equation. Error estimates are made. It is shown that for diatomic potentials, the Langer correction is not needed if the WKBJ approximation is carried to second and higher orders. (author)

  1. Third-order perturbation theory for van der Waals interaction coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Liyan; Shi Tingyun; Yan Zongchao; Mitroy, J.

    2011-01-01

    The third-order expression for the dispersion interaction between two atoms is written as a sum over lists of transition matrix elements. Particular attention is given to the C 9 /R 9 interaction which occurs in the homonuclear case when one atom is in an S state and the other is in a P state. Numerical values of the C 9 coefficient are given for the homonuclear alkali-metal dimers. The size of the C 9 :C 3 dispersion coefficient ratio increases for the heavier alkali-metal atoms. The C 11 and C 13 coefficients between two helium atoms and lithium atoms in their ground states are also given.

  2. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.; Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F.

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command

  3. Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, V N; Lozhkarev, V V; Luchinin, G A; Mironov, S Yu; Khazanov, Efim A; Yakovlev, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Didenko, N V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Lutsenko, Andrei P [' Avesta-project' Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-30

    A third-order correlator with a single-shot time window and a full dynamic range of 10{sup 8} is developed. The time contrast of radiation from the front-end system of a petawatt femtosecond laser complex measured with the correlator within time windows {+-}1 ps and {+-}100 ps was 10{sup 4} and more than 10{sup 8}, respectively. Based on the theoretical analysis of the cross-correlator operation, a number of requirements providing the optimal functioning of the cross-correlator are found. The reasons restricting the technical parameters of the correlator are discussed. (measurement of parameters of laser radiation)

  4. Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V N; Lozhkarev, V V; Luchinin, G A; Mironov, S Yu; Khazanov, Efim A; Yakovlev, I V; Didenko, N V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Lutsenko, Andrei P

    2008-01-01

    A third-order correlator with a single-shot time window and a full dynamic range of 10 8 is developed. The time contrast of radiation from the front-end system of a petawatt femtosecond laser complex measured with the correlator within time windows ±1 ps and ±100 ps was 10 4 and more than 10 8 , respectively. Based on the theoretical analysis of the cross-correlator operation, a number of requirements providing the optimal functioning of the cross-correlator are found. The reasons restricting the technical parameters of the correlator are discussed. (measurement of parameters of laser radiation)

  5. [P wave dispersion increased in childhood depending on blood pressure, weight, height, and cardiac structure and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-González, Elibet; González-Rodríguez, Emilio; Llanes-Camacho, María Del Carmen; Garí-Llanes, Merlin; García-Nóbrega, Yosvany; García-Sáez, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics. In the frame of the PROCDEC II project, children from 8 to 11 years old, without known heart conditions were studied. Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive (25.91±5.96g/m(2.7)) and hypertensive (30.34±8.48g/m(2.7)) showed significant differences P=.000. When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are 50.38% with normal left ventricular mass index and P wave dispersion was increased versus 13.36% of normotensive. Multiple regression demonstrated that the mean blood pressure, duration of A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height have a value of r=0.88 as related to P wave dispersion. P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion. Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Military jet pilots have higher p-wave dispersions compared to the transport aircraft aircrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çakar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. Material and Methods: Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography. P-wave dispersions were calculated. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 36.15±8.97 years and the mean p-wave duration was 100.8±12 ms in the whole group. Forty-seven subjects were non-pilot aircrew, and 28 were pilots. Thirteen study subjects were serving in jets, 49 in helicopters, and 13 were transport aircraft pilots. Thirty-six of the helicopter and 11 of the transport aircraft aircrew were non-pilot aircrew. P-wave dispersion was the lowest in the transport aircraft aircrew, and the highest in jet pilots. P-wave dispersions were similar in the pilots and non-pilot aircrew. Twenty-three study subjects were overweight, 19 had thyroiditis, 26 had hepatosteatosis, 4 had hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had hypertension, and 5 had hyperlipidemia. The PWD was significantly associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Serum uric acid levels were associated with p-wave durations. Serum TSH levels were the most important predictor of PWD. Conclusions: When TSH levels were associated with PWD, uric acid levels were associated with p-wave duration in the military aircrew. The jet pilots had higher PWDs. These findings reveal that military jet pilots may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation, and PWD should be recorded during periodical examinations.

  7. Third-Order Density Perturbation and One-Loop Power Spectrum in Dark-Energy-Dominated Universe(Astrophysics and Cosmology)

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuichi, TAKAHASHI; Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the third-order density perturbation and the one-loop correction to the linear power spectrum in the dark-energy cosmological model. Our main interest is to understand the dark-energy effect on baryon acoustic oscillations in a quasi-nonlinear regime (k≈0.1h/Mpc). Analytical solutions and simple fitting formulae are presented for the dark-energy model with the general time-varying equation of state w(a). It turns out that the power spectrum coincides with the approximate res...

  8. Third-order QCD corrections to the charged-current structure function F3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.; Vermaseren, J.A.M.; Vogt, A.

    2008-12-01

    We compute the coefficient function for the charge-averaged W ± -exchange structure function F 3 in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) to the third order in massless perturbative QCD. Our new three-loop contribution to this quantity forms, at not too small values of the Bjorken variable x, the dominant part of the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order corrections. It thus facilitates improved determinations of the strong coupling α s and of 1/Q 2 power corrections from scaling violations measured in neutrino-nucleon DIS. The expansion of F 3 in powers of α s is stable at all values of x relevant to measurements at high scales Q 2 . At small x the third-order coefficient function is dominated by diagrams with the colour structure d abc d abc not present at lower orders. At large x the coefficient function for F 3 is identical to that of F 1 up to terms vanishing for x→1. (orig.)

  9. Multi-objective optimization of GPU3 Stirling engine using third order analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toghyani, Somayeh; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Hashemabadi, Seyyed Hasan; Salimi, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A third-order analysis is carried out for optimization of Stirling engine. • The triple-optimization is done on a GPU3 Stirling engine. • A multi-objective optimization is carried out for a Stirling engine. • The results are compared with an experimental previous work for checking the model improvement. • The methods of TOPSIS, Fuzzy, and LINMAP are compared with each other in aspect of optimization. - Abstract: Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that uses any external heat source to generate mechanical power which operates at closed cycles. These engines are good choices for using in power generation systems; because these engines present a reasonable theoretical efficiency which can be closer to the Carnot efficiency, comparing with other reciprocating thermal engines. Hence, many studies have been conducted on Stirling engines and the third order thermodynamic analysis is one of them. In this study, multi-objective optimization with four decision variables including the temperature of heat source, stroke, mean effective pressure, and the engine frequency were applied in order to increase the efficiency and output power and reduce the pressure drop. Three decision-making procedures were applied to optimize the answers from the results. At last, the applied methods were compared with the results obtained of one experimental work and a good agreement was observed

  10. Third-order QCD corrections to the charged-current structure function F{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Vermaseren, J.A.M. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vogt, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2008-12-15

    We compute the coefficient function for the charge-averaged W{sup {+-}}-exchange structure function F{sub 3} in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) to the third order in massless perturbative QCD. Our new three-loop contribution to this quantity forms, at not too small values of the Bjorken variable x, the dominant part of the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order corrections. It thus facilitates improved determinations of the strong coupling {alpha}{sub s} and of 1/Q{sup 2} power corrections from scaling violations measured in neutrino-nucleon DIS. The expansion of F{sub 3} in powers of {alpha}{sub s} is stable at all values of x relevant to measurements at high scales Q{sup 2}. At small x the third-order coefficient function is dominated by diagrams with the colour structure d{sup abc}d{sub abc} not present at lower orders. At large x the coefficient function for F{sub 3} is identical to that of F{sub 1} up to terms vanishing for x{yields}1. (orig.)

  11. Traversable wormholes satisfying the weak energy condition in third-order Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangeneh, Mahdi Kord; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Dehghani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we consider third-order Lovelock gravity with a cosmological constant term in an n -dimensional spacetime M4×Kn -4, where Kn -4 is a constant curvature space. We decompose the equations of motion to four and higher dimensional ones and find wormhole solutions by considering a vacuum Kn -4 space. Applying the latter constraint, we determine the second- and third-order Lovelock coefficients and the cosmological constant in terms of specific parameters of the model, such as the size of the extra dimensions. Using the obtained Lovelock coefficients and Λ , we obtain the four-dimensional matter distribution threading the wormhole. Furthermore, by considering the zero tidal force case and a specific equation of state, given by ρ =(γ p -τ )/[ω (1 +γ )], we find the exact solution for the shape function which represents both asymptotically flat and nonflat wormhole solutions. We show explicitly that these wormhole solutions in addition to traversibility satisfy the energy conditions for suitable choices of parameters and that the existence of a limited spherically symmetric traversable wormhole with normal matter in a four-dimensional spacetime implies a negative effective cosmological constant.

  12. Noninvasive evaluation of reverse atrial remodeling after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation by P wave dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yuhi; Yodogawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Kenta; Tsuboi, Ippei; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Uetake, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Yu-Ki; Hayashi, Meiso; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Shimizu, Wataru

    2017-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) itself creates structural and electrophysiological changes such as atrial enlargement, shortening of refractory period and decrease in conduction velocity, called "atrial remodeling", promoting its persistence. Although the remodeling process is considered to be reversible, it has not been elucidated in detail. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of P wave dispersion in the assessment of reverse atrial remodeling following catheter ablation of AF. Consecutive 126 patients (88 males, age 63.0 ± 10.4 years) who underwent catheter ablation for paroxysmal AF were investigated. P wave dispersion was calculated from the 12 lead ECG before, 1 day, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after the procedure. Left atrial diameter (LAD), left atrial volume index (LAVI), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), transmitral flow velocity waveform (E/A), and tissue Doppler (E/e') on echocardiography, plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were also measured. Of all patients, 103 subjects remained free of AF for 1 year follow-up. In these patients, P wave dispersion was not changed 1 day and 1 month after the procedure. However, it was significantly decreased at 3 and 6 months (50.1 ± 14.8 to 45.4 ± 14.4 ms, p < 0.05, 45.2 ± 9.9 ms, p < 0.05, respectively). Plasma BNP concentrations, LAD and LAVI were decreased (81.1 ± 103.8 to 44.8 ± 38.3 pg/mL, p < 0.05, 38.2 ± 5.7 to 35.9 ± 5.6 mm, p < 0.05, 33.3 ± 14.2 to 29.3 ± 12.3 mL/m 2 , p < 0.05) at 6 months after the procedure. There were no significant changes in LVEF, E/A, E/e', serum creatinine, and eGFR during the follow up period. P wave dispersion was decreased at 3 and 6 months after catheter ablation in patients without recurrence of AF. P wave dispersion is useful for assessment of reverse remodeling after catheter ablation of AF.

  13. Lithospheric Structure of the Arabian Shield from the Joint Inversion of Receiver Function and Surface-Wave Dispersion Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J; Herrimann, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    .... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...

  14. Lithospheric Structure of the Arabian Shield From the Joint Inversion of Receiver Function and Surface-Wave Dispersion Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Robert B; Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J

    2007-01-01

    .... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrast and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...

  15. Spherically Symmetric Gravitational Collapse of a Dust Cloud in Third-Order Lovelock Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kang; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zou, De-Cheng; Yue, Rui-Hong

    We investigate the spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of an incoherent dust cloud by considering a LTB-type spacetime in third-order Lovelock Gravity without cosmological constant, and give three families of LTB-like solutions which separately corresponding to hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic. Notice that the contribution of high-order curvature corrections have a profound influence on the nature of the singularity, and the global structure of spacetime changes drastically from the analogous general relativistic case. Interestingly, the presence of high order Lovelock terms leads to the formation of massive, naked and timelike singularities in the 7D spacetime, which is disallowed in general relativity. Moveover, we point out that the naked singularities in the 7D case may be gravitational weak therefore may not be a serious threat to the cosmic censorship hypothesis, while the naked singularities in the D ≥ 8 inhomogeneous collapse violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis seriously.

  16. Third-order perturbation theory for van der Waals interaction coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Liyan; Shi Tingyun [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yan Zongchao [Center for Cold Atom Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    The third-order expression for the dispersion interaction between two atoms is written as a sum over lists of transition matrix elements. Particular attention is given to the C{sub 9}/R{sup 9} interaction which occurs in the homonuclear case when one atom is in an S state and the other is in a P state. Numerical values of the C{sub 9} coefficient are given for the homonuclear alkali-metal dimers. The size of the C{sub 9}:C{sub 3} dispersion coefficient ratio increases for the heavier alkali-metal atoms. The C{sub 11} and C{sub 13} coefficients between two helium atoms and lithium atoms in their ground states are also given.

  17. Third-order polynomial model for analyzing stickup state laminated structure in flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhong; Wang, Zihao; Liu, Boya; Wang, Shuodao

    2018-02-01

    Laminated hard-soft integrated structures play a significant role in the fabrication and development of flexible electronics devices. Flexible electronics have advantageous characteristics such as soft and light-weight, can be folded, twisted, flipped inside-out, or be pasted onto other surfaces of arbitrary shapes. In this paper, an analytical model is presented to study the mechanics of laminated hard-soft structures in flexible electronics under a stickup state. Third-order polynomials are used to describe the displacement field, and the principle of virtual work is adopted to derive the governing equations and boundary conditions. The normal strain and the shear stress along the thickness direction in the bi-material region are obtained analytically, which agree well with the results from finite element analysis. The analytical model can be used to analyze stickup state laminated structures, and can serve as a valuable reference for the failure prediction and optimal design of flexible electronics in the future.

  18. A fluctuation method to calculate the third order elastic constants in crystalline solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zimu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Qu, Jianmin, E-mail: j-qu@northwestern.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-05-28

    This paper derives exact expressions of the isothermal third order elastic constants (TOE) in crystalline solids in terms of the kinetic and potential energies of the system. These expressions reveal that the TOE constants consist of a Born component and a relaxation component. The Born component is simply the third derivative of the system's potential energy with respect to the deformation, while the relaxation component is related to the non-uniform rearrangements of the atoms when the system is subject to a macroscopic deformation. Further, based on the general expressions derived here, a direct (fluctuation) method of computing the isothermal TOE constants is developed. Numerical examples of using this fluctuation method are given to compute the TOE constants of single crystal iron.

  19. Shooting method for third order simultaneous ordinary differential equations with application to magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.C.; Hazarika, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm based on the shooting method has been developed for the solution of a two-point boundary value problem consisting of a system of third order simultaneous ordinary differential equations. The Falkner-Skan equations for electrically conducting viscous fluid with applied magnetic field has been solved by using this algorithm for various values of the wedge angle and magnetic parameters. The shooting method seems to be well convergent for a system as the results are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods. It is observed that both viscous boundary layer and magnetic boundary layer decrease while velocity as well as magnetic field increase with the increase of the wedge angle. (author). 6 tabs., 7 refs

  20. SIMPLE MODELS OF THREE COUPLED PT -SYMMETRIC WAVE GUIDES ALLOWING FOR THIRD-ORDER EXCEPTIONAL POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schnabel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study theoretical models of three coupled wave guides with a PT-symmetric distribution of gain and loss. A realistic matrix model is developed in terms of a three-mode expansion. By comparing with a previously postulated matrix model it is shown how parameter ranges with good prospects of finding a third-order exceptional point (EP3 in an experimentally feasible arrangement of semiconductors can be determined. In addition it is demonstrated that continuous distributions of exceptional points, which render the discovery of the EP3 difficult, are not only a feature of extended wave guides but appear also in an idealised model of infinitely thin guides shaped by delta functions.

  1. Hopf bifurcation and chaos in a third-order phase-locked loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-locked loops (PLLs) are devices able to recover time signals in several engineering applications. The literature regarding their dynamical behavior is vast, specifically considering that the process of synchronization between the input signal, coming from a remote source, and the PLL local oscillation is robust. For high-frequency applications it is usual to increase the PLL order by increasing the order of the internal filter, for guarantying good transient responses; however local parameter variations imply structural instability, thus provoking a Hopf bifurcation and a route to chaos for the phase error. Here, one usual architecture for a third-order PLL is studied and a range of permitted parameters is derived, providing a rule of thumb for designers. Out of this range, a Hopf bifurcation appears and, by increasing parameters, the periodic solution originated by the Hopf bifurcation degenerates into a chaotic attractor, therefore, preventing synchronization.

  2. Third-order QCD corrections to heavy quark pair production near threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Kurt

    2008-11-07

    The measurement of the top quark mass is an important task at the future International Linear Collider. The most promising process is the top quark pair production in the threshold region. In this region the top quarks behave non-relativistically and a perturbative treatment using effective field theories is possible. Current second order theoretical predictions in a fixed order approach show an uncertainty which is bigger than the expected experimental errors. Therefore, an improvement of the cross section calculation is desirable. There are two ways to incorporate higher order effects, one is to calculate the full next order in the fixed order approach, another possibility is to resum large logarithms. In this work, the fixed order calculation has been extended to the third order in perturbation theory for the QCD corrections. The result is a strongly improved scale behavior and a better understanding of heavy quarkonium systems. The Green function result is given in a semi-analytic form. The energy levels and wave functions for heavy quarkonium states have been calculated from the poles of the Green function and are presented for arbitrary quantum number n. The results have been implemented in a Mathematica program which makes the data easily accessible. Once some missing matching coefficients are calculated, and a complete electroweak calculation is available, the results of this work can be used to improve the precision of the top quark mass measurement to an uncertainty of less than 50 MeV. An inclusion of initial state radiation and beam effects are essential for a realistic observable. In the future, the results obtained could be used for a third order resummation of large logarithms. Further applications are also the extraction of the bottom quark mass with sum rules. (orig.)

  3. Radial distribution of power starting from the reactivity using nodal schemes of second and third order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    In this work two nodal schemes of finite element are presented, one of second and the other of third order of accurate that allow to determine the radial distribution of power starting from the corresponding reactivities.The schemes here developed were obtained taking as starting point the equation developed by Driscoll et al, the one which is based on the diffusion approach of 1-1/2 energy groups. This equation relates the power fraction of an assemble with their reactivity and with the power fractions and reactivities of the assemblies that its surround it. Driscoll and collaborators they solve in form approximate such equation supposing that the reactivity of each assemble it is but a lineal function of the burnt one of the fuel. The spatial approach carries out it with the classic technique of finite differences centered in mesh. Nevertheless that the algebraic system to which its arrive it can be solved without more considerations introduce some additional suppositions and adjustment parameters that it allows them to predict results comparable to those contributed by three dimensions analysis and this way to reduce the one obtained error when its compare their results with those of a production code like CASMO. Also in the two schemes that here are presented the same approaches of Driscoll were used being obtained errors of the one 10% and of 5% for the second schemes and third order respectively for a test case that it was built starting from data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant. These errors its were obtained when comparing with a computer program based on the matrix response method. It is sought to have this way a quick and efficient tool for the multicycle analysis in the fuel management. However, this model presents problems in the appropriate prediction of the average burnt of the nucleus and of the burnt one by lot. (Author)

  4. Development and application of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    In this work the development of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh is presented and it is applied in the numerical solution of those diffusion equations in multi groups in stationary state and X Y geometry. Originally this scheme was developed by Hennart and del Valle for the monoenergetic diffusion equation with a well-known source and they show that the one scheme is of third order when comparing the numerical solution with the analytical solution of a model problem using several mesh refinements and boundary conditions. The scheme by them developed it also introduces the application of numeric quadratures to evaluate the rigidity matrices and of mass that its appear when making use of the finite elements method of Galerkin. One of the used quadratures is the open quadrature of 4 points, no-standard, of Newton-Cotes to evaluate in approximate form the elements of the rigidity matrices. The other quadrature is that of 3 points of Radau that it is used to evaluate the elements of all the mass matrices. One of the objectives of these quadratures are to eliminate the couplings among the Legendre moments 0 and 1 associated to the left and right faces as those associated to the inferior and superior faces of each cell of the discretization. The other objective is to satisfy the particles balance in weighed form in each cell. In this work it expands such development to multiplicative means considering several energy groups. There are described diverse details inherent to the technique, particularly those that refer to the simplification of the algebraic systems that appear due to the space discretization. Numerical results for several test problems are presented and are compared with those obtained with other nodal techniques. (Author)

  5. Decomposition of Polarimetric SAR Images Based on Second- and Third-order Statics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, S.; Hensley, S.

    2012-12-01

    There are many papers concerning the research of the decomposition of polerimetric SAR imagery. Most of them are based on second-order statics analysis that Freeman and Durden [1] suggested for the reflection symmetry condition that implies that the co-polarization and cross-polarization correlations are close to zero. Since then a number of improvements and enhancements have been proposed to better understand the underlying backscattering mechanisms present in polarimetric SAR images. For example, Yamaguchi et al. [2] added the helix component into Freeman's model and developed a 4 component scattering model for the non-reflection symmetry condition. In addition, Arii et al. [3] developed an adaptive model-based decomposition method that could estimate both the mean orientation angle and a degree of randomness for the canopy scattering for each pixel in a SAR image without the reflection symmetry condition. This purpose of this research is to develop a new decomposition method based on second- and third-order statics analysis to estimate the surface, dihedral, volume and helix scattering components from polarimetric SAR images without the specific assumptions concerning the model for the volume scattering. In addition, we evaluate this method by using both simulation and real UAVSAR data and compare this method with other methods. We express the volume scattering component using the wire formula and formulate the relationship equation between backscattering echo and each component such as the surface, dihedral, volume and helix via linearization based on second- and third-order statics. In third-order statics, we calculate the correlation of the correlation coefficients for each polerimetric data and get one new relationship equation to estimate each polarization component such as HH, VV and VH for the volume. As a result, the equation for the helix component in this method is the same formula as one in Yamaguchi's method. However, the equation for the volume

  6. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Arinc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or those P-waves and QT intervals unavailable in at least eight ECG leads were excluded. Subjects having insomnia, lactose intolerance, caffeine allergy, recurrent headaches, depression, any psychiatric condition, and history of alcohol or drug abuse, pregnant or lactating women were also excluded from participation. 12 lead ECG was obtained before and after consumption of 250 cc enegry drink. QT and P-wave dispersion was calculated. RESULTS: No significant difference have occurred in heart rate (79 ± 14 vs.81 ±13, p=0.68, systolic pressure (114 ± 14 vs.118 ± 16,p=0.38, diastolic blood pressure (74 ± 12 vs.76 ± 14, p=0.64, QT dispersion (58 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 22, p= 0.785 and P-wave dispersion (37 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 13, p= 0.755 between before and 2 hours after consumption of energy drink. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Consumption of single dose energy drink doesn't affect QT dispersion and P-wave dispersion, heart rate and blood pressure in healthy adults.

  7. Third-Order Transport with MAD Input: A Computer Program for Designing Charged Particle Beam Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Karl

    1998-10-28

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems.

  8. Third-order non-Coulomb correction to the S-wave quarkonium wave functions at the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Kiyo, Y.; Schuller, K.

    2008-01-01

    We compute the third-order correction to the S-wave quarkonium wave functions |ψ n (0)| 2 at the origin from non-Coulomb potentials in the effective non-relativistic Lagrangian. Together with previous results on the Coulomb correction and the ultrasoft correction computed in a companion paper, this completes the third-order calculation up to a few unknown matching coefficients. Numerical estimates of the new correction for bottomonium and toponium are given

  9. The Reduction of Chazy Classes and Other Third-Order Differential Equations Related to Boundary Layer Flow Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhar, K.; Kara, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the symmetries, conservation laws and reduction of third-order equations that evolve from a prior reduction of models that arise in fluid phenomena. These could be the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that are reductions of partial differential equations (PDEs) or, alternatively, PDEs related to given ODEs. In this class, the analysis includes the well-known Blasius, Chazy, and other associated third-order ODEs. (general)

  10. Third-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical-vapor transport (PVT system. A dynamical model, consistent with the van der Waals equation near the Andrews critical point, is derived. With this model, we deduce two physical parameters, which interact exactly at the Andrews critical point, and which dictate the dynamic transition behavior near the Andrews critical point. In particular, it is shown that 1 the gas-liquid co-existence curve can be extended beyond the Andrews critical point, and 2 the transition is first order before the critical point, second-order at the critical point, and third order beyond the Andrews critical point. This clearly explains why it is hard to observe the gas-liquid phase transition beyond the Andrews critical point. Furthermore, the analysis leads naturally the introduction of a general asymmetry principle of fluctuations and the preferred transition mechanism for a thermodynamic system. The theoretical results derived in this article are in agreement with the experimental results obtained in (K. Nishikawa and T. Morita, Fluid behavior at supercritical states studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, Journal of Supercritical Fluid, 13 (1998, pp. 143-148. Also, the derived second-order transition at the critical point is consistent with the result obtained in (M. Fisher, Specific heat of a gas near the critical point, Physical Review, 136:6A (1964, pp. A1599-A1604.

  11. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman–Goldstone diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2014-01-01

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman–Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mE h after 10 6 Monte Carlo steps

  12. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman–Goldstone diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Center for Superfunctional Materials, Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyojadong, Namgu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-01-14

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman–Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mE{sub h} after 10{sup 6} Monte Carlo steps.

  13. Orientational and electronic contributions to the third-order susceptibilities of cryogenic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kildal, H.; Brueck, S.R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Alternating current Kerr effect and third-harmonic generation (THG) are reported for the cryogenic liquids CO, O 2 , N 2 , and Ar pumped by CO 2 TEA laser radiation. The THG experiments measure the hyperpolarizability, while the Kerr effect measurements probe the total nonresonant third-order susceptibility chi/sup( 3 ), arising from both molecular orientation and electronic hyperpolarizability. The THG process in liquid CO is dominated by a vibrational two-photon resonant contribution for the CO 2 R(6) pump line at 9.35 μm. By studying the interference between the resonant and nonresonant contributions in liquid CO--O 2 mixtures the hyperpolarizability of liquid O 2 has been determined relative to the two-photon resonant chi/sup( 3 ) of liquid CO. These measurements give the first experimental confirmation for liquid media that the two-photon resonance contribution to polarized scattering consists of both narrow and broad linewidth components associated with, respectively, the isotropic and anisotropic Raman polarizabilities

  14. Transfer function of radio over fiber multimode fiber optic links considering third-order dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Gasulla, Ivana

    2007-08-20

    Although a considerable number of multimode fiber (MMF) links operate in a wavelength region around 850 nm where chromatic dispersion of a given modal group mu is described adequately by the second derivative beta(mu) (2) of the propagation constant beta(mu)(omega), there is also an increasing interest in MMF links transmitting in the second spectral window (@1300nm) where this second derivative vanishes being thus necessary to consider the third derivative beta(mu) (3) in the evaluation of the transfer function of the multimode fiber link. We present in this paper, for the first time to our knowledge, an analytical model for the transfer function of a multimode fiber (MMF) optic link taken into account the impact of third-order dispersion. The model extends the operation of a previously reported one for second-order dispersion. Our results show that the performance of broadband radio over fiber transmission through middle-reach distances can be improved by working at the minimum-dispersion wavelength as long as low-linewidth lasers are employed.

  15. Pressure and temperature effects on the third-order nonlinear optical properties in GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, C.M.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    This work is used in the density matrix formalism and the effective mass approximation to study the third harmonic generation coefficient in a GaAs disc-shaped quantum dot with parabolic confinement potential. It is discussed the strong and weak confinement regime. The results show that the third harmonic generation coefficient is strongly dependent on the excitonic pair localization. The study is extended to consider effects such as hydrostatic pressure and temperature to show that it is possible to induce a blue-shift and/or red-shift on the resonant peaks of the third harmonic generation coefficient.

  16. Pressure and temperature effects on the third-order nonlinear optical properties in GaAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-12-15

    This work is used in the density matrix formalism and the effective mass approximation to study the third harmonic generation coefficient in a GaAs disc-shaped quantum dot with parabolic confinement potential. It is discussed the strong and weak confinement regime. The results show that the third harmonic generation coefficient is strongly dependent on the excitonic pair localization. The study is extended to consider effects such as hydrostatic pressure and temperature to show that it is possible to induce a blue-shift and/or red-shift on the resonant peaks of the third harmonic generation coefficient.

  17. Utilization of multimode Love wave dispersion curve inversion for geotechnical site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamimu, La; Nawawi, Mohd; Safani, Jamhir

    2011-01-01

    Inversion codes based on a modified genetic algorithm (GA) have been developed to invert multimode Love wave dispersion curves. The multimode Love wave dispersion curves were synthesized from the profile representing shear-wave velocity reversal using a full SH (shear horizontal) waveform. In this study, we used a frequency–slowness transform to extract the dispersion curve from the full SH waveform. Dispersion curves overlain in dispersion images were picked manually. These curves were then inverted using the modified GA. To assess the accuracy of the inversion results, differences between the true and inverted shear-wave velocity profile were quantified in terms of shear-wave velocity and thickness errors, E S and E H . Our numerical modeling showed that the inversion of multimode dispersion curves can significantly provide the better assessment of a shear-wave velocity structure, especially with a velocity reversal profile at typical geotechnical site investigations. This approach has been applied on field data acquired at a site in Niigata prefecture, Japan. In these field data, our inversion results show good agreement between the calculated and experimental dispersion curves and accurately detect low velocity layer targets

  18. Crustal structure of northern Egypt from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona; Gaber, Hanan; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we used a combined inversion of body wave receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements to provide constraints on the crustal structure of northern Egypt. The two techniques are complementary to each other: receiver functions (RFs) are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts, while surface wave dispersion (SWD) measurements are sensitive to finite variations of shear-wave velocity with depth. A database of 122 teleseismic events digitally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) stations has been used as well. To enhance the resulting RFs at each ENSN station, the H-k stacking method was applied. A joint inversion process between the resulting receiver functions and the surface wave dispersion curves was applied as well. We have produced three averaged velocity structure models for distinct geographic and tectonic provinces namely Sinai, eastern desert, and western desert from east to the west respectively. These models will deeply help in estimation the epicenter distance of earthquake, focal mechanism solutions, and earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt. An obvious image of the subsurface structure has been determined which shows that generally the crustal structure of northern Egypt consists of three layers covered with a sequence of sediments that differs in thickness from across the region except in the Sharm area where the sedimentary cover is absent. The obtained results indicate that crustal thickness differs from east to west and reaches its maximum value of about 36 km at Siwa station (SWA) in the western desert and its minimum value of about 28 km at Sharm station (SHR) of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. The Vp/Vs ratio varies between 1.71 and 2.07 in northern Egypt. Generally, the high values (1.93) of (Vp/Vs) at SWA station may reflect the well-known rich aquifer with fully saturated sediments of the Swia Oasis in the Western Desert. Moreover, the highest value (2.07) of (Vp/Vs) at

  19. Crustal structure of northern Egypt from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona; Gaber, Hanan; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we used a combined inversion of body wave receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements to provide constraints on the crustal structure of northern Egypt. The two techniques are complementary to each other: receiver functions (RFs) are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts, while surface wave dispersion (SWD) measurements are sensitive to finite variations of shear-wave velocity with depth. A database of 122 teleseismic events digitally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) stations has been used as well. To enhance the resulting RFs at each ENSN station, the H-k stacking method was applied. A joint inversion process between the resulting receiver functions and the surface wave dispersion curves was applied as well. We have produced three averaged velocity structure models for distinct geographic and tectonic provinces namely Sinai, eastern desert, and western desert from east to the west respectively. These models will deeply help in estimation the epicenter distance of earthquake, focal mechanism solutions, and earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt. An obvious image of the subsurface structure has been determined which shows that generally the crustal structure of northern Egypt consists of three layers covered with a sequence of sediments that differs in thickness from across the region except in the Sharm area where the sedimentary cover is absent. The obtained results indicate that crustal thickness differs from east to west and reaches its maximum value of about 36 km at Siwa station (SWA) in the western desert and its minimum value of about 28 km at Sharm station (SHR) of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. The Vp/Vs ratio varies between 1.71 and 2.07 in northern Egypt. Generally, the high values (1.93) of (Vp/Vs) at SWA station may reflect the well-known rich aquifer with fully saturated sediments of the Swia Oasis in the Western Desert. Moreover, the highest value (2.07) of (Vp/Vs) at

  20. Non-resonant oscillations for some third-order differential equations II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeilo, J.O.C.; Omari, P.

    1987-11-01

    The existence of 2π-periodic solutions to the equation x'''+ax''+g(t,x')+cx=p(t) is proved, under certain non-resonance conditions on the non-linear function g(t,y). Here a,c are constants, but the case where a,c are not necessarily constants is also discussed, subject to some rather special non-resonance conditions on g. The uniqueness of the solutions is also examined. (author). 12 refs

  1. Inversion of residual stress profiles from ultrasonic Rayleigh wave dispersion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P.; Spies, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate theoretically and with synthetic data the performance of several inversion methods to infer a residual stress state from ultrasonic surface wave dispersion data. We show that this particular problem may reveal in relevant materials undesired behaviors for some methods that could be reliably applied to infer other properties. We focus on two methods, one based on a Taylor-expansion, and another one based on a piecewise linear expansion regularized by a singular value decomposition. We explain the instabilities of the Taylor-based method by highlighting singularities in the series of coefficients. At the same time, we show that the other method can successfully provide performances which only weakly depend on the material.

  2. Spin-wave dispersion relations in disordered Fe-V alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Y.; Schibuya, N.; Kunitomi, N.; Wakabayashi, N.; Cooke, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    The spin-wave dispersion relations of the ferromagnetic disordered alloys Fe/sub 1-x/V/sub x/(x = 0.076, 0.135, 0.160, and 0.187) were studied by means of the inelastic scattering of neutrons. The observed dispersion relations are adequately represented by the power law, E = Dq 2 (1-βq 2 ), in a wide energy range up to 80 meV. The concentration dependence of the exchange stiffness constant D shows good agreement with previous results obtained by means of the small-angle scattering of neutrons and by the analysis of the temperature dependence of the bulk magnetization. The observed results can be explained by the Heisenberg model and, to some extent, by the itinerant-electron model

  3. Wave dispersion characteristics of axially loaded magneto-electro-elastic nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza; Dabbagh, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of wave propagation behavior of a magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) nanobeam is performed in the framework of classical beam theory. To capture small-scale effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen is applied. Furthermore, the material properties of nanobeam are assumed to vary gradually through the thickness based on power-law form. Nonlocal governing equations of MEE-FG nanobeam have been derived employing Hamilton's principle. The results of present research have been validated by comparing with those of previous investigations. An analytical solution of governing equations is utilized to obtain wave frequencies, phase velocities and escape frequencies. Effects of various parameters such as wave number, nonlocal parameter, gradient index, axial load, magnetic potential and electric voltage on wave dispersion characteristics of MEE-FG nanoscale beams are studied in detail.

  4. Effect of magnetic field on the wave dispersion relation in three-dimensional dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuefeng; Wang Zhengxiong

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional plasma crystals under microgravity condition are investigated by taking into account an external magnetic field. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the body centered cubic (bcc) and the face centered cubic (fcc) plasma crystals are obtained explicitly when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the wave motion. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the bcc and fcc plasma crystals are calculated numerically when the magnetic field is in an arbitrary direction. The numerical results show that one longitudinal mode and two transverse modes are coupled due to the Lorentz force in the magnetic field. Moreover, three wave modes, i.e., the high frequency phonon mode, the low frequency phonon mode, and the optical mode, are obtained. The optical mode and at least one phonon mode are hybrid modes. When the magnetic field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the primitive wave motion, all the three wave modes are hybrid modes and do not have any intersection points. It is also found that with increasing the magnetic field strength, the frequency of the optical mode increases and has a cutoff at the cyclotron frequency of the dust particles in the limit of long wavelength, and the mode mixings for both the optical mode and the high frequency phonon mode increase. The acoustic velocity of the low frequency phonon mode is zero. In addition, the acoustic velocity of the high frequency phonon mode depends on the angle of the magnetic field and the wave motion but does not depend on the magnetic field strength.

  5. A Kramers-Moyal approach to the analysis of third-order noise with applications in option valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Dan M; Lipan, Ovidiu

    2015-01-01

    We propose the use of the Kramers-Moyal expansion in the analysis of third-order noise. In particular, we show how the approach can be applied in the theoretical study of option valuation. Despite Pawula's theorem, which states that a truncated model may exhibit poor statistical properties, we show that for a third-order Kramers-Moyal truncation model of an option's and its underlier's price, important properties emerge: (i) the option price can be written in a closed analytical form that involves the Airy function, (ii) the price is a positive function for positive skewness in the distribution, (iii) for negative skewness, the price becomes negative only for price values that are close to zero. Moreover, using third-order noise in option valuation reveals additional properties: (iv) the inconsistencies between two popular option pricing approaches (using a "delta-hedged" portfolio and using an option replicating portfolio) that are otherwise equivalent up to the second moment, (v) the ability to develop a measure R of how accurately an option can be replicated by a mixture of the underlying stocks and cash, (vi) further limitations of second-order models revealed by introducing third-order noise.

  6. A third order accurate Lagrangian finite element scheme for the computation of generalized molecular stress function fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasano, Andrea; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2017-01-01

    A third order accurate, in time and space, finite element scheme for the numerical simulation of three- dimensional time-dependent flow of the molecular stress function type of fluids in a generalized formu- lation is presented. The scheme is an extension of the K-BKZ Lagrangian finite element me...

  7. On the periodic orbits of the Third-order differential equation x ' ' '- x ' ' x'- x= F(x,x',x ' ')

    OpenAIRE

    Llibre, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Agraïments: The second author is partially supported by CAPES/MECD-DGU 222/2010 Brazil and Spain In this paper we study the periodic orbits of the third-order differential equation x''' − µx'' + x' − µx = εF(x, x', x''), where ε is a small parameter and the function F is of class C2.

  8. Time-dependent density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order expansion of electron density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yoshio

    2015-09-07

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of excitation energies and excited state gradients for the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method with the third-order contributions of a Taylor series of the density functional theory energy with respect to the fluctuation of electron density (time-dependent density-functional tight-binding (TD-DFTB3)). The formulation of the excitation energy is based on the existing time-dependent density functional theory and the older TD-DFTB2 formulae. The analytical gradient is computed by solving Z-vector equations, and it requires one to calculate the third-order derivative of the total energy with respect to density matrix elements due to the inclusion of the third-order contributions. The comparison of adiabatic excitation energies for selected small and medium-size molecules using the TD-DFTB2 and TD-DFTB3 methods shows that the inclusion of the third-order contributions does not affect excitation energies significantly. A different set of parameters, which are optimized for DFTB3, slightly improves the prediction of adiabatic excitation energies statistically. The application of TD-DFTB for the prediction of absorption and fluorescence energies of cresyl violet demonstrates that TD-DFTB3 reproduced the experimental fluorescence energy quite well.

  9. Mixed problem with nonlocal boundary conditions for a third-order partial differential equation of mixed type

    OpenAIRE

    Denche, M.; Marhoune, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    We study a mixed problem with integral boundary conditions for a third-order partial differential equation of mixed type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The proof is based on two-sided a priori estimates and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the considered problem.

  10. Third-order particle-hole ring diagrams with contact-interactions and one-pion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, N. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department T39, Garching (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The third-order particle-hole ring diagrams are evaluated for a NN-contact interaction of the Skyrme type. The pertinent four-loop coefficients in the energy per particle anti E(k{sub f}) ∝ k{sub f}{sup 5+2n} are reduced to double integrals over cubic expressions in Euclidean polarization functions. Dimensional regularization of divergent integrals is performed by subtracting power divergences and the validity of this method is checked against the known analytical results at second order. The complete O(p{sup 2}) NN-contact interaction is obtained by adding two tensor terms and their third-order ring contributions are also calculated in detail. The third-order ring energy arising from long-range 1π-exchange is computed and it is found that direct and exchange contributions are all attractive. The very large size of the three-ring energy due to point-like 1π-exchange, anti E(k{sub f0}) ≅ -92 MeV at saturation density, is however in no way representative for that of realistic chiral NN-potentials. Moreover, the third-order (particle-particle and hole-hole) ladder diagrams are evaluated with the full O(p{sup 2}) contact interaction, and the simplest three-ring contributions to the isospin-asymmetry energy A(k{sub f}) ∝ k{sub f}{sup 5} are studied. (orig.)

  11. P-wave dispersion and its relationship to aortic stiffness in patients with acute myocardial infarction after cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzan Deniz Acar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to investigate the P-wave dispersion from standard electrocardiograms (ECGs in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI after cardiac rehabilitation (CR and determine its relation to arterial stiffness. METHODS: This is a prospective study included 33 patients with AMI and successfully re-vascularized by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI underwent CR. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was measured by biplane Simpson’s method. Left atrium (LA volume was calculated. The maximum and minimum durations of P-waves (Pmax and Pmin, respectively were detected, and the difference between Pmax and Pmin was defined as P-wave dispersion (Pd = Pmax–Pmin. Aortic elasticity parameters were measured. RESULTS: LVEF was better after CR. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased after CR, these differences were statistically significant. With exercise training, LA volume decreased significantly. Pmax and Pd values were significantly shorter after the CR program. The maximum and minimum P-waves and P-wave dispersion after CR were 97 ± 6 ms, 53 ± 5 ms, and 44 ± 5 ms, respectively. Aortic strain and distensibility increased and aortic stiffness index was decreased significantly. Aortic stiffness index was 0.4 ± 0.2 versus 0.3 ± 0.2, P = 0.001. Aortic stiffness and left atrial volume showed a moderate positive correlation with P-wave dispersion (r = 0.52, P = 0.005; r = 0.64, P = 0.000, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed decreased arterial stiffness indexes in AMI patient’s participated CR, with a significant relationship between the electromechanical properties of the LA that may raise a question of the preventive effect of CR from atrial fibrillation and stroke in patients with acute myocardial infarction.   Keywords: Cardiac Rehabilitation, P-Wave Dispersion, Aortic Stiffness, Acute Myocardial Infarction 

  12. Third order harmonic imaging for biological tissues using three phase-coded pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyu; Gong, Xiufen; Zhang, Dong

    2006-12-22

    Compared to the fundamental and the second harmonic imaging, the third harmonic imaging shows significant improvements in image quality due to the better resolution, but it is degraded by the lower sound pressure and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this study, a phase-coded pulse technique is proposed to selectively enhance the sound pressure of the third harmonic by 9.5 dB whereas the fundamental and the second harmonic components are efficiently suppressed and SNR is also increased by 4.7 dB. Based on the solution of the KZK nonlinear equation, the axial and lateral beam profiles of harmonics radiated from a planar piston transducer were theoretically simulated and experimentally examined. Finally, the third harmonic images using this technique were performed for several biological tissues and compared with the images obtained by the fundamental and the second harmonic imaging. Results demonstrate that the phase-coded pulse technique yields a dramatically cleaner and sharper contrast image.

  13. Third-order transfer matrices calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser including fringing-field effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mordik, S N

    2002-01-01

    The third-order transfer matrices are calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser using a rigorously conserved matrix method that implies the conservation of the beam phase volume at each step in the calculations. The transfer matrices (matrizants) obtained, include the fringing-field effect due to the stray fields. In the case of a rectangular distribution of the field components along the optical axis, the analytical expressions for all aberration coefficients, including the dispersion ones, are derived accurate to the third-order terms. In simulations of real fields with the stray field width other than zero, a smooth distribution of the field components is used for which similar aberration coefficients were calculated by means of the conserved numerical method . It has been found that for a smooth model, as the stray field width tends to zero, the aberration coefficients approach the corresponding aberration values in the rectangular model.

  14. Non-singlet coefficient functions for charged-current deep-inelastic scattering to the third order in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.; Vogt, A.

    2016-06-01

    We have calculated the coefficient functions for the structure functions F_2, F_L and F_3 in ν- anti ν charged-current deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) at the third order in the strong coupling α_s, thus completing the description of unpolarized inclusive W"±-exchange DIS to this order of massless perturbative QCD. In this brief note, our new results are presented in terms of compact approximate expressions that are sufficiently accurate for phenomenological analyses. For the benefit of such analyses we also collect, in a unified notation, the corresponding lower-order contributions and the flavour non-singlet coefficient functions for ν+ anti ν charged-current DIS. The behaviour of all six third-order coefficient functions at small Bjorken-x is briefly discussed.

  15. Third-Order Elliptic Lowpass Filter for Multi-Standard Baseband Chain Using Highly Linear Digitally Programmable OTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamien, Mohamed B.; Mahmoud, Soliman A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a third-order elliptic lowpass filter is designed using highly linear digital programmable balanced OTA. The filter exhibits a cutoff frequency tuning range from 2.2 MHz to 7.1 MHz, thus, it covers W-CDMA, UMTS, and DVB-H standards. The programmability concept in the filter is achieved by using digitally programmable operational transconductors amplifier (DPOTA). The DPOTA employs three linearization techniques which are the source degeneration, double differential pair and the adaptive biasing. Two current division networks (CDNs) are used to control the value of the transconductance. For the DPOTA, the third-order harmonic distortion (HD3) remains below -65 dB up to 0.4 V differential input voltage at 1.2 V supply voltage. The DPOTA and the filter are designed and simulated in 90 nm CMOS technology with LTspice simulator.

  16. Third-order transfer matrices calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser including fringing-field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordik, S.N.; Ponomarev, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    The third-order transfer matrices are calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser using a rigorously conserved matrix method that implies the conservation of the beam phase volume at each step in the calculations. The transfer matrices (matrizants) obtained, include the fringing-field effect due to the stray fields. In the case of a rectangular distribution of the field components along the optical axis, the analytical expressions for all aberration coefficients, including the dispersion ones, are derived accurate to the third-order terms. In simulations of real fields with the stray field width other than zero, a smooth distribution of the field components is used for which similar aberration coefficients were calculated by means of the conserved numerical method . It has been found that for a smooth model, as the stray field width tends to zero, the aberration coefficients approach the corresponding aberration values in the rectangular model

  17. Semi-local machine-learned kinetic energy density functional with third-order gradients of electron density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junji; Kageyama, Ryo; Fujinami, Mikito; Ikabata, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Hiromi

    2018-06-01

    A semi-local kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) was constructed based on machine learning (ML). The present scheme adopts electron densities and their gradients up to third-order as the explanatory variables for ML and the Kohn-Sham (KS) kinetic energy density as the response variable in atoms and molecules. Numerical assessments of the present scheme were performed in atomic and molecular systems, including first- and second-period elements. The results of 37 conventional KEDFs with explicit formulae were also compared with those of the ML KEDF with an implicit formula. The inclusion of the higher order gradients reduces the deviation of the total kinetic energies from the KS calculations in a stepwise manner. Furthermore, our scheme with the third-order gradient resulted in the closest kinetic energies to the KS calculations out of the presented functionals.

  18. Higher P-Wave Dispersion in Migraine Patients with Higher Number of Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koçer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Aim. An imbalance of the sympathetic system may explain many of the clinical manifestations of the migraine. We aimed to evaluate P-waves as a reveal of sympathetic system function in migraine patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods. Thirty-five episodic type of migraine patients (complained of migraine during 5 years or more, BMI < 30 kg/m2 and 30 controls were included in our study. We measured P-wave durations (minimum, maximum, and dispersion from 12-lead ECG recording during pain-free periods. ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then used for magnification of x400 by Adobe Photoshop software. Results. P-wave durations were found to be similar between migraine patients and controls. Although P WD (P-wave dispersion was similar, the mean value was higher in migraine subjects. P WD was positively correlated with P max (P<0.01. Attacks number per month and male gender were the factors related to the P WD (P<0.01. Conclusions. Many previous studies suggested that increased sympathetic activity may cause an increase in P WD. We found that P WD of migraine patients was higher than controls, and P WD was related to attacks number per month and male gender. Further studies are needed to explain the chronic effects of migraine.

  19. Assessment of atrial electromechanical interval and P wave dispersion in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayır, Pınar Türker; Güray, Ümit; Duyuler, Serkan; Demirkan, Burcu; Kayaalp, Oya; Kanat, Selçuk; Güray, Yeşim

    2016-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, including ischemic stroke. Prolonged atrial electromechanical interval (EMI) is related to increased atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. The aim of the study is to evaluate atrial EMI and electrocardiographic P-wave indices related to increased AF risk in patients with PCOS. Forty PCOS patients diagnosed on the basis of the Rotterdam criteria and 20 age-matched controls were prospectively included. patients with atrioventricular or intraventricular conduction abnormalities, dysrhythmia or taking antiarrhythmic drugs, atherosclerotic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular lesions, pericardial disease, a history of pulmonary emboli or pulmonary hypertension, and abnormal thyroid function were excluded. Intra and interatrial EMI were measured by tissue Doppler imaging and P-wave dispersion (Pd) was calculated on 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). The Isovolumetric relaxation time was the interval between the aortic valve closure artifact at the end of the LV outflow envelope and the mitral valve opening artifact at the beginning of the mitral E wave. Patients with PCOS had significantly higher interatrial [38 (24-65) ms vs. 16 (9-19) ms pPCOS group compared with control group [45 (27-60) ms vs. 30 (26-38) ms, pPCOS. PCOS is associated with prolonged inter- and intra-atrial conduction times, which are related to increased AF risk.

  20. The influence of multiple ion species on Alfven wave dispersion and Alfven wave plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfimov, A.G.; Tataronis, J.A.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of light impurities, such as deuterium, helium, or carbon, on Alfven wave dispersion characteristics are explored. It is shown that a small population of light impurities in a hydrogen plasma modify the dispersion of the global Alfven waves and the Alfven continuum in such a way that the wave frequency depends weakly on the toroidal wave number. It is also shown that the global Alfven wave enters into the Alfven continuum. Under these conditions, it is possible to heat plasma efficiently by employing an antenna with a broad toroidal wavelength spectrum. The relationship between impurity concentration and the efficiency of Alfven wave heating is explored. Under appropriate conditions, the results indicate that in the presence of impurities, Alfven waves can heat electrons predominantly in the central part of the plasma. This effect is explored via a series of numerical calculations of the heating specifically for the Phaedrus-T Alfven wave heating experiment [Phys. Fluids B 5, 2506 (1993)

  1. Spin-wave dispersion of nanostructured magnonic crystals with periodic defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The spin-wave dispersions in nanostructured magnonic crystals with periodic defects have been mapped by Brillouin light scattering. The otherwise perfect crystals are one-dimensional arrays of alternating 460nm-wide Ni80Fe20 stripes and 40nm-wide air gaps, where one in ten Ni80Fe20 stripes is a defect of width other than 460 nm. Experimentally, the defects are manifested as additional Brillouin peaks, lying within the first and second bandgaps of the perfect crystal, whose frequencies decrease with increasing defect stripe width. Finite-element calculations, based on a supercell comprising one defect and nine perfect Py stripes, show that the defect modes are localized about the defects, with the localization exhibiting an approximate U-shaped dependence on defect size. Calculations also reveal extra magnon branches and the opening of mini-bandgaps, within the allowed bands of the perfect crystal, arising from Bragg reflections at the boundaries of the shorter supercell Brillouin zone. Simulated magnetization profiles of the band-edge modes of the major and mini-bandgaps reveal their different symmetries and localization properties. The findings could find application in microwave magnonic devices like single-frequency passband spin-wave filters.

  2. P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration are independently associated with rapid renal function decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ho-Ming; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    The P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as noninvasive tools to assess for left atrial enlargement. There are limited studies to evaluate whether P wave parameters are independently associated with decline in renal function. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess whether P wave parameters are independently associated with progression to renal end point of ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This longitudinal study included 166 patients. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected by heart rate, i.e. corrected P wave dispersion (PWdisperC) and corrected P wave maximum duration (PWdurMaxC). Heart function and structure were measured from echocardiography. Clinical data, P wave parameters, and echocardiographic measurements were compared and analyzed. Forty-three patients (25.9%) reached renal end point. Kaplan-Meier curves for renal end point-free survival showed PWdisperC > median (63.0 ms) (log-rank P = 0.004) and PWdurMaxC > median (117.9 ms) (log-rank Pfunction decline.

  3. Determining the near-surface current profile from measurements of the wave dispersion relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Benjamin; Maxwell, Peter; Aesøy, Eirik; Ellingsen, Simen

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced Doppler shifts of waves can yield information about the background mean flow, providing an attractive method of inferring the current profile in the upper layer of the ocean. We present measurements of waves propagating on shear currents in a laboratory water channel, as well as theoretical investigations of inversion techniques for determining the vertical current structure. Spatial and temporal measurements of the free surface profile obtained using a synthetic Schlieren method are analyzed to determine the wave dispersion relation and Doppler shifts as a function of wavelength. The vertical current profile can then be inferred from the Doppler shifts using an inversion algorithm. Most existing algorithms rely on a priori assumptions of the shape of the current profile, and developing a method that uses less stringent assumptions is a focus of this study, allowing for measurement of more general current profiles. The accuracy of current inversion algorithms are evaluated by comparison to measurements of the mean flow profile from particle image velocimetry (PIV), and a discussion of the sensitivity to errors in the Doppler shifts is presented.

  4. Tweaking the spin-wave dispersion and suppressing the incommensurate phase in LiNiPO4 by iron substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2009-01-01

    ) indicates the instability of the Ising-type ground state that eventually evolves into the incommensurate phase as the temperature is raised. The pure LiNiPO4 system (x=0) undergoes a first-order magnetic phase transition from a long-range incommensurate phase to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state at TN......Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering studies of Li(Ni1−xFex)PO4 single crystals reveal anomalous spin-wave dispersions along the crystallographic direction parallel to the characteristic wave vector of the magnetic incommensurate phase. The anomalous spin-wave dispersion (magnetic soft mode......=20.8 K. At 20% Fe concentrations, although the AFM ground state is to a large extent preserved as that of the pure system, the phase transition is second order, and the incommensurate phase is completely suppressed. Analysis of the dispersion curves using a Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian that includes...

  5. Evaluation of P-Wave Dispersion, Diastolic Function, and Atrial Electromechanical Conduction in Pediatric Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irdem, Ahmet; Aydın Sahin, Derya; Kervancioglu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Osman; Sucu, Murat; Keskin, Mehmet; Kilinc, Metin

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate ventricular diastolic dysfunction, inter- and intraatrial conduction delay, and P-wave dispersion in pediatric patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The study comprised a total of 30 pediatric patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (mean age 7.8 ± 3.2 years) and 30 healthy children (mean age 8.4 ± 3.6 years) as the control group. A SH diagnosis was made in the event of increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased serum free triiodothyronine (T3 ) and free thyroxine (T4 ) concentrations. Conventional Doppler imaging (TDI) showed low mitral early diastolic E-wave velocity and E/A ratio (P wave velocity (P = 0.001) in hypothyroidism patients. Moreover, patients with hypothyroidism had significantly lower left ventricular (LV) septal Em velocity and Em /Am ratios compared with the control group (P wave dispersion was significantly different in the pediatric patients with hypothyroidism (P wave dispersion, and ventricle diastolic dysfunction in pediatric patients with hypothyroidism. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  7. A third-order moving mesh cell-centered scheme for one-dimensional elastic-plastic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun-Bo; Huang, Weizhang; Jiang, Song; Tian, Baolin

    2017-11-01

    A third-order moving mesh cell-centered scheme without the remapping of physical variables is developed for the numerical solution of one-dimensional elastic-plastic flows with the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state, the Wilkins constitutive model, and the von Mises yielding criterion. The scheme combines the Lagrangian method with the MMPDE moving mesh method and adaptively moves the mesh to better resolve shock and other types of waves while preventing the mesh from crossing and tangling. It can be viewed as a direct arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian method but can also be degenerated to a purely Lagrangian scheme. It treats the relative velocity of the fluid with respect to the mesh as constant in time between time steps, which allows high-order approximation of free boundaries. A time dependent scaling is used in the monitor function to avoid possible sudden movement of the mesh points due to the creation or diminishing of shock and rarefaction waves or the steepening of those waves. A two-rarefaction Riemann solver with elastic waves is employed to compute the Godunov values of the density, pressure, velocity, and deviatoric stress at cell interfaces. Numerical results are presented for three examples. The third-order convergence of the scheme and its ability to concentrate mesh points around shock and elastic rarefaction waves are demonstrated. The obtained numerical results are in good agreement with those in literature. The new scheme is also shown to be more accurate in resolving shock and rarefaction waves than an existing third-order cell-centered Lagrangian scheme.

  8. Third order trace formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560 064, India. 2Indian Institute of ... for rational functions φ with poles off R. In [5,16], Koplienko's trace formula was derived ... be a sequence of complex numbers such that ..... Again if we set the sum of the second and fourth term inside the integral in (2.3) to be. I2 ≡.

  9. Calculated Third Order Rate Constants for Interpreting the Mechanisms of Hydrolyses of Chloroformates, Carboxylic Acid Halides, Sulfonyl Chlorides and Phosphorochloridates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. William Bentley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolyses of acid derivatives (e.g., carboxylic acid chlorides and fluorides, fluoro- and chloroformates, sulfonyl chlorides, phosphorochloridates, anhydrides exhibit pseudo-first order kinetics. Reaction mechanisms vary from those involving a cationic intermediate (SN1 to concerted SN2 processes, and further to third order reactions, in which one solvent molecule acts as the attacking nucleophile and a second molecule acts as a general base catalyst. A unified framework is discussed, in which there are two reaction channels—an SN1-SN2 spectrum and an SN2-SN3 spectrum. Third order rate constants (k3 are calculated for solvolytic reactions in a wide range of compositions of acetone-water mixtures, and are shown to be either approximately constant or correlated with the Grunwald-Winstein Y parameter. These data and kinetic solvent isotope effects, provide the experimental evidence for the SN2-SN3 spectrum (e.g., for chloro- and fluoroformates, chloroacetyl chloride, p-nitrobenzoyl p-toluenesulfonate, sulfonyl chlorides. Deviations from linearity lead to U- or V-shaped plots, which assist in the identification of the point at which the reaction channel changes from SN2-SN3 to SN1-SN2 (e.g., for benzoyl chloride.

  10. Design of an ultra low power third order continuous time current mode ΣΔ modulator for WLAN applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Kobra; Baghelani, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a third order continuous time current mode ΣΔ modulator for WLAN 802.11b standard applications. The proposed circuit utilized feedback architecture with scaled and optimized DAC coefficients. At circuit level, we propose a modified cascade current mirror integrator with reduced input impedance which results in more bandwidth and linearity and hence improves the dynamic range. Also, a very fast and precise novel dynamic latch based current comparator is introduced with low power consumption. This ultra fast comparator facilitates increasing the sampling rate toward GHz frequencies. The modulator exhibits dynamic range of more than 60 dB for 20 MHz signal bandwidth and OSR of 10 while consuming only 914 μW from 1.8 V power supply. The FoM of the modulator is calculated from two different methods, and excellent performance is achieved for proposed modulator.

  11. Nonlinear electromagnetic susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    Fully electromagnetic nonlinear susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas are analyzed in detail. Concrete expressions of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility are found in various forms in the literature, usually in connection with the discussions of various three-wave decay processes, but the third-order susceptibilities are rarely discussed. The second-order susceptibility is pertinent to nonlinear wave-wave interactions (i.e., the decay/coalescence), whereas the third-order susceptibilities affect nonlinear wave-particle interactions (i.e., the induced scattering). In the present article useful approximate analytical expressions of these nonlinear susceptibilities that can be readily utilized in various situations are derived

  12. Stress-dependent permeability and wave dispersion in tight cracked rocks: Experimental validation of simple effective medium models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarout, Joel; Cazes, Emilie; Delle Piane, Claudio; Arena, Alessio; Esteban, Lionel

    2017-08-01

    We experimentally assess the impact of microstructure, pore fluid, and frequency on wave velocity, wave dispersion, and permeability in thermally cracked Carrara marble under effective pressure up to 50 MPa. The cracked rock is isotropic, and we observe that (1) P and S wave velocities at 500 kHz and the low-strain (S waves and 9% for P waves at 1 MPa, and (4) wave dispersion virtually vanishes above 30 MPa. Assuming no interactions between the cracks, effective medium theory is used to model the rock's elastic response and its permeability. P and S wave velocity data are jointly inverted to recover the crack density and effective aspect ratio. The permeability data are inverted to recover the cracks' effective radius. These parameters lead to a good agreement between predicted and measured wave velocities, dispersion and permeability up to 50 MPa, and up to a crack density of 0.5. The evolution of the crack parameters suggests that three deformation regimes exist: (1) contact between cracks' surface asperities up to 10 MPa, (2) progressive crack closure between 10 and 30 MPa, and (3) crack closure effectively complete above 30 MPa. The derived crack parameters differ significantly from those obtained by analysis of 2-D electron microscope images of thin sections or 3-D X-ray microtomographic images of millimeter-size specimens.

  13. Third-order optical model analysis of e+-H(2s), e+-He(21S) and e+-He(23S) elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucic, S.; Potvliege, R.M.; Joachain, C.J.; Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve

    1987-01-01

    We study the elastic scattering of electrons by the metastable states H(2s), He(2 1 S) and He(2 3 S) at intermediate energies within the framework of the third-order optical potential theory. The first-, second- and third-order contributions to the optical potential are analysed separately, and are compared with the corresponding quantities for e - H(1s) and e - He(1 1 S) elastic scattering. Results for positron impact scattering are also presented. (author)

  14. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  15. A fresh look at the photoelectron spectrum of bromobenzene: A third-order non-Dyson electron propagator study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Wormit, M.; Dreuw, A.; Soshnikov, D. Yu.; Trofimov, A. B.; Holland, D. M. P.; Powis, I.; Antonsson, E.; Patanen, M.; Nicolas, C.; Miron, C.

    2015-01-01

    The valence-shell ionization spectrum of bromobenzene, as a representative halogen substituted aromatic, was studied using the non-Dyson third-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction [nD-ADC(3)] approximation for the electron propagator. This method, also referred to as IP-ADC(3), was implemented as a part of the Q-Chem program and enables large-scale calculations of the ionization spectra, where the computational effort scales as n 5 with respect to the number of molecular orbitals n. The IP-ADC(3) scheme is ideally suited for investigating low-lying ionization transitions, so fresh insight could be gained into the cationic state manifold of bromobenzene. In particular, the present IP-ADC(3) calculations with the cc-pVTZ basis reveal a whole class of low-lying low-intensity two-hole-one-particle (2h-1p) doublet and quartet states, which are relevant to various photoionization processes. The good qualitative agreement between the theoretical spectral profile for the valence-shell ionization transitions generated with the smaller cc-pVDZ basis set and the experimental photoelectron spectrum measured at a photon energy of 80 eV on the PLÉIADES beamline at the Soleil synchrotron radiation source allowed all the main features to be assigned. Some theoretical aspects of the ionization energy calculations concerning the use of various approximation schemes and basis sets are discussed

  16. A third-order gas-kinetic CPR method for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on triangular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Qibing; Fu, Song; Wang, Z. J.

    2018-06-01

    A third-order accurate gas-kinetic scheme based on the correction procedure via reconstruction (CPR) framework is developed for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on triangular meshes. The scheme combines the accuracy and efficiency of the CPR formulation with the multidimensional characteristics and robustness of the gas-kinetic flux solver. Comparing with high-order finite volume gas-kinetic methods, the current scheme is more compact and efficient by avoiding wide stencils on unstructured meshes. Unlike the traditional CPR method where the inviscid and viscous terms are treated differently, the inviscid and viscous fluxes in the current scheme are coupled and computed uniformly through the kinetic evolution model. In addition, the present scheme adopts a fully coupled spatial and temporal gas distribution function for the flux evaluation, achieving high-order accuracy in both space and time within a single step. Numerical tests with a wide range of flow problems, from nearly incompressible to supersonic flows with strong shocks, for both inviscid and viscous problems, demonstrate the high accuracy and efficiency of the present scheme.

  17. A boundary value problem for a third order hyperbolic equation with degeneration of order inside the domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzanna Kh. Makaova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the boundary value problem for a degenerating third order equation of hyperbolic type in a mixed domain. The equation under consideration in the positive part of the domain coincides with the Hallaire equation, which is a pseudoparabolic type equation. Moreover, in the negative part of the domain it coincides with a degenerating hyperbolic equation of the first kind, the particular case of the Bitsadze–Lykov equation. The existence and uniqueness theorem for the solution is proved. The uniqueness of the solution to the problem is proved with the Tricomi method. Using the functional relationships of the positive and negative parts of the domain on the degeneration line, we arrive at the convolution type Volterra integral equation of the 2nd kind with respect to the desired solution by a derivative trace. With the Laplace transform method, we obtain the solution of the integral equation in its explicit form. At last, the solution to the problem under study is written out explicitly as the solution of the second boundary-value problem in the positive part of the domain for the Hallaire equation and as the solution to the Cauchy problem in the negative part of the domain for a degenerate hyperbolic equation of the first kind.

  18. Determination of Equilibrium Constant and Relative Brightness in FRET-FCS by Including the Third-Order Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingyi; He, Shanshan; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2017-12-21

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) encodes the information on the equilibrium constant (K), the relative fluorescence brightness of fluorophore (Q), and the forward and backward reaction rate constants (k + and k - ) on a physical or chemical relaxation. However, it has been a long-standing problem to completely resolve the FCS data to get the thermodynamic and kinetic information. Recently, we have solved the problem for fluorescence autocorrelation spectroscopy (FACS). Here, we extend the method to fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), which appears when FCS is coupled with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Among 12 total second-order and third-order pre-exponential factors in a relaxation process probed by the FRET-FCS technique, 3 are independent. We presented and discussed 3 sets of explicit solutions to use these pre-exponential factors to calculate K and Q. Together with the relaxation time, the acquired K will allow people to obtain k + and k - , so that the goal of deciphering the FRET-FCS data will be fully reached. The theory is verified by extensive computer simulations and tested experimentally on a system of oligonucleotide hybridization.

  19. Climate Simulations from Super-parameterized and Conventional General Circulation Models with a Third-order Turbulence Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Cheng, Anning

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution cloud-resolving model (CRM) embedded in a general circulation model (GCM) is an attractive alternative for climate modeling because it replaces all traditional cloud parameterizations and explicitly simulates cloud physical processes in each grid column of the GCM. Such an approach is called "Multiscale Modeling Framework." MMF still needs to parameterize the subgrid-scale (SGS) processes associated with clouds and large turbulent eddies because circulations associated with planetary boundary layer (PBL) and in-cloud turbulence are unresolved by CRMs with horizontal grid sizes on the order of a few kilometers. A third-order turbulence closure (IPHOC) has been implemented in the CRM component of the super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SPCAM). IPHOC is used to predict (or diagnose) fractional cloudiness and the variability of temperature and water vapor at scales that are not resolved on the CRM's grid. This model has produced promised results, especially for low-level cloud climatology, seasonal variations and diurnal variations (Cheng and Xu 2011, 2013a, b; Xu and Cheng 2013a, b). Because of the enormous computational cost of SPCAM-IPHOC, which is 400 times of a conventional CAM, we decided to bypass the CRM and implement the IPHOC directly to CAM version 5 (CAM5). IPHOC replaces the PBL/stratocumulus, shallow convection, and cloud macrophysics parameterizations in CAM5. Since there are large discrepancies in the spatial and temporal scales between CRM and CAM5, IPHOC used in CAM5 has to be modified from that used in SPCAM. In particular, we diagnose all second- and third-order moments except for the fluxes. These prognostic and diagnostic moments are used to select a double-Gaussian probability density function to describe the SGS variability. We also incorporate a diagnostic PBL height parameterization to represent the strong inversion above PBL. The goal of this study is to compare the simulation of the climatology from these three

  20. Impact of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux on electroosmotic transport of third-order fluids in a magnetic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, J. C.; Mallick, B.; Sinha, A.; Roy Chowdhury, A.

    2018-05-01

    In the case of steady flow of a fluid under the combined influence of external electric and magnetic fields, the fluid moves forward by forming an axial momentum boundary layer. With this end in view a study has been performed here to investigate the problem of entropy generation during electroosmotically modulated flow of a third-order electrically conducting fluid flowing on a microchannel bounded by silicon-made parallel plates under the influence of a magnetic field, by paying due consideration to the steric effect. The associated mechanism of heat transfer has also been duly taken care of, by considering Cattaneo-Christov heat flux. A suitable finite difference scheme has been developed for the numerical procedure. A detailed study of the velocity and temperature distributions has been made by considering their variations with respect to different physical parameters involved in the problem. The results of numerical computation have been displayed graphically. The computational work has been carried out by considering blood as the working fluid, with the motivation of exploring some interesting phenomena in the context of hemodynamical flow in micro-vessels. Among other variables, parametric variations of the important physical variables, viz. i) skin friction and ii) Nusselt number have been investigated. The study confirms that the random motion of the fluid particles can be controlled by a suitable adjustment of the intensity of an externally applied magnetic field in the transverse direction. It is further revealed that the Nusselt number diminishes, as the Prandtl number gradually increases; however, a steady increase in the Nusselt number occurs with increase in thermal relaxation. Entropy generation is also found to be enhanced with increase in Joule heating. The results of the present study have also been validated in a proper manner.

  1. Wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid supported on linear viscoelastic two-parameter foundation including thermal and small-scale effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Nima; Moosavi, Hassan; Aghaei, Hosein; Afrand, Masoud; Wongwises, Somchai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a nonlocal Timoshenko beam model is employed for studying the wave dispersion of a fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube on Viscoelastic Pasternak foundation under high and low temperature change. In addition, the phase and group velocity for the nanotube are discussed, respectively. The influences of Winkler and Pasternak modulus, homogenous temperature change, steady flow velocity and damping factor of viscoelastic foundation on wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes are investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of the wave for carbon nanotubes conveying fluid is the normal dispersion. Moreover, implying viscoelastic foundation leads to increasing the wave frequencies.

  2. Guided waves dispersion equations for orthotropic multilayered pipes solved using standard finite elements code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoi, Mihai Valentin

    2014-09-01

    The dispersion curves for hollow multilayered cylinders are prerequisites in any practical guided waves application on such structures. The equations for homogeneous isotropic materials have been established more than 120 years ago. The difficulties in finding numerical solutions to analytic expressions remain considerable, especially if the materials are orthotropic visco-elastic as in the composites used for pipes in the last decades. Among other numerical techniques, the semi-analytical finite elements method has proven its capability of solving this problem. Two possibilities exist to model a finite elements eigenvalue problem: a two-dimensional cross-section model of the pipe or a radial segment model, intersecting the layers between the inner and the outer radius of the pipe. The last possibility is here adopted and distinct differential problems are deduced for longitudinal L(0,n), torsional T(0,n) and flexural F(m,n) modes. Eigenvalue problems are deduced for the three modes classes, offering explicit forms of each coefficient for the matrices used in an available general purpose finite elements code. Comparisons with existing solutions for pipes filled with non-linear viscoelastic fluid or visco-elastic coatings as well as for a fully orthotropic hollow cylinder are all proving the reliability and ease of use of this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental verification of a self-consistent theory of the first-, second-, and third-order (non)linear optical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Moreno, Javier; Hung, Sheng-Ting; Kuzyk, Mark G.; Zhou, Juefei; Ramini, Shiva K.; Clays, Koen

    2011-01-01

    We show that a combination of linear absorption spectroscopy, hyper-Rayleigh scattering, and a theoretical analysis using sum rules to reduce the size of the parameter space leads to a prediction of the imaginary part of the second hyperpolarizability of the dye AF-455 that agrees with the experimental data gathered through two-photon absorption spectroscopy. Our procedure, which demands self-consistency between several measurement techniques and does not use adjustable parameters, provides a means for determining transition moments between the dominant excited states based strictly on experimental characterization. This is made possible by our new approach that uses sum rules and molecular symmetry to rigorously reduce the number of required physical quantities.

  4. The determination of Fe, Mn and Ca in sintered iron and blast-furnace slag by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and wave dispersion-comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworak, B.; Gajek, Sz.

    1980-01-01

    The results of sintered iron and of blast-furnace slag examination obtained by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and of wave dispersion are compared. They show that the methods are comparable for such elements as Ca and Fe, whereas for Mn (in sinter) the X-ray fluorescent analysis of wave dispersion is less precise. (author)

  5. Comparison of P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs, dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicpoń Józef

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P-wave dispersion (Pd is a new ECG index used in human cardiology and veterinary medicine. It is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different ECG leads. So far no studies were performed assessing the importance of P-wave dispersion in dogs. Methods The current study was aimed at determining proper value of Pd in healthy dogs (group I, dogs with chronic valvular disease (group II and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction (group III. The tests were carried out in 53 healthy dogs, 23 dogs with chronic valvular disease and 12 dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction of various breeds, sexes and body weight from 1,5 to 80 kg, aged between 0,5 and 17 years, submitted to the ECG examination. ECG was acquired in dogs in a standing position with BTL SD-8 electrocardiographic device and analyzed once the recording was enlarged. P-wave duration was calculated in 9 ECG leads (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1, V2, V4 from 5 cardiac cycles. Results The proper P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs was determined at up to 24 ms. P-wave dispersion was statistically significant increased (p Conclusions The P-wave dispersion is a constant index in healthy dogs, that is why it can be used for evaluating P wave change in dogs with chronic valvular disease and in dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction.

  6. Phase locking of a 3.4 THz third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser using a room-temperature superlattice harmonic mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayton, D. J.; Khudchencko, A.; Pavelyev, D. G.; Hovenier, J. N.; Baryshev, A.; Gao, J. R.; Kao, T. Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.; Vaks, V.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the phase locking of a 3.4 THz third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) using a room temperature GaAs/AlAs superlattice diode as both a frequency multiplier and an internal harmonic mixer. A signal-to-noise level of 60 dB is observed in the intermediate frequency

  7. Phase locking of a 3.4 THz third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser using a room-temperature superlattice harmonic mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayton, D.J.; Khudchenko, A.; Pavelyev, D.G.; Hovenier, J.N.; Baryshev, A.; Gao, J.R.; Kao, T.Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J.L.; Vaks, V.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the phase locking of a 3.4 THz third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) using a room temperature GaAs/AlAs superlattice diode as both a frequency multiplier and an internal harmonic mixer. A signal-to-noise level of 60?dB is observed in the intermediate frequency

  8. A Third-Order Item Response Theory Model for Modeling the Effects of Domains and Subdomains in Large-Scale Educational Assessment Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijmen, Frank; Jeon, Minjeong; von Davier, Matthias; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Second-order item response theory models have been used for assessments consisting of several domains, such as content areas. We extend the second-order model to a third-order model for assessments that include subdomains nested in domains. Using a graphical model framework, it is shown how the model does not suffer from the curse of…

  9. Use of cycle stacking patterns to define third-order depositional sequences: Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation, southern Great basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanez, I.P.; Droser, M.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation (CA, NV) is characterized by superimposed scales of cyclicity. Small-scale cycles (0.5 to 10m) occur as shallowing-upward peritidal and subtidal cycles that repeat at high frequencies (10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5}). Systematic changes in stacking patterns of meter-scale cycles define several large-scale (50-250 m) third-order depositional sequences in the Bonanza King Formation. Third-order depositional sequences can be traced within ranges and correlated regionally across the platform. Peritidal cycles in the Bonanza King Formation are both subtidal- and tidal flat-dominated. Tidal flat-dominated cycles consist of muddy bases grading upward into thrombolites or columnar stromatolites all capped by planar stromatolites. Subtidal cycles in the Bonanza King Formation consist of grainstone bases that commonly fine upward and contain stacked hardgrounds. These are overlain by digitate-algal bioherms with grainstone channel fills and/or bioturbated ribbon carbonates with grainstone lenses. Transgressive depositional facies of third-order depositional sequences consist primarily of stacks of subtidal-dominated pertidial cycles and subtidal cycles, whereas regressive depositional facies are dominated by stacks of tidal flat-dominated peritidal cycles and regoliths developed over laminite cycle caps. The use of high frequency cycles in the Bonanza King Formation to delineate regionally developed third-order depositional sequences thus provides a link between cycle stratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy.

  10. Facies-succession and architecture of the third-order sequences and their stratigraphic framework of the Devonian in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Mingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian orogeny at the end of the Silurian resulted in great changes in the palaeogeography in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area of South China; the continental area of the Early Paleozoic evolved into the extensive Dian-Qian-Gui Sea in the Late Paleozoic. Early in the Devonian, as a result of a major transgression, seawater encroached gradually from the south to the north and clastic facies were deposited. Carbonate deposition was then established in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, with a palaeogeography marked by attached platforms, isolated platforms and narrow basins. As a result of the Ziyun movement towards the end of the Devonian, the Upper Devonian strata are regressive and thin out from the open-sea to the land areas. A study of the nature and distribution of sedimentary facies in space and time recognises 13 third-order sequences in the Devonian strata in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, and these form two second-order sequences. The strata of the Lower Devonian comprise 5 third-order sequences (SQ1 to SQ5, which are dominated by transgressive clastics. 4 third-order sequences (SQ6 to SQ9 in the Middle Devonian are characterized by alternations of transgressive clastics and highstand carbonates. In the Upper Devonian, carbonates constitute 4 third-order sequences (SQ10 to SQ13, which are generally marked by the transgressive limestones and highstand dolomites. On the basis of earlier biostratigraphic studies, sea-level changes represented by the third-order sequences with their different facies successions are explored, and the sequence stratigraphic framework is established. Therefore, the Devonian strata in the study area provide an example for further understanding of depositional trends within the sequence-stratigraphic framework.

  11. Dynamic aperture calculation for 100 GeV Au-Au and 250 GeV pp lattices with near third order resonance working point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X.; Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the preparation for the 2011 RHIC 250 GeV polarized proton (pp) run, both experiment and simulation were carried out to investigate the possibility to accelerate the proton beam with a vertical tune near 2/3. It had been found experimentally in Run-9 that accelerating the proton beam with a vertical tune close to 2/3 will greatly benefit the transmission of the proton polarization. In this note, we report the calculated dynamic apertures with the 100 GeV Au run and 250 GeV proton run lattices with vertical tunes close to the third order resonance. We will compare the third order resonance band width between the beam experiment and the simulation with the 100 GeV Au lattices. And we also will compare the calculated resonance band width between the 100 GeV Au and 250 GeV proton run lattices.

  12. Absolute measurement of the subcriticality based on the third order neutron correlation in consideration of the finite nature of neutron counts data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tomohiro; Kitamura, Yasunori; Yamane, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    We have studied a measurement of subcriticality by using the neutron correlation method. Furuhashi proposed an absolute measurement of subcriticality by using the third order neutron correlation factor X in addition to the second order neutron correlation factor Y. In actual experiments, the number of neutron counts data is not infinity so that we take the effect of the finite nature of the neutron counts data into account. We derived new formulas in consideration of the number of data and verified them. (author)

  13. Differential and Difference Boundary Value Problem for Loaded Third-Order Pseudo-Parabolic Differential Equations and Difference Methods for Their Numerical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshtokov, M. Kh.

    2017-12-01

    Boundary value problems for loaded third-order pseudo-parabolic equations with variable coefficients are considered. A priori estimates for the solutions of the problems in the differential and difference formulations are obtained. These a priori estimates imply the uniqueness and stability of the solution with respect to the initial data and the right-hand side on a layer, as well as the convergence of the solution of each difference problem to the solution of the corresponding differential problem.

  14. Difference method for solving a nonlocal boundary value problem for a degenerating third-order pseudo-parabolic equation with variable coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshtokov, M. Kh.

    2016-10-01

    A nonlocal boundary value problem for a degenerating third-order pseudo-parabolic equation with variable coefficients is considered. For solving this problem, a priori estimates in the differential and difference forms are obtained. The a priori estimates imply the uniqueness and stability of the solution on a layer with respect to the initial data and the right-hand side and the convergence of the solution of the difference problem to the solution of the differential problem.

  15. Optimization for nonlinear inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, G.; Brandmayr, E.; Pinat, T.; Panza, G.F.

    2007-06-01

    The nonlinear inversion of geophysical data in general does not yield a unique solution, but a single model, representing the investigated field, is preferred for an easy geological interpretation of the observations. The analyzed region is constituted by a number of sub-regions where the multi-valued nonlinear inversion is applied, which leads to a multi-valued solution. Therefore, combining the values of the solution in each sub-region, many acceptable models are obtained for the entire region and this complicates the geological interpretation of geophysical investigations. In this paper are presented new methodologies, capable to select one model, among all acceptable ones, that satisfies different criteria of smoothness in the explored space of solutions. In this work we focus on the non-linear inversion of surface waves dispersion curves, which gives structural models of shear-wave velocity versus depth, but the basic concepts have a general validity. (author)

  16. A new modeling strategy for third-order fast high-performance liquid chromatographic data with fluorescence detection. Quantitation of fluoroquinolones in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaráz, Mirta R; Bortolato, Santiago A; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2015-03-01

    Matrix augmentation is regularly employed in extended multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS), as applied to analytical calibration based on second- and third-order data. However, this highly useful concept has almost no correspondence in parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of third-order data. In the present work, we propose a strategy to process third-order chromatographic data with matrix fluorescence detection, based on an Augmented PARAFAC model. The latter involves decomposition of a three-way data array augmented along the elution time mode with data for the calibration samples and for each of the test samples. A set of excitation-emission fluorescence matrices, measured at different chromatographic elution times for drinking water samples, containing three fluoroquinolones and uncalibrated interferences, were evaluated using this approach. Augmented PARAFAC exploits the second-order advantage, even in the presence of significant changes in chromatographic profiles from run to run. The obtained relative errors of prediction were ca. 10 % for ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and danofloxacin, with a significant enhancement in analytical figures of merit in comparison with previous reports. The results are compared with those furnished by MCR-ALS.

  17. A Third-Order p-Laplacian Boundary Value Problem Solved by an SL(3,ℝ Lie-Group Shooting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chein-Shan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The boundary layer problem for power-law fluid can be recast to a third-order p-Laplacian boundary value problem (BVP. In this paper, we transform the third-order p-Laplacian into a new system which exhibits a Lie-symmetry SL(3,ℝ. Then, the closure property of the Lie-group is used to derive a linear transformation between the boundary values at two ends of a spatial interval. Hence, we can iteratively solve the missing left boundary conditions, which are determined by matching the right boundary conditions through a finer tuning of r∈[0,1]. The present SL(3,ℝ Lie-group shooting method is easily implemented and is efficient to tackle the multiple solutions of the third-order p-Laplacian. When the missing left boundary values can be determined accurately, we can apply the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4 method to obtain a quite accurate numerical solution of the p-Laplacian.

  18. Lithospheric architecture of NE China from joint Inversions of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion through Bayesian optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Nita; Kim, Seongryong; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Sippl, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated inference on the lithospheric structure of NE China using three passive seismic networks comprised of 92 stations. The NE China plain consists of complex lithospheric domains characterised by the co-existence of complex geodynamic processes such as crustal thinning, active intraplate cenozoic volcanism and low velocity anomalies. To estimate lithospheric structures with greater detail, we chose to perform the joint inversion of independent data sets such as receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves (group and phase velocity). We perform a joint inversion based on principles of Bayesian transdimensional optimisation techniques (Kim etal., 2016). Unlike in the previous studies of NE China, the complexity of the model is determined from the data in the first stage of the inversion, and the data uncertainty is computed based on Bayesian statistics in the second stage of the inversion. The computed crustal properties are retrieved from an ensemble of probable models. We obtain major structural inferences with well constrained absolute velocity estimates, which are vital for inferring properties of the lithosphere and bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio. The Vp/Vs estimate obtained from joint inversions confirms the high Vp/Vs ratio ( 1.98) obtained using the H-Kappa method beneath some stations. Moreover, we could confirm the existence of a lower crustal velocity beneath several stations (eg: station SHS) within the NE China plain. Based on these findings we attempt to identify a plausible origin for structural complexity. We compile a high-resolution 3D image of the lithospheric architecture of the NE China plain.

  19. A Weakly Nonlinear Model for Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability in Incompressible Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Feng, Wang; Wen-Hua, Ye; Zheng-Feng, Fan; Chuang, Xue; Ying-Jun, Li

    2009-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear model is proposed for the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability in two-dimensional incompressible fluids by expanding the perturbation velocity potential to third order. The third-order harmonic generation effects of single-mode perturbation are analyzed, as well as the nonlinear correction to the exponential growth of the fundamental modulation. The weakly nonlinear results are supported by numerical simulations. Density and resonance effects exist in the development of mode coupling. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  20. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  1. A Grid Synchronization PLL Method Based on Mixed Second- and Third-Order Generalized Integrator for DC-Offset Elimination and Frequency Adaptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunjiang; Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Xiaohuan

    2018-01-01

    in the grid voltages, the general SOGI’s performance suffers from its generated dc effect in the lagging sine signal at the output. Therefore, in this paper, a mixed second- and third-order generalized integrator (MSTOGI) is proposed to eliminate this effect caused by the dc offset of grid voltages......The second order generalized integrator (SOGI) has been widely used to implement grid synchronization for grid-connected inverters, and from grid voltages it is able to extract the fundamental components with an output of two orthogonal sinusoidal signals. However, if there is a dc offset existing...

  2. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  3. Accurate adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps in atoms and molecules employing the third-order spin-flip algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme for the polarization propagator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefrancois, Daniel; Dreuw, Andreas, E-mail: dreuw@uni-heidelberg.de [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, Ruprecht-Karls University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 205, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Rehn, Dirk R. [Departments of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-08-28

    For the calculation of adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps (STG) in diradicaloid systems the spin-flip (SF) variant of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for the polarization propagator in third order perturbation theory (SF-ADC(3)) has been applied. Due to the methodology of the SF approach the singlet and triplet states are treated on an equal footing since they are part of the same determinant subspace. This leads to a systematically more accurate description of, e.g., diradicaloid systems than with the corresponding non-SF single-reference methods. Furthermore, using analytical excited state gradients at ADC(3) level, geometry optimizations of the singlet and triplet states were performed leading to a fully consistent description of the systems, leading to only small errors in the calculated STGs ranging between 0.6 and 2.4 kcal/mol with respect to experimental references.

  4. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua; Wu, Xiaozhi; Wang, Rui; Liu, Qing; Gan, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A 1-V 60-μW 85-dB dynamic range continuous-time third-order sigma-delta modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanwen; Qi Da; Dong Yifeng; Xu Jun; Ren Junyan

    2009-01-01

    A 1-V third order one-bit continuous-time (CT) EA modulator is presented. Designed in the SMIC mixed-signal 0.13-μm CMOS process, the modulator utilizes active RC integrators to implement the loop filter. An efficient circuit design methodology for the CT ΣΔ modulator is proposed and verified. Low power dissipation is achieved through the use of two-stage class A/AB amplifiers. The presented modulator achieves 81.4-dB SNDR and 85-dB dynamic range in a 20-kHz bandwidth with an over sampling ratio of 128. The total power consumption of the modulator is only 60 μW from a 1-V power supply and the prototype occupies an active area of 0.12 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental verification of the intrinsic ultrafast delayed nonlinearity of gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Lysenko, Oleg; Olivier, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in plasmonic metal waveguides can excite a third-order nonlinear response [1] much akin the well-known self-phase modulation (SPM) and two-photon absorption seen in light propagating in dielectric waveguides. In metals, the nonlinearity mainly arises as a self...

  8. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionReview of linear opticsInduced polarizationHarmonic oscillator modelLocal field correctionsEstimated nonlinear responseSummaryTime-domain material responseThe polarization time-response functionThe Born-Oppenheimer approximationRaman scattering response function of silicaSummaryMaterial response in the frequency domain, susceptibility tensorsThe susceptibility tensorThe induced polarization in the frequency domainSum of monochromatic fieldsThe prefactor to the induced polarizationThird-order polarization in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in the frequency domainKramers-Kronig relationsSummarySymmetries in nonlinear opticsSpatial symmetriesSecond-order materialsThird-order nonlinear materialsCyclic coordinate-systemContracted notation for second-order susceptibility tensorsSummaryThe nonlinear wave equationMono and quasi-monochromatic beamsPlane waves - the transverse problemWaveguidesVectorial approachNonlinear birefringenceSummarySecond-order nonlinear effectsGeneral theoryCoupled wave theoryP...

  9. 基于三次B样条函数的SEM图像处理%SEM Image Processing Based on Third- order B- spline Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    2011-01-01

    SEM images, for its unique practical testing significance, need in denoising also highlight its edges and accurate edge extraction positioning, So this paper adopts a partial differential method which can maintain the edges of the denoising and a extensive application of multi - scale wavelet analysis to detect edges, all based on third - order B - spline function as the core operator, for line width test of SEM image processing, This algorithm obtained the better denoising effect and maintained edge features for SEM images.%SEM图像由于其独特的实际测试意义,需要在去噪的同时突出边缘和准确的边缘提取定位,所以提出采用能够保持边缘的偏微分方法去噪和广泛应用的多尺度小波提取边缘,基于三次B样条函数作为核心算子,对用于线宽测试的SEM图像进行处理,获得了较好的去噪并保持边缘的效果以及清晰的图像边缘检测效果.

  10. Speeding up spin-component-scaled third-order pertubation theory with the chain of spheres approximation: the COSX-SCS-MP3 method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izsák, Róbert; Neese, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The 'chain of spheres' approximation, developed earlier for the efficient evaluation of the self-consistent field exchange term, is introduced here into the evaluation of the external exchange term of higher order correlation methods. Its performance is studied in the specific case of the spin-component-scaled third-order Møller--Plesset perturbation (SCS-MP3) theory. The results indicate that the approximation performs excellently in terms of both computer time and achievable accuracy. Significant speedups over a conventional method are obtained for larger systems and basis sets. Owing to this development, SCS-MP3 calculations on molecules of the size of penicillin (42 atoms) with a polarised triple-zeta basis set can be performed in ∼3 hours using 16 cores of an Intel Xeon E7-8837 processor with a 2.67 GHz clock speed, which represents a speedup by a factor of 8-9 compared to the previously most efficient algorithm. Thus, the increased accuracy offered by SCS-MP3 can now be explored for at least medium-sized molecules.

  11. A High-Resolution Demodulation Algorithm for FBG-FP Static-Strain Sensors Based on the Hilbert Transform and Cross Third-Order Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhu Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Static strain can be detected by measuring a cross-correlation of reflection spectra from two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs. However, the static-strain measurement resolution is limited by the dominant Gaussian noise source when using this traditional method. This paper presents a novel static-strain demodulation algorithm for FBG-based Fabry-Perot interferometers (FBG-FPs. The Hilbert transform is proposed for changing the Gaussian distribution of the two FBG-FPs’ reflection spectra, and a cross third-order cumulant is used to use the results of the Hilbert transform and get a group of noise-vanished signals which can be used to accurately calculate the wavelength difference of the two FBG-FPs. The benefit by these processes is that Gaussian noise in the spectra can be suppressed completely in theory and a higher resolution can be reached. In order to verify the precision and flexibility of this algorithm, a detailed theory model and a simulation analysis are given, and an experiment is implemented. As a result, a static-strain resolution of 0.9 nε under laboratory environment condition is achieved, showing a higher resolution than the traditional cross-correlation method.

  12. Velocity and thermal slip effects on MHD third order blood flow in an irregular channel though a porous medium with homogeneous/ heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaneswara Reddy, M.

    2017-09-01

    This communication presents the transportation of third order hydromagnetic fluid with thermal radiation by peristalsis through an irregular channel configuration filled a porous medium under the low Reynolds number and large wavelength approximations. Joule heating, Hall current and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions effects are considered in the energy and species equations. The Second-order velocity and energy slip restrictions are invoked. Final dimensionless governing transport equations along the boundary restrictions are resolved numerically with the help of NDsolve in Mathematica package. Impact of involved sundry parameters on the non-dimensional axial velocity, fluid temperature and concentration characteristics have been analyzed via plots and tables. It is manifest that an increasing porosity parameter leads to maximum velocity in the core part of the channel. Fluid velocity boosts near the walls of the channel where as the reverse effect in the central part of the channel for higher values of first order slip. Larger values of thermal radiation parameter R reduce the fluid temperature field. Also, an increase in heterogeneous reaction parameter Ks magnifies the concentration profile. The present study has the crucial application of thermal therapy in biomedical engineering.

  13. Shear wave velocity model beneath CBJI station West Java, Indonesia from joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanungkalit, R. H.; Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Amran, A.; Supriyanto

    2018-03-01

    Earthquake signal observations around the world allow seismologists to obtain the information of internal structure of the Earth especially the Earth’s crust. In this study, we used joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure beneath CBJI station in West Java, Indonesia. Receiver function were calculated from earthquakes with magnitude more than 5 and at distance 30°-90°. Surface wave group velocities were calculated using frequency time analysis from earthquakes at distance of 30°- 40°. We inverted shear wave velocity model beneath the station by conducting joint inversion from receiver functions and surface wave dispersions. We suggest that the crustal thickness beneath CBJI station, West Java, Indonesia is about 35 km.

  14. Parametric Phase-sensitive and Phase-insensitive All-optical Signal Processing on Multiple Nonlinear Platforms - Invited talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Da Ros, Francesco; Vukovic, Dragana

    Parametric processes in materials presenting a second- or third-order nonlinearity have been widely used to demonstrate a wide range of all-optical signal processing functionalities, including amplication, wavelength conversion, regeneration, sampling, switching, modulation format conver- sion, o...

  15. A sum-over-paths algorithm for third-order impulse-response moment extraction within RC IC-interconnect networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, E. A.; Ni, D.; Lam, T. M.; Le Coz, Y. L.

    2015-07-01

    We have created the first stochastic SoP (Sum-over-Paths) algorithm to extract third-order impulse-response (IR) moment within RC IC interconnects. It employs a newly discovered Feynman SoP Postulate. Importantly, our algorithm maintains computational efficiency and full parallelism. Our approach begins with generation of s-domain nodal-voltage equations. We then perform a Taylor-series expansion of the circuit transfer function. These expansions yield transition diagrams involving mathematical coupling constants, or weight factors, in integral powers of complex frequency s. Our SoP Postulate enables stochastic evaluation of path sums within the circuit transition diagram to order s3-corresponding to the order of IR moment (m3) we seek here. We furnish, for the first time, an informal algebraic proof independently validating our SoP Postulate and algorithm. We list, as well, detailed procedural steps, suitable for coding, that define an efficient stochastic algorithm for m3 IR extraction. Origins of the algorithm's statistical "capacitor-number cubed" correction and "double-counting" weight factors are explained, for completeness. Our algorithm was coded and successfully tested against exact analytical solutions for 3-, 5-, and 10-stage RC lines. We achieved better than 0.65% 1-σ error convergence, after only 10K statistical samples, in less than 1 s of 2-GHz Pentium® execution time. These results continue to suggest that stochastic SoP algorithms may find useful application in circuit analysis of massively coupled networks, such as those encountered in high-end digital IC-interconnect CAD.

  16. CFHTLenS: a Gaussian likelihood is a sufficient approximation for a cosmological analysis of third-order cosmic shear statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P.; Semboloni, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Hoekstra, H.; Erben, T.; Fu, L.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Kilbinger, M.; Kitching, T. D.; Miller, L.; Schrabback, T.

    2015-05-01

    We study the correlations of the shear signal between triplets of sources in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) to probe cosmological parameters via the matter bispectrum. In contrast to previous studies, we adopt a non-Gaussian model of the data likelihood which is supported by our simulations of the survey. We find that for state-of-the-art surveys, similar to CFHTLenS, a Gaussian likelihood analysis is a reasonable approximation, albeit small differences in the parameter constraints are already visible. For future surveys we expect that a Gaussian model becomes inaccurate. Our algorithm for a refined non-Gaussian analysis and data compression is then of great utility especially because it is not much more elaborate if simulated data are available. Applying this algorithm to the third-order correlations of shear alone in a blind analysis, we find a good agreement with the standard cosmological model: Σ _8=σ _8(Ω _m/0.27)^{0.64}=0.79^{+0.08}_{-0.11} for a flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology with h = 0.7 ± 0.04 (68 per cent credible interval). Nevertheless our models provide only moderately good fits as indicated by χ2/dof = 2.9, including a 20 per cent rms uncertainty in the predicted signal amplitude. The models cannot explain a signal drop on scales around 15 arcmin, which may be caused by systematics. It is unclear whether the discrepancy can be fully explained by residual point spread function systematics of which we find evidence at least on scales of a few arcmin. Therefore we need a better understanding of higher order correlations of cosmic shear and their systematics to confidently apply them as cosmological probes.

  17. Nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain: accurate modeling of ultrafast interaction in anisotropic nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    We interpret the purely spectral forward Maxwell equation with up to third-order induced polarizations for pulse propagation and interactions in quadratic nonlinear crystals. The interpreted equation, also named the nonlinear wave equation in the frequency domain, includes quadratic and cubic...... nonlinearities, delayed Raman effects, and anisotropic nonlinearities. The full potential of this wave equation is demonstrated by investigating simulations of solitons generated in the process of ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation. We show that a balance in the soliton delay can be achieved due...

  18. New organic materials for optics: optical storage and nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, F.

    1996-01-01

    New organic materials have received considerable attention recently, due to their easy preparation and different variety. The most application fields in optics are optical storage and nonlinear optics. In optical storage the organic dyes have been used for example, in record able and erasable compact disks (CD-R, CD-E) nonlinear optical effects, such as nonlinear optical absorption, second and third order optical absorption, second and third order optical nonlinearities, can be applied for making optical limiters, optical modulators, as well as laser second and third harmonic generations. Due to high value of optical absorption and optical nonlinearity organic materials are always used as thin films in optical integration. In this paper the new experimental results have been presented, and future development has been also discussed. (author)

  19. Overview of magnetic nonlinear beam dynamics in the RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Bengtsson, J.; Calaga, R.; Fischer, W.; Jain, A.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Malitsky, N.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tomas, R.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we review our studies of nonlinear beam dynamics due to the nonlinear magnetic field errors in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Nonlinear magnetic field errors, including magnetic field errors in interaction regions (IRs), chromatic sextupoles, and sextupole components from arc main dipoles are discussed. Their effects on beam dynamics and beam dynamic aperture are evaluated. The online methods to measure and correct the IR nonlinear field errors, second order chromaticities, and horizontal third order resonance are presented. The overall strategy for nonlinear corrections in RHIC is discussed

  20. Nonlinear optical response of some Graphene oxide and Graphene fluoride derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Liaros Nikolaos; Orfanos Ioannis; Papadakis Ioannis; Couris Stelios

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of two graphene derivatives, graphene oxide and graphene fluoride, are investigated by means of the Z-scan technique employing 35 ps and 4 ns, visible (532 nm) laser excitation. Both derivatives were found to exhibit significant third-order nonlinear optical response at both excitation regimes, with the nonlinear absorption being relatively stronger and concealing the presence of nonlinear refraction under ns excitation, while ps excita...

  1. Thermally stimulated nonlinear refraction in gelatin stabilized Cu-PVP nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamgadge, Y. S., E-mail: ystamgadge@gmail.com; Atkare, D. V. [Department of Physics, Mahatma Fule Arts, Commerce & SitaramjiChoudhari Science College, Warud, Dist. Amravati (MS), India-444906 (India); Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, SantGadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), India-444602 (India); Talwatkar, S. S. [Department of Physics, D K Marathe and N G Acharya College, Chembur, Mumbai (MS), India-440071 (India); Sunatkari, A. L. [Department of Physics, Siddharth College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Fort, Mumbai (MS), India-440001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This article illustrates investigations on thermally stimulated third order nonlinear refraction of Cu-PVP nanocomposite thin films. Cu nanoparticles have been synthesized using chemical reduction method and thin films in PVP matrix have been obtained using spin coating technique. Thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopyfor structural and linear optical studies. Third order nonlinear refraction studies have been performed using closed aperture z-scan technique under continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser. Cu-PVP nanocomposites are found to exhibit strong nonlinear refractive index stimulated by thermal lensing effect.

  2. Wave-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for simultaneous acquisition of several characteristic lines based on strongly and accurately shaped Ge crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Kozo; Nishikata, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Si and Ge are widely used as analyzing crystals for x-rays. Drastic and accurate shaping of Si or Ge gives significant advance in the x-ray field, although covalently bonded Si or Ge crystals have long been believed to be not deformable to various shapes. Recently, we developed a deformation technique for obtaining strongly and accurately shaped Si or Ge wafers of high crystal quality, and the use of the deformed wafer made it possible to produce fine-focused x-rays. In the present study, we prepared a cylindrical Ge wafer with a radius of curvature of 50 mm, and acquired fluorescent x-rays simultaneously from four elements by combining the cylindrical Ge wafer with a position-sensitive detector. The energy resolution of the x-ray fluorescence spectrum was as good as that obtained using a flat single crystal, and its gain was over 100. The demonstration of the simultaneous acquisition of high-resolution x-ray fluorescence spectra indicated various possibilities of x-ray spectrometry, such as one-shot x-ray spectroscopy and highly efficient wave-dispersive x-ray spectrometers

  3. A harmonic analysis approach to joint inversion of P-receiver functions and wave dispersion data in high dense seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Aguilera, A.; Mancilla, F. D. L.; Julià, J.; Morales, J.

    2017-12-01

    Joint inversion techniques of P-receiver functions and wave dispersion data implicitly assume an isotropic radial stratified earth. The conventional approach invert stacked radial component receiver functions from different back-azimuths to obtain a laterally homogeneous single-velocity model. However, in the presence of strong lateral heterogeneities as anisotropic layers and/or dipping interfaces, receiver functions are considerably perturbed and both the radial and transverse components exhibit back azimuthal dependences. Harmonic analysis methods exploit these azimuthal periodicities to separate the effects due to the isotropic flat-layered structure from those effects caused by lateral heterogeneities. We implement a harmonic analysis method based on radial and transverse receiver functions components and carry out a synthetic study to illuminate the capabilities of the method in isolating the isotropic flat-layered part of receiver functions and constrain the geometry and strength of lateral heterogeneities. The independent of the baz P receiver function are jointly inverted with phase and group dispersion curves using a linearized inversion procedure. We apply this approach to high dense seismic profiles ( 2 km inter-station distance, see figure) located in the central Betics (western Mediterranean region), a region which has experienced complex geodynamic processes and exhibit strong variations in Moho topography. The technique presented here is robust and can be applied systematically to construct a 3-D model of the crust and uppermost mantle across large networks.

  4. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  5. The modified simplest equation method to look for exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Efimova, Olga Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The modification of simplest equation method to look for exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations is presented. Using this method we obtain exact solutions of generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation with cubic source and exact solutions of third-order Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov equation describing nonlinear waves in liquids with gas bubbles.

  6. Nonlinear wave particle interaction in the Earth's foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazelle, C.; LeQueau, D.; Meziane, K.; Lin, R. P.; Parks, G.; Reme, H.; Sanderson, T.; Lepping, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility that ion beams could provide a free energy source for driving an ion/ion instability responsible for the ULF wave occurrence is investigated. For this, the wave dispersion relation with the observed parameters is solved. Secondly, it is shown that the ring-like distributions could then be produced by a coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction. It tends to trap the ions into narrow cells in velocity space centered around a well-defined pitch-angle, directly related to the saturation wave amplitude in the analytical theory. The theoretical predictions with the observations are compared.

  7. Several Dynamical Properties for a Nonlinear Shallow Water Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ls Yong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear third order dispersive shallow water equation including the Degasperis-Procesi model is investigated. The existence of weak solutions for the equation is proved in the space L1(R∩BV (R under certain assumptions. The Oleinik type estimate and L2N(R  (N is a natural number estimate for the solution are obtained.

  8. Perturbation method for periodic solutions of nonlinear jerk equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, H.

    2008-01-01

    A Lindstedt-Poincare type perturbation method with bookkeeping parameters is presented for determining accurate analytical approximate periodic solutions of some third-order (jerk) differential equations with cubic nonlinearities. In the process of the solution, higher-order approximate angular frequencies are obtained by Newton's method. A typical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the proposed method

  9. A lithospheric velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina from joint inversion of Rayleigh-wave dispersion and teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, J. B.; Alvarado, P. M.; Beck, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Receiver Function (RF) analyses using teleseismic P waveforms is a technique to isolate P to S conversions from seismic discontinuities in the lithosphere. Using earthquakes with a good azimuthal distribution, RFs recorded at a three-component seismic station can be inverted to obtain detailed lithospheric velocity structures. The technique, however presents a velocity-depth trade-off, which results in a non-unique model because RFs do not depend on the absolute seismic velocities but rather on relative velocity contrasts. Unlike RF, surface wave dispersion is sensitive to the average shear-wave velocity which makes it well suited for studying long period variations of the lithospheric seismic velocities. We performed a joint inversion of RF and Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion to investigate the structure beneath the SIEMBRA network, a 43-broadband-seismic-station array deployed in the Pampean flat slab region of Argentina. Our results indicate: 1) The presence of several mid-crustal discontinuities probably related with terrane accretion; 2) A high seismic velocity in the lower crust suggesting partial eclogitization; 3) A thicker crust (> 50 km) beneath the western Sierras Pampeanas with an abrupt change in the relative timing of the Moho signal indicating a thinner crust to the east; 4) The presence of the subducting oceanic crust lying at ~100 km depth. We then built a 1D regional velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina and used it for regional moment tensor inversions for local earthquakes. This technique is notably dependent on small-scale variations of Earth structure when modeling higher frequency seismic waveforms. Eighteen regional focal mechanisms have been determined. Our solutions are in good agreement with GCMT source estimations although our solutions for deep earthquakes systematically resulted in shallower focal depths suggesting that the slab seismicity could be concentrated at the top of the subducting Nazca plate. Solutions

  10. Variation of nonlinearity parameter at low fundamental amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Daniel J.

    1999-04-01

    Recent harmonic generation measurements of the nonlinearity parameter β in polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys have shown a transition to lower values at low fundamental amplitude levels. Values for β at high (>10 Å) fundamental levels are in the range predicted by single-crystal second- and third-order elastic constants while lower fundamental levels (alloy by others. The source of the effect is unclear but initial results may require a reexamination of current methods for measurement of third-order elastic constants.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Pulses in Gold Strip Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Olivier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The nonlinear absorption of the plasmonic modes in the waveguides is measured with femtosecond pulses revealing a strong dependence of the third......-order nonlinear susceptibility of the gold core on the pulse duration and layer thickness. A comprehensive model for the pulse duration dependence of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is developed on the basis of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for plasmonic mode propagation in the waveguides....... The model accounts for the intrinsic delayed (noninstantaneous) nonlinearity of free electrons of gold as well as the thickness of the gold film and is experimentally verified. The obtained results are important for the development of active plasmonic and nanophotonic components....

  12. Numerical study of propagation properties of surface plasmon polaritons in nonlinear media

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2016-03-29

    We present a time-domain algorithm for simulating nonlinear propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in chalcogenide glass. Due to the high non-linearity property and strong dispersion and confinement chalcogenide glasses are widely known as ultrafast nonlinear materials. We have used the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method to develop the simulation algorithm for the current analysis. We have modeled the frequency dependent dispersion properties and third order nonlinearity property of chalcogenide glass utilizing the general polarization algorithm merged in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) method. The propagation dynamics of the whole structure with and without third order nonlinearity property of chalcogenide glass have been simulated and the effect of nonlinearity on the propagation properties of SPP has been investigated. © 2016 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. Rigorous theory of molecular orientational nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Chong Hoon; Kim, Gun Yeup

    2015-01-01

    Classical statistical mechanics of the molecular optics theory proposed by Buckingham [A. D. Buckingham and J. A. Pople, Proc. Phys. Soc. A 68, 905 (1955)] has been extended to describe the field induced molecular orientational polarization effects on nonlinear optics. In this paper, we present the generalized molecular orientational nonlinear optical processes (MONLO) through the calculation of the classical orientational averaging using the Boltzmann type time-averaged orientational interaction energy in the randomly oriented molecular system under the influence of applied electric fields. The focal points of the calculation are (1) the derivation of rigorous tensorial components of the effective molecular hyperpolarizabilities, (2) the molecular orientational polarizations and the electronic polarizations including the well-known third-order dc polarization, dc electric field induced Kerr effect (dc Kerr effect), optical Kerr effect (OKE), dc electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH), degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) and third harmonic generation (THG). We also present some of the new predictive MONLO processes. For second-order MONLO, second-order optical rectification (SOR), Pockels effect and difference frequency generation (DFG) are described in terms of the anisotropic coefficients of first hyperpolarizability. And, for third-order MONLO, third-order optical rectification (TOR), dc electric field induced difference frequency generation (EFIDFG) and pump-probe transmission are presented

  14. Nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Daraio, C.

    2017-10-01

    The study of granular crystals, which are nonlinear metamaterials that consist of closely packed arrays of particles that interact elastically, is a vibrant area of research that combines ideas from disciplines such as materials science, nonlinear dynamics, and condensed-matter physics. Granular crystals exploit geometrical nonlinearities in their constitutive microstructure to produce properties (such as tunability and energy localization) that are not conventional to engineering materials and linear devices. In this topical review, we focus on recent experimental, computational, and theoretical results on nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals. Such structures—which include traveling solitary waves, dispersive shock waves, and discrete breathers—have fascinating dynamics, including a diversity of both transient features and robust, long-lived patterns that emerge from broad classes of initial data. In our review, we primarily discuss phenomena in one-dimensional crystals, as most research to date has focused on such scenarios, but we also present some extensions to two-dimensional settings. Throughout the review, we highlight open problems and discuss a variety of potential engineering applications that arise from the rich dynamic response of granular crystals.

  15. Modified Taylor series method for solving nonlinear differential equations with mixed boundary conditions defined on finite intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Benhammouda, Brahim; Filobello-Nino, Uriel Antonio; Sarmiento-Reyes, Arturo; Jimenez-Fernandez, Victor Manuel; Marin-Hernandez, Antonio; Herrera-May, Agustin Leobardo; Diaz-Sanchez, Alejandro; Huerta-Chua, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose the application of a modified Taylor series method (MTSM) for the approximation of nonlinear problems described on finite intervals. The issue of Taylor series method with mixed boundary conditions is circumvented using shooting constants and extra derivatives of the problem. In order to show the benefits of this proposal, three different kinds of problems are solved: three-point boundary valued problem (BVP) of third-order with a hyperbolic sine nonlinearity, two-point BVP for a second-order nonlinear differential equation with an exponential nonlinearity, and a two-point BVP for a third-order nonlinear differential equation with a radical nonlinearity. The result shows that the MTSM method is capable to generate easily computable and highly accurate approximations for nonlinear equations. 34L30.

  16. Nonlinear optical properties of ultrathin metal layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The strip plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. The opt......This thesis presents experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The strip plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding......-order nonlinear susceptibility of the plasmonic mode in the gold strip waveguides significantly depends on the metal layer thickness and laser pulse duration. This dependence is explained in detail in terms of the free-electron temporal dynamics in gold. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the gold layer...

  17. Nonlinear Rayleigh wave inversion based on the shuffled frog-leaping algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wu, Dun-Shi; Qin, Xiao-Jun

    2017-12-01

    At present, near-surface shear wave velocities are mainly calculated through Rayleigh wave dispersion-curve inversions in engineering surface investigations, but the required calculations pose a highly nonlinear global optimization problem. In order to alleviate the risk of falling into a local optimal solution, this paper introduces a new global optimization method, the shuffle frog-leaping algorithm (SFLA), into the Rayleigh wave dispersion-curve inversion process. SFLA is a swarm-intelligence-based algorithm that simulates a group of frogs searching for food. It uses a few parameters, achieves rapid convergence, and is capability of effective global searching. In order to test the reliability and calculation performance of SFLA, noise-free and noisy synthetic datasets were inverted. We conducted a comparative analysis with other established algorithms using the noise-free dataset, and then tested the ability of SFLA to cope with data noise. Finally, we inverted a real-world example to examine the applicability of SFLA. Results from both synthetic and field data demonstrated the effectiveness of SFLA in the interpretation of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. We found that SFLA is superior to the established methods in terms of both reliability and computational efficiency, so it offers great potential to improve our ability to solve geophysical inversion problems.

  18. Nonlinear Entanglement and its Application to Generating Cat States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Assad, S. M.; Grosse, N. B.; Li, X. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Lam, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox, which was formulated to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics, has since metamorphosed into a resource for quantum information. The EPR entanglement describes the strength of linear correlations between two objects in terms of a pair of conjugate observables in relation to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit. We propose that entanglement can be extended to include nonlinear correlations. We examine two driven harmonic oscillators that are coupled via third-order nonlinearity can exhibit quadraticlike nonlinear entanglement which, after a projective measurement on one of the oscillators, collapses the other into a cat state of tunable size.

  19. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Third Order Susceptibility of Platinum Sulfide Sol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaiHing, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    .... Experimentally this is determined using degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM). Pure sulfur sol was prepared by dissolving the solid sulfur in hydrazine, followed by addition of distilled water with vigorous stirring...

  1. Impact of loudspeaker nonlinear distortion on personal sound zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiaohui; J. Hegarty, Patrick; Abildgaard Pedersen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Personal sound zone systems aim at creating multiple listening zones within a shared space with minimum interference between zones, but the performance is often poorer than simulations predict and effects of nonlinear distortion are sometimes audible. This paper assesses the impact of nonlinear...... distortion on sound zones through simulations and measurements performed under anechoic conditions. Two sound zones, one bright and one dark, are created with acoustic contrast control using two loudspeaker arrays driven at 250 Hz. Nonlinear distortion is modelled using second or third order nonlinearities....... Simulations show that nonlinear distortion degrades the acoustic contrast, which is confirmed by experimental measurements. The harmonic distortion is audible in the dark zone. Frequency resolved measurements reveal that harmonic distortion contributes to contrast loss, but nonlinear effects...

  2. Assembly of bicyclic or monocyclic clusters from [(η5-C5Me5)2Mo2(μ3-S)4(CuMeCN)2]2+ with tetraphosphine or N,P mixed ligands: syntheses, structures and enhanced third-order NLO performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhi-Gang; Sun, Sha; Dai, Min; Wang, Hui-Fang; Lü, Chun-Ning; Lang, Jian-Ping; Sun, Zhen-Rong

    2011-09-07

    Reactions of the preformed cluster [(η(5)-C(5)Me(5))(2)Mo(2)(μ(3)-S)(4)Cu(2)(MeCN)(2)](ClO(4))(2) (1) with two tetraphosphine ligands, 1,4-N,N,N',N'-tetra(diphenylphosphanylmethyl)benzene diamine (dpppda) and N,N,N',N'-tetra(diphenylphosphanylmethyl)ethylene diamine (dppeda), produced two bicyclic clusters {[(η(5)-C(5)Me(5))(2)Mo(2)(μ(3)-S)(4)Cu(2)](2)(L)}(ClO(4))(4) (3: L = dpppda; 4: L = dppeda). Analogous reactions of 1 or [(η(5)-C(5)Me(5))(2)Mo(2)(μ(3)-S)(4)Cu(2)(MeCN)(2)](PF(6))(2) (2) with two N,P mixed ligands, N,N-bi(diphenylphosphanylmethyl)-2-aminopyridine (bdppmapy) and N-diphenylphosphanylmethyl-4-aminopyridine (dppmapy), afforded two monocyclic clusters {[(η(5)-C(5)Me(5))(2)Mo(2)(μ(3)-S)(4)Cu(2)](2)(L)(2)}X(4) (5: L = bdppmapy, X = ClO(4); 6: L = dppmapy, X = PF(6)). Compounds 3-6 were fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV-vis spectra, (1)H and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectra, ESI-MS and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. In the tetracations of 3-6, two cubane-like [Mo(2)(μ(3)-S)(4)Cu(2)] cores are linked either by one dpppda or dppeda bridge to form a bicyclic structure or by a pair of bdppmapy or dppmapy bridges to afford a monocyclic structure. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of 1 and 3-6 in MeCN were also investigated by femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique with a 50 fs pulse width at 800 nm. Compounds 3-6 exhibited enhanced third-order NLO performances relative to that of 1. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  3. EXACT SOLITARY WAVE SOLUTIONS TO A CLASS OF NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS USING DIRECT ALGEBRAIC METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using direct algebraic method,exact solitary wave solutions are performed for a class of third order nonlinear dispersive disipative partial differential equations. These solutions are obtained under certain conditions for the relationship between the coefficients of the equation. The exact solitary waves of this class are rational functions of real exponentials of kink-type solutions.

  4. Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Schätz, A.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    1999-01-01

    Interaction-induced processes are studied using the third-order nonlinear polarization created in polarization-dependent four-wave-mixing experiments (FWM) on a ZnSe single quantum well. We discuss their influence by a comparison of the experimental FWM with calculations based on extended optical...

  5. Radial distribution of power starting from the reactivity using nodal schemes of second and third order; Distribucion radial de potencia a partir de la reactividad usando esquemas nodales de segundo y tercer orden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52045 Ocoyocac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: adl@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work two nodal schemes of finite element are presented, one of second and the other of third order of accurate that allow to determine the radial distribution of power starting from the corresponding reactivities.The schemes here developed were obtained taking as starting point the equation developed by Driscoll et al, the one which is based on the diffusion approach of 1-1/2 energy groups. This equation relates the power fraction of an assemble with their reactivity and with the power fractions and reactivities of the assemblies that its surround it. Driscoll and collaborators they solve in form approximate such equation supposing that the reactivity of each assemble it is but a lineal function of the burnt one of the fuel. The spatial approach carries out it with the classic technique of finite differences centered in mesh. Nevertheless that the algebraic system to which its arrive it can be solved without more considerations introduce some additional suppositions and adjustment parameters that it allows them to predict results comparable to those contributed by three dimensions analysis and this way to reduce the one obtained error when its compare their results with those of a production code like CASMO. Also in the two schemes that here are presented the same approaches of Driscoll were used being obtained errors of the one 10% and of 5% for the second schemes and third order respectively for a test case that it was built starting from data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant. These errors its were obtained when comparing with a computer program based on the matrix response method. It is sought to have this way a quick and efficient tool for the multicycle analysis in the fuel management. However, this model presents problems in the appropriate prediction of the average burnt of the nucleus and of the burnt one by lot. (Author)

  6. Análise da transição entre dias secos e chuvosos por meio da cadeia de Markov de terceira ordem Analysis of the transition between dry and wet days through third-order Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeu Keller Filho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as ocorrências de dias secos e chuvosos são condicionalmente dependentes da seqüência dos três dias secos e chuvosos anteriores, numa zona pluviometricamente homogênea, por meio da cadeia não-homogênea de Markov de terceira ordem. Os resultados mostraram que as probabilidades diárias de transição podem ser adequadamente estimadas, com base em dados agregados bimestralmente, seguidas de interpolação por meio de funções sinusoidais. Além disso, evidenciou-se que, naquela zona, as ocorrências diárias de chuva são condicionalmente dependentes da seqüência de dias secos e chuvosos nos três dias anteriores. A cadeia não-homogênea de Markov de terceira ordem é um importante instrumento para a análise da dependência entre as seqüências de dias secos e chuvosos em determinadas regiões.The aim of this work was to verify if the occurrence of dry and wet days are conditionally dependent on the sequences of the dry and wet three preceding days, in a rainfall homogeneous area, using the nonhomogeneous third-order Markov chains. The results showed that daily transition probabilities can be properly estimated from two-month aggregate data, and then adjusted by means of sinusoidal functions. Besides, it was evidenced that everyday rain events in that area are conditionally dependent on the sequences of the dry and wet three days previous to occurrences. The third-order nonhomogeneous Markov chains are an important instrument for the analysis of the dependence between sequences of dry and wet days in certain areas.

  7. Development and application of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh; Desarrollo y aplicacion de un esquema de tercer orden de diferencias finitas centradas en malla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: adl@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the development of a third order scheme of finite differences centered in mesh is presented and it is applied in the numerical solution of those diffusion equations in multi groups in stationary state and X Y geometry. Originally this scheme was developed by Hennart and del Valle for the monoenergetic diffusion equation with a well-known source and they show that the one scheme is of third order when comparing the numerical solution with the analytical solution of a model problem using several mesh refinements and boundary conditions. The scheme by them developed it also introduces the application of numeric quadratures to evaluate the rigidity matrices and of mass that its appear when making use of the finite elements method of Galerkin. One of the used quadratures is the open quadrature of 4 points, no-standard, of Newton-Cotes to evaluate in approximate form the elements of the rigidity matrices. The other quadrature is that of 3 points of Radau that it is used to evaluate the elements of all the mass matrices. One of the objectives of these quadratures are to eliminate the couplings among the Legendre moments 0 and 1 associated to the left and right faces as those associated to the inferior and superior faces of each cell of the discretization. The other objective is to satisfy the particles balance in weighed form in each cell. In this work it expands such development to multiplicative means considering several energy groups. There are described diverse details inherent to the technique, particularly those that refer to the simplification of the algebraic systems that appear due to the space discretization. Numerical results for several test problems are presented and are compared with those obtained with other nodal techniques. (Author)

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of TeO$_2$ crystalline phases from first principles

    OpenAIRE

    Berkaine, Nabil; Orhan, Emmanuelle; Masson, Olivier; Thomas, Philippe; Junquera, Javier

    2010-01-01

    We have computed second and third nonlinear optical susceptibilities of two crystalline bulk tellurium oxide polymorphs: $\\alpha$-TeO$_{2}$ (the most stable crystalline bulk phase) and $\\gamma$-TeO$_{2}$ (the crystalline phase that ressembles the more to the glass phase. Third order nonlinear susceptibilities of the crystalline phases are two orders of magnitude larger than $\\alpha$-SiO$_{2}$ cristoballite, thus extending the experimental observations on glasses to the case of crystalline com...

  9. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  10. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Texas-Gulf of Mexico margin from joint inversion of Ps and Sp receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, M.; Pulliam, J.; Sen, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The seismic structure beneath Texas Gulf Coast Plain (GCP) is determined via velocity analysis of stacked common conversion point (CCP) Ps and Sp receiver functions and surface wave dispersion. The GCP is a portion of a ocean-continental transition zone, or 'passive margin', where seismic imaging of lithospheric Earth structure via passive seismic techniques has been rare. Seismic data from a temporary array of 22 broadband stations, spaced 16-20 km apart, on a ~380-km-long profile from Matagorda Island, a barrier island in the Gulf of Mexico, to Johnson City, Texas were employed to construct a coherent image of the crust and uppermost mantle. CCP stacking was applied to data from teleseismic earthquakes to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of converted phases, such as Ps phases. An inaccurate velocity model, used for time-to-depth conversion in CCP stacking, may produce higher errors, especially in a region of substantial lateral velocity variations. An accurate velocity model is therefore essential to constructing high quality depth-domain images. To find accurate velocity P- and S-wave models, we applied a joint modeling approach that searches for best-fitting models via simulated annealing. This joint inversion approach, which we call 'multi objective optimization in seismology' (MOOS), simultaneously models Ps receiver functions, Sp receiver functions and group velocity surface wave dispersion curves after assigning relative weights for each objective function. Weights are computed from the standard deviations of the data. Statistical tools such as the posterior parameter correlation matrix and posterior probability density (PPD) function are used to evaluate the constraints that each data type places on model parameters. They allow us to identify portions of the model that are well or poorly constrained.

  11. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  12. Cross-Kerr nonlinearities in an optically dressed periodic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowik, K; Raczynski, A; Zaremba, J [Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, ulica Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Zielinska-Kaniasty, S [Instytut Matematyki i Fizyki, Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy, Aleja Prof. S Kaliskiego 7, 85-789 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Artoni, M [Department of Physics and Chemistry of Materials, CNR-INFM Sensor Lab, Brescia University and European Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy, Firenze (Italy); La Rocca, G C, E-mail: karolina@fizyka.umk.pl [Scuola Normale Superiore and CNISM, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Cross-Kerr nonlinearities are analyzed for two light beams propagating in an atomic medium in the tripod configuration, dressed by a strong standing-wave laser field that induces periodic optical properties. The reflection and transmission spectra as well as the phases of both the reflected and transmitted components of the two beams are analyzed theoretically with nonlinearities up to third order being taken into account. Ranges of parameters are sought in which the cross-Kerr effect can be used as the basis of the phase gate.

  13. Extension of the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method: third-order expansion of the density functional theory total energy and introduction of a modified effective coulomb interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yu, Haibo; York, Darrin; Cui, Qiang; Elstner, Marcus

    2007-10-25

    The standard self-consistent-charge density-functional-tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method (Phys. Rev. B 1998, 58, 7260) is derived by a second-order expansion of the density functional theory total energy expression, followed by an approximation of the charge density fluctuations by charge monopoles and an effective damped Coulomb interaction between the atomic net charges. The central assumptions behind this effective charge-charge interaction are the inverse relation of atomic size and chemical hardness and the use of a fixed chemical hardness parameter independent of the atomic charge state. While these approximations seem to be unproblematic for many covalently bound systems, they are quantitatively insufficient for hydrogen-bonding interactions and (anionic) molecules with localized net charges. Here, we present an extension of the SCC-DFTB method to incorporate third-order terms in the charge density fluctuations, leading to chemical hardness parameters that are dependent on the atomic charge state and a modification of the Coulomb scaling to improve the electrostatic treatment within the second-order terms. These modifications lead to a significant improvement in the description of hydrogen-bonding interactions and proton affinities of biologically relevant molecules.

  14. New Look at Nonlinear Aerodynamics in Analysis of Hypersonic Panel Flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simply supported plate fluttering in hypersonic flow is investigated considering both the airflow and structural nonlinearities. Third-order piston theory is used for nonlinear aerodynamic loading, and von Karman plate theory is used for modeling the nonlinear strain-displacement relation. The Galerkin method is applied to project the partial differential governing equations (PDEs into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs in time, which is then solved by numerical integration method. In observation of limit cycle oscillations (LCO and evolution of dynamic behaviors, nonlinear aerodynamic loading produces a smaller positive deflection peak and more complex bifurcation diagrams compared with linear aerodynamics. Moreover, a LCO obtained with the linear aerodynamics is mostly a nonsimple harmonic motion but when the aerodynamic nonlinearity is considered more complex motions are obtained, which is important in the evaluation of fatigue life. The parameters of Mach number, dynamic pressure, and in-plane thermal stresses all affect the aerodynamic nonlinearity. For a specific Mach number, there is a critical dynamic pressure beyond which the aerodynamic nonlinearity has to be considered. For a higher temperature, a lower critical dynamic pressure is required. Each nonlinear aerodynamic term in the full third-order piston theory is evaluated, based on which the nonlinear aerodynamic formulation has been simplified.

  15. Nonlinear piezoelectricity in PZT ceramics for generating ultrasonic phase conjugate waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto; Kokubo; Sakai; Takagi

    2000-03-01

    We have succeeded in the generation of acoustic phase conjugate waves with nonlinear PZT piezoelectric ceramics and applied them to ultrasonic imaging systems. Our aim is to make a phase conjugator with 100% efficiency. For this purpose, it is important to clarify the mechanism of acoustic phase conjugation through nonlinear piezoelectricity. The process is explained by the parametric interaction via the third-order nonlinear piezoelectricity between the incident acoustic wave at angular frequency omega and the pump electric field at 2 omega. We solved the coupling equations including the third-ordered nonlinear piezoelectricity and theoretically derived the amplitude efficiency of the acoustic phase conjugation. We compared the efficiencies between the theoretical and experimental values for PZT ceramics with eight different compositions. Pb[(Zn1/3Nb2/3)(1 - x)Tix]O3 (X = 0.09, PZNT91/9) piezoelectric single crystals have been investigated for high-performance ultrasonic transducer application, because these have large piezoelectric constants, high electrical-mechanical coupling factors and high dielectric constants. We found that they have third-order nonlinear piezoelectric constants much larger than PZT and are hopeful that the material as a phase conjugator has over 100% efficiency.

  16. Theory of plasmonic effects in nonlinear optics: the case of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Habib; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Polini, Marco; Mikhail I. Katsnelson Collaboration; Habib Rostami; Marco Polini Collaboration

    The nonlinear optical properties of two-dimensional electronic systems are beginning to attract considerable interest both in the theoretical and experimental sectors. Recent experiments on the nonlinear optical properties of graphene reveal considerably strong third harmonic generation and four-wave mixing of this single-atomic-layer electronic system. We develop a large-N theory of electron-electron interaction corrections to multi-legged Feynman diagrams describing second- and third-order nonlinear response functions. Our theory is completely general and is useful to understand all second- and third-order nonlinear effects, including harmonic generation, wave mixing, and photon drag. We apply our theoretical framework to the case of graphene, by carrying out microscopic calculations of the second- and third-order nonlinear response functions of an interacting two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions. We compare our results with recent measurements, where all-optical launching of graphene plasmons has been achieved. This work was supported by Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant agreement No. 696656 GrapheneCore, and the ERC Advanced Grant 338957 FEMTO/NANO (M.I.K.).

  17. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  18. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  19. Incremento en la dispersión de la onda P al disminuir el tiempo de eyección auricular en hipertensos y prehipertensos Increment in P wave dispersion by decreasing atrial ejection time in hypertensive and prehypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elibet Chávez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: hace algunos años se viene estudiando la relación entre disfunción diastólica y dispersión de la onda P del electrocardiograma, y en este sentido, la ecocardiografía emerge como herramienta para mejorar la estratificación de riesgo en hipertensos leves. Objetivo: determinar la dependencia de la dispersión de la onda P del electrocardiograma de variables ecocardiográficas en una población pediátrica. Métodos: se estudiaron 400 niños, de un total de 450, pertenecientes a tres escuelas primarias, y se excluyeron aquellos cuyos padres no desearon que participaran en el estudio y a quienes tuvieran patologías congénitas conocidas. Se realizó electrocardiograma de superficie de doce derivaciones y se practicaron cuatro tomas de presión arterial. Se midieron los valores de P máxima y P mínima, y se calculó la dispersión de la onda P del electrocardiograma; además se hizo, ecocardiografía para mediciones estructurales y Doppler pulsado del flujo mitral. Resultados: los valores de media para la duración de la onda A del flujo mitral no muestran diferencias significativas; sin embargo, existe un coeficiente de correlación (r y p significativos entre la dispersión de la onda P y la duración de la onda A del flujo mitral para normotensos (r= - 0,117 p=0,05, prehipertensos (r= - 0,309 p=0,001 e hipertensos (r= - 0,586 p=0,001. Existen diferencias significativas entre las medias de dispersión de la onda P entre los grupos de diagnóstico. Conclusiones: se evidencia dependencia de la dispersión de la onda P, del electrocardiograma y de la duración de la onda A del flujo de entrada mitral, hechos que se relacionan con riesgo de fibrilación auricular en el adulto, por lo que quizás este resultado dé un acercamiento a predicciones de riesgo más tempranas en edades pediátricas.Introduction: the relationship between diastolic dysfunction and P wave dispersion in the electrocardiogram is being studied since some

  20. Hydrodynamic and kinetic models for spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas: Annihilation interaction, helicity conservation, and wave dispersion in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction

  1. Nonlinear hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability for strong viscous fluids in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    El-Dib, Y O

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a weakly nonlinear stability for magnetic fluid is discussed. The research of an interface between two strong viscous homogeneous incompressible fluids through porous medium is investigated theoretically and graphically. The effect of the vertical magnetic field has been demonstrated in this study. The linear form of equation of motion is solved in the light of the nonlinear boundary conditions. The boundary value problem leads to construct nonlinear characteristic equation having complex coefficients in elevation function. The nonlinearity is kept to third-order expansion. The nonlinear characteristic equation leads to derive the well-known nonlinear Schroedinger equation. This equation having complex coefficients of the disturbance amplitude varies in both space and time. Stability criteria have been performed for nonlinear Chanderasekhar dispersion relation including the porous effects. Stability conditions are discussed through the assumption of equal kinematic viscosity. The calculati...

  2. Nonlinear absorption properties of some 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkylphthalocyanines and their metallated derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    BLAU, WERNER

    2003-01-01

    PUBLISHED The third-order nonlinear optical properties of a series of 15 unmetallated and metallated 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkylphthalocyanines have been investigated. The palladium-metallated compound is the strongest nonlinear absorber of the series, but, due to its comparatively high linear absorption coefficient, it exhibits a relatively low ratio of excited- to ground-state absorption cross-sections (?) when compared to the other compounds. The highest values for ? were found for d...

  3. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  4. Design considerations for multi component molecular-polymeric nonlinear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, K.D. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kuzyk, M.G. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Fang, T.; Holland, W.R. (AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (USA)); Cahill, P.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We review our work on multi component polymeric nonlinear optical materials. These materials consist of nonlinear optical molecules incorporated in a polymeric host. A cross-linked triazine polymer incorporating a dicyanovinyl terminated azo dye was found to be relatively stable at 85{degree} and posses an electro-optic coefficient of 11pm/V. We have also observed the zero dispersion condition in a new anomalous dispersion dye for phase matched second harmonic generation, and expect efficient conversion to the blue. A squarylium dye, ISQ, has been found to posses a large third order nonlinearity, and may display two-level behavior. 24 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Modified harmonic balance method for the solution of nonlinear jerk equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Saifur; Hasan, A. S. M. Z.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a second approximate solution of nonlinear jerk equations (third order differential equation) can be obtained by using modified harmonic balance method. The method is simpler and easier to carry out the solution of nonlinear differential equations due to less number of nonlinear equations are required to solve than the classical harmonic balance method. The results obtained from this method are compared with those obtained from the other existing analytical methods that are available in the literature and the numerical method. The solution shows a good agreement with the numerical solution as well as the analytical methods of the available literature.

  6. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  7. Fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure beneath the Tengchong volcanic area inferred from receiver function and surface-wave dispersion: constraints on magma chamber distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wu, Tengfei; Hua, Yujin; Zhang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The Tengchong volcanic area is located in the southeastern margin of the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. It is one of the youngest intraplate volcano groups in mainland China. Imaging the S-wave velocity structure of the crustal and uppermost mantle beneath the Tengchong volcanic area is an important means of improving our understanding of its volcanic activity and seismicity. In this study, we analyze teleseismic data from nine broadband seismic stations in the Tengchong Earthquake Monitoring Network. We then image the crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. The results reveal widely distributed low-velocity zones. We find four possible magma chambers in the upper-to-middle crust and one in the uppermost mantle. The chamber in the uppermost mantle locates in the depth range from 55 to 70 km. The four magma chambers in the crust occur at different depths, ranging from the depth of 7 to 25 km in general. They may be the heat sources for the high geothermal activity at the surface. Based on the fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure, we propose a model for the distribution of the magma chambers.

  8. Nonlinear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazin, P. G

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...

  9. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  10. Polarization dynamics in nonlinear anisotropic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, Andrey; Komarov, Konstantin; Meshcheriakov, Dmitry; Amrani, Foued; Sanchez, Francois

    2010-01-01

    We give an extensive study of polarization dynamics in anisotropic fibers exhibiting a third-order index nonlinearity. The study is performed in the framework of the Stokes parameters with the help of the Poincare sphere. Stationary states are determined, and their stability is investigated. The number of fixed points and their stability depend on the respective magnitude of the linear and nonlinear birefringence. A conservation relation analogous to the energy conservation in mechanics allows evidencing a close analogy between the movement of the polarization in the Poincare sphere and the motion of a particle in a potential well. Two distinct potentials are found, leading to the existence of two families of solutions, according to the sign of the total energy of the equivalent mechanical system. The mechanical analogy allows us to fully characterize the solutions and also to determine analytically the associated beat lengths. General analytical solutions are given for the two families in terms of Jacobi's functions. The intensity-dependent transmission of a fiber placed between two crossed polarizers is calculated. Optimal conditions for efficient nonlinear switching compatible with mode-locking applications are determined. The general case of a nonlinear fiber ring with an intracavity polarizer placed between two polarization controllers is also considered.

  11. Differential quadrature method of nonlinear bending of functionally graded beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnian, Xu; Liansheng, Ma; Wang, Youzhi; Quan, Yuan; Weijie, You

    2018-02-01

    Using the third-order shear deflection beam theory (TBT), nonlinear bending of functionally graded (FG) beams composed with various amounts of ceramic and metal is analyzed utilizing the differential quadrature method (DQM). The properties of beam material are supposed to accord with the power law index along to thickness. First, according to the principle of stationary potential energy, the partial differential control formulae of the FG beams subjected to a distributed lateral force are derived. To obtain numerical results of the nonlinear bending, non-dimensional boundary conditions and control formulae are dispersed by applying the DQM. To verify the present solution, several examples are analyzed for nonlinear bending of homogeneous beams with various edges. A minute parametric research is in progress about the effect of the law index, transverse shear deformation, distributed lateral force and boundary conditions.

  12. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  13. Modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Badal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase and group velocities of 15–70 s Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian Peninsula have been transformed into local dispersion curves by linear inversion of travel times. The procedure permits that the waveform dispersion to be obtained as a continuous period-dependent velocity function at grid points belonging to the area probed by the waves, thus providing phase- and group-velocity contour maps for several periods within the interval of interest. The regionalization process rests on a homogeneous initial data set in which the number of observations remains almost constant for all periods of reference. Damped least-squares inversion of the local dispersion curves for shear-wave velocity structure is performed to obtain depth-dependent S-wave velocity profiles at the grid points covering the model region. The reliability of the results should improve significantly owing to the use of phase and group velocities simultaneously. On this basis, we have built horizontal depth sections that give an updated view of the seismic velocity structure of the peninsula at lithospheric and upper mantle depths (20–200 km. After averaging all the pure-path S-wave velocities previously determined at each grid point, the velocity-depth models so obtained for major tectonic units allow the comparison between the Hercynian basement and other areas of Mesozoic folding and Tertiary basins.

  14. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  15. Non-linear unidimensional Debye screening in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, R.A.; Martin, P.

    1992-01-01

    An exact analytical solution for T e = T i and an approximate solution for T e ≠ T i have been obtained for the unidimensional non-linear Debye potential. The approximate expression is a solution of the Poisson equation obtained by expanding up to third order the Boltzmann's factors. The analysis shows that the effective Debye screening length can be quite different from the usual Debye length, when the potential to thermal energy ratio of the particles is not much smaller than unity. (author)

  16. All-Optical Control of Linear and Nonlinear Energy Transfer via the Zeno Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2018-05-01

    Microresonator-based nonlinear processes are fundamental to applications including microcomb generation, parametric frequency conversion, and harmonics generation. While nonlinear processes involving either second- (χ(2 )) or third- (χ(3 )) order nonlinearity have been extensively studied, the interaction between these two basic nonlinear processes has seldom been reported. In this paper we demonstrate a coherent interplay between second- and third- order nonlinear processes. The parametric (χ(2 ) ) coupling to a lossy ancillary mode shortens the lifetime of the target photonic mode and suppresses its density of states, preventing the photon emissions into the target photonic mode via the Zeno effect. Such an effect is then used to control the stimulated four-wave mixing process and realize a suppression ratio of 34.5.

  17. Cascading second-order nonlinear processes in a lithium niobate-on-insulator microdisk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-09-15

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microcavities are very important in both fundamental science and practical applications, among which on-chip second-order nonlinear microresonators play an important role in integrated photonic functionalities. Here we demonstrate resonant second-harmonic generation (SHG) and cascaded third-harmonic generation (THG) in a lithium niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) microdisk resonator. Efficient SHG in the visible range was obtained with only several mW input powers at telecom wavelengths. THG was also observed through a cascading process, which reveals simultaneous phase matching and strong mode coupling in the resonator. Cascading of second-order nonlinear processes gives rise to an effectively large third-order nonlinearity, which makes on-chip second-order nonlinear microresonators a promising frequency converter for integrated nonlinear photonics.

  18. Optical rogue waves generation in a nonlinear metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onana Essama, Bedel Giscard; Atangana, Jacques; Biya-Motto, Frederick; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Cherkaoui Eddeqaqi, Noureddine; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the behavior of electromagnetic wave which propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. The optical pulse propagation is described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with cubic-quintic nonlinearities, second- and third-order dispersion effects. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for positive index regime. The characterization of electromagnetic wave uses some pulse parameters obtained analytically and called collective coordinates such as amplitude, temporal position, width, chirp, frequency shift and phase. Six frequency ranges have been pointed out where a numerical evolution of collective coordinates and their stability are studied under a typical example to verify our analysis. It appears that a robust soliton due to a perfect compensation process between second-order dispersion and cubic-nonlinearity is presented at each frequency range for both negative and positive index regimes. Thereafter, the stability of the soliton pulse and physical conditions leading to optical rogue waves generation are discussed at each frequency range for both regimes, when third-order dispersion and quintic-nonlinearity come into play. We have demonstrated that collective coordinates give much useful information on external and internal behavior of rogue events. Firstly, we determine at what distance begins the internal excitation leading to rogue waves. Secondly, what kind of internal modification and how it modifies the system in order to build-up rogue events. These results lead to a best comprehension of the mechanism of rogue waves generation. So, it clearly appears that the rogue wave behavior strongly depends on nonlinearity strength of distortion, frequency and regime considered.

  19. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongo, S., E-mail: sidiki@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Kerasidou, A.P. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Sone, B.T.; Diallo, A. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Iliopoulos, K. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504 Patras (Greece); Nkosi, M. [Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); and others

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We studied the linear and nonlinear optical properties of hybrid Bixa Orellana dye doped PMMA thin film. • We investigated the linear optical properties by means of UV/Vis, FTIR and Fluorescence. • We used Tauc - Lorentz model to evaluate linear optical parameters (n &k) with relative maximum of 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm for n is observed while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080. • We evaluated nonlinear third order susceptibility which was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. - Abstract: Natural dyes with highly delocalized π-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended π-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  20. Nonlinear system analysis of renal autoregulation in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chon, K H; Chen, Y M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    We compared the dynamic characteristics in renal autoregulation of blood flow of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), using both linear and nonlinear systems analysis. Linear analysis yielded only limited information about the differences in dynamics......, NMSE are significantly higher in SHR than SDR, suggesting a more complex nonlinear system in SHR. The contribution of the third-order kernel in describing the dynamics of renal autoregulation in arterial blood pressure and blood flow was found to be important. Moreover, we have identified the presence...

  1. Dynamical interactions between solute and solvent studied by nonlinear infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, K.; Tominaga, K.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between solute and solvent play an important role in chemical reaction dynamics and in many relaxation processes in condensed phases. Recently third-order nonlinear infrared (IR) spectroscopy has shown to be useful to investigate solute-solvent interaction and dynamics of the vibrational transition. These studies provide detailed information on the energy relaxation of the vibrationally excited state, and the time scale and the magnitude of the time correlation functions of the vibrational frequency fluctuations. In this work we have studied vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of solutions and molecular complexes by nonlinear IR spectroscopy, especially IR pump-probe method, to understand the microscopic interactions in liquids. (authors)

  2. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all R R . Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower ...

  3. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Sb-doped GeSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Chen, Fen; Lu, Shun-Bin; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shi-Xun; Nie, Qiu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Sb-doped GeSe2 chalcogenide thin films are prepared by the magnetron co-sputtering method. The linear optical properties of as-deposited films are derived by analyzing transmission spectra. The refractive index rises and the optical band gap decreases from 2.08 eV to 1.41 eV with increasing the Sb content. X-ray photoelectron spectra further confirm the formation of a covalent Sb-Se bond. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin films are investigated under femtosecond laser excitation at 800 nm. The results show that the third-order nonlinear optical properties are enhanced with increasing the concentration of Sb. The nonlinear refraction indices of these thin films are measured to be on the order of 10-18 m2/W with a positive sign and the nonlinear absorption coefficients are obtained to be on the order of 10-10 m/W. These excellent properties indicate that Sb-doped Ge-Se films have a good prospect in the applications of nonlinear optical devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB722703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377061), the Young Leaders of Academic Climbing Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. pd2013092), the Program for Innovative Research Team of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2009B217), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  4. The role of nonlinear self-interaction in the dynamics of planetary-scale atmospheric fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffioti, C; Malguzzi, P; Speranza, A

    2016-01-01

    A central role in the general circulation of the atmosphere is played by planetary-scale inertial fluctuations with zonal wavenumber in the range k  = 1–4. Geopotential variance in this range is markedly non-gaussian and a great fraction of it is non-propagating, in contrast with the normal distribution of amplitudes and the basically propagating character of fluctuations in the baroclinic range (3 <  k  < 15). While a wave dispersion relationship can be identified in the baroclinic range, no clear relationship between time and space scales emerges in the ultra-long regime ( k  < 5, period >10 days). We investigate the hypothesis that nonlinear self-interaction of planetary waves influences the mobility (and, therefore, the dispersion) of ultra-long planetary fluctuations. By means of a perturbation expansion of the barotropic vorticity equation we derive a minimal analytic description of the impact of self-nonlinearity on mobility and we show that this is responsible for a correction term to phase speed, with the prevalent effect of slowing down the propagation of waves. The intensity of nonlinear self-interaction is shown to increase with the complexity of the flow, depending on both its zonal and meridional modulations. Reanalysis data of geopotential height and zonal wind are analysed in order to test the effect of self-nonlinearity on observed planetary flows. (paper)

  5. Conservation laws and rogue waves for a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients in the inhomogeneous fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong; Tian, Bo; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Subpicosecond or femtosecond optical pulse propagation in the inhomogeneous fiber can be described by a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients, which is investigated in the paper. Via the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur system and symbolic computation, the Lax pair and infinitely-many conservation laws are deduced. Based on the Lax pair and a modified Darboux transformation technique, the first- and second-order rogue wave solutions are constructed. Effects of the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion on the properties of the first- and second-order rouge waves are graphically presented and analyzed: The groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion both affect the ranges and shapes of the first- and second-order rogue waves: The third-order dispersion can produce a skew angle of the first-order rogue wave and the skew angle rotates counterclockwise with the increase of the groupvelocity dispersion, when the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion are chosen as the constants; When the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion are taken as the functions of the propagation distance, the linear, X-shaped and parabolic trajectories of the rogue waves are obtained.

  6. Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Optical Nonlinearity in Nanometric Gold Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puech, K.; Blau, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of the resonantly enhanced, third-order nonlinear optical properties of gold nanostructures exhibiting reduced charge-carrier mobility in three dimensions were performed with a number of ultrafast nonlinear optical techniques. The size of the particles investigated was varied between 5 and 40 nm. The magnitude of the nonlinear susceptibility is of the order of 5.10 -16 m 2 V -2 at resonance and an order of magnitude lower off-resonance. The response time of the nonlinearity is found to be extremely fast and could not be resolved in the experiments undertaken here. The only statement that can be made in this regard is that the phase relaxation time is of the order of or less than 20 fs while the energy relaxation time is of the order of or less than 75 fs

  7. Structural control of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in dense metal nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlgraf-Owens, Dana C; Kik, Pieter G

    2009-08-17

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a composite containing interacting spherical silver nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric host are studied as a function of interparticle separation using three dimensional frequency domain simulations. It is shown that for a fixed amount of metal, the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the composite chi((3))(omega) can be significantly enhanced with respect to the linear optical properties, due to a combination of resonant surface plasmon excitation and local field redistribution. It is shown that this geometry-dependent susceptibility enhancement can lead to an improved figure of merit for nonlinear absorption. Enhancement factors for the nonlinear susceptibility of the composite are calculated, and the complex nature of the enhancement factors is discussed.

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+-Li+ co-doped ZnS-PVP thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwatkar, S. S.; Sunatkari, A. L.; Tamgadge, Y. S.; Muley, G. G.

    2018-04-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+-Li+ co-doped ZnS-PVP nanocomposite were studied using a continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser (λ = 632.8 nm)by z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive index (n2), absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) of PVP thin films embedded with Nd3+-Li+ co-doped ZnS NPs was found in the order of 10-7 cm2/W, 10-6 cm/W and 10-7 esu respectively. The nonlinearity found increasing with Nd3+-Li+ co-dopant concentration. Based on the results, it is proposed that this material is a new class of luminescent material suitable in optoelectronics devices application, especially in light-emitting devices, electroluminescent devices, display devices, etc.

  9. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  10. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  11. A synchrotron radiation study of nonlinear diffusion in Cu-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, E.S.K.; Huang, P.; Kraitchman, M.; deFontaine, D.; Hoyt, J.J.; Chow, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a study in which alternate layers of pure copper and gold were vapor deposited on a sodium chloride substrate, the average concentration of the films being Cu-16 at% Au and the layering periodicity (modulation wavelength) being 3.31 nm. The composition modulation gives rise to satellite diffraction peaks around the (200) Bragg reelections. Synchrotron radiation at SSRL was able to detect u to third order satellite intensity the evolution of which was measured as a function of annealing time at 515 K. although the first order satellite intensity decayed as expected exponentially with time, intensities of both second and third order satellites decreased very rapidly at first, then increased before decaying exponentially. These results are in conformity with theoretical models of satellite evolution during annealing in a one-dimensional modulated system governed by a nonlinear diffusion equation

  12. Nonlinear optical properties of systems based on ruthenium(II) tetra-15-crown-5-phthalocyaninate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishina, A.D.; Gorbunova, Yu.G.; Enakieva, Yu.Yu.; Krivenko, T.V.; Savel'ev, V.V.; Vannikov, A.V.; Tsivadze, A.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of the ruthenium (II) complex with tetra-15-crown-5-phthalocyanine and axially coordinated triethylenediamine molecules (R 4 Pc)Ru(TED) 2 were analyzed by means of the z-scanning technique. A solution of (R 4 Pc)Ru(TED) 2 in tetrachloroethane was exposed to nanosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 1064 nm. It was found that the third-order molecular polarizability of the Ru(II) complex is 4.5 x 10 -32 cm 4 /C (esu). The polarizability per molecule increases by a factor of 3.6 when the single molecule occurs in a supramolecular assembly of (R 4 Pc)Ru(TED) 2 complexes. The photoelectric and photorefractive properties at 1064 nm of polymer composites, determined by the supramolecular assemblies that exhibits optical absorption and photoelectric sensitivity in the near IR region, are reported [ru

  13. Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataronis, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfven continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named ''accumulation continuum'' and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory

  14. Nonlinear optical characterization of phosphate glasses based on ZnO using the Z-scan technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojdehi Masoumeh Shokati; Yunus Wan Mahmood Mat; Talib Zainal Abidin; Tamchek, N.; Fhan Khor Shing

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of a phosphate vitreous system [(ZnO) x − (MgO) 30−x − (P 2 O 5 ) 70 ], where x = 8, 10, 15, 18, and 20 mol% synthesized through the melt-quenching technique have been investigated by using the Z-scan technique. In the experiment, a continuous-wave laser with a wavelength of 405 nm was utilized to determine the sign and value of the nonlinear refractive (NLR) index and the absorption coefficient with closed and opened apertures of the Z-scan setup. The NLR index was found to increase with the ZnO concentration in the glass samples by an order of 10 −10 cm 2 ·W −1 . The real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility were calculated by referring to the NLR index (n 2 ) and absorption coefficient (β) of the samples. The value of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility was presented by nonlinear refractive or absorptive behavior of phosphate glasses for proper utilization in nonlinear optical devices. Based on the measurement, the positive sign of the NLR index shows a self-focusing phenomenon. The figures of merit for each sample were calculated to judge the potential of phosphate glasses for application in optical switching

  15. Pulsed laser induced optical nonlinearities in undoped, copper doped and chromium doped CdS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dimple; Malik, B. P.; Gaur, Arun

    2015-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) of CdS, Cu doped and Cr doped CdS were synthesized through chemical co- precipitation method. The synthesized QDs have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet visible absorption spectroscopy. The diameters of QDs were calculated using Debye-Scherrer’s formula and Brus equation. They are found to be in 3.5-3.8 nm range. The nonlinear properties has been studied by the open and closed aperture Z-scan technique using frequency double Nd:YAG laser. The nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), third order nonlinear susceptibilities (χ3) of QDs has been calculated. It has been found that the values of nonlinear parameters are higher for doped QDs than undoped CdS QDs. Hence they can be regarded as potential material for the development of optoelectronics and photonics devices.

  16. Growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical 1-phenyl-3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (PDAC) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindraswami, K.; Janardhana, K.; Gowda, Jayaprakash; Moolya, B. Narayana

    2018-04-01

    Non linear optical 1-phenyl-3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (PDAC) was synthesized using Claisen - Schmidt condensation method and studied for optical nonlinearity with an emphasis on structure-property relationship. The structural confirmation studies were carried out using 1H-NMR, FT-IR and single crystal XRD techniques. The nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction parameters in z-scan with nano second laser pulses were obtained by measuring the profile of propagated beam through the samples. The real and imaginary parts of third-order bulk susceptibility χ(3) were evaluated. Thermo gravimetric analysis is carried out to investigate the thermal stability.

  17. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  18. Preparation and nonlinear optical properties of indium nanocrystals in sodium borosilicate glass by the sol–gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Zhao, Haijun; Chen, Zhaoping; Liang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenguang; Chen, Guoxin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel methods. And the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal system have formed uniformly in the glass, and the average diameter of indium nanocrystals is about 30 nm. The third-order optical nonlinear refractive index γ, absorption coefficient β, and susceptibility χ (3) of the glass are determined to be −4.77 × 10 −16 m 2 /W, 2.67 × 10 −9 m/W, and 2.81 × 10 −10 esu, respectively. Highlights: ► Indium nanocrystals embedded in glass matrix have been prepared by sol–gel route. ► The crystal structure and composition are investigated by XRD and XPS. ► Size and distribution of indium nanocrystals is determined by TEM. ► The third-order optical nonlinearity is investigated by using Z-scan technique. -- Abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel route. The thermal stability behavior of the stiff gel is investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analysis. The crystal structure of the glass is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Particle composition is determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Size and distribution of the nanocrystals are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Results show that the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal structure have formed in glass, and the average diameter is about 30 nm. Further, the glass is measured by Z-scan technique to investigate the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The third-order NLO coefficient χ (3) of the glass is determined to be 2.81 × 10 −10 esu. The glass with large third-order NLO coefficient is promising materials for applications in optical devices.

  19. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  20. Oscillation of third-order functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Baculikova

    2010-08-01

    Applying suitable comparison theorems we present new criteria for oscillation or certain asymptotic behavior of nonoscillatory solutions of (\\ref{E0}. Obtained results essentially improve and complement earlier ones. Various examples are considered to illustrate the main results.

  1. General existence results for nonconvex third order differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaoud Bounkhel

    2010-04-01

    where $F:[0,T]\\times \\mathbb{H}\\times \\mathbb{H} \\times \\mathbb{H}\\rightarrow \\mathbb{H}$ is a continuous set-valued mapping, $G:\\mathbb{H}\\times \\mathbb{H} \\times \\mathbb{H}\\rightarrow \\mathbb{H}$ is an upper semi-continuous set-valued mapping with $G(x,y,z\\subset \\partial^C g(z$ where $g: \\mathbb{H}\\rightarrow \\mathbb{R}$ is a uniformly regular function over $S$ and locally Lipschitz and $S$ is a ball compact subset of a separable Hilbert space $\\mathbb{H}$.

  2. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear dynamics of packets of spiral density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a numerical experiment, the behavior of nonlinear packets of spiral density waves in a gas disk has been investigated for different initial wave amplitudes. If the amplitude of the density perturbations is small (<5%), the wave packet is drawn toward the center or toward the periphery of the disk in accordance with the linear theory. The behavior of linear packets of waves with wavelength comparable to the disk radius (R/sub d//lambda = 4) exhibits good agreement with the conclusions of the linear theory of tightly wound spiral waves. The dynamics of wave packets with initial density amplitudes 16, 30, 50% demonstrates the nonlinear nature of the behavior. THe behavior is governed by whether or not the nonlinear effects of higher than third order in the wave amplitude play a part. If the wave packet dynamics is determined by the cubic nonlinearity, the results of the numerical experiment are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the nonlinear theory of short waves, although the characteristic scale of the packet and the wavelength are of the order of the disk radius. In the cases when the nonlinear effects of higher orders in the amplitude play an important part, the behavior of a packet does not differ qualitatively from the behavior predicted by the theory of cubic nonlinearity, but the nonlinear spreading of the packet takes place more rapidly

  3. Growth, spectral, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of an efficient semiorganic acentric crystal: L-valinium L-valine chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India); Vinitha, G. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT Chennai, 600127 Tamil Nadu (India); Caroline, M. Lydia, E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-04-15

    An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P2{sub 1}. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics. - Graphical abstract: Good quality transparent single crystals of L-valinium L-valine chloride single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were analyzed using different instrumentation methods to check its usefulness for the device fabrication. The determination of nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}), absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility was determined by Z scan technique, highlighted that LVVCl can serve as a promising candidate for opto electronic and nonlinear optical applications.

  4. Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications. Postdeadline papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications conference was held on 17-21 Aug. 1992. The following topics were addressed: subpicosecond time resolved four-wave mixing spectroscopy in heteroepitaxial ZnSe thin layers; anisotropic two-photon transition in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides; two picosecond, narrow-band, tunable, optical parametric systems using BBO and LBO; second generation in an optically active liquid: experimental observation of a fourth-order optical nonlinearity due to molecular chirality; optical image recognition system implemented with a 3-D memory disk; phase-matched second-harmonic generation in waveguides of polymeric Langmuir-Blodgett films; fluence dependent dynamics observed in the resonant third-order optical response of C60 and C70 films; temporal modulation of spatial optical solitons: a variational approach; measurements of light-scattering noise during two-wave mixing in a Kerr medium; excess noise introduced by beam propagation through an atomic vapor; an approach to all-optical switching based on second-order nonlinearities; multilayer, nonlinear ARROW waveguides for surface emitted sum-frequency mixing; energy scaling of SBS phase conjugate mirrors to 4J; vector versus scalar theory for the double phase conjugate mirror; cross-talk and error probability in counter-beam lambda-multiplexed digital holograms; and modal growth of SHG in doped silica thin film waveguides.

  5. Novel procedure for characterizing nonlinear systems with memory: 2017 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Albert H.; Katz, Richard A.; Hughes, Derke R.; Koch, Robert M.

    2017-05-01

    The present article discusses novel improvements in nonlinear signal processing made by the prime algorithm developer, Dr. Albert H. Nuttall and co-authors, a consortium of research scientists from the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, RI. The algorithm, called the Nuttall-Wiener-Volterra or 'NWV' algorithm is named for its principal contributors [1], [2],[ 3] . The NWV algorithm significantly reduces the computational workload for characterizing nonlinear systems with memory. Following this formulation, two measurement waveforms are required in order to characterize a specified nonlinear system under consideration: (1) an excitation input waveform, x(t) (the transmitted signal); and, (2) a response output waveform, z(t) (the received signal). Given these two measurement waveforms for a given propagation channel, a 'kernel' or 'channel response', h= [h0,h1,h2,h3] between the two measurement points, is computed via a least squares approach that optimizes modeled kernel values by performing a best fit between measured response z(t) and a modeled response y(t). New techniques significantly diminish the exponential growth of the number of computed kernel coefficients at second and third order and alleviate the Curse of Dimensionality (COD) in order to realize practical nonlinear solutions of scientific and engineering interest.

  6. Imprint of non-linear effects on HI intensity mapping on large scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeh, Obinna, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)

    2017-06-01

    Intensity mapping of the HI brightness temperature provides a unique way of tracing large-scale structures of the Universe up to the largest possible scales. This is achieved by using a low angular resolution radio telescopes to detect emission line from cosmic neutral Hydrogen in the post-reionization Universe. We use general relativistic perturbation theory techniques to derive for the first time the full expression for the HI brightness temperature up to third order in perturbation theory without making any plane-parallel approximation. We use this result and the renormalization prescription for biased tracers to study the impact of nonlinear effects on the power spectrum of HI brightness temperature both in real and redshift space. We show how mode coupling at nonlinear order due to nonlinear bias parameters and redshift space distortion terms modulate the power spectrum on large scales. The large scale modulation may be understood to be due to the effective bias parameter and effective shot noise.

  7. Nonlinear optical measurements of conducting copolymers of aniline under CW laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.

    2015-08-01

    Synthesis and measurements of third-order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting of conducting copolymers of aniline are presented. Single beam z-scan technique was employed for the nonlinear optical studies. Continuous wave He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm was used as the source of excitation. Copolymer samples exhibited reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. The nonlinear refraction studies depict that the copolymers exhibit self-defocusing property. The estimated values of βeff, n2 and χ(3) were found to be of the order of 10-2 cm/W, 10-5 esu and 10-7 esu respectively. Self-diffraction rings were observed due to refractive index change when exposed to the laser beam. A good optical limiting and clamping of power of ∼0.9 mW and ∼0.05 mW was observed. Therefore, copolymers of aniline emerge as a potential candidate for photonic device applications.

  8. Nonlinear unknown input sliding mode observer based chaotic system synchronization and message recovery scheme with uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Vivek; Sharma, B.B.; Nath, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the present manuscript, observer based synchronization and message recovery scheme is discussed for a system with uncertainties. LMI conditions are analytically derived solution of which gives the observer design matrices. Earlier approaches have used adaptive laws to address the uncertainties, however in present work, decoupling approach is used to make observer robust against uncertainties. The methodology requires upper bounds on nonlinearity and the message signal and estimates for these bounds are generated adaptively. Thus no information about the nature of nonlinearity and associated Lipschitz constant is needed in proposed approach. Message signal is recovered using equivalent output injection which is a low pass filtered equivalent of the discontinuous effort required to maintain the sliding motion. Finally, the efficacy of proposed Nonlinear Unknown Input Sliding Mode Observer (NUISMO) for chaotic communication is verified by conducting simulation studies on two chaotic systems i.e. third order Chua circuit and Rossler system.

  9. Optical super-resolution effect induced by nonlinear characteristics of graphene oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-chuang; Nie, Zhong-quan; Zhai, Ai-ping; Tian, Yan-ting; Liu, Chao; Shi, Chang-kun; Jia, Bao-hua

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the optical super-resolution effect induced by strong nonlinear saturation absorption (NSA) of graphene oxide (GO) membranes. The third-order optical nonlinearities are characterized by the canonical Z-scan technique under femtosecond laser (wavelength: 800 nm, pulse width: 100 fs) excitation. Through controlling the applied femtosecond laser energy, NSA of the GO films can be tuned continuously. The GO film is placed at the focal plane as a unique amplitude filter to improve the resolution of the focused field. A multi-layer system model is proposed to present the generation of a deep sub-wavelength spot associated with the nonlinearity of GO films. Moreover, the parameter conditions to achieve the best resolution (˜λ/6) are determined entirely. The demonstrated results here are useful for high density optical recoding and storage, nanolithography, and super-resolution optical imaging.

  10. High-order optical nonlinearities in nanocomposite films dispersed with semiconductor quantum dots at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yasuo; Matsushima, Shun-suke; Yamagami, Ryu-ichi; Jinzenji, Taka-aki; Sakuma, Shohei; Liu, Xiangming; Izuishi, Takuya; Shen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    We describe the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic-organic nanocomposite films in which semiconductor CdSe quantum dots as high as 6.8 vol.% are dispersed. Open/closed Z-scan measurements, degenerate multi-wave mixing and femtosecond pump-probe/transient grating measurements are conducted. It is shown that the observed fifth-order optical nonlinearity has the cascaded third-order contribution that becomes prominent at high concentrations of CdSe QDs. It is also shown that there are picosecond-scale intensity-dependent and nanosecond-scale intensity-independent decay components in absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. The former is caused by the Auger process, while the latter comes from the electron-hole recombination process. (paper)

  11. Single nano-hole as a new effective nonlinear element for third-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melentiev, P N; Konstantinova, T V; Afanasiev, A E; Balykin, V I; Kuzin, A A; Baturin, A S; Tausenev, A V; Konyaschenko, A V

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we report on a particularly strong optical nonlinearity at the nanometer scale in aluminum. A strong optical nonlinearity of the third order was demonstrated on a single nanoslit. Single nanoslits of different aspect ratio were excited by a laser pulse (120 fs) at the wavelength 1.5 μm, leading predominantly to third-harmonic generation (THG). It has been shown that strong surface plasmon resonance in a nanoslit allows the realization of an effective nanolocalized source of third-harmonic radiation. We show also that a nanoslit in a metal film has a significant advantage in nonlinear processes over its Babinet complementary nanostructure (nanorod): the effective abstraction of heat in a film with a slit makes it possible to use much higher laser radiation intensities. (letter)

  12. Single nano-hole as a new effective nonlinear element for third-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentiev, P. N.; Konstantinova, T. V.; Afanasiev, A. E.; Kuzin, A. A.; Baturin, A. S.; Tausenev, A. V.; Konyaschenko, A. V.; Balykin, V. I.

    2013-07-01

    In this letter, we report on a particularly strong optical nonlinearity at the nanometer scale in aluminum. A strong optical nonlinearity of the third order was demonstrated on a single nanoslit. Single nanoslits of different aspect ratio were excited by a laser pulse (120 fs) at the wavelength 1.5 μm, leading predominantly to third-harmonic generation (THG). It has been shown that strong surface plasmon resonance in a nanoslit allows the realization of an effective nanolocalized source of third-harmonic radiation. We show also that a nanoslit in a metal film has a significant advantage in nonlinear processes over its Babinet complementary nanostructure (nanorod): the effective abstraction of heat in a film with a slit makes it possible to use much higher laser radiation intensities.

  13. Bright solitons for a generalized nonautonomous nonlinear equation in a nonlinear inhomogeneous fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xi-Yang; Tian, Bo; Liu, Lei; Guan, Yue-Yang; Jiang, Yan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a generalized nonautonomous nonlinear equation, which describes the ultrashort optical pulse propagating in a nonlinear inhomogeneous fiber. Under certain integrable constraints, bilinear forms, bright one- and two-soliton solutions are obtained. Via certain transformation, we investigate the properties of the solitons with the first-order dispersion parameter σ1(x, t), second-order dispersion parameter σ2(x, t), third-order dispersion parameter σ3(x, t), phase modulation and gain (loss) v(x, t). Soliton propagation and collision are graphically presented and analyzed: One soliton is shown to maintain its amplitude and width during the propagation. When we choose σ1(x, t), σ2(x, t) and σ3(x, t) differently, travelling direction of the soliton is found to alter. v(x, t) is observed to affect the amplitude of the soliton. Head-on collision between the two solitons is presented with σ1(x, t), σ2(x, t), σ3(x, t) and v(x, t) as the constants, and solitons' amplitudes are the same before and after the collision. When σ1(x, t), σ2(x, t) and σ3(x, t) are chosen as certain functions, the solitons' traveling directions change during the collision. v(x, t) can influence the amplitudes of the two solitons.

  14. Weakly nonlinear incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth at cylindrically convergent interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L. F.; He, X. T.; Wu, J. F.; Zhang, W. Y.; Ye, W. H.

    2013-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear (WN) model has been developed for the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in cylindrical geometry. The transition from linear to nonlinear growth is analytically investigated via a third-order solutions for the cylindrical RTI initiated by a single-mode velocity perturbation. The third-order solutions can depict the early stage of the interface asymmetry due to the bubble-spike formation, as well as the saturation of the linear (exponential) growth of the fundamental mode. The WN results in planar RTI [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 112706 (2012)] are recovered in the limit of high-mode number perturbations. The difference between the WN growth of the RTI in cylindrical geometry and in planar geometry is discussed. It is found that the interface of the inward (outward) development spike/bubble is extruded (stretched) by the additional inertial force in cylindrical geometry compared with that in planar geometry. For interfaces with small density ratios, the inward growth bubble can grow fast than the outward growth spike in cylindrical RTI. Moreover, a reduced formula is proposed to describe the WN growth of the RTI in cylindrical geometry with an acceptable precision, especially for small-amplitude perturbations. Using the reduced formula, the nonlinear saturation amplitude of the fundamental mode and the phases of the Fourier harmonics are studied. Thus, it should be included in applications where converging geometry effects play an important role, such as the supernova explosions and inertial confinement fusion implosions.

  15. Two and four photon absorption and nonlinear refraction in undoped, chromium doped and copper doped ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dimple; Malik, B. P.; Gaur, Arun

    2015-12-01

    The ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with Cr and Cu doping were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanostructures of the prepared undoped and doped ZnS QDs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sizes of QDs were found to be within 3-5 nm range. The nonlinear parameters viz. Two photon absorption coefficient (β2), nonlinear refractive index (n2), third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ3) at wavelength 532 nm and Four photon absorption coefficient (β4) at wavelength 1064 nm have been calculated by Z-scan technique using nanosecond Nd:YAG laser in undoped, Cr doped and Cu doped ZnS QDs. Higher values of nonlinear parameters for doped ZnS infer that they are potential material for the development of photonics devices and sensor protection applications.

  16. Tuning the nonlinear optical absorption in Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposites with gold nanoparticle concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeesh, M. M.; Shakhi, P. K.; Varier, Geetha K.; Nandakumar, P.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposite films and its dependence on gold nanoparticle concentration. Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposite films with different molar ratio of Au/Ba are prepared by sol-gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV Visible absorption spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. An open aperture Z-scan technique is employed to study the third order nonlinear optical properties of Au/BaTiO3 thin films. An Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm wavelength having a pulse width of 5 ns is used for the measurements. The two-photon absorption coefficient of the films increases linearly with gold nanoparticle concentration and significant enhancement of nonlinear optical absorption is observed. This ability to fine tune the nonlinear optical coefficients of Au/BaTiO3 films would be handy in optical device applications.

  17. Higher-order rogue wave-like solutions for a nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with external potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Tian, Bo; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Under investigation in this paper is the higher-order rogue wave-like solutions for a nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with external potentials which can be applied in the nonlinear optics, hydrodynamics, plasma physics and Bose-Einstein condensation. Based on the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy reduction, we construct the Nth order rogue wave-like solutions in terms of the Gramian under the integrable constraint. With the help of the analytic and graphic analysis, we exhibit the first-, second- and third-order rogue wave-like solutions through the different dispersion, nonlinearity and linear potential coefficients. We find that only if the dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients are proportional to each other, heights of the background of those rogue waves maintain unchanged with time increasing. Due to the existence of complex parameters, such nonautonomous rogue waves in the higher-order cases have more complex features than those in the lower.

  18. Density gradient effects in weakly nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; He, X. T.

    2012-01-01

    In this research, density gradient effects (i.e., finite thickness of ablation front effects) in ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability (ARTI), in the presence of preheating within the weakly nonlinear regime, are investigated numerically. We analyze the weak, medium, and strong ablation surfaces which have different isodensity contours, respectively, to study the influences of finite thickness of ablation front on the weakly nonlinear behaviors of ARTI. Linear growth rates, generation coefficients of the second and the third harmonics, and coefficients of the third-order feedback to the fundamental mode are obtained. It is found that the linear growth rate which has a remarkable maximum, is reduced, especially when the perturbation wavelength λ is short and a cut-off perturbation wavelength λ c appears when the perturbation wavelength λ is sufficiently short, where no higher harmonics exists when λ c . The phenomenon of third-order positive feedback to the fundamental mode near the λ c [J. Sanz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 195002 (2002); J. Garnier et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185003 (2003); J. Garnier and L. Masse, Phys. Plasmas 12, 062707 (2005)] is confirmed in numerical simulations, and the physical mechanism of the third-order positive feedback is qualitatively discussed. Moreover, it is found that generations and growths of the second and the third harmonics are stabilized (suppressed and reduced) by the ablation effect. Meanwhile, the third-order negative feedback to the fundamental mode is also reduced by the ablation effect, and hence, the linear saturation amplitude (typically ∼0.2λ in our simulations) is increased significantly and therefore exceeds the classical prediction 0.1λ, especially for the strong ablation surface with a small perturbation wavelength. Overall, the ablation effect stabilizes the ARTI in the weakly nonlinear regime. Numerical results obtained are in general agreement with the recent weakly nonlinear theories and simulations

  19. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a hydrogenic donor in lens-shaped quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahdani, M.R.K.; Rezaei, G.

    2009-01-01

    Optical transitions in a Lens-Shaped Quantum Dot (LSD) are investigated in the presence of a hydrogenic impurity. The electronic wave functions are obtained analytically and the energy eigenvalues are calculated numerically. The density matrix formulation with the intersubband relaxation are used to evaluate the (linear and third order nonlinear) absorption coefficient (AC) and the change in the refractive indices (RI) analytically. The effect of the size of the LSD and optical intensity on the AC and RI are investigated. It is found that AC and RI are strongly affected by the optical intensity and the size of the LSD.

  20. Simple and complex chimera states in a nonlinearly coupled oscillatory medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotov, Maxim; Smirnov, Lev; Osipov, Grigory; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2018-04-01

    We consider chimera states in a one-dimensional medium of nonlinear nonlocally coupled phase oscillators. In terms of a local coarse-grained complex order parameter, the problem of finding stationary rotating nonhomogeneous solutions reduces to a third-order ordinary differential equation. This allows finding chimera-type and other inhomogeneous states as periodic orbits of this equation. Stability calculations reveal that only some of these states are stable. We demonstrate that an oscillatory instability leads to a breathing chimera, for which the synchronous domain splits into subdomains with different mean frequencies. Further development of instability leads to turbulent chimeras.

  1. Designing Non-linear Frequency Modulated Signals For Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a new method for designing non-linear frequency modulated (NLFM) waveforms for ultrasound imaging is proposed. The objective is to control the amplitude spectrum of the designed waveform and still keep a constant transmit amplitude, so that the transmitted energy is maximized....... The signal-to-noise-ratio can in this way be optimized. The waveform design is based on least squares optimization. A desired amplitude spectrum is chosen, hereafter the phase spectrum is chosen, so that the instantaneous frequency takes on the form of a third order polynomial. The finite energy waveform...

  2. Improved harmonic balance approach to periodic solutions of non-linear jerk equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B.S.; Lim, C.W.; Sun, W.P.

    2006-01-01

    An analytical approximate approach for determining periodic solutions of non-linear jerk equations involving third-order time-derivative is presented. This approach incorporates salient features of both Newton's method and the method of harmonic balance. By appropriately imposing the method of harmonic balance to the linearized equation, the approach requires only one or two iterations to predict very accurate analytical approximate solutions for a large range of initial velocity amplitude. One typical example is used to verify and illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed approach

  3. A nanohole in a thin metal film as an efficient nonlinear optical element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinova, T. V.; Melent' ev, P. N.; Afanas' ev, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation); Kuzin, A. A.; Starikov, P. A.; Baturin, A. S. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Tausenev, A. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V. [OOO Avesta-proekt (Russian Federation); Balykin, V. I., E-mail: balykin@isan.tyroitsk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    The nonlinear optical properties of single nanoholes and nanoslits fabricated in gold and aluminum nanofilms are studied by third harmonic generation (THG). It is shown that the extremely high third-order optical susceptibility of aluminum and the presence of strong plasmon resonance of a single nanohole in an aluminum film make possible an efficient nanolocalized radiation source at the third harmonic frequency. The THG efficiency for a single nanohole in a thin metal film can be close to unity for an exciting laser radiation intensity on the order of 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a hydrogenic donor in lens-shaped quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahdani, M.R.K. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, G., E-mail: grezaei@mail.yu.ac.i [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-08-17

    Optical transitions in a Lens-Shaped Quantum Dot (LSD) are investigated in the presence of a hydrogenic impurity. The electronic wave functions are obtained analytically and the energy eigenvalues are calculated numerically. The density matrix formulation with the intersubband relaxation are used to evaluate the (linear and third order nonlinear) absorption coefficient (AC) and the change in the refractive indices (RI) analytically. The effect of the size of the LSD and optical intensity on the AC and RI are investigated. It is found that AC and RI are strongly affected by the optical intensity and the size of the LSD.

  5. A nanohole in a thin metal film as an efficient nonlinear optical element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, T. V.; Melent’ev, P. N.; Afanas’ev, A. E.; Kuzin, A. A.; Starikov, P. A.; Baturin, A. S.; Tausenev, A. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Balykin, V. I.

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of single nanoholes and nanoslits fabricated in gold and aluminum nanofilms are studied by third harmonic generation (THG). It is shown that the extremely high third-order optical susceptibility of aluminum and the presence of strong plasmon resonance of a single nanohole in an aluminum film make possible an efficient nanolocalized radiation source at the third harmonic frequency. The THG efficiency for a single nanohole in a thin metal film can be close to unity for an exciting laser radiation intensity on the order of 10 13 W/cm 2

  6. Higher order terms of the nonlinear forces in plasmas with collisions at laser interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentwell, G.W.; Hora, H.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of the general expression of the nonlinear force of laser-plasma interaction showed discrepancies depending on the assumptions of the phase and collisions in the expressions used for E and H. While the first order terms of the derivations are remaining unchanged, new third order terms are found for the case of perpendicular incidence without collisions. With collisions, the additional non-pondermotive terms are derived to be more general than known before. It is then possible to evaluate the forces for oblique incidence with collisions and find an absorption caused force in the plane of the plasma surface. (author)

  7. Stress evaluation of metallic material under steady state based on nonlinear critically refracted longitudinal wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hanling; Zhang, Yuhua; Mao, Hanying; Li, Xinxin; Huang, Zhenfeng

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the study of applying the nonlinear ultrasonic wave to evaluate the stress state of metallic materials under steady state. The pre-stress loading method is applied to guarantee components with steady stress. Three kinds of nonlinear ultrasonic experiments based on critically refracted longitudinal wave are conducted on components which the critically refracted longitudinal wave propagates along x, x1 and x2 direction. Experimental results indicate the second and third order relative nonlinear coefficients monotonically increase with stress, and the normalized relationship is consistent with simplified dislocation models, which indicates the experimental result is logical. The combined ultrasonic nonlinear parameter is proposed, and three stress evaluation models at x direction are established based on three ultrasonic nonlinear parameters, which the estimation error is below 5%. Then two stress detection models at x1 and x2 direction are built based on combined ultrasonic nonlinear parameter, the stress synthesis method is applied to calculate the magnitude and direction of principal stress. The results show the prediction error is within 5% and the angle deviation is within 1.5°. Therefore the nonlinear ultrasonic technique based on LCR wave could be applied to nondestructively evaluate the stress of metallic materials under steady state which the magnitude and direction are included.

  8. Twistacene contained molecule for optical nonlinearity: Excited-state based negative refraction and optical limiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingzhi; Xiao, Jinchong; Sun, Ru; Jia, Jidong; Yang, Junyi; Ao, Guanghong; Shi, Guang; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xueru; Song, Yinglin

    2018-06-01

    Spindle-type molecules containing twisted acenes (PyBTA-1 &PyBTA-2) are designed, synthesized characterized. Picosecond Z-scan experiments under 532 nm show reverse saturable absorption and negative nonlinear refraction, indicating large third-order optical nonlinearity in PyBTA-1. The mechanism of the optical nonlinearity is investigated and the results show that the nonlinear absorption and refraction in PyBTA-1 originates from a charge transfer (CT) state. Furthermore, relatively long lifetime and absorptive cross section of the CT state are measured. Based on the excited state absorption in PyBTA-1, strong optical limiting with ∼0.3 J/cm2 thresholds are obtained when excited by picoseconds and nanoseconds pulses. The findings on nonlinear optics suggest PyBTA-1 a promising material of all optical modulation and laser protection, which enrich the potential applications of these spindle-type molecules. Comparing to the previously reported spindle-type molecules with analogous structures, the introduction of ICT in PyBTA-1 &PyBTA-2 dramatically decreases the two-photon absorption while enhances the nonlinear refraction. The results could be used to selectively tailor the optical nonlinearity in such kind of compounds.

  9. Nonlinear Saturation Amplitude in Classical Planar Richtmyer–Meshkov Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wan-Hai; Jiang Hong-Bin; Ma Wen-Fang; Wang Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The classical planar Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) at a fluid interface supported by a constant pressure is investigated by a formal perturbation expansion up to the third order, and then according to definition of nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) in Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI), the NSA in planar RMI is obtained explicitly. It is found that the NSA in planar RMI is affected by the initial perturbation wavelength and the initial amplitude of the interface, while the effect of the initial amplitude of the interface on the NSA is less than that of the initial perturbation wavelength. Without marginal influence of the initial amplitude, the NSA increases linearly with wavelength. The NSA normalized by the wavelength in planar RMI is about 0.11, larger than that corresponding to RTI. (paper)

  10. Nonlinear optical properties of TeO2-P2 O5- ZnO-LiNbO3 glass doped with Er3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedzinski, R.; Fuks-Janczarek, I.; El Sayed Said, Y.

    2016-10-01

    A series of lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) single crystals doped with Er3+ were grown under the same conditions by melt-quenching method. The distribution coefficients of rare-earth (RE) elements in the "crystal-melt" system of LN were determined at the beginning of the crystal growth. Their dependence on the dopant concentration in melt for 0.4 and 0.8 wt % was investigated. The procedure is applied to RE-doped lithium niobate (LiNbO3), a material of great interest for optoelectronic applications. We have obtained the real χR(3) and imaginary parts χI(3) of the third-order, nonlinear optical susceptibility to the nonlinear refractive index n2 and the nonlinear absorption coefficient β that are valid for absorbing systems. We show that nonlinear refractive or absorptive effects are the consequence of the interplay between the real and imaginary parts of the third-order susceptibilities of the materials. The method for measuring non-linear absorption coefficients and nonlinear refractive index based on well-known Z-scan is presented.

  11. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  12. Nonlinear detection of disordered voice productions from short time series based on a Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yu, E-mail: yuzhang@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen Fujian 361005 (China); Sprecher, Alicia J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States); Zhao Zongxi [Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Communication and Marine Information Technology of the Ministry of Education, Xiamen University, Xiamen Fujian 361005 (China); Jiang, Jack J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792-7375 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The VWK method effectively detects the nonlinearity of a discrete map. > The method describes the chaotic time series of a biomechanical vocal fold model. > Nonlinearity in laryngeal pathology is detected from short and noisy time series. - Abstract: In this paper, we apply the Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg (VWK) model method to detect nonlinearity in disordered voice productions. The VWK method effectively describes the nonlinearity of a third-order nonlinear map. It allows for the analysis of short and noisy data sets. The extracted VWK model parameters show an agreement with the original nonlinear map parameters. Furthermore, the VWK mode method is applied to successfully assess the nonlinearity of a biomechanical voice production model simulating irregular vibratory dynamics of vocal folds with a unilateral vocal polyp. Finally, we show the clinical applicability of this nonlinear detection method to analyze the electroglottographic data generated by 14 patients with vocal nodules or polyps. The VWK model method shows potential in describing the nonlinearity inherent in disordered voice productions from short and noisy time series that are common in the clinical setting.

  13. Nonlinear detection of disordered voice productions from short time series based on a Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Sprecher, Alicia J.; Zhao Zongxi; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The VWK method effectively detects the nonlinearity of a discrete map. → The method describes the chaotic time series of a biomechanical vocal fold model. → Nonlinearity in laryngeal pathology is detected from short and noisy time series. - Abstract: In this paper, we apply the Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg (VWK) model method to detect nonlinearity in disordered voice productions. The VWK method effectively describes the nonlinearity of a third-order nonlinear map. It allows for the analysis of short and noisy data sets. The extracted VWK model parameters show an agreement with the original nonlinear map parameters. Furthermore, the VWK mode method is applied to successfully assess the nonlinearity of a biomechanical voice production model simulating irregular vibratory dynamics of vocal folds with a unilateral vocal polyp. Finally, we show the clinical applicability of this nonlinear detection method to analyze the electroglottographic data generated by 14 patients with vocal nodules or polyps. The VWK model method shows potential in describing the nonlinearity inherent in disordered voice productions from short and noisy time series that are common in the clinical setting.

  14. Effect of structure on nonlinear optical properties in CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Tingyin [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Zhou, Yueliang, E-mail: ylzhou@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-21

    We report the third-order nonlinear optical properties of CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} films with different preferred growth orientations on MgO and fused silica substrates. The films have (310)- and (220)-orientation on MgO and fused silica, respectively, due to the lattice-mismatch. Raman spectra further indicate different atom-bonding states in the films. The nonlinear optical measurements show the films possess the same self-defocusing behavior but with different values of nonlinear refraction, and changed signs of nonlinear absorption. The difference of optical nonlinearity in CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} films is ascribed to different lattice parameters and intermediate levels induced by structure.

  15. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  16. Model Hamiltonian Calculations of the Nonlinear Polarizabilities of Conjugated Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Steven Michael

    This dissertation advances the theoretical knowledge of the nonlinear polarizabilities of conjugated molecules. The unifying feature of these molecules is an extended delocalized pi electron structure. The pi electrons dominate the electronic properties of the molecules, allowing prediction of molecular properties based on the treatment of just the pi electrons. Two separate pi electron Hamiltonians are used in the research. The principal Hamiltonian used is the non-interacting single-particle Huckel Hamiltonian, which replaces the Coulomb interaction among the pi electrons with a mean field interaction. The simplification allows for exact solution of the Hamiltonian for large molecules. The second Hamiltonian used for this research is the interacting multi-particle Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) Hamiltonian, which retains explicit Coulomb interactions. This limits exact solutions to molecules containing at most eight electrons. The molecular properties being investigated are the linear polarizability, and the second and third order hyperpolarizabilities. The hyperpolarizabilities determine the nonlinear optical response of materials. These molecular parameters are determined by two independent approaches. The results from the Huckel Hamiltonian are obtained through first, second and third order perturbation theory. The results from the PPP Hamiltonian are obtained by including the applied field directly in the Hamiltonian and determining the ground state energy at a series of field strengths. By fitting the energy to a polynomial in field strength, the polarizability and hyperpolarizabilities are determined. The Huckel Hamiltonian is used to calculate the third order hyperpolarizability of polyenes. These calculations were the first to show the average hyperpolarizability of the polyenes to be positive, and also to show the saturation of the hyperpolarizability. Comparison of these Huckel results to those from the PPP Hamiltonian shows the lack of explicit Coulomb

  17. Solitons and rogue waves for a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch system in an erbium-doped fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chuan-Qi; Gao, Yi-Tian; Yu, Xin; Xue, Long; Aviation Univ. of Air Force, Liaoning

    2015-01-01

    Under investigation in this article is a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch (HNLS-MB) system for the optical pulse propagation in an erbium-doped fiber. Lax pair, Darboux transformation (DT), and generalised DT for the HNLS-MB system are constructed. Soliton solutions and rogue wave solutions are derived based on the DT and generalised DT, respectively. Properties of the solitons and rogue waves are graphically presented. The third-order dispersion parameter, fourth-order dispersion parameter, and frequency detuning all influence the characteristic lines and velocities of the solitons. The frequency detuning also affects the amplitudes of solitons. The separating function has no effect on the properties of the first-order rogue waves, except for the locations where the first-order rogue waves appear. The third-order dispersion parameter affects the propagation directions and shapes of the rogue waves. The frequency detuning influences the rogue-wave types of the module for the measure of polarization of resonant medium and the extant population inversion. The fourth-order dispersion parameter impacts the rogue-wave interaction range and also has an effect on the rogue-wave type of the extant population inversion. The value of separating function affects the spatial-temporal separation of constituting elementary rogue waves for the second-order and third-order rogue waves. The second-order and third-order rogue waves can exhibit the triangular and pentagon patterns under different choices of separating functions.

  18. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Hernandez, R C; Gleason-Villagran, R; Cheang-Wong, J C; Crespo-Sosa, A; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Lopez-Suarez, A; Oliver, A; Reyes-Esqueda, J A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Torres-Torres, C [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-Zacatenco, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. 07338 (Mexico); Rangel-Rojo, R, E-mail: reyes@fisica.unam.mx [CICESE/Depto. de Optica, A.P. 360, Ensenada, B. C. 22860 (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we studied the nonlinear absorption and refraction of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites, which consist of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in matrices of SiO{sub 2}. We performed this study at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond regime. The wavelengths were selected accordingly to the absorption spectra of the nanocomposites, choosing wavelengths into the inter- and intra-band transitions regions, including the surface plasmon (SP) resonance, as well as in the transparent region. For the anisotropic nanocomposites, the polarization and the incident angle were varied in order to evaluate the different components of the third order susceptibility tensor, {chi}{sup (3)}. We observed dramatic changes of sign for both, nonlinear refraction and absorption, when passing from Au to Ag and/or varying the wave length. The results accentuate the importance of the hot-electrons contribution to the nonlinear optical response at this temporal regime, when compared to inter-band and intra-band transitions contributions.

  19. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Hernandez, R C; Gleason-Villagran, R; Cheang-Wong, J C; Crespo-Sosa, A; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Lopez-Suarez, A; Oliver, A; Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Torres-Torres, C; Rangel-Rojo, R

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we studied the nonlinear absorption and refraction of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites, which consist of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in matrices of SiO 2 . We performed this study at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond regime. The wavelengths were selected accordingly to the absorption spectra of the nanocomposites, choosing wavelengths into the inter- and intra-band transitions regions, including the surface plasmon (SP) resonance, as well as in the transparent region. For the anisotropic nanocomposites, the polarization and the incident angle were varied in order to evaluate the different components of the third order susceptibility tensor, χ (3) . We observed dramatic changes of sign for both, nonlinear refraction and absorption, when passing from Au to Ag and/or varying the wave length. The results accentuate the importance of the hot-electrons contribution to the nonlinear optical response at this temporal regime, when compared to inter-band and intra-band transitions contributions.

  20. NONLINEAR DYNAMO IN A ROTATING ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kopp

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We found a new large-scale instability, which arises in the rotating conductive fluid with small-scale turbulence. Turbulence is generated by small-scale external force with a low Reynolds number. The theory is built simply by the method of multiscale asymptotic expansions. Nonlinear equations for vortex and magnetic perturbations obtained in the third order for small Reynolds number. It is shown that the combined effects of the Coriolis force and the small external forces in a rotating conducting fluid possible large-scale instability. The large-scale increments of the instability, correspond to generation as the vortex and magnetic disturbances. This type of instability is classified as hydrodynamic and MHD alpha-effect. We studied the stationary regimes of nonlinear equations of magneto-vortex dynamo. In the limit of weakly conducting fluid found stationary solutions in the form of helical kinks. In the limit of high conductivity fluid was obtained stationary solutions in the form of nonlinear periodic waves and kinks.

  1. Quantum Nonlinear Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanamura, Eiichi; Yamanaka, Akio

    2007-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook gives an introductory overview of the fundamentals of quantum nonlinear optics. Based on the quantum theory of radiation, Quantum Nonlinear Optics incorporates the exciting developments in novel nonlinear responses of materials (plus laser oscillation and superradiance) developed over the past decade. It deals with the organization of radiation field, interaction between electronic system and radiation field, statistics of light, mutual manipulation of light and matter, laser oscillation, dynamics of light, nonlinear optical response, and nonlinear spectroscopy, as well as ultrashort and ultrastrong laser pulse. Also considered are Q-switching, mode locking and pulse compression. Experimental and theoretical aspects are intertwined throughout.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  3. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    of bound states of out of phase bright solitons and dark solitons. Also, the newly introduced analogy between the nonlocal cubic nonlinear and the quadratic nonlinear media, presented in paper B and Chapter 3 is discussed. In particular it supplies intuitive physical meaning of the formation of solitons...... in quadratic nonlinear media. In the second part of the report (Chapter 4), the possibility to obtain light with ultrabroad spectrum due to the interplay of many nonlinear effects based on cubic nonlinearity is investigated thoroughly. The contribution of stimulated Raman scattering, a delayed nonlinear...... a modified nonlinear Schroedinger model equation. Chapter 4 and papers D and E are dedicated to this part of the research....

  4. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  5. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  6. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of considering models with persistent memory we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macrovolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth...

  7. Nonlinear adaptive observer-based sliding mode control for LAMOST mount driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wangping; Guo Wei; Yu Li; Yang Changsong; Zheng Yi

    2010-01-01

    Heavy disturbances caused mainly by wind and friction in the mount drive system greatly impair the pointing accuracy of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). To overcome this negative effect, a third order Higher Order Sliding Mode (HOSM) controller is proposed. The key part of this approach is to design an appropriate observer which obtains the acceleration state. A nonlinear adaptive observer is proposed in which a novel polynomial model is applied to estimate the internal disturbances of the mount drive system. Theoretical analysis demonstrates the stability of the proposed observer. Simulation results show that this nonlinear adaptive observer can obtain a high precision acceleration signal which completes the HOSM controller. Furthermore, the HOSM approach can easily satisfy the position tracking requirements of the LAMOST mount drive system.

  8. Analysis and classification of nonlinear dispersive evolution equations in the potential representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichmann, U.A.; Draayer, J.P.; Ludu, A.

    2002-01-01

    A potential representation for the subset of travelling solutions of nonlinear dispersive evolution equations is introduced. The procedure involves reduction of a third-order partial differential equation to a first-order ordinary differential equation. The potential representation allows us to deduce certain properties of the solutions without the actual need to solve the underlying evolution equation. In particular, the paper deals with the so-called K(n, m) equations. Starting from their respective potential representations it is shown that these equations can be classified according to a simple point transformation. As a result, e.g., all equations with linear dispersion join the same equivalence class with the Korteweg-deVries equation being its representative, and all soliton solutions of higher order nonlinear equations are thus equivalent to the KdV soliton. Certain equations with both linear and quadratic dispersions can also be treated within this equivalence class. (author)

  9. Nonlinear electrostatic emittance compensation in kA, fs electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.B. van der; Loos, M.J. de; Botman, J.I.M.; Luiten, O.J.; Wiel, M.J. van der

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear space-charge effects play an important role in emittance growth in the production of kA electron bunches with a bunch length much smaller than the bunch diameter. We propose a scheme employing the radial third-order component of an electrostatic acceleration field, to fully compensate the nonlinear space-charge effects. This results in minimal transverse root-mean-square emittance. The principle is demonstrated using our design simulations of a device for the production of high-quality, high-current, subpicosecond electron bunches using electrostatic acceleration in a 1 GV/m field. Simulations using the GPT code produce a bunch of 100 pC and 73 fs full width at half maximum pulse width, resulting in a peak current of about 1.2 kA at an energy of 2 MeV. The compensation scheme reduces the root-mean-square emittance by 34% to 0.4π mm mrad

  10. THz Induced Nonlinear Effects in Materials at Intensities above 26 GW/cm2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldegeorgis, A.; Kurihara, T.; Beleites, B.; Bossert, J.; Grosse, R.; Paulus, G. G.; Ronneberger, F.; Gopal, A.

    2018-04-01

    Nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficient are measured for common semiconductor material such as silicon and organic molecule such as lactose in the terahertz (THz) spectral regime extending from 0.1 to 3 THz. Terahertz pulses with field strengths in excess of 4.4 MV/cm have been employed. Transmittance and the transmitted spectrum were measured with Z-scan and single shot noncollinear electro-optic pump-probe techniques. The THz-induced change in the refractive index (Δn) shows frequency-dependence and a maximum change of - 0.128 at 1.37 THz in lactose and up to + 0.169 at 0.15 THz in silicon was measured for a peak incident THz intensity of 26 GW/cm2. Furthermore, the refractive index variation shows a quadratic dependence on the incident THz field, implying the dominance of third-order nonlinearity.

  11. Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) As Next Generation Nonlinear LIDAR Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and femtosecond laser pulses has been successfully developed as powerful tools for chemical analysis and biological imaging. Recent developments show promising possibilities of incorporating CARS into LIDAR system for remote detection of molecular species in airborne particles. The corresponding theory is being developed to describe nonlinear scattering of a mesoscopic particle composed of complex molecules by laser pulses with arbitrary shape and spectral content. Microscopic many-body transform theory is used to compute the third order susceptibility for CARS in molecules with known absorption spectrum and vibrational modes. The theory is combined with an integral scattering formula and Mie-Lorentz formulae, giving a rigorous formalism which provides powerful numerical experimentation of CARS spectra, particularly on the variations with the laser parameters and the direction of detection.

  12. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of multilayered spherical quantum dots: Effects of geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, M.J.; Rezaei, G.; Nazari, M.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the effective mass and parabolic one band approximations, simultaneous effects of the geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in multilayered spherical quantum dots are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The results indicate that the hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and geometrical parameters such as the well and barrier widths have a great influence on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. -- Highlights: • Hydrogenic impurity effects on the optical properties of a MSQD are investigated. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects are also studied. • Hydrogenic impurity has a great influence on the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature change the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs

  13. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  14. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  15. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  16. Polarization Nonlinear Optics of Quadratically Nonlinear Azopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konorov, S.O.; Akimov, D.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Alfimov, M.V.; Yakimanskii, A.V.; Smirnov, N.N.; Ivanova, V.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.V.; Podshivalov, A.A.; Sokolova, I.M.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The polarization properties of second harmonic and sum-frequency signals generated by femtosecond laser pulses in films of polymers containing covalent groups of an azobenzothiazole chromophore polarized by an external electric field are investigated. It is shown that the methods of polarization nonlinear optics make it possible to determine the structure of oriented molecular dipoles and reveal important properties of the motion of collectivized πelectrons in organic molecules with strong optical nonlinearities. The polarization measurements show that the tensor of quadratic nonlinear optical susceptibility of chromophore fragments oriented by an external field in macromolecules of the noted azopolymers has a degenerate form. This is indicative of a predominantly one-dimensional character of motion of collectivized π electrons along an extended group of atoms in such molecules

  17. Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and poly (o-toluidine) composite thin films with multi walled carbon nano tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraja, K.K. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Pramodini, S. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Technology, Jain University, Jakkasandra Post, Bengaluru 5621112, Karnataka (India); Poornesh, P., E-mail: poorneshp@gmail.com [Nonlinear Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, Karnataka (India); Telenkov, M.P. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa University Technology, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2017-05-01

    We report the improved third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and poly (o-toluidine) with different doping concentrations of multi walled carbon nano tube (MWCNTs) composite thin films investigated using z-scan technique and continuous wave He–Ne laser at 633 nm wavelength was used as source of excitation. Thin films were prepared by spin coating technique on glass substrate. The structural properties of the composite films were analysed by X-ray diffraction studies and the characteristic peaks corresponding to MWCNTs and polymers have been observed. The surface morphology of the deposited films was analysed using scanning electron microscopy and it confirms that the polymer in the composites has been coated on the MWCNTs homogeneously. The z-scan results reveal that the films exhibit reverse saturable absorption and self-defocusing nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)} is found to be of the order of 10{sup −3} esu. Also, optical power limiting and clamping experiment was performed. The clamping values increases with increase in concentration and the lowest clamping observed for composite films are 1 mW and 0.7 mW.

  18. Interacting wave fronts and rarefaction waves in a second order model of nonlinear thermoviscous fluids : Interacting fronts and rarefaction waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2011-01-01

    A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves the Hami...... is proposed. The dynamics of the rarefaction wave is approximated by a collective coordinate approach in the energy balance equation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.......A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves...... the Hamiltonian structure, in contrast to the Kuznetsov equation, a model often used in nonlinear acoustics. An exact traveling wave front solution is derived from a generalized traveling wave assumption for the velocity potential. Numerical studies of the evolution of a number of arbitrary initial conditions...

  19. Theoretical study of temperature dependent acoustic attenuation and non-linearity parameters in alkali metal hydride and deuteride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rishi Pal [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Rajendra Kumar, E-mail: rksingh_17@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2010-11-01

    Temperature dependence of acoustic attenuation and non-linearity parameters in lithium hydride and lithium deuteride have been studied for longitudinal and shear modes along various crystallographic directions of propagation in a wide temperature range. Lattice parameter and repulsive parameters have been used as input data and interactions up to next nearest neighbours have been considered to calculate second and third order elastic constants which in turn have been used for evaluating acoustic attenuation and related parameters. The results have been discussed and compared with available data. It is hoped that the present results will serve to stimulate the determination of the acoustic attenuation of these compounds at different temperatures.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics in Nuclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper represents an extensive study of the nonlinear beam dynamics in the Nuclotron. Chromatic effects, including the dependence of the betatron tunes on the amplitude, and chromatic perturbations have been investigated taking into account the measured field imperfections. Beam distortion, smear, dynamic aperture and nonlinear acceptance have been calculated for different particle energies and betatron tunes

  1. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  2. Large optical second-order nonlinearity of poled WO3-TeO2 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Narazaki, A; Hirao, K

    2000-02-15

    Second-harmonic generation, one of the second-order nonlinear optical properties of thermally and electrically poled WO>(3)-TeO>(2) glasses, has been examined. We poled glass samples with two thicknesses (0.60 and 0.86 mm) at various temperatures to explore the effects of external electric field strength and poling temperature on second-order nonlinearity. The dependence of second-harmonic intensity on the poling temperature is maximum at a specific poling temperature. A second-order nonlinear susceptibility of 2.1 pm/V was attained for the 0.60-mm-thick glass poled at 250 degrees C. This value is fairly large compared with those for poled silica and tellurite glasses reported thus far. We speculate that the large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of WO>(3)- TeO>(2) glasses gives rise to the large second-order nonlinearity by means of a X((2)) = 3X((3)) E(dc) process.

  3. Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Compared with conventional optical elements, 2D photonic metasurfaces, consisting of arrays of antennas with subwavelength thickness (the 'meta-atoms'), enable the manipulation of light-matter interactions on more compact platforms. The use of metasurfaces with spatially varying arrangements of meta-atoms that have subwavelength lateral resolution allows control of the polarization, phase and amplitude of light. Many exotic phenomena have been successfully demonstrated in linear optics; however, to meet the growing demand for the integration of more functionalities into a single optoelectronic circuit, the tailorable nonlinear optical properties of metasurfaces will also need to be exploited. In this Review, we discuss the design of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces — in particular, the criteria for choosing the materials and symmetries of the meta-atoms — for the realization of nonlinear optical chirality, nonlinear geometric Berry phase and nonlinear wavefront engineering. Finally, we survey the application of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces in optical switching and modulation, and we conclude with an outlook on their use for terahertz nonlinear optics and quantum information processing.

  4. Nonlinear crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshun, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic features of the deformation and failure of actual materials in the vicinity of a crack tip are due to their physical nonlinearity in the stress-concentration zone, which is a result of plasticity, microfailure, or a nonlinear dependence of the interatomic forces on the distance. Therefore, adequate models of the failure mechanics must be nonlinear, in principle, although linear failure mechanics is applicable if the zone of nonlinear deformation is small in comparison with the crack length. Models of crack mechanics are based on analytical solutions of the problem of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of the crack. On account of the complexity of the problem, nonlinear models are bason on approximate schematic solutions. In the Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale nonlinear model, one of the best known, the actual two-dimensional plastic zone (the nonlinearity zone) is replaced by a narrow one-dimensional zone, which is then modeled by extending the crack with a specified normal load equal to the yield point. The condition of finite stress is applied here, and hence the length of the plastic zone is determined. As a result of this approximation, the displacement in the plastic zone at the abscissa is nonzero

  5. Nonlinear wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tatsien

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on nonlinear wave equations, which are of considerable significance from both physical and theoretical perspectives. It also presents complete results on the lower bound estimates of lifespan (including the global existence), which are established for classical solutions to the Cauchy problem of nonlinear wave equations with small initial data in all possible space dimensions and with all possible integer powers of nonlinear terms. Further, the book proposes the global iteration method, which offers a unified and straightforward approach for treating these kinds of problems. Purely based on the properties of solut ions to the corresponding linear problems, the method simply applies the contraction mapping principle.

  6. Surface waves tomography and non-linear inversion in the southeast Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raykova, R.B.; Panza, G.F.

    2005-11-01

    A set of shear-wave velocity models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the southeast Carpathians is determined by the non-linear inversion of surface wave group velocity data, obtained from a tomographic analysis. The local dispersion curves are assembled for the period range 7 s - 150 s, combining regional group velocity measurements and published global Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity structure is reliably reconstructed to depths of about 250 km. The thickness of the lithosphere in the region varies from about 120 km to 250 km and the depth of the asthenosphere between 150 km and 250 km. Mantle seismicity concentrates where the high velocity lid is detected just below the Moho. The obtained results are in agreement with recent seismic refraction, receiver function, and travel time P-wave tomography investigations in the region. The similarity among the results obtained from different kinds of structural investigations (including the present work) highlights some new features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in southeast Carpathians, as the relatively thin crust under Transylvania basin and Vrancea zone. (author)

  7. Photostable nonlinear optical polycarbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faccini, M.; Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Torosantucci, Riccardo; Driessen, A.; Reinhoudt, David; Verboom, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Highly thermal and photostable nonlinear optical polymers were obtained by covalently incorporating the tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA) chromophore to a polycarbonate backbone. NLO polycarbonates with different chromophore attachment modes and flexibilities were synthesized. In spite

  8. Nonlinear singular elliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Minh Duc.

    1988-09-01

    We improve the Poincare inequality, the Sobolev imbedding theorem and the Trudinger imbedding theorem and prove a Mountain pass theorem. Applying these results we study a nonlinear singular mixed boundary problem. (author). 22 refs

  9. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We develop a new approach to generation of THz radiation. Our method relies on mixing two optical frequency beams in a nonlinear crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode...

  10. Nonlinear differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Struble, Raimond A

    2017-01-01

    Detailed treatment covers existence and uniqueness of a solution of the initial value problem, properties of solutions, properties of linear systems, stability of nonlinear systems, and two-dimensional systems. 1962 edition.

  11. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...... to a decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate...

  12. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck

    2013-01-01

    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  13. Nonlinear surface Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of nonlinear surface Alfven waves propagating on an interface between a plasma and a vacuum is discussed, with dispersion provided by the finite-frequency effect, i.e. the finite ratio of the frequency to the ion-cyclotron frequency. A set of simplified nonlinear wave equations is derived using the method of stretched co-ordinates, and another approach uses the generation of a second-harmonic wave and its interaction with the first harmonic to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is then derived, and soliton solutions found that propagate as solitary pulses in directions close to parallel and antiparallel to the background magnetic field. (author)

  14. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Structures Panel of the Aeronautics Research and Development Board of India ... A great variety of topics was covered, including themes such as nonlinear finite ... or shell structures, and three are on the composite form of construction, ...

  15. A nonlinear oscillatory problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qingqing.

    1991-10-01

    We have studied the nonlinear oscillatory problem of orthotropic cylindrical shell, we have analyzed the character of the oscillatory system. The stable condition of the oscillatory system has been given. (author). 6 refs

  16. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

  17. Introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, G

    1995-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...

  18. Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-07

    associated with the lattice background; the nonlinearity is derived from the inclusion of cubic nonlinearity. Often the background potential is periodic...dispersion branch we can find discrete evolution equations for the envelope associated with the lattice NLS equation (1) by looking for solutions of...spatial operator in the above NLS equation can be elliptic, hyperbolic or parabolic . We remark that further reduction is possible by going into a moving

  19. Nonlinear dynamics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, J. C.; Sanjuan, M. A. F.

    2000-01-01

    Concepts and techniques from Nonlinear Dynamics, also known as Chaos Theory, have been applied successfully to several astrophysical fields such as orbital motion, time series analysis or galactic dynamics, providing answers to old questions but also opening a few new ones. Some of these topics are described in this review article, showing the basis of Nonlinear Dynamics, and how it is applied in Astrophysics. (Author)

  20. Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandino, E.; Garibaldi, L.; Marchesiello, S.

    2011-07-01

    Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled "Monitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing", financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.