Sample records for wave velocity measurement

  1. Wave measurements using GPS velocity signals. (United States)

    Doong, Dong-Jiing; Lee, Beng-Chun; Kao, Chia Chuen


    This study presents the idea of using GPS-output velocity signals to obtain wave measurement data. The application of the transformation from a velocity spectrum to a displacement spectrum in conjunction with the directional wave spectral theory are the core concepts in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the accuracy of the inversed displacement of the surface of the sea. A GPS device was installed on a moored accelerometer buoy to verify the GPS-derived wave parameters. It was determined that loss or drifting of the GPS signal, as well as energy spikes occurring in the low frequency band led to erroneous measurements. Through the application of moving average skill and a process of frequency cut-off to the GPS output velocity, correlations between GPS-derived, and accelerometer buoy-measured significant wave heights and periods were both improved to 0.95. The GPS-derived one-dimensional and directional wave spectra were in agreement with the measurements. Despite the direction verification showing a 10° bias, this exercise still provided useful information with sufficient accuracy for a number of specific purposes. The results presented in this study indicate that using GPS output velocity is a reasonable alternative for the measurement of ocean waves.

  2. Non-collinear wave mixing for a bulk wave phase velocity measurement in an isotropic solid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.


    A measurement method is presented to estimate the bulk wave phase velocity in an isotropic solid when longitudinal or shear wave velocity is known. This method is based on the non-collinear plane wave interaction theory and it does not need to estimate the phase time-of-flight and wave propagation

  3. Rayleigh Wave Velocity Measurements Using Broad Band Frequency Sources. (United States)


    Heukelom 4I and Foster 1960, Chang and Ballard 1973, Ballard and McLean 1975). The procedure for measuring the Rayleigh wave velocity has consisted... Heukelom , W., and Foster, C. R. 1960. "Dynamic Testing of Pavements," Journal, Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, American Society of Civil Engineers

  4. Investigation of gravity waves using horizontally resolved radial velocity measurements (United States)

    Stober, G.; Sommer, S.; Rapp, M.; Latteck, R.


    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) on the island of Andøya in Northern Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E) observes polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE). These echoes are used as tracers of atmospheric dynamics to investigate the horizontal wind variability at high temporal and spatial resolution. MAARSY has the capability of pulse-to-pulse beam steering allowing for systematic scanning experiments to study the horizontal structure of the backscatterers as well as to measure the radial velocities for each beam direction. Here we present a method to retrieve gravity wave parameters from these horizontally resolved radial wind variations by applying velocity azimuth display and volume velocity processing. Based on the observations a detailed comparison of the two wind analysis techniques is carried out in order to determine the zonal and meridional wind as well as to measure first-order inhomogeneities. Further, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve the horizontal wave properties, e.g., horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and propagation direction. The robustness of the estimated gravity wave parameters is tested by a simple atmospheric model.

  5. Investigation of gravity waves using horizontally resolved radial velocity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Stober


    Full Text Available The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY on the island of Andøya in Northern Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E observes polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE. These echoes are used as tracers of atmospheric dynamics to investigate the horizontal wind variability at high temporal and spatial resolution. MAARSY has the capability of pulse-to-pulse beam steering allowing for systematic scanning experiments to study the horizontal structure of the backscatterers as well as to measure the radial velocities for each beam direction. Here we present a method to retrieve gravity wave parameters from these horizontally resolved radial wind variations by applying velocity azimuth display and volume velocity processing. Based on the observations a detailed comparison of the two wind analysis techniques is carried out in order to determine the zonal and meridional wind as well as to measure first-order inhomogeneities. Further, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve the horizontal wave properties, e.g., horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and propagation direction. The robustness of the estimated gravity wave parameters is tested by a simple atmospheric model.

  6. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didenkulov, Igor, E-mail: [Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay, E-mail: [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation)


    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  7. Blood pulse wave velocity measured by photoacoustic microscopy (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.


    Blood pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an important indicator for vascular stiffness. In this letter, we present electrocardiogram-synchronized photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo noninvasive quantification of the PWV in the peripheral vessels of mice. Interestingly, strong correlation between blood flow speed and ECG were clearly observed in arteries but not in veins. PWV is measured by the pulse travel time and the distance between two spot of a chose vessel, where simultaneously recorded electrocardiograms served as references. Statistical analysis shows a linear correlation between the PWV and the vessel diameter, which agrees with known physiology. Keywords: photoacoustic microscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy, bilirubin, scattering medium.

  8. Aortic pulse wave velocity measurement in systemic sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sebastiani


    Full Text Available Background. Systemic sclerosis (SSc is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and widespread microangiopathy. However, a macrovascular damage could be also associated. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV is known to be a reliable indicator of arterial stiffness and a useful prognostic predictor of cardiovascular events. Moreover, aPWV may be easily measured by non-invasive, user-friendly tool. Aim of our study was to evaluate aPWV alterations in a series of SSc patients. Methods. The aPWV was evaluated in 35 consecutive female SSc patients and 26 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. aPWV alterations were correlated with cardiopulmonary involvement. Results. A significant increase of aPWV was observed in SSc patients compared to controls (9.4±3.2 m/s vs 7.3±1 m/s; P=0.002. In particular, 14/35 (40% SSc patients and only 1/26 (4% controls (P=0.0009 showed increased aPWV (>9 m/s cut-off value. Moreover, echocardiography evaluation showed an increased prevalence of right atrial and ventricular dilatation (atrial volume: 23.6±6.2 mL vs 20.3±4.3 mL, P=0.026; ventricular diameter 19.5±4.9 mm vs 15.9±1.6 mm; P=0.001 associated to higher values of pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PAPs in SSc patients (31.5±10.4 mmHg vs 21.6±2.9 mmHg; P50 years old. Furthermore, altered aPWV was more frequently associated with limited cutaneous pattern, longer disease duration (≥5 years, and/or presence of anticentromere antibody (ACA. Conclusions. A significantly higher prevalence of abnormally increased aPWV was evidenced in SSc patients compared to healthy controls. The possibility of more pronounced and diffuse vascular damage in a particular SSc subset (ACA-positive subjects with limited cutaneous scleroderma and longer disease duration might be raised.

  9. Estimation of aortic compliance using magnetic resonance pulse wave velocity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, J.M.; Bock, M.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Schad, L.R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    A method for compliance estimation employing magnetic resonance pulse wave velocity measurement is presented. Time-resolved flow waves are recorded at several positions along the vessel using a phase contrast sequence, and pulse wave velocity is calculated from the delay of the wave onsets. Using retrospective cardiac gating in combination with an optically decoupled electrocardiogram acquisition, a high temporal resolution of 3 ms can be achieved. A phantom set-up for the simulation of pulsatile flow in a compliant vessel is described. In the phantom, relative errors of pulse wave velocity estimation were found to be about 15%, whereas in a volunteer, larger errors were found that might be caused by vessel branches. Results of pulse wave velocity estimation agree with directaortic distension measurements which rely on a peripheral estimate of aortic pressure and are therefore less accurate. Studies in 12 volunteers show values of pulse wave velocity consistent with the literature; in particular the well-known increase in pulse wave velocity with age was observed. Preliminary results show that the method can be applied to aortic aneurysms. (author)

  10. Resolution potential of surface wave phase velocity measurements at small arrays (United States)

    Bodin, Thomas; Maupin, Valérie


    The deployment of temporary arrays of broadband seismological stations over dedicated targets is common practice. Measurement of surface wave phase velocity across a small array and its depth-inversion gives us information about the structure below the array which is complementary to the information obtained from body-wave analysis. The question is however: what do we actually measure when the array is much smaller than the wave length, and how does the measured phase velocity relates to the real structure below the array? We quantify this relationship by performing a series of numerical simulations of surface wave propagation in 3-D structures and by measuring the apparent phase velocity across the array on the synthetics. A principal conclusion is that heterogeneities located outside the array can map in a complex way onto the phase velocities measured by the array. In order to minimize this effect, it is necessary to have a large number of events and to average measurements from events well-distributed in backazimuth. A second observation is that the period of the wave has a remarkably small influence on the lateral resolution of the measurement, which is dominantly controlled by the size of the array. We analyse if the artefacts created by heterogeneities can be mistaken for azimuthal variations caused by anisotropy. We also show that if the amplitude of the surface waves can be measured precisely enough, phase velocities can be corrected and the artefacts which occur due to reflections and diffractions in 3-D structures greatly reduced.


    Vappou, Jonathan; Luo, Jianwen; Okajima, Kazue; Di Tullio, Marco; Konofagou, Elisa


    Arterial stiffness is a well-established indicator of cardiovascular disease outcome. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) is a surrogate for arterial stiffness that is measured either globally using carotid to femoral applanation tonometry or locally using biomedical imaging methods. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method for both qualitative visualisation of pulse wave propagation and quantitative estimation of arterial stiffness. The objective of this study is to assess the PWI performance in PWV estimation by comparing local abdominal aortic PWV values obtained by PWI to the carotid-femoral PWV measured by applanation tonometry. A total of 18 subjects (age 18-66, 32.5±14.5) with no history of cardiovascular disease were consecutively tested by both PWI and tonometry. The correlation coefficient r between values found by the two methods was found to be equal to 0.68. A linear regression yielded PWVPWI = 1.02* PWVtonometry +0.15. Tukey mean-difference plots indicated that PWVPWI was significantly lower than PWVtonometry (-0.3 m/s) at lower PWV values (PWV≤7 m/s), whereas PWVPWI was significantly higher (+1.4 m/s) than PWVtonometry at higher PWV values (PWV>7 m/s). Despite the regional nature of the PWVPWI measurements, as opposed to the global PWVtonometry measurements, abdominal PWVPWI and carotid-femoral PWVtonometry values were found to be similar, with an average bias equal to 0.25 m/s. Such a bias and its variation with PWV may be partially explained by both physiological variations of PWV along the arterial tree and by the increasing uncertainty of the PWV estimate by PWI as PWV increases.

  12. Velocity flow field and water level measurements in shoaling and breaking water waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mukaro, R


    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the laboratory investigations of breaking water waves. Measurements of the water levels and instantaneous fluid velocities were conducted in water waves breaking on a sloping beach within a glass flume. Instantaneous water...

  13. Near-surface shear-wave velocity measurements in unlithified sediment (United States)

    Richards, B.T.; Steeples, D.; Miller, R.; Ivanov, J.; Peterie, S.; Sloan, S.D.; McKenna, J.R.


    S-wave velocity can be directly correlated to material stiffness and lithology making it a valuable physical property that has found uses in construction, engineering, and environmental projects. This study compares different methods for measuring S-wave velocities, investigating and identifying the differences among the methods' results, and prioritizing the different methods for optimal S-wave use at the U. S. Army's Yuma Proving Grounds YPG. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves MASW and S-wave tomography were used to generate S-wave velocity profiles. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. A strong signal-to-noise ratio at the study site gives the MASW method promising resolution. S-wave first arrivals are picked on impulsive sledgehammer data which were then used for the tomography process. Three-component downhole seismic data were collected in-line with a locking geophone, providing ground truth to compare the data and to draw conclusions about the validity of each data set. Results from these S-wave measurement techniques are compared with borehole seismic data and with lithology data from continuous samples to help ascertain the accuracy, and therefore applicability, of each method. This study helps to select the best methods for obtaining S-wave velocities for media much like those found in unconsolidated sediments at YPG. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. Characterization of guided wave velocity and attenuation in anisotropic materials from wavefield measurements (United States)

    Williams, Westin B.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Michaels, Jennifer E.


    The behavior of guided waves propagating in anisotropic composite panels can be substantially more complicated than for isotropic, metallic plates. The angular dependency of wave propagation characteristics need to be understood and quantified before applying methods for damage detection and characterization. This study experimentally investigates the anisotropy of wave speed and attenuation for the fundamental A0-like guided wave mode propagating in a solid laminate composite panel. A piezoelectric transducer is the wave source and a laser Doppler vibrometer is used to measure the outward propagating waves along radial lines originating at the source transducer. Group velocity, phase velocity and attenuation are characterized as a function of angle for a single center frequency. The methods shown in this paper serve as a framework for future adaptation to damage imaging methods using guided waves for structural health monitoring.

  15. PIV measurements of velocities and accelerations under breaking waves on a slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Malene Hovgaard; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Erik Damgaard


    Understanding the physics of breaking waves is an ongoing research topic, not only due to human curiosity, but also due to the influence breaking waves have on offshore structures. In recent years, the development in experimental methods has facilitated a new insight into the physics of breaking...... waves. In this study, we have investigated the wave kinematics under steep and breaking waves on a laboratory beach with a slope of 1/25. The velocity field was measured by use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) at a sample rate of 96Hz. The high sample rate allowed for the accelerations...

  16. Measurement of elastic modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity by piezoelectric resonator (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří


    A piezoelectric ceramic resonator is used for the ‘electrical’ measurement of elastic properties, i.e. Young’s modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity in metallic materials. Piezoelectric response is precisely calculated for the piezoelectric ceramic ring fixed at the end of a metallic rod. The piezoelectric ring serves as both an actuator as well as a sensor. The experimental setup and method of measurement using higher overtones is explained in detail and practically demonstrated for a set of different metallic materials. Young’s moduli and ultrasonic wave velocities are measured within 3% relative error. The presented method is suitable for an advanced engineering class or physics laboratory training.

  17. PIV measurements of velocities and accelerations under breaking waves on a slope (United States)

    Vested, Malene; Carstensen, Stefan; Damgaard Christensen, Erik


    Understanding the physics of breaking waves is an ongoing research topic, not only due to human curiosity, but also due to the influence breaking waves have on offshore structures. In recent years, the development in experimental methods has facilitated a new insight into the physics of breaking waves. In this study, we have investigated the wave kinematics under steep and breaking waves on a laboratory beach with a slope of 1/25. The velocity field was measured by use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) at a sample rate of 96Hz. The high sample rate allowed for the accelerations to be determined directly from the sampled velocities. It was found that both velocities and accelerations differ from the ones predicted from common wave theories such as streamfunction theory. This was especially evident at the top part of the wave close to the surface. This was not surprising, since the breaking event is a highly non-linear process. The results presented here may facilitate computations of the impact force on offshore structures and furthermore be used for validation of CFD models while altogether shedding light on the mechanisms behind breaking waves.

  18. Coda wave interferometry for the measurement of thermally induced ultrasonic velocity variations in CFRP laminates (United States)

    Livings, Richard; Dayal, Vinay; Barnard, Dan


    Ultrasonic velocity measurement is a well-established method to measure properties and estimate strength as well as detect and locate damage. Determination of accurate and repeatable ultrasonic wave velocities can be difficult due to the influence of environmental and experimental factors. Diffuse fields created by a multiple scattering environment have been shown to be sensitive to homogeneous strain fields such as those caused by temperature variations, and Coda Wave Interferometry has been used to measure the thermally induced ultrasonic velocity variation in concrete, aluminum, and the Earth's crust. In this work, we analyzed the influence of several parameters of the experimental configuration on the measurement of thermally induced ultrasonic velocity variations in a carbon-fiber reinforced polymer plate. Coda Wave Interferometry was used to determine the relative velocity change between a baseline signal taken at room temperature and the signal taken at various temperatures. The influence of several parameters of the experimental configuration, such as the material type, the receiver aperture size, and fiber orientation on the results of the processing algorithm was evaluated in order to determine the optimal experimental configuration.---This work is supported by the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Program of the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University.

  19. In vivo noninvasive method for measuring local wave velocity in femoral arteries of pig (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Kinnick, Randall; Pislaru, Cristina; Fatemi, Mostafa; Greenleaf, James


    We have proposed generating a bending wave in the arterial wall using ultrasound radiation force and measuring the wave velocity along the arterial wall [Zhang et al., IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 642-652 (2005)]. Here, we report the results of in vivo studies on pigs. The pig was anesthetized, and a micromanometer tip catheter was inserted into the femoral artery to measure luminal pressure. A water bath was created on the animal's groin to allow unimpeded access of the ultrasound beams to the femoral artery. The femoral artery was first located using a 13-MHz linear-array transducer. Then, a vibro-acoustography image was obtained to ensure precise positioning of the excitation force relative to the artery. The artery was excited by the force transducer and the resulting vibration of the arterial wall was measured by a sensing Doppler transceiver. Measured wave velocity was 3.1 m/s at 300 Hz. With this new method wave velocity over a distance of 5 mm, and therefore stiffness of arteries, can be measured locally and non-invasively. Measurement time is short in a few tens of milliseconds, which allows pressure dependence and pharmacological effect on the wall properties to be measured at different cardiac times.

  20. On-chip laser Doppler vibrometer for arterial pulse wave velocity measurement. (United States)

    Li, Yanlu; Segers, Patrick; Dirckx, Joris; Baets, Roel


    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an important marker for cardiovascular risk. The Laser Doppler vibrometry has been suggested as a potential technique to measure the local carotid PWV by measuring the transit time of the pulse wave between two locations along the common carotid artery (CCA) from skin surface vibrations. However, the present LDV setups are still bulky and difficult to handle. We present in this paper a more compact LDV system integrated on a CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator substrate. In this system, a chip with two homodyne LDVs is utilized to simultaneously measure the pulse wave at two different locations along the CCA. Measurement results show that the dual-LDV chip can successfully conduct the PWV measurement.

  1. Measurements of electrical impedance and elastic wave velocity of reservoir rock under fluid-flow test (United States)

    Sawayama, Kazuki; Kitamura, Keigo; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro


    The estimation of water saturation under the ground is essential in geothermal fields, particularly for EGS (enhanced geothermal system). To estimate water saturation, recently, electromagnetic exploration using Magnetotelluric (MT) method has been applied in the geothermal fields. However, the relationship between electrical impedance obtained from this method and water saturation in the reservoir rock has not been well known. Our goal is to elucidate this basic relationship by fluid-flow experiments. As our first step to this goal, we developed the technique to measure and analyze the electrical impedance of the cracked rock in the geothermal reservoir. The fluid-flow test has been conducted as following procedures. At first, reservoir rock sample (pyroxene andesite, Makizono lava formation, Japan) was filled with nitrogen gas (Pp = 10 MPa) under 20 MPa of confining pressure. This nitrogen gas imitates the overheated steam in the geothermal fields. Then, brine (1wt.%-KCl, 1.75 S/m) which imitates the artificial recharge to the reservoir was injected to the samples. After flow rate of drainage fluid becomes stable, injection pressure was increased (11, 12, 14, 16, 18 MPa) and decreased (18, 16, 14, 12, 11 MPa) to vary the water saturation in the samples. During the test, water saturation, permeability, electrical impedance (10-2-105 Hz of frequency) and elastic wave velocity were measured. As a result of andesite, electrical impedance dramatically decreased from 105 to 103 Ω and P-wave velocity increased by 2% due to the brine injection. This remarkable change of the electrical impedance could be due to the replacement of pre-filled nitrogen gas to the brine. After the brine injection, electrical impedance decreased with injection pressure (small change of water saturation) by up to 40% while P-wave velocity was almost constant (less than 1%). This decrease of electrical impedance with injection pressure could be related to the flow to the narrow path (microcrack

  2. Pulse wave velocity 24-hour monitoring with one-site measurements by oscillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posokhov IN


    Full Text Available Igor N PosokhovHemodynamic Laboratory Ltd, Nizhniy Novgorod, RussiaAbstract: This review describes issues for the estimation of pulse wave velocity (PWV under ambulatory conditions using oscillometric systems. The difference between the principles of measuring the PWV by the standard method and by oscillometry is shown, and information on device validation studies is summarized. It was concluded that currently oscillometry is a method that is very convenient to use in the 24-hour monitoring of the PWV, is relatively accurate, and is reasonably comfortable for the patient. Several indices with the same principles as those in the analysis of blood pressure in ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure, namely the assessment of load, variability, and circadian rhythm, are proposed.Keywords: pulse wave velocity, 24-hour monitoring, oscillometry

  3. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie


    We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one...... method involves the time-domain cross-correlation of signal recorded at different stations; the other is based on frequency-domain cross-correlation, and requires finding the zero-crossings of the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum. Furthermore, the time-domain method, as implemented here......, writing out explicitly the relationships between the surface wave Green’s function, ambient-noise cross-correlation and phase and group velocities....

  4. Surface Wave Multipathing and its Influence on Phase Velocities Measured by Small Networks (United States)

    Maupin, V.


    Networks of temporary broadband seismological stations are commonly deployed over dedicated targets. Measurement of surface wave phase velocity across the network and its depth-inversion gives us information about the structure below the network which is complementary to the information obtained from body-wave analysis. For small networks, we face however the fundamental problem that the dimensions of the heterogeneities to image are not large compared to the wavelengths of the surface waves used to image them. In addition, multipathing is very common is teleseismic surface waves at moderate frequencies and the complexity of the incoming wavefield has to be taken into account during the tomographic process. We perform a series of numerical simulations of surface wave propagation in 3-D structures using complex incoming wavefields in order to analyse how the nature of the incoming wavefield plays together with the 3-D structure to determine phases and amplitudes at the different stations of a network. We analyse how different tomographic methods cope with the complex wavefield, the consequences on the resolution of the resulting tomographic models and we try to provide recommendations for data selection. The numerical simulations are done using a multiple-scattering mode coupling scheme. The amount of multipathing is taken from a recent study using teleseismic surface waves recorded on a temporary network in Southern Norway. The period range of 20 to 200s and the 450km x 600km dimension of the network is also taken form the same study.

  5. Validity and reproducibility of arterial pulse wave velocity measurement using new device with oscillometric technique: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patnaik Amar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of a range of techniques and devices allow measurement of many variables related to the stiffness of large or medium sized arteries. There is good evidence that, pulse wave velocity is a relatively simple measurement and is a good indicator of changes in arterial properties. The pulse wave velocity calculated from pulse wave recording by other methods like doppler or tonometry is tedious, time-consuming and above all their reproducibility depends on the operator skills. It requires intensive resource involvement. For epidemiological studies these methods are not suitable. The aim of our study was to clinically evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a new automatic device for measurement of pulse wave velocity that can be used in such studies. Methods In 44 subjects including normal healthy control and patients with coronary artery disease, heart brachial, heart ankle, brachial ankle and carotid femoral pulse wave velocities were recorded by using a new oscillometric device. Lead I and II electrocardiogram and pressure curves were simultaneously recorded. Two observers recorded the pulse wave velocity for validation and one observer recorded the velocity on two occasions for reproducibility. Results and Discussion Pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness index were recorded in 24 control and 20 coronary artery disease patients. All the velocities were significantly high in coronary artery disease patients. There was highly significant correlation between the values noted by the two observers with low standard deviation. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for various velocities ranged from (r = 0.88–0.90 with (p Conclusion The new device "PeriScope" based on oscillometric technique has been found to be a simple, non-invasive and reproducible device for the assessment of pulse wave velocity and can be used to determine arterial stiffness in large population based studies.

  6. Measuring curvature and velocity vector fields for waves of cardiac excitation in 2-D media. (United States)

    Kay, Matthew W; Gray, Richard A


    Excitable media theory predicts the effect of electrical wavefront morphology on the dynamics of propagation in cardiac tissue. It specifies that a convex wavefront propagates slower and a concave wavefront propagates faster than a planar wavefront. Because of this, wavefront curvature is thought to be an important functional mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias. However, the curvature of wavefronts during an arrhythmia are generally unknown. We introduce a robust, automated method to measure the curvature vector field of discretely characterized, arbitrarily shaped, two-dimensional (2-D) wavefronts. The method relies on generating a smooth, continuous parameterization of the shape of a wave using cubic smoothing splines fitted to an isopotential at a specified level, which we choose to be -30 mV. Twice differentiating the parametric form provides local curvature vectors along the wavefront and waveback. Local conduction velocities are computed as the wave speed along lines normal to the parametric form. In this way, the curvature and velocity vector field for wavefronts and wavebacks can be measured. We applied the method to data sampled from a 2-D numerical model and several examples are provided to illustrate its usefulness for studying the dynamics of cardiac propagation in 2-D media.

  7. Laser Light Scattering Diagnostic for Measurement of Flow Velocity in Vicinity of Propagating Shock Waves (United States)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Buggele, Alvin E.


    A laser light scattering diagnostic for measurement of dynamic flow velocity at a point is described. The instrument is being developed for use in the study of propagating shock waves and detonation waves in pulse detonation engines under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The approach uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer to measure the Doppler shift of laser light scattered from small (submicron) particles in the flow. The high-speed detection system required to resolve the transient response as a shock wave crosses the probe volume uses fast response photodetectors, and a PC based data acquisition system. Preliminary results of measurements made in the GRC Mach 4, 10 by 25 cm supersonic wind tunnel are presented. Spontaneous condensation of water vapor in the flow is used as seed. The tunnel is supplied with continuous air flow at up to 45 psia and the flow is exhausted into the GRC laboratory-wide altitude exhaust system at pressures down to 0.3 psia.

  8. Ultrasonic measurements of the elastic wave velocities of peridotite KLB-1 at mantle P and T (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, W.; Herzberg, C. T.; Li, B.


    In situ measurements of sound velocities and densities on individual phases of Earth minerals at high pressure and temperature have provided important data to interpret the seismic structure at depths. When using these data to test compositional models of the mantle (e.g., pyrolite and piclogite), seismic properties of the mineralogical aggregates have to be calculated by using averaging schemes based on the proportion and elasticity of each phase. More importantly, the chemical interactions among various mantle phases are difficult to be accurately included. Since the composition of peridotite KLB-1 closely matches the composition of pyrolite, measurement of it's velocities at relevant mantle conditions will provide the most direct comparison with seismic data. In this study, well-sintered KLB-1 aggregates suitable for ultrasonic measurements were hot-pressed at various P-T conditions up to those of the transition zone. The recovered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to be uniform in grain size (around 10 micron), free of macrocracks and to have bulk densities close to theoretical values (small amount of pores/microcracks observable in SEM scale). P and S wave velocities have been accurately measured up to 7 GPa and 800°C using a combined ultrasonic and X-radiation technique with direct measurement of sample length at high P and T. The success of this experiment makes it possible to extend these measurements to the conditions of the transition zone on aggregate samples to directly discriminate the composition of the Earth's mantle.

  9. Shock wave velocity measuring system based on vernier VISAR-type interferometers (United States)

    Gubskii, K. L.; Koshkin, D. S.; Antonov, A. S.; Mikhailuk, A. V.; Pirog, V. A.; Kuznetsov, A. P.


    The paper presents a multi-line diagnostic system for measuring the surface velocity in shock physics experiments. This system is designed for simultaneous measurement of surface velocity at multiple points. It is free from ambiguity caused by harmonic dependence of interference signals on the velocity and has a time resolution of 0.8 ns.

  10. Liquefaction assessment based on combined use of CPT and shear wave velocity measurements (United States)

    Bán, Zoltán; Mahler, András; Győri, Erzsébet


    Soil liquefaction is one of the most devastating secondary effects of earthquakes and can cause significant damage in built infrastructure. For this reason liquefaction hazard shall be considered in all regions where moderate-to-high seismic activity encounters with saturated, loose, granular soil deposits. Several approaches exist to take into account this hazard, from which the in-situ test based empirical methods are the most commonly used in practice. These methods are generally based on the results of CPT, SPT or shear wave velocity measurements. In more complex or high risk projects CPT and VS measurement are often performed at the same location commonly in the form of seismic CPT. Furthermore, VS profile determined by surface wave methods can also supplement the standard CPT measurement. However, combined use of both in-situ indices in one single empirical method is limited. For this reason, the goal of this research was to develop such an empirical method within the framework of simplified empirical procedures where the results of CPT and VS measurements are used in parallel and can supplement each other. The combination of two in-situ indices, a small strain property measurement with a large strain measurement, can reduce uncertainty of empirical methods. In the first step by careful reviewing of the already existing liquefaction case history databases, sites were selected where the records of both CPT and VS measurement are available. After implementing the necessary corrections on the gathered 98 case histories with respect to fines content, overburden pressure and magnitude, a logistic regression was performed to obtain the probability contours of liquefaction occurrence. Logistic regression is often used to explore the relationship between a binary response and a set of explanatory variables. The occurrence or absence of liquefaction can be considered as binary outcome and the equivalent clean sand value of normalized overburden corrected cone tip

  11. Creep of porous rocks and measurements of elastic wave velocities under different hydrous conditions (United States)

    Eslami, J.; Grgic, D.; Hoxha, D.


    The long-term mechanical behavior of rocks is of prime importance for many geological hazards (e.g., landslides, rock falls, and volcanoes) as well as for the stability of man-made structures (underground mines, road cuts, and open pits). In some shallow environments, rocks exist in partially saturated conditions which can evolve with time according to variations in the relative humidity hr of the atmosphere (e.g., natural slopes, open cut excavations). In underground mines, rocks are also partially saturated because of artificial ventilation. These variations in liquid saturation may have a large impact on mechanical behavior since they imply variations in capillary pressure and, depending on the porosity and on the shape of the porous network, variations in the effective stresses. Therefore, knowledge of static fatigue under saturated and partially saturated conditions is important for estimating the long-term stability of such rock structures. Many studies have already shown that time-dependent weakening is much more important for a saturated rock than for a dry one and that the time to failure may decrease by several orders of magnitude for saturated rocks as compared to dry rocks. In addition, the weakening effect of water is more significant in long-term experiments than in short-term ones (instantaneous loading). A physical explanation for these results may be the enhancement of subcritical crack growth by stress corrosion at crack tips which is often considered to be the main cause of time-dependent behavior of rocks. The failure of brittle rocks during compression tests is preceded by the formation, growth, and coalescence of microcracks. Elastic wave velocities are reduced due to the presence of open microcraks and fractures and may be used to monitor the progressive damage of rocks. The specific experimental setup available in our lab allows the simultaneous measurement of five velocities (with different polarizations and directions) and two directions

  12. Measurement of regional pulse wave velocity using very high frame rate ultrasound. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Hongo, Kazue; Kanai, Hiroshi


    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the propagation velocity of the pressure wave along the artery due to the heartbeat. The PWV becomes faster with progression of arteriosclerosis and, thus, can be used as a diagnostic index of arteriosclerosis. Measurement of PWV is known as a noninvasive approach for diagnosis of arteriosclerosis and is widely used in clinical situations. In the traditional PWV method, the average PWV is calculated between two points, the carotid and femoral arteries, at an interval of several tens of centimeters. However, PWV depends on part of the arterial tree, i.e., PWVs in the distal arteries are faster than those in the proximal arteries. Therefore, measurement of regional PWV is preferable. To evaluate regional PWV in the present study, the minute vibration velocity of the human carotid arterial wall was measured at intervals of 0.2 mm at 72 points in the arterial longitudinal direction by the phased-tracking method at a high temporal resolution of 3472 Hz, and PWV was estimated by applying the Hilbert transform to those waveforms. In the present study, carotid arteries of three healthy subjects were measured in vivo. The PWVs in short segments of 14.4 mm in the arterial longitudinal direction were estimated to be 5.6, 6.4, and 6.7 m/s, which were in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, for one of the subjects, a component was clearly found propagating from the periphery to the direction of the heart, i.e., a well known component reflected by the peripheral arteries. By using the proposed method, the propagation speed of the reflection component was also separately estimated to be -8.4 m/s. The higher magnitude of PWV for the reflection component was considered to be the difference in blood pressure at the arrivals of the forward and reflection components. Such a method would be useful for more sensitive evaluation of the change in elasticity due to progression of arteriosclerosis by measuring the regional PWV

  13. Numerical assessment and comparison of pulse wave velocity methods aiming at measuring aortic stiffness. (United States)

    Obeid, Hasan; Soulat, Gilles; Mousseaux, Elie; Laurent, Stéphane; Stergiopulos, Nikos; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Segers, Patrick


    Pulse waveform analyses have become established components of cardiovascular research. Recently several methods have been proposed as tools to measure aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV). The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), the current clinical gold standard method for the noninvasive assessment of aPWV, uses the carotid-to-femoral pulse transit time difference (cf-PTT) and an estimated path length to derive cf-PWV. The heart-ankle PWV (ha-PWV), brachial-ankle PWV (ba-PWV) and finger-toe (ft-PWV) are also methods presuming to approximate aPWV based on time delays between physiological cardiovascular signals at two locations (~heart-ankle PTT, ha-PTT; ~brachial-ankle PTT, ba-PTT; ~finger-toe PTT, ft-PTT) and a path length typically derived from the subject's height. To test the validity of these methods, we used a detailed 1D arterial network model (143 arterial segments) including the foot and hand circulation. The arterial tree dimensions and properties were taken from the literature and completed with data from patient scans. We calculated PTTs with all the methods mentioned above. The calculated PTTs were compared with the aortic PTT (aPTT), which is considered as the absolute reference method in this study. The correlation between methods and aPTT was good and significant, cf-PTT (R 2  =  0.97; P  methods, but absolute values differed because of the different path lengths used. In conclusion, our computer model-based analyses demonstrate that for PWV methods based on peripheral signals, pulse transit time differences closely correlate with the aortic transit time, supporting the use of these methods in clinical practice.

  14. Wave propagation and group velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon


    Wave Propagation and Group Velocity contains papers on group velocity which were published during the First World War and are missing in many libraries. It introduces three different definitions of velocities: the group velocity of Lord Rayleigh, the signal velocity of Sommerfeld, and the velocity of energy transfer, which yields the rate of energy flow through a continuous wave and is strongly related to the characteristic impedance. These three velocities are identical for nonabsorbing media, but they differ considerably in an absorption band. Some examples are discussed in the last chapter

  15. Evaluation of Different CH4-CO2 Replacement Processes in Hydrate-Bearing Sediments by Measuring P-Wave Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Liu


    Full Text Available The replacement of methane with carbon dioxide in natural gas hydrate-bearing sediments is considered a promising technology for simultaneously recovering natural gas and entrapping CO2. During the CH4-CO2 replacement process, the variations of geophysical property of the hydrate reservoir need to be adequately known. Since the acoustic wave velocity is an important geophysical property, in this work, the variations of P-wave velocity of hydrate-bearing sediments were measured during different CH4-CO2 replacement processes using pure gaseous CO2 and CO2/N2 gas mixtures. Our experimental results show that P-wave velocity continually decreased during all replacement processes. Compared with injecting pure gaseous CO2, injection of CO2/N2 mixture can promote the replacement process, however, it is found that the sediment experiences a loss of stiffness during the replacement process, especially when using CO2/N2 gas mixtures.

  16. Lack of circadian variation of pulse wave velocity measurements in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Drager, Luciano F; Diegues-Silva, Luzia; Diniz, Patrícia M; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Krieger, Eduardo M; Bortolotto, Luiz A


    Arterial stiffness is an independent marker of cardiovascular events. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a validated method to detect arterial stiffness that can be influenced by several factors including age and blood pressure. However, it is not clear whether PWV could be influenced by circadian variations. In the present study, the authors measured blood pressure and carotid-femoral PWV measurements in 15 young healthy volunteers in 4 distinct periods: 8 am, noon, 4 pm, and 8 pm. No significant variations of systolic (P=.92), mean (P=.77), and diastolic (P=.66) blood pressure among 8 am (113±15, 84±8, 69±6 mm Hg), noon (114±13, 83±8, 68±6 mm Hg), 4 pm (114±13, 85±8, 70±7 mm Hg), and 8 pm (113±7, 83±10, 68±7 mm Hg), respectively, were observed. Similarly, carotid-femoral PWV did not change among the periods (8 am: 7.6 ± 1.4 m/s, noon: 7.4±1.1 m/s, 4 pm: 7.6±1.0 m/s, 8 pm, 7.6±1.3 m/s; P=.85). Considering all measurements, mean blood pressure significantly correlated with PWV (r=.31; P=.016). In young healthy volunteers, there is no significant circadian variation of carotid-femoral PWV. These findings support the concept that it does not appear mandatory to perform PWV measurements at exactly the same period of the day. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reproducibility of shear wave velocity measurements by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging of the liver: a study in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Guzmán-Aroca, Florentina; Reus, Manuel; Berná-Serna, Juan D; Serrano, Laura; Serrano, Cristina; Gilabert, Amparo; Cepero, Angela


    The purposes of this study were to investigate interobserver reproducibility using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging and to develop an acoustic radiation force impulse scoring system. Fifty healthy volunteers with normal liver function test values were selected for the study. Shear wave velocity measurements, expressed in meters per second, were taken in a deep portion of liver segment 6. Two observers with different levels of experience performed the measurements independently and blindly. All of the measurements taken by the 2 observers were valid, even in volunteers with a body mass index of greater than 28 kg/m(2). The results point to very good interobserver reproducibility of shear wave velocity measurements, with an intraclass coefficient correlation of 0.86 (P measurements using the acoustic radiation force impulse technique and a standardized protocol are accurate and reproducible.

  18. Estimation of femoral bone density from trabecular direct wave and cortical guided wave ultrasound velocities measured at the proximal femur in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Dencks, Stefanie; Bremer, Alexander


    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur is a predictor of hip fracture risk. We developed a Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) scanner for measurements at this site with similar performance (FemUS). In this study we tested if ultrasound velocities of direct waves through trabecular bone and o...

  19. 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves in a biotite gneiss, measured in oil as the pressure medium: Comparison with velocity measurements in a multi-anvil pressure apparatus and with texture-based calculated data (United States)

    Lokajíček, T.; Kern, H.; Svitek, T.; Ivankina, T.


    Ultrasonic measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves were performed on a spherical sample of a biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole. Measurements were done at room temperature and pressures up to 400 and 70 MPa, respectively, in a pressure vessel with oil as a pressure medium. A modified transducer/sample assembly and the installation of a new mechanical system allowed simultaneous measurements of P- and S-wave velocities in 132 independent directions of the sphere on a net in steps of 15°. Proper signals for P- and S-waves could be recorded by coating the sample surface with a high-viscosity shear wave gel and by temporal point contacting of the transmitter and receiver transducers with the sample surface during the measurements. The 3D seismic measurements revealed a strong foliation-related directional dependence (anisotropy) of P- and S-wave velocities, which is confirmed by measurements in a multi-anvil apparatus on a cube-shaped specimen of the same rock. Both experimental approaches show a marked pressure sensitivity of P- and S-wave velocities and velocity anisotropies. With increasing pressure, P- and S-wave velocities increase non-linearly due to progressive closure of micro-cracks. The reverse is true for velocity anisotropy. 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction measurements of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals show that the intrinsic bulk anisotropy is basically caused by the CPO of biotite constituting about 23 vol.% of the rock. Including the shape of biotite grains and oriented low-aspect ratio microcracks into the modelling increases bulk anisotropy. An important finding from this study is that the measurements on the sample sphere and on the sample cube displayed distinct differences, particularly in shear wave velocities. It is assumed that the differences are due to the different geometries of the samples and the configuration of the transducer-sample assembly

  20. Aortic distensibility measured by pulse-wave velocity is not modified in patients with Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arteaga Edmundo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies demonstrate that infection with trypanosoma cruzi causes vasculitis. The inflammatory lesion process could hypothetically lead to decreased distensibility of large and small arteries in advanced Chagas' disease. We tested this hypothesis. Methods and results We evaluated carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV in 53 Chagas' disease patients compared with 31 healthy volunteers (control group. The 53 patients were classified into 3 groups: 1 16 with indeterminate form of Chagas' disease; 2 18 with Chagas' disease, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and normal systolic function; 3 19 with Chagas' disease, systolic dysfunction, and mild-to-moderate congestive heart failure. No difference was noted between the 4 groups regarding carotid-femoral PWV (8.4 ± 1.1 vs 8.2 ± 1.5 vs 8.2 ± 1.4 vs 8.7 ± 1.6 m/s, P = 0.6 or pulse pressure (39.5 ± 7.6 vs 39.3 ± 8.1 vs 39.5 ± 7.4 vs 39.7 ± 6.9 mm Hg, P = 0.9. A positive, significant, similar correlation occurred between PWV and age in patients with Chagas' disease (r = 0.42, P = 0.002, in controls (r = 0.48, P = 0.006, and also between PWV and systolic blood pressure in both groups (patients with Chagas' disease, r = 0.38, P = 0.005; healthy subjects, r = 0.36, P = 0.043. Conclusion Carotid femoral pulse-wave velocity is not modified in patients with Chagas' disease, suggesting that elastic properties of large arteries are not affected in this disorder.

  1. Blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity measured on the chest. (United States)

    Puke, Sawa; Suzuki, Takuji; Nakayama, Kanako; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Minami, Shigenobu


    Recently, monitoring of blood pressure fluctuation in the daily life is focused on in the hypertension care area to predict the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease events. In this paper, in order to propose an alternative system to the existed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) sphygmomanometer, we have developed a prototype of small wearable device consisting of electrocardiogram (ECG) and photopelthysmograph (PPG) sensors. In addition, it was examined whether blood pressure can be estimated based on pulse wave transit time (PWTT) only by attaching that device on the surface of the chest. We indicated that our system could also sense tendency of time-dependent change of blood pressure by measuring pulse of vessel over the sternum while its propagation distance is short.

  2. Shallow shear-wave velocity profiles and site response characteristics from microtremor array measurements in Metro Manila, the Philippines (United States)

    Grutas, Rhommel; Yamanaka, Hiroaki


    This paper presents the outcome of reconnaissance surveys in metropolitan Manila (Metro Manilla), the Philippines, with the aim of mapping shallow shear-wave velocity structures. Metro Manila is a seismically active and densely populated region that is in need of detailed investigation of the subsurface structures, to assess local site effects in seismic hazard estimation. We conducted microtremor array observations and used the spatial autocorrelation method to estimate the shear-wave profiles at 32 sites in major geological settings in Metro Manila. We applied a hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm to invert phase velocity data from the spatial autocorrelation method to generate shear-wave velocity models near the global best-fit solution. The comparison between the inferred shear-wave velocity profiles and PS logging showed good agreement in terms of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves and site responses. Then, we utilised the inferred shear-wave velocity profiles to compute the site amplifications with reference to the motion in engineering bedrock. Subsequently, the site amplifications have been grouped, based on NEHRP site classes. The amplification factor has also been compared with the average shear-wave velocity of the upper 30m at each site, to produce a power-law regression equation that can be used as a starting basis for further site-effects evaluation in the metropolis.

  3. Estimation of S-wave Velocity Structures by Using Microtremor Array Measurements for Subsurface Modeling in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ridwan


    Full Text Available Jakarta is located on a thick sedimentary layer that potentially has a very high seismic wave amplification. However, the available information concerning the subsurface model and bedrock depth is insufficient for a seismic hazard analysis. In this study, a microtremor array method was applied to estimate the geometry and S-wave velocity of the sedimentary layer. The spatial autocorrelation (SPAC method was applied to estimate the dispersion curve, while the S-wave velocity was estimated using a genetic algorithm approach. The analysis of the 1D and 2D S-wave velocity profiles shows that along a north-south line, the sedimentary layer is thicker towards the north. It has a positive correlation with a geological cross section derived from a borehole down to a depth of about 300 m. The SPT data from the BMKG site were used to verify the 1D S-wave velocity profile. They show a good agreement. The microtremor analysis reached the engineering bedrock in a range from 359 to 608 m as depicted by a cross section in the north-south direction. The site class was also estimated at each site, based on the average S-wave velocity until 30 m depth. The sites UI to ISTN belong to class D (medium soil, while BMKG and ANCL belong to class E (soft soil.

  4. Measurements of acoustic particle velocity in a coaxial duct and its application to a traveling-wave thermoacoustic heat engine. (United States)

    Morii, Jun; Biwa, Tetsushi; Yazaki, Taichi


    We present theoretical solutions, based on linear acoustic theory, for axial acoustic particle velocity in an annular region of a coaxial duct. The solutions are expressed in terms of two non-dimensional parameters h/δ(ν) and R; h and δ(ν), respectively, represent the half of the spacing between two concentric ducts and the characteristic length given by kinematic viscosity of the gas and angular frequency of acoustic oscillations, and R is the radius ratio of the ducts. The validity of the solutions was verified by direct measurements using a laser Doppler velocimeter. The present results are applied to measurements of the acoustic power distribution in a traveling wave thermoacoustic engine with a coaxial duct, which provides experimental evidence for acoustic power feedback in the coaxial duct.

  5. Video measurements of fluid velocities and water levels in breaking waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, K


    Full Text Available of macroscopic particles, that un-expanded polystyrene beads, which were heated in water at a temperature of around 86‡C for approximately 30 s, were most suitable. These partially expanded beads, which are approximately 0.8 mm in diameter, function well... of a pair captured 1 ms apart, shows a scene containing both bubbles resulting from the wave breaking, and polystyrene seed particles. It was found that the structure of corresponding portions of the two images persists for the duration...

  6. Constructing a 3D Crustal Model Across the Entire Contiguous US Using Broadband Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity and Ellipticity Measurements (United States)

    Lin, F. C.; Schmandt, B.


    Imaging the crust and lithosphere structure beneath North America is one of the primary targets for the NSF-funded EarthScope project. In this study, we apply the recently developed ambient noise and surface wave tomography methods to construct a detailed 3D crustal model across the entire contiguous US using USArray data between January 2007 and May 2015. By using both Rayleigh wave phase velocity and ellipticity measurements between 8 and 100 sec period, the shear velocity structure can be well resolved within the five crustal layers we modeled: three upper crust, one middle crust, and one lower crust. Clear correlations are observed between the resolved velocity anomalies and known geological features at all depths. In the uppermost crust, slow Vs anomalies are observed within major sedimentary environments such as the Williston Basin, Denver Basin, and Mississippi embayment, and fast Vs anomalies are observed in environments with deeply exhumed bedrock outcrops at the surface including the Laurentian Highlands, Ouachita-Ozark Interior Highlands, and Appalachian Highlands. In the deeper upper crust, slow anomalies are observed in deep sedimentary basins such as the Green River Basin, Appalachian Basin, Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, and areas surrounding the Gulf of Mexico. Fast anomalies, on the other hand, are observed in the Colorado Plateau, within the Great Plains between the Front Ranges and Midcontinental Rift, and east of the Appalachian Mountains. At this depth, the Midcontinental Rift and Grenville Front clearly correlate well with various velocity structure boundaries. In the middle crust, slow anomalies are mostly observed in the tectonically active areas in the western US, but relatively slow anomalies are also observed southeast of the Precambrian Rift Margins. At this depth, fast anomalies are observed beneath various deep sedimentary basins such as the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, Appalachian Basin, and Central Valley. In the lower crust, a clear

  7. Relationship between stress wave velocities of green and dry veneer (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Roy F. Pellerin


    This paper evaluates the relationship between the stress wave velocities of green and dry southern pine and Douglas-fir veneers. A commercial stress wave timer and a laboratory signal analysis system were used to measure the transit time required for an induced stress wave to travel the longitudinal length of each veneer. Stress wave transit times were measured in the...

  8. Measuring sea ice permeability as a function of the attenuation and phase velocity shift of an acoustic wave (United States)

    Hudier, E. J.; Bahoura, M.


    Sea ice is a two-phase porous medium consisting of a solid matrix of pure ice and a salty liquid phase. At spring when ice permeability increases, it has been observed that pressure gradients induced at the ice-water interface upstream and downstream of pressure ridge keels can cause sea water and brine to be forced through the ice water boundary. It suggests that salt and heat fluxes through the bottom ice layers may be a major factor controlling the decay of an ice sheet. Knowing how water flows through the ice matrix is fundamental to a modeling of ocean-ice heat exchanges integrating the advective import/export of latent heat that result from melting/freezing within the ice. Permeability is the measurement of the ease with which fluids flow through a porous medium, however one of the most tricky to measure without altering the porosity of the sampled medium. To further complicate the challenge, horizontal and vertical permeability of the ice, referred as ice anisotropy, is significant. Acoustic wave propagation through porous media have been theorized to relate the acoustic velocity and attenuation to the physical properties of the tested material. It is a non-invasive technique, and as such could provide more reliable measurements of sea ice permeability than anything presently used. Simulations combining the Biot's and squirt flow mechanisms are performed to investigate the effect of permeability on the attenuation and phase velocity as a function of frequency. We first present the attenuation dispersion curves for an isotropic sea ice, then low-frequency and high-frequency limits are determined. Optimal frequency range and resolution requirements are evaluated for testing.

  9. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Beom Seok; Kim, Myung Joon; Han, Sang Won; Im, Young Jae; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To measure shear wave velocities (SWVs) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in normal kidneys and in hydronephrotic kidneys in young children and to compare SWVs between the hydronephrosis grades. This study was approved by an institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the children included. Children under the age of 24 months were prospectively enrolled. Hydronephrosis grade was evaluated on ultrasonography, and three valid ARFI measurements were attempted using a high-frequency transducer for both kidneys. Hydronephrosis was graded from 0 to 4, and high-grade hydronephrosis was defined as grades 3 and 4. Fifty-one children underwent ARFI measurements, and three valid measurements for both kidneys were obtained in 96% (49/51) of the patients. Nineteen children (38.8%) had no hydronephrosis. Twenty-three children (46.9%) had unilateral hydronephrosis, and seven children (14.3%) had bilateral hydronephrosis. Seven children had ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Median SWVs in kidneys with high-grade hydronephrosis (2.02 m/sec) were higher than those in normal kidneys (1.75 m/sec; P=0.027). However, the presence of UPJO did not influence the median SWVs in hydronephrotic kidneys (P=0.362). Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  10. Fast retrospectively triggered local pulse-wave velocity measurements in mice with CMR-microscopy using a radial trajectory. (United States)

    Winter, Patrick; Kampf, Thomas; Helluy, Xavier; Gutjahr, Fabian T; Meyer, Cord B; Rommel, Null; Bauer, Wolfgang R; Jakob, Peter M; Herold, Volker


    The aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV) is an important indicator of cardiovascular risk. In recent studies MRI methods have been developed to measure this parameter noninvasively in mice. Present techniques require additional hardware for cardiac and respiratory gating. In this work a robust self-gated measurement of the local PWV in mice without the need of triggering probes is proposed. The local PWV of 6-months-old wild-type C57BL/6J mice (n=6) was measured in the abdominal aorta with a retrospectively triggered radial Phase Contrast (PC) MR sequence using the flow-area (QA) method. A navigator signal was extracted from the CMR data of highly asymmetric radial projections with short repetition time (TR=3 ms) and post-processed with high-pass and low-pass filters for retrospective cardiac and respiratory gating. The self-gating signal was used for a reconstruction of high-resolution Cine frames of the aortic motion. To assess the local PWV the volume flow Q and the cross-sectional area A of the aorta were determined. The results were compared with the values measured with a triggered Cartesian and an undersampled triggered radial PC-Cine sequence. In all examined animals a self-gating signal could be extracted and used for retrospective breath-gating and PC-Cine reconstruction. With the non-triggered measurement PWV values of 2.3±0.2 m/s were determined. These values are in agreement with those measured with the triggered Cartesian (2.4±0.2 m/s) and the triggered radial (2.3±0.2 m/s) measurement. Due to the strong robustness of the radial trajectory against undersampling an acceleration of more than two relative to the prospectively triggered Cartesian sampling could be achieved with the retrospective method. With the radial flow-encoding sequence the extraction of a self-gating signal is feasible. The retrospective method enables a robust and fast measurement of the local PWV without the need of additional trigger hardware.

  11. Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert


    loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface......The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...

  12. Comparison of shear wave velocity measurements assessed with two different ultrasound systems in an ex-vivo tendon strain phantom. (United States)

    Rosskopf, Andrea B; Bachmann, Elias; Snedeker, Jess G; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Buck, Florian M


    The purpose of this study is to compare the reliability of SW velocity measurements of two different ultrasound systems and their correlation with the tangent traction modulus in a non-static tendon strain model. A bovine tendon was fixed in a custom-made stretching device. Force was applied increasing from 0 up to 18 Newton. During each strain state the tangent traction modulus was determined by the stretcher device, and SW velocity (m/s) measurements using a Siemens S3000 and a Supersonic Aixplorer US machine were done for shear modulus (kPa) calculation. A strong significant positive correlation was found between SW velocity assessed by the two ultrasound systems and the tangent traction modulus (r = 0.827-0.954, p < 0.001), yet all SW velocity-based calculations underestimated the reference tissue tangent modulus. Mean difference of SW velocities with the S3000 was 0.44 ± 0.3 m/s (p = 0.002) and with the Aixplorer 0.25 ± 0.3 m/s (p = 0.034). Mean difference of SW velocity between the two US-systems was 0.37 ± 0.3 m/s (p = 0.012). In conclusion, SW velocities are highly dependent on mechanical forces in the tendon tissue, but for controlled mechanical loads appear to yield reproducible and comparable measurements using different US systems.

  13. Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave parameters (United States)

    Wiberg, P.L.; Sherwood, C.R.


    Near-bed wave orbital velocities and shear stresses are important parameters in many sediment-transport and hydrodynamic models of the coastal ocean, estuaries, and lakes. Simple methods for estimating bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave statistics such as significant wave height and peak period often are inaccurate except in very shallow water. This paper briefly reviews approaches for estimating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from near-bed velocity data, surface-wave spectra, and surface-wave parameters; MATLAB code for each approach is provided. Aspects of this problem have been discussed elsewhere. We add to this work by providing a method for using a general form of the parametric surface-wave spectrum to estimate bottom orbital velocity from significant wave height and peak period, investigating effects of spectral shape on bottom orbital velocity, comparing methods for calculating bottom orbital velocity against values determined from near-bed velocity measurements at two sites on the US east and west coasts, and considering the optimal representation of bottom orbital velocity for calculations of near-bed processes. Bottom orbital velocities calculated using near-bed velocity data, measured wave spectra, and parametric spectra for a site on the northern California shelf and one in the mid-Atlantic Bight compare quite well and are relatively insensitive to spectral shape except when bimodal waves are present with maximum energy at the higher-frequency peak. These conditions, which are most likely to occur at times when bottom orbital velocities are small, can be identified with our method as cases where the measured wave statistics are inconsistent with Donelan's modified form of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum. We define the 'effective' forcing for wave-driven, near-bed processes as the product of the magnitude of forcing times its probability of occurrence, and conclude that different bottom orbital velocity statistics

  14. Measurement of the velocity of a quantum object: A role of phase and group velocities (United States)

    Lapinski, Mikaila; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.


    We consider the motion of a quantum particle in a free space. Introducing an explicit measurement procedure for velocity, we demonstrate that the measured velocity is related to the group and phase velocities of the corresponding matter waves. We show that for long distances the measured velocity coincides with the matter wave group velocity. We discuss the possibilities to demonstrate these effects for the optical pulses in coherently driven media or for radiation propagating in waveguides.

  15. Group velocity of cylindrical guided waves in anisotropic laminate composites. (United States)

    Glushkov, Evgeny; Glushkova, Natalia; Eremin, Artem; Lammering, Rolf


    An explicit expression for the group velocity of wave packets, propagating in a laminate anisotropic composite plate in prescribed directions, is proposed. It is based on the cylindrical guided wave asymptotics derived from the path integral representation for wave fields generated in the composites by given localized sources. The expression derived is theoretically confirmed by the comparison with a known representation for the group velocity vector of a plane guided wave. Then it is experimentally validated against laser vibrometer measurements of guided wave packets generated by a piezoelectric wafer active sensor in a composite plate.

  16. Effects of cardiac timing and peripheral resistance on measurement of pulse wave velocity for assessment of arterial stiffness. (United States)

    Xiao, Hanguang; Butlin, Mark; Tan, Isabella; Avolio, Alberto


    To investigate the effects of heart rate (HR), left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and wave reflection on arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), a pulse wave propagation simulation system (PWPSim) based on the transmission line model of the arterial tree was developed and was applied to investigate pulse wave propagation. HR, LVET, arterial elastic modulus and peripheral resistance were increased from 60 to 100 beats per minute (bpm), 0.1 to 0.45 seconds, 0.5 to 1.5 times and 0.5 to 1.5 times of the normal value, respectively. Carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) were calculated by intersecting tangent method (cfPWVtan and baPWVtan), maximum slope (cfPWVmax and baPWVmax), and using the Moens-Korteweg equation ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Results showed cfPWV and baPWV increased significantly with arterial elastic modulus but did not increase with HR when using a constant elastic modulus. However there were significant LVET dependencies of cfPWVtan and baPWVtan (0.17 ± 0.13 and 0.17 ± 0.08 m/s per 50 ms), and low peripheral resistance dependencies of cfPWVtan, cfPWVmax, baPWVtan and baPWVmax (0.04 ± 0.01, 0.06 ± 0.04, 0.06 ± 0.03 and 0.09 ± 0.07 m/s per 10% peripheral resistance), respectively. This study demonstrated that LVET dominates the effect on calculated PWV compared to HR and peripheral resistance when arterial elastic modulus is constant.

  17. P1138Cardiac shear wave velocity in healthy individuals. (United States)

    Strachinaru, M; Geleijnse, M L; Bosch, J G; De Jong, N; Van Der Steen, Afw; Van Dalen, B M; Vos, H J


    The closure of the valves generates shear waves in the heart walls. The propagation velocity of shear waves relates to stiffness. This could potentially be used to estimate the stiffness of the myocardium, with huge potential implications in pathologies characterized by a deterioration of the diastolic properties of the left ventricle. In an earlier phantom study we already validated shear wave tracking with a clinical ultrasound system in cardiac mode. In this study we aimed to measure the shear waves velocity in normal individuals. 12 healthy volunteers, mean age=37±10, 33% females, were investigated using a clinical scanner (Philips iE33), equipped with a S5-1 probe, using a clinical tissue Doppler (TDI) application. ECG and phonocardiogram (PCG) were synchronously recorded. We achieved a TDI frame rate of >500Hz by carefully tuning normal system settings. Data were processed offline in Philips Qlab 8 to extract tissue velocity along a virtual M-mode line in the basal third of the interventricular septum, in parasternal long axis view. This tissue velocity showed a propagating wave pattern after closure of the valves. The slope of the wave front velocity in a space-time panel was measured to obtain the shear wave propagation velocity. The velocity of the shear waves induced by the closure of the mitral valve (1st heart sound) and aortic valve (2nd heart sound) was averaged over 4 heartbeats for every subject. Shear waves were visible after each closure of the heart valves, synchronous to the heart sounds. The figure shows one heart cycle of a subject, with the mean velocity along a virtual M-mode line in the upper panel, synchronous to the ECG signal (green line) and phonocardiogram (yellow line) in the lower panel. The slope of the shear waves is marked with dotted lines and the onset of the heart sounds with white lines. In our healthy volunteer group the mean velocity of the shear wave induced by mitral valve closure was 4.8±0.7m/s, standard error of 0.14 m

  18. In-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement of longitudinal and shear waves in the machine direction with transducers in rotating wheels (United States)

    Hall, Maclin S.; Jackson, Theodore G.; Knerr, Christopher


    An improved system for measuring the velocity of ultrasonic signals within the plane of moving web-like materials, such as paper, paperboard and the like. In addition to velocity measurements of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web in the MD and CD, one embodiment of the system in accordance with the present invention is also adapted to provide on-line indication of the polar specific stiffness of the moving web. In another embodiment of the invention, the velocity of ultrasonic signals in the plane of the web are measured by way of a plurality of ultrasonic transducers carried by synchronously driven wheels or cylinders, thus eliminating undue transducer wear due to any speed differences between the transducers and the web. In order to provide relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the webs, the transducers are mounted in a sensor housings which include a spring for biasing the transducer radially outwardly. The sensor housings are adapted to be easily and conveniently mounted to the carrier to provide a relatively constant contact force between the transducers and the moving web.

  19. Measurements of drift-wave-induced density and velocity fluctuations using high-speed passive impurity spectroscopy (United States)

    Nishizawa, Takashi; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.


    Passive impurity spectroscopy is used to study high frequency ( 100 kHz) electron density and ion velocity fluctuations in the edge of MST reversed field pinch plasmas. When tearing modes are suppressed, stochastic transport is greatly reduced and microturbulence is anticipated to become important. Gyrokinetic simulations predict unstable trapped electron modes (TEM) in the edge region of these improved-confinement MST plasmas. Interferometry measurements reveal electron density fluctuations with wavenumbers, propagation direction, and a density-gradient threshold in good agreement with predictions for TEMs. These density fluctuations are also observed as emission fluctuations using a recently upgraded Ion Dynamics Spectrometer (IDS II) through edge passive C +2 measurements. The particle transport associated with TEMs will be evaluated directly by correlating the IDS-measured ion velocity and density fluctuations. The measurement is localized to the C +2 emission shell in the edge of the plasma, which is determined by a coronal charge-state balance model using ADAS. We used a large-throughput spectrometer originally developed for fast CHERS measurements and PMTs for light detection to achieve high time resolution. This work is supported by the US DOE.

  20. Determination of the elastic and stiffness characteristics of cross-laminated timber plates from flexural wave velocity measurements (United States)

    Santoni, Andrea; Schoenwald, Stefan; Van Damme, Bart; Fausti, Patrizio


    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an engineered wood with good structural properties and it is also economically competitive with the traditional building construction materials. However, due to its low volume density combined with its high stiffness, it does not provide sufficient sound insulation, thus it is necessary to develop specific acoustic treatments in order to increase the noise reduction performance. The material's mechanical properties are required as input data to perform the vibro-acoustic analyses necessary during the design process. In this paper the elastic constants of a CLT plate are derived by fitting the real component of the experimental flexural wave velocity with Mindlin's dispersion relation for thick plates, neglecting the influence of the plate's size and boundary conditions. Furthermore, its apparent elastic and stiffness properties are derived from the same set of experimental data, for the plate considered to be thin. Under this latter assumption the orthotropic behaviour of an equivalent thin CLT plate is described by using an elliptic model and verified with experimental results.

  1. Comparison between multi-channel LDV and PWI for measurement of pulse wave velocity in distensible tubes: Towards a new diagnostic technique for detection of arteriosclerosis (United States)

    Campo, Adriaan; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Apostolakis, Jason; Waz, Adam; Nauleau, Pierre; Abramski, Krzysztof; Dirckx, Joris; Konofagou, Elisa


    The aim of this work, was to compare pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements using Laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) and the more established ultrasound-based pulse wave imaging (PWI) in smooth vessels. Additionally, it was tested whether changes in phantom structure can be detected using LDV in vessels containing a local hardening of the vessel wall. Results from both methods showed good agreement illustrated by the non-parametric Spearman correlation analysis (Spearman-ρ = 1 and pmarkers and larger distances between beams. In further studies, more LDV beams will be used to allow detection of local changes in arterial wall dynamics due to e.g. small inclusions or local hardenings of the vessel wall.

  2. Wave Velocity Estimation in Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.


    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space-time dependent unknown velocity in the wave equation. The proposed method simplifies the identification problem into a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical simulations on noise-free and noisy cases are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Deep Shear Wave Velocity of Southern Bangkok and Vicinity (United States)

    Wongpanit, T.; Hayashi, K.; Pananont, P.


    Bangkok is located on the soft marine clay in the Lower Chao Phraya Basin which can amplify seismic wave and can affect the shaking of buildings during an earthquake. Deep shear wave velocity of the sediment in the basin are useful for study the effect of the soft sediment on the seismic wave and can be used for earthquake engineering design and ground shaking estimation, especially for a deep basin. This study aims to measure deep shear wave velocity and create 2D shear wave velocity profile down to a bedrock in the southern Bangkok by the Microtremor measurements with 2 seismographs using Spatial Autocorrelation (2-SPAC) technique. The data was collected during a day time on linear array geometry with offsets varying between 5-2,000 m. Low frequency of natural tremor (0.2-0.6 Hz) was detected at many sites, however, very deep shear wave data at many sites are ambiguous due to man-made vibration noises in the city. The results show that shear wave velocity of the sediment in the southern Bangkok is between 100-2,000 ms-1 and indicate that the bedrock depth is about 600-800 m, except at Bang Krachao where bedrock depth is unclear.

  4. Estimation of shallow S-wave velocity structure and site response characteristics by microtremor array measurements in Tekirdag region, NW Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Citak, Seckin; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Hatayama, Ken


    ...). We collected microtremor array data at 44 sites in Tekirdag, Marmara Ereglisi, Corlu, and Muratlı. The phase velocities of Rayleigh waves were estimated from the microtremor data using a Spatial Autocorrelation method...

  5. Rayleigh-Wave Group-Velocity Tomography of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani


    We use surface-wave tomography to investigate the lithospheric structure of the Arabian plate, which is traditionally divided into the Arabian shield in the west and the Arabian platform in the east. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks. The Arabian platform is primarily covered by very thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. We develop high-resolution tomographic images from fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocities across Saudi Arabia, utilizing the teleseismic data recorded by the permanent Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN). Our study extends previous efforts on surface wave work by increasing ray path density and improving spatial resolution. Good quality dispersion measurements for roughly 3000 Rayleigh-wave paths have been obtained and utilized for the group-velocity tomography. We have applied the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) scheme of Rawlinson (2005) to obtain Rayleigh-wave group-velocity images for periods from 8 s to 40 s on a 0.8° 0.8° grid and at resolutions approaching 2.5° based on the checkerboard tests. Our results indicate that short-period group-velocity maps (8-15 s) correlate well with surface geology, with slow velocities delineating the main sedimentary features including the Arabian platform, the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia. For longer periods (20-40 s), the velocity contrast is due to the differences in crustal thickness and subduction/collision zones. The lower velocities are sensitive to the thicker continental crust beneath the eastern Arabia and the subduction/collision zones between the Arabian and Eurasian plate, while the higher velocities in the west infer mantle velocity.

  6. Shear-wave velocity profile and seismic input derived from ambient vibration array measurements: the case study of downtown L'Aquila (United States)

    Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Cara, Fabrizio; Milana, Giuliano; Tallini, Marco


    Downtown L'Aquila suffered severe damage (VIII-IX EMS98 intensity) during the 2009 April 6 Mw 6.3 earthquake. The city is settled on a top flat hill, with a shear-wave velocity profile characterized by a reversal of velocity at a depth of the order of 50-100 m, corresponding to the contact between calcareous breccia and lacustrine deposits. In the southern sector of downtown, a thin unit of superficial red soils causes a further shallow impedance contrast that may have influenced the damage distribution during the 2009 earthquake. In this paper, the main features of ambient seismic vibrations have been studied in the entire city centre by using array measurements. We deployed six 2-D arrays of seismic stations and 1-D array of vertical geophones. The 2-D arrays recorded ambient noise, whereas the 1-D array recorded signals produced by active sources. Surface-wave dispersion curves have been measured by array methods and have been inverted through a neighbourhood algorithm, jointly with the H/V ambient noise spectral ratios related to Rayleigh waves ellipticity. We obtained shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles representative of the southern and northern sectors of downtown L'Aquila. The theoretical 1-D transfer functions for the estimated Vs profiles have been compared to the available empirical transfer functions computed from aftershock data analysis, revealing a general good agreement. Then, the Vs profiles have been used as input for a deconvolution analysis aimed at deriving the ground motion at bedrock level. The deconvolution has been performed by means of EERA and STRATA codes, two tools commonly employed in the geotechnical engineering community to perform equivalent-linear site response studies. The waveform at the bedrock level has been obtained deconvolving the 2009 main shock recorded at a strong motion station installed in downtown. Finally, this deconvolved waveform has been used as seismic input for evaluating synthetic time-histories in a strong

  7. Anisotropic S-wave velocity structure from joint inversion of surface wave group velocity dispersion: A case study from India (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Dey, S.; Siddartha, G.; Bhattacharya, S.


    We estimate 1-dimensional path average fundamental mode group velocity dispersion curves from regional Rayleigh and Love waves sampling the Indian subcontinent. The path average measurements are combined through a tomographic inversion to obtain 2-dimensional group velocity variation maps between periods of 10 and 80 s. The region of study is parametrised as triangular grids with 1° sides for the tomographic inversion. Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves from each node point is subsequently extracted and jointly inverted to obtain a radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model through global optimisation using Genetic Algorithm. The parametrization of the model space is done using three crustal layers and four mantle layers over a half-space with varying VpH , VsV and VsH. The anisotropic parameter (η) is calculated from empirical relations and the density of the layers are taken from PREM. Misfit for the model is calculated as a sum of error-weighted average dispersion curves. The 1-dimensional anisotropic shear wave velocity at each node point is combined using linear interpolation to obtain 3-dimensional structure beneath the region. Synthetic tests are performed to estimate the resolution of the tomographic maps which will be presented with our results. We envision to extend this to a larger dataset in near future to obtain high resolution anisotrpic shear wave velocity structure beneath India, Himalaya and Tibet.

  8. Time-Synchronized Continuous Wave Laser-Induced Fluorescence Velocity Measurements of a Diverging Cusped Field Thruster (United States)


    comparator signal and raw emission plus fluorescence signal from the PMT are then fed into an SRS SR-250 Boxcar Averager Time-Sync CW-LIF Velocity...the comparator signal, the boxcar averager samples the PMT signal for a period of time defined by the gate width. The last sampled value of the PMT...signal is held until the next comparator trigger, at which point the boxcar averager re-samples and holds the PMT signal. Fig. 5 provides an example of

  9. Estimation of seabed shear-wave velocity profiles using shear-wave source data. (United States)

    Dong, Hefeng; Nguyen, Thanh-Duong; Duffaut, Kenneth


    This paper estimates seabed shear-wave velocity profiles and their uncertainties using interface-wave dispersion curves extracted from data generated by a shear-wave source. The shear-wave source generated a seismic signature over a frequency range between 2 and 60 Hz and was polarized in both in-line and cross-line orientations. Low-frequency Scholte- and Love-waves were recorded. Dispersion curves of the Scholte- and Love-waves for the fundamental mode and higher-order modes are extracted by three time-frequency analysis methods. Both the vertically and horizontally polarized shear-wave velocity profiles in the sediment are estimated by the Scholte- and Love-wave dispersion curves, respectively. A Bayesian approach is utilized for the inversion. Differential evolution, a global search algorithm is applied to estimate the most-probable shear-velocity models. Marginal posterior probability profiles are computed by Metropolis-Hastings sampling. The estimated vertically and horizontally polarized shear-wave velocity profiles fit well with the core and in situ measurements.

  10. Influence of different measurement time points on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial index in hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Su, Ho-Ming; Chang, Jer-Ming; Lin, Feng-Hsien; Chen, Szu-Chia; Voon, Wen-Chol; Cheng, Kai-Hung; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung


    In order to ensure that they are reliable markers of atherosclerosis and suitable for repetitive follow-up of disease progression and management responses in hemodialysis (HD) patients, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) should be tested to see whether they change with different measurement time points. The aim of this study was to assess whether baPWV and ABI vary according to whether they are measured before HD, after HD, or on the next dialysis-free day. Eighty-nine patients undergoing regular HD were enrolled. The baPWV and ABI were measured 10-30 min before and after HD, and if patients agreed, on the next dialysis-free day. The third measurement of baPWV and ABI, performed 22+/-2 h after HD, was taken in 72 patients (81%). The body weight reduction after HD was 2.5+/-0.9 kg (por=0.498). In conclusion, despite the significant decrease in body weight and blood pressures, baPWV increased significantly after HD. In addition, baPWV, but not ABI, may vary at different measurement time points. Therefore, baPWV, but not ABI, should be assessed in a timely manner in HD patients.

  11. A Fast Multimodal Ectopic Beat Detection Method Applied for Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements in Wearable Sensors. (United States)

    Pflugradt, Maik; Geissdoerfer, Kai; Goernig, Matthias; Orglmeister, Reinhold


    Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depends on careful fiducial point extraction and is therefore seriously affected during periods of increased occurring extrasystoles. In the scope of this work, a novel ectopic beat discriminator with low computational complexity has been developed, which takes advantage of multimodal features derived from ECG and pulse wave relating measurements, thereby providing additional information on the underlying cardiac activity. Moreover, the blood pressure estimations' vulnerability towards ectopic beats is closely examined on records drawn from the Physionet database as well as signals recorded in a small field study conducted in a geriatric facility for the elderly. It turns out that a reliable extrasystole identification is essential to unsupervised blood pressure estimation, having a significant impact on the overall accuracy. The proposed method further convinces by its applicability to battery driven hardware systems with limited processing power and is a favorable choice when access to multimodal signal features is given anyway.

  12. A Fast Multimodal Ectopic Beat Detection Method Applied for Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements in Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Pflugradt


    Full Text Available Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG. Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depends on careful fiducial point extraction and is therefore seriously affected during periods of increased occurring extrasystoles. In the scope of this work, a novel ectopic beat discriminator with low computational complexity has been developed, which takes advantage of multimodal features derived from ECG and pulse wave relating measurements, thereby providing additional information on the underlying cardiac activity. Moreover, the blood pressure estimations’ vulnerability towards ectopic beats is closely examined on records drawn from the Physionet database as well as signals recorded in a small field study conducted in a geriatric facility for the elderly. It turns out that a reliable extrasystole identification is essential to unsupervised blood pressure estimation, having a significant impact on the overall accuracy. The proposed method further convinces by its applicability to battery driven hardware systems with limited processing power and is a favorable choice when access to multimodal signal features is given anyway.

  13. A Fast Multimodal Ectopic Beat Detection Method Applied for Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements in Wearable Sensors


    Maik Pflugradt; Kai Geissdoerfer; Matthias Goernig; Reinhold Orglmeister


    Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depen...

  14. A fast multimodal ectopic beat detection method applied for blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity measurements in wearable sensors


    Pflugradt, Maik; Geißdörfer, Kai; Görnig, Matthias; Orglmeister, Reinhold


    Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depen...

  15. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomseok Sohn


    Conclusion: Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Wave Velocity-Permeability Model for Granite Subjected to Different Temperature Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Jiang


    Full Text Available Understanding the change of permeability of rocks before and after heating is of great significance for exploitation of hydrocarbon resources and disposal of nuclear waste. The rock permeability under high temperature cannot be measured with most of the existing methods. In this paper, quality, wave velocity, and permeability of granite specimen from Maluanshan tunnel are measured after high temperature processing. Quality and wave velocity of granite decrease and permeability of granite increases with increasing temperature. Using porosity as the medium, a new wave velocity-permeability model is established with modified wave velocity-porosity formula and Kozeny-Carman formula. Under some given wave velocities and corresponding permeabilities through experiment, the permeabilities at different temperatures and wave velocities can be obtained. By comparing the experimental and the theoretical results, the proposed formulas are verified. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the effect of particle size, wave velocities in rock matrix, and pore fluid on permeability: permeability increases with increasing particle size, wave velocities in rock matrix, and pore fluid; the higher the rock wave velocity, the lower the effect of wave velocities in rock matrix and pore fluid on permeability.

  17. Waves in cell monolayer without proliferation: density determines cell velocity and wave celerity

    CERN Document Server

    Tlili, S; Li, B; Cardoso, O; Ladoux, B; Delanoë-Ayari, H; Graner, F


    Collective cell migration contributes to morphogenesis, wound healing or tumor metastasis. Culturing epithelial monolayers on a substrate is an in vitro configuration suitable to quantitatively characterize such tissue migration by measuring cell velocity, density and cell-substrate interaction force. Inhibiting cell division, we limit cell density increase and favor steady cell migration, while by using long narrow strips we stabilise the migrating front shape, so that we observe migration over a day or more. In the monolayer bulk, the cell velocity is a function of the cell density, namely it increases as a linear function of the cell radius. At least ten periods of propagating velocity waves are detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio, enabling for their quantitative spatio-temporal analysis. Cell density displays waves, in phase opposition with the velocity, as predicted by mass conservation; similarly, cell-substrate force appear to display small amplitude waves, in phase quadrature with respect to ve...

  18. Wave velocity characteristic for Kenaf natural fibre under impact damage (United States)

    Zaleha, M.; Mahzan, S.; Fitri, Muhamad; Kamarudin, K. A.; Eliza, Y.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd


    This paper aims to determining the wave velocity characteristics for kenaf fibre reinforced composite (KFC) and it includes both experimental and simulation results. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensor were proposed to be positioned to corresponding locations on the panel. In order to demonstrate the wave velocity, an impacts was introduced onto the panel. It is based on a classical sensor triangulation methodology, combines with experimental strain wave velocity analysis. Then the simulation was designed to replicate panel used in the experimental impacts test. This simulation was carried out using ABAQUS. It was shown that the wave velocity propagates faster in the finite element simulation. Although the experimental strain wave velocity and finite element simulation results do not match exactly, the shape of both waves is similar.

  19. Perturbational and nonperturbational inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocities (United States)

    Haney, Matt; Tsai, Victor C.


    The inversion of Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves is a classic geophysical inverse problem. We have developed a set of MATLAB codes that performs forward modeling and inversion of Rayleigh-wave phase or group velocity measurements. We describe two different methods of inversion: a perturbational method based on finite elements and a nonperturbational method based on the recently developed Dix-type relation for Rayleigh waves. In practice, the nonperturbational method can be used to provide a good starting model that can be iteratively improved with the perturbational method. Although the perturbational method is well-known, we solve the forward problem using an eigenvalue/eigenvector solver instead of the conventional approach of root finding. Features of the codes include the ability to handle any mix of phase or group velocity measurements, combinations of modes of any order, the presence of a surface water layer, computation of partial derivatives due to changes in material properties and layer boundaries, and the implementation of an automatic grid of layers that is optimally suited for the depth sensitivity of Rayleigh waves.

  20. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail:; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)


    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  1. Rayleigh wave phase velocity and error maps up to the fifth overtone (United States)

    Durand, Stéphanie; Debayle, Eric; Ricard, Yanick


    We present a global data set of phase velocity maps for Rayleigh waves, with their errors. These maps are obtained from the tomographic inversion of phase velocity curves measured in the period range 40-250 s by Debayle and Ricard (2012), completed with new measurements at longer periods, between 150 and 360 s. The full data set includes ˜22,000,000 phase velocity measurements combined to build 60 phase velocity maps covering the period range 40-360 s for the fundamental mode and up to the fifth overtone. Each phase velocity map is provided with its a posteriori error, resulting in a unique data set which can be combined with other seismic measurements (surface waves, normal modes, and body waves) in regional and global tomographic studies. A preliminary inversion of this data set shows that it provides constraints on the shear velocity structure down to 1000 km depth.

  2. Velocity measurement by vibro-acoustic Doppler. (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Urban, Matthew W; Kinnick, Randall R; Fatemi, Mostafa


    We describe the theoretical principles of a new Doppler method, which uses the acoustic response of a moving object to a highly localized dynamic radiation force of the ultrasound field to calculate the velocity of the moving object according to Doppler frequency shift. This method, named vibro-acoustic Doppler (VAD), employs two ultrasound beams separated by a slight frequency difference, Δf, transmitting in an X-focal configuration. Both ultrasound beams experience a frequency shift because of the moving objects and their interaction at the joint focal zone produces an acoustic frequency shift occurring around the low-frequency (Δf) acoustic emission signal. The acoustic emission field resulting from the vibration of the moving object is detected and used to calculate its velocity. We report the formula that describes the relation between Doppler frequency shift of the emitted acoustic field and the velocity of the moving object. To verify the theory, we used a string phantom. We also tested our method by measuring fluid velocity in a tube. The results show that the error calculated for both string and fluid velocities is less than 9.1%. Our theory shows that in the worst case, the error is 0.54% for a 25° angle variation for the VAD method compared with an error of -82.6% for a 25° angle variation for a conventional continuous wave Doppler method. An advantage of this method is that, unlike conventional Doppler, it is not sensitive to angles between the ultrasound beams and direction of motion.

  3. Cardiac Shear Wave Velocity Detection in the Porcine Heart. (United States)

    Vos, Hendrik J; van Dalen, Bas M; Heinonen, Ilkka; Bosch, Johan G; Sorop, Oana; Duncker, Dirk J; van der Steen, Antonius F W; de Jong, Nico


    Cardiac muscle stiffness can potentially be estimated non-invasively with shear wave elastography. Shear waves are present on the septal wall after mitral and aortic valve closure, thus providing an opportunity to assess stiffness in early systole and early diastole. We report on the shear wave recordings of 22 minipigs with high-frame-rate echocardiography. The waves were captured with 4000 frames/s using a programmable commercial ultrasound machine. The wave pattern was extracted from the data through a local tissue velocity estimator based on one-lag autocorrelation. The wave propagation velocity was determined with a normalized Radon transform, resulting in median wave propagation velocities of 2.2 m/s after mitral valve closure and 4.2 m/s after aortic valve closure. Overall the velocities ranged between 0.8 and 6.3 m/s in a 95% confidence interval. By dispersion analysis we found that the propagation velocity only mildly increased with shear wave frequency. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of atherosclerotic indicators between cardio ankle vascular index and brachial ankle pulse wave velocity. (United States)

    Horinaka, Shigeo; Yabe, Akihisa; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ishimura, Kimihiko; Hara, Hitoshi; Iemua, Tomoyuki; Matsuoka, Hiroaki


    Aortic pulse wave velocity has been used for evaluating atherosclerosis. Recently, the development of the volume plethysmographic method has made it possible to easily measure the index of the pulse wave velocity. The brachial ankle pulse wave velocity and cardio ankle vascular index are used for estimating the extent of atherosclerosis. The diagnostic usefulness of these indexes in predicting coronary artery disease was examined. The brachial ankle pulse wave velocity, the cardio ankle vascular index, and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in 696 patients who had chest pain and underwent coronary angiography. Measurement values of brachial ankle pulse wave velocity were compared with those of cardio ankle vascular index in terms of the baseline covariates and the number of major coronary vessels involved (vessel disease). The brachial ankle pulse wave velocity was significantly correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure but not with the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The cardio ankle vascular index was correlated only with age and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The average of both brachial ankle pulse wave velocity and cardio ankle vascular index values was greater in 3 vessel disease group than in 0 vessel disease group. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery disease was significantly higher in the cardio ankle vascular index than in the brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (area under the curve +/- standard error: 0.691 +/- 0.025 vs. 0.584 +/- 0.026; P cardio ankle vascular index are useful and that cardio ankle vascular index may have some advantages in its application to patients taking blood pressure-lowering medication because of the minimum effect of blood pressure on its measurement values. The cardio ankle vascular index has increased performance over brachial ankle pulse wave velocity in predicting the coronary artery disease.

  5. Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocities and quality factors using multichannel analysis of surface-wave methods (United States)

    Xia, Jianghai


    This overview article gives a picture of multichannel analysis of high-frequency surface (Rayleigh and Love) waves developed mainly by research scientists at the Kansas Geological Survey, the University of Kansas and China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) during the last eighteen years by discussing dispersion imaging techniques, inversion systems, and real-world examples. Shear (S)-wave velocities of near-surface materials can be derived from inverting the dispersive phase velocities of high-frequency surface waves. Multichannel analysis of surface waves—MASW used phase information of high-frequency Rayleigh waves recorded on vertical component geophones to determine near-surface S-wave velocities. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode simultaneously can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. Multichannel analysis of Love waves—MALW used phase information of high-frequency Love waves recorded on horizontal (perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation) component geophones to determine S-wave velocities of shallow materials. Because of independence of compressional (P)-wave velocity, the MALW method has some attractive advantages, such as 1) Love-wave dispersion curves are simpler than Rayleigh wave's; 2) dispersion images of Love-wave energy have a higher signal to noise ratio and more focused than those generated from Rayleigh waves; and 3) inversion of Love-wave dispersion curves is less dependent on initial models and more stable than Rayleigh waves.

  6. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models (United States)

    Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo


    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.

  7. Association of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity with Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis in Hypertension Patients. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Qain, Yuesheng; Tang, Xiaofeng; Ling, Huawei; Chen, Kemin; Li, Yan; Gao, Pingjin; Zhu, Dingliang


    Intracranial arterial stenosis is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians. We therefore sought to explore the relationship of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and intracranial arterial stenosis in 834 stroke-free hypertensive patients. Intracranial arterial stenosis was evaluated through computerized tomographic angiography. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured by an automated cuff device. The top decile of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was significantly associated with intracranial arterial stenosis (P = .027, odds ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.10). The patients with the top decile of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity showed 56% higher risk for the presence of intracranial arterial stenosis to the whole population, which was more significant in patients younger than 65 years old. We also found that brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity related to both intracranial arterial stenosis and homocysteine. Our study showed the association of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity with asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis in hypertension patients, especially in relative younger subjects. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity might be a relatively simple and repeatable measurement to detect hypertension patients in high risk of intracranial arterial stenosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Theory and experiment on electromagnetic-wave-propagation velocities in stacked superconducting tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Ustinov, A. V.; Kohlstedt, H.


    focused on. Furthermore, under the assumption that all parameters of the layers are equal, analytic solutions for a generic N-fold stack are presented. The velocities of the waves in two- and three-junction stacks by Nb-Al-AlOx-Nb systems are experimentally obtained by measuring the cavity resonance......Characteristic velocities of the electromagnetic waves propagating in vertically stacked Josephson transmission are theoretically discussed. An equation for solving n velocities of the waves in an n Josephson-junction stack is derived. The solutions of two- and threefold stacks are especially...

  9. Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modified Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a cubic equation define the phase velocities of three quasi-waves in the medium.Analytical expressions are used to calculate the directional derivatives of phase ...

  10. Phase velocity and attenuation of plane waves in dissipative elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An iteration method to find the roots of a complex transcendental equation is under scanner. This method identified as functional iteration method is being used mainly in wave propagation problems to calculate the phase velocity and the attenuation of plane harmonic waves in dissipative elastic plates. Few mathematical ...

  11. On the time varying horizontal water velocity of single, multiple, and random gravity wave trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.R.


    In this dissertation some characteristics of the horizontal water velocity for single, multiple, and random gravity wave trains are studied. This work consists of two parts, an analogue study and hydraulic measurements. An important aspect in this work is to suggest the horizontal water velocity

  12. Study on P-wave and S-wave velocity in dry and wet sandstones of Tushka region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Kassab


    The derived equations can be used for the prediction of P-wave velocity of wet rock samples from the P-wave velocity of dry rock samples, and the S-wave velocity of wet rock samples can be predicted from the S-wave velocity of dry rock samples. A strong linear correlation between P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity of dry rock samples and between P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity of wet rock samples was found. The resulting linear equations can be used for the estimation of S-wave velocity from the P-wave velocity in the case of both dry and wet rock samples.

  13. The effects of frequency on the elastic wave velocity in rocks at high temperatures under pressure (United States)

    Matsushima, S.


    P- and S-wave velocities in nepheline basalt, Hamada, as well as diabase, Maryland, were measured experimentally to 1000°C and 2.5 GPa. A remarkable frequency dependence of large velocity-decrease was observed for both P- and S-waves at temperatures above 500°C. Remarkable velocity-characteristics, which cannot be explained by the existing theories, were: (1) Velocities were decreased considerably at 1-3 MHz. Above 3 MHz, samples showed elastic behavior like that of a perfect solid, and below 1 MHz, velocity-decrease decayed gradually. (2) Both P- and S-wave velocities decreased in the same way and almost to the same degree. (3) The higher the temperature, the more remarkably velocities decreased, at least up to the experimental limit temperature. A hypothesis of the relaxation of stress waves by the fluid-flow in the inclusions is proposed. Examples of geophysical applications are given for the attenuation and travel-time anomalies in the volcanic region and the P- and S-wave velocity-decrease in the upper mantle beneath continents.

  14. A numerical method for predicting Rayleigh surface wave velocity in anisotropic crystals (United States)

    Cherry, Matthew R.; Sathish, Shamachary; Grandhi, Ramana


    A numerical method was developed for calculating the Rayleigh Surface Wave (RSW) velocity in arbitrarily oriented single crystals in 360 degrees of propagation. This method relies on the results from modern analysis of RSW behavior with the Stroh formalism to restrict the domain in which to search for velocities by first calculating the limiting velocity. This extension of existing numerical methods also leads to a natural way of determining both the existence of the RSW as well as the possibility of encountering a pseudo-surface wave. Furthermore, the algorithm is applied to the calculation of elastic properties from measurement of the surface wave velocity in multiple different directions on a single crystal sample. The algorithm was tested with crystal symmetries and single crystal elastic moduli from literature. It was found to be very robust and efficient in calculating RSW velocity curves in all cases.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of ultrasonic longitudinal wave velocities and thicknesses of a two layered media in the absence of an interface echo. (United States)

    Kannajosyula, Surya Prakash; Chillara, Vamshi Krishna; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Krishnamurthy, C V


    A measurement technique has been developed to extract the phase information of successive echoes for the simultaneous estimation of thicknesses and ultrasonic velocities of individual layers in a two layered media. The proposed method works in the absence of an interface echo and requires the total thickness of the sample to be known. Experiments have been carried out on two layered samples of white cast iron and gray cast iron with layer thickness variation in the range of 2-8 mm for total thickness variation in the range of 12-13 mm. Comparison with micrographs of a few samples confirmed the model predictions. The model is found to be sensitive to the total sample thickness but fairly insensitive to noise in the data.

  16. Superluminal X-wave propagation: energy localization and velocity. (United States)

    Mugnai, D; Mochi, I


    The electromagnetic propagation of a Bessel-X wave is analyzed on the basis of a vectorial treatment in order to obtain information about the propagation of energy flux and the velocity of the energy. Knowledge of these quantities is of great interest since they are connected to the production of localized electromagnetic energy and to the topic of superluminality, respectively. The electric and magnetic fields are obtained in the far-field approximation by considering a realistic situation able to generate a Bessel-X wave. The vectorial treatment confirms the capability of this kind of wave to localize energy, while, quite surprisingly, even if the group velocity is superluminal, the energy velocity is equal to the light speed.

  17. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays (United States)

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix


    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  18. Interferometric measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans (United States)

    Nanzer, Jeffrey A.


    This paper presents an analysis of the measurement of the angular velocity of walking humans using a millimeter-wave correlation interferometer. Measurement of the angular velocity of moving objects is a desirable function in remote sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques, however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of-arrival estimation algorithms. A new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry has recently been developed which measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency of the interferometer signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. In this paper, the theory of the interferometric measurement of angular velocity is covered and simulations of the response of a walking human are presented. Simulations are produced using a model of a walking human to show the significant features associated with the interferometer response, which may be used in classification algorithms.

  19. Wave equation based microseismic source location and velocity inversion (United States)

    Zheng, Yikang; Wang, Yibo; Chang, Xu


    The microseismic event locations and velocity information can be used to infer the stress field and guide hydraulic fracturing process, as well as to image the subsurface structures. How to get accurate microseismic event locations and velocity model is the principal problem in reservoir monitoring. For most location methods, the velocity model has significant relation with the accuracy of the location results. The velocity obtained from log data is usually too rough to be used for location directly. It is necessary to discuss how to combine the location and velocity inversion. Among the main techniques for locating microseismic events, time reversal imaging (TRI) based on wave equation avoids traveltime picking and offers high-resolution locations. Frequency dependent wave equation traveltime inversion (FWT) is an inversion method that can invert velocity model with source uncertainty at certain frequency band. Thus we combine TRI with FWT to produce improved event locations and velocity model. In the proposed approach, the location and model information are interactively used and updated. Through the proposed workflow, the inverted model is better resolved and the event locations are more accurate. We test this method on synthetic borehole data and filed data of a hydraulic fracturing experiment. The results verify the effectiveness of the method and prove it has potential for real-time microseismic monitoring.

  20. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.


    leads the water into another pipe or tunnel system. A pressure gradient generated by the water level difference between the sea and basin drives the flow through the tunnel system. The tunnel system is often in the order of a couple kilometers long. Based on CFD analyses (computational fluid dynamics......Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe......) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  1. Measurement of the shock front velocity produced in a T-tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurović, S.; Mijatović, Z.; Vujičić, B.; Kobilarov, R.; Savić, I.; Gavanski, L. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)


    A set of shock front velocity measurements is described in this paper. The shock waves were produced in a small electromagnetically driven shock T-tube. Most of the measurements were performed in hydrogen. The shock front velocity measurements in other gases and the velocity of the gas behind the shock front were also analyzed, as well as the velocity dependence on applied input energy. Some measurements with an applied external magnetic field were also performed. The used method of shock front velocity is simple and was shown to be very reliable. Measured values were compared with the calculated ones for the incident and reflected shock waves.

  2. Imaging of surface wave phase velocities from array phase observations (United States)

    Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie


    While temporary deployments some 10 years ago were largely based on short-period seismometers, the availability of broadband instruments in instrument pools increased strongly in recent years and as such modern temporary deployments for passive seismological recordings often consist to a large extent, if not exclusively, of broadband instruments. This opens for new analysis approaches as the broadband seismic wavefield is obtained at a relatively high spatial sampling relative to the wavelength. In an attempt to infer surface wave phase velocity anomalies beneath Southern Norway based on data from a temporary network of 41 broadband instruments, we present a new approach to overcome the limitations of two-station phase measurements (on the great circle with the source) and instead exploit the two-dimensional nature of the wavefield by taking into account phase measurements at all stations of the array from a single event. This is based on the assumption that the wavefield is at least piecewise linear within the study region. By triangulation of the network region and linear estimation of the phase gradient in each triangle we get without further a priori assumptions a coarse image of the phase velocity variations within our network. The image can be significantly refined for a single event recording by stacking multiple images based on arbitrary subsets of the available data. Phase velocity anomalies measured from single event recordings can be biased and blurred by non-plane arriving wavefield, reflections and diffractions of heterogeneities. Therefore, by averaging over velocity fields from different events with varying backazimuths, artefacts are reduced and the recovered image significantly improved. Another way to improve the recovered structures is to take into account the spatial variation of the amplitude field. However, while the phase between two neighboring stations may be (at least close to) linear, the amplitude may not, hence estimation of the second

  3. Longitudinal and shear wave velocities in pure tungsten and tungsten fiber-reinforced tungsten composites (United States)

    Lee, H. T.; Ando, S.; Coenen, J. W.; Mao, Y.; Riesch, J.; Gietl, H.; Kasada, R.; Hamaji, Y.; Ibano, K.; Ueda, Y.


    Longitudinal and shear wave velocities in pure tungsten and tungsten fiber-reinforced tungsten (Wf/W) composites were studied by laser ultrasonic measurements. The samples were produced from powders or powder/fiber mixtures by spark plasma sintering process. It was found that sintering temperature, as a processing parameter, has the largest effect. Higher sintering temperatures result in faster wave velocities. For example, longitudinal wave velocities and their standard deviations in sintered W at 1800 °C and 2000 °C were 4834 ± 53 m s-1 and 5043 ± 47 m s-1. In comparison, the average longitudinal wave velocity for a polycrystalline reference W was 5227 ± 5 m s-1. The values for Wf/W composites fall between the two sintered samples. However, the thicker Yttria (Y2O3) fiber/matrix interface resulted in faster wave velocities. The elastic moduli were calculated from the sound velocities using average density measurements. The standard relations for isotropic, homogeneous material were used. It was found that the shear, bulk, Young’s modulus are 80%-90% of the values for polycrystalline tungsten, while the temperature dependency from 25 °C to 450 °C is similar.

  4. Wave-equation Migration Velocity Analysis Using Plane-wave Common Image Gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen


    Wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag common image gathers (CIGs) requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images in the extended image domain. To mitigate this problem, a WEMVA method using plane-wave CIGs is presented. Plane-wave CIGs reduce the computational cost and memory storage because they are directly calculated from prestack plane-wave migration, and the number of plane waves is often much smaller than the number of shots. In the case of an inaccurate migration velocity, the moveout of plane-wave CIGs is automatically picked by a semblance analysis method, which is then linked to the migration velocity update by a connective function. Numerical tests on two synthetic datasets and a field dataset validate the efficiency and effectiveness of this method.

  5. The stress-induced surface wave velocity variations in concrete (United States)

    Spalvier, Agustin; Bittner, James; Evani, Sai Kalyan; Popovics, John S.


    This investigation studies the behavior of surface wave velocity in concrete specimens subjected to low levels of compressive and tensile stress in beams from applied flexural loads. Beam specimen is loaded in a 4-point-load bending configuration, generating uniaxial compression and tension stress fields at the top and bottom surfaces of the beam, respectively. Surface waves are generated through contactless air-coupled transducers and received through contact accelerometers. Results show a clear distinction in responses from compression and tension zones, where velocity increases in the former and decreases in the latter, with increasing load levels. These trends agree with existing acoustoelastic literature. Surface wave velocity tends to decrease more under tension than it tends to increase under compression, for equal load levels. It is observed that even at low stress levels, surface wave velocity is affected by acoustoelastic effects, coupled with plastic effects (stress-induced damage). The acoustoelastic effect is isolated by means of considering the Kaiser effect and by experimentally mitigating the viscoelastic effects of concrete. Results of this ongoing investigation contribute to the overall knowledge of the acoustoelastic behavior of concrete. Applications of this knowledge may include structural health monitoring of members under flexural loads, improved high order modelling of materials, and validation of results seen in dynamic acoustoelasticity testing.

  6. Shear wave velocity structure of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgaswane, EM


    Full Text Available The structure of the crust in the environs of the Bushveld Complex has been investigated by jointly inverting high-frequency teleseismic receiver functions and 2–60 s period Rayleigh wave group velocities for 16 broadband seismic stations located...

  7. P Wave and S Wave Acoustic Velocities of Partial Molten Peridotite at Mantle P-T and MHz Frequencies (United States)

    Weidner, D. J.; Li, L.; Whitaker, M. L.; Triplett, R.


    The speed that acoustic waves travel in a partially molten peridotite are crucial parameters to detect not only the presence of melt in the Earth's deep interior, but also understand many issues about the structure and dynamics of the mantle. Technical challenges have hindered such measurements in the laboratory. Here we report the experimental results on the ultrasonic acoustic wave velocities in a partial molten peridotite using multi-anvil high pressure apparatus located at beamline BM6 Advance Photon Source. We use the newly installed ultrasonic equipment using the pulse-echo-overlap method coupled with D-DIA device. X-ray radiography is used to measure sample length at high P-T. The X-ray diffraction spectrum is used to determine the pressure and sample conditions. Precise measurements of P and S wave velocities are obtained at 60 and 35 MHz respectively and are nearly simultaneous. We use a double reflector method to enable measurement of elastic wave velocities of cold-pressed polycrystalline sample which is sintered in situ at high P-T. Experiments were carried out up to 3 GPa and 1500 oC. Our preliminary results indicate that the KLB1 peridotite sample experienced a few percent decrease of both p and s wave velocities as partial melting occurs. The data define a small decrease in the bulk modulus as well as the shear modulus upon melting. This implies that dynamic melting is a significant process at megahertz frequencies.

  8. The OPERA neutrino velocity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonsak, Bjoern [Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)


    OPERA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to find tau neutrinos appearing in a pure muon neutrino beam. Recently, a measurement of the flight time of the neutrinos between the CNGS at CERN and the OPERA detector at the LNGS has been performed. It was found that the neutrinos arrive at the detector significantly earlier in time than expected if travelling at the speed of light. In this talk, the main aspects of this measurement are presented, including timing and geodesy issues and the analysis procedure. An update concerning results with a fine structured time distribution of the beam is given, as well as latest information on some additional cross checks.

  9. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew


    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].

  10. An upper-mantle S-wave velocity model for Northern Europe from Love and Rayleigh group velocities (United States)

    Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valérie


    A model of upper-mantle S-wave velocity and transverse anisotropy beneath northwestern Europe is presented, based on regional surface wave observations. Group velocities for both Love and Rayleigh surface waves are measured on waveform data from international and regional data archives (including temporary deployments) and then inverted for group velocity maps, using a method accounting for Fresnel zone sensitivity. The group velocity variations are larger than in global reference maps, and we are able to resolve unprecedented details. We then apply a linear inversion scheme to invert for local 1-D shear wave velocity profiles which are consequently assembled to a 3-D model. By choosing conservative regularization parameters in the 2-D inversion, we ensure the smoothness of the group velocity maps and hence of the resulting 3-D shear wave speed model. To account for the different tectonic regimes in the study region and investigate the sensitivity of the 1-D inversions to inaccuracies in crustal parameters, we analyse inversions with different reference models of increasing complexity (pure 1-D, 3-D crust/1-D mantle and pure 3-D). We find that all inverted models are very consistent at depths below 70 km. At shallower depths, the constraints put by the reference models, primarily Moho depth which we do not invert for, remain the main cause for uncertainty in our inversion. The final 3-D model shows large variations in S-wave velocity of up to +/-12 per cent. We image an intriguing low-velocity anomaly in the depth range 70-150 km that extends from the Iceland plume beneath the North Atlantic and in a more than 400 km wide channel under Southern Scandinavia. Beneath Southern Norway, the negative perturbations are around 10 per cent with respect to ak135, and a shallowing of the anomaly is indicated which could be related to the sustained uplift of Southern Scandinavia in Neogene times. Furthermore, our upper-mantle model reveals good alignment to ancient plate

  11. Lagrangian temperature and vertical velocity fluctuations due to gravity waves in the lower stratosphere (United States)

    Podglajen, Aurélien; Hertzog, Albert; Plougonven, Riwal; Legras, Bernard


    Wave-induced Lagrangian fluctuations of temperature and vertical velocity in the lower stratosphere are quantified using measurements from superpressure balloons (SPBs). Observations recorded every minute along SPB flights allow the whole gravity wave spectrum to be described and provide unprecedented information on both the intrinsic frequency spectrum and the probability distribution function of wave fluctuations. The data set has been collected during two campaigns coordinated by the French Space Agency in 2010, involving 19 balloons over Antarctica and 3 in the deep tropics. In both regions, the vertical velocity distributions depart significantly from a Gaussian behavior. Knowledge on such wave fluctuations is essential for modeling microphysical processes along Lagrangian trajectories. We propose a new simple parameterization that reproduces both the non-Gaussian distribution of vertical velocities (or heating/cooling rates) and their observed intrinsic frequency spectrum.

  12. The elastic wave velocity response of methane gas hydrate formation in vertical gas migration systems (United States)

    Bu, Q. T.; Hu, G. W.; Ye, Y. G.; Liu, C. L.; Li, C. F.; Best, A. I.; Wang, J. S.


    Knowledge of the elastic wave velocities of hydrate-bearing sediments is important for geophysical exploration and resource evaluation. Methane gas migration processes play an important role in geological hydrate accumulation systems, whether on the seafloor or in terrestrial permafrost regions, and their impact on elastic wave velocities in sediments needs further study. Hence, a high-pressure laboratory apparatus was developed to simulate natural continuous vertical migration of methane gas through sediments. Hydrate saturation (S h) and ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities (V p and V s) were measured synchronously by time domain reflectometry (TDR) and by ultrasonic transmission methods respectively during gas hydrate formation in sediments. The results were compared to previously published laboratory data obtained in a static closed system. This indicated that the velocities of hydrate-bearing sediments in vertical gas migration systems are slightly lower than those in closed systems during hydrate formation. While velocities increase at a constant rate with hydrate saturation in the closed system, P-wave velocities show a fast-slow-fast variation with increasing hydrate saturation in the vertical gas migration system. The observed velocities are well described by an effective-medium velocity model, from which changing hydrate morphology was inferred to cause the fast-slow-fast velocity response in the gas migration system. Hydrate forms firstly at the grain contacts as cement, then grows within the pore space (floating), then finally grows into contact with the pore walls again. We conclude that hydrate morphology is the key factor that influences the elastic wave velocity response of methane gas hydrate formation in vertical gas migration systems.

  13. Comparison of pulsed wave and color Doppler myocardial velocity imaging in healthy dogs. (United States)

    Wess, G; Killich, M; Hartmann, K


    Tissue velocity imaging (TVI) is increasingly used in small animal cardiology. Tissue velocity of the myocardial wall can be measured by pulsed wave (PW) or color Doppler (CD) imaging methods. Currently, the same reference ranges are used for PW TVI and CD TVI methods. However, if and how both methods correlate, and whether they can be used interchangeably, have not been assessed in small animals. To compare the results of PW TVI and CD TVI measurements. Seventy-one healthy dogs. Longitudinal myocardial velocity profiles were recorded from the 4-chamber left apical view. Peak maximal systolic (S), early (E), and late diastolic (A) velocities were measured off-line in a blinded fashion in the septal and lateral left ventricular wall by PW TVI and CD TVI. Differences between peak PW TVI and CD TVI waves were analyzed by a paired t-test. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman difference plots also were used to assess agreement between methods. There was a significant correlation between PW TVI and CD TVI (P waves measured by PW TVI were significantly higher than the CD TVI values (P < .001). Peak systolic and diastolic PW velocities were approximately 2.20 cm/s higher than corresponding mean CD TVI velocities. PW TVI measurements are significantly higher compared with CD TVI measurements. Theses differences are clinically relevant. These methods should not be used interchangeably, and different reference ranges for PW TVI and CD TVI should be used.

  14. Rayleigh wave velocities and structural informations in Central Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Rayleigh wave dispersion has been observed along the three profiles
    Trieste-Olbia, Olbia-Bologna and Olbia-Bolzano, in central-northern Italy.
    The interpretation of phase velocities indicates a crustal thickness increasing
    from East (25-30 km, Trieste-Olbia to West (30-35 km, Olbia-Bolzano.
    For each profile two values of the Moho depth are acceptable; the shallower
    one is associated with a set of models which have low velocity
    material (¡3=4.3 lcm/s just under or within a few km from the Moho;
    the deeper one still accepts low velocity material ((3=4.4 km/s under
    the Moho but does not exclude the presence of an almost normal LID
    above the low velocity channel.

  15. Hammering Yucca Flat, Part Two: Shear-Wave Velocity (United States)

    Finlay, T. S.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Tang, D. G.; James, S. R.; Haney, M. M.; Hampshire, J. B., II


    In preparation for the next phase of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), we conducted an active-source seismic survey of Yucca Flat, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. Results from this survey will be used to inform the geologic models associated with the SPE project. For this study, we used a novel 13,000 kilogram weight-drop seismic source to interrogate an 18-km North-South transect of Yucca Flat. Source points were spaced every 200 meters and were recorded by 350 to 380 3-component 2-Hz geophones with variable spacings of 10, 20, and 100 meters. We utilized the Refraction-Microtremor (ReMi) technique to create multiple 1D dispersion curves, which were then inverted for shear-wave velocity profiles using the Dix inversion method (Tsai and Haney, 2015). Each of these 1D velocity models was subsequently stitched together to create a 2D profile over the survey area. The dispersion results indicate a general decrease in surface-wave phase velocity to the south. This result is supported by slower shear-wave velocity sediments and increasing basin depth towards the survey's southern extent. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Wave-Related Reynolds Number Parameterizations of CO2 and DMS Transfer Velocities (United States)

    Brumer, Sophia E.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Blomquist, Byron W.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Cifuentes-Lorenzen, Alejandro; Edson, James B.; Brooks, Ian M.; Huebert, Barry J.


    Predicting future climate hinges on our understanding of and ability to quantify air-sea gas transfer. The latter relies on parameterizations of the gas transfer velocity k, which represents physical mass transfer mechanisms and is usually parameterized as a nonlinear function of wind forcing. In an attempt to reduce uncertainties in k, this study explores empirical parameterizations that incorporate both wind speed and sea state dependence via wave-wind and breaking Reynolds numbers, RH and RB. Analysis of concurrent eddy covariance gas transfer and measured wavefield statistics supplemented by wave model hindcasts shows for the first time that wave-related Reynolds numbers collapse four open ocean data sets that have a wind speed dependence of CO2 transfer velocity ranging from lower than quadratic to cubic. Wave-related Reynolds number and wind speed show comparable performance for parametrizing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) which, because of its higher solubility, is less affected by bubble-mediated exchange associated with wave breaking.

  17. Low-velocity fault-zone guided waves: Numerical investigations of trapping efficiency (United States)

    Li, Y.-G.; Vidale, J.E.


    Recent observations have shown that shear waves trapped within low-velocity fault zones may be the most sensitive measure of fault-zone structure (Li et al., 1994a, 1994b). Finite-difference simulations demonstrate the effects of several types of complexity on observations of fault-zone trapped waves. Overlying sediments with a thickness more than one or two fault-zone widths and fault-zone step-overs more than one or two fault widths disrupt the wave guide. Fault kinks and changes in fault-zone width with depth leave readily observable trapped waves. We also demonstrate the effects of decreased trapped wave excitation with increasing hypocentral offset from the fault and the effects of varying the contrast between the velocity in the fault zone and surrounding hard rock. Careful field studies may provide dramatic improvements in our knowledge of fault-zone structure.

  18. Arterial pulse wave propagation velocity in healthy dogs by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. (United States)

    Nogueira, Rodrigo B; Pereira, Lucas A; Basso, Alice F; da Fonseca, Ingrid S; Alves, Lorena A


    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) values in healthy dogs using pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. A secondary aim was to determine the feasibility of this method and to report the intra- and interobserver reproducibilities of the PWV in conscious dogs. The data were studied in 30 healthy, adult, male (n = 15) and female (n = 15) dogs. The time interval marked between the R wave peak of the electrocardiogram and the intersection of the blood flow wave upstroke of the Doppler spectrum with the baseline of zero frequency was determined for the carotid (T1) and for the femoral (T2) arteries. The distance covered by the pulse wave (L) was determined. The PWV was then calculated using the following formula: L/T2 - T1. The mean values of PWV calculated from the total sample (n = 30) evaluated were 13.41 ± 2.20 m/s. No significant statistical difference was observed for the PWV measurements between males (14.82 ± 3.18 m/s) and females (12.64 ± 2.45 m/s). The analysis revealed no intra nor interobserver differences. A reasonable reproducibility of the PWV measurements was showed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and the coefficients of variation (CV). These data demonstrate that noninvasive vascular Doppler analysis is a feasible and reproducible method to determine the carotid-femoral PWV in dogs.

  19. Pulse-wave morphology and pulse-wave velocity in healthy human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, M; Nielsen, A H; Kamper, A-L


    OBJECTIVE: Applanation tonometry for pulse-wave analysis (PWA) and determination of pulse-wave velocity (PWV) is a non-invasive method for assessment of the central aortic pressure waveform and indices of arterial stiffness. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of eating...

  20. Elastic wave velocity of granite during triaxial compression under controlled pore pressure (United States)

    Zaima, K.; Katayama, I.


    Elastic wave velocity is one of important physical properties to investigate structure in the Earth's interior. Because of a markedly change in elastic wave velocity at the presence of fluid, the geothermal fluid reservoir is frequently detected through seismic tomography. Previous laboratory experiments have carried to investigate effect of confining pressure (e.g. Nur and Simmons, 1969), axial stress during deformation (e.g. Lockner et al, 1977), fluid saturation (e.g. Nur and Simmons, 1969). However, there are few studies examining elastic wave velocity change on fracture process under controlled pore pressure. In this study, we examined change of elastic wave velocity and amplitude during triaxial compression under pore pressure as a fundamental research on estimating of artificial geothermal reservoir on hot dry rock system. We used Aji granite with a cylindrical shape. On dry condition, confining pressure was 20 MPa, and on wet condition, we used water as a pore fluid and confining pressure was 20 MPa and pore pressure was 10 MPa. We adopted pulse transmission method for measurements of elastic wave velocity and amplitude. We observed a systematic change of elastic wave velocity possibly due to closure, growth and formation of cracks during deformation. While elastic wave velocity was increased due to closure of preexisting cracks at the primary stage of deformation, it decreased markedly at the late stage of deformation. Vp/Vs tends to increase during deformation on wet condition while it decreases on dry condition. These data are consistent with theoretical model by O'Connell and Budiansky (1974), in which fluid filled cracks increase Vp/Vs but open (dry) cracks have an opposite influence. Based on the theoretical model, crack density tends to be suppressed during deformation under wet experiments. During deformation, amplitude was decreased with increasing cracks in the specimens, in which P wave has relatively small amplitude compared to wet condition

  1. Whistler Waves Driven by Anisotropic Strahl Velocity Distributions: Cluster Observations (United States)

    Vinas, A.F.; Gurgiolo, C.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Gary, S. P.; Goldstein, M. L.


    Observed properties of the strahl using high resolution 3D electron velocity distribution data obtained from the Cluster/PEACE experiment are used to investigate its linear stability. An automated method to isolate the strahl is used to allow its moments to be computed independent of the solar wind core+halo. Results show that the strahl can have a high temperature anisotropy (T(perpindicular)/T(parallell) approximately > 2). This anisotropy is shown to be an important free energy source for the excitation of high frequency whistler waves. The analysis suggests that the resultant whistler waves are strong enough to regulate the electron velocity distributions in the solar wind through pitch-angle scattering

  2. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin


    and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...... separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...

  3. Measurement of near-surface seismic compressional wave velocities using refraction tomography at a proposed construction site on the Presidio of Monterey, California (United States)

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is determining the feasibility of constructing a new barracks building on the U.S. Army Presidio of Monterey in Monterey, California. Due to the presence of an endangered orchid in the proposed area, invasive techniques such as exploratory drill holes are prohibited. To aid in determining the feasibility, budget, and design of this building, a compressional-wave seismic refraction survey was proposed by the U.S. Geological Survey as an alternative means of investigating the depth to competent bedrock. Two sub-parallel profiles were acquired along an existing foot path and a fence line to minimize impacts on the endangered flora. The compressional-wave seismic refraction tomography data for both profiles indicate that no competent rock classified as non-rippable or marginally rippable exists within the top 30 feet beneath the ground surface.

  4. Relationships between the anisotropy of longitudinal wave velocity and hydroxyapatite crystallite orientation in bovine cortical bone. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazufumi; Nakatsuji, Tomohiro; Yaoi, Yuichiro; Yamato, Yu; Yanagitani, Takahiko; Matsukawa, Mami; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Matsuyama, Yukihiro


    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is now widely used for evaluating bone in vivo, because obtained ultrasonic wave properties directly reflect the visco-elasticity. Bone tissue is composed of minerals like hydroxyapatite (HAp) and a collagen matrix. HAp crystallites orientation is thus one parameter of bone elasticity. In this study, we experimentally investigated the anisotropy of ultrasonic wave velocity and the HAp crystallites orientation in the axial-radial and axial-tangential planes in detail, using cylindrical specimens obtained from the cortical bone of three bovine femurs. Longitudinal bulk wave propagation was investigated by using a conventional ultrasonic pulse system. We used the one cycle of sinusoidal pulse which was emitted from wide band transmitter. The nominal frequency of the pulse was 1MHz. First, we investigated the anisotropy of longitudinal wave velocity, measuring the anisotropy of velocity in two planes using cylindrical specimens obtained from identical bone areas. The wave velocity changed due to the rotation angle, showing the maximum value in the direction a little off the bone axis. Moreover, X-ray pole figure measurements also indicated that there were small tilts in the HAp crystallites orientation from the bone axis. The tilt angles were similar to those of the highest velocity direction. There were good correlations between velocity and HAp crystallites orientation obtained in different directions. However, a comparatively low correlation was found in posterior bone areas, which shows the stronger effects of bone microstructure. In the radial-tangential plane, where the HAp crystallites hardly ever align, weak anisotropy of velocity was found which seemed to depend on the bone microstructure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Shear Wave Velocity for Evaluation of State of Cohesionless Soils with Fines (United States)

    Lipiński, Mirosław J.; Wdowska, Małgorzata K.; Jaroń, Łukasz


    The paper concerns evaluation of cohesionless soils containing fines. In clean sands, state of soil is usually quantified by relative density DR with use of field techniques like static or dynamic probes. However, in cohesionless soils containing considerable amount of fines, relative density alone, which is based solely on void ratio values, is not representative. This results from the fact that in case of cohesionless soil there is no unique intrinsic compressibility line, like it is in case of cohesive soils. Thus state of soil depends not only on void ratio but also state of stress. For this reason it is necessary to look for an alternative means to quantify state of soils with fines. The paper concerns possibility of evaluation of state of soil containing various amount of fines on the basis of shear wave velocity measurement. The idea rests on the fact that void ratio and state of stress are the major factors which contribute to a state of soil and shear wave velocity as well. When measured shear wave velocities are normalised with respect to stresses the resulting values might be strictly correlated to void ratio. To validate this approach, an experimental test programme (based on series of sophisticated triaxial tests) was carried out on four kinds of sandy material containing various amount of fines up to 60%. The experimental data made possible to establish basic correlation between soil states and shear wave velocity for each kind of soil. Normalized shear wave velocity was compared with void ratio and state parameter as well. The obtained results revealed that determination of void ratio on the basis of shear wave velocity in a certain range of fines can be much more adequate than for clean sands. However, if the fines content exceeds certain value, the obtained correlation is no longer as good.

  6. Associations between plasma fibulin-1, pulse wave velocity and diabetes in patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria Lyck; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt


    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and arterial stiffness and its consequences may be the factor connecting the two. Arterial stiffness is often measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), but no plasma biomarker reflecting arterial stiffness...... undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse wave analysis including augmentation index (Aix75) was measured in 273 patients, who subsequently underwent a coronary by-pass operation. Plasma samples were drawn and information was gathered on diabetes status, HbA1c...... indices are not directly related in patients with cardiac disease, despite the fact that both measures are increased among patients with diabetes....

  7. Approximation of wave action flux velocity in strongly sheared mean flows (United States)

    Banihashemi, Saeideh; Kirby, James T.; Dong, Zhifei


    Spectral wave models based on the wave action equation typically use a theoretical framework based on depth uniform current to account for current effects on waves. In the real world, however, currents often have variations over depth. Several recent studies have made use of a depth-weighted current U˜ due to [Skop, R. A., 1987. Approximate dispersion relation for wave-current interactions. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Eng. 113, 187-195.] or [Kirby, J. T., Chen, T., 1989. Surface waves on vertically sheared flows: approximate dispersion relations. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1013-1027.] in order to account for the effect of vertical current shear. Use of the depth-weighted velocity, which is a function of wavenumber (or frequency and direction) has been further simplified in recent applications by only utilizing a weighted current based on the spectral peak wavenumber. These applications do not typically take into account the dependence of U˜ on wave number k, as well as erroneously identifying U˜ as the proper choice for current velocity in the wave action equation. Here, we derive a corrected expression for the current component of the group velocity. We demonstrate its consistency using analytic results for a current with constant vorticity, and numerical results for a measured, strongly-sheared current profile obtained in the Columbia River. The effect of choosing a single value for current velocity based on the peak wave frequency is examined, and we suggest an alternate strategy, involving a Taylor series expansion about the peak frequency, which should significantly extend the range of accuracy of current estimates available to the wave model with minimal additional programming and data transfer.

  8. 3-D Seismic Velocity Structure of the Hawaii Hotspot from Joint Inversion of Body Wave and Surface Wave data (United States)

    Cheng, C.; Allen, R. M.; Porritt, R. W.


    The Hawaii hotspot and the associated chain of islands have been long regarded as the case example of a deep-rooted mantle plume. However the efforts to detect a thermal plume seismically have been inconclusive. In this study we combine the complementary sensitivities of body- and surface-waves in order to improve resolution of mantle structure beneath Hawaii. Adding surface-wave constraints to the body wave inversion improves the resolution of the crustal and upper mantle structure. We used data from the deployment of temporary broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) of the Hawaiian Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment (PLUME) together with data from the on-shore stations in order to make the most complete dataset available. In a first step, we obtained stable and reliable OBS orientations over a range of earthquake back-azimuths using teleseismic P-wave particle motions. Due to the high noise of the OBS data in some frequency bands, we began by filtering in the period band of 0.04-1Hz. Using the proper channel orientations, we measured ~800 S-wave relative arrival times (direct S and SKS phases) on the SV component using muti-channel cross correlation. We applied the two-plane wave tomography method to generate surface wave phase velocity information. We use surface waves from 71 events with magnitude greater than 5.8 to generate phase velocity maps from 25 sec to 100 sec. These maps clearly show the low velocities beneath the islands surrounded by relatively high phase velocity. The pure S wave inversion result shows the 3-D structure beneath the PLUME array to a depth of 1000km and reveals a several-hundred-kilometer-wide region of low velocities beneath Hawaii that dips to the southeast. The low velocities continue downward through the mantle transition zone and extend into the uppermost lower-mantle where our resolution begins to degrade. These images are consistent with the interpretation that the Hawaiian hotspot is the result of an upwelling high


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfaro Castillo Andrés José


    Full Text Available The assessment of local site effects is one of the most important subjects in Engineering Seismology. In order to perform an assessment, it is necessary to determine the S-wave velocity structure of the site. Additionally, in some basins, it is very important to know the deep sedimentary structure, due to the amplification phenomena of low frequency waves. There are several techniques to achieve this purpose; probably the most inexpensive technique is using the vertical component of microtremors measured with an array of seismographs. The phase velocity of Rayleigh waves is inverted to an S-wave velocity (Vs profile  using optimization techniques. Most of the time, least square methods have been applied in the inversion.Recently, heuristic methods have also been used for the estimation of the S-wave velocity structure from microtremor.In this study seven arrays of microtremors in the city of Tsukuba city were performed, located to the NE edge of Kanto Basin, in order to estimate the deep S-wave velocity structure. The spatial autocorrelationmethod SPAC was used to determine phase velocity dispersion curves in the frequency range from 0.3-2.5 Hz. The determination of Vs profiles reached a depth of 750 m. Two methods were used to estimate the Swavevelocity structure: Inversion method and a heuristic method via the combination of Downhill Simplex Algorithm with a Very Fast Simulated Annealing Method. Comparisons with Vs from the existent resultsfrom PS-logging tests at the center of the array showed the reliability of the heuristic method.

  10. Heart-Carotid Pulse Wave Velocity a Useful Index of Atherosclerosis in Chinese Hypertensive Patients


    Li, Chunyue; Xiong, Huahua; Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Wu, Dan; Li, Zhenzhou; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Wu, Wanqing


    Abstract This study was designed to investigate the relationship between heart-carotid pulse wave velocity (hcPWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in hypertensive patients, and also to examine the effect of pre-ejection period (PEP) on it. Doppler ultrasound device was used to measure CIMT in left common carotid artery. Hypertensive patients were divided into normal (n?=?36, CIMT ?0.8?mm) and thickened (n?=?31, CIMT?>?0.8?mm) group. Electrocardiogram R-wave-based carotid pulse wave ...

  11. Shear-Wave Velocity Structure Around the Korean Peninsula Using the Rayleigh Wave Signature of the North Korea Underground Nuclear Explosion on May 25, 2009 (United States)

    Kim, G.; Shin, J.; Chi, H. C.; Sheen, D.; Park, J.; Cho, C.


    The crustal structure around the Korean Peninsula was investigated by analyzing the Rayleigh waves generated from the 2nd North Korea underground nuclear explosion on May 25, 2009. Group velocity dispersion curves were measured from vertical component waveforms of 20 broadband stations in the range of 194 to 1183 km from the test site. The measured dispersion curves were inverted to get shear-wave velocity models for depths from 0 to 50 km. The dispersion curves and the velocity models clearly show lateral variations in the crustal structure, which could be more clearly classified into the North Korea-Northeast China group, the Western Margin of the East Sea group, and the Japan Basin group. For each group, an averaged dispersion curve and an averaged velocity model were measured. The averaged shear-wave velocity model of the North Korea-Northeast China group shows that the mean shear-wave velocity of the Moho discontinuity, which is known to be located at approximately 35 km, is 4.37 km/s with a standard deviation of 0.15 km/s. The averaged shear-wave velocity model of the Japan Basin group shows a mean shear-wave velocity of 4.26 km/s with a standard deviation of 0.14 km/s in the layer between 16 and 22 km. The averaged shear-wave velocity model of the Western Margin of the East Sea group shows characteristics of a transition zone between the North Korea-Northeast China group, which represents continental crust, and the Japan Basin group, which represents oceanic crust. The mean shear-wave velocity in the layer between 16 and 22 km is 4.12 km/s with a standard deviation of 0.05 km/s.

  12. S-Wave Velocity Across Central Mexico Using High Resolution Surface Wave Tomography (United States)

    Iglesias, A.; Clayton, R. W.; Pérez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Pacheco, J. F.; García, D.; Valdés-González, C.


    The shear wave velocity structure across central Mexico is determined by surface wave dispersion from a dense linear seismic experiment "Mesoamerican Subduction Experiment" (MASE). MASE consisted of 100 portable broadband stations deployed along a line crossing Central Mexico from the Pacific Coast to almost the Gulf of Mexico. Regional records were used to obtain Rayleigh-wave group velocity maps for periods from 5 to 50 s and they show a dramatic variation of velocity (~40%), especially for periods larger of 20 s. Local dispersion curves were reconstructed for each station and inverted to find S-wave velocity by using a simulated annealing algorithm. The results, from inversion, show a significant change, particularly in the lower crust, between the backarc, volcanic arc and forearc regions. The crust in the forearc is thicker and faster than the backarc region. Just below the active Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) (300 km from the coast) is presently a low velocity spot (~3.4 km/s) suggesting presence of anomalous material (probably related to a mantle wedge) as deep as 50 km. The results also show a poorly resolved slab and wedge which correspond to the ones in a model reported recently. The results are supported with consistency checks and resolution tests.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A novel approach is presented to predict the shock wave velocity as well as the shock wave pressure in powder materials. It is shown that the influence of the specific volume behind the shock wave on shock wave velocity and shock pressure decreases with decreasing initial powder density. The new

  14. Shock wave velocity and shock pressure for low density powders : A novel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, D.K.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De


    A novel approach is presented to predict the shock wave velocity as well as the shock wave pressure in powder materials. It is shown that the influence of the specific volume behind the shock wave on shock wave velocity and shock pressure decreases with decreasing initial powder density. The new

  15. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and wave propagation at the San Jose, California, dense seismic array (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.; Harmsen, S.; Zerva, A.


    Ground-motion records from a 52-element dense seismic array near San Jose, California, are analyzed to obtain site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and plane-wave propagation characteristics. The array, located on the eastern side of the Santa Clara Valley south of the San Francisco Bay, is sited over the Evergreen basin, a 7-km-deep depression with Miocene and younger deposits. Site response values below 4 Hz are up to a factor of 2 greater when larger, regional records are included in the analysis, due to strong surface-wave development within the Santa Clara Valley. The pattern of site amplification is the same, however, with local or regional events. Site amplification increases away from the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley, reaching a maximum over the western edge of the Evergreen basin, where the pre-Cenozoic basement shallows rapidly. Amplification then decreases further to the west. This pattern may be caused by lower shallow shear-wave velocities and thicker Quaternary deposits further from the edge of the Santa Clara Valley and generation/trapping of surface waves above the shallowing basement of the western Evergreen basin. Shear-wave velocities from the inversion of site response spectra based on smaller, local earthquakes compare well with those obtained independently from our seismic reflection/refraction measurements. Velocities from the inversion of site spectra that include larger, regional records do not compare well with these measurements. A mix of local and regional events, however, is appropriate for determination of site response to be used in seismic hazard evaluation, since large damaging events would excite both body and surface waves with a wide range in ray parameters. Frequency-wavenumber, plane-wave analysis is used to determine the backazimuth and apparent velocity of coherent phases at the array. Conventional, high-resolution, and multiple signal characterization f-k power spectra and stacked slowness power spectra are

  16. Effect of viscosity on the wave propagation: Experimental determination of compression and expansion pulse wave velocity in fluid-fill elastic tube. (United States)

    Stojadinović, Bojana; Tenne, Tamar; Zikich, Dragoslav; Rajković, Nemanja; Milošević, Nebojša; Lazović, Biljana; Žikić, Dejan


    The velocity by which the disturbance travels through the medium is the wave velocity. Pulse wave velocity is one of the main parameters in hemodynamics. The study of wave propagation through the fluid-fill elastic tube is of great importance for the proper biophysical understanding of the nature of blood flow through of cardiovascular system. The effect of viscosity on the pulse wave velocity is generally ignored. In this paper we present the results of experimental measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) of compression and expansion waves in elastic tube. The solutions with different density and viscosity were used in the experiment. Biophysical model of the circulatory flow is designed to perform measurements. Experimental results show that the PWV of the expansion waves is higher than the compression waves during the same experimental conditions. It was found that the change in viscosity causes a change of PWV for both waves. We found a relationship between PWV, fluid density and viscosity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Shear-wave velocity of slope sediments near Hudson Canyon from analysis of ambient noise (United States)

    Miller, N. C.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Collins, J. A.; McGuire, J. J.; Flores, C. H.


    We present new ambient noise data that help constrain the shear strength of marine sediments on the continental slope north of Hudson Canyon on the U.S. Atlantic margin. Sediment shear strength is a key parameter in models of potentially tsunamigenic, submarine slope failures, but shear strength is difficult to measure in situ and is expected to evolve in time with changes in pore pressure. The ambient noise data were recorded by 11 short-period, ocean-bottom seismometers and hydrophones deployed in a ~1 by 1.5 km array for ~6 months on the continental slope. These high frequency (~0.1 - 50 Hz), narrow-aperture data are expected to record noise propagating as interface waves and/or resonating in the upper ~500 m of sediment. Propagation of interface waves is controlled by the shear-wave velocity of the sediment, which we measure by calculating lag-times in cross-correlations of waveforms recorded by pairs of receivers. These measurements of shear-wave velocity will be used to constrain shear strength. The data also appear to record wind-generated noise resonating in layered sediment. We expect this resonance to also be sensitive to shear-wave velocity, and spectral analysis and modeling of harmonics may provide a second constraint on sediment shear strength. Both the correlogram- and spectral-based measurements can be made using hour- to day-long segments of data, enabling us to constrain temporal evolution of shear-wave velocity and potential forcing mechanisms (e.g., tidal and storm loading and submarine groundwater discharge) through the ~6 month deployment.

  18. Simultaneous Velocity and Vorticity Measurement in Turbulence (United States)

    Wu, Huixuan; Xu, Haitao; Bodenschatz, Eberhard


    A new paradigm of simultaneous velocity and vorticity measurement is developed to study turbulence. Instead of deducing vorticity from velocities measured at neighboring points, this innovative approach detects the translations and rotations of micro-sized particles directly. These hydrogel particles are spherical, transparent, and encapsulate micro-mirrors. This method outstands conventional ones, e.g., hotwire arrays or PIV because its spatial resolution is much higher. It does not require a non-zero mean flow, and it can provide all three vorticity components, which is not available from planar PIV data. Its principle is to illuminate the mirror and utilize the variation of the reflection directions to deduce the local flow vorticity. Meanwhile, the particle position is recorded as in normal particle tracking. Therefore, the velocity and vorticity of a particle can be obtained simultaneously in Lagrangian framework. The authors have made benchmark experiments to evaluate this novel method in Taylor Couette flows. The results show that the instantaneous vorticity measurement is as accurate as 3%. We are now setting up a von Karman disk pair device to study the turbulent flow. This novel technique will provide unprecedented information of high Reynolds number turbulence. The first author thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  19. Upper Mississippi embayment shallow seismic velocities measured in situ (United States)

    Liu, Huaibao P.; Hu, Y.; Dorman, J.; Chang, T.-S.; Chiu, J.-M.


    Vertical seismic compressional- and shear-wave (P- and S-wave) profiles were collected from three shallow boreholes in sediment of the upper Mississippi embayment. The site of the 60-m hole at Shelby Forest, Tennessee, is on bluffs forming the eastern edge of the Mississippi alluvial plain. The bluffs are composed of Pleistocene loess, Pliocene-Pleistocene alluvial clay and sand deposits, and Tertiary deltaic-marine sediment. The 36-m hole at Marked Tree, Arkansas, and the 27-m hole at Risco, Missouri, are in Holocene Mississippi river floodplain sand, silt, and gravel deposits. At each site, impulsive P- and S-waves were generated by man-made sources at the surface while a three-component geophone was locked downhole at 0.91-m intervals. Consistent with their very similar geology, the two floodplain locations have nearly identical S-wave velocity (VS) profiles. The lowest VS values are about 130 m s-1, and the highest values are about 300 m s-1 at these sites. The shear-wave velocity profile at Shelby Forest is very similar within the Pleistocene loess (12m thick); in deeper, older material, VS exceeds 400 m s-1. At Marked Tree, and at Risco, the compressional-wave velocity (VP) values above the water table are as low as about 230 m s-1, and rise to about 1.9 km s-1 below the water table. At Shelby Forest, VP values in the unsaturated loess are as low as 302 m s-1. VP values below the water table are about 1.8 km s-1. For the two floodplain sites, the VP/VS ratio increases rapidly across the water table depth. For the Shelby Forest site, the largest increase in the VP/VS ratio occurs at ???20-m depth, the boundary between the Pliocene-Pleistocene clay and sand deposits and the Eocene shallow-marine clay and silt deposits. Until recently, seismic velocity data for the embayment basin came from earthquake studies, crustal-scale seismic refraction and reflection profiles, sonic logs, and from analysis of dispersed earthquake surface waves. Since 1991, seismic data



    E. A. Isaeva; Kravetz, R. O.


    The substantial arguments of strong connection between shock wave speed and drift velocity of II type radio bursts in 25-180 MHz range are presented. The studied sample has included 112 proton events that were accompanied with coronal shock waves. To evaluate drift velocity and shock wave speed there was used original records of dynamic spectra from radio spectrograph in 25- 180 MHz range. The velocities of shock waves were evaluated with the power mode model of solar corona density falloff.

  1. Correlating P-wave Velocity with the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Different Rocks (United States)

    Khandelwal, Manoj


    In mining and civil engineering projects, physico-mechanical properties of the rock affect both the project design and the construction operation. Determination of various physico-mechanical properties of rocks is expensive and time consuming, and sometimes it is very difficult to get cores to perform direct tests to evaluate the rock mass. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relationships between the different physico-mechanical properties of the various rock types with the P-wave velocity. Measurement of P-wave velocity is relatively cheap, non-destructive and easy to carry out. In this study, representative rock mass samples of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks were collected from the different locations of India to obtain an empirical relation between P-wave velocity and uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, punch shear, density, slake durability index, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, impact strength index and Schmidt hammer rebound number. A very strong correlation was found between the P-wave velocity and different physico-mechanical properties of various rock types with very high coefficients of determination. To check the sensitivity of the empirical equations, Students t test was also performed, which confirmed the validity of the proposed correlations.

  2. Shear wave velocity structure in North America from large-scale waveform inversions of surface waves (United States)

    Alsina, D.; Woodward, R.L.; Snieder, R.K.


    A two-step nonlinear and linear inversion is carried out to map the lateral heterogeneity beneath North America using surface wave data. The lateral resolution for most areas of the model is of the order of several hundred kilometers. The most obvious feature in the tomographic images is the rapid transition between low velocities in the technically active region west of the Rocky Mountains and high velocities in the stable central and eastern shield of North America. The model also reveals smaller-scale heterogeneous velocity structures. A high-velocity anomaly is imaged beneath the state of Washington that could be explained as the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Cascades. A large low-velocity structure extends along the coast from the Mendocino to the Rivera triple junction and to the continental interior across the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Its shape changes notably with depth. This anomaly largely coincides with the part of the margin where no lithosphere is consumed since the subduction has been replaced by a transform fault. Evidence for a discontinuous subduction of the Cocos plate along the Middle American Trench is found. In central Mexico a transition is visible from low velocities across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) to high velocities beneath the Yucatan Peninsula. Two elongated low-velocity anomalies beneath the Yellowstone Plateau and the eastern Snake River Plain volcanic system and beneath central Mexico and the TMVB seem to be associated with magmatism and partial melting. Another low-velocity feature is seen at depths of approximately 200 km beneath Florida and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The inversion technique used is based on a linear surface wave scattering theory, which gives tomographic images of the relative phase velocity perturbations in four period bands ranging from 40 to 150 s. In order to find a smooth reference model a nonlinear inversion based on ray theory is first performed. After

  3. Condition Assessment of PC Tendon Duct Filling by Elastic Wave Velocity Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fook Liu


    Full Text Available Imaging techniques are high in demand for modern nondestructive evaluation of large-scale concrete structures. The travel-time tomography (TTT technique, which is based on the principle of mapping the change of propagation velocity of transient elastic waves in a measured object, has found increasing application for assessing in situ concrete structures. The primary aim of this technique is to detect defects that exist in a structure. The TTT technique can offer an effective means for assessing tendon duct filling of prestressed concrete (PC elements. This study is aimed at clarifying some of the issues pertaining to the reliability of the technique for this purpose, such as sensor arrangement, model, meshing, type of tendon sheath, thickness of sheath, and material type as well as the scale of inhomogeneity. The work involved 2D simulations of wave motions, signal processing to extract travel time of waves, and tomography reconstruction computation for velocity mapping of defect in tendon duct.

  4. Rapid measurement of transient velocity evolution using GERVAIS. (United States)

    Davies, Colin J; Sederman, Andrew J; Pipe, Chris J; McKinley, Gareth H; Gladden, Lynn F; Johns, Mike L


    Rapid velocity measurements using GERVAIS (Gradient Echo Rapid Velocity and Acceleration Imaging Sequence), an EPI (Echo Planar Imaging) based technique capable of measuring velocity over an observation time of several milliseconds, are performed on a wide-gap Couette Rheo-NMR cell for the first time. A variable delay time between a control signal to initiate a transition in flow and the start of the measurement sequence is incorporated to allow investigation of the transient evolution of the velocity field following a step change in rotation rate. Both the commencement and the cessation of imposed shear stress are investigated for (i) a shear banding micellar solution of CPyCl (cetylpyridiniumchloride)/NaSal (sodium salicylate) in brine and (ii) a low molecular weight PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) oil. With respect to the micellar solution, an elastic shear wave is seen to propagate across the cell following the commencement of shear stress whilst an oscillatory 'recoil' is observed following the cessation of shear stress; neither of these phenomena were observed for the PDMS oil which exhibited a purely viscous response as expected for an incompressible Newtonian fluid. This technique has potential applications across a wide range of transient rheological investigations, particularly with respect to optically opaque materials. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlates of Osteoprotegerin and Association with Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    Leonard, Mary B.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Appel, Lawrence; Wolf, Myles; Budoff, Matt J.; Chen, Jing; Lustigova, Eva; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Glenn, Melanie; Hanish, Asaf; Raj, Dominic; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Weir, Matthew R.; Parekh, Rulan S.


    Summary Background and objectives Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a cytokine that regulates bone resorption, has been implicated in the process of vascular calcification and stiffness. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Serum OPG was measured in 351 participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from one site of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Cortical bone mineral content (BMC) was measured by quantitative computed tomography in the tibia. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between serum OPG and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, measures of abnormal bone and mineral metabolism, and pulse wave velocity. Results Higher serum OPG levels were associated with older age, female gender, greater systolic BP, lower estimated GFR, and lower serum albumin. OPG was not associated with measures of abnormal bone or mineral metabolism including serum phosphorus, albumin-corrected serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, or cortical BMC. Among 226 participants with concurrent aortic pulse wave velocity measurements, increasing tertiles of serum OPG were associated with higher aortic pulse wave velocity after adjustment for demographics, traditional vascular risk factors, and nontraditional risk factors such as estimated GFR, albuminuria, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, serum albumin, and C-reactive protein or after additional adjustment for cortical BMC in a subset (n = 161). Conclusions These data support a strong relationship between serum OPG and arterial stiffness independent of many potential confounders including traditional cardiovascular risk factors, abnormal bone and mineral metabolism, and inflammation. PMID:21940840

  6. Stress wave velocity patterns in the longitudinal-radial plane of trees for defect diagnosis (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiang Weng; Xiaocheng Du; Xiping Wang; Hailin Feng


    Acoustic tomography for urban tree inspection typically uses stress wave data to reconstruct tomographic images for the trunk cross section using interpolation algorithm. This traditional technique does not take into account the stress wave velocity patterns along tree height. In this study, we proposed an analytical model for the wave velocity in the longitudinal–...

  7. Shear-wave velocity model from Rayleigh wave group velocities centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Erdem, Jemile


    Rayleigh wave group velocities obtained from ambient noise tomography are inverted for an upper crustal model of the Central Valley, California, centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta. Two methods were tried; the first uses SURF96, a least-squares routine. It provides a good fit to the data, but convergence is dependent on the starting model. The second uses a genetic algorithm, whose starting model is random. This method was tried at several nodes in the model and compared to the output from SURF96. The genetic code is run five times and the variance of the output of all five models can be used to obtain an estimate of error. SURF96 produces a more regular solution mostly because it is typically run with a smoothing constraint. Models from the genetic code are generally consistent with the SURF96 code sometimes producing lower velocities at depth. The full model, calculated using SURF96, employed a 2-pass strategy, which used a variable damping scheme in the first pass. The resulting model shows low velocities near the surface in the Central Valley with a broad asymmetrical sedimentary basin located close to the western edge of the Central Valley near 122°W longitude. At shallow depths the Rio Vista Basin is found nestled between the Pittsburgh/Kirby Hills and Midland faults, but a significant basin also seems to exist to the west of the Kirby Hills fault. There are other possible correlations between fast and slow velocities in the Central Valley and geologic features such as the Stockton Arch, oil or gas producing regions and the fault-controlled western boundary of the Central Valley.

  8. Estimated Pulse Wave Velocity Calculated from Age and Mean Arterial Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, S. V.; Laurent, Stéphane; Olsen, M. H.


    In a recently published paper, Greve et al [J Hypertens 2016;34:1279-1289] investigate whether the estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV), calculated using an equation derived from the relationship between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), age, and blood pressure, predicts...... cardiovascular disease (CVD) as good as the measured cfPWV. Because ePWV predicts CVD as good as cfPWV, some might wonder whether ePWV could be replaced by cfPWV, which is a time-consuming measurement requiring an expensive apparatus. This question is addressed in this mini-review. (C) 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  9. Love wave phase velocity models of the southeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau from a dense seismic array (United States)

    Han, Fengqin; Jia, Ruizhi; Fu, Yuanyuan V.


    Love wave dispersion maps across the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau are obtained using earthquake data recorded by the temporary ChinArray and permanent China Digital Seismic Array. Fundamental mode Love wave phase velocity curves are measured by inverting Love wave amplitude and phase with the two-plane-wave method. The phase velocity maps with resolution better than 150 km are presented at periods of 20-100 s, which is unprecedented in the study area. The maps agree well with each other and show clear correlations with major tectonic structures. The Love wave phase velocity could provide new information about structures in the crust and upper mantle beneath the southeast margin of Tibetan Plateau, like the radial anisotropy.

  10. [Pulse wave velocity as an early marker of diastolic heart failure in patients with hypertension]. (United States)

    Moczulska, Beata; Kubiak, Monika; Bryczkowska, Anna; Malinowska, Ewa


    According to the WHO, hypertension is one of the major causes of death worldwide. It leads to a number of severe complications. Diastolic heart failure, that is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is especially common. New, but simple, indices for the early detection of patients who have not yet developed complications or are in their early developmental stages are still searched for. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and markers of diastolic heart failure (DHF) assessed in echocardiography in patients with hypertension and no symptoms of heart failure. The study was comprised of 65 patients with treated hypertension. Patients with symptoms of heart failure, those with diabetes and smokers were excluded. Arterial stiffness was measured with the Mobil-O-Graph NG PWA. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was estimated. The following markers of diastolic heart failure were assessed in the echocardiographic examination: E/A ratio - the ratio of the early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities, DT - decceleration time, E/E' - the ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity E' in tissue Doppler echocardiography. PWV was statistically significantly higher in the DHF group. In the group of patients with heart failure, the average E/A ratio was significantly lower as compared to the group with no heart failure. Oscillometric measurement of pulse wave velocity is non-invasive, lasts a few minutes and does not require the presence of a specialist. It allows for an early detection of patients at risk of diastolic heart failure even within the conditions of primary health care.

  11. High Frame Rate Vector Velocity Estimation using Plane Waves and Transverse Oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    is obtained by filtering the beamformed RF images in the Fourier domain using a Gaussian filter centered at a desired oscillation frequency. Performance of the method is quantified through measurements with the experimental scanner SARUS and the BK 2L8 linear array transducer. Constant parabolic flow......This paper presents a method for estimating 2-D vector velocities using plane waves and transverse oscillation. The approach uses emission of a low number of steered plane waves, which result in a high frame rate and continuous acquisition of data for the whole image. A transverse oscillating field...

  12. Robustness of waves with a high phase velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, T., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 (United States); Necas, A., E-mail: [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 (United States)


    Norman Rostoker pioneered research of (1) plasma-driven accelerators and (2) beam-driven fusion reactors. The collective acceleration, coined by Veksler, advocates to drive above-ionization plasma waves by an electron beam to accelerate ions. The research on this, among others, by the Rostoker group incubated the idea that eventually led to the birth of the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA), by which a large and robust accelerating collective fields may be generated in plasma in which plasma remains robust and undisrupted. Besides the emergence of LWFA, the Rostoker research spawned our lessons learned on the importance of adiabatic acceleration of ions in collective accelerators, including the recent rebirth in laser-driven ion acceleration efforts in a smooth adiabatic fashion by a variety of ingenious methods. Following Rostoker’s research in (2), the beam-driven Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) has accomplished breakthroughs in recent years. The beam-driven kinetic plasma instabilities have been found to drive the reactivity of deuteron-deuteron fusion beyond the thermonuclear yield in C-2U plasma that Rostoker started. This remarkable result in FRCs as well as the above mentioned LWFA may be understood with the aid of the newly introduced idea of the “robustness hypothesis of waves with a high phase velocity”. It posits that when the wave driven by a particle beam (or laser pulse) has a high phase velocity, its amplitude is high without disrupting the supporting bulk plasma. This hypothesis may guide us into more robust and efficient fusion reactors and more compact accelerators.

  13. Mantle Shear-Wave Velocity Structure beneath the Hawaiian Hot Spot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cecily J. Wolfe; Sean C. Solomon; Gabi Laske; John A. Collins; Robert S. Detrick; John A. Orcutt; David Bercovici; Erik H. Hauri


    .... Three-dimensional images of shear-wave velocity beneath the Hawaiian Islands, obtained from a network of sea-floor and land seismometers, show an upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly that is elongated...

  14. Heart-Carotid Pulse Wave Velocity a Useful Index of Atherosclerosis in Chinese Hypertensive Patients. (United States)

    Li, Chunyue; Xiong, Huahua; Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Wu, Dan; Li, Zhenzhou; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Wu, Wanqing


    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between heart-carotid pulse wave velocity (hcPWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in hypertensive patients, and also to examine the effect of pre-ejection period (PEP) on it. Doppler ultrasound device was used to measure CIMT in left common carotid artery. Hypertensive patients were divided into normal (n = 36, CIMT ≤0.8 mm) and thickened (n = 31, CIMT > 0.8 mm) group. Electrocardiogram R-wave-based carotid pulse wave velocity (rcPWV) and aortic valve-carotid pulse wave velocity (acPWV) were calculated as the ratio of the travel length to the pulse transit time with or without PEP, respectively. CIMT has significant relations with rcPWV (r = 0.611, P blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antihypertensive medication, and plaque occurrence. However, similar results were not found in normal group. Since CIMT has been considered as an index of atherosclerosis, our results suggested that both rcPWV and acPWV could be useful indexes of atherosclerosis in thickened CIMT hypertensive patients. Additionally, if hcPWV is computed with heart-carotid pulse transit time, including PEP could improve the accuracy of atherosclerosis assessment in hypertensive patients.

  15. Feasibility of waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves for shallow shear-wave velocity using a genetic algorithm (United States)

    Zeng, C.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Tsoflias, G.P.


    Conventional surface wave inversion for shallow shear (S)-wave velocity relies on the generation of dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves. This constrains the method to only laterally homogeneous (or very smooth laterally heterogeneous) earth models. Waveform inversion directly fits waveforms on seismograms, hence, does not have such a limitation. Waveforms of Rayleigh waves are highly related to S-wave velocities. By inverting the waveforms of Rayleigh waves on a near-surface seismogram, shallow S-wave velocities can be estimated for earth models with strong lateral heterogeneity. We employ genetic algorithm (GA) to perform waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves for S-wave velocities. The forward problem is solved by finite-difference modeling in the time domain. The model space is updated by generating offspring models using GA. Final solutions can be found through an iterative waveform-fitting scheme. Inversions based on synthetic records show that the S-wave velocities can be recovered successfully with errors no more than 10% for several typical near-surface earth models. For layered earth models, the proposed method can generate one-dimensional S-wave velocity profiles without the knowledge of initial models. For earth models containing lateral heterogeneity in which case conventional dispersion-curve-based inversion methods are challenging, it is feasible to produce high-resolution S-wave velocity sections by GA waveform inversion with appropriate priori information. The synthetic tests indicate that the GA waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves has the great potential for shallow S-wave velocity imaging with the existence of strong lateral heterogeneity. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Absorbing boundary conditions for low group velocity electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals. (United States)

    Askari, Murtaza; Momeni, Babak; Reinke, Charles M; Adibi, Ali


    We present an efficient method for the absorption of slow group velocity electromagnetic waves in photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs). We show that adiabatically matching the low group velocity waves to high group velocity waves of the PCW and extending the PCW structure into the perfectly matched layer (PML) region results in a 15 dB reduction of spurious reflections from the PML. We also discuss the applicability of this method to structures other than PCWs.

  17. Blood pulse wave velocity and pressure sensing via fiber based and free space based optical sensors (United States)

    Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev


    Continuous noninvasive measurement of vital bio-signs, such as cardiopulmonary parameters, is an important tool in evaluation of the patient's physiological condition and health monitoring. On the demand of new enabling technologies, some works have been done in continuous monitoring of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. In this paper, we introduce two techniques for non-contact sensing of vital bio signs. In the first approach the optical sensor is based on single mode in-fibers Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to detect heartbeat, respiration and pulse wave velocity (PWV). The introduced interferometer is based on a new implanted scheme. It replaces the conventional MZI realized by inserting of discontinuities in the fiber to break the total internal reflection and scatter/collect light. The proposed fiber sensor was successfully incorporated into shirt to produce smart clothing. The measurements obtained from the smart clothing could be obtained in comfortable manner and there is no need to have an initial calibration or a direct contact between the sensor and the skin of the tested individual. In the second concept we show a remote noncontact blood pulse wave velocity and pressure measurement based on tracking the temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle patterns produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beams. In both concept experimental validation of the proposed schemes is shown and analyzed.

  18. A continuous record of intereruption velocity change at Mount St. Helens from coda wave interferometry (United States)

    Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia J.; Gomberg, Joan S.; Vidale, John; Creager, Ken C.


    In September 2004, Mount St. Helens volcano erupted after nearly 18 years of quiescence. However, it is unclear from the limited geophysical observations when or if the magma chamber replenished following the 1980–1986 eruptions in the years before the 2004–2008 extrusive eruption. We use coda wave interferometry with repeating earthquakes to measure small changes in the velocity structure of Mount St. Helens volcano that might indicate magmatic intrusion. By combining observations of relative velocity changes from many closely located earthquake sources, we solve for a continuous function of velocity changes with time. We find that seasonal effects dominate the relative velocity changes. Seismicity rates and repeating earthquake occurrence also vary seasonally; therefore, velocity changes and seismicity are likely modulated by snow loading, fluid saturation, and/or changes in groundwater level. We estimate hydrologic effects impart stress changes on the order of tens of kilopascals within the upper 4 km, resulting in annual velocity variations of 0.5 to 1%. The largest nonseasonal change is a decrease in velocity at the time of the deep Mw = 6.8 Nisqually earthquake. We find no systematic velocity changes during the most likely times of intrusions, consistent with a lack of observable surface deformation. We conclude that if replenishing intrusions occurred, they did not alter seismic velocities where this technique is sensitive due to either their small size or the finite compressibility of the magma chamber. We interpret the observed velocity changes and shallow seasonal seismicity as a response to small stress changes in a shallow, pressurized system.

  19. Shear wave velocity models retrieved using Rg wave dispersion data in shallow crust in some regions of southern Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Ma, Shutian; Motazedian, Dariush; Corchete, Victor


    Many crucial tasks in seismology, such as locating seismic events and estimating focal mechanisms, need crustal velocity models. The velocity models of shallow structures are particularly important in the simulation of ground motions. In southern Ontario, Canada, many small shallow earthquakes occur, generating high-frequency Rayleigh ( Rg) waves that are sensitive to shallow structures. In this research, the dispersion of Rg waves was used to obtain shear-wave velocities in the top few kilometers of the crust in the Georgian Bay, Sudbury, and Thunder Bay areas of southern Ontario. Several shallow velocity models were obtained based on the dispersion of recorded Rg waves. The Rg waves generated by an m N 3.0 natural earthquake on the northern shore of Georgian Bay were used to obtain velocity models for the area of an earthquake swarm in 2007. The Rg waves generated by a mining induced event in the Sudbury area in 2005 were used to retrieve velocity models between Georgian Bay and the Ottawa River. The Rg waves generated by the largest event in a natural earthquake swarm near Thunder Bay in 2008 were used to obtain a velocity model in that swarm area. The basic feature of all the investigated models is that there is a top low-velocity layer with a thickness of about 0.5 km. The seismic velocities changed mainly within the top 2 km, where small earthquakes often occur.

  20. Subnanosecond velocity interferometer measurements of detonating PBX-9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, S.A.; Bloomquist, D.D.


    A velocity interferometer system was recently assembled which includes a high speed electronic streak camera to measure the particle velocity-time history of a diffusely reflecting surface. It has been named ORVIS for Optically Recorded Velocity Interferometer System. Measurements were made on detonating PBX-9502 (95/5 mixture of TATB and Kel-F) to determine the structure of the detonation front to see how the results compare with the measurements of Hayes, et al., using electromagnetic gauges embedded in superfine TATB. Measurements were made by reflecting laser light off a copper foil surface and then routing it through a velocity interferometer with a glass etalon in one leg to delay the light by 250 or 500 picoseconds, depending on the setup. The interferometer was tuned such that a pattern of straight fringes was obtained rather than the normal bull's-eye pattern. a cylindrical lens was used to focus each fringe to a dot to concentrate the light. This made the fringe pattern a line of dots which was focused on the slit of an Imacon 790 streak camera capable of streak rates up to 1 mm/ns. With this setup a time resolution of 300 to 500 picoseconds could be attained at the maximum streak rate. These experiments demonstrate that shock-front rise time measurements are now possible to a time resolution of several hundred picoseconds and we feel this approach can be used to attain about 50 picosecond time resolution. It is a powerful method to probe the structure of both shock and detonation waves.

  1. PICASSO: Shear velocities in the Western Mediterranean from Rayleigh Wave tomography (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.


    The Western Mediterranean has been affected by complex subduction and slab rollback, simultaneously with compression due to African-European convergence. The deformed region occupies a wide area from the intra-continental Atlas mountain belt in Morocco to the southern Iberian Massif in Spain. Evolutionary models of the Western Mediterranean invoke extensive slab rollback and compression in the Cenozoic, as well as likely upper mantle delamination scenarios during formation of the Alboran domain, the Betics, Rif, and Atlas Mountains. PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) is a multidisciplinary, international investigation of the Alboran System and surrounding areas. In this study we have analyzed data from the 95 PICASSO broadband stations with data from the Spanish IberArray and Siberia Array in Spain and Morocco, the University of Muenster array in the Atlas Mountains and the permanent Spanish and Portuguese networks. We present Rayleigh wave tomography results made from 168 teleseimic events recorded by 237 stations from April 2009 to April 2011. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities using the two-plane-wave method to remove complications due to multi-pathing, and finite-frequency kernels to improve lateral resolution. Phase velocities were then inverted for shear velocity structure on a grid of 0.5 by 0.5 degree to form a well-resolved 3D shear velocity model to 230 km depth. Our results show low S-velocities (2.9 km/s) in the crust beneath the Gibraltar Strait. Low upper mantle S-velocities are mapped beneath the Middle and High Atlas at ~60 km depth suggesting an elevated asthenosphere beneath these young mountain belts, in agreement with receiver functions analysis (Thurner et al, this session). Beneath the Western Alboran Sea, upper-mantle velocities change laterally from high velocities (>4.5 km/s) in the east to lower velocities to the west (~4.3 km/s). The Rayleigh wave tomography is consistent with P-tomography that

  2. Solenoidal filtering of volumetric velocity measurements using Gaussian process regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azijli, I.; Dwight, R.P.


    Volumetric velocity measurements of incompressible flows contain spurious divergence due to measurement noise, despite mass conservation dictating that the velocity field must be divergence-free (solenoidal). We investigate the use of Gaussian process regression to filter spurious divergence,

  3. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of axial velocity, velocity shear, and parallel ion temperature profiles during the route to plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized plasma device (United States)

    Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Adriany, K.; Gosselin, J. J.; McKee, J.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.


    We report experimental measurements of the axial plasma flow and the parallel ion temperature in a magnetized linear plasma device. We used laser induced fluorescence to measure Doppler resolved ion velocity distribution functions in argon plasma to obtain spatially resolved axial velocities and parallel ion temperatures. We also show changes in the parallel velocity profiles during the transition from resistive drift wave dominated plasma to a state of weak turbulence driven by multiple plasma instabilities.

  4. Shear-wave velocity structure of the Tongariro Volcanic Centre, New Zealand: Fast Rayleigh and slow Love waves indicate strong shallow anisotropy (United States)

    Godfrey, Holly J.; Fry, Bill; Savage, Martha K.


    Models of the velocity structure of volcanoes can help define possible magma pathways and contribute to calculating more accurate earthquake locations, which can help with monitoring volcanic activity. However, shear-wave velocity of volcanoes is difficult to determine from traditional seismic techniques, such as local earthquake tomography (LET) or refraction/reflection surveys. Here we use the recently developed technique of noise cross correlation of continuous seismic data to investigate the subsurface shear-wave velocity structure of the Tongariro Volcanic Centre (TgVC) of New Zealand, focusing on the active Ruapehu and Tongariro Volcanoes. We observe both the fundamental and first higher-order modes of Rayleigh and Love waves within our noise dataset, made from stacks of 15 min cross-correlation functions. We manually pick group velocity dispersion curves from over 1900 correlation functions, of which we consider 1373 to be high quality. We subsequently invert a subset of the fundamental mode Rayleigh- and Love-wave dispersion curves both independently and jointly for one dimensional shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles at Ruapehu and Tongariro Volcanoes. Vs increases very slowly at a rate of approximately 0.2 km/s per km depth beneath Ruapehu, suggesting that progressive hydrothermal alteration mitigates the effects of compaction driven velocity increases. At Tongariro, we observe larger Vs increases with depth, which we interpret as different layers within Tongariro's volcanic system above altered basement greywacke. Slow Vs, on the order of 1-2 km/s, are compatible with P-wave velocities (using a Vp/Vs ratio of 1.7) from existing velocity profiles of areas within the TgVC, and the observations of worldwide studies of shallow volcanic systems that used ambient noise cross-correlation methods. Most of the measured group velocities of fundamental mode Love-waves across the TgVC are 0.1-0.4 km/s slower than those of fundamental mode Rayleigh-waves in the

  5. Age-related changes of regional pulse wave velocity in the descending aorta using Fourier velocity encoded M-mode. (United States)

    Taviani, Valentina; Hickson, Stacey S; Hardy, Christopher J; McEniery, Carmel M; Patterson, Andrew J; Gillard, Jonathan H; Wilkinson, Ian B; Graves, Martin J


    Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an independent determinant of cardiovascular risk. Although aortic stiffening with age is well documented, the interaction between aging and regional aortic PWV is still a debated question. We measured global and regional PWV in the descending aorta of 56 healthy subjects aged 25-76 years using a one-dimensional, interleaved, Fourier velocity encoded pulse sequence with cylindrical excitation. Repeatability across two magnetic resonance examinations (n = 19) and accuracy against intravascular pressure measurements (n = 4) were assessed. The global PWV was found to increase nonlinearly with age. The thoracic aorta was found to stiffen the most with age (PWV [thoracic, 20-40 years] = 4.7 ± 1.1 m/s; PWV [thoracic, 60-80 years] = 7.9 ± 1.5 m/s), followed by the mid- (PWV [mid-abdominal, 20-40 years] = 4.9 ± 1.3 m/s; PWV [mid-abdominal, 60-80 years] = 7.4 ± 1.9 m/s) and distal abdominal aorta (PWV [distal abdominal, 20-40 years] = 4.8 ± 1.4 m/s; PWV [distal abdominal, 60-80 years] = 5.7 ± 1.4 m/s). Good agreement was found between repeated magnetic resonance measurements and between magnetic resonance PWVs and the gold-standard. Fourier velocity encoded M-mode allowed to measure global and regional PWV in the descending aorta. There was a preferential stiffening of the thoracic aorta with age, which may be due to progressive fragmentation of elastin fibers in this region. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Electromechanical wave imaging and electromechanical wave velocity estimation in a large animal model of myocardial infarction (United States)

    Costet, Alexandre; Melki, Lea; Sayseng, Vincent; Hamid, Nadira; Nakanishi, Koki; Wan, Elaine; Hahn, Rebecca; Homma, Shunichi; Konofagou, Elisa


    Echocardiography is often used in the clinic for detection and characterization of myocardial infarction. Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is a non-invasive ultrasound-based imaging technique based on time-domain incremental motion and strain estimation that can evaluate changes in contractility in the heart. In this study, electromechanical activation is assessed in infarcted heart to determine whether EWI is capable of detecting and monitoring infarct formation. Additionally, methods for estimating electromechanical wave (EW) velocity are presented, and changes in the EW propagation velocity after infarct formation are studied. Five (n  =  5) adult mongrels were used in this study. Successful infarct formation was achieved in three animals by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Dogs were survived for a few days after LAD ligation and monitored daily with EWI. At the end of the survival period, dogs were sacrificed and TTC (tetrazolium chloride) staining confirmed the formation and location of the infarct. In all three dogs, as soon as day 1 EWI was capable of detecting late-activated and non-activated regions, which grew over the next few days. On final day images, the extent of these regions corresponded to the location of infarct as confirmed by staining. EW velocities in border zones of infarct were significantly lower post-infarct formation when compared to baseline, whereas velocities in healthy tissues were not. These results indicate that EWI and EW velocity might help with the detection of infarcts and their border zones, which may be useful for characterizing arrhythmogenic substrate.

  7. Insights into anisotropy development and weakening of ice from in situ P wave velocity monitoring during laboratory creep (United States)

    Vaughan, M. J.; Prior, D. J.; Jefferd, M.; Brantut, N.; Mitchell, T. M.; Seidemann, M.


    Polycrystalline ice weakens significantly after a few percent strain, during high homologous temperature deformation. Weakening is correlated broadly with the development of a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). We deformed synthetic polycrystalline ice at -5°C under uniaxial compression, while measuring ultrasonic P wave velocities along several raypaths through the sample. Changes in measured P wave velocities (Vp) and in the velocities calculated from microstructural measurements of CPO (by cryo-electron backscatter diffraction) both show that velocities along trajectories parallel and perpendicular to shortening decrease with increasing strain, while velocities on diagonal trajectories increase. Thus, in these experiments, velocity data provide a continuous measurement of CPO evolution in creeping ice. Samples reach peak stresses after 1% shortening. Weakening corresponds to the start of CPO development, as indicated by divergence of P wave velocity changes for different raypaths, and initiates at ≈3% shortening. Selective growth by strain-induced grain boundary migration (GBM) of grains favorably oriented for basal slip may initiate weakening through the formation of an interconnected network of these grains by 3% shortening. After weakening initiates, CPO continues to develop by GBM and nucleation processes. The resultant CPO has an open cone (small circle) configuration, with the cone axis parallel to shortening. The development of this CPO causes significant weakening under uniaxial compression, where the shear stresses resolved on the basal planes (Schmid factors) are high.

  8. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement (United States)

    Hall, Maclin S.; Brodeur, Pierre H.; Jackson, Theodore G.


    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated.

  9. Acoustic Wave Velocity as a Selection Trait in Eucalyptus nitens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blackburn


    Full Text Available Previous studies in Eucalyptus nitens have revealed favourable genetic correlations exist between acoustic wave velocity (AWV in standing trees and modulus of elasticity (MOE, which can determine the suitability of trees for structural timber and/or engineered wood products. This study investigates the strength and stability of genetic variation in standing tree AWV across a range of environments in Tasmania, where there are a number of large plantation estates and breeding trials. Trees under study were from open-pollinated progeny trials established in 1993. Across sites, for standing tree AWV the ranking of E. nitens races did not change and within-race additive genetic correlations were strong (0.61 to 0.99. Heritabilities (0.16 to 0.74 and coefficients of additive genetic variation (2.6 to 4.8 were moderate for this trait. Correlations between standing tree AWV and both basic density and diameter at breast height (DBH were favourable. Results indicate that there is potential to improve MOE in E. nitens through the exploitation of genetic variation in AWV among and within races, the expression of genetic variation in AWV is relatively stable across different growing environments, and past selection for basic density and growth in pulpwood breeding programs is unlikely to have adversely affected MOE.

  10. Estimated Pulse Wave Velocity Calculated from Age and Mean Arterial Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, S. V.; Laurent, Stéphane; Olsen, M. H.


    In a recently published paper, Greve et al [J Hypertens 2016;34:1279-1289] investigate whether the estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV), calculated using an equation derived from the relationship between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), age, and blood pressure, predicts...

  11. HF Radar Observation of Velocity Fields Induced by Tsunami Waves in the Kii Channel, Japan


    日向, 博文; 藤, 良太郎; 藤井, 智史; 藤田, 裕一; 花土, 弘; 片岡, 智哉; 水谷, 雅裕; 高橋, 智幸


    High frequency ocean surface radar observation reveals the velocity fields of propagating tsunami waves and subsequent 30-40 minute period natural oscillation in the Kii Channel, Japan induced by the March 11, 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Technical issues of the ocean surface radar sysytem concerning the detection of tsunami waves and natural oscillation velocities are also discussed.

  12. The impact of intraocular pressure on elastic wave velocity estimates in the crystalline lens (United States)

    Park, Suhyun; Yoon, Heechul; Larin, Kirill V.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Aglyamov, Salavat R.


    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is believed to influence the mechanical properties of ocular tissues including cornea and sclera. The elastic properties of the crystalline lens have been mainly investigated with regard to presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation power of the eye. However, the relationship between the elastic properties of the lens and IOP remains to be established. The objective of this study is to measure the elastic wave velocity, which represents the mechanical properties of tissue, in the crystalline lens ex vivo in response to changes in IOP. The elastic wave velocities in the cornea and lens from seven enucleated bovine globe samples were estimated using ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging. To generate and then image the elastic wave propagation, an ultrasound imaging system was used to transmit a 600 µs pushing pulse at 4.5 MHz center frequency and to acquire ultrasound tracking frames at 6 kHz frame rate. The pushing beams were separately applied to the cornea and lens. IOP in the eyeballs was varied from 5 to 50 mmHg. The results indicate that while the elastic wave velocity in the cornea increased from 0.96  ±  0.30 m s-1 to 6.27  ±  0.75 m s-1 as IOP was elevated from 5 to 50 mmHg, there were insignificant changes in the elastic wave velocity in the crystalline lens with the minimum and the maximum speeds of 1.44  ±  0.27 m s-1 and 2.03  ±  0.46 m s-1, respectively. This study shows that ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging can be used to assess the biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens noninvasively. Also, it was observed that the dependency of the crystalline lens stiffness on the IOP was significantly lower in comparison with that of cornea.

  13. Left ventricular ejection time, not heart rate, is an independent correlate of aortic pulse wave velocity. (United States)

    Salvi, Paolo; Palombo, Carlo; Salvi, Giovanni Matteo; Labat, Carlos; Parati, Gianfranco; Benetos, Athanase


    Several studies showed a positive association between heart rate and pulse wave velocity, a sensitive marker of arterial stiffness. However, no study involving a large population has specifically addressed the dependence of pulse wave velocity on different components of the cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to explore in subjects of different age the link between pulse wave velocity with heart period (the reciprocal of heart rate) and the temporal components of the cardiac cycle such as left ventricular ejection time and diastolic time. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was assessed in 3,020 untreated subjects (1,107 men). Heart period, left ventricular ejection time, diastolic time, and early-systolic dP/dt were determined by carotid pulse wave analysis with high-fidelity applanation tonometry. An inverse association was found between pulse wave velocity and left ventricular ejection time at all ages (heart period was also found, with the exception of the youngest subjects (P = 0.20). A significant positive correlation was also found between pulse wave velocity and dP/dt (P heart period no longer became significant. Our data demonstrate that pulse wave velocity is more closely related to left ventricular systolic function than to heart period. This may have methodological and pathophysiological implications.

  14. New observations from MR velocity-encoded flow measurements concerning diastolic function in constrictive pericarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauner, Kerstin; Horng, A.; Reiser, M.; Huber, A. [Ludwig-Maximilian University, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Campus Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Schmitz, Ch. [Ludwig-Maximilian University, Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospitals-Campus Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)


    To assess diastolic function in patients with constrictive pericarditis (CP) by using velocity-encoded flow measurements at the atrioventricular valves and to evaluate whether conclusions regarding increased ventricular pressure can be drawn. Twenty-two patients with CP and 20 healthy subjects were examined on a 1.5-T MR system. In addition to evaluation of pericardial thickness, ventricular volumes and septal movement, velocity-encoded flow measurements were performed at the level of the atrioventricular valves for assessment of diastolic function. Amplitudes of the e- and a-waves were measured and e- to a-wave ratios were calculated. The correlation of transtricuspid e- to a-wave ratios and right ventricular end-diastolic pressures (RVEDP) was calculated. Right ventricular volumes were significantly smaller in patients with CP (p < 0.001). Abnormal septal movement was detected in all patients except one with CP and in none of the healthy subjects. In patients with CP mean transtricuspid e- to a-wave ratios were significantly smaller compared with healthy subjects. Individual transtricuspid e- to a-wave ratios were highly correlated with RVEDP (r = 0.6, p = 0.01). An elaborate MR examination can identify patients with CP. Velocity-encoded flow measurements with calculation of transtricuspid e- to a-wave ratios are a valuable tool for detection of diastolic dysfunction in patients with CP. The value of e- to a-wave ratios may indicate elevated RVEDP. (orig.)

  15. Rayleigh-wave Group Velocity Tomography in the Vicinity of the Hawaiian Hotspot (United States)

    Strader, A. E.; Laske, G.; Orcutt, J. A.; Wolfe, C. J.; Collins, J. A.; Solomon, S. C.; Detrick, R. S.; Bercovici, D.; Hauri, E. H.


    We present maps of long-period Rayleigh wave group velocity maps for the area spanned by the Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Mantle Experiment) project. Specifically, we used observations from the second deployment of ocean-bottom and land broadband instruments that operated from April 2006 through May 2007. The recording network consisted of13 land stations with ten temporary and three observatory instruments and 38 ocean bottom sites that were equipped with 4-component broad-band instruments. With an average station spacing of approximately 200 km, this network had an aperture of nearly 1300 km. For this study, we used an efficient interactive screen tool that employs a multiple filtering technique to measure the frequency-dependent group velocity. The spectra are pre-whitened to reduce biasing effects at frequencies with strong dispersion. We established that the technique provides reliable results for the two-station approach used here, at frequencies between 7 and 60 mHz. Our analysis includes records from 182 shallow earthquakes with focal depth h00.01×1020 Nm, and surface wave magnitudes MS≥5.6. Six smaller events also have signal levels suitable for analysis. For initial dispersion quality and consistency checks, we inspected local group velocity maps obtained from 555 path-averaged group velocity curves for paths that cross the PLUME network. Occam-smoothed matrix inversions are performed for maps with 1° in latitude and longitude. The data are highly consistent at frequencies above 10 mHz. At frequencies below 25 mHz, there is an anomaly downstream of the island of Hawaii that intensifies with decreasing frequency. This result suggests a deep-seated structural anomaly. Group velocities at frequencies above 40 mHz also map with high fidelity. However, in an initial inversion for three-dimensional mantle shear velocity structure we discarded such data, as they are highly sensitive to bathymetry (which is well known and can be corrected for

  16. TE Wave Measurement and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, John P; Sonnad, Kiran G; Alesini, David; De Santis, Stefano


    In the TE wave method, microwaves are coupled into the beam-pipe and the effect of the electron cloud on these microwaves is measured. An electron cloud (EC) density can then be calculated from this measurement. There are two analysis methods currently in use. The first treats the microwaves as being transmitted from one point to another in the accelerator. The second more recent method, treats the beam-pipe as a resonant cavity. This paper will summarize the reasons for adopting the resonant TE wave analysis as well as give examples from CESRTA and DA{\\Phi}NE of resonant beam-pipe. The results of bead-pull bench measurements will show some possible standing wave patterns, including a cutoff mode (evanescent) where the field decreases exponentially with distance from the drive point. We will outline other recent developments in the TE wave method including VORPAL simulations of microwave resonances, as well as the simulation of transmission in the presence of both an electron cloud and magnetic fields.

  17. Joint analysis of shear wave velocity from SH-wave refraction and MASW techniques for SPT-N estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawasdee Yordkayhun


    Full Text Available Horizontally polarized shear wave (SH refraction and multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW methods have been carried out in Hatyai City, southern Thailand, a pilot study for site classification, part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP. The objectives of this study are the comparison of the efficiencies of different shear wave velocity (Vs determination techniques and the use of Vs measurements of the prediction of standard penetration resistance (SPT-N. Good correlation between all Vs profiles and SPT-N values and local lithology are observed. However, there are systematic differences between SH-refraction based-Vs and MASW based-Vs, which might be explained by possible converted waves, limitations of the assumptions used, poor quality of the acquired data, and limitations of the inversion procedures of the methods applied. From the integrated use of Vs from both methods an empirical formula to describe the correlation between Vs and SPT-N values has been proposed and can be used to estimate geotechnical parameters in areas where no borehole or geophysical investigation exist.

  18. Background velocity inversion by phase along reflection wave paths

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han


    A background velocity model containing the correct lowwavenumber information is desired for both the quality of the migration image and the success of waveform inversion. We propose to invert for the low-wavenumber part of the velocity model by minimizing the phase difference between predicted and observed reflections. The velocity update is exclusively along the reflection wavepaths and, unlike conventional FWI, not along the reflection ellipses. This allows for reconstructing the smoothly varying parts of the background velocity model. Tests with synthetic data show both the benefits and limitations of this method.

  19. Wave measurement in severe ocean currents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwan, S.G.; Suryavanshi, A.K.; Nayak, B.U.

    The measurement of ocean waves has been of particular interest, as wave data and understanding of wave phenomena are essential to ocean engineering, coastal engineering and to many marine operations. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa...

  20. Influence of Aggregate Gradation on the Longitudinal Wave Velocity Changes in Unloaded Concrete (United States)

    Teodorczyk, Michał


    Diagnosis is an important factor in the assessment of structural and operational condition of a concrete structure. Among diagnostic methods, non-destructive testing methods play a special role. Acoustic emission evaluation based on the identification and location of destructive processes is one of such methods. The 3D location of AE events and moment tensor of fracture analysis are calculated by longitudinal wave velocity. Therefore, determining the velocity of longitudinal wave of concrete and the impact of the material and destructive factors are of essential importance. This paper reports the investigation of the effect of aggregate gradation on the change in wave velocity of unloaded concrete. The investigation was carried out on six 150 x 150 x 600 mm elements. Three elements contained aggregate fraction 8/16 mm and the other three were made with aggregate fraction 2/16 mm. Two acoustic emission sensors were used on the surface of the elements, and the wave was generated by the Hsu – Nielsen source. Longitudinal wave velocities for each group of elements were calculated and statistical test of significance was used for the comparison of two means. The results of the test indicated a substantial effect of the aggregate grain size on the change in longitudinal wave velocity. The average wave velocity in the concrete containing 8/16 mm fraction was 4672 m/s. In the concrete with 2/16 mm fraction, the velocity decreased to 4373 m/s. The velocity of the wave decreases at larger quantities of aggregate. The propagating longitudinal wave encounters more aggregate grains on its way and is reflected, also from air voids, multiple times and so its velocity is noticeably lower in the concrete with the 2/16 fraction. Thus, to be able to accurately locate AE events and analyse moment tensor during concrete structure testing, the aggregate grain size used in the concrete should be taken into account.

  1. Tidal and gravity waves study from the airglow measurements at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The other waves may be the upward propagating gravity waves or waves resulting from the interaction of inter-mode tidal oscillations, interaction of tidal waves with planetary waves and gravity waves. Some times, the second harmonic wave has higher vertical velocity than the corresponding fundamental wave. Application ...

  2. Estimation of the p-wave velocity profile of elastic real data based on surface wave inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponomarenko, A.V.; Kashtan, B.M.; Troyan, V.N.; Mulder, W.A.


    Recently, we proposed an analytical approach to invert for a smoothly varying near-surface P-wave velocity profile that has a squared slowness linearly decreasing with depth. The exact solution for such a velocity profile in the acoustic approximation can be expressed in terms of Airy functions and

  3. P-wave velocity changes in freezing hard low-porosity rocks: a laboratory-based time-average model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Draebing


    Full Text Available P-wave refraction seismics is a key method in permafrost research but its applicability to low-porosity rocks, which constitute alpine rock walls, has been denied in prior studies. These studies explain p-wave velocity changes in freezing rocks exclusively due to changing velocities of pore infill, i.e. water, air and ice. In existing models, no significant velocity increase is expected for low-porosity bedrock. We postulate, that mixing laws apply for high-porosity rocks, but freezing in confined space in low-porosity bedrock also alters physical rock matrix properties. In the laboratory, we measured p-wave velocities of 22 decimetre-large low-porosity (< 10% metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary rock samples from permafrost sites with a natural texture (> 100 micro-fissures from 25 °C to −15 °C in 0.3 °C increments close to the freezing point. When freezing, p-wave velocity increases by 11–166% perpendicular to cleavage/bedding and equivalent to a matrix velocity increase from 11–200% coincident to an anisotropy decrease in most samples. The expansion of rigid bedrock upon freezing is restricted and ice pressure will increase matrix velocity and decrease anisotropy while changing velocities of the pore infill are insignificant. Here, we present a modified Timur's two-phase-equation implementing changes in matrix velocity dependent on lithology and demonstrate the general applicability of refraction seismics to differentiate frozen and unfrozen low-porosity bedrock.

  4. Real time wave measurements and wave hindcasting in deep waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anand, N.M.; Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.

    Deep water waves off Karwar (lat. 14~'45.1'N, long. 73~'34.8'E) at 75 m water depth pertaining to peak monsoon period have been measured using a Datawell waverider buoy. Measured wave data show that the significant wave height (Hs) predominantly...

  5. Upper-mantle velocities below the Scandinavian Mountains from P- and S- wave traveltime tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.


    More than 20000 arrival-times of teleseismic P- and S-waves were measured over a period of more than 10 years in five separate temporary and two permanent seismic networks covering the Scandinavian (Scandes) Mountains and adjacent areas of the Baltic Shield. The relative traveltime residuals were...... inverted to 3D tomograms of P- and S- velocities and the VP/VS ratio. Resolution analysis documents that good 3D resolution is available under the dense network south of 64° latitude (Southern Scandes Mountains), and patchier, but highly useful resolution is available further north, where station coverage...... is more uneven. A pronounced upper-mantle velocity boundary (UMVB), transecting the study region is defined. It runs from SE Norway (east of the Oslo Graben) across the mountains to the Norwegian coast near Trondheim (around the Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex), from where it follows the coast and runs...

  6. Shear-wave velocity structure of young Atlantic Lithosphere from dispersion analysis and waveform modelling of Rayleigh waves (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Schippkus, Sven


    The lithosphere is the outermost solid layer of the Earth and includes the brittle curst and brittle uppermost mantle. It is underlain by the asthenosphere, the weaker and hotter portion of the mantle. The boundary between the brittle lithosphere and the asthenosphere is call the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, or LAB. The oceanic lithosphere is created at spreading ridges and cools and thickens with age. Seismologists define the LAB by the presence of a low shear wave velocity zone beneath a high velocity lid. Surface waves from earthquakes occurring in young oceanic lithosphere should sample lithospheric structure when being recorded in the vicinity of a mid-ocean ridge. Here, we study group velocity and dispersion of Rayleigh waves caused by earthquakes occurring at transform faults in the Central Atlantic Ocean. Earthquakes were recorded either by a network of wide-band (up to 60 s) ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15°N or at the Global Seismic Network (GSN) Station ASCN on Ascension Island. Surface waves sampling young Atlantic lithosphere indicate systematic age-dependent changes of group velocities and dispersion of Rayleigh waves. With increasing plate age maximum group velocity increases (as a function of period), indicating cooling and thickening of the lithosphere. Shear wave velocity is derived inverting the observed dispersion of Rayleigh waves. Further, models derived from the OBS records were refined using waveform modelling of vertical component broadband data at periods of 15 to 40 seconds, constraining the velocity structure of the uppermost 100 km and hence in the depth interval of the mantle where lithospheric cooling is most evident. Waveform modelling supports that the thickness of lithosphere increases with age and that velocities in the lithosphere increase, too.

  7. Multi Point Velocity, Density and Temperature Measurements using LITA Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a nonintrusive, transient-grating optical technique that provides simultaneous high-accuracy measurements of velocity,...

  8. Identifying Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Middle-Aged Sportsmen : The Additional Value of Pulse Wave Velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braber, Thijs L.; Prakken, Niek H. J.; Mosterd, Arend; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Doevendans, Pieter A. F. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.


    Background Cardiovascular screening may benefit middle-aged sportsmen, as coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), may help identify sportsmen with subclinical CAD. We examined the

  9. Identifying coronary artery disease in asymptomatic middle-aged sportsmen : The additional value of pulse wave velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braber, Thijs L.; Prakken, Niek H J; Mosterd, Arend|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156271583; Mali, Willem P Th M; Doevendans, Pieter A F M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164248366; Bots, Michiel L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110610032; Velthuis, Birgitta K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176956301


    Background: Cardiovascular screening may benefit middle-aged sportsmen, as coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), may help identify sportsmen with subclinical CAD. We examined the

  10. Integration of SH seismic reflection and Love-wave dispersion data for shear wave velocity determination over quick clays (United States)

    Comina, Cesare; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Polom, Ulrich; Socco, Laura Valentina


    Quick clay is a water-saturated formation originally formed through flocculation and deposition in a marine to brackish environment. It is subsequently leached to low salinity by freshwater flow. If its strength decreases, then the flocculated structure collapses leading to landslides of varying destructiveness. Leaching can result in a reduction of the undisturbed shear strength of these clays and suggestions exist that a reduction in shear wave velocities is also possible. Integration of SH seismic reflection and Love-wave dispersion data was undertaken, in an area near the Göta River in southwest Sweden, to evaluate the potential of shear wave velocity imaging for detecting quick clays. Seismic reflection processing evidenced several geologically interesting interfaces related to the probable presence of quick clays (locally confirmed by boreholes) and sand-gravelly layers strongly contributing to water circulation within them. Dispersion data were extracted with a Gaussian windowing approach and inverted with a laterally constrained inversion using a priori information from the seismic reflection imaging. The inversion of dispersion curves has evidenced the presence of a low velocity layer (lvl, with a velocity reduction of ca. 30 per cent) probably associable to quick clays. This velocity reduction is enough to produce detectable phase-velocity differences in the field data and to achieve a better velocity resolution if compared to reflection seismic velocity analyses. The proposed approach has the potential of a comprehensive determination of the shear wave velocity distribution in the shallow subsurface. A sensitivity analysis of Love-wave dispersion data is also presented underlining that, despite limited dispersion of the data set and the velocity-reducing effect of quick-clay leaching, the proposed interpretation procedure arises as a valuable approach in quick clay and other lvl identification.

  11. Coherent Doppler Lidar for Measuring Velocity and Altitude of Space and Arial Vehicles (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce W.


    A coherent Doppler lidar has been developed to support future NASA missions to planetary bodies. The lidar transmits three laser beams and measures line-of-sight range and velocity along each beam using a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) technique. Accurate altitude and velocity vector data, derived from the line-of-sight measurements, enables the landing vehicle to precisely navigate from several kilometers above the ground to the designated location and execute a gentle touchdown. The same lidar sensor can also benefit terrestrial applications that cannot rely on GPS or require surface-relative altitude and velocity data.

  12. Walkie-Talkie Measurements for the Speed of Radio Waves in Air (United States)

    Dombi, Andra; Tunyagi, Arthur; Neda, Zoltan


    A handheld emitter-receiver device suitable for the direct estimation of the velocity of radio waves in air is presented. The velocity of radio waves is measured using the direct time-of-flight method, without the need for any tedious and precise settings. The results for two measurement series are reported. Both sets of results give an estimate…

  13. Stereoscopy of dust density waves under microgravity: Velocity distributions and phase-resolved single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himpel, Michael, E-mail:; Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bockwoldt, Tim; Piel, Alexander [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Ole Menzel, Kristoffer [ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research Center, 5405 Dättwil (Switzerland)


    Experiments on dust-density waves have been performed in dusty plasmas under the microgravity conditions of parabolic flights. Three-dimensional measurements of a dust density wave on a single particle level are presented. The dust particles have been tracked for many oscillation periods. A Hilbert analysis is applied to obtain trajectory parameters such as oscillation amplitude and three-dimensional velocity amplitude. While the transverse motion is found to be thermal, the velocity distribution in wave propagation direction can be explained by harmonic oscillations with added Gaussian (thermal) noise. Additionally, it is shown that the wave properties can be reconstructed by means of a pseudo-stroboscopic approach. Finally, the energy dissipation mechanism from the kinetic oscillation energy to thermal motion is discussed and presented using phase-resolved analysis.

  14. The Study on S-Wave Velocity Structure of Upper Crust in Three Gorges Region of Yangtze River (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhu, P.; Zhou, Q.


    The profile of S-wave velocity structure along Badong-Maoping-Tumen is presented using the ambient noise data observed at 10 stations from mobile broadband seismic array which is located at Three Gorges Region. All of available vertical component time series during April and May,2011 have been cross-correlated to estimate the empirical Green functions. Group velocity dispersion curves were measured by applying multiple filtering technique. Using these dispersion curves,we obtain high resolution pure-path dispersions at 0.5-10 second periods. The S-wave velocity structure,which was reconstructed by inverting the pure-path dispersions,reveals the velocity variations of upper crust at Three Gorges Region. Main conclusions are as follows:(1)The velocity variations in the study region have a close relationship with the geological structure and the velocity profile suggests a anticline unit which core area is Huangling block;(2)The relative fast velocity variations beneath Jiuwanxi and its surrounding areas may correspond to the geological structure and earthquake activity there;(3) The high velocity of the upper crustal in Sandouping indicates that the Reservoir Dam of Three Gorges is located at a tectonic stable region.

  15. The wave phase velocity in superconducting transmission lines near T{sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzhakhmetov, A.R.; Lobov, G.D.; Shtykov, V.V.; Zhgoon, S.A. [Moscow Power Engineering Inst. (Russian Federation). Radio Engineering Dept.


    A peculiarity in behavior of electromagnetic waves phase velocity ({nu}{sub ph}), propagating in superconducting planar transmission lines, in the vicinity of the transition temperature (T{sub c}) was observed in experiment and deduced theoretically. (orig.) 5 refs.

  16. Seismic Velocity Structure and Depth-Dependence of Anisotropy in the Red Sea and Arabian Shield from Surface Wave Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S; Gaherty, J; Schwartz, S; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A


    We investigate the lithospheric and upper mantle structure as well as the depth-dependence of anisotropy along the Red Sea and beneath the Arabian Peninsula using receiver function constraints and phase velocities of surface waves traversing two transects of stations from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network. Frequency-dependent phase delays of fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves, measured using a cross-correlation procedure, require very slow shear velocities and the presence of anisotropy throughout the upper mantle. Linearized inversion of these data produce path-averaged 1D radially anisotropic models with about 4% anisotropy in the lithosphere, increasing to about 4.8% anisotropy across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Models with reasonable crustal velocities in which the mantle lithosphere is isotropic cannot satisfy the data. The lithospheric lid, which ranges in thickness from about 70 km near the Red Sea coast to about 90 km beneath the Arabian Shield, is underlain by a pronounced low-velocity zone with shear velocities as low as 4.1 km/s. Forward models, which are constructed from previously determined shear-wave splitting estimates, can reconcile surface and body wave observations of anisotropy. The low shear velocity values are similar to many other continental rift and oceanic ridge environments. These low velocities combined with the sharp velocity contrast across the LAB may indicate the presence of partial melt beneath Arabia. The anisotropic signature primarily reflects a combination of plate- and density-driven flow associated with active rifting processes in the Red Sea.

  17. Six-channel ECG-based pulse wave velocity for assessing whole-body arterial stiffness. (United States)

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, An-Bang; Chen, Zong-Li; Huang, Ruay-Ming; Chen, Ching-Pin; Tang, Chieh-Ju; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan


    Despite the proposal of different means of non-invasive arterial stiffness assessment, none offers simultaneous information on whole-body peripheral arterial condition. We investigated the validity of applying a six-channel electrocardiogram-based pulse wave velocity (ECG-PWV) measurement system for this purpose. The study consisted of two parts. Part One enrolled hypertensive (Group 1, n = 32) and normal (Group 2, n = 32) subjects, whereas Part Two recruited diabetic (Group 3, n = 50) and normal (Group 4, n = 50) subjects. To validate the application of ECG-PWV in assessing peripheral arterial stiffness in different parts of body, ECG-PWV data were compared with three other parameters including the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), pulse wave velocity-digital volume pulse (PWV-DVP) and intima-media thickness (IMT). ECG-PWV in healthy subjects in Part One correlated significantly with CAVI and PWV-DVP (p blood sugar, serum creatinine and ECG-PWV from the foot. However, no significant difference was noted in PWV-DVP between two groups. Six-channel ECG-PWV measurement system showed remarkable correlation with IMT in hypertensive subjects and with key anthropometric and biochemical parameters in diabetic patients, suggesting its validity in assessing whole-body arterial stiffness in subjects with peripheral arterial diseases within 10 min.

  18. Northern Korean Peninsula 1-D velocity model from surface wave dispersion and full-waveform data (United States)

    Lee, S. J.; Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Kang, T. S.; Cho, C.


    Monitoring seismic activities in the northern Korean Peninsula is important not only for understanding the characteristics of earthquakes but also for watching nuclear tests. To better monitor those natural and man-made seismic activities, reliable seismic velocity models are required. However, the seismic velocity structure of the region is not known well due to the lack of available seismic data directly measured in the region. This study presents 1-D velocity models of the region using two different datasets comprised of two-year-long continuous waveform and the 2013 North Korea nuclear test event waveform recorded at stations surrounding the region. Two reference 1-D models for the inland and offshore areas (Western East Sea) were estimated by 1-D inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements from ambient noise cross-correlations of the continuous waveform. To investigate the variations in the velocity models, many 1-D models for the paths between the 2013 nuclear test site and stations in China and South Korea were constructed by forward waveform modeling. The velocity variations are not significant for both models representing the inland and offshore paths, respectively. The 1-D models for the inland paths are similar to the models constructed for the southern Korean Peninsula. Interestingly, waveforms sampling through the offshore paths are not well explained by simple 1-D isotropic models. The preliminary result indicates that there exists radial anisotropy with SH being faster than SV by 3-5% in the upper mantle beneath the offshore northern Korean Peninsula, although further studies are necessary to explain the origin of anisotropy. A proper characterization of propagation effects along the offshore paths would be useful for monitoring future nuclear tests because many seismic stations in the eastern South Korea record waveforms sampling the offshore region from the nuclear test site to those stations.

  19. On the measurement of vertical velocity by MST radar (United States)

    Gage, K. S.


    An overview is presented of the measurement of atmospheric vertical motion utilizing the MST radar technique. Vertical motion in the atmosphere is briefly discussed as a function of scale. Vertical velocity measurement by MST radars is then considered from within the context of the expected magnitudes to be observed. Examples are drawn from published vertical velocity observations.

  20. Fat mass measured by DXA varies with scan velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Eva; Petersen, Liselotte; Kreutzer, Martin


    To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight.......To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight....

  1. Ratio of left ventricular peak E-wave velocity to flow propagation velocity assessed by color M-mode Doppler echocardiography in first myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Søndergaard, E; Seward, J B


    OBJECTIVES: To determine the ability of the ratio of peak E-wave velocity to flow propagation velocity (E/Vp) measured with color M-mode Doppler echocardiography to predict in-hospital heart failure and cardiac mortality in an unselected consecutive population with first myocardial infarction (MI......). BACKGROUND: Several experimental studies indicate color M-mode echocardiography to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of diastolic function, but data regarding the clinical value are lacking. METHODS: Echocardiography was performed within 24 h of arrival at the coronary care unit in 110 consecutive...... compared with patients with E/Vp or =1.5 to be the single best predictor of in-hospital clinical heart failure when compared with age, heart rate, E-wave deceleration time (Dt), left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, wall...

  2. Measurement of Entrained Air Bubbles and Vortices in Breaking Waves


    大塚, 淳一; 渡部, 靖憲; Junichi, Otsuka; Yasunori, Watanabe; 北海道大学大学院工学研究科; School of Engineering, Hokkaido University


    Breaking waves produce numbers of vortices through a jet splashing process and also entrain many air bubbles, forming complicated air-water two-phase turbulent flow field in a surf zone. In this research, a simultaneous velocity measurement technique of water and bubble flows in breaking waves is developed for characterizing water-bubble interactions within vortices in a surf zone. The bubbles and neutral buoyant tracers are separately recorded by two different digital video cameras on the ba...

  3. Migration velocity analysis using pre-stack wave fields

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Using both image and data domains to perform velocity inversion can help us resolve the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model, usually in that order. This translates to integrating migration velocity analysis into full waveform inversion. The migration velocity analysis part of the inversion often requires computing extended images, which is expensive when using conventional methods. As a result, we use pre-stack wavefield (the double-square-root formulation) extrapolation, which includes the extended information (subsurface offsets) naturally, to make the process far more efficient and stable. The combination of the forward and adjoint pre-stack wavefields provides us with update options that can be easily conditioned to improve convergence. We specifically use a modified differential semblance operator to split the extended image into a residual part for classic differential semblance operator updates and the image (Born) modelling part, which provides reflections for higher resolution information. In our implementation, we invert for the velocity and the image simultaneously through a dual objective function. Applications to synthetic examples demonstrate the features of the approach.

  4. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps


    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.; Jensen, Bjarne


    Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe leads the water into another pipe or tunnel system. A pressure gradient generated by the water level difference between the sea and basin drives the flow through the tunnel system. The tunnel system...

  5. Measurements of beat wave accelerated electrons in a toroidal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.H. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Hwang, D.W. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))


    Electrons are accelerated by large amplitude electron plasma waves driven by counter-propagating microwaves with a difference frequency approximately equal to the electron plasma frequency. Energetic electrons are observed only when the phase velocity of the wave is in the range 3v{sub e} < v{sub ph} < 7v{sub e} (v{sub ph} was varied 2v{sub e} < v{sub ph} < 10v{sub e}), where v{sub e} is the electron thermal velocity, (kT{sub e}/m{sub e}){sup {1/2}}. As the phase velocity increases, fewer electrons are accelerated to higher velocities. The measured current contained in these accelerated electrons has the power dependence predicted by theory, but the magnitude is lower than predicted.

  6. Crustal velocity structure of the Deccan Volcanic Province, Indian Peninsula, from observed surface wave dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddale Suresh


    Full Text Available Through inversion of fundamental mode group velocities of Love and Rayleigh waves, we study the crustal and subcrustal structure across the central Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP, which is one of the world’s largest terrestrial flood basalts. Our analysis is based on broadband seismograms recorded at seismological station Bhopal (BHPL in the central India from earthquakes located near west coast of India, with an average epicentral distance about 768 km. The recording station and epicentral zone are situated respectively on the northern and southern edges of DVP with wave paths across central DVP. The period of group velocity data ranges from 5 to 60 s for Rayleigh waves and 5 to 45 s for Love waves. Using the genetic algorithm, the observed data have been inverted to obtain the crust and subcrustal velocity structure along the wavepaths. Using this procedure, a similar velocity structure was also obtained earlier for the northwestern DVP, which is in the west of the present study region. Comparison of results show that the crustal thickness decreases westward from central DVP (39.6 km to northwestern DVP (37.8 km along with the decrease of thickness of upper crust; while the thickness of lower crust remains nearly same. From east to west S-wave velocity in the upper crust decreases by 2 to 3 per cent, while P-wave velocity in the whole crust and subcrust decreases by 3 to 6 per cent. The P- and S-wave velocities are positively correlated with crustal thickness and negatively correlated with earth’s heat flow. It appears that the elevated crustal and subcrustal temperature in the western side is the main factor for low velocities on this side.

  7. Robust segmentation methods with an application to aortic pulse wave velocity calculation. (United States)

    Babin, Danilo; Devos, Daniel; Pižurica, Aleksandra; Westenberg, Jos; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Philips, Wilfried


    Aortic stiffness has proven to be an important diagnostic and prognostic factor of many cardiovascular diseases, as well as an estimate of overall cardiovascular health. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) represents a good measure of the aortic stiffness, while the aortic distensibility is used as an aortic elasticity index. Obtaining the PWV and the aortic distensibility from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data requires diverse segmentation tasks, namely the extraction of the aortic center line and the segmentation of aortic regions, combined with signal processing methods for the analysis of the pulse wave. In our study non-contrasted MRI images of abdomen were used in healthy volunteers (22 data sets) for the sake of non-invasive analysis and contrasted magnetic resonance (MR) images were used for the aortic examination of Marfan syndrome patients (8 data sets). In this research we present a novel robust segmentation technique for the PWV and aortic distensibility calculation as a complete image processing toolbox. We introduce a novel graph-based method for the centerline extraction of a thoraco-abdominal aorta for the length calculation from 3-D MRI data, robust to artifacts and noise. Moreover, we design a new projection-based segmentation method for transverse aortic region delineation in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images which is robust to high presence of artifacts. Finally, we propose a novel method for analysis of velocity curves in order to obtain pulse wave propagation times. In order to validate the proposed method we compare the obtained results with manually determined aortic centerlines and a region segmentation by an expert, while the results of the PWV measurement were compared to a validated software (LUMC, Leiden, the Netherlands). The obtained results show high correctness and effectiveness of our method for the aortic PWV and distensibility calculation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Shear Wave Velocity on Elastography Correlates with the Clinical Symptoms and Histopathological Features of Keloids


    Aya, Rino; Yamawaki, Satoko; Yoshikawa, Katsuhiro; Katayama, Yasuhiro; Enoshiri, Tatsuki; Naitoh, Motoko; Suzuki, Shigehiko


    Background: Keloids present as red, painful lesions causing serious functional and cosmetic problems; however, there is no consensus regarding tools for objectively evaluating keloids. To demonstrate the utility of shear wave elastography in keloids, we investigated the correlations between clinical symptoms, ultrasound shear wave velocity, and histopathological findings. Methods: Three patients with keloids containing both red hypertrophic and mature areas were evaluated using the shear wave...

  9. Measurement of velocity and velocity derivatives based on pattern tracking in 3D LIF images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deusch, S.; Merava, H.; Rys, P. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technol., Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Chem. Eng.; Dracos, T. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Untergasse 14, 8126 Zumikon (Switzerland)


    Pattern tracking in consecutive 3D LIF images based on least squares matching (LSM) of grey levels has been developed recently for velocity and velocity gradient measurements. The shortcomings of this method are clearly shown. The present article presents an improvement on this method by introducing a local multi-patch (LMP) technique through the LSM approach. The method is validated using the flow field of a turbulent channel flow obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and a synthetic image with grey-level patterns. The results show that LMP matching allows the determination of the velocity and the velocity gradient fields with high accuracy including the second derivatives. Measurements of a round non-buoyant jet are presented which demonstrate the good performance of the method when applied under laboratory conditions. This method can also be applied on two-dimensional images provided that the flow is strictly two-dimensional. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of velocity and velocity derivatives based on pattern tracking in 3D LIF images (United States)

    Deusch, S.; Merava, H.; Dracos, T.; Rys, P.

    Pattern tracking in consecutive 3D LIF images based on least squares matching (LSM) of grey levels has been developed recently for velocity and velocity gradient measurements. The shortcomings of this method are clearly shown. The present article presents an improvement on this method by introducing a local multi-patch (LMP) technique through the LSM approach. The method is validated using the flow field of a turbulent channel flow obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and a synthetic image with grey-level patterns. The results show that LMP matching allows the determination of the velocity and the velocity gradient fields with high accuracy including the second derivatives. Measurements of a round non-buoyant jet are presented which demonstrate the good performance of the method when applied under laboratory conditions. This method can also be applied on two-dimensional images provided that the flow is strictly two-dimensional.

  11. Assimilation of Sonic Velocity and Thin-Section Measurements from the NEEM Ice-Core (United States)

    Hay, M.; Pettit, E. C.; Waddington, E. D.


    We examine the measurement of crystal orientation fabric (COF) in ice cores using thin sections and sound-wave velocities, focusing on the NEEM core in Greenland. Ice crystals have substantial plastic anisotropy, with shear orthogonal to the crystallographic c-axis occurring far more easily than deformation in other orientations. Due to strain-induced grain-rotation, COFs can become highly anisotropic, resulting in bulk anisotropic flow. Thin-section measurements taken from ice cores allow sampling of the crystal fabric distribution. Thin-section measurements, however, suffer from sampling error, as they sample a small amount of ice, usually on the order of a hundred grans. They are typically only taken at intervals of several meters, which means that meter-scale variations in crystal fabric are difficult to capture. Measuring sonic velocities in ice cores provides an alternate method of determining crystal fabric. The speed of vertical compression waves is affected by the vertical clustering of c-axes, but is insensitive to azimuthal fabric anisotropy. By measuring splitting between the fast and slow shear-wave directions, information on the azimuthal distribution of orientations can be captured. Sonic-velocity measurements cannot capture detailed information on the orientation distribution of the COF, but they complement thin-section measurements with several advantages. Sonic-logging measurements can be taken at very short intervals, eliminating spatial gaps. In addition, sonic logging samples a large volume of ice with each measurement, reducing sampling error. Our logging tool has a depth resolution of around 3m/s, and can measure velocity features on the order of 1m/s. Here, we show the results of compression-wave measurements at NEEM. We also assimilate the sonic measurements with the thin-section data using a Bayesian inference procedure. This procedure allows us to combine the respective strengths of the two fabric measurement methods, to produce a more

  12. Photon Doppler Velocimetry Measurements of Transverse Surface Velocities (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher R.; Lajeunesse, Jeff; Sable, Peter; Hatzenbihler, Ashley; Borg, John P.


    Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is a prominent optical diagnostic used for measuring displacement or velocity in dynamic experiments. A table-top experiment consisting of a 31mm diameter metal wheel mounted in a hand tool was setup to make steady state transverse surface velocity measurements using PDV for a range of velocities and surface preparations. The experiment consisted of PDV collimators positioned with respect to either the side or bottom face of the wheel at various angles to resolve transverse velocity components. Different preparations for the surface of the wheel were explored such as polishing, laser etching, chemical etching, mechanical milling, and retroreflective microspheres. Light return and transverse surface velocity were recorded for each surface preparation as a function of angle. Polished aluminum allowed adequate light return for only one degree from the normal of the wheel, while the retroreflective microspheres exhibited usable light for upwards of 30 degrees. Velocity measurements were performed over a range of 0 to 45 degrees from the surface normal of the rotating wheel for each surface preparation. Velocity measurements from the PDV experiments show good accuracy with theoretical wheel velocities between 0 and 10 m/s.

  13. Measurement of gas flow velocities by laser-induced gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B.; Stampanoni-Panariello, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Kozlov, A.D.N. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Time resolved light scattering from laser-induced electrostrictive gratings was used for the determination of flow velocities in air at room temperature. By measuring the velocity profile across the width of a slit nozzle we demonstrated the high spatial resolution (about 200 mm) of this novel technique. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref.

  14. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.


    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  15. ABCA1-dependent serum cholesterol efflux capacity inversely correlates with pulse wave velocity in healthy subjects[S


    Favari, Elda; Ronda, Nicoletta; Adorni, Maria Pia; Zimetti, Francesca; Salvi, Paolo; Manfredini, Matteo; Bernini, Franco; Borghi, Claudio; Cicero, Arrigo F. G.


    The capacity of HDL to induce cell cholesterol efflux is considered one of its main antiatherogenic properties. Little is known about the impact of such HDL function on vascular physiology. We investigated the relationship between ABCA1-dependent serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), an HDL functionality indicator, and pulse wave velocity (PWV), an indicator of arterial stiffness. Serum of 167 healthy subjects was used to conduct CEC measurement, and carotid-femoral PWV was measured with a...

  16. Measuring Oscillatory Velocity Fields Due to Swimming Algae

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P


    In this fluid dynamics video, we present the first time-resolved measurements of the oscillatory velocity field induced by swimming unicellular microorganisms. Confinement of the green alga C. reinhardtii in stabilized thin liquid films allows simultaneous tracking of cells and tracer particles. The measured velocity field reveals complex time-dependent flow structures, and scales inversely with distance. The instantaneous mechanical power generated by the cells is measured from the velocity fields and peaks at 15 fW. The dissipation per cycle is more than four times what steady swimming would require.

  17. Lapse-time-dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media (United States)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel


    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: first, we evaluate the contribution of surface- and body-wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time-dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Second, we compare the lapse-time behaviour in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  18. Measuring the Velocity of Cosmic Photons (United States)

    Vazquez, Gerardo Arturo


    The position of the JWST in space—close to the L2 point at a distance of 1.5 million kilometers from Earth—allows us a unique chance to measure the speed of cosmic photons through a double detection in two different telescopes. The speed of cosmic photons has been considered constant as a matter of principle, but in the same way, the energy lost by these photons could have a contribution due to a different nature such as dark matter. In this work, an experiment to measure the speed of photons is proposed based on the detection on two different telescopes located at a considerable distance. Some of the most important results of this experiment could be variations of the speed of light as it passes through dark matter and, as a consequence, the ability to map dark matter in the universe. Although JWST is not in the direction to measure the difference in time of 5 seconds, the fact that it can move up to a 50 arc degree angle will allow us to measure a difference in detection between 3 to 4.5 seconds. The observations needed to do this experiment should come from the detection of gamma ray bursts and then, the simultaneous detection by the sudden pointing of JWST plus a secondary telescope—on ground or in space—to catch the afterglow of the GRB in longer wavelengths. The new technology in telescopes will allow us to catch a difference in magnitude between both telescopes or even to measure single photon detection in time in order to accomplish the purpose of the experiment.

  19. Normative data of F-wave measures in China. (United States)

    Pan, Hua; Lin, Jinxi; Chen, Na; Jian, Fan; Zhang, Zaiqiang; Ding, Zeyu; Wang, Yongjun; Nobrega, João Antonio Maciel; Kohara, Nobuo; Cui, Liying; Kimura, Jun


    To establish normal ranges of F-wave measures in China as compared to published data in Brazil and Japan. We studied F waves in 127 healthy Chinese subjects, aged 21-78 years old, stimulating the median, ulnar, tibial and peroneal nerves distally and proximaly. The F-wave latencies had a linear correlation to the subject height in all nerves tested, showing a steeper (P China and Japan for the tibial nerve. The Chinese population also had a higher distally elicited F-wave persistence and faster F wave conduction velocities than previously reported for both ulnar and tibial nerves. These values showed significant difference (P Japan. F-wave latencies show a linear correlation to subject height, although the slope of regression lines varies among countries, reflecting the difference in F-wave persistence and F-wave conduction velocity. Our study provides a rational for the use of a latency-height nomogram in clinical studies and underscores the importance of developing country specific normative data. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurements of debris flow velocity through cross-correlation of instrumentation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arattano


    Full Text Available Detection of debris flow occurrence can be efficiently obtained through different types of sensors. A pair of ultrasonic sensors placed at a known distance from each other along a torrent have been used as a method to obtain mean front velocity of debris-flows, in addition to their use as detectors of debris flow occurrence. Also seismic and acoustic sensors have been employed to measure debris-flow front velocity and discharge in the same manner. In order to obtain velocity measurements, however, these methods require the presence of a well identifiable and defined main front in the debris flow wave. The time lag between the recordings of the front of the wave at two consecutive stations allows an estimation of its mean velocity. When a well-defined front is not present and no recurrent feature can be found along the wave, the measurement of velocity may prove difficult. The cross-correlation technique may help identifying the mean velocity of the flow in such cases. In fact, cross correlation allows to determine the mean time lag elapsed between the recording of two sets of data of the same event at different positions. This technique may be also used to measure velocity using signals coming from different types of sensors, for instance where a ground vibration detector has been placed along a torrent where an ultrasonic sensor was already present or viceversa. An application has been made using field data recorded through seismic and ultrasonic sensors in a small instrumented catchment in the Italian Alps (Moscardo Torrent.

  1. Applanation tonometry: a reliable technique to assess aortic pulse wave velocity in spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Currie, K D; Hubli, M; Krassioukov, A V


    Within-subject repeated measures. To determine the intra- and inter-tester reliability of aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) measurements collected using applanation tonometry in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Inpatient Rehabilitation Centre and outpatient Clinic in Vancouver, BC, Canada. Fifteen men and three women with traumatic SCI (age: 46±16 years; C3-L1; American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A-D; 2-284 months post injury) participated in two testing sessions separated by an average of 2 days. During each testing session, aPWV measurements were collected in the supine position following 10 min of rest. Arterial blood pressure waveforms were collected simultaneously by two trained raters at the carotid and femoral arterial sites using applanation tonometry. Heart rate was continuously measured using a single-lead electrocardiogram, whereas brachial blood pressures were measured at 5-min intervals using an automated device. Intra- and inter-tester aPWV measurements demonstrated almost perfect reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.98 (Pblood pressure between intra- and inter-testing sessions. Applanation tonometry measurements of aPWV are reliable in individuals with SCI. In addition, the SDDs were smaller than a clinically relevant value, suggesting that this measurement is suitable for repeated measures study designs in SCI.

  2. Effect of gas on shear wave velocity of sandy soils densified with explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Vega-Posada


    Full Text Available Context: Shear wave velocity tests (Vs are commonly used to estimate the increase in resistance of explosive densified soils. In some historical cases, Vs tests performed after the soil improvement process do not show a significant increase in soil resistance, even though the soil surface sits more than 0.50 m. It is believed that this response is due to the presence of gas on the soil mass. Method: This paper presents the results of monotonic triaxial tests performed on samples of dense gaseous sandy soils to evaluate the effect of occluded gas on the response to the shear wave velocity in densified sands with explosives. For sand sampling, it was collected from a loose sand deposit located in South Carolina, USA. These samples were densified in-situ with explosives, and consolidated to the in-situ effective stress conditions, which are considered representative in the conditions of effort at the moment of the densification with explosives. Results: Triaxial tests were performed under global non-drained conditions. The results of these tests show that gas causes the shear wave velocity values obtained for the gaseous sands to approximate the shear wave velocity values obtained in the saturated samples tested under drained conditions. In addition, behavior tends to be more pronounced as the soil is denser. Conclusions: These response may offer some insights as to why the shear wave velocity does not increase significantly in densified soils with explosives, even though the density increases considerably.

  3. Radar velocity determination using direction of arrival measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.; Naething, Richard M.; Horndt, Volker


    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing direction of arrival (DOA) data to determine various flight parameters for an aircraft A plurality of radar images (e.g., SAR images) can be analyzed to identify a plurality of pixels in the radar images relating to one or more ground targets. In an embodiment, the plurality of pixels can be selected based upon the pixels exceeding a SNR threshold. The DOA data in conjunction with a measurable Doppler frequency for each pixel can be obtained. Multi-aperture technology enables derivation of an independent measure of DOA to each pixel based on interferometric analysis. This independent measure of DOA enables decoupling of the aircraft velocity from the DOA in a range-Doppler map, thereby enabling determination of a radar velocity. The determined aircraft velocity can be utilized to update an onboard INS, and to keep it aligned, without the need for additional velocity-measuring instrumentation.

  4. Arterial pulse wave velocity, inflammatory markers, pathological GH and IGF states, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Graham


    Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: Blood pressure (BP measurements provide information regarding risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, but only in a specific artery. Arterial stiffness (AS can be determined by measurement of arterial pulse wave velocity (APWV. Separate from any role as a surrogate marker, AS is an important determinant of pulse pressure, left ventricular function and coronary artery perfusion pressure. Proximal elastic arteries and peripheral muscular arteries respond differently to aging and to medication. Endogenous human growth hormone (hGH, secreted by the anterior pituitary, peaks during early adulthood, declining at 14% per decade. Levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I are at their peak during late adolescence and decline throughout adulthood, mirror imaging GH. Arterial endothelial dysfunction, an accepted cause of increased APWV in GH deficiency (GHD is reversed by recombinant human (rh GH therapy, favorably influencing the risk for atherogenesis. APWV is a noninvasive method for measuring atherosclerotic and hypertensive vascular changes increases with age and atherosclerosis leading to increased systolic blood pressure and increased left ventricular hypertrophy. Aerobic exercise training increases arterial compliance and reduces systolic blood pressure. Whole body arterial compliance is lowered in strength-trained individuals. Homocysteine and C-reactive protein are two infl ammatory markers directly linked with arterial endothelial dysfunction. Reviews of GH in the somatopause have not been favorable and side effects of treatment have marred its use except in classical GHD. Is it possible that we should be assessing the combined effects of therapy with rhGH and rh

  5. Near-wall velocity profile measurement for nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kanjirakat


    Full Text Available We perform near-wall velocity measurements of a SiO2–water nanofluid inside a microchannel. Nanoparticle image velocimetry measurements at three visible depths within 500 nm of the wall are conducted. We evaluate the optical properties of the nanofluid and their effect on the measurement technique. The results indicate that the small effect of the nanoparticles on the optical properties of the suspension have a negligible effect on the measurement technique. Our measurements show an increase in nanofluid velocity gradients near the walls, with no measurable slip, relative to the equivalent basefluid flow. We conjecture that particle migration induced by shear may have caused this increase. The effect of this increase in the measured near wall velocity gradient has implications on the viscosity measurement for these fluids.

  6. The Measurement of Ion Drift Velocities in Presheaths in Ar and He-Ar Plasmas (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Ko, Eunsuk; Hershkowitz, Noah


    The presheath is a region of weak electric field that accelerates ions into the sheath at the plasma boundary. Presheath measurements were carried out near a plate 15cm in diameter mounted in a multi-dipole DC plasma with pure Ar and He-Ar gas mixtures (P_total >= 1.0mTorr, ne >= 1E9cm-3, Te boxcar averager, ion drift velocity profiles were obtained in pure Ar plasma with different neutral pressures and the relationship between Ar and He ion drift velocities was determined in He-Ar plasma respectively. Using Ar ion drift velocities from LIF data ^[1], the He ion drift velocities were determined. Measurements by launching a continuous sinusoidal wave and a pulse are compared. ** Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER54437 [1] G. D. Severn, Xu Wang, Eunsuk Ko and N. Hershkowitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 145001 (2003).

  7. Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Bell and Russell Feder


    A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.

  8. P-wave velocity anisotropy related to sealed fractures reactivation tracing the structural diagenesis in carbonates (United States)

    Matonti, C.; Guglielmi, Y.; Viseur, S.; Garambois, S.; Marié, L.


    Fracture properties are important in carbonate reservoir characterization, as they are responsible for a large part of the fluid transfer properties at all scales. It is especially true in tight rocks where the matrix transfer properties only slightly contribute to the fluid flow. Open fractures are known to strongly affect seismic velocities, amplitudes and anisotropy. Here, we explore the impact of fracture evolution on the geophysical signature and directional Vp anisotropy of fractured carbonates through diagenesis. For that purpose, we studied a meter-scale, parallelepiped quarry block of limestone using a detailed structural and diagenetic characterization, and numerous Vp measurements. The block is affected by two en-échelon fracture clusters, both being formed in opening mode (mode 1) and cemented, but only one being reactivated in shear. We compared the diagenetic evolution of the fractures, which are almost all 100% filled with successive calcite cements, with the P-wave velocities measured across this meter-scale block of carbonate, which recorded the tectonic and diagenetic changes of a South Provence sedimentary basin. We found that a directional Vp anisotropy magnitude as high as 8-16% correlates with the reactivated fractures' cluster dip angle, which is explained by the complex filling sequence and softer material present inside the fractures that have been reactivated during the basin's tectonic inversion. We show that although a late karstification phase preferentially affected these reactivated fractures, it only amplified the pre-existing anisotropy due to tectonic shear. We conclude that Vp anisotropy measurements may help to identify the fracture sealing/opening processes associated with polyphased tectonic history, the anisotropy being independent of the current stress-state. This case shows that velocity anisotropies induced by fractures resulted here from a cause that is different from how these features have often been interpreted

  9. Measurement of lithium target surface velocity in the IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemura, Takuji, E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Hoashi, Eiji [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshihashi, Sachiko; Horiike, Hiroshi [Fukui University of Technology, Gakuen 3-6-1, Fukui-shi, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan); Wakai, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)


    Highlights: • The objective is to measure the free-surface velocity field of the IFMIF Li target. • The Li target has an important role to remove 10 MW heat input from a deuteron beam. • The free-surface of the Li target is under the most severe heat load condition. • Measured surface velocities are almost equal to cross-sectional average velocities. • It was confirmed that the IFMIF Li target has adequate heat removal performance. - Abstract: In the framework of the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) project of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), we measured surface velocity fields of a lithium (Li) target at the EVEDA Li test loop under specifically-designated IFMIF conditions (target speeds of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, vacuum pressure of 10{sup −3} Pa, and Li temperature of 250 °C). In the current design of the IFMIF, the free surface of the Li target is under a most severe heat load condition with respect to Li boiling. The objective of this study is to measure the actual free-surface velocity under these IFMIF conditions to evaluate the heat removal performance of the Li target. The measured results (using the surface-wave tracking method that our team developed) showed two-dimensional time-averaged velocity distributions around the IFMIF beam footprint being virtually uniform, and close to the cross-sectional average velocity. The uniformity of the velocity distributions was less than 1 m/s. The comparison between the measured and analyzed surface velocity at the beam center showed that the analysis accurately predicts the measurement results within a margin of 3%. Finally, it was confirmed that the Li target delivers adequate heat removal performance in the IFMIF as designed.

  10. Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing


    Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... input quantity for NAH, and the advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based NAH and as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has recently been demonstrated. This paper......, PNAH based on particle velocity measurements can give better results than the pressure-based PNAH with a reduced number of iterations. A simulation study, as well as an experiment carried out with a pressure-velocity sound intensity probe, demonstrates these findings....

  11. Independent association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and global longitudinal strain of left ventricle. (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-A; Zo, Joo-Hee


    Data regarding the influence of arterial stiffness on left ventricular (LV) long-axis function has been scarce. This study was performed to investigate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and LV global longitudinal strain (GLS). A total of 248 subjects (mean age 59.2 ± 12.3 years; 50% were men) without structural heart problems were retrospectively evaluated. LV GLS was measured by 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. baPWV measurements were made on the same day of echocardiography. The incidences of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were 51.2, 19.4, and 22.2%, respectively. The mean value of baPWV was 1557 ± 285 cm/s. In simple linear regression analysis, baPWV had a significant positive association with LV GLS (β = 0.215, P = 0.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, baPWV was independently associated with LV GLS even after controlling for potential confounders, including age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, HbA1c, total cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular mass index, E/A, septal e' velocity and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (β = 0.211, P = 0.028). The results of this study suggest that baPWV may be independently associated with LV GLS, supporting the evidence of a close interaction between arterial stiffness and LV function. Increased arterial stiffness may result in impaired LV longitudinal function.

  12. Quantitative Assessment of In-situ Salt Karstification Using Shear Wave Velocity, Dead Sea (United States)

    Ezersky, Michael; Legchenko, Anatoly


    The Dead Sea (DS) coastal areas have been dramatically affected by sinkhole formation since around 1990. Such sinkholes along both Israeli and Jordanian shores are linked to karst cavities that form through slow salt dissolution. A quantitative estimate of such in-situ salt karstification would be an important indicator of sinkhole hazard. One of the indications of salt karstification is its increased hydraulic conductivity, caused by the development of dissolution cavities forming conducting channels within the salt layer. We measured the hydraulic conductivity (K) versus shear-wave velocity (Vs) of DS salt in situ for estimating the actual salt karstification in areas of sinkhole development. These parameters were measured with the Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) methods, respectively. Understanding of the field relationships was augmented by similar inter-relations obtained in the laboratory on samples of DS salt. In-situ salt velocities Vs vary from 750 m/s to over 1650 m/s, while hydraulic conductivity (K) in the same zones varies between about 10- 4 m/s to slightly over 10- 8 m/s. Both field and laboratory K and Vs values fit the exponential function ln(K) = - 0.0045 ∗ Vs - 5.416 with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.88. A classification based on Vs and K was generated for salt conditions and the corresponding degrees of sinkhole hazard, which was verified in the Mineral Beach sinkhole development area. The mapping of sinkhole sites shows that they form within highly conductive zones with K ≥ 5.5 ∗ 10- 5. It is suggested that this methodology, with some modification, can be used for evaluating the conductive properties of karstified rock and associated sinkhole hazards.

  13. Measuring the equatorial plasma bubble drift velocities over Morroco (United States)

    Lagheryeb, Amine; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian; Kaab, Mohamed; Lazrek, Mohamed; Fisher, Daniel J.; Duly, Timothy M.; Bounhir, Aziza; Daassou, Ahmed


    In this work, we present a method to measure the drift velocities of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) in the low latitude ionosphere. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we use 630.0-nm airglow images collected by the Portable Ionospheric Camera and Small Scale Observatory (PICASSO) system deployed at the Oukkaimden observatory in Morocco. To extract the drift velocity, the individual images were processed by first spatially registering the images using the star field. After this, the stars were removed from the images using a point suppression methodology, the images were projected into geographic coordinates assuming an airglow emission altitude of 250 km. Once the images were projected into geographic coordinates, the intensities of the airglow along a line of constant geomagnetic latitude (31°) are used to detect the presence of an EPB, which shows up as a depletion in airglow intensity. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we divide the spatial lag between depletions found in two images (found by the application of correlation analysis) by the time difference between these two images. With multiple images, we will have several velocity values and consequently we can draw the EPB drift velocity curve. Future analysis will compare the estimates of the plasma drift velocity with the thermospheric neutral wind velocity estimated by a collocated Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the observatory.

  14. Velocity measurement by coherent x-ray heterodyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhermitte, Julien R. M.; Rogers, Michael C.; Manet, Sabine; Sutton, Mark


    We present a small-angle coherent x-ray scattering technique used for measuring flow velocities in slow moving materials. The technique is an extension of X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS): It involves mixing the scattering from moving tracer particles with a static reference that heterodynes the signal. This acts to elongate temporal effects caused by flow in homodyne measurements, allowing for a more robust measurement of flow properties. Using coherent x-ray heterodyning, velocities ranging from 0.1 to 10 μm/s were measured for a viscous fluid pushed through a rectangular channel. We describe experimental protocols and theory for making these Poiseuille flow profile measurements and also develop the relevant theory for using heterodyne XPCS to measure velocities in uniform and Couette flows.

  15. The association between pulse wave velocity and cognitive function: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Singer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pulse wave velocity (PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and its increase with ageing has been associated with damage to cerebral microvessels and cognitive impairment. This study examined the relationship between carotid-femoral PWV and specific domains of cognitive function in a non-demented elderly sample. METHOD: Data were drawn from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, a cohort study of non-demented community-dwelling individuals aged 70-90 years, assessed in successive waves two years apart. In Wave 2, PWV and cognitive function were measured in 319 participants. Linear regression was used to analyse the cross-sectional relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive function in the whole sample, and separately for men and women. Analysis of covariance was used to assess potential differences in cognition between subjects with PWV measurements in the top and bottom tertiles of the cohort. Covariates were age, education, body mass index, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, depression, alcohol, smoking, hormone replacement therapy, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, use of anti-hypertensive medications, history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes, and also sex for the whole sample analyses. RESULTS: There was no association between PWV and cognition after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. When examining this association for males and females separately, an association was found in males, with higher PWV being associated with lower global cognition and memory, however, a significant difference between PWV and cognition between males and females was not found. CONCLUSION: A higher level of PWV was not associated with lower cognitive function in the whole sample.

  16. On the estimation of total arterial compliance from aortic pulse wave velocity. (United States)

    Vardoulis, Orestis; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos


    Total arterial compliance (C(T)) is a main determinant of cardiac afterload, left ventricular function and arterio-ventricular coupling. C(T) is physiologically more relevant than regional aortic stiffness. However, direct, in vivo, non-invasive, measurement of C(T) is not feasible. Several methods for indirect C(T) estimation require simultaneous recording of aortic flow and pressure waves, limiting C(T) assessment in clinical practice. In contrast, aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) measurement, which is considered as the "gold standard" method to assess arterial stiffness, is noninvasive and relatively easy. Our aim was to establish the relation between aPWV and C(T). In total, 1000 different hemodynamic cases were simulated, by altering heart rate, compliance, resistance and geometry using an accurate, distributed, nonlinear, one-dimensional model of the arterial tree. Based on Bramwell-Hill theory, the formula C(T) = k • aPWV(-2) was found to accurately estimate C(T) from aPWV. Coefficient k was determined both analytically and by fitting C(T) vs. aPWV data. C(T) estimation may provide an additional tool for cardiovascular risk (CV) assessment and better management of CV diseases. C(T) could have greater impact in assessing elderly population or subjects with elevated arterial stiffness, where aPWV seem to have limited prognostic value. Further clinical studies should be performed to validate the formula in vivo.

  17. Pulse wave velocity is associated with cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Angermann, Susanne; Baumann, Marcus; Wassertheurer, Siegfried; Mayer, Christopher Clemens; Steubl, Dominik; Hauser, Christine; Suttmann, Yana; Reichelt, Anna-Lena; Satanovskij, Robin; Lorenz, Georg; Lukas, Moritz; Haller, Bernhard; Heemann, Uwe; Grimmer, Timo; Schmaderer, Christoph


    Cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients is common and associated with adverse outcomes. So far, the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the potential relationship between cognitive impairment and three different categories of risk factors with particular focus on arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV). A total of 201 chronic hemodialysis patients underwent cognitive testing under standardized conditions using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Demographic data including cardiovascular risk factors, dialysis-associated factors as well as factors related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) were analyzed. To account for arterial stiffness, PWV was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoried with an oscillometric device that records brachial blood pressure along with pulse waves. In our cohort, 60.2% of patients showed pathological MoCA test results indicating cognitive impairment. PWV was significantly associated with cognitive impairment apart from age, educational level, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. High prevalence of cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients was confirmed. For the first time, an association between cognitive impairment and arterial stiffness was detected in a larger cohort of hemodialysis patients. Concerning the underlying pathogenesis of cognitive impairment, current results revealed a potential involvement of arterial stiffness, which has to be further evaluated in future studies. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. GSpecDisp: A matlab GUI package for phase-velocity dispersion measurements from ambient-noise correlations (United States)

    Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari


    We present a graphical user interface (GUI) package to facilitate phase-velocity dispersion measurements of surface waves in noise-correlation traces. The package, called GSpecDisp, provides an interactive environment for the measurements and presentation of the results. The selection of a dispersion curve can be done automatically or manually within the package. The data are time-domain cross-correlations in SAC format, but GSpecDisp measures phase velocity in the spectral domain. Two types of phase-velocity dispersion measurements can be carried out with GSpecDisp; (1) average velocity of a region, and (2) single-pair phase velocity. Both measurements are done by matching the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum with the appropriate Bessel function. Advantages of these two types of measurements are that no prior knowledge about surface-wave dispersion in the region is needed, and that phase velocity can be measured up to that period for which the inter-station distance corresponds to one wavelength. GSpecDisp can measure the phase velocity of Rayleigh and Love waves from all possible components of the noise correlation tensor. First, we briefly present the theory behind the methods that are used, and then describe different modules of the package. Finally, we validate the developed algorithms by applying them to synthetic and real data, and by comparison with other methods. The source code of GSpecDisp can be downloaded from:

  19. A Method of Initial Velocity Measurement for Rocket Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiancheng


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method is proposed to measure the initial velocity of the rocket based on STFT (the short-time Fourier transform and the WT (wavelet transform. The radar echo signal processing procedure involves the following steps: sampling process, overlapping windows, wavelet decomposition and reconstruction, computing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform and spectrum analysis, power spectrum peak detection. Then, according to the peak of the detection power spectrum, the corresponding Doppler frequency is obtained. Finally, on the basis of the relationship between Doppler frequency and instantaneous velocity, the V-T curve is drawn in MATLAB to obtain the initial velocity of the rocket muzzle.

  20. Applicability of coda wave interferometry technique for measurement of acoustoelastic effect of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Woo [Dept. of Safety Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we examined the applicability of coda wave interferometry (CWI) technique, which was developed to characterize seismic waves, to detect and evaluate change in the velocity of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to acoustoelastic effect. Ultrasonic wave measurements and compressive loading tests were conducted on a concrete specimen. The measured wave signals were processed with CWI to detect and evaluate the relative velocity change with respect to the stress state of the specimen. A phase change due to the acoustoelastic effect of concrete was clearly detected in the late-arriving coda wave. This shows that the relative velocity change of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to the acoustoelastic effect can be evaluated successfully and precisely using CWI.

  1. Lithospheric Shear Velocity Structure of South Island, New Zealand from Rayleigh Wave Tomography of Amphibious Array Data (United States)

    Ball, J. S.; Sheehan, A. F.; Stachnik, J. C.; Lin, F. C.; Collins, J. A.


    We present the first 3D shear velocity model extending well offshore of New Zealand's South Island, imaging the lithosphere beneath Campbell and Challenger plateaus. Our model is constructed via linearized inversion of both teleseismic (18 -70 s period) and ambient noise-based (8 - 25 s period) Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements. We augment an array of 29 ocean-bottom instruments deployed off the South Island's east and west coasts in 2009-2010 with 28 New Zealand land-based seismometers. The ocean-bottom seismometers and 4 of the land seismometers were part of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) experiment, and the remaining land seismometers are from New Zealand's permanent GeoNet array. Major features of our shear wave velocity (Vs) model include a low-velocity (Vs<4.3km/s) body extending to at least 75km depth beneath the Banks and Otago peninsulas, a high-velocity (Vs~4.7km/s) upper mantle anomaly underlying the Southern Alps to a depth of 100km, and discontinuous lithospheric velocity structure between eastern and western Challenger Plateau. Using the 4.5km/s contour as a proxy for the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, our model suggests that the lithospheric thickness of Challenger Plateau is substantially greater than that of Campbell Plateau. The high-velocity anomaly we resolve beneath the central South Island exhibits strong spatial correlation with subcrustal earthquake hypocenters along the Alpine Fault (Boese et al., 2013). The ~400km-long low velocity zone we image beneath eastern South Island underlies Cenozoic volcanics and mantle-derived helium observations (Hoke et al., 2000) on the surface. The NE-trending low-velocity zone dividing Challenger Plateau in our model underlies a prominent magnetic discontinuity (Sutherland et al., 1999). The latter feature has been interpreted to represent a pre-Cretaceous crustal boundary, which our results suggest may involve the entire mantle lithosphere.

  2. Brahan Project High Frequency Radar Ocean Measurements: Currents, Winds, Waves and Their Interactions


    Belinda Lipa; Donald Barrick; Andres Alonso-Martirena; Maria Fernandes; Maria Inmaculada Ferrer; Bruce Nyden


    We describe radar measurements of waves, currents and winds made on the coast of northern Scotland during two 2013/14 winter storms, giving methods, results and interpretation. Wave parameters (height, period, direction and short-wave/wind direction) were derived and compared with measurements made by a neighboring buoy and local weather stations. Wind direction and current velocity maps were produced and the interactions of winds and currents discussed. Significant oscillations in wave param...

  3. Significance of Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer for direct measurements of nonlinear wave-particle interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Katoh


    Full Text Available In the upcoming JAXA/ERG satellite mission, Wave Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA will be installed as an onboard software function. We study the statistical significance of the WPIA for measurement of the energy transfer process between energetic electrons and whistler-mode chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The WPIA measures a relative phase angle between the wave vector E and velocity vector v of each electron and computes their inner product W, where W is the time variation of the kinetic energy of energetic electrons interacting with plasma waves. We evaluate the feasibility by applying the WPIA analysis to the simulation results of whistler-mode chorus generation. We compute W using both a wave electric field vector observed at a fixed point in the simulation system and a velocity vector of each energetic electron passing through this point. By summing up Wi of an individual particle i to give Wint, we obtain significant values of Wint as expected from the evolution of chorus emissions in the simulation result. We can discuss the efficiency of the energy exchange through wave-particle interactions by selecting the range of the kinetic energy and pitch angle of the electrons used in the computation of Wint. The statistical significance of the obtained Wint is evaluated by calculating the standard deviation σW of Wint. In the results of the analysis, positive or negative Wint is obtained at the different regions of velocity phase space, while at the specific regions the obtained Wint values are significantly greater than σW, indicating efficient wave-particle interactions. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using the WPIA, which will be on board the upcoming ERG satellite, for direct measurement of wave-particle interactions.

  4. Characterization of wind velocities in the upstream induction zone of a wind turbine using scanning continuous-wave lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simley, Eric; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh


    Technical University’s Risø campus is investigated using a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system. Three short-range continuous-wave “WindScanner” lidars are positioned in the field around the V27 turbine allowing detection of all three components of the wind velocity vectors within...... in the induction zone are studied by more rapidly scanning along individual lines perpendicular to the rotor at different radial distances from the hub. The mean velocity measurements reveal that the longitudinal velocity reductions become greater closer to the rotor plane and closer to the center of the rotor...... 9% and 3% of the freestream longitudinal wind speed were measured for the abovementioned high and low CP values, respectively. Turbulence statistics, calculated using 2.5-min time series, suggest that the standard deviation of the longitudinal wind component decreases close to the rotor, while...

  5. Evaluation of multilayered pavement structures from measurements of surface waves (United States)

    Ryden, N.; Lowe, M.J.S.; Cawley, P.; Park, C.B.


    A method is presented for evaluating the thickness and stiffness of multilayered pavement structures from guided waves measured at the surface. Data is collected with a light hammer as the source and an accelerometer as receiver, generating a synthetic receiver array. The top layer properties are evaluated with a Lamb wave analysis. Multiple layers are evaluated by matching a theoretical phase velocity spectrum to the measured spectrum. So far the method has been applied to the testing of pavements, but it may also be applicable in other fields such as ultrasonic testing of coated materials. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Directional wave measurements and modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; Bhat, S.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    -dimensional spectra and sech@u2@@ (beta theta) spreading function seem to provide a better estimate of the directional energy distribution for the monsoon conditions. While non-linear wave-wave interaction seems to be the major governing factor in the directional...

  7. Detailed three-dimensional shear wave velocity structure of the northwestern United States from Rayleigh wave tomography (United States)

    Wagner, Lara; Forsyth, Donald W.; Fouch, Matthew J.; James, David E.


    Since the mid-Miocene, the northwestern United States has experienced extensive flood basalt volcanism, followed by the formation of two time-progressive tracks of silicic volcanism: the Yellowstone/Snake River Plains (YSRP) and the High Lava Plains (HLP). The YSRP track progresses towards the northeast, parallel to North American plate motion, and has therefore often been attributed to a deep mantle plume source. However, the HLP track progresses to the northwest over the same time frame in a direction not consistent with any regional plate motion. The causes of the mid-Miocene flood basalts and the tracks of the YSRP and HLP are a matter of ongoing debate. We present results of Rayleigh wave phase velocity inversions and inversions for 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the northwestern United States using data collected from the High Lava Plains seismic experiment and the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA). The large number of stations used in these inversions allows us to show an unprecedented level of detail in the seismic velocity structures of this tectonically complex area. Our velocity images indicate that low S-wave velocities in the uppermost mantle do not well match the track of HLP volcanism. While at the surface the Newberry caldera appears to anchor the NW end of the HLP hotspot track, the seismic results show that it lies in a separate, north-south trending low velocity band just east of the Cascades that is distinct from the main HLP trace. The ultra-low S-wave velocities beneath the YSRP track extend locally to at least 175 km depth and are by far the most prominent seismic anomalies in the region. Along axis, the YSRP hotspot track is characterized by a discrete low velocity channel in the upper mantle that shallows, narrows and intensifies to the northeast, but then deepens rapidly to the north beneath Yellowstone. The shallowing of the low velocity anomaly to the northeast is consistent with a stationary heat source beneath a moving

  8. Brahan Project High Frequency Radar Ocean Measurements: Currents, Winds, Waves and Their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Lipa


    Full Text Available We describe radar measurements of waves, currents and winds made on the coast of northern Scotland during two 2013/14 winter storms, giving methods, results and interpretation. Wave parameters (height, period, direction and short-wave/wind direction were derived and compared with measurements made by a neighboring buoy and local weather stations. Wind direction and current velocity maps were produced and the interactions of winds and currents discussed. Significant oscillations in wave parameters were observed, which appear to be due to forcing by tidal current velocity variations. The oscillations in waveheight are explained using hydrodynamic analysis and derived amplitudes are compared with radar measurements.

  9. Measuring average angular velocity with a smartphone magnetic field sensor (United States)

    Pili, Unofre; Violanda, Renante


    The angular velocity of a spinning object is, by standard, measured using a device called a tachometer. However, by directly using it in a classroom setting, the activity is likely to appear as less instructive and less engaging. Indeed, some alternative classroom-suitable methods for measuring angular velocity have been presented. In this paper, we present a further alternative that is smartphone-based, making use of the real-time magnetic field (simply called B-field in what follows) data gathering capability of the B-field sensor of the smartphone device as the timer for measuring average rotational period and average angular velocity. The in-built B-field sensor in smartphones has already found a number of uses in undergraduate experimental physics. For instance, in elementary electrodynamics, it has been used to explore the well-known Bio-Savart law and in a measurement of the permeability of air.

  10. Using second-sound shock waves to probe the intrinsic critical velocity of liquid helium II (United States)

    Turner, T. N.


    A critical velocity truly intrinsic to liquid helium II is experimentally sought in the bulk fluid far from the apparatus walls. Termed the 'fundamental critical velocity,' it necessarily is caused by mutual interactions which operate between the two fluid components and which are activated at large relative velocities. It is argued that flow induced by second-sound shock waves provides the ideal means by which to activate and isolate the fundamental critical velocity from other extraneous fluid-wall interactions. Experimentally it is found that large-amplitude second-sound shock waves initiate a breakdown in the superfluidity of helium II, which is dramatically manifested as a limit to the maximum attainable shock strength. This breakdown is shown to be caused by a fundamental critical velocity. Secondary effects include boiling for ambient pressures near the saturated vapor pressure or the formation of helium I boundary layers at higher ambient pressures. When compared to the intrinsic critical velocity discovered in highly restricted geometries, the shock-induced critical velocity displays a similar temperature dependence and is the same order of magnitude.

  11. Deep ReMi Imaging - Mapping Shear-Wave Velocities to 1 km Depth and Greater Using Refraction Microtremor (United States)

    Louie, J. N.; Pancha, A.; Munger, D.; Law, C.; Adams, D.; Mick, T. M.; Pullammanappallil, S. K.


    The Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) surface-wave technique, in use since 2002, has become a standard tool for assessing urban shear-wave velocities for engineering applications. ReMi is effective for site-class studies as well as assessing ground conditions, including 1D and 2D velocity-depth profiling to shallow depths of approximately 100 m. Over the last few years, we have successfully extended the application of the method to depths greater than 1 km. The use of deep ReMi, which relies primarily on ambient noise, for estimation of shear-wave velocities to kilometer depths, allows for mapping the thickness and velocity of deep urban basins. Accurate 3D modeling and calibration of recorded earthquake ground motions in urban areas is one use of deep ReMi results. Such models have the potential to be an essential part of seismic hazard evaluation. We present results from several deep ReMi studies conducted in the Reno-area and Tahoe basins of Nevada and California. Wireless instruments coupled with low-frequency geophones deployed in 3-km-long arrays across the densely populated urban environment acquired data in 2012, 2014, and 2015. In addition to mapping basement as deep as 900 m, the lateral velocity variations reveal deep-seated fault structure in the initial studies. A study of the Reno-area basin in 2016 employed arrays of 90 IRIS-PASSCAL Texans, 15 and 22 km long. This data set appears to constrain a sub-basin interface between Tertiary volcanics and Mesozoic basement at 1-2 km depth. Characterization of shear velocity at greater than 100 m depth, to basement, along with previously unknown faults, is vital towards quantifying earthquake ground motion and seismic hazard potential in geologically complex urban basins. Our measurements will allow Nevada communities to become more resilient against natural hazards.

  12. Planar time-resolved PIV for velocity and pressure retrieval in atmospheric boundary layer over surface waves. (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil; Bopp, Maximilian; Caulliez, Guillemette


    Air-sea coupling in general is important for weather, climate, fluxes. Wind wave source is crucially important for surface waves' modeling. But the wind-wave growth rate is strongly uncertain. Using direct measurements of pressure by wave-following Elliott probe [1] showed, weak and indefinite dependence of wind-wave growth rate on the wave steepness, while Grare [2] discuss the limitations of direct measurements of pressure associated with the inability to measure the pressure close to the surface by contact methods. Recently non-invasive methods for determining the pressure on the basis of technology of time-resolved PIV are actively developed [3]. Retrieving air flow velocities by 2D PIV techniques was started from Reul et al [4]. The first attempt for retrieving wind pressure field of waves in the laboratory tank from the time-resolved PIV measurements was done in [5]. The experiments were performed at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m). For 18 regimes with wind speed up to 14 m/s including presence of puddle waves, a combination of time resolved PIV technique and optical measurements of water surface form was applied to detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. Ammonium chloride smoke was used for flow visualization illuminated by two 6 Wt blue diode lasers combined into a vertical laser plane. Particle movement was captured with high-speed camera using Scheimpflug technique (up to 20 kHz frame rate with 4-frame bursts, spatial resolution about 190 μm, field of view 314x12 mm). Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave form. The resulting time resolved instantaneous velocity fields on regular grid allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from measured air velocity fluctuations. The average wind velocity patterns were

  13. Estimating Radar Velocity using Direction of Arrival Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Horndt, Volker [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bickel, Douglas Lloyd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naething, Richard M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements, as with a monopulse antenna, can be compared against Doppler measurements in a Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) image to determine an aircraft's forward velocity as well as its crab angle, to assist the aircraft's navigation as well as improving high - performance SAR image formation and spatial calibration.

  14. Measuring Velocity and Acceleration Using Doppler Shift of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Abstract. We describe here as to how the Doppler shift of a source needs to be used to measure its velocity and acceleration. We also apply this method, as an example here, to spectral lines of the blue-shifted jet in micro-quasar SS433 and discuss the intricacies of these measurements.

  15. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Ahyi, A. C.; Raju, P. K.


    In earlier studies of acoustic scattering resonances and of the dispersive phase velocities of surface waves that generate them [see, e.g., Talmant et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 278–289 (1989) for spherical aluminum shells] we have demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of obtaining phase......-loaded, evacuated spherical metal shells of aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten carbide. In particular, the characteristic upturn of the dispersion curves of low-order shell-borne circumferential waves (A or A0 waves) which takes place on spherical shells when the frequency tends towards very low values...

  16. Detonation Velocity Measurement with Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wei


    Full Text Available Detonation velocity is an important parameter for explosive, and it is crucial for many fields such as dynamic chemistry burn models, detonation propagation prediction, explosive performance estimation, and so on. Dual-channel detonation velocity measurement method and system are described. The CFBG sensors are pasted both on the surface and in the center of the explosive cylinder. The length of CFBG sensors is measured via the hot-tip probe method. The light intensity reflected from the CFBG sensors attached to the explosive is transformed to voltage, and the voltage–time is then measured with the oscilloscope. According to the five experiments results, the relative standard uncertainty of detonation velocity is below 1%.

  17. Sediment and Crustal Shear Velocity Structure offshore New Zealand from Seafloor Compliance, Receiver Functions and Rayleigh Wave Dispersion (United States)

    Ball, J. S.; Sheehan, A. F.; Stachnik, J. C.; Lin, F.; Collins, J. A.


    We have developed a joint Monte Carlo inversion of teleseismic receiver functions, seafloor compliance, and Rayleigh wave dispersion and apply it here to ocean bottom seismic (OBS) data from offshore New Zealand. With this method we estimate sediment and crustal thickness and shear velocity structure beneath the Bounty Trough and the Tasman Sea flanking the South Island of New Zealand. Teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements provide complementary constraints on shear velocity structure and interface depths beneath seismic stations. At ocean bottom seismic (OBS) stations the interpretation of these measurements is complicated by strong sediment reverberations that obscure deeper impedance contrasts such as the Moho. In principle, the seafloor's response to ocean loading from infragravity waves (seafloor compliance) can be used to determine shallow shear velocity information. This velocity information can subsequently be used to better model the receiver function reverberations, allowing deeper interfaces of tectonic interest to be resolved. Data for this study were acquired in 2009-2010 by the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) experiment, which deployed 30 broadband OBS and differential pressure gauges (DPGs) off the South Island of New Zealand. High-frequency (5Hz) receiver functions were estimated using multitaper cross-correlation for events in a 30-90 degree epicentral distance range. Coherence-weighted stacks binned by epicentral distance were produced in the frequency domain to suppress noise. Seafloor compliance was measured using multitaper pressure and acceleration spectra averaged from 120 days of continuous data without large transient events. Seafloor compliance measurements on the order of 10-9 Pa-1 are sensitive to shear velocity structure in the uppermost 5km of the crust and sediments. Rayleigh dispersion measurements were obtained at periods of 6-27s from ambient noise cross correlation. Sediment

  18. Angle-domain Migration Velocity Analysis using Wave-equation Reflection Traveltime Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong


    The main difficulty with an iterative waveform inversion is that it tends to get stuck in a local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly non-linear with respect to changes in the velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we present a reflection traveltime tomography method based on the wave equation which enjoys a more quasi-linear relationship between the model and the data. A local crosscorrelation of the windowed downgoing direct wave and the upgoing reflection wave at the image point yields the lag time that maximizes the correlation. This lag time represents the reflection traveltime residual that is back-projected into the earth model to update the velocity in the same way as wave-equation transmission traveltime inversion. The residual movemout analysis in the angle-domain common image gathers provides a robust estimate of the depth residual which is converted to the reflection traveltime residual for the velocity inversion. We present numerical examples to demonstrate its efficiency in inverting seismic data for complex velocity model.

  19. S-wave velocity below Europe from delay-time and waveform inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielhuis, A.


    The upper mantle of Europe has been the subject of many tomographic studies of variations in P-wave velocity (e.g., Romanowicz 1980; Hovland et al., 1981; Spakman, 1988, 1991; and Spakman et aI., in preparation). In particular the studies of Spakman (1988, 1991) and Spakman et aI. (in preparation)

  20. S-wave velocity below Europe from delay-time and waveform inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielhuis, A.


    The upper mantle of Europe has been the subject of many tomographic studies of variations in P-wave velocity (e.g., Romanowicz 1980; Hovland et al., 1981; Spakman, 1988, 1991; and Spakman et aI., in preparation). In particular the studies of Spakman (1988, 1991) and Spakman et aI. (in

  1. P-wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -wave velocity test, a non-destructive and easy method to apply in both field and laboratory conditions, has increasingly been conducted to determine the geotechnical properties of rock materials. The aim of this study is to predict the rock properties including the uniaxial compressive strength, Schmidt hardness, modulus ...

  2. P-wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    wave velocity changes with porosity and degree of saturation. ..... Hudson J A, Jones E T W and New B M 1980 Q. J. Eng. Geol. 13 33. International Society for Rock Mechanics 1981 ISRM Sug- gested Methods. 211. Kahraman S 2001 Int. J.

  3. An integrated shear-wave velocity model for the Groningen gas field, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruiver, Pauline P.; van Dedem, Ewoud; Romijn, Remco; de Lange, Ger; Korff, M.; Stafleu, Jan; Gunnink, Jan L.; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Bommer, Julian J.; van Elk, Jan; Doornhof, Dirk


    A regional shear-wave velocity (VS) model has been developed for the Groningen gas field in the Netherlands as the basis for seismic microzonation of an area of more than 1000 km2. The VS model, extending to a depth of almost 1 km, is an essential input to the

  4. The determination of the acoustic parameters of volcanic rocks from compressional velocity measurements (United States)

    Carroll, R.D.


    A statistical analysis was made of the relationship of various acoustic parameters of volcanic rocks to compressional wave velocities for data obtained in a volcanic region in Nevada. Some additional samples, chiefly granitic rocks, were also included in the study to extend the range of parameters and the variety of siliceous rock types sampled. Laboratory acoustic measurements obtained on 62 dry core samples were grouped with similar measurements obtained from geophysical logging devices at several depth intervals in a hole from which 15 of the core samples had been obtained. The effects of lithostatic and hydrostatic load on changing the rock acoustic parameters measured in the hole were noticeable when compared with the laboratory measurements on the same core. The results of the analyses determined by grouping all of the data, however, indicate that dynamic Young's, shear and bulk modulus, shear velocity, shear and compressional characteristic impedance, as well as amplitude and energy reflection coefficients may be reliably estimated on the basis of the compressional wave velocities of the rocks investigated. Less precise estimates can be made of density based on the rock compressional velocity. The possible extension of these relationships to include many siliceous rocks is suggested. ?? 1969.

  5. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E


    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations

  6. Feasibility of pulse wave velocity estimation from low frame rate US sequences in vivo (United States)

    Zontak, Maria; Bruce, Matthew; Hippke, Michelle; Schwartz, Alan; O'Donnell, Matthew


    The pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered one of the most important clinical parameters to evaluate CV risk, vascular adaptation, etc. There has been substantial work attempting to measure the PWV in peripheral vessels using ultrasound (US). This paper presents a fully automatic algorithm for PWV estimation from the human carotid using US sequences acquired with a Logic E9 scanner (modified for RF data capture) and a 9L probe. Our algorithm samples the pressure wave in time by tracking wall displacements over the sequence, and estimates the PWV by calculating the temporal shift between two sampled waves at two distinct locations. Several recent studies have utilized similar ideas along with speckle tracking tools and high frame rate (above 1 KHz) sequences to estimate the PWV. To explore PWV estimation in a more typical clinical setting, we used focused-beam scanning, which yields relatively low frame rates and small fields of view (e.g., 200 Hz for 16.7 mm filed of view). For our application, a 200 Hz frame rate is low. In particular, the sub-frame temporal accuracy required for PWV estimation between locations 16.7 mm apart, ranges from 0.82 of a frame for 4m/s, to 0.33 for 10m/s. When the distance is further reduced (to 0.28 mm between two beams), the sub-frame precision is in parts per thousand (ppt) of the frame (5 ppt for 10m/s). As such, the contributions of our algorithm and this paper are: 1. Ability to work with low frame-rate ( 200Hz) and decreased lateral field of view. 2. Fully automatic segmentation of the wall intima (using raw RF images). 3. Collaborative Speckle Tracking of 2D axial and lateral carotid wall motion. 4. Outlier robust PWV calculation from multiple votes using RANSAC. 5. Algorithm evaluation on volunteers of different ages and health conditions.

  7. Improved aortic pulse wave velocity assessment from multislice two-directional in-plane velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Westenberg, Jos J M; de Roos, Albert; Grotenhuis, Heynric B; Steendijk, Paul; Hendriksen, Dennis; van den Boogaard, Pieter J; van der Geest, Rob J; Bax, Jeroen J; Jukema, J Wouter; Reiber, Johan H C


    To evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment by in-plane velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 14 patients selected for cardiac catheterization on suspicion of coronary artery disease and 15 healthy volunteers, PWV was assessed with multislice two-directional in-plane velocity-encoded MRI (PWV(i.p.)) and compared with conventionally assessed PWV from multisite one-directional through-plane velocity-encoded MRI (PWV(t.p.)). In patients, PWV was also obtained from intraarterially acquired pressure-time curves (PWV(pressure)), which is considered the gold standard reference method. In volunteers, PWV(i.p.) and PWV(t.p.) were obtained in duplicate in the same examination to test reproducibility. In patients, PWV(i.p.) showed stronger correlation and similar variation with PWV(pressure) than PWV(t.p.) (Pearson correlation r = 0.75 vs. r = 0.58, and coefficient of variation [COV] = 10% vs. COV = 12%, respectively). In volunteers, repeated PWV(i.p.) assessment showed stronger correlation and less variation than repeated PWV(t.p.) (proximal aorta: r = 0.97 and COV = 10% vs. r = 0.69 and COV = 17%; distal aorta: r = 0.94 and COV = 12% vs. r = 0.90 and COV = 16%; total aorta: r = 0.97 and COV = 7% vs. r = 0.90 and COV = 13%). PWV(i.p.) is an improvement over conventional PWV(t.p.) by showing higher agreement as compared to the gold standard (PWV(pressure)) and higher reproducibility for repeated MRI assessment. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Laser photoacoustic technique for ultrasonic surface acoustic wave velocity evaluation on porcelain (United States)

    Qian, K.; Tu, S. J.; Gao, L.; Xu, J.; Li, S. D.; Yu, W. C.; Liao, H. H.


    A laser photoacoustic technique has been developed to evaluate the surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity of porcelain. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm was focused by a cylindrical lens to initiate broadband SAW impulses, which were detected by an optical fiber interferometer with high spatial resolution. Multiple near-field surface acoustic waves were observed on the sample surface at various locations along the axis perpendicular to the laser line source as the detector moved away from the source in the same increments. The frequency spectrum and dispersion curves were obtained by operating on the recorded waveforms with cross-correlation and FFT. The SAW phase velocities of the porcelain of the same source are similar while they are different from those of different sources. The marked differences of Rayleigh phase velocities in our experiment suggest that this technique has the potential for porcelain identification.

  9. Shear wave velocity, seismic attenuation, and thermal structure of the continental upper mantle (United States)

    Artemieva, I.M.; Billien, M.; Leveque, J.-J.; Mooney, W.D.


    Seismic velocity and attenuation anomalies in the mantle are commonly interpreted in terms of temperature variations on the basis of laboratory studies of elastic and anelastic properties of rocks. In order to evaluate the relative contributions of thermal and non-thermal effects on anomalies of attenuation of seismic shear waves, QS-1, and seismic velocity, VS, we compare global maps of the thermal structure of the continental upper mantle with global QS-1 and Vs maps as determined from Rayleigh waves at periods between 40 and 150 S. We limit the comparison to three continental mantle depths (50, 100 and 150 km), where model resolution is relatively high. The available data set does not indicate that, at a global scale, seismic anomalies in the upper mantle are controlled solely by temperature variations. Continental maps have correlation coefficients of seismic and thermal anomalies of the opposite sign. The strongest inverse correlation is found at a depth of 100 km, where the attenuation model is best resolved. Significantly, at this depth, the contours of near-zero QS anomalies approximately correspond to the 1000 ??C isotherm, in agreement with laboratory measurements that show a pronounced increase in seismic attenuation in upper mantle rocks at 1000-1100 ??C. East-west profiles of VS, QS and T where continental data coverage is best (50??N latitude for North America and 60??N latitude for Eurasia) further demonstrate that temperature plays a dominant, but non-unique, role in determining the value of lithospheric VS and QS. At 100 km depth, where the resolution of seismic models is the highest, we compare observed seismic VS and QS with theoretical VST and QST values, respectively, that are calculated solely from temperature anomalies and constrained by experimental data on temperature dependencies of velocity and attenuation. This comparison shows that temperature variations alone are sufficient to explain seismic VS and QS in ca 50 per cent of continental

  10. Second sound shock waves and critical velocities in liquid helium 2. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Turner, T. N.


    Large amplitude second-sound shock waves were generated and the experimental results compared to the theory of nonlinear second-sound. The structure and thickness of second-sound shock fronts are calculated and compared to experimental data. Theoretically it is shown that at T = 1.88 K, where the nonlinear wave steepening vanishes, the thickness of a very weak shock must diverge. In a region near this temperature, a finite-amplitude shock pulse evolves into an unusual double-shock configuration consisting of a front steepened, temperature raising shock followed by a temperature lowering shock. Double-shocks are experimentally verified. It is experimentally shown that very large second-sound shock waves initiate a breakdown in the superfluidity of helium 2, which is dramatically displayed as a limit to the maximum attainable shock strength. The value of the maximum shock-induced relative velocity represents a significant lower bound to the intrinsic critical velocity of helium 2.

  11. Ultrasonic Acoustic Wave Velocities of Neighborite (NaMgF3) Across Orthorhombic and Cubic Phase Boundary at High P-T (United States)

    Weidner, D. J.; Li, L.; Whitaker, M. L.; Triplett, R.


    Neighborite perovskite (NaMgF3) is a close analogue to Mg or Ca silicate perovskite. It experience a second-order phase transition at high T which may have a significant effect on the acoustic velocities. Here we report the measurement of elastic wave velocities of neighborite perovskite using multi-anvil high pressure apparatus located in beamline BM6 Advance Photon Source. We use the newly installed ultrasonic equipment using pulse-echo-overlap method coupled with D-DIA device. X-ray radiograph is used to measure sample length at high P-T. X-ray diffraction spectrum is used to determine the pressure and sample conditions. Precise measurements of P and S wave velocities are at 60 and 35 MHz respectively and are nearly simultaneous. We use a double reflector method to enable measurement of elastic wave velocities of cold-pressed polycrystalline sample which is sintered in situ at high P-T. Experiments were carried out up to 3 GPa and 1100 oC. Our preliminary results indicated that at MHz frequencies the change in acoustic velocities across the orthorhombic-cubic phase boundaries is very smooth, with no indication of a velocity minimum at the transition, nor velocity increase for the cubic phase.

  12. Microtremor exploration for shallow S-wave velocity profiles at stations in local strong motion network in Bursa, Yalova, and Kocaeli in north-western Turkey (United States)

    Özmen, Özgür Tuna; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Chimoto, Kosuke; Çeken, Ulubey; Alkan, Mehmet Akif; Tekin, Kudret; Ateş, Erkan


    We conducted microtremor array surveys for shallow S-wave velocity profiles at 20 sites in Bursa, Yalova and Kocaeli provinces in the north-western part of Turkey to provide fundamental data to assess the seismic hazard in the area. All of the measurement sites were positioned very close to strong motion stations belonging to the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency of Turkey (AFAD) in order to further understand site amplification factors in strong motion records. Of the 20 study sites, two were located in Yalova, four in Bursa and 14 in Kocaeli. We temporarily installed two small arrays to obtain simultaneous records of vertical microtremors. Then, the spatial autocorrelation method was applied to retrieve Rayleigh wave phase velocity curves in a frequency range from 1 to 30 Hz from the array records. The phase velocities in the western part of the Kocaeli area are low across a wide frequency range, while relatively high phase velocities are found in the eastern part of the Kocaeli province. The phase velocities in the Yalova and Bursa provinces are widely distributed suggesting large variations in soil conditions. The observed phase velocity curve at each site was inverted to a one-dimensional (1D) S-wave velocity profile to a depth of 100 m, using a hybrid heuristic inversion method. All the S-wave velocity profiles in the eastern Kocaeli area are similar; however, the sites in the western Kocaeli and Yalova-Bursa areas have profiles with different features from the others. Finally, we discuss amplification factors for S-waves using the inverted profiles. The dominant fundamental periods of the amplification factors were distributed in a frequency range from 0.7 to 5 Hz. The profiles obtained are also used to map average S-wave velocities in the study area, with an addition of existing data at strong motion stations of the AFAD.

  13. Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography of Gujarat region, Western India and its implications to mantle dynamics (United States)

    Dixit, Mayank; Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.


    In the present study, fundamental Rayleigh waves with varying period from 10 to 80 s are used to obtain group velocity maps in the northwest Deccan Volcanic Province of India. About 350 paths are obtained using 53 earthquakes (4.8 ≤ M ≥ 7.9) recorded by the SeisNetG (Seismic Network of Gujarat). Individual dispersion curves of group velocity of Rayleigh wave for each source-station path are estimated using multiple filter technique. These curves are used to determine lateral distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocity by tomographic inversion method. Our estimated Rayleigh group velocity at varying depths showed conspicuous corroboration with three tectonic blocks [Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB), Saurashtra Horst (SH), and Mainland Gujarat (MG)] in the region. The seismically active KRB with a thicker crust is characterized as a low velocity zone at a period varying from 10 to 30 s as indicative of mantle downwarping or sagging of the mantle beneath the KRB, while the SH and MG are found to be associated with higher group velocities, indicating the existence of the reduced crustal thickness. The trend of higher group velocity was found prevailed adjacent to the Narmada and Cambay rift basins that also correspond to the reduced crust, suggesting the processes of mantle upwarping or uplifting due to mantle upwelling. The low velocities at periods longer than 40 s beneath the KRB indicate thicker lithosphere. The known Moho depth correlates well with the observed velocities at a period of about 30 s in the Gujarat region. Our estimates of relatively lower group velocities at periods varying from 70 to 80 s may correspond to the asthenospheric flow beneath the region. It is interesting to image higher group velocity for the thinner crust beneath the Arabian Sea adjacent to the west coast of Gujarat at the period of 40 s that may correspond to the upwarped or upwelled mantle beneath the Arabian Sea. Our results have better resolution estimated by a radius of equivalent

  14. Particle velocity measurements in HVOF and APS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.; Smith, R.W.; Xiao, Z. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, T.T. [Control Vision, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Production of reliable, repeatable coatings requires precise control of the process used to deposit them. Significant advances have recently been made in controlling the inputs to thermal spray processes, however, much work remains to be done to control process outputs and to correlate these with coatings characteristics. Thermal spray processes comprise the heating/melting, acceleration, impact, rapid solidification and incremental build-up of a large number of individual particles. Particle velocity is a key process parameter in determining coating properties such as density/porosity, bond strength and residual stress. Laser Stroboscopy and optical image analysis techniques have been used to image particles traveling in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and air plasma spray (APS) jets. Results indicate that these techniques can be used to measure particle velocity, trajectory and velocity distribution(s) in thermal spray jets. mean particle velocities of {approximately}400 m/s and {approximately}100 m/s have been measured for HVOF and APS respectively.

  15. Prediction of Compressional, Shear, and Stoneley Wave Velocities from Conventional Well Log Data Using a Committee Machine with Intelligent Systems (United States)

    Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa


    Measurement of compressional, shear, and Stoneley wave velocities, carried out by dipole sonic imager (DSI) logs, provides invaluable data in geophysical interpretation, geomechanical studies and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. The presented study proposes an improved methodology for making a quantitative formulation between conventional well logs and sonic wave velocities. First, sonic wave velocities were predicted from conventional well logs using artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, and neuro-fuzzy algorithms. Subsequently, a committee machine with intelligent systems was constructed by virtue of hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique while outputs of artificial neural network, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy models were used as inputs of the committee machine. It is capable of improving the accuracy of final prediction through integrating the outputs of aforementioned intelligent systems. The hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search tool, embodied in the structure of committee machine, assigns a weight factor to each individual intelligent system, indicating its involvement in overall prediction of DSI parameters. This methodology was implemented in Asmari formation, which is the major carbonate reservoir rock of Iranian oil field. A group of 1,640 data points was used to construct the intelligent model, and a group of 800 data points was employed to assess the reliability of the proposed model. The results showed that the committee machine with intelligent systems performed more effectively compared with individual intelligent systems performing alone.

  16. Wind Velocity Decreasing Effects of Windbreak Fence for Snowfall Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Pyo You


    Full Text Available Meteorological observatories use measuring boards on even ground in open areas to measure the amount of snowfall. In order to measure the amount of snowfall, areas unaffected by wind should be found. This study tried to determine the internal wind flow inside a windbreak fence, identifying an area unaffected by wind in order to measure the snowfall. We performed a computational fluid dynamics analysis and wind tunnel test, conducted field measurements of the type and height of the windbreak fence, and analyzed the wind flow inside the fence. The results showed that a double windbreak fence was better than a single windbreak fence for decreasing wind velocity. The double fence (width 4 m, height 60 cm, and fixed on the bottom has the greatest wind velocity decrease rate at the central part of octagonal windbreak.

  17. KISAP: New in situ seafloor velocity measurement tool (United States)

    Kim, Gil Young; Park, Ki Ju; Kyo Seo, Young; Lee, Gwang Soo; Kim, Seong Pil


    The KISAP (KIGAM Seafloor Acoustic Prober) is an instrument developed to obtain in situ compressional wave velocity and attenuation profiles for upper several meters of sedimentary layer at the sediment-seawater interface. This instrument consists of independent recording channels (NI cDAQ-9132, National Instruments) with a linear array of receivers (5 Hz-20 kHz, GeoSpectrum Technologies Inc) with depth below acoustic source (acoustic pinger, 1-50 kHz frequency, GeoSpectrum Technologies Inc). It provides in situ recording of full waveforms to determine interval velocity and attenuation. The system can be attached to a corer (gravity and/or piston corer) or to a specially designed prober. The experiments for in situ test were carried out in east coast of Korea and Songjeong beach, Pusan, Korea. We collected good waveform data to be calculated in situ velocity from KISAP test. Therefore KISAP can be used to collect in situ acoustic data. In addition, it can be effectively used to calibrate previous laboratory data to in situ data.

  18. Stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity of yellow-poplar ranging from 100 to 10 percent moisture content (United States)

    Jody D. Gray; Shawn T. Grushecky; James P. Armstrong


    Moisture content has a significant impact on mechanical properties of wood. In recent years, stress wave velocity has been used as an in situ and non-destructive method for determining the stiffness of wooden elements. The objective of this study was to determine what effect moisture content has on stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity. Results...

  19. Sensitivities of surface wave velocities to the medium parameters in a radially anisotropic spherical Earth and inversion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar N. Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Sensitivity kernels or partial derivatives of phase velocity (c and group velocity (U with respect to medium parameters are useful to interpret a given set of observed surface wave velocity data. In addition to phase velocities, group velocities are also being observed to find the radial anisotropy of the crust and mantle. However, sensitivities of group velocity for a radially anisotropic Earth have rarely been studied. Here we show sensitivities of group velocity along with those of phase velocity to the medium parameters VSV, VSH , VPV, VPH , h and density in a radially anisotropic spherical Earth. The peak sensitivities for U are generally twice of those for c; thus U is more efficient than c to explore anisotropic nature of the medium. Love waves mainly depends on VSH while Rayleigh waves is nearly independent of VSH . The sensitivities show that there are trade-offs among these parameters during inversion and there is a need to reduce the number of parameters to be evaluated independently. It is suggested to use a nonlinear inversion jointly for Rayleigh and Love waves; in such a nonlinear inversion best solutions are obtained among the model parameters within prescribed limits for each parameter. We first choose VSH, VSV and VPH within their corresponding limits; VPV and h can be evaluated from empirical relations among the parameters. The density has small effect on surface wave velocities and it can be considered from other studies or from empirical relation of density to average P-wave velocity.

  20. Superresolution Imaging Using Resonant Multiples and Plane-wave Migration Velocity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen


    Seismic imaging is a technique that uses seismic echoes to map and detect underground geological structures. The conventional seismic image has the resolution limit of λ/2, where λ is the wavelength associated with the seismic waves propagating in the subsurface. To exceed this resolution limit, this thesis develops a new imaging method using resonant multiples, which produces superresolution images with twice or even more the spatial resolution compared to the conventional primary reflection image. A resonant multiple is defined as a seismic reflection that revisits the same subsurface location along coincident reflection raypath. This reverberated raypath is the reason for superresolution imaging because it increases the differences in reflection times associated with subtle changes in the spatial location of the reflector. For the practical implementation of superresolution imaging, I develop a post-stack migration technique that first enhances the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of resonant multiples by a moveout-correction stacking method, and then migrates the post-stacked resonant multiples with the associated Kirchhoff or wave-equation migration formula. I show with synthetic and field data examples that the first-order resonant multiple image has about twice the spatial resolution compared to the primary reflection image. Besides resolution, the correct estimate of the subsurface velocity is crucial for determining the correct depth of reflectors. Towards this goal, wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) is an image-domain method which inverts for the velocity model that maximizes the similarity of common image gathers (CIGs). Conventional WEMVA based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag CIGs requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images in the extended image domain. To mitigate this problem, I present a new WEMVA method using plane-wave CIGs. Plane-wave CIGs reduce the

  1. Improved Measurement of Ejection Velocities From Craters Formed in Sand (United States)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Byers, Terry; Cardenas, Francisco; Montes, Roland; Potter, Elliot E.


    A typical impact crater is formed by two major processes: compression of the target (essentially equivalent to a footprint in soil) and ejection of material. The Ejection-Velocity Measurement System (EVMS) in the Experimental Impact Laboratory has been used to study ejection velocities from impact craters formed in sand since the late 1990s. The original system used an early-generation Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera; custom-written software; and a complex, multicomponent optical system to direct laser light for illumination. Unfortunately, the electronic equipment was overtaken by age, and the software became obsolete in light of improved computer hardware.

  2. Seismic wave velocity of rocks in the Oman ophiolite: constraints for petrological structure of oceanic crust (United States)

    Saito, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Shibata, S.; Akizuki, R.; Arima, M.; Tatsumi, Y.; Arai, S.


    Evaluation of rock velocities and comparison with velocity profiles defined by seismic refraction experiments are a crucial approach for understanding the petrological structure of the crust. In this study, we calculated the seismic wave velocities of various types of rocks from the Oman ophiolite in order to constrain a petrological structure of the oceanic crust. Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) have reported experimental elastic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite under oceanic crust-mantle conditions (6-430 MPa). However, in their relatively low-pressure experiments, internal pore-spaces might affect the velocity and resulted in lower values than the intrinsic velocity of sample. In this study we calculated the velocities of samples based on their modal proportions and chemical compositions of mineral constituents. Our calculated velocities represent the ‘pore-space-free’ intrinsic velocities of the sample. We calculated seismic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite including pillow lavas, dolerites, plagiogranites, gabbros and peridotites at high-pressure-temperature conditions with an Excel macro (Hacker & Avers 2004, G-cubed). The minerals used for calculations for pillow lavas, dolerites and plagiogranites were Qtz, Pl, Prh, Pmp, Chl, Ep, Act, Hbl, Cpx and Mag. Pl, Hbl, Cpx, Opx and Ol were used for the calculations for gabbros and peridotites. Assuming thermal gradient of 20° C/km and pressure gradient of 25 MPa/km, the velocities were calculated in the ranges from the atmospheric pressure (0° C) to 200 MPa (160° C). The calculation yielded P-wave velocities (Vp) of 6.5-6.7 km/s for the pillow lavas, 6.6-6.8 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6.9-7.5 km/s for the gabbros and 8.1-8.2 km/s for the peridotites. On the other hand, experimental results reported by Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) were 4.5-5.9 km/s for the pillow lavas, 5.5-6.3 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6

  3. Velocity-space sensitivity of neutron spectrometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Eriksson, J.


    Neutron emission spectrometry (NES) measures the energies of neutrons produced in fusion reactions. Here we present velocity-space weight functions for NES and neutron yield measurements. Weight functions show the sensitivity as well as the accessible regions in velocity space for a given range...... of the neutron energy spectrum. Combined with a calculated fast-ion distribution function, they determine the part of the distribution function producing detectable neutrons in a given neutron energy range. Furthermore, we construct a forward model based on weight functions capable of rapidly calculating neutron...... energy spectra. This forward model can be inverted and could thereby be used to directly measure the fast-ion phase-space distribution functions, possibly in combination with other fast-ion diagnostics. The presented methods and results can be applied to neutron energy spectra measured by any kind...

  4. ABCA1-dependent serum cholesterol efflux capacity inversely correlates with pulse wave velocity in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Favari, Elda; Ronda, Nicoletta; Adorni, Maria Pia; Zimetti, Francesca; Salvi, Paolo; Manfredini, Matteo; Bernini, Franco; Borghi, Claudio; Cicero, Arrigo F G


    The capacity of HDL to induce cell cholesterol efflux is considered one of its main antiatherogenic properties. Little is known about the impact of such HDL function on vascular physiology. We investigated the relationship between ABCA1-dependent serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), an HDL functionality indicator, and pulse wave velocity (PWV), an indicator of arterial stiffness. Serum of 167 healthy subjects was used to conduct CEC measurement, and carotid-femoral PWV was measured with a high-fidelity tonometer. J774 macrophages, labeled with [(3)H]cholesterol and stimulated to express ABCA1, were exposed to sera; the difference between cholesterol efflux from stimulated and unstimulated cells provided specific ABCA1-mediated CEC. PWV is inversely correlated with ABCA1-dependent CEC (r = -0.183; P = 0.018). Moreover, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, serum LDL, HDL-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, PWV displays a significant negative regression on ABCA1-dependent CEC (β = -0.204; 95% confidence interval, -0.371 to -0.037). The finding that ABCA1-dependent CEC, but not serum HDL cholesterol level (r = -0.002; P = 0.985), is a significant predictor of PWV in healthy subjects points to the relevance of HDL function in vascular physiology and arterial stiffness prevention.

  5. 39 GHz Interferometer System for Measuring Detonation Velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Patrick W. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Livermore, CA (United States); Tran, Vu [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Livermore, CA (United States); Waltman, Thomas B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Livermore, CA (United States); Tringe, Joe [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); May, Chadd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cradick, Jerry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hodgin, Ralph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A new 39 GHz RF interferometer system is presented for use in velocity measurements of high explosives (HE) detonations. The frequency was chosen to compliment the currently available suite, and provide more spatial information. An RF signal is generated and coupled to a waveguide adapter serving as an antenna. The HE is initially transparent to the RF. When the HE detonates, the detonation front becomes reflective to the RF. This reflection is picked up by the waveguide adapter and mixed with an unperturbed RF signal to give a low frequency signal which can be digitized with an oscilloscope. By comparing the signal with a reference signal, velocity information can be obtained using Fourier Transforms and wavelet models. Bench test results using a “slapper” are shown. The 39 GHz microwave interferometer is used in Deflagration to Detonation shots. The signal is reflected off a moving surface, and the Doppler shift of the reflected signal is used to calculate the velocity.

  6. 3D isotropic shear wave velocity structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system underneath the Alpine-Mediterranean Mobile belt (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Amr; Weidle, Christian; Christiano, Luigia; Lebedev, Sergei; Meier, Thomas


    The Alpine-Mediterranean mobile belt is, tectonically, one of the most complicated and active regions in the world. Since the Mesozoic, collisions between Gondwana-derived continental blocks and Eurasia, due to the closure of a number of rather small ocean basins, have shaped the Mediterranean geology. During the late Mesozoic, it was dominated by subduction zones (e.g., in Anatolia, the Dinarides, the Carpathians, the Alps, the Apennines, and the Betics), which inverted the extensional regime, consuming the previously formed oceanic lithosphere, the adjacent passive continental margins and presumably partly also continental lithosphere. The location, distribution, and evolution of these subduction zones were mainly controlled by the continental or oceanic nature, density, and thickness of the lithosphere inherited from the Mesozoic rift after the European Variscan Orogeny. Despite the numerous studies that have attempted to characterize the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure in that area, details of the lithospheric structure and dynamics, as well as flow in the asthenosphere are, however, poorly known. A 3D shear-wave velocity structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the Mediterranean is investigated using new tomographic images obtained from surface wave tomography. An automated algorithm for inter-station phase velocity measurements is applied here to obtain both Rayleigh and Love fundamental mode phase velocities. We utilize a database consisting of more than 4000 seismic events recorded by more than 2000 broadband seismic stations within the area, provided by the European Integrated Data Archive (WebDc/EIDA) and IRIS. Moreover, for the first time, data from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), recorded by up to 25 broad band seismic stations, are also included in the analysis. For each station pair, approximately located on the same great circle path, the recorded waveforms are cross correlated and the dispersion curves of

  7. [Review on Application of Optical Scattering Spectroscopy for Elastic Wave Velocity Study on Materials in Earth's Interior]. (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-jun; Li, He-ping; Dai, Li-dong; Hu, Hai-ying; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Chao-shuai


    In-situ experimental results on the elastic wave velocity of Earth materials at high pressure and high temperature in combination with data from seismic observation can help to inverse the chemical composition, state and migration of materials in Earth's interior, providing an important approach to explore information of deep earth. Applying the Brillouin scattering into the Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) to obtain the in situ elastic wave velocities of minerals, is the important approach to investigate elastic properties of Earth's Interior. With the development of DAC technology, on the one hand, the high temperature and high pressure experimental environment to simulate different layers of the earth can be achieved; on the other hand, the optical properties of DAC made many kinds of optical analysis and test methods have been widely applied in this research field. In order to gain the elastic wave velocity under high temperature and high pressure, the accurate experimental pressure and heating temperature of the sample in the cavity should be measured and calibrated first, then the scattering signal needs to dealt with, using the Brillouin frequency shift to calculate the velocity in the sample. Combined with the lattice constants obtained from X ray technique, by a solid elastic theory, all the elastic parameters of minerals can be solved. In this paper, firstly, application of methods based on optical spectrum such as Brillouin and Raman scattering in elasticity study on materials in Earth's interior, and the basic principle and research progress of them in the velocity measurement, pressure and temperature calibration are described in detail. Secondly, principle and scope of application of two common methods of spectral pressure calibration (fluorescence and Raman spectral pressure standard) are analyzed, in addition with introduce of the application of two conventional means of temperature calibration (blackbody radiation and Raman temperature scale) in

  8. On the Origin of High Shear Wave Velocities in the Deep Roots of Cratons (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Duncan, M. S.; Garber, J. M.; Hernandez, J. A.; Maurya, S.; Zhang, H.; Faul, U.; McCammon, C. A.; Montagner, J. P.; Moresi, L. N.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Rudnick, R. L.; Stixrude, L. P.


    Some seismic models derived from tomographic studies indicate very high shear wave velocities around 150 km depth, which cannot be explained by standard cratonic peridotite compositions derived from kimberlites, even under the assumption of very cold geotherms (i.e. 28mW/m3 surface heat flux). We present the results of a multi-disciplinary study conducted at the CIDER Summer 2016 program in Santa Barbara (CA), in which we have reviewed various geophysical and petrological constraints on the nature of cratonic roots (seismic velocities, electrical conductivity, gravity, lithologies) and explored a range of possible solutions. We find that matching the high shear wave velocities requires a large proportion of eclogite that is not matched by observed eclogite proportions in kimberlite samples. The high shear velocity of diamond makes it a viable candidate to account for such high velocities, in a proportion that is compatible with the global carbon budget. Our most recent results will be presented as well as suggestions for possible mechanisms for diamond formation and emplacement.

  9. Crustal velocity structure of the Apennines (Italy from P-wave travel time tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amato


    Full Text Available In this paper we provide P-wave velocity images of the crust underneath the Apennines (Italy, focusing on the lower crustal structure and the Moho topography. We inverted P-wave arrival times of earthquakes which occurred from 1986 to 1993 within the Apenninic area. To overcome inversion instabilities due to noisy data (we used bulletin data we decided to resolve a minimum number of velocity parameters, inverting for only two layers in the crust and one in the uppermost mantle underneath the Moho. A partial inversion of only 55% of the overall dataset yields velocity images similar to those obtained with the whole data set, indicating that the depicted tomograms are stable and fairly insensitive to the number of data used. We find a low-velocity anomaly in the lower crust extending underneath the whole Apenninic belt. This feature is segmented by a relative high-velocity zone in correspondence with the Ortona-Roccamonfina line, that separates the northern from the southern Apenninic arcs. The Moho has a variable depth in the study area, and is deeper (more than 37 km in the Adriatic side of the Northern Apennines with respect to the Tyrrhenian side, where it is found in the depth interval 22-34 km.

  10. A Method for Determination of in Run-Up Front Velocities on Dikes in Oblique and Short-Crested Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Burcharth, Hans F.


    This paper presents a physical model test study to improve description of run-up events on dikes in oblique long and short-crested waves in terms of flow depth, flow velocities and overtopping. The paper focus on the flow velocities and a new method is proposed for determining flow velocities...

  11. Characteristics of light reflected from a dense ionization wave with a tunable velocity


    Zhidkov, A.; Esirkepov, T.; Fujii, T; Nemoto, K; Koga, J; Bulanov, S. V.


    An optically-dense ionization wave (IW) produced by two femtosecond laser pulses focused cylindrically and crossing each other is shown to be an efficient coherent x-ray converter. The resulting velocity of a quasi-plane IW in the vicinity of pulse intersection increases with the angle between the pulses from the group velocity of ionizing pulses to infinity allowing an easy tuning the wavelength of x-rays. The x-ray spectra of a converted, lower frequency coherent light change from the monoc...

  12. Characteristics of light reflected from a dense ionization wave with a tunable velocity. (United States)

    Zhidkov, A; Esirkepov, T; Fujii, T; Nemoto, K; Koga, J; Bulanov, S V


    An optically dense ionization wave (IW) produced by two femtosecond (approximately 10/30 fs) laser pulses focused cylindrically and crossing each other may become an efficient coherent x-ray converter in accordance with the Semenova-Lampe theory. The resulting velocity of a quasiplane IW in the vicinity of pulse intersection changes with the angle between the pulses from the group velocity of ionizing pulses to infinity allowing a tuning of the wavelength of x rays and their bunching. The x-ray spectra after scattering of a lower frequency and long coherent light pulse change from the monochromatic to high order harmoniclike with the duration of the ionizing pulses.

  13. [Penultimate pulse wave velocity, better than baseline pulse wave velocity, predicted mortality in Italian ESRD cohort study - a case for daily hemodialysis for ESRD patients with accelerated pulse wave velocity changes]. (United States)

    Onuigbo, Macaulay; Onuigbo, Nnonyelum; Bellasi, Antonio; Russo, Domenico; Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele


    Cardiac disease remains the major cause of death among ESRD patients. Indeed, the risk of cardiovascular events in ESRD is reported to be at least 3.4 fold higher than that of the general population. Moreover, annual mortality rates among ESRD patients on hemodialysis approximate 20%, with cardiovascular disease accounting for almost half of this mortality profile. Despite this knowledge, so far we have been unable to identify treatable pathogenetic factors among ESRD patients to help reverse these poor cardiovascular outcomes. The difficulty to prognosticate cardiovascular mortality in ESRD remains elusive. However, in 2011, our group, for the first time, had demonstrated that cyclic variations of arterial stiffness as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) before and after hemodialysis determined mortality differences within an ESRD cohort. We have therefore examined the impact of individual patient-level translational PWV changes over time on mortality outcomes in an Italian ESRD cohort. Prospective observational study, 2007-2010, in an Italian ESRD cohort who underwent in-center outpatient conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis. PWV was measured by the foot-to-foot method and repeated after six months. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was measured at 0, 12 and 24 months. Routine clinical data and patient demographics were recorded and mortality outcomes were analyzed. Between 2007 and 2010, 466 Italian ESRD patients, 229 males and 237 females, age 19-97 (65.6) years, were followed up for 28.9 months. 128 patients (74M:54F) died. The major causes of death were acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 47 (37%) patients (age 70, 26M:21F) and sudden death (SD) in 29 (23%) patients (age 72, 19M:10F). Paired PWV data was available in 308 surviving patients and in 106 patients who died. Baseline PWV was lower in surviving vs dead patients 8.46 +/- 1.8 vs 9.43 +/- 3.75 (p=0.0005). Repeat PWV values were unchanged in the 308 survivors (8.46 +/- 1.8 vs 8.53 +/- 1.85, p=0

  14. Influence of Pore-Fluid Pressure on Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity in Water-Saturated Rocks (United States)

    Higuchi, A.; Watanabe, T.


    Pore-fluid pressure in seismogenic zones can play a key role in the occurrence of earthquakes (e.g., Sibson, 2009). Its evaluation via geophysical observations can lead to a good understanding of seismic activities. The evaluation requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the pore-fluid pressure on geophysical observables like seismic velocity and electrical conductivity. We have studied the influence of pore-fluid pressure on elastic wave velocity and electrical conductivity in water-saturated rocks. Fine grained (100-500μm) biotite granite (Aji, Kagawa pref., Japan) was used as rock samples. The density is 2.658-2.668 g/cm3, and the porosity 0.68-0.87%. The sample is composed of 52.8% plagioclase, 36.0% Quartz, 3.0% K-feldspar, 8.2% biotite. SEM images show that a lot of grain boundaries are open. Few intracrystalline cracks were observed. Following the method proposed by David and Zimmerman (2012), the distribution function of crack aspect ratio was evaluated from the pressure dependence of compressional and shear wave velocities in a dry sample. Cylindrical sample has dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and saturated with 0.01 mol/l KCl aqueous solution. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured with the pulse transmission technique (PZT transducers, f=2 MHz), and electrical conductivity the two-electrode method (Ag-AgCl electrodes, f=1 Hz-100 kHz). Simultaneous measurements of velocities and conductivity were made using a 200 MPa hydrostatic pressure vessel, in which confining and pore-fluid pressures can be separately controlled. The pore-fluid is electrically insulated from the metal work of the pressure vessel by using a newly designed plastic device (Watanabe and Higuchi, 2013). The confining pressure was progressively increased up to 25 MPa, while the pore-fluid pressure was kept at 0.1 MPa. It took five days or longer for the electrical conductivity to become stationary after increasing the confining pressure

  15. The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube. (United States)

    Painter, Page R


    The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV). The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC) for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for more than fifty years is analyzed and shown to yield

  16. The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Page R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV. The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. Methods An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. Results For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for

  17. The effect of superluminal phase velocity on electron acceleration in a powerful electromagnetic wave (United States)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Arefiev, A. V.; Khudik, V. N.


    In this paper, we examine the effect that electromagnetic dispersion has on the motion of an electron in a relativistically strong plane wave. We obtain an analytic solution for the electron momentum and check this solution against direct numerical integration of the equations of motion. The solution shows that even a relatively small difference between the phase velocity of the wave, vp, and the speed of light, c, can significantly alter the electron dynamics if the normalized wave amplitude a0 exceeds √{2 c /(vp-c ) } . At this amplitude, the maximum longitudinal electron momentum scales only linearly with a0, as opposed to a02 . We also show that at this amplitude the impact of an accelerating longitudinal electric field and electron pre-acceleration is negated by the superluminous phase velocity of the wave. This has implications for the potential of Direct Laser Acceleration of electrons. We point out that electromagnetic dispersion can arise from both propagation in a plasma and from propagating the laser in what is effectively a wave-guiding structure, and that this latter source of dispersion is likely to be more significant.

  18. Velocity gradients in the Earth's upper mantle: insights from higher mode surface waves (United States)

    Fishwick, Stewart; Maupin, Valerie; Afonso, Juan Carlos


    The majority of seismic tomographic models of the uppermost mantle beneath Precambrian regions show a positive velocity gradient from the Moho to depths of around 100 km. It is becoming increasingly well recognised that this gradient is not readily compatible with simple models of a craton with constant composition and a steady-state geotherm and more complex compositional variations are invoked to explain this feature. At these depths most of the models are dominated by data from fundamental mode surface waves, and the combination of the sensitivity kernels alongside the choice of model parameterisation means that the velocity gradient could be an artefact of the particular inversion. Indeed, recent work using thermodynamically consistent velocity models suggests that in some cases there is not a requirement of this style of gradient. We investigate this aspect of the mantle structure further by returning to the Sa phase. This phase can be considered as the build up of a wave packet due to the overlapping group velocities of higher modes at periods of around 8 - 30 s. Using the Australian shield as a test-case we compare waveforms built from three different styles of velocity model. Firstly, the 1D model AU3 (Gaherty & Jordan, 1995) which did incorporate the Sa phase as part of the waveform in their modelling. Secondly, recent tomographic models of the Australian continent are used, which include no a priori information from the phase. Thirdly, a thermodynamically consistent velocity model that fits the broad dispersion characteristics of the tomography is tested. Finally, these synthetic waveforms are compared to real data crossing the Australian shield. The results illustrate small, but clear, variations in waveform dependent on the velocity structure. Complicating factors in any analysis involve the importance of having good knowledge of the crustal structure and a very accurate source depth (particularly if this is similar to the average crustal thickness).

  19. Velocity-pressure correlation measurements in complex free shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, Yoshitsugu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-city 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail:; Obi, Shinnosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-city 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Simultaneous measurements of fluctuating velocity and pressure were performed in various turbulent free shear flows including a turbulent mixing layer and the wing-tip vortex trailing from a NACA0012 half-wing. Two different methods for fluctuating static pressure measurement were considered: a direct method using a miniature Pitot tube and an indirect method where static pressure was calculated from total pressure. The pressure obtained by either of these methods was correlated with the velocity measured by an X-type hot-wire probe. The results from these two techniques agreed with each other in the turbulent mixing layer. In the wing-tip vortex case, however, some discrepancies were found, although overall characteristics of the pressure-related statistics were adequately captured by both methods.

  20. Flute mode waves near the lower hybrid frequency excited by ion rings in velocity space (United States)

    Cattell, C.; Hudson, M.


    Discrete emissions at the lower hybrid frequency are often seen on the S3-3 satellite. Simultaneous observation of perpendicularly heated ions suggests that these ions may provide the free energy necessary to drive the instability. Studies of the dispersion relation for flute modes excited by warm ion rings in velocity space show that waves are excited with real frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency and with growth rates ranging from about 0.01 to 1 times the ion cyclotron frequency. Numerical results are therefore consistent with the possibility that the observed ions are the free energy source for the observed waves.

  1. 2MTF - VI. Measuring the velocity power spectrum (United States)

    Howlett, Cullan; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Elahi, Pascal J.; Hong, Tao; Jarrett, Tom H.; Jones, D. Heath; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Macri, Lucas M.; Masters, Karen L.; Springob, Christopher M.


    We present measurements of the velocity power spectrum and constraints on the growth rate of structure fσ8, at redshift zero, using the peculiar motions of 2062 galaxies in the completed 2MASS Tully-Fisher survey (2MTF). To accomplish this we introduce a model for fitting the velocity power spectrum including the effects of non-linear redshift space distortions (RSD), allowing us to recover unbiased fits down to scales k = 0.2 h Mpc-1 without the need to smooth or grid the data. Our fitting methods are validated using a set of simulated 2MTF surveys. Using these simulations we also identify that the Gaussian distributed estimator for peculiar velocities of Watkins & Feldman is suitable for measuring the velocity power spectrum, but sub-optimal for the 2MTF data compared to using magnitude fluctuations δm, and that, whilst our fits are robust to a change in fiducial cosmology, future peculiar velocity surveys with more constraining power may have to marginalize over this. We obtain scale-dependent constraints on the growth rate of structure in two bins, finding fσ 8 = [0.55^{+0.16}_{-0.13},0.40^{+0.16}_{-0.17}] in the ranges k = [0.007-0.055, 0.55-0.150] h Mpc-1. We also find consistent results using four bins. Assuming scale-independence we find a value fσ 8 = 0.51^{+0.09}_{-0.08}, a ˜16 per cent measurement of the growth rate. Performing a consistency check of general relativity (GR) and combining our results with cosmic microwave background data only we find γ = 0.45^{+0.10}_{-0.11}, a remarkable constraint considering the small number of galaxies. All of our results are completely independent of the effects of galaxy bias, and fully consistent with the predictions of GR (scale-independent fσ8 and γ ≈ 0.55).

  2. Near-surface fault detection by migrating back-scattered surface waves with and without velocity profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han


    We demonstrate that diffraction stack migration can be used to discover the distribution of near-surface faults. The methodology is based on the assumption that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. We first isolate the back-scattered surface waves by muting or FK filtering, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. We have also proposed a natural migration method that utilizes the intrinsic traveltime property of the direct and the back-scattered waves at faults. For the synthetic data sets and the land data collected in Aqaba, where surface wave velocity has unexpected perturbations, we migrate the back-scattered surface waves with both predicted velocity profiles and natural Green\\'s function without velocity information. Because the latter approach avoids the need for an accurate velocity model in event summation, both the prestack and stacked migration images show competitive quality. Results with both synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. We believe applying this method to global or passive seismic data can open new opportunities in unveiling tectonic features.

  3. Towards a new tool to develop a 3-D shear-wave velocity model from converted waves (United States)

    Colavitti, Leonardo; Hetényi, György


    The main target of this work is to develop a new method in which we exploit converted waves to construct a fully 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the crust. A reliable 3-D model is very important in Earth sciences because geological structures may vary significantly in their lateral dimension. In particular, shear-waves provide valuable complementary information with respect to P-waves because they usually guarantee a much better correlation in terms of rock density and mechanical properties, reducing the interpretation ambiguities. Therefore, it is fundamental to develop a new technique to improve structural images and to describe different lithologies in the crust. In this study we start from the analysis of receiver functions (RF, Langston, 1977), which are nowadays largely used for structural investigations based on passive seismic experiments, to map Earth discontinuities at depth. The RF technique is also commonly used to invert for velocity structure beneath single stations. Here, we plan to combine two strengths of RF method: shear-wave velocity inversion and dense arrays. Starting from a simple 3-D forward model, synthetic RFs are obtained extracting the structure along a ray to match observed data. During the inversion, thanks to a dense stations network, we aim to build and develop a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity. The initial model should be chosen simple to make sure that the inversion process is not influenced by the constraints in terms of depth and velocity posed at the beginning. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999a, b), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter

  4. Measurement uncertainty budget of an interferometric flow velocity sensor (United States)

    Bermuske, Mike; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen


    Flow rate measurements are a common topic for process monitoring in chemical engineering and food industry. To achieve the requested low uncertainties of 0:1% for flow rate measurements, a precise measurement of the shear layers of such flows is necessary. The Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) is an established method for measuring local flow velocities. For exact estimation of the flow rate, the flow profile in the shear layer is of importance. For standard LDV the axial resolution and therefore the number of measurement points in the shear layer is defined by the length of the measurement volume. A decrease of this length is accompanied by a larger fringe distance variation along the measurement axis which results in a rise of the measurement uncertainty for the flow velocity (uncertainty relation between spatial resolution and velocity uncertainty). As a unique advantage, the laser Doppler profile sensor (LDV-PS) overcomes this problem by using two fan-like fringe systems to obtain the position of the measured particles along the measurement axis and therefore achieve a high spatial resolution while it still offers a low velocity uncertainty. With this technique, the flow rate can be estimated with one order of magnitude lower uncertainty, down to 0:05% statistical uncertainty.1 And flow profiles especially in film flows can be measured more accurately. The problem for this technique is, in contrast to laboratory setups where the system is quite stable, that for industrial applications the sensor needs a reliable and robust traceability to the SI units, meter and second. Small deviations in the calibration can, because of the highly position depending calibration function, cause large systematic errors in the measurement result. Therefore, a simple, stable and accurate tool is needed, that can easily be used in industrial surroundings to check or recalibrate the sensor. In this work, different calibration methods are presented and their influences to the

  5. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation (United States)

    Berins, J.; Berins, J.; Kalnacs, A.


    The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  6. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berins J.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  7. Entanglement-enhanced lidars for simultaneous range and velocity measurements (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Zhang, Zheshen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.


    Lidar is a well-known optical technology for measuring a target's range and radial velocity. We describe two lidar systems that use entanglement between transmitted signals and retained idlers to obtain significant quantum enhancements in simultaneous measurements of these parameters. The first entanglement-enhanced lidar circumvents the Arthurs-Kelly uncertainty relation for simultaneous measurements of range and radial velocity from the detection of a single photon returned from the target. This performance presumes there is no extraneous (background) light, but is robust to the round-trip loss incurred by the signal photons. The second entanglement-enhanced lidar—which requires a lossless, noiseless environment—realizes Heisenberg-limited accuracies for both its range and radial-velocity measurements, i.e., their root-mean-square estimation errors are both proportional to 1 /M when M signal photons are transmitted. These two lidars derive their entanglement-based enhancements from the use of a unitary transformation that takes a signal-idler photon pair with frequencies ωS and ωI and converts it to a signal-idler photon pair whose frequencies are (ωS+ωI)/2 and (ωS-ωI)/2 . Insight into how this transformation provides its benefits is provided through an analogy to continuous-variable superdense coding.

  8. A Numerical Method for Predicting Rayleigh Surface Wave Velocity in Anisotropic Crystals (Postprint) (United States)


    crystal elastic moduli from literature . It was found to be very robust and efficient in calculating RSW velocity curves in all cases. 15. SUBJECT...crystal sample. The algorithm was tested with crystal symmetries and single crystal elastic moduli from literature . It was found to be very robust and...using them in the context of materials characterization. Another important concept in the analysis of surface waves is the surface impedance matrix

  9. Effects of Mechanical Pumping on the Arterial Pulse Wave Velocity: Peripheral Artery and Micro-Vessels (United States)


    EFFECTS OF MECHANICAL PUMPING ON THE ARTERIAL PULSE WAVE VELOCITY : PERIPHERAL ARTERY AND MICRO -VESSELS Shu-Mei Wu*†, Yio-Wha Shau**, Bor-Shyh...was contributed from the results of BA-RA, the PWV for the micro -vessels (BA-finger) on the contrary was increased. Keywords- Mechanical Pumping ...arterial conduit (brachial artery-radial artery; BA-RA) and the micro -vessels (RA-ring finger) to mechanical pumping was evaluated. II

  10. Influence of shear wave velocity reversals on one-dimensional site response of spatially varied profiles


    Pehlivan, M; Hashash, YMA; Harmon, JA; Rathje, EM; Stewart, JP; Silva, SJ; Campbell, KW; Nikolaou, S


    Spatial variability and uncertainties that exist in natural deposits are often modeled in one-dimensional (1D) site response analysis through multiple spatially varied shear wave velocity (VS) profiles. These spatially varied VS profiles usually exhibit VS reversals that might not be observed in the natural deposits. This study investigates the consequences of allowing VS reversals in spatially varied VS on the 1D site response characteristics. Two sets of sixty (60) spatially varied VS profi...

  11. Factors associated with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the general population. (United States)

    Sonoda, H; Takase, H; Dohi, Y; Kimura, G


    The present study investigated factors that modify or affect arterial stiffness as assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in the general population. Subjects had previously participated in a physical checkup program (n=911), and baPWV and urinary albumin and sodium excretion were also measured. Urine albumin was expressed as the ratio of urine albumin to urine creatinine. Individual salt intake was assessed by estimating 24-h urinary salt excretion and expressed as the ratio of estimated salt intake to body weight. The mean blood pressure and baPWV were 127.1±15.2/77.0±9.5 mm Hg and 15.9±3.3 m s(-1), respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated that baPWV correlated with various factors including age, blood pressure, electrocardiogram voltage (SV(1)+RV(5)), urine albumin and salt intake. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that electrocardiogram voltage (Pblood pressure (P<0.0001), urine albumin (P<0.001) and salt intake (P<0.001), independently correlated with baPWV after adjustment for other possible factors. Similar results were obtained for participants not taking any medication. These results suggest that the baPWV value is independently associated with individual salt intake and cardiac and renal damage, and could be a useful procedure for identifying individuals with concealed risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Serum Osteopontin Level Correlates with Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity in Geriatric Persons

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    Chung-Jen Lee


    Full Text Available Osteopontin (OPN is involved in the regulation of vascular calcification processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fasting serum OPN concentration and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV in geriatric persons. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 93 geriatric persons. cfPWV were performed by SphygmoCor system. Serum OPN levels were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Geriatric adults who had diabetes (P=0.007 or dyslipidemia (P=0.029 had higher cfPWV levels than those without diabetes or dyslipidemia. The univariable linear regression analysis showed that age (P=0.002, waist circumference (P=0.048, body mass index (P=0.004, systolic blood pressure (P=0.001, diastolic blood pressure (P=0.036, pulse pressure (P=0.017, creatinine (P=0.002, and log-OPN level (P=0.001 were positively correlated with cfPWV levels, while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol level (P=0.007 and glomerular filtration rate (P=0.001 were negatively correlated with cfPWV levels among the geriatric adults. Multivariable forward stepwise linear regression analysis of the significant variables also showed that log-OPN (β=0.233, R2=0.123, regression coefficient: 1.868, P=0.011 was still an independent predictor of cfPWV levels in geriatric persons.

  13. Association between pulse wave velocity and hot flashes/sweats in middle-aged women. (United States)

    Yang, Ruwei; Zhou, Yang; Li, Changbin; Tao, Minfang


    As women age and go through menopause, they suffer a higher incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that a relationship exists between hot flashes/sweats and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the association between hot flashes/sweats and arterial stiffness is unclear. We aim to explore the relationship between hot flashes/sweats and arterial stiffness using the modified Kupperman index (KMI) questionnaire and measure the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). The prevalence of hot flashes in our research was reported to be 41.77%. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean baPWV among groups that experienced different severities of hot flashes/sweats according to one-way ANOVA test (p hot flashes/sweats based on linear regression after adjusting for established cardiovascular confounders (95% CI: (5.86, 43.23), p = 0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation to propose that baPWV may serve both as an objective index for evaluating the severity of hot flashes/sweats and as a predictor of arterial stiffness beyond Cardiac Vascular Disease (CVD) risk factors in middle-aged women.

  14. Cystatin C is better than albuminuria as a predictor of pulse wave velocity in hypertensive patients. (United States)

    Ozkok, Abdullah; Akpinar, Timur Selcuk; Tufan, Fatih; Kaya, Omer; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Atas, Riza; Toz, Bahtiyar; Atay, Kadri; Yilmaz, Emre; Besiroglu, Mehmet; Nas, Kamil; Hadrovic, Nur; Illyés, Miklós; Ecder, Tevfik


    Arterial stiffness is important in the evaluation of the cardiovascular risk in both general population and hypertensive patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations of both serum cystatin C levels and albuminuria with arterial stiffness in healthy controls and hypertensive patients. Seventy-six healthy controls (male/female = 44/32) and 76 hypertensive patients (male/female = 43/33) were enrolled. Arterial stiffness parameters such as augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were non-invasively measured with the Arteriograph (Tensiomed Ltd., Budapest, Hungary). AIx (31.92 ± 14.31 vs. 27.95 ± 11.03, p = 0.03) and PWV (9.84 ± 1.62 vs. 8.87 ± 2.04, p albuminuria was significantly associated with PWV in hypertensive patients. Serum cystatin C may be better than albuminuria as a predictor of arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients.

  15. Effects of Obesity and Hypertension on Pulse Wave Velocity in Children. (United States)

    Kulsum-Mecci, Nazia; Goss, Charles; Kozel, Beth A; Garbutt, Jane M; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Dharnidharka, Vikas R


    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a biomarker of arterial stiffness. Findings from prior studies are conflicting regarding the impact of obesity on PWV in children. The authors measured carotid-femoral PWV in 159 children aged 4 to 18 years, of whom 95 were healthy, 25 were obese, 15 had hypertension (HTN), and 24 were both obese and hypertensive. Mean PWV increased with age but did not differ by race or sex. In adjusted analyses in children 10 years and older (n=102), PWV was significantly higher in children with hypertension (PWV±standard deviation, 4.9±0.7 m/s), obesity (5.0±0.9 m/s), and combined obesity-hypertension (5.2±0.6 m/s) vs healthy children (4.3±0.7 m/s) (each group, Pobesity and HTN both significantly and independently increased PWV, while African American children did not have a higher PWV than Caucasian children. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Atmospheric anomalies over Mt.Etna using GPS signal delays and tomography of radio wave velocities

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    G. Puglisi


    Full Text Available Due to the prominent topography of Mt. Etna, the use of satellite geodetic techniques may significantly suffer from atmospheric heterogeneities. This problem mainly affects the DInSAR technique. To overcome these drawbacks the present study attempts to make headway in measuring and interpreting atmospheric anomalies. We used the GAMIT software to obtain the ZTD (Zenith Total Delay values for the GPS sessions performed on 1996-97, during ERS-2 passes at Mt. Etna. GAMIT software also allows to characterize the statistical behaviour of the tropospheric effects, by using residuals for each station-satellite pair, and to locate the atmospheric anomalies, present mostly at low altitudes. The attempt at using these results to produce a tomography of radio waves velocity of the troposphere suggests that the number of GPS stations used to investigate atmosphere is a critical point in such a study. The three stations are too few to invert anomalies eventually existing in the lower atmosphere. This result is a good starting point for better direct future study to verify the applicability of this tomographic technique to a geodetic network with a higher number of stations, with the aim of characterizing the lower atmosphere of Mt. Etna for a more accurate monitoring of ground deformations.

  17. High-speed velocity measurements on an EFI-system (United States)

    Prinse, W. C.; van't Hof, P. G.; Cheng, L. K.; Scholtes, J. H. G.


    For the development of an Exploding Foil Initiator for Insensitive Munitions applications the following topics are of interest: the electrical circuit, the exploding foil, the velocity of the flyer, the driver explosive, the secondary flyer and the acceptor explosive. Several parameters of the EFI have influences on the velocity of the flyer. To investigate these parameters a Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) has been used. The light to and from the flyer is transported by a multimode fibre terminated with a GRIN-lens. By this method the velocity of very tiny objects (0.1 mm), can be measured. The velocity of flyer can be recorded with nanosecond resolution, depending on the Fabry-Perot etalon and the streak camera. With this equipment the influence of the dimensions of the exploding foil and the flyer on the velocity and the acceleration of the flyer are investigated. Also the integrity of the flyer during flight can be analyzed. To characterize the explosive material, to be used as driver explosive in EFI's, the initiation behaviour of the explosive has been investigated by taking pictures of the explosion with a high speed framing and streak camera. From these pictures the initiation distance and the detonation behaviour of the explosive has been analyzed. Normally, the driver explosive initiates the acceptor explosive (booster) by direct contact. This booster explosive is embedded in the main charge of the munitions. The combination of initiator, booster explosive and main charge explosive is called the detonation train. In this research the possibility of initiation of the booster by an intermediate flyer is investigated. This secondary flyer can be made of different materials, like aluminium, steel and polyester with different sizes. With the aid of the F-PVIS the acceleration of the secondary flyer is investigated. This reveals the influence of the thickness and density of the flyer on the acceleration and final velocity. Under certain

  18. Spacecraft Angular Velocity Estimation Algorithm Based on Orientation Quaternion Measurements

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    M. V. Li


    Full Text Available The spacecraft (SC mission involves providing the appropriate orientation and stabilization of the associated axes in space. One of the main sources of information for the attitude control system is the angular rate sensor blocks. One way to improve a reliability of the system is to provide a back up of the control algorithms in case of failure of these blocks. To solve the problem of estimation of SP angular velocity vector in the inertial system of coordinates with a lack of information from the angular rate sensors is supposed the use of orientation data from the star sensors; in this case at each clock of the onboard digital computer. The equations in quaternions are used to describe the kinematics of rotary motion. Their approximate solution is used to estimate the angular velocity vector. Methods of modal control and multi-dimensional decomposition of a control object are used to solve the problem of observation and identification of the angular rates. These methods enabled us to synthesize the SP angular velocity vector estimation algorithm and obtain the equations, which relate the error quaternion with the calculated estimate of the angular velocity. Mathematical modeling was carried out to test the algorithm. Cases of different initial conditions were simulated. Time between orientation quaternion measurements and angular velocity of the model was varied. The algorithm was compared with a more accurate algorithm, built on more complete equations. Graphs of difference in angular velocity estimation depending on the number of iterations are presented. The difference in angular velocity estimation is calculated from results of the synthesized algorithm and the algorithm for more accurate equations. Graphs of error distribution for angular velocity estimation with initial conditions being changed are also presented, and standard deviations of estimation errors are calculated. The synthesized algorithm is inferior in accuracy assessment to

  19. Deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by acoustic-gravity waves from submarine earthquakes (United States)

    Oliveira, T. C. A.; Kadri, U.


    An uplift of the ocean bottom caused by a submarine earthquake can generate Acoustic-Gravity Waves (AGW), progressive compression-type waves that travel at near the speed of sound in water. The role of AGW for oceans hydrodynamics has recently became a topic of increasing scientific interest. Kadri [Deep ocean water transport by acoustic-gravity waves, J.Geo. Res. Oceans, 119, (2014)] showed theoretically that AGW can contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation. We analyze and simulate the fundamental AGW modes generated by a submarine earthquake. We consider the first five AGW modes and show that they may all induce comparable temporal variations in water particle velocities at different depths in regions far from the epicenter. Results of temporal variations of horizontal and vertical fluid parcel velocities induced by AGW confirm chaotic flow trajectories at different water depths. A realistic example based on the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake shows that vertical water particle displacements of O(10-2 ) m can be generated at 1 Km depth in a 4 km water depth ocean. We show that the velocity field depends on the presence of the leading AGW modes. Each AGW mode becomes evanescent at a critical time, at which energy is transferred to the next higher modes. Consequently, the main pattern of the velocity field changes as the leading mode change. As an example, for a reference point located at 1000 Km from the epicenter, the first five AGW become evanescent after 1.6, 4.6, 7.7, 10.8 and 13.8 hours, respectively. Our analysis and simulations shed light on the spatio-temporal evolution of the deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by AGW that radiate during submarine earthquakes. Thus, this work is a contribution to understand the role of high moment magnitude submarine earthquakes in deep water mixing mechanism.

  20. Carbon-depleted outer core revealed by sound velocity measurements of liquid iron-carbon alloy (United States)

    Nakajima, Yoichi; Imada, Saori; Hirose, Kei; Komabayashi, Tetsuya; Ozawa, Haruka; Tateno, Shigehiko; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Kuwayama, Yasuhiro; Baron, Alfred Q. R.


    The relative abundance of light elements in the Earth's core has long been controversial. Recently, the presence of carbon in the core has been emphasized, because the density and sound velocities of the inner core may be consistent with solid Fe7C3. Here we report the longitudinal wave velocity of liquid Fe84C16 up to 70 GPa based on inelastic X-ray scattering measurements. We find the velocity to be substantially slower than that of solid iron and Fe3C and to be faster than that of liquid iron. The thermodynamic equation of state for liquid Fe84C16 is also obtained from the velocity data combined with previous density measurements at 1 bar. The longitudinal velocity of the outer core, about 4% faster than that of liquid iron, is consistent with the presence of 4-5 at.% carbon. However, that amount of carbon is too small to account for the outer core density deficit, suggesting that carbon cannot be a predominant light element in the core.

  1. Laboratory measurements of seismic velocity anisotropy of salt diapirs: Implications for wellbore stability and seismic processing (United States)

    Vargas-Meleza, Liliana; Healy, David


    A set of ten evaporite samples collected from outcrops in a single diapiric province in Cape Breton Island (Canada) have been tested for seismic velocity anisotropy using three methods: 1) conventional ultrasonic pulse transmission method, where velocities are found from the travel times and the known dimensions of the samples. In order to obtain the entire suite of elastic constants, both P- and S-wave velocity measurements were taken in three different directions of cuboid rock samples. Velocities have been measured under dry, ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in halite-, gypsum- and anhydrite-dominated samples; 2) optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on thin sections to define the spatial distribution of minerals, their crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO); and 3) a numerical 'rock-recipe' approach based on Tatham et al. (2008) to calculate seismic velocity anisotropy using arbitrary composites of evaporite minerals and different CPOs. These three methods are then compared to understand the controlling factors of the anisotropic elastic properties. The elasticity data are used to guide geomechanical modeling for wellbore stability and to provide insights for the seismic data processing and seismic imaging of salt diapirs. Reference Tatham, D.J., Lloyd, G.E., Butler, R.W.H. and Casey, M, 2008, Amphibole and lower crustal seismic properties: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267, 118-128.

  2. Comparison of an empirical S-wave velocity model and a calculated stress-strain model for a rock mass disturbed by mining (United States)

    Krawiec, Krzysztof; Czarny, Rafał


    In the article a comparison analysis is presented between a numerical model of the stress and deformation state in a rock mass and an S-wave velocity model obtained as a result of in situ measurement. The research was conducted using data from the Jastrzębie and Moszczenica coal mines. The part of the rock mass examined was strongly disturbed by multi-seam exploitation of coal. To obtain the S-wave velocity model 6 hours of ambient seismic noise data were recorded using 11 seismometers. The propagation of the Rayleigh surface wave between the seismometers was reconstructed utilising the seismic interferometry and the cross correlation technique. Estimation of a two dimensional model of the Swave velocity field was performed on the basis of dispersion curves of the Rayleigh wave phase velocity. The stress and deformation field were calculated assuming a plane state of stress with the use of the elastic-plastic Coulomb-Mohr strength criterion. Images of the vertical stress, horizontal stress, vertical strain and horizontal strain as well as the subsidence profile on the model surface were obtained as a result of the calculation. Analysis of the results shows correlation between the field of S-wave velocity and the modelled field of stress and strain.

  3. Comparison of an empirical S-wave velocity model and a calculated stress-strain model for a rock mass disturbed by mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawiec Krzysztof


    Full Text Available In the article a comparison analysis is presented between a numerical model of the stress and deformation state in a rock mass and an S-wave velocity model obtained as a result of in situ measurement. The research was conducted using data from the Jastrzębie and Moszczenica coal mines. The part of the rock mass examined was strongly disturbed by multi-seam exploitation of coal. To obtain the S-wave velocity model 6 hours of ambient seismic noise data were recorded using 11 seismometers. The propagation of the Rayleigh surface wave between the seismometers was reconstructed utilising the seismic interferometry and the cross correlation technique. Estimation of a two dimensional model of the Swave velocity field was performed on the basis of dispersion curves of the Rayleigh wave phase velocity. The stress and deformation field were calculated assuming a plane state of stress with the use of the elastic-plastic Coulomb-Mohr strength criterion. Images of the vertical stress, horizontal stress, vertical strain and horizontal strain as well as the subsidence profile on the model surface were obtained as a result of the calculation. Analysis of the results shows correlation between the field of S-wave velocity and the modelled field of stress and strain.

  4. Wave Structure and Velocity Profiles in Downwards Gas-Liquid Annular Flows (United States)

    Zadrazil, Ivan; Hewitt, Geoff; Matar, Omar; Markides, Christos


    A downwards flow of gas in the core of a vertical pipe, and of liquid in the annulus between the pipe wall and the gas phase is referred to as a ``downwards annular flow'' (DAF). DAFs are conventionally described in terms of short-lived, small-amplitude ``ripples,'' and large-amplitude, high-speed ``disturbances.'' We use a combination of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF), Particle Image and Tracking Velocimetry (PIV, PTV) to study DAFs. We demonstrate through these techniques that the liquid films become progressively more complex with increasing liquid Reynolds number (ReL), while a similar increase of complexity is observed for increasing gas Reynolds number (ReG). Disturbance waves are observed for low and high ReL, and ripples for intermediate ReL. Additionally, a high degree of rolling breakdown of disturbance waves is observed in falling films at the highest ReL, which is a source of bubble entrainment into the film body. Our results will comprise: (i) statistical data on film thickness, and (ii) wave frequency, velocity, wavelength. In addition, a qualitative (e.g. re-circulation zones) and quantitative (e.g. mean/rms velocity profiles) velocity characterisation of the film flows will be presented.

  5. Rayleigh wave phase velocities and upper mantle structure in the Apennines

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    Full Text Available The dispersion of the phase velocities of the surface Rayleigh
    waves on the path between the station pair Torino-L'Aquila in the
    Apennines has been observed with long period seismic stations for twin
    The inversion was provided by the "Hedgehog" program of non-linear
    inversion analysis.
    The interpretation supports the notion that in the Apennines low-velocity
    material in the mantle is found within a few km of the Moho and may
    lie immediately below the Moho; however the alternative model of a highvelocity
    lid and very low-velocity channel cannot be completely rejected.

  6. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.


    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  7. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng


    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  8. Measuring the seismic velocity in the top 15 km of Earth's inner core (United States)

    Godwin, Harriet; Waszek, Lauren; Deuss, Arwen


    We present seismic observations of the uppermost layer of the inner core. This was formed most recently, thus its seismic features are related to current solidification processes. Previous studies have only constrained the east-west hemispherical seismic velocity structure in the Earth's inner core at depths greater than 15 km below the inner core boundary. The properties of shallower structure have not yet been determined, because the seismic waves PKIKP and PKiKP used for differential travel time analysis arrive close together and start to interfere. Here, we present a method to make differential travel time measurements for waves that turn in the top 15 km of the inner core, and measure the corresponding seismic velocity anomalies. We achieve this by generating synthetic seismograms to model the overlapping signals of the inner core phase PKIKP and the inner core boundary phase PKiKP. We then use a waveform comparison to attribute different parts of the signal to each phase. By measuring the same parts of the signal in both observed and synthetic data, we are able to calculate differential travel time residuals. We apply our method to data with ray paths which traverse the Pacific hemisphere boundary. We generate a velocity model for this region, finding lower velocity for deeper, more easterly ray paths. Forward modelling suggests that this region contains either a high velocity upper layer, or variation in the location of the hemisphere boundary with depth and/or latitude. Our study presents the first direct seismic observation of the uppermost 15 km of the inner core, opening new possibilities for further investigating the inner core boundary region.

  9. Study of the dynamic behavior of earthflows through the analysis of shear wave velocity in the landslide's body (United States)

    Bertello, Lara


    Over the first year of my PhD, I carried out a literature search about earthflows features and dynamics and conducted periodic ReMi-MASW campaigns to assess the temporal variation of shear velocity for several landslides that were recently reactivated. Literature search was conducted to review recent works related to shear wave velocity as an indicator for rheological changes in clay materials (Mainsant et al., 2012). From January to August 2014 I carried out numerous ReMi-MASW surveys to characterize several active earthflows in the Emilia-Romagna Apennines. I did these measures both inside and outside the landslide's bodies, usually during the first ten days after the reactivation. At first, these measures indicate low shear waves velocity inside the landslide and high velocity outside. This is due to the different consistence of the materials, to the different water content and to the void index. Then I repeated the measures over time in the same places on the same landslide, in order to detect the variability of Vs over time in correlations with the landslide's movements. Periodic ReMi-MASW survey were conducted on the following landslides: • The Montevecchio (FC) earthflow was reactivated the 1th of February 2014 (estimated volume of 240.000 m³) and increased the movement's velocity around the 7th of February 2014, after intense precipitations. Analyzing the data collected inside the landslide's body, I observed an increase of Vs over time, due to the decrease of landslide velocity; • The Silla (BO) complex landslide reactivated the 10th of February 2014 (estimated volume of 900.000 m³), and moved downslope with a maximum velocity in the order of several m/hour. Studying the data, it is possible to notice how the Vs increase over time only in the lower portion of the landslide. In fact the upper portion is still active, so the Vs remained unchanged over time. • the Puzzola-Grizzana Morandi (BO) complex landslide. This landslide was reactivated the 10th

  10. Evaluation of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity: influence of timing algorithm and heart rate. (United States)

    Millasseau, Sandrine C; Stewart, Andrew D; Patel, Sundip J; Redwood, Simon R; Chowienczyk, Philip J


    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, is determined from the time taken for the arterial pulse to propagate from the carotid to the femoral artery. Propagation time is measured variously from the foot of the waveform or point of maximum upslope. We investigated whether these methods give comparable values of PWV at rest, during beta-adrenergic stimulation, and pacing-induced tachycardia. In subjects at rest (n=43), values obtained using the foot-to-foot method (SphygmoCor system) were 1.7+/-0.75 m/s (mean+/-SD) greater than those obtained using the maximum slope (Complior system) at a mean value of 12 m/s. Isoprotenerol (0.5 to 1.5 microg/min; n=10), and pacing (in subjects with permanent pacemakers; n=11) increased heart rate but had differential effects on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. The increase in heart rate produced by isoprotenerol (18+/-3 bpm) and pacing (40 bpm) was associated with an increase in PWV measured using both systems (increases of 0.7+/-0.2 m/s and 0.9+/-0.2 m/s for SphygmoCor and Complior, respectively, during isoprotenerol and increases of 2.1+/-0.5 m/s and 1.1+/-0.2 m/s for SphygmoCor and Complior, respectively, during pacing, each P<0.001). Reanalysis of waveforms recorded from the Complior system using the foot-to-foot method produced similar values of PWV to those obtained with the SphygmoCor, confirming that the difference between these systems was attributable to the timing algorithm rather than other aspects of signal acquisition. Carotid-femoral PWV is critically dependent on the method used to determine propagation time, but this does not account for variation of PWV with heart rate.

  11. Crustal composition in the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt estimated from seismic velocity by laboratory measurements (United States)

    Yamauchi, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Toyoshima, T.


    To understand the dynamics of the lithosphere in subduction systems, the knowledge of rock composition is significant. However, rock composition of the overriding plate is still poorly understood. To estimate rock composition of the lithosphere, it is an effective method to compare the elastic wave velocities measured under the high pressure and temperature condition with the seismic velocities obtained by active source experiment and earthquake observation. Due to an arc-arc collision in central Hokkaido, middle to lower crust is exposed along the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt (HMB), providing exceptional opportunities to study crust composition of an island arc. Across the HMB, P-wave velocity model has been constructed by refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic profiling (Iwasaki et al., 2004). Furthermore, because of the interpretation of the crustal structure (Ito, 2000), we can follow a continuous pass from the surface to the middle-lower crust. We corrected representative rock samples from HMB and measured ultrasonic P-wave (Vp) and S-wave velocities (Vs) under the pressure up to 1.0 GPa in a temperature range from 25 to 400 °C. For example, the Vp values measured at 25 °C and 0.5 GPa are 5.88 km/s for the granite (74.29 wt.% SiO2), 6.02-6.34 km/s for the tonalites (66.31-68.92 wt.% SiO2), 6.34 km/s for the gneiss (64.69 wt.% SiO2), 6.41-7.05 km/s for the amphibolites (50.06-51.13 wt.% SiO2), and 7.42 km/s for the mafic granulite (50.94 wt.% SiO2). And, Vp of tonalites showed a correlation with SiO2 (wt.%). Comparing with the velocity profiles across the HMB (Iwasaki et al., 2004), we estimate that the lower to middle crust consists of amphibolite and tonalite, and the estimated acoustic impedance contrast between them suggests an existence of a clear reflective boundary, which accords well to the obtained seismic reflection profile (Iwasaki et al., 2014). And, we can obtain the same tendency from comparing measured Vp/Vs ratio and Vp/Vs ratio structure model

  12. Comparison of an oscillometric method with cardiac magnetic resonance for the analysis of aortic pulse wave velocity. (United States)

    Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Reinstadler, Sebastian J; Klug, Gert; Kremser, Christian; Seidner, Benjamin; Esterhammer, Regina; Schocke, Michael F; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael; Metzler, Bernhard


    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the proposed gold-standard for the assessment of aortic elastic properties. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV determined by a recently developed oscillometric device with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). PWV was assessed in 40 volunteers with two different methods. The oscillometric method (PWVOSC) is based on a transfer function from the brachial pressure waves determined by oscillometric blood pressure measurements with a common cuff (Mobil-O-Graph, I.E.M. Stolberg, Germany). CMR was used to determine aortic PWVCMR with the use of the transit time method based on phase-contrast imaging at the level of the ascending and abdominal aorta on a clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The median age of the study population was 34 years (IQR: 24-55 years, 11 females). A very strong correlation was found between PWVOSC and PWVCMR (r = 0.859, p wave velocity assessed by transformation of the brachial pressure waveform showed an acceptable agreement with the CMR-derived transit time method.

  13. On the measurement of lateral velocity derivatives in turbulent flows (United States)

    Antonia, R. A.; Zhu, Y.; Kim, J.


    Direct numerical simulation data for the lateral velocity derivative delta(u)/delta(y) at the centerline of a fully developed turbulent channel flow provide reasonable support for Wyngaard's analysis of the error involved in measuring this quantity using parallel hot wires. Numerical data in the wall region of the channel flow also provide a useful indication of how to select the separation between the wires. Justification for this choice is obtained by comparing several measured statistics of delta(u)/delta(y) with the corresponding numerical data.

  14. Association of pulse wave velocity with total lung capacity: A cross-sectional analysis of the BOLD London study. (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Patel, Jaymini; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Jones, Meinir; Burney, Peter G J


    Low lung function, measured using spirometry, has been associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease, but whether this is explained by airflow obstruction or restriction is a question that remains unanswered. To assess the association of total lung capacity (TLC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) with several cardio-metabolic and inflammatory markers. In the follow up of the Burden of Lung Disease (BOLD) study in London, acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometric, pulse rate, pulse wave velocity and blood pressure data were obtained from 108 participants. Blood samples for measurement of cardio-metabolic and inflammatory markers were also collected from these participants. Association of lung function and volume with the different biomarkers was examined in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Following adjustment for age, sex, height, and ethnicity, TLC (adjusted coefficient = -1.53; 95% CI: -2.57, -0.49) and FVC (adjusted coefficient = -2.66; 95% CI: -4.98, -0.34) were inversely associated with pulse wave velocity, and further adjustment for smoking status, pack-years and body mass index (BMI) did not materially change these results. FEV1 was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure, and adjustment for smoking status, pack-years and BMI made this association stronger (adjusted coefficient = -9.47; 95% CI: -15.62, -3.32). The inverse association of pulse wave velocity, which is a marker of cardiovascular disease, with TLC suggests that the association of the former with low FVC is independent of airflow obstruction. The association between FEV1 with systolic blood pressure after adjustment for FVC suggests an association with airflow obstruction rather than with restricted spirometry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Microcomputer measurement of the velocity of sound in air (United States)

    Bates, P. A.


    The velocity of sound in air can be measured in a general physics laboratory using many well known methods such as Hebb's method, Kundt's tube, etc. The experiment described allows the velocity of sound in air to be determined relatively easily but it has really been developed to enable a student to use a microcomputer in a physical experiment. The intention has been for the student to become familiar with an Apple II microcomputer that is being used for data collection and to realise that data collected in this manner may be processed manually as well as with the aid of a computer. It is hoped that by using such techniques students may be instructed in the best use of computers in both the collection and handling of experimental results.

  16. Automatic Wave Equation Migration Velocity Analysis by Focusing Subsurface Virtual Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing


    Macro velocity model building is important for subsequent pre-stack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes the band-limited waveform to invert for the velocity. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers (SOCIGs). We re-examine this concept with a different perspective: In subsurface offset domain, using extended Born modeling, the recorded data can be considered as invariant with respect to the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources and velocity at the same time. A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those virtual sources and velocity is derived and solved subsequently by Conjugate Gradient method. In theory, the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources is given by the Rytov approximation. Thus, compared to the Born approximation, it relaxes the dependency on amplitude and makes the proposed method more applicable for real data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by applying the proposed method on both isotropic and anisotropic VTI synthetic data. A real dataset example verifies the robustness of the proposed method.

  17. Rayleigh Wave Group Velocity Tomography of Siberia, China and the Vicinity (United States)

    Wu, F. T.; Levshin, A. L.; Kozhevnikov, V. M.

    Rayleigh waves are used in a tomographic inversion to obtain group velocity maps of East Asia (40° E-160° E and 20° N-70° N). The period range studied is 30 to 70 seconds. Seismograms used for this study were recorded at CDSN stations, at a temporary broadband seismic array in Tibet, at several SRO stations, and Kirnos-equipped stations established in Asia by the former Soviet Union, in Siberia, in the Sakhalin and in Mongolia. Altogether more than 1200 paths were available in the tomographic inversion. The study area includes the Angara craton, the geologically ancient core of Asia, and the subsequently accreted units, the Altaids (a Paleozoic collision complex), the Sino-Korean platform (a chain of Archaen terranes separated by belts of active structures), the south China platform (a collage of Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphic and igneous terranes), as well as the Tibetan plateau (an active tectonic feature created in late Cenozoic through collision of the Indian subcontinent and the Asian continent). Many of these main units are recognizable in the tomographic images as distinctive units; Tibet appears as a prominent low velocity (about -15% from the average) structure, with western and central Tibet often appearing as the areas with the lowest velocities, the Central Asian fold-belt, and the Angara craton are consistently high group velocity areas. Some lesser tectonic features are also recognizable. For example, Lake Baikal is seen as a high velocity feature at periods greater than 40 seconds. However, the high group velocity feature does not stop near the southern end of Lake Baikal; it extends south-southwestward across Mongolia. The North China Plain, a part of the platform where extensional tectonics dominate, is an area of high velocities as a result of relatively thin crust. The south China block, the least tectonically active region of China, is generally an area of high velocity. For periods longer than 40 seconds, a NNE trending

  18. Vertical structure of internal wave induced velocity for mode I and II solitary waves in two- and three-layer fluid (United States)

    Gigiyatullin, Ayrat; Kurkin, Andrey; Kurkina, Oxana; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Rybin, Artem


    With the use of the Gardner equation, or its variable-coefficient forms, the velocity components of fluid particles in the vertical section induced by a passage of internal waves can be estimated in weakly nonlinear limit. The horizontal velocity gives the greatest contribution into the local current speed. This is a typical property of long waves. This feature of an internal wave field may greatly contribute to the local sediment transport and/or resuspension. The velocity field induced by mode I and II internal solitary waves are studied. The contribution from second-order terms in asymptotic expansion into the horizontal velocity is estimated for the models of two- and three-layer fluid density stratification for solitons of positive and negative polarity, as well as for breathers of different shapes and amplitudes. The influence of the nonlinear correction manifests itself firstly in the shape of the lines of zero horizontal velocity: they are curved and the shape depends on the soliton amplitude and polarity while for the leading-order wave field they are horizontal. Also the wavefield accounting for the nonlinear correction for mode I waves has smaller maximal absolute values of negative velocities (near-surface for the soliton of elevation, and near-bottom for the soliton of depression) and larger maximums of positive velocities. Thus for the solitary internal waves of positive polarity weakly nonlinear theory overestimates the near-bottom velocities and underestimates the near-surface current. For solitary waves of negative polarity, which are the most typical for hydrological conditions of low and middle latitudes, the situation is the opposite. Similar estimations are produced for mode II waves, which possess more complex structure. The presented results of research are obtained with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 16-35-00413.

  19. Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: 'establishing normal and reference values'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum


    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness, has become increasingly important for total cardiovascular (CV) risk estimation. Its application as a routine tool for clinical patient evaluation has been hampered by the absence of reference values. The aim of the ...

  20. Compressional wave velocity and index properties of the gabbroic rocks drilled at hole 1105A of the Atlantis Bank, southwest Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Krishna, K.S.

    Compressional wave velocities (Vp) and index properties of 70 mini- gabbroic rock- core samples of 2.5 cm diameter x 2.1 cm long from 157.1 m below seafloor in Hole 1105Aof the Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge, were measured in the laboratory...

  1. A single laser all fibre based optical sensor and switching system and method for measuring velocity in atmospheric air flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A system for measuring a velocity of tracer particle motion in a fluid comprising at least one laser emitter configured to emit a continuous wave laser beam and a plur ality of optical devices being configured to alternately receive a laser beam, focusing the laser beam onto a same probe volume c...

  2. Low-velocity impact-induced delamination detection by use of the S{sub 0} guided wave mode in cross-ply composite plates: a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Khazar; Ha, Sung Kyu [Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)


    Finite element method based numerical simulations are performed to identify low-velocity impact-induced asymmetrically-located delamination in the [0/90{sub 3}]{sub S} and [0/90]{sub 2S} composite plates, respectively, using a fundamental symmetric guided wave mode (S{sub 0}). The wave attenuation effect due to the viscoelasticity of the composite material is modeled by calculating the Lamb wave attenuation constants and using the Rayleigh proportional damping model. The estimated sizes and locations of the delamination in both plates were in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Moreover, the analysis of wave structure of the impacted plates shows that when the S{sub 0} mode propagates through the damaged region, the delamination mouth opens up due to the presence of standing waves, which are generated as a consequence of multiple reflections of trapped waves with the delamination boundaries.

  3. Platelet to Lymphocyte Percentage Ratio Is Associated With Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Hemodialysis. (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Su, Ho-Ming; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun


    Increased arterial stiffness in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) is highly prevalent and is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In HD, inflammation is one of the major causes of increased arterial stiffness. Activation of platelets and decreased lymphocyte percentage (LYMPH%) may exhibit inflammation. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between platelet to LYMPH% ratio and arterial stiffness in HD patients.A total of 220 patients receiving HD were enrolled in this study. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using an ankle-brachial index form device. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relations of the platelet to LYMPH% ratio and baPWV. The value of the platelet to LYMPH% ratio was 59.2 ± 33.3 (10 cells/L/%). After multivariate stepwise analysis, diabetes (β: 163.973, P = 0.02), high systolic blood pressure (per 1 mm Hg, β: 9.010, P < 0.001), high platelet to LYMPH% ratio (per 10 cells/L/%, β: 3.334, P < 0.01), and low albumin (per 0.1 mg/dL, β: -55.912, P < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased baPWV. Furthermore, high white blood cells (per 10 cells/L, β: 3.941, P < 0.001), high neutrophil percentage (per 1%, β: 1.144, P < 0.001), and high CRP (per 1 mg/L, β: 9.161, P = 0.03) were independently associated with an increased platelet to LYMPH% ratio.An increased platelet to LYMPH% ratio is associated with an increased baPWV in HD patients. An easy and inexpensive laboratory measure of platelet to LYMPH% ratio may provide an important information regarding arterial stiffness in patients with HD.

  4. Aeration and bubble measurements of coastal breaking waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Nobuhito [Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kakuno, Shohachi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)], E-mail:


    The air entrainment process of surf zone waves is studied experimentally to understand as a first step of two-phase characteristics of surf zone breaking waves. A set of laboratory experiments of free surface elevation, water velocity, void fraction and bubble distribution is conducted simultaneously for regular gravity wave breaking on a plane slope. The in situ data are collected by using a measurement array of wave gages, a dual-tip resistivity void fraction probe and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Two-dimensional projected bubble size measurements are conduced by the high speed camera with imaging technique. The experimental data show a linear relationship between the void fraction and turbulent intensity. In addition, the bubble size distributions are proportional to the bubble size to the power of -1 and -3.4 independent of the distance from breaking point and water depth. The length scale separating two power laws is the Hinze scale which corresponds to the wave energy dissipation scale. This result will be important for modeling and implication for the study of surf zone dynamics.

  5. A study of CO2 flooding on wave velocities in the Naharkatiya oil reservoir of Upper Assam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Borgohain Gogoi


    Full Text Available This paper studies the compressional-wave and shear-wave velocities in the laboratory in six conventional core plugs. These plugs were obtained from a depth of more than 3000 m from the producing horizons of Naharkatiya oil reservoir of Upper Assam Basin, India. The porosities of the conventional core plugs were from 9.67 to 25.8% and that of unconsolidated sand pack was 47%. These plugs and sand pack were saturated with n-hexadecane before CO2 flooding. It was observed that during flooding compressional-wave velocities decreased more than the shear wave velocities. These decreases in wave velocity depend on confining pressure, pore pressure, porosity and temperature of the plugs. Increasing pore pressure at constant confining pressure not only keeps the pores and cracks open but also reduces the confining pressure effect and increases the CO2 density. Higher pore pressures causes larger decrease in both compressional and shear wave velocities. In case of conventional core plugs which are consolidated, having lower porosities tends to decrease the CO2 effect. In unconsolidated sand pack the flooding effect is large even though porosity is high because the bulk modulus of the sand is low. The experimental and the theoretical analyses in this paper show that the decrease in compressional-wave velocities caused by CO2 flooding makes it possible to track CO2 front movements and monitor CO2 flooding process in the reservoir.

  6. Signal reconstruction of surface waves on SASW measurement using Gaussian Derivative wavelet transform (United States)

    Rosyidi, Sri; Taha, Mohd; Chik, Zamri; Ismail, Amiruddin


    Surface wave method consists of measurement and processing of the dispersive Rayleigh waves recorded from two or more vertical transducers. The dispersive phase data are inverted and the shear wave velocity versus depth is obtained. However, in case of residual soil, the reliable phase spectrum curve is difficult to be produced. Noises from nature and other human-made sources disturb the generated surface wave data. In this paper, a continuous wavelet transform based on mother wavelet of Gaussian Derivative was used to analyze seismic waves in different frequency and time. Time-frequency wavelet spectrum was employed to localize the interested seismic response spectrum of generated surface waves. It can also distinguish the fundamental mode of the surface wave from the higher modes of reflected body waves. The results presented in this paper showed that the wavelet analysis is able to determine reliable surface wave spectrum of sandy clayey residual soil.

  7. Spatial Parallelism of a 3D Finite Difference, Velocity-Stress Elastic Wave Propagation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Finite difference methods for solving the wave equation more accurately capture the physics of waves propagating through the earth than asymptotic solution methods. Unfortunately. finite difference simulations for 3D elastic wave propagation are expensive. We model waves in a 3D isotropic elastic earth. The wave equation solution consists of three velocity components and six stresses. The partial derivatives are discretized using 2nd-order in time and 4th-order in space staggered finite difference operators. Staggered schemes allow one to obtain additional accuracy (via centered finite differences) without requiring additional storage. The serial code is most unique in its ability to model a number of different types of seismic sources. The parallel implementation uses the MP1 library, thus allowing for portability between platforms. Spatial parallelism provides a highly efficient strategy for parallelizing finite difference simulations. In this implementation, one can decompose the global problem domain into one-, two-, and three-dimensional processor decompositions with 3D decompositions generally producing the best parallel speed up. Because i/o is handled largely outside of the time-step loop (the most expensive part of the simulation) we have opted for straight-forward broadcast and reduce operations to handle i/o. The majority of the communication in the code consists of passing subdomain face information to neighboring processors for use as ''ghost cells''. When this communication is balanced against computation by allocating subdomains of reasonable size, we observe excellent scaled speed up. Allocating subdomains of size 25 x 25 x 25 on each node, we achieve efficiencies of 94% on 128 processors. Numerical examples for both a layered earth model and a homogeneous medium with a high-velocity blocky inclusion illustrate the accuracy of the parallel code.

  8. Shear wave velocity of the healthy thyroid gland in children with acoustic radiation force impulse elastography. (United States)

    Ceyhan Bilgici, Meltem; Sağlam, Dilek; Delibalta, Semra; Yücel, Serap; Tomak, Leman; Elmalı, Muzaffer


    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is a kind of shear wave elastography that can be used in children for differentiating thyroid pathologies. Possible changes in the healthy thyroid gland in children may create difficulties in the use of shear wave velocities (SWV) in thyroid pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the normal values of SWV for the healthy thyroid gland in children, elucidate the correlation of the SWV values with potential influencing factors, and evaluate intra-operator reproducibility of the SWV. Between January 2015 and December 2015, a total of 145 healthy children (81 girls, 64 boys; mean age, 10.5 ± 3.14 years; range 6-17 years) were enrolled in the study. The SWV and volume of the thyroid gland were determined. The mean shear wave velocity of the thyroid gland was 1.22 ± 0.20 m/s. There was no correlation between age and the mean SWV of the thyroid gland (Spearman Rho = 0.049, p = 0.556). There was also no correlation between the thyroid gland volume or BSA and the mean SWV. The only correlation detected was between BSA and total thyroid gland volume (p thyroid gland in children was determined. There was no correlation between the SWV of the thyroid gland and age, BSA, or thyroid gland volume.

  9. Shear wave velocity versus quality factor: results from seismic noise recordings (United States)

    Boxberger, Tobias; Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano


    The assessment of the shear wave velocity (vs) and shear wave quality factor (Qs) for the shallow structure below a site is necessary to characterize its site response. In the past, methods based on the analysis of seismic noise have been shown to be very efficient for providing a sufficiently accurate estimation of the vs versus depth at reasonable costs for engineering seismology purposes. In addition, a slight modification of the same method has proved to be able to provide realistic Qs versus depth estimates. In this study, data sets of seismic noise recorded by microarrays of seismic stations in different geological environments of Europe and Central Asia are used to calculate both vs and Qs versus depth profiles. Analogous to the generally adopted approach in seismic hazard assessment for mapping the average shear wave velocity in the uppermost 30 m (vs30) as a proxy of the site response, this approach was also applied to the quality factor within the uppermost 30 m (Qs30). A slightly inverse correlation between both parameters is found based on a methodological consistent determination for different sites. Consequently, a combined assessment of vs and Qs by seismic noise analysis has the potential to provide a more comprehensive description of the geological structure below a site.

  10. Dynamic Measurement of Temperature, Velocity, and Density in Hot Jets Using Rayleigh Scattering (United States)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.


    A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is utilized to measure gas temperature, velocity, and density in unseeded gas flows at sampling rates up to 10 kHz, providing fluctuation information up to 5 kHz based on the Nyquist theorem. A high-power continuous-wave laser beam is focused at a point in an air flow field and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to a Fabry-Perot interferometer for spectral analysis. Photomultiplier tubes operated in the photon counting mode allow high-frequency sampling of the total signal level and the circular interference pattern to provide dynamic density, temperature, and velocity measurements. Mean and root mean square velocity, temperature, and density, as well as power spectral density calculations, are presented for measurements in a hydrogen-combustor heated jet facility with a 50.8-mm diameter nozzle at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Rayleigh measurements are compared with particle image velocimetry data and computational fluid dynamics predictions. This technique is aimed at aeronautics research related to identifying noise sources in free jets, as well as applications in supersonic and hypersonic flows where measurement of flow properties, including mass flux, is required in the presence of shocks and ionization occurrence.

  11. Measuring liquid meniscus velocity to determine size of nanopipette aperture. (United States)

    Salançon, Evelyne; Tinland, Bernard


    Nanopipette aperture sizes up to 25 nm are determined here using a method based on the Poiseuille law. Pressure is applied to the backside of a liquid plug placed in the widest end of the nanopipette, resulting in an air pressure tank with an aperture at the very tip of the nanopipette. Measuring the velocity of the liquid meniscus gives the air flow and thus the aperture size. Aperture determinations are in good agreement with SEM estimations and the proposed method is simple, relatively fast, and cheap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-dimensional S-wave velocity model of the Bohemian Massif from Bayesian ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Valentová, Lubica; Gallovič, František; Maierová, Petra


    We perform two-step surface wave tomography of phase-velocity dispersion curves obtained by ambient noise cross-correlations in the Bohemian Massif. In the first step, the inter-station dispersion curves were inverted for each period (ranging between 4 and 20 s) separately into phase-velocity maps using 2D adjoint method. In the second step, we perform Bayesian inversion of the set of the phase-velocity maps into an S-wave velocity model. To sample the posterior probability density function, the parallel tempering algorithm is employed providing over 1 million models. From the model samples, not only mean model but also its uncertainty is determined to appraise the reliable features. The model is correlated with known main geologic structures of the Bohemian Massif. The uppermost low-velocity anomalies are in agreement with thick sedimentary basins. In deeper parts (4-20 km), the S-wave velocity anomalies correspond, in general, to main tectonic domains of the Bohemian Massif. The exception is a stable low-velocity body in the middle of the high-velocity Moldanubian domain and high-velocity body resembling a promontory of the Moldanubian into the Teplá-Barrandian domain. The most pronounced (high-velocity) anomaly is located beneath the Eger Rift that is a part of a Tertiary rift system across Europe.

  13. Evidence for instability-waves in the velocity-field of a fully developed turbulent channel-flow (United States)

    Hofbauer, M.


    The results from hot film measurements and quantitative visual investigations, performed in the turbulent flow of an oil-channel at a low Reynolds number (Re = 8000), are discussed. The main result of the hot film measurements is the power spectrum of the v-component of the fluctuating velocity. The power spectrum has regular maxima and minima. The frequencies corresponding to the maxima of the power spectrum are plotted as a function of the order n of the maxima. This graph demonstrates that the frequencies of the maxima are the harmonics of a fundamental frequency which are determined to be about 0.15 Hz. An estimation shows that the fundamental frequency is of the same order of magnitude as the roughly calculated unstable Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies of the mean turbulent velocity profile. This fundamental frequency is interpreted as the most excited frequency of Tollmien-Schlichting-like instability waves. The harmonics are believed to be due to a nonlinear amplification of the primarily excited instability waves. The evidence of regular oscillations in the near-wall region of the fully developed turbulent flow from the visual studies is examined.

  14. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and damage in Los Gatos, California, from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.


    Aftershock records of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are used to calculate site response in the frequency band of 0.5-10 Hz at 24 locations in Los Gatos, California, on the edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Two different methods are used: spectral ratios relative to a reference site on rock and a source/site spectral inversion method. These two methods complement each other and give consistent results. Site amplification factors are compared with surficial geology, thickness of alluvium, shallow shear-wave velocity measurements, and ground deformation and structural damage resulting from the Loma Prieta earthquake. Higher values of site amplification are seen on Quaternary alluvium compared with older Miocene and Cretaceous units of Monterey and Franciscan Formation. However, other more detailed correlations with surficial geology are not evident. A complex pattern of alluvial sediment thickness, caused by crosscutting thrust faults, is interpreted as contributing to the variability in site response and the presence of spectral resonance peaks between 2 and 7 Hz at some sites. Within the range of our field measurements, there is a correlation between lower average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 m and 50% higher values of site amplification. An area of residential homes thrown from their foundations correlates with high site response. This damage may also have been aggravated by local ground deformation. Severe damage to commercial buildings in the business district, however, is attributed to poor masonry construction.

  15. Full field gas phase velocity measurements in microgravity (United States)

    Griffin, Devon W.; Yanis, William


    Measurement of full-field velocities via Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is common in research efforts involving fluid motion. While such measurements have been successfully performed in the liquid phase in a microgravity environment, gas-phase measurements have been beset by difficulties with seeding and laser strength. A synthesis of techniques developed at NASA LeRC exhibits promise in overcoming these difficulties. Typical implementation of PIV involves forming the light from a pulsed laser into a sheet that is some fraction of a millimeter thick and 50 or more millimeters wide. When a particle enters this sheet during a pulse, light scattered from the particle is recorded by a detector, which may be a film plane or a CCD array. Assuming that the particle remains within the boundaries of the sheet for the second pulse and can be distinguished from neighboring particles, comparison of the two images produces an average velocity vector for the time between the pulses. If the concentration of particles in the sampling volume is sufficiently large but the particles remain discrete, a full field map may be generated.

  16. Increased pulse-wave velocity in patients with anxiety: implications for autonomic dysfunction. (United States)

    Yeragani, Vikram Kumar; Tancer, Manuel; Seema, K P; Josyula, Krishnapriya; Desai, Nagaraj


    Decreased vagal function is associated with vascular dysfunction. In this study, we compared vascular indices and correlated heart rate and QT variability measures with vascular indices in patients with anxiety disorders and normal controls. We compared age- and sex-matched controls (n=23) and patients with anxiety (n=25) using the Vascular Profiler (VP-1000; Colin Medical Instruments, Japan), approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Using this machine, we obtained ankle and brachial blood pressure (BP) in both arms (brachial), both legs (ankle), and carotid artery, and lead I electrocardiogram (ECG) and phonocardiogram. Using these signals, pulse-wave velocity (PWV), and arterial stiffness index % and preejection period can be calculated. We also obtained ECG sampled at 1000 Hz in lead II configuration in supine posture to obtain beat-to-beat interbeat interval (R-R) and QT interval variability for 256 s. Patients with anxiety had significantly higher carotid mean arterial pressure (MAP) %, brachial-ankle PWV (BAPWV), arterial stiffness index %, MAP, and diastolic BP of the extremities compared to controls. We found significant negative correlations (r values from .4 to .65; P<.05 to .007) between R-R interval high-frequency (0.15-0.5 Hz) power (which is an indicator of cardiac vagal function), and increased BAPWV and systolic BP of the extremities only in patients. We were unable to find such correlations in controls. We also found significant positive correlations between QT variability index (a probable indicator of cardiac sympathetic function) and MAP of the extremities and BAPWV only in the patient group. These findings suggest an important association between decreased vagal and increased sympathetic function, and decreased arterial compliance and possible atherosclerotic changes and increased BP in patients with anxiety.

  17. Determinants of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Chinese Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Ping Li


    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, and its associated risk factors in Chinese patients with RA. Methods. 138 Chinese RA patients and 150 healthy subjects were included. baPWV of all the participants was measured. RA related factors were determined, as well as traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Results. baPWV was significant higher in RA group (1705.44 ± 429.20 cm/s compared to the healthy control group (1386.23 ± 411.09 cm/s (P<0.001. Compared with low baPWV group, high baPWV group patients were significantly older (P = 0.008 and taller (P = 0.033. Serum cholesterol (P = 0.035, triglycerides (P = 0.004, and LDL level (P = 0.006 were significantly higher in high baPWV group patients compared with low baPWV group patients. The baPWV of RA patients was positively correlated with age (r = 0.439, P<0.001, and serum cholesterol level (r = 0.231, P = 0.035, serum triglycerides level (r = 0.293, P<0.001, serum LDL level (r = 0.323, P = 0.003. Meanwhile, baPWV negatively correlated with the height of RA patients (r = −0.253, P = 0.043. Multivariate regression analysis showed that baPWV of RA group was independently associated with age and serum triglycerides level. Conclusions. The old age and high level of serum triglycerides may be the major determinants of arterial stiffness in Chinese RA patients.

  18. Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber. (United States)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Wegmüller, Mark; Legré, Matthieu; Gisin, Nicolas


    We present an easy way of observing superluminal group velocities using a birefringent optical fiber and other standard devices. In the theoretical analysis, we show that the optical properties of the setup can be described using the notion of "weak value." The experiment shows that the group velocity can indeed exceed c in the fiber; and we report the first direct observation of the so-called "signal velocity," the speed at which information propagates and that cannot exceed c.

  19. Investigating Near Surface S-Wave Velocity Properties Using Ambient Noise in Southwestern Taiwan

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    Chun-Hsiang Kuo


    Full Text Available Ambient noise is typically used to estimate seismic site effects and velocity profiles instead of earthquake recordings, especially in areas with limited seismic data. The dominant Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR frequency of ambient noise is correlated to Vs30, which is the average S-wave velocity in the top 30 m. Vs30 is a widely used parameter for defining seismic amplification in earthquake engineering. HVSR can detect the vertical discontinuity of velocities, that is, the interfaces between hard bedrock and soft sediments. In southwestern Taiwan most strong motion stations are located in the plains and show a dominant frequency lower than 3 Hz. Several stations near the coast have low dominant frequencies of less than 1 Hz. The dominant frequencies are higher than 4 Hz at piedmont stations. The stations in the mountains with dominant frequencies over 8 Hz are typically located on very hard sites. This study analyzed the HVSR characteristics under different seismic site conditions considering the Vs30 from previous study (Kuo et al. 2012. The result implies that HVSRs are a better tool than Vs30 to classify the sites where bedrock is deeper than 30 m. Furthermore, we found a linear correlation between Vs30 and dominant HVSR frequency which could be used as a proxy of Vs30. The Vs30 map in this area was derived using the Engineering Geological Database for Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (EGDT. The comparable distribution pattern between the dominant frequency and Vs30 demonstrate that HVSR can recognize S-wave velocity properties at the shallow subsurface.

  20. Comparison of an Oscillometric Method with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance for the Analysis of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (United States)

    Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Reinstadler, Sebastian J.; Klug, Gert; Kremser, Christian; Seidner, Benjamin; Esterhammer, Regina; Schocke, Michael F.; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael; Metzler, Bernhard


    Objectives Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the proposed gold-standard for the assessment of aortic elastic properties. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV determined by a recently developed oscillometric device with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods PWV was assessed in 40 volunteers with two different methods. The oscillometric method (PWVOSC) is based on a transfer function from the brachial pressure waves determined by oscillometric blood pressure measurements with a common cuff (Mobil-O-Graph, I.E.M. Stolberg, Germany). CMR was used to determine aortic PWVCMR with the use of the transit time method based on phase-contrast imaging at the level of the ascending and abdominal aorta on a clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Results The median age of the study population was 34 years (IQR: 24–55 years, 11 females). A very strong correlation was found between PWVOSC and PWVCMR (r = 0.859, p < 0.001). Mean PWVOSC was 6.7 ± 1.8 m/s and mean PWVCMR was 6.1 ± 1.8 m/s (p < 0.001). Analysis of agreement between the two measurements using Bland-Altman method showed a bias of 0.57 m/s (upper and lower limit of agreement: 2.49 m/s and -1.34 m/s). The corresponding coefficient of variation between both measurements was 15%. Conclusion Aortic pulse wave velocity assessed by transformation of the brachial pressure waveform showed an acceptable agreement with the CMR-derived transit time method. PMID:25612307

  1. Comparison of an oscillometric method with cardiac magnetic resonance for the analysis of aortic pulse wave velocity.

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    Hans-Josef Feistritzer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pulse wave velocity (PWV is the proposed gold-standard for the assessment of aortic elastic properties. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV determined by a recently developed oscillometric device with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR. METHODS: PWV was assessed in 40 volunteers with two different methods. The oscillometric method (PWVOSC is based on a transfer function from the brachial pressure waves determined by oscillometric blood pressure measurements with a common cuff (Mobil-O-Graph, I.E.M. Stolberg, Germany. CMR was used to determine aortic PWVCMR with the use of the transit time method based on phase-contrast imaging at the level of the ascending and abdominal aorta on a clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany. RESULTS: The median age of the study population was 34 years (IQR: 24-55 years, 11 females. A very strong correlation was found between PWVOSC and PWVCMR (r = 0.859, p < 0.001. Mean PWVOSC was 6.7 ± 1.8 m/s and mean PWVCMR was 6.1 ± 1.8 m/s (p < 0.001. Analysis of agreement between the two measurements using Bland-Altman method showed a bias of 0.57 m/s (upper and lower limit of agreement: 2.49 m/s and -1.34 m/s. The corresponding coefficient of variation between both measurements was 15%. CONCLUSION: Aortic pulse wave velocity assessed by transformation of the brachial pressure waveform showed an acceptable agreement with the CMR-derived transit time method.

  2. Short-term effects of a standardized glucose load on region-specific aortic pulse wave velocity assessed by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; Tjeerdema, Nathanja; Hensen, Liselotte C. R.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; de Roos, Albert


    Purpose To assess the short-term effects of a standardized oral glucose load on regional aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) using two-directional in-plane velocity encoded MRI. Materials and Methods A randomized, controlled intervention was performed in 16 male subjects (mean +/- standard deviation:

  3. Estimating a continuous p-wave velocity profile with constant squared-slowness gradient models from seismic field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponomarenko, A.V.; Kashtan, B.M.; Troyan, V.N.; Mulder, W.A.


    We inverted seismic field data for a continuous, laterally invariant P-wave velocity profile. Instead of the usual approach that involves horizontal layers with piecewise constant densities and velocities, we consider models of one or two layers with a constant gradient of the squared slowness above

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Elastic Wave Velocity of Chalk Saturated with Brines Containing Divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    divided into groups of three and each group was saturated either with deionized water, calcite equilibrated water, or sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride solutions of the same ionic strength. Saturation with solutions that contain divalent ions caused major shifts in the distribution...... of the relaxation time. Core samples saturated with calcium chloride solution relaxed slower and those saturated with magnesium chloride solution relaxed faster than the rest of the samples. Along with the changes in relaxation the samples experienced smaller velocities of elastic waves when saturated with MgCl2...

  5. Technical note: Time lag correction of aquatic eddy covariance data measured in the presence of waves (United States)

    Berg, P.; Reimers, C. E.; Rosman, J. H.; Huettel, M.; Delgard, M. L.; Reidenbach, M. A.; Özkan-Haller, H. T.


    Extracting benthic oxygen fluxes from eddy covariance time series measured in the presence of surface gravity waves requires careful consideration of the temporal alignment of the vertical velocity and the oxygen concentration. Using a model based on linear wave theory and measured eddy covariance data, we show that a substantial error in flux can arise if these two variables are not aligned correctly in time. We refer to this error in flux as the time lag bias. In one example, produced with the wave model, we found that an offset of 0.25 s between the oxygen and the velocity data produced a 2-fold overestimation of the flux. In another example, relying on nighttime data measured over a seagrass meadow, a similar offset reversed the flux from an uptake of -50 mmol m-2 d-1 to a release of 40 mmol m-2 d-1. The bias is most acute for data measured at shallow-water sites with short-period waves and low current velocities. At moderate or higher current velocities (> 5-10 cm s-1), the bias is usually insignificant. The widely used traditional time shift correction for data measured in unidirectional flows, where the maximum numerical flux is sought, should not be applied in the presence of waves because it tends to maximize the time lag bias or give unrealistic flux estimates. Based on wave model predictions and measured data, we propose a new time lag correction that minimizes the time lag bias. The correction requires that the time series of both vertical velocity and oxygen concentration contain a clear periodic wave signal. Because wave motions are often evident in eddy covariance data measured at shallow-water sites, we encourage more work on identifying new time lag corrections.

  6. Intraglottal geometry and velocity measurements in canine larynges. (United States)

    Oren, Liran; Khosla, Sid; Gutmark, Ephraim


    Previous flow velocity measurements during phonation in canine larynges were done above the glottal exit. These studies found that vortical structures are present in the flow above the glottis at different phases of the glottal cycle. Some vortices were observed to leave the glottis during the closing phase and assumptions were proposed regarding their formation mechanism. In the current study, intraglottal velocity measurements are performed using PIV, and the intraglottal flow characteristics are determined. Results from five canine larynges show that at low subglottal pressure the glottis assumes a minimal divergence angle during closing and the flow separates at the glottal exit. Vortical structures are observed above the glottis but not inside. As the subglottal pressure is increased, the divergence angle between the folds during closing increases and the location of the flow separation moves upstream into the glottis. Entrainment flow enters the glottis to fill the void that is formed between the glottal jet and the fold. Vortical structures develop near the superior edge at medium and high subglottal pressures from the flow separation. The magnitude of their swirling strength changes as a function of the wall dynamics.

  7. Simultaneous Multiphase PIV of Capillary Waves on a High Velocity Liquid Jet (United States)

    Andre, Matthieu; Bardet, Philippe


    Relaxation of a laminar boundary layer below the free surface of a jet is inviscidly unstable and can roll-up which generates millimeter size waves. The latter largely modify important characteristics of jets such as heat and mass transfers between phases and can lead to breakup, or air entrainment. Two dimensional linear stability analysis predicts the initial disturbance wavelength and growth rate for inviscid flows; it does not take into account the effects of viscosity, non-linearity, or actual boundary layer profile. Because of the small temporal and spatial scales associated with this flow, few experimental data are available. Data acquisition is further complicated by the presence of a free surface with steep waves. The current experiment consists in a 20.3 mm × 146.0 mm water slab laminar jet flowing onto a transparent open-channel at a Reynolds number of 2.9 × 104 to 1.4 × 105. Two high speed cameras are employed to obtain velocity fields simultaneously in the liquid and in the gas phase with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Fluorescent dye is added in the liquid in order to improve interface detection. Each phase is recorded at 10 kHz, leading to a temporal resolution of 100 μs and high magnification lenses give a spatial resolution of 200 μm. The results confirm the mechanism of formation of the short surface waves. Generation of surface vorticity is identified in high curvature regions. Knowledge of the velocities in both phases allows studying vorticity flux through the free surface. The latter stage of wave growth can be accompanied by the formation of a vortex pair in the liquid and air entrapment.

  8. Volumetric velocity measurements on flows through heart valves (United States)

    Troolin, Daniel; Amatya, Devesh; Longmire, Ellen


    Volumetric velocity fields inside two types of artificial heart valves were obtained experimentally through the use of volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V). Index matching was used to mitigate the effects of optical distortions due to interfaces between the fluid and curved walls. The steady flow downstream of a mechanical valve was measured and the results matched well with previously obtained 2D PIV results, such as those of Shipkowitz et al. (2002). Measurements upstream and downstream of a deformable silicone valve in a pulsatile flow were obtained and reveal significant three-dimensional features of the flow. Plots and movies will be shown, and a detailed discussion of the flow and various experimental considerations will be included. Reference: Shipkowitz, T, Ambrus J, Kurk J, Wickramasinghe K (2002) Evaluation technique for bileaflet mechanical valves. J. Heart Valve Disease. 11(2) pp. 275-282.

  9. Normal values of aortic dimensions, distensibility, and pulse wave velocity in children and young adults: a cross-sectional study

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    Voges Inga


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic enlargement and impaired bioelasticity are of interest in several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases as they can lead to cardiovascular complications. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is increasingly accepted as a noninvasive tool in cardiovascular evaluation. Assessment of aortic anatomy and bioelasticity, namely aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV, by CMR is accurate and reproducible and could help to identify anatomical and bioelastic abnormalities of the aorta. However, normal CMR values for healthy children and young adults are lacking. Methods Seventy-one heart-healthy subjects (age 16.4 ± 7.6 years, range 2.3 - 28.3 years were examined using a 3.0 Tesla CMR scanner. Aortic cross-sectional areas and aortic distensibility were measured at four positions of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta. PWV was assessed from aortic blood flow velocity measurements in a aortic segment between the ascending aorta and the proximal descending aorta. The Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS method was used to obtain percentile curves for aortic cross-sectional areas, aortic distensibility and PWV according to age. Results Aortic areas, PWV and aortic distensibility (aortic cross-sectional areas: r = 0.8 to 0.9, p  Conclusions This study provides percentile curves for cross-sectional areas, distensibility and pulse wave velocity of the thoracic aorta in children and young adolescents between their 3rd and 29th year of life. These data may serve as a reference for the detection of pathological changes of the aorta in cardiovascular disease.

  10. Ultrasound Velocity Measurement in a Liquid Metal Electrode. (United States)

    Perez, Adalberto; Kelley, Douglas H


    A growing number of electrochemical technologies depend on fluid flow, and often that fluid is opaque. Measuring the flow of an opaque fluid is inherently more difficult than measuring the flow of a transparent fluid, since optical methods are not applicable. Ultrasound can be used to measure the velocity of an opaque fluid, not only at isolated points, but at hundreds or thousands of points arrayed along lines, with good temporal resolution. When applied to a liquid metal electrode, ultrasound velocimetry involves additional challenges: high temperature, chemical activity, and electrical conductivity. Here we describe the experimental apparatus and methods that overcome these challenges and allow the measurement of flow in a liquid metal electrode, as it conducts current, at operating temperature. Temperature is regulated within ±2 °C using a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller that powers a custom-built furnace. Chemical activity is managed by choosing vessel materials carefully and enclosing the experimental setup in an argon-filled glovebox. Finally, unintended electrical paths are carefully prevented. An automated system logs control settings and experimental measurements, using hardware trigger signals to synchronize devices. This apparatus and these methods can produce measurements that are impossible with other techniques, and allow optimization and control of electrochemical technologies like liquid metal batteries.

  11. Influence of apparent wave velocity on seismic performance of a super-long-span triple-tower suspension bridge

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    Hao Wang


    Full Text Available As one of the main characteristics of seismic waves, apparent wave velocity has great influence on seismic responses of long-span suspension bridges. Understanding these influences is important for seismic design. In this article, the critical issues concerning the traveling wave effect analysis are first reviewed. Taizhou Bridge, the longest triple-tower suspension bridge in the world, is then taken as an example for this investigation. A three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge is established in ABAQUS, and the LANCZOS eigenvalue solver is employed to calculate the structural dynamic characteristics. Traveling wave effect on seismic responses of these long-span triple-tower suspension bridges is investigated. Envelopes of seismic shear force and moment in the longitudinal direction along the three towers, relative displacements between the towers and the girder, and reaction forces at the bottoms of the three towers under different apparent wave velocities are calculated and presented in detail. The results show that the effect of apparent wave velocity on the seismic responses of triple-tower suspension bridge fluctuates when the velocity is lower than 2000 m/s, and the effects turn stable when the velocity becomes larger. In addition, the effects of traveling wave are closely related to spectral characteristics and propagation direction of the seismic wave, and seismic responses of components closer to the source are relatively larger. Therefore, reliable estimation of the seismic input and apparent wave velocity according to the characteristics of the bridge site are significant for accurate prediction of seismic responses. This study provides critical reference for seismic analysis and design of long-span triple-tower suspension bridges.

  12. Extreme bottom velocities induced by wind wave and currents in the Gulf of Gdańsk (United States)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Dudkowska, Aleksandra; Gic-Grusza, Gabriela; Jędrasik, Jan


    The principal goal of this study is to get some preliminary insights about the intensity of water movement generated by wind waves, and due to the currents in the bottom waters of Gulf of Gdańsk, during severe storms. The Gulf of Gdańsk is located in the southern Baltic Sea. This paper presents the results of analysis of wave and current-induced velocities during extreme wind conditions, which are determined based on long-term historical records. The bottom velocity fields originated from wind wave and wind currents, during analysed extreme wind events, are computed independently of each other. The long-term wind wave parameters for the Baltic Sea region are derived from the 44-year hindcast wave database generated in the framework of the project HIPOCAS funded by the European Union. The output from the numerical wave model WAM provides the boundary conditions for the model SWAN operating in high-resolution grid covering the area of the Gulf of Gdańsk. Wind current velocities are calculated with the M3D hydrodynamic model developed in the Institute of Oceanography of the University of Gdańsk based on the POM model. The three dimensional current fields together with trajectories of particle tracers spreading out of bottom boundary layer are modelled, and the calculated fields of bottom velocities are presented in the form of 2D maps. During northerly winds, causing in the Gulf of Gdańsk extreme waves and most significant wind-driven circulation, the wave-induced bottom velocities are greater than velocities due to currents. The current velocities in the bottom layer appeared to be smaller by an order of magnitude than the wave-induced bottom orbital velocities. Namely, during most severe northerly storms analysed, current bottom velocities ranged about 0.1-0.15 m/s, while the root mean square of wave-induced near-seabed velocities reached maximum values of up to 1.4 m/s in the southern part of Gulf of Gdańsk.

  13. An experimental study of wave propagation and velocity distributions in a vertically driven time-dependent granular gas (United States)

    Perez, John Anthony

    Averaged over appropriate space and time scales the dynamics of highly fluidized granular systems are often reminiscent of molecular fluid flows. As a result, theoretical efforts to describe these systems have borrowed heavily from continuum mechanics, particularly hydrodynamics. This has led to various proposed granular hydrodynamic theories which have been used to simulate granular materials in various states of confinement and excitation. These studies suggest that a continuum model for granular gasses can accurately reproduce the mean density, velocity and temperature profiles for an experimental granular gas. This thesis contributes to this body of work by presenting an experimental study of the hydrodynamic fields and velocity distributions within a vertically driven quasi-2D granular gas. We have taken pictures as fast as possible of a time-dependent granular gas using a high-speed CCD camera. We have extracted the positions and velocities of 57-564 particles per frame over 400 GB of raw images collected at 3700 fps. We used this data to compute the density, velocity and temperature fields as functions of time and space to a very high resolution. This approach led to the discovery of novel substructures within the hydrodynamic fields which would have been overlooked had we chosen to average over a drive cycle as earlier studies have done. In particular, the high spatial resolution available from our measurements reveals a serrated substructure in the shock waves which has not been reported before. This substructure is the result of collisional momentum transport . One of the current issues in formulating a granular continuum model is how to incorporate local and non-local dependencies between stress and strain correctly. In this thesis we demonstrate that the collisional transfer of momentum produces a non-local effect in the stress tensor which plays a major role in determining the mean flow. Current models have incorporated only the collisional or

  14. Laser Doppler velocity measurements of swirling flows with upstream influence (United States)

    Rloff, K. L.; Bossel, H. H.


    Swirling flow in a rotating tube is studied by flow visualization at a moderate Reynolds number, and its velocity field is measured by laser-Doppler anemometry. The tube has constant diameter, and approximately uniform initial rigid rotation of the flow is assured by passing the flow through a rotating plug of porous metal before it enters the test section. At moderate swirl values, an object mounted on the tube centerline causes a closed bubble to form upstream of the obstacle, with a clearly defined stagnation point on the axis, and recirculating flow inside the bubble. The bubble length grows upstream as the swirl is increased, until it breaks up into a Taylor column reaching all the way upstream and downstream at swirl values above a certain critical value. A vortex jump (in the sense of Benjamin) occurs downstream of the obstacle except when the Taylor column is present. Using a laser-Doppler anemometer, axial and swirl velocity profiles are obtained at several stations upstream and downstream of the bubble, and in and around the bubble.

  15. Force-velocity measurements of a few growing actin filaments.

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    Coraline Brangbour


    Full Text Available The polymerization of actin in filaments generates forces that play a pivotal role in many cellular processes. We introduce a novel technique to determine the force-velocity relation when a few independent anchored filaments grow between magnetic colloidal particles. When a magnetic field is applied, the colloidal particles assemble into chains under controlled loading or spacing. As the filaments elongate, the beads separate, allowing the force-velocity curve to be precisely measured. In the widely accepted Brownian ratchet model, the transduced force is associated with the slowing down of the on-rate polymerization. Unexpectedly, in our experiments, filaments are shown to grow at the same rate as when they are free in solution. However, as they elongate, filaments are more confined in the interspace between beads. Higher repulsive forces result from this higher confinement, which is associated with a lower entropy. In this mechanism, the production of force is not controlled by the polymerization rate, but is a consequence of the restriction of filaments' orientational fluctuations at their attachment point.

  16. Prediction of shear wave velocity using empirical correlations and artificial intelligence methods (United States)

    Maleki, Shahoo; Moradzadeh, Ali; Riabi, Reza Ghavami; Gholami, Raoof; Sadeghzadeh, Farhad


    Good understanding of mechanical properties of rock formations is essential during the development and production phases of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Conventionally, these properties are estimated from the petrophysical logs with compression and shear sonic data being the main input to the correlations. This is while in many cases the shear sonic data are not acquired during well logging, which may be for cost saving purposes. In this case, shear wave velocity is estimated using available empirical correlations or artificial intelligent methods proposed during the last few decades. In this paper, petrophysical logs corresponding to a well drilled in southern part of Iran were used to estimate the shear wave velocity using empirical correlations as well as two robust artificial intelligence methods knows as Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). Although the results obtained by SVR seem to be reliable, the estimated values are not very precise and considering the importance of shear sonic data as the input into different models, this study suggests acquiring shear sonic data during well logging. It is important to note that the benefits of having reliable shear sonic data for estimation of rock formation mechanical properties will compensate the possible additional costs for acquiring a shear log.

  17. Prediction of shear wave velocity using empirical correlations and artificial intelligence methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahoo Maleki


    Full Text Available Good understanding of mechanical properties of rock formations is essential during the development and production phases of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Conventionally, these properties are estimated from the petrophysical logs with compression and shear sonic data being the main input to the correlations. This is while in many cases the shear sonic data are not acquired during well logging, which may be for cost saving purposes. In this case, shear wave velocity is estimated using available empirical correlations or artificial intelligent methods proposed during the last few decades. In this paper, petrophysical logs corresponding to a well drilled in southern part of Iran were used to estimate the shear wave velocity using empirical correlations as well as two robust artificial intelligence methods knows as Support Vector Regression (SVR and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN. Although the results obtained by SVR seem to be reliable, the estimated values are not very precise and considering the importance of shear sonic data as the input into different models, this study suggests acquiring shear sonic data during well logging. It is important to note that the benefits of having reliable shear sonic data for estimation of rock formation mechanical properties will compensate the possible additional costs for acquiring a shear log.

  18. Correlation between Shear Wave Velocity and Porosity in Porous Solids and Rocks

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    J. Kováčik


    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity dependence on porosity was modelled using percolation theory model for the shear modulus porosity dependence. The obtained model is not a power law dependence (no simple scaling with porosity, but a more complex equation. Control parameters of this equation are shear wave velocity of bulk solid, percolation threshold of the material and the characteristic power law exponent for shear modulus porosity dependence. This model is suitable for all porous materials, mortars and porous rocks filled with liquid or gas. In the case of pores filled with gas the model can be further simplified: The term for the ratio of the gas density to the density of solid material can be omitted in the denominator (the ratio is usually in the range of (10−4, 10−3 for all solids. This simplified equation was then tested on the experimental data set for porous ZnO filled with air. Due to lack of reasonable data the scientists are encouraged to test the validity of proposed model using their experimental data.

  19. Ion Velocity Measurements for the Ionospheric Connections Explorer (United States)

    Heelis, R. A.; Stoneback, R. A.; Perdue, M. D.; Depew, M. D.; Morgan, W. A.; Mankey, M. W.; Lippincott, C. R.; Harmon, L. L.; Holt, B. J.


    The Ionospheric Connections Explorer (ICON) payload includes an Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) to provide measurements of the ion drift motions, density, temperature and major ion composition at the satellite altitude near 575 km. The primary measurement goal for the IVM is to provide the meridional ion drift perpendicular to the magnetic field with an accuracy of 7.5 m s-1 for all daytime conditions encountered by the spacecraft within 15° of the magnetic equator. The IVM will derive this parameter utilizing two sensors, a retarding potential analyzer (RPA) and an ion drift meter (IDM) that have a robust and successful flight heritage. The IVM described here incorporates improvements in the design and operation to produce the most sensitive device that has been fielded to date. It will specify the ion drift vector, from which the component perpendicular to the magnetic field will be derived. In addition it will specify the total ion density, the ion temperature and the fractional ion composition. These data will be used in conjunction with measurements from the other ICON instruments to uncover the important connections between the dynamics of the neutral atmosphere and the ionosphere through the generation of dynamo currents perpendicular to the magnetic field and collisional forces parallel to the magnetic field. Here the configuration and operation of the IVM instrument are described, as well as the procedures by which the ion drift velocity is determined. A description of the subsystem characteristics, which allow a determination of the expected uncertainties in the derived parameters, is also given.

  20. Shear-wave velocity of marine sediments offshore Taiwan using ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tse; Lin, Jing-Yi; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Yeh, Yi-Chin; Cheng, Win-Bin


    Seismic ambient noise technology has many advantages over the traditional two-station method. The most important one is that noise is happening all the time and it can be widely and evenly distributed. Thus, the Green's Function of any station pair can be obtained through the data cross-correlation process. Many related studies have been performed to estimate the velocity structures based on the inland area. Only a few studies were reported for the marine area due to the relatively shorter recording time of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) deployment and the high cost of the marine experiment. However, the understanding about the shear-wave velocity (Vs) of the marine sediments is very crucial for the hazard assessment related to submarine landslides, particularly with the growing of submarine resources exploration. In this study, we applied the ambient noise technique to four OBS seismic networks located offshore Taiwan in the aim of getting more information about the noise sources and having the preliminary estimation for the Vs of the marine sediments. Two of the seismic networks were deployed in the NE part of Taiwan, near the Ryukyu subduction system, whereas the others were in the SW area, on the continental margin rich in gas hydrate. Generally, ambient seismic noise could be associated with wind, ocean waves, rock fracturing and anthropogenic activity. In the southwestern Taiwan, the cross-correlation function obtained from two seismic networks indicate similar direction, suggestion that the source from the south part of the network could be the origin of the noise. However, the two networks in the northeastern Taiwan show various source direction, which could be caused by the abrupt change of bathymetry or the volcanic degassing effect frequently observed by the marine geophysical method in the area. The Vs determined from the dispersion curve shows a relatively higher value for the networks in the Okinawa Trough (OT) off NE Taiwan than that in the

  1. Comparison of Hydrocode Simulations with Measured Shock Wave Velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hixson, R. S. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Veeser, L. R. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)


    We have conducted detailed 1- and 2-dimensional hydrodynamics calculations to assess the quality of simulations commonly made to understand various shock processes in a sample and to design shock experiments. We began with relatively simple shock experiments, where we examined the effects of the equation of state and the viscoplastic strength models. Eventually we included spallation in copper and iron and a solid-solid phase transformation in iron to assess the quality of the damage and phase transformation simulations.

  2. Shear wave velocity-based evaluation and design of stone column improved ground for liquefaction mitigation (United States)

    Zhou, Yanguo; Sun, Zhengbo; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yunmin; Chen, Renpeng


    The evaluation and design of stone column improvement ground for liquefaction mitigation is a challenging issue for the state of practice. In this paper, a shear wave velocity-based approach is proposed based on the well-defined correlations of liquefaction resistance (CRR)-shear wave velocity ( V s)-void ratio ( e) of sandy soils, and the values of parameters in this approach are recommended for preliminary design purpose when site specific values are not available. The detailed procedures of pre- and post-improvement liquefaction evaluations and stone column design are given. According to this approach, the required level of ground improvement will be met once the target V s of soil is raised high enough (i.e., no less than the critical velocity) to resist the given earthquake loading according to the CRR- V s relationship, and then this requirement is transferred to the control of target void ratio (i.e., the critical e) according to the V s- e relationship. As this approach relies on the densification of the surrounding soil instead of the whole improved ground and is conservative by nature, specific considerations of the densification mechanism and effect are given, and the effects of drainage and reinforcement of stone columns are also discussed. A case study of a thermal power plant in Indonesia is introduced, where the effectiveness of stone column improved ground was evaluated by the proposed V s-based method and compared with the SPT-based evaluation. This improved ground performed well and experienced no liquefaction during subsequent strong earthquakes.

  3. Whole-mantle P-wave velocity structure and azimuthal anisotropy (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Zhao, D.


    There are some hotspot volcanoes on Earth, such as Hawaii and Iceland. The mantle plume hypothesis was proposed forty years ago to explain hotspot volcanoes (e.g., Wilson, 1963; Morgan, 1971). Seismic tomography is a powerful technique to detect mantle plumes and determine their detailed structures. We determined a new whole-mantle 3-D P-wave velocity model (Tohoku model) using a global tomography method (Zhao, 2004, 2009). A flexible-grid approach with a grid interval of ~200 km is adopted to conduct the tomographic inversion. Our model shows that low-velocity (low-V) anomalies with diameters of several hundreds of kilometers are visible from the core-mantle boundary (CMB) to the surface under the major hotspot regions. Under South Pacific where several hotspots including Tahiti exist, there is a huge low-V anomaly from the CMB to the surface. This feature is consistent with the previous models. We conducted extensive resolution tests in order to understand whether this low-V anomaly shows a single superplume or a plume cluster. Unfortunately this problem is still not resolved because the ray path coverage in the mantle under South Pacific is not good enough. A network of ocean bottom seismometers is necessary to solve this problem. To better understand the whole-mantle structure and dynamics, we also conducted P-wave tomographic inversions for the 3-D velocity structure and azimuthal anisotropy. At each grid node there are three unknown parameters: one represents the isotropic velocity, the other two represent the azimuthal anisotropy. Our results show that in the shallow part of the mantle (fast velocity direction (FVD) is almost the same as the plate motion direction. For example, the FVD in the western Pacific is NWW-SEE, which is normal to the Japan trench axis. In the Tonga subduction zone, the FVD is also perpendicular to the trench axis. Under the Tibetan region the FVD is NE-SW, which is parallel to the direction of the India-Asia collision. In the deeper

  4. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Measurements in a Large-Scale, Supersonic, Heated Jet (United States)

    Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Bivolaru, D.; Tedder, S.; Cutler, A. D.


    Two laser-based measurement techniques have been used to characterize an axisymmetric, combustion-heated supersonic jet issuing into static room air. The dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurement technique measured temperature and concentration while the interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) method simultaneously measured two components of velocity. This paper reports a preliminary analysis of CARS-IRS temperature and velocity measurements from selected measurement locations. The temperature measurements show that the temperature along the jet axis remains constant while dropping off radially. The velocity measurements show that the nozzle exit velocity fluctuations are about 3% of the maximum velocity in the flow.

  5. Effect of curvature and thickness on elastic wave velocity in cornea-like structures by FEM and OCE (United States)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.


    Wave models, which have been utilized in the past to reconstruct corneal biomechanical properties based on the propagation of an elastic wave, were often developed assuming a thin-plate geometry. However, the curvature and thickness of the cornea are not considered when utilizing these models. In this work, optical coherence elastography (OCE) experiments were conducted on tissue-mimicking agar phantoms and contact lenses along with finite element (FE) modeling of four kinds of cornea-like structures to understand the effects of curvature and thickness on the group velocity of an elastic wave. As the radius of curvature increased from 19.1 to 47.7 mm, the group velocity of the elastic wave obtained by both FE and OCE from a spherical shell section model decreased from ~2.8 m/s to ~2.2 m/s. When the thickness of the agar phantom increased from 1.9 mm to 5.6 mm, the elastic wave velocity increased from ~3.0 m/s to ~4.1 m/s. Both the FE and OCE results show that the group velocity of the elastic wave decreased with radius of curvature but increased with thickness. Therefore, the curvature and thickness must be considered when developing accurate wave models for quantifying biomechanical properties of the cornea.

  6. Estimation of seismic velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan by using guided waves (United States)

    Shiina, T.; Nakajima, J.; Toyokuni, G.; Kita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.


    A subducting crust contains a large amount of water as a form of hydrous minerals (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003), and the crust plays important roles for water transportation and seismogenesis in subduction zones at intermediate depths (e.g., Kirby et al., 1996; Iwamori, 2007). Therefore, the investigation of seismic structure in the crust is important to understand ongoing physical processes with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A guided wave which propagates in the subducting crust is recorded in seismograms at Hokkaido, northern Japan (Shiina et al., 2014). Here, we estimated P- and S-wave velocity in the crust with guided waves, and obtained P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.3 km/s and S-wave velocity of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-90 km. Moreover, Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is calculated to be 1.80-1.85 in that depth range. The obtained P-wave velocity about 6.6km/s at depths of 50-70 km is consistent with those estimated in Tohoku, northeast Japan (Shiina et al., 2013), and this the P-wave velocity is lower than those expected from models of subducting crustal compositions, such as metamorphosed MORB model (Hacker et al., 2003). In contrast, at greater depths (>80 km), the P-wave velocity marks higher velocity than the case of NE Japan and the velocity is roughly comparable to those of the MORB model. The obtained S-wave velocity distribution also shows characteristics similar to P waves. This regional variation may be caused by a small variation in thermal regime of the Pacific slab beneath the two regions as a result of the normal subduction in Tohoku and oblique subduction in Hokkaido. In addition, the effect of seismic anisotropy in the subducting crust would not be ruled out because rays used in the analysis in Hokkaido propagate mostly in the trench-parallel direction, while those in Tohoku are sufficiently criss-crossed.

  7. Possibility of measuring gravity-wave momentum flux by single beam observation of MST radar (United States)

    Liu, C. H.


    Vincent and Reid (1983) proposed a technique to measure gravity-wave momentum fluxes in the atmosphere by mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars using two or more radar beams. Since the vertical momentum fluxes are assumed to be due to gravity waves, it appears possible to make use of the dispersion and polarization relations for gravity waves in extracting useful information from the radar data. In particular, for an oblique radar beam, information about both the vertical and the horizontal velocities associated with the waves are contained in the measured Doppler data. Therefore, it should be possible to extract both V sub Z and V sub h from a single beam observational configuration. A procedure is proposed to perform such an analysis. The basic assumptions are: the measured velocity fluctuations are due to gravity waves and a separable model gravity-wave spectrum of the Garrett-Munk type that is statistically homogeneous in the horizontal plane. Analytical expressions can be derived that relate the observed velocity fluctuations to the wave momentum flux at each range gate. In practice, the uncertainties related to the model parameters and measurement accuracy will affect the results. A MST radar configuration is considered.

  8. Peak velocity measurements in tortuous arteries with phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging: the effect of multidirectional velocity encoding. (United States)

    Schubert, Tilman; Bieri, Oliver; Pansini, Michele; Stippich, Christoph; Santini, Francesco


    Blood flow velocity measurement with phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is widely applied in clinical routine imaging. Usually, velocity and volumetric flow measurements are performed using unidirectional encoding of the through-plane velocity with a 2-dimensional (2D) acquisition. Single-slice acquisitions and measurements with unidirectional encoding, however, may lead to significant errors, especially in tortuous vessels, but might benefit from higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). To evaluate the impact of volumetric acquisition and multidirectional velocity encoding, blood velocity measurements were performed at 3 locations in the distal internal carotid artery with a 3-dimensional, 3-directional time-resolved phase contrast (PC) sequence (4-dimensional [4D]) and a 2D acquisition with 3-directional (2D-3dir) and through-plane velocity encoding (2D-tp) derived from the same sequence. Twenty carotid arteries of 10 healthy volunteers (24-37 years) were evaluated. For each volunteer, 1 4D acquisition and 3 2D 3-directional PC measurements were placed according to a time-of-flight angiography. Unidirectionally encoded through-plane velocities were derived from the multidirectionally encoded 2D scan by discarding the in-plane components. Regions of interest were identified on the slab after postprocessing and visualization for the 4D data set as well as directly on the digital imaging and communications in medicine images for the 2D measurement. Blood flow velocity, volumetric flow, and SNRs were measured at carotid segments C4, C5, and C7 on both sides obtaining 20 values per vessel location. The quantities were tested for significant differences between each modality at all 3 locations with paired t tests. At the segments C5 and C7, the highest peak velocities (PVs) were measured with the 4D sequence, followed by 2D-3dir and 2D tp. The PV differences between the sequences were significant (P measured with 2D-tp. The mean PV value of the 4D sequence

  9. Assessing the P-wave attenuation and phase velocity characteristics of fractured media based on creep and relaxation tests (United States)

    Milani, Marco; Germán Rubino, J.; Müller, Tobias M.; Quintal, Beatriz; Holliger, Klaus


    , the corresponding results obtained from creep and relaxation tests must be equivalent. For most analyses of media characterized by patchy saturation or double-porosity-type structures these two definitions are equivalent. It is, however, not clear whether this equivalence remains true in the presence of strong material contrasts as those prevailing in fractured rocks. In this work, we explore this question for periodically fractured media. To this end, we build a medium composed of infinite replicas of a unit volume containing one fracture. This unit volume coincides with the smallest possible volume that is statistically representative of the whole. Then, we perform several creep and relaxation tests on samples composed of an increasing number of these unit volumes. We find that the wave field signatures determined from relaxation tests are independent from the number of unit volumes. Conversely, the P-wave attenuation and phase velocity characteristics inferred from creep tests are different and vary with the number of unit volumes considered. Quite interestingly, the creep test results converge with those of the relaxation tests as the number of unit volumes increases. These findings are expected to have direct implications for corresponding laboratory measurements as well as for our understanding of seismic wave propagation in fractured media.

  10. Effects of frequency-dependent attenuation and velocity dispersion on in vitro ultrasound velocity measurements in intact human femur specimens. (United States)

    Haïat, Guillaume; Padilla, Frédéric; Cleveland, Robin O; Laugier, Pascal


    Numerous studies have shown that ultrasonic velocity measured in bone provides a good assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. However, a lack of standardization of signal processing techniques used to compute the speed of sound (SOS) complicates the comparison between data obtained with different commercial devices. In this study, 38 intact femurs were tested using a through-transmission technique and SOS determined using different techniques. The resulting difference in measured SOS was determined as functions of the attenuation and the velocity dispersion. A numerical simulation was used to explain how attenuation and dispersion impact two different SOS measurements (group velocity, velocity based on the first zero crossing of the signal). A new method aimed at compensating for attenuation was devised and led to a significant reduction in the difference between SOS obtained with both signal processing techniques. A comparison between SOS and X-ray density measurements indicated that the best correlation was reached for SOS based on the first zero crossing apparently because it used a marker located in the early part of the signal and was less sensitive to multipath interference. The conclusion is that first zero crossing velocity may be preferred to group velocity for ultrasonic assessment at this potential fracture site.

  11. 3D P-Wave Velocity Structure of the Deep Galicia Rifted Margin (United States)

    Bayrakci, Gaye; Minshull, Timothy; Davy, Richard; Sawyer, Dale; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Reston, Timothy; Shillington, Donna; Ranero, Cesar


    The combined wide-angle reflection-refraction and multi-channel seismic (MCS) experiment, Galicia 3D, was carried out in 2013 at the Galicia rifted margin in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain. The main geological features within the 64 by 20 km (1280 km²) 3D box investigated by the survey are the peridotite ridge (PR), the fault bounded, rotated basement blocks and the S reflector, which has been interpreted to be a low angle detachment fault. 44 short period four-component ocean bottom seismometers and 28 ocean bottom hydrophones were deployed in the 3D box. 3D MCS profiles sampling the whole box were acquired with two airgun arrays of 3300 fired alternately every 37.5 m. We present the results from 3D first-arrival time tomography that constrains the P-wave velocity in the 3D box, for the entire depth sampled by reflection data. Results are validated by synthetic tests and by the comparison with Galicia 3D MCS lines. The main outcomes are as follows: 1- The 3.5 km/s iso-velocity contour mimics the top of the acoustic basement observed on MCS profiles. Block bounding faults are imaged as velocity contrasts and basement blocks exhibit 3D topographic variations. 2- On the southern profiles, the top of the PR rises up to 5.5 km depth whereas, 20 km northward, its basement expression (at 6.5 km depth) nearly disappears. 3- The 6.5 km/s iso-velocity contour matches the topography of the S reflector where the latter is visible on MCS profiles. Within a depth interval of 0.6 km (in average), velocities beneath the S reflector increase from 6.5 km/s to 7 km/s, which would correspond to a decrease in the degree of serpentinization from ~45 % to ~30 % if these velocity variations are caused solely by variations in hydration. At the intersections between the block bounding normal faults and the S reflector, this decrease happens over a larger depth interval (> 1 km), suggesting that faults act as conduit for the water flow in the upper mantle.

  12. Factors related to pulse wave velocity and augmentation index in chronic hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Celik, Gülperi; Demirci, Meltem Sezis; Tumuklu, Murat; Ascı, Gulay; Sipahi, Savas; Toz, Huseyin; Bascı, Ali; Ok, Ercan


    Augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) are early markers of atherosclerotic vascular changes and also have been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular disease and total mortality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between PWV and AIx-HR75, which is the corrected form of AIx according to a heart rate of 75 beats/min, echocardiographic parameters and biochemical parameters in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. AIx-HR75 and PWV were measured in 556 HD patients by applanation tonometry using the SphygmoCor device. The mean PWV and AIx-HR75 values of the study group were 10.2 ± 2.4 and 28.4 ± 10.2 m/s. A positive correlation was found between PWV and AIx-HR75 (r = 0.214, p = 0.000). AIx-HR75 correlated with age (r = 0.093, p = 0.028), body surface area (BSA) (r = -0.194, p = 0.000), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (r = 0.335, p = 0.000), pulse pressure (PP) (r = 0.212, p = 0.000), cardiothoracic index (r = 0.155, p = 0.016), and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (r = 0.152, p = 0.001). PWV correlated with MAP (r = 0.208, p = 0.000), PP (r = 0.098, r = 0.021), left ventricular mass (r = 0.105, p = 0.023), and predialysis sodium level (r = -0.105, p = 0.023). In the multivariate analyses, PWV was associated with MAP (t = 3.78, p = 0.000), presence of diabetes (t = 3.20, p = 0.001), and predialysis sodium level (t = -2.06, p = 0.040), and AIx-HR75 was associated with age (t = 2.48, p = 0.014), female sex (t = 3.98, p = 0.000), BSA (t = -2.15, p = 0.033), and MAP (t = 7.02, p = 0.000). There is a strong association between MAP and arterial stiffness parameters in HD patients. We feel that efficient control of blood pressure could lead to reduced arterial stiffness in HD patients.

  13. Probing the critical zone using passive- and active-source estimates of subsurface shear-wave velocities (United States)

    Callahan, R. P.; Taylor, N. J.; Pasquet, S.; Dueker, K. G.; Riebe, C. S.; Holbrook, W. S.


    Geophysical imaging is rapidly becoming popular for quantifying subsurface critical zone (CZ) architecture. However, a diverse array of measurements and measurement techniques are available, raising the question of which are appropriate for specific study goals. Here we compare two techniques for measuring S-wave velocities (Vs) in the near surface. The first approach quantifies Vs in three dimensions using a passive source and an iterative residual least-squares tomographic inversion. The second approach uses a more traditional active-source seismic survey to quantify Vs in two dimensions via a Monte Carlo surface-wave dispersion inversion. Our analysis focuses on three 0.01 km2 study plots on weathered granitic bedrock in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. Preliminary results indicate that depth-averaged velocities from the two methods agree over the scales of resolution of the techniques. While the passive- and active-source techniques both quantify Vs, each method has distinct advantages and disadvantages during data acquisition and analysis. The passive-source method has the advantage of generating a three dimensional distribution of subsurface Vs structure across a broad area. Because this method relies on the ambient seismic field as a source, which varies unpredictably across space and time, data quality and depth of investigation are outside the control of the user. Meanwhile, traditional active-source surveys can be designed around a desired depth of investigation. However, they only generate a two dimensional image of Vs structure. Whereas traditional active-source surveys can be inverted quickly on a personal computer in the field, passive source surveys require significantly more computations, and are best conducted in a high-performance computing environment. We use data from our study sites to compare these methods across different scales and to explore how these methods can be used to better understand subsurface CZ architecture.

  14. A new scheme for joint surface wave and earthquake travel-time inversion and resulting 3-D velocity model for the western North Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Eberhart-Phillips, Donna; Fry, Bill


    We have developed a joint inversion of surface wave group velocity (U) and local earthquake travel-time (LET) data and applied it to the North Island, New Zealand, to improve the existing New Zealand wide 3-D seismic velocity model. This approach takes full advantage of the differing sensitivities of surface and body waves. The data are complementary, particularly at shallow depths where LET tomography suffers from vertical smearing and surface wave tomography is susceptible to horizontal smearing. The employed U observations are 2-D models at discrete periods which were developed for Rayleigh wave dispersion curves measured from the 1744 interstation Green's Functions obtained by stacked cross-correlations of broadband ambient noise data. In the volume surrounding each U observation, we distribute numerous points for relating the U observation to the gridded 3-D tomography model, analogous to points along a raypath. The partial derivatives at the points are computed using the U sensitivity kernels for Vp and Vs, with Vs related to Vp and Vp/Vs perturbations. Thus, the U observations are included along with the travel-time observations in a joint inversion to best fit the data and the existing tomography model. The resulting model favors the U where there is little travel-time resolution. The combined inversion used 2949 U observations at 6-16 s period and LET from 1509 earthquakes that extend to 370 km depth, and improved the model fit by reducing the U residual data variance by 62% and the LET by 9%. The resulting model generally has better constrained depth of shallow anomalies, with decreased velocity in the upper 2 km in the western North Island, and slight focusing of crustal high velocity features at 8 km depth. Significantly, the increased resolution in the shallowest 5 km of the model improves the utility of the 3-D model for use in seismic hazard assessment, wave propagation studies, and studies comparing seismic velocities to geological mapping.

  15. Calculation Analysis of Pressure Wave Velocity in Gas and Drilling Mud Two-Phase Fluid in Annulus during Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhua Lin


    Full Text Available Investigation of propagation characteristics of a pressure wave is of great significance to the solution of the transient pressure problem caused by unsteady operations during management pressure drilling operations. With consideration of the important factors such as virtual mass force, drag force, angular frequency, gas influx rate, pressure, temperature, and well depth, a united wave velocity model has been proposed based on pressure gradient equations in drilling operations, gas-liquid two-fluid model, the gas-drilling mud equations of state, and small perturbation theory. Solved by adopting the Runge-Kutta method, calculation results indicate that the wave velocity and void fraction have different values with respect to well depth. In the annulus, the drop of pressure causes an increase in void fraction along the flow direction. The void fraction increases first slightly and then sharply; correspondingly the wave velocity first gradually decreases and then slightly increases. In general, the wave velocity tends to increase with the increase in back pressure and the decrease of gas influx rate and angular frequency, significantly in low range. Taking the virtual mass force into account, the dispersion characteristic of the pressure wave weakens obviously, especially at the position close to the wellhead.

  16. The Contradiction Between the Measurement Theory of Quantum Mechanics and the Theory that the Velocity of Any Particle Can Not be Larger than the Velocity of Light (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Shen, Z. J.; Shen, G. T.; Yang, B. C.


    By the measurement theory of quantum mechanics and the method of Fourier transform,we proved that the wave function psi(x,y,z,t)= (8/((2(pi)(2L(exp (1/2)))(exp 3))(Phi(L,t,x)Phi(L,t,y)Phi(L,t,z)). According to the theory that the velocity of any particle can not be larger than the velocity of light and the Born interpretation, when absolute value of delta greater than (ct+ L),Phi(L,t,delta) = 0. But according to the calculation, we proved that for some delta, even if absolute value of delta is greater than (ct+L), Phi(L,t,delta) is not equal to 0.

  17. Velocity field measurements of electrokinetic flow past a conductive cylinder (United States)

    Canpolat, Cetin; Beskok, Ali


    Using the micro particle-image-velocimetry technique, electrokinetic (EK) flow past a conductive circular cylinder (D=0.67 mm) is measured in a rectangular cross-section PDMS/glass microchannel (H=0.1 mm, W=1.0 mm and L=5.3 mm). EK transport in such a system experiences electrophoresis (EP) of the PIV particles, electroosmotic flow (EOF) due to the channel walls, and induced charge electroosmotic (ICEO) flow due to the conductive cylinder. Experiments are conducted using 1xPBS buffer diluted in DI water, and the buffer pH is fixed at 2.05 using HCl solution. This pH value is shown to nearly eliminate the electrophoresis of 0.5 micron carboxylate modified spherical micro-particles used in the PIV studies. Suppression of EP enabled direct measurements of local ICEO flow and its interaction with the global EOF in the channel. By systematically varying the applied electric field from 5 V to 40 V, changes in the velocity field are recorded and correlated with the theoretical trends of EOF and ICEO flow. C.C. acknowledges the support of TUBITAK for this study.

  18. A possible relation between sonic velocity measured at the edge of a large borehole and shear failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambo, J.T.; Swift, R.P.


    Velocities of P-waves measured next to the walls of large-diameter boreholes with the dry-hole acoustic logger are typically lower than velocities across similar geologic media measured farther from the borehole wall using other techniques (Vibroseis). The difference in velocity is attributed to a weakened zone around the borehole wall, which in part may be due to disturbance from drilling and, in part, to the relief of overburden stresses in the vicinity of the borehole wall. P-wave velocity measurements in alluvium and tuffs show high sensitivities to confining pressures in the range of over-burden stresses for many Nevada Test Site holes. When isotropic strength is assumed, elastic-plastic pressure-dependent strength models suggest that lower velocities should occur next to the borehole wall and that shear failure of the medium is necessary to reduce the mean stress and the P-wave velocity. The borehole walls of many holes appear to have failed sufficiently to relieve overburden stresses in major portions of large-diameter Nevada Test Site (NTS) holes. There are documented cases of radioactive gas proceeding past plug locations. On the basis of this analysis, it is prudent to consider the possibility that the damaged wall of the hole is a pathway. An analysis of the RIOLA and ROQUEFORT Events indicates that radioactivity could have bypasses the plug locations because of a weak annulus. We recommend that, where exact plug locations are not dominated by other factor, plugs be placed in regions where minimal annulus damage has occurred. 19 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring. (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos


    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  20. High resolution wireless body area network with statistically synchronized sensor data for tracking pulse wave velocity. (United States)

    Li, Kejia; Warren, Steve


    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) will take on more diverse forms in terms of their sensor combinations and communication protocols as their presence is extended to a greater number of monitoring scenarios. This paper presents an application layer protocol that solves issues caused by sensor nodes that must compete for high speed, real-time communication with the receiver. Such applications emphasize the delivery of large amounts of raw data from different sensor nodes in a time-synchronized manner, rather than channels that experience intermittent operation. An example of tracking pulse wave velocity (PWV) is introduced in this paper, where high-precision PWVs are estimated with the help of timeline recovery and feature extraction processes in MATLAB.

  1. Relations between diabetes, blood pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity in haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christian Daugaard; Kjærgaard, Krista Dybtved; Dzeko, Mirela

    Diabetes (DM) is common in haemodialysis (HD) patients and affects both blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) reflects the stiffness of the aorta and is regarded as a strong risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) mortality in HD patients. However, PWV...... (HD) and 32 HD patients with DM (HD+DM). The SphygmoCor system was used for estimation of PWV. HD-duration, age, gender and BP medication were similar in the two groups. Mean DM-duration was 23±11 years and 25(78%) had type 2 DM. HD+DM had higher BMI (26±5 vs. 29±5 kg/m2, p=0.02), systolic BP (142......±20 vs. 152±21 mmHg, p=0.02) and pulse pressure (65±17 vs. 80±18 mmHg, p

  2. Blood pressure and pulse wave velocity as metrics for evaluating pathologic ageing of the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Nilsson, Peter M; Khalili, Payam; Franklin, Stanley S


    The influence of chronological ageing on the components of the cardiovascular system is of fundamental importance for understanding how hemodynamics change and the cardiovascular risk increases with age, the most important risk marker. An increase in peripheral vascular resistance associated with increased stiffness of central elastic arteries represents hallmarks of this ageing effect on the vasculature, referred to as early vascular ageing (EVA). In clinical practice, it translates into increased brachial and central systolic blood pressure and corresponding pulse pressure in subjects above 50 years of age, as well as increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV)--a marker of arterial stiffness. A c-f PWV value ≥ 10 m/s is threshold for increased risk according. Improved lifestyle and control of risk factors via appropriate drug therapy are of importance in providing vascular protection related to EVA. One target group might be members of risk families including subjects with early onset cardiovascular disease.

  3. Velocity autocorrelation function in supercooled liquids: Long-time tails and anomalous shear-wave propagation. (United States)

    Peng, H L; Schober, H R; Voigtmann, Th


    Molecular dynamic simulations are performed to reveal the long-time behavior of the velocity autocorrelation function (VAF) by utilizing the finite-size effect in a Lennard-Jones binary mixture. Whereas in normal liquids the classical positive t^{-3/2} long-time tail is observed, we find in supercooled liquids a negative tail. It is strongly influenced by the transfer of the transverse current wave across the period boundary. The t^{-5/2} decay of the negative long-time tail is confirmed in the spectrum of VAF. Modeling the long-time transverse current within a generalized Maxwell model, we reproduce the negative long-time tail of the VAF, but with a slower algebraic t^{-2} decay.

  4. Upper-mantle P- and S- wave velocities across the Northern Tornquist Zone from traveltime tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.


    This study presents P- and S-wave velocity variations for the upper mantle in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany based on teleseismic traveltime tomography. Tectonically, this region includes the entire northern part of the prominent Tornquist Zone which follows along the transition from old...... Precambrian shield units to the east to younger Phanerozoic deep sedimentary basins to the southwest. We combine data from several separate temporary arrays/profiles (276 stations) deployed over a period of about 15 yr and permanent networks (31 stations) covering the areas of Denmark, northern Germany......, southern Sweden and southern Norway. By performing an integrated P- and S-traveltime analysis, we obtain the first high-resolution combined 3-D VP and VS models, including variations in the VP/VS ratio, for the whole of this region of study. Relative station mean traveltime residuals vary within ±1 s for P...

  5. Microplasticity effect in low-velocity zone induced by seismic wave (United States)

    Mashinskii, E. I.


    Microplasticity effects in loam caused by seismic wave of frequency about 1000 Hz are detected in the borehole-to-borehole measurements. Microplasticity manifestations on seismic record are presented as the ladder-like stepwise changes in amplitude course. The step (plateau) on seismic trace is time delay, its duration depends on the strain-amplitude value. Time delay changes the frequency characteristic of stress pulse, nonlinearly transforms wave front, and shifts the amplitude maximum along time axis. The microplastic process occurs owing to the anomalous realignment of the internal stresses on the microstructural defects in the area of small deformations. This is the useful contribution to wave propagation physics. The received results can also be used in solving the applied problems in material science, seismic prospecting, diagnostics, etc.

  6. Role of birth weight and postnatal growth on pulse wave velocity in teenagers. (United States)

    Salvi, Paolo; Revera, Miriam; Joly, Laure; Reusz, George; Iaia, Maurizio; Benkhedda, Salim; Chibane, Ahcene; Parati, Gianfranco; Benetos, Athanase; Temmar, Mohamed


    Low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth appear to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to characterize the factors determining pulse wave velocity (PWV) in teenagers and, in particular, to verify the relationship with birth weight, postnatal growth, timing of adiposity rebound, lifestyle, and hemodynamic parameters. Carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocities of 558 healthy teenagers (age range: 16.2-19.9 years) were determined by means of a PulsePen tonometer. Birth weight and gestational age were obtained from obstetrical records, and data regarding postnatal growth were obtained from pediatric clinical records. No change in aortic PWV was found in association with birth weight, postnatal growth, and timing of adiposity rebound. However, the study showed a strong association between accelerated growth from 0 to 12 months and carotid-radial PWV (trend: p = .02). Subjects with birth weight values <2,500 g showed higher values of upper limb PWV (p < .05) and higher values of diastolic and mean arterial pressure (p < .05). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that mean arterial pressure, age, and height were the main independent factors determining aortic PWV in this young population. These results suggest that there is no linear correlation between birth weight and hemodynamic parameters in teenagers; however, subjects characterized by very low birth weight and accelerated postnatal weight gain appear to demonstrate increased upper limb PWV and diastolic and mean arterial pressure values. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of ultrasound B-mode, strain imaging, acoustic radiation force impulse displacement and shear wave velocity imaging using real time clinical breast images (United States)

    Manickam, Kavitha; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy; Raghavan, Bagyam


    It has been observed that many pathological process increase the elastic modulus of soft tissue compared to normal. In order to image tissue stiffness using ultrasound, a mechanical compression is applied to tissues of interest and local tissue deformation is measured. Based on the mechanical excitation, ultrasound stiffness imaging methods are classified as compression or strain imaging which is based on external compression and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging which is based on force generated by focused ultrasound. When ultrasound is focused on tissue, shear wave is generated in lateral direction and shear wave velocity is proportional to stiffness of tissues. The work presented in this paper investigates strain elastography and ARFI imaging in clinical cancer diagnostics using real time patient data. Ultrasound B-mode imaging, strain imaging, ARFI displacement and ARFI shear wave velocity imaging were conducted on 50 patients (31 Benign and 23 malignant categories) using Siemens S2000 machine. True modulus contrast values were calculated from the measured shear wave velocities. For ultrasound B-mode, ARFI displacement imaging and strain imaging, observed image contrast and Contrast to Noise Ratio were calculated for benign and malignant cancers. Observed contrast values were compared based on the true modulus contrast values calculated from shear wave velocity imaging. In addition to that, student unpaired t-test was conducted for all the four techniques and box plots are presented. Results show that, strain imaging is better for malignant cancers whereas ARFI imaging is superior than strain imaging and B-mode for benign lesions representations.

  8. Normal values of liver shear wave velocity in healthy children assessed by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging using a convex probe and a linear probe. (United States)

    Fontanilla, Teresa; Cañas, Teresa; Macia, Araceli; Alfageme, Marta; Gutierrez Junquera, Carolina; Malalana, Ana; Luz Cilleruelo, Maria; Roman, Enriqueta; Miralles, Maria


    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is an image-guided ultrasound elastography method that allows quantification of liver stiffness by measurement of shear wave velocity. One purpose of the work described in this article was to determine the normal liver stiffness values of healthy children using ARFI with two different probes, 4 C1 and 9 L4. Another purpose was to evaluate the effects of site of measurement, age, gender and body mass index on liver stiffness values. This prospective study included 60 healthy children (newborn to 14 y) divided into four age groups. One thousand two hundred ARFI measurements were performed, that is, 20 measurements per patient (5 measurements in each lobe, with each probe). Means, standard deviations (SD) and confidence intervals for velocity were calculated for each hepatic lobe and each probe in each age group and for the whole group. Mean shear wave velocity measured in the right lobe was 1.19 ± 0.04 m/s (SD = 0.13) with the 4 C1 transducer and 1.15 ± 0.04 m/s (SD = 0.15) with the 9 L4 transducer. Age had a small effect on shear wave measurements. Body mass index and sex had no significant effects on ARFI values, whereas site of measurement had a significant effect, with lower ARFI values in the right hepatic lobe. ARFI is a non-invasive technique that is feasible to perform in children with both the 4 C1 and 9 L4 probes. The aforementioned velocity values obtained in the right lobe may be used as reference values for normal liver stiffness in children. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Simultaneous measurements of velocity, temperature, and pressure using rapid CW wavelength-modulation laser-induced fluorescence of OH (United States)

    Chang, A. Y.; Battles, B. E.; Hanson, R. K.


    In high speed flows, laser induced fluorescence (LIF) on Doppler shifted transitions is an attractive technique for velocity measurement. LIF velocimetry was applied to combined single-point measurements of velocity, temperature, and pressure and 2-D imaging of velocity and pressure. Prior to recent research using NO, LIF velocimetry in combustion related flows relied largely on the use of seed molecules. Simultaneous, single-point LIF measurements is reported of velocity, temperature, and pressure using the naturally occurring combustion species OH. This experiment is an extension of earlier research in which a modified ring dye laser was used to make time resolved temperature measurements behind reflected shock waves by using OH absorption an in postflame gases by using OH LIF. A pair of fused-silica rhombs mounted on a single galvanonmeter in an intracavity-doubled Spectra-Physics 380 ring laser permit the UV output to be swept continuously over a few wave numbers at an effective frequency of 3kHz.

  10. Non-invasive measurement of aortic pressure in patients: Comparing pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry


    Naidu, M.U.R.; C Prabhakar Reddy


    Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate and compare novel methods to determine aortic blood pressure non-invasively based on Oscillometric Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) measurement using four limb-cuff pressure waveforms and two lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) with a validated tonometric pulse wave analysis system in patients. Materials and Methods: After receiving the consent, in 49 patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, PWV, and central blood p...

  11. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification in a lith......Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....

  12. Measurement of elastic constants by simultaneously sensing longitudinal and shear waves as an overlapped signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ho Geon; Song, Dong Gi; Jhang, Kyoung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Measurement of elastic constants is crucial for engineering aspects of predicting the behavior of materials under load as well as structural health monitoring of material degradation. Ultrasonic velocity measurement for material properties has been broadly used as a nondestructive evaluation method for material characterization. In particular, pulse-echo method has been extensively utilized as it is not only simple but also effective when only one side of the inspected objects is accessible. However, the conventional technique in this approach measures longitudinal and shear waves individually to obtain their velocities. This produces a set of two data for each measurement. This paper proposes a simultaneous sensing system of longitudinal waves and shear waves for elastic constant measurement. The proposed system senses both these waves simultaneously as a single overlapped signal, which is then analyzed to calculate both the ultrasonic velocities for obtaining elastic constants. Therefore, this system requires just half the number of data to obtain elastic constants compared to the conventional individual measurement. The results of the proposed simultaneous measurement had smaller standard deviations than those in the individual measurement. These results validate that the proposed approach improves the efficiency and reliability of ultrasonic elastic constant measurement by reducing the complexity of the measurement system, its operating procedures, and the number of data.

  13. Non-invasive and Locally Resolved Measurement of Sound Velocity by Ultrasound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mario Wolf; Elfgard Kühnicke


      A new method to measure sound velocity and distance simultaneously and locally resolved by an ultrasound annular array is developed in media with constant sound velocity and then applied in media...

  14. Shear wave velocities in deformed Al-stishovite and seismic heterogeneities in the mid-mantle (United States)

    Sanchez-Valle, C.; Rosa, A. D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Evans, S.; Merkel, S.


    Seismic observations show extensive evidence for negative shear wave anomalies of 2 to 6% in the shallow to middle parts of the lower mantle (800 to 1850 km depths) in the vicinity of subduction zones [e.g., 1-4]. Although the origin of these anomalies is still under debate, shear softening related to the stishovite (rutile structure) to post-stishovite (CaCl2 structure) in subducted MORB may be a plausible explanation for these features [5]. The broad range of depths over which the heterogeneities span may be related to compositional effects on the transition pressure [5,6]. To better deciphering the observed seismic heterogeneities, a more detailed evaluation of the seismic properties of deformed stishovite due to mantle flow is required. In this contribution, we report investigations of the effect of texture development on the shear wave velocities of Al-bearing stishovite containing 5wt% of Al2O3, a plausible composition for subducted slabs. Experiments were conducted using synchrotron radial x-ray diffraction at ESRF ID09A and a panoramic diamond anvil cell as deformation apparatus. The samples were synthesized at 20 GPa and 1700 °C in a multianvil apparatus. The recovered Al-Stishovite crystals were reduced to fine-grained powders and loaded in x-ray transparent boron gaskets for experiments up to 50 GPa. Upon compression, changes in the texture are observed across the stishovite to post-stishovite transition. The results from the deformation experiments are used with available elasticity data obtained by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy in similar samples [5] to evaluate the effect of texture on the shear wave anomalies in stishovite. Ultimately, the implications of these results for the interpretation of seismic heterogeneities in the mid-mantle will be discussed. [1] Stunff et al., (1995); [2]Kaneshima and Helffrich (1999); [3] Vinnik et al., (2001); [4] Niu et al., (2003); [5] Lakshtanov et al., (2007); [6] Nomura et al. [2010].

  15. Wave directional spectrum from array measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Sarma, Y; Menon, H.B.

    Using the method of Esteva (1976, 1977), whcih assumes that at the frequency band the waves approach from just a single "mean" wave direction, wave direction has been consistently, accurately and unambiguously evaluated as a function of frequency...

  16. A lithospheric velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina from joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion and teleseismic receiver functions (United States)

    Ammirati, Jean-Baptiste; Alvarado, Patricia; Beck, Susan


    In the central Andes, the Nazca plate displays large along strike variations in dip with a near horizontal subduction angle between 28 and 32°S referred to the Pampean flat slab segment. The upper plate above the Pampean flat slab has high rates of crustal seismicity and active basement cored uplifts. The SIEMBRA experiment, a 43-broad-band-seismic-station array was deployed to better characterize the Pampean flat slab region around 31°S. In this study, we explore the lithospheric structure above the flat slab as a whole and its relation to seismicity. We use the SIEMBRA data to perform a joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion to constrain the shear wave velocity variations in the lithosphere. Our joint inversion results show: (1) the presence of several upper-plate mid-crustal discontinuities and their lateral extent that are probably related to the terrane accretion history; (2) zones of high shear wave velocity in the upper-plate lower crust associated with a weak Moho signal consistent with the hypothesis of partial eclogitization in the lower crust; (3) the presence of low shear-wave velocities at ˜100 km depth interpreted as the subducting oceanic crust. Finally, in order to investigate the relation of the lithospheric structure to seismicity, we determine an optimal velocity-depth model based on the joint inversion results and use it to perform regional moment tensor inversions (SMTI) of crustal and slab earthquakes. The SMTI for 18 earthquakes that occurred between 2007 and 2009 in the flat slab region below Argentina, indicates systematically shallower focal depths for slab earthquakes (compared with inversions using previous velocity models). This suggests that the slab seismicity is concentrated mostly between 90 and 110 km depths within the subducting Nazca plate's oceanic crust and likely related to dehydration. In addition, the slab earthquakes exhibit extensional focal mechanisms suggesting

  17. Relationship between changes in the velocity of longitudinal seismic waves and certain geological-engineering parameters of rock in the Central Kyzylkum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallyabaev, R.A.


    An examination is made of the interconnection between the longitudinal velocity of seismic waves and certain physico-mechanical properties of rock. Tables are presented for calculated values for seismic wave velocities in relation to various types of rock. The relationship between the longitudinal velocity of seismic waves of sandy-gravel-clay rock and the porosity coefficient was found to be inversely proportional. 4 references, 1 figure.

  18. Detonation Velocity Measurement with Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng Wei; Hao Lang; Taolin Liu; Dong Xia


    Detonation velocity is an important parameter for explosive, and it is crucial for many fields such as dynamic chemistry burn models, detonation propagation prediction, explosive performance estimation, and so on...

  19. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradere, C., E-mail:; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Palomo, E.; Batsale, J.-C. [I2M (Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie de Bordeaux) UMR CNRS 5295, TREFLE Department, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Pernot, G.; Dilhaire, S. [LOMA UMR 5798: CNRS-UB1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)


    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10{sup −3} K{sup −1} versus 10{sup −5} K{sup −1} for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  20. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave (United States)

    Pradere, C.; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Pernot, G.; Palomo, E.; Dilhaire, S.; Batsale, J.-C.


    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10-3 K-1 versus 10-5 K-1 for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  1. A study of the river velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods (United States)

    Chung Yang, Han; Lun Chiang, Jie


    Velocity measurement technology can be traced back to the pitot tube velocity measurement method in the 18th century and today's velocity measurement technology use the acoustic and radar technology, with the Doppler principle developed technology advances, in order to develop the measurement method is more suitable for the measurement of velocity, the purpose is to get a more accurate measurement data and with the surface velocity theory, the maximum velocity theory and the indicator theory to obtain the mean velocity. As the main research direction of this article is to review the literature of the velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods, and to explore the applicability of the measurement method of the velocity measurement instruments, and then to describe the advantages and disadvantages of the different mean velocity profiles analysis method. Adequate review of the references of this study will be able to provide a reference for follow-up study of the velocity measurement. Review velocity measurement literature that different velocity measurement is required to follow the different flow conditions measured be upgraded its accuracy, because each flow rate measurement method has its advantages and disadvantages. Traditional velocity instrument can be used at low flow and RiverRAD microwave radar or imaging technology measurement method may be applied in high flow. In the tidal river can use the ADCP to quickly measure river vertical velocity distribution. In addition, urban rivers may be used the CW radar to set up on the bridge, and wide rivers can be used RiverRAD microwave radar to measure the velocities. Review the relevant literature also found that using Ultrasonic Doppler Current Profiler with the Chiu's theory to the velocity of observing automation work can save manpower and resources to improve measurement accuracy, reduce the risk of measurement, but the great variability of river characteristics in Taiwan and a lot of drifting floating

  2. Acoustic and Shear-Wave Velocities in Hydrate-Bearing Sediments Offshore Southwestern Taiwan: Tomography, Converted Waves Analysis and Reverse-Time Migration of OBS Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schnurle


    Full Text Available A 2.5-D combined seismic reflection and refraction survey has been conducted in the accretionary complex offshore of southwestern Taiwan where BSRs (Bottom Simulating Reflectors are highly concentrated and geochemical signals for the presence of gas hydrate are strong. In this study, we perform velocity analysis of the 6 4-component OBS (Ocean-Bottom Seismometer records along the southernmost transect of this seismic experiment. We utilize 3 independent methods in order to accurately determine the acoustic and shear-wave velocities of the sediments: 1-D Root Mean Square (RMS analysis of the P-P and P-S reflected events on individual datumed components, 2-D inversion of the P-P and P-S reflected and refracted events along the in-line transect, and 3-D acoustic inversion of the first arrivals. The principal sources of bias in the determination of the velocities are the 3-dimentional nature of the topography and the complexity of the underlying structures. The three methods result in consistent velocity profiles. Rapid lateral and vertical variations of the velocities are observed. We then investigate the large scale gas hydrate content through rock physic modeling: at the vertical of each OBS, shear-waves velocities are utilized to estimate the water-filled porosities, and the acoustic velocities predicted for a set of gas hydrate, quartz and clay contents are compared to the observed profiles.

  3. Wind-wave, velocity, and turbidity time-series data from Liberty Island (station LVB), Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Time series data of water surface elevation, wave height, turbidity, and current and wave velocity were collected in Liberty Island beginning in August 2015 as part...

  4. Classification of Low Velocity Impactors Using Spiral Sensing of Acousto-Ultrasonic Waves (United States)

    Agbasi, Chijioke Raphael

    The non-linear elastodynamics of a flat plate subjected to low velocity foreign body impacts is studied, resembling the space debris impacts on the space structure. The work is based on a central hypothesis that in addition to identifying the impact locations, the material properties of the foreign objects can also be classified using acousto-ultrasonic signals (AUS). Simultaneous localization of impact point and classification of impact object is quite challenging using existing state-of-the-art structural health monitoring (SHM) approaches. Available techniques seek to report the exact location of impact on the structure, however, the reported information is likely to have errors from nonlinearity and variability in the AUS signals due to materials, geometry, boundary conditions, wave dispersion, environmental conditions, sensor and hardware calibration etc. It is found that the frequency and speed of the guided wave generated in the plate can be quantized based on the impactor's relationship with the plate (i.e. the wave speed and the impactor's mechanical properties are coupled). In this work, in order to characterize the impact location and mechanical properties of imapctors, nonlinear transient phenomenon is empirically studied to decouple the understanding using the dominant frequency band (DFB) and Lag Index (LI) of the acousto-ultrasonic signals. Next the understanding was correlated with the elastic modulus of the impactor to predict transmitted force histories. The proposed method presented in this thesis is especially applicable for SHM where sensors cannot be widely or randomly distributed. Thus a strategic organization and localization of the sensors is achieved by implementing the geometric configuration of Theodorous Spiral Sensor Cluster (TSSC). The performance of TSSC in characterizing the impactor types are compared with other conventional sensor clusters (e.g. square, circular, random etc.) and it is shown that the TSSC is advantageous over

  5. Overtopping Measurements on the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    The paper describes the methods used to estimate (calculated from some indirect measurements) the overtopping of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon placed in a real sea environment. The wave energy converter in quistion is the 237-tonne heavy Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype. Comparisons ...

  6. Shallow P- and S-wave velocities and site resonances in the St. Louis region, Missouri-Illinois (United States)

    Williams, R.A.; Odum, J.K.; Stephenson, W.J.; Herrmann, Robert B.


    As part of the seismic hazard-mapping efforts in the St. Louis metropolitan area we determined the compressional and shear-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) to about a 40-m depth at 17 locations in this area. The Vs measurements were made using high-resolution seismic refraction and reflection methods. We find a clear difference in the Vs profiles between sites located on the river floodplains and those located in the upland urban areas of St. Louis. Vs30 (average Vs to 30-m depth) values in floodplain areas range from 200 to 290 m/s (NEHRP category D) and contrast with sites on the upland areas of St. Louis, which have Vs30 values ranging from 410 to 785 m/s (NEHRP categories C and B). The lower Vs30 values and earthquake recordings in the floodplains suggest a greater potential for stronger and more prolonged ground shaking in an earthquake. Spectral analysis of a M3.6 earthquake recorded on the St. Louis-area ANSS seismograph network indicates stronger shaking and potentially damaging S-wave resonant frequencies at NEHRP category D sites compared to ground motions at a rock site located on the Saint Louis University campus. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  7. Correlation Between P-wave Velocity and Strength Index for Shale to Predict Uniaxial Compressive Strength Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang H.


    Full Text Available Seismic refraction survey is a non destructive method used in site investigation to identify the seismic velocity subsurface strata. Although it is widely known, the reliability of the result is still doubtable for some reason as well as due to an engineer’s ignorant, which insist on using conventional method rather than new advanced method causing the lack of usage in geophysical method for testing. This study aims to produce a correlation between P-wave velocity value and point load strength index value for shale. Both field and laboratory tests were carried out. In order to obtain the P-wave value, seismic refraction method was conducted as a field test at Precint 4, Putrajaya, Malaysia to achieve the Pwave velocity value of the shale bed. Ten samples of shale were collected from the field and laboratory tests were conducted. The tests are divided into three sections, namely non-destructive laboratory test, physical properties test and mechanical properties test. Ultrasonic Velocity Test via PUNDIT test was conducted as non-destructive laboratory test to acknowledge the P-wave velocity value in laboratory. Both field and laboratory P-wave velocity value were then compared and the result delivers are reliable due to it is within the range. For physical properties test, the rock density and porosity were acknowledged. Meanwhile, Point Load Test was conducted as mechanical properties. Correlation for both Pwave velocity value and point load strength value were achieved via producing an empirical relationship as the end result. Prediction of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS value was made via converting the point load strength value to UCS value using a correlation. By acknowledging this empirical relationship, it shows that geophysical methods are able to produce a reliable result. Hence more and widely used of geophysical method will be profound in the future.

  8. Analysis of epidural pressure pulse wave (EDP-PW) and common carotid blood velocity (CBFV) in acute intracranial hypertension. (United States)

    Shigemori, M; Tokutomi, T; Kawaba, T; Nakashima, H; Kuramoto, S


    The changes in the two consistent components of epidural pressure pulse wave (EDP-PW), P1 and P2 waves, and mean velocity of common carotid blood flow (CBFV) were studied in 21 patients with acute intracranial hypertension to investigate the origin of th the amplitude change in these components. The amplitudes of P2 wave increased progressively with the rise of EDP, but those of P1 wave remained nearly invariable at EDP of more than 20-30 mmHg which is incompatible with the changes in CBFV. Jugular vein compression caused in rapid rise of EDP and a proportionate increase in the magnitudes of both waves. Hyperventilation and mannitol administration caused a disproportionate reduction in the amplitudes of P2 wave with a fall of EDP. But mannitol at high EDP (more than 40 mmHg) caused a mild fall of EDP and some increase in the amplitudes of P2 wave. These results indicate that the variations in the amplitudes of P1 wave reflect the changes in vascular resistance of the large intracranial conductive arteries, while those of P2 wave result from the changes in the volume of the cerebral bulk. The increase in the amplitudes of P2 wave induced by mannitol at high EDP may suggest a defective autoregulation of the cerebral vessels.

  9. The story of a craton from heart to margins: illuminating cratonic lithosphere with Rayleigh wave phase velocities in Eastern Canada (United States)

    Petrescu, L.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Totten, E. J.


    Cratons are Precambrian continental nuclei that are geologically distinct from modern continental regions and are typically underlain by seismically fast lithospheric roots (keels) to at least 200 km depth. Both plate and non-plate tectonic origin theories such as stacking of subducted slabs or multiple mantle plume underplating have been proposed to explain keel growth.Eastern Canada is an ideal continental region to investigate cratonization processes and the onset of plate tectonics. It comprises part of the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Province, flanked by a ~1.1 Ga Himalayan-scale orogenic belt, the Grenville Province, and the 500-300 Ma old Appalachian orogenic province, following the same general SW-NE axial trend. The region is also cross-cut by the Great Meteor Hotspot track, providing an excellent opportunity to study the interaction of hotspot tectonism with progressively younger lithospheric domains.We investigate the lithospheric structure of Precambrian Eastern Canada using teleseismic earthquake data recorded at permanent and temporary networks. We measure interstation dispersion curves of Rayleigh wave phase velocities between ~15 and 220 s, and compare the results to standard continental and cratonic reference models. We combine the dispersion curves via a tomographic inversion which solves for isotropic phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy across the region at a range of periods. The phase velocity maps indicate variations in lithospheric properties from the heart of the Superior craton to the SE Canadian coast.The new regional-scale models will help to understand the processes that generated, stabilized and reworked the cratonic roots through their billion-year tectonic history. We investigate how surface tectonic boundaries relate to deeper lithospheric structural changes, and consider the effects of the multiple Wilson cycles that affected Laurentia.

  10. 3-D P- and S-wave velocity structure along the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Guo, B.; Thurber, C. H.; Roecker, S. W.; Townend, J.; Rawles, C.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Boese, C. M.; Bannister, S.; Feenstra, J.; Eccles, J. D.


    The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) on the central Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, has motivated a broad range of geophysical and geological studies intended to characterize the fault system in the locality of the drill site at various scales. In order to better understand the structural features of the central Alpine Fault, we have developed 3-D P- and S-wave velocity (VP and VS) models of the region by double-difference tomography using data sets from multiple seismic networks. In previous work, the quality of the S-wave model has been poor due to the small number of available S-wave picks. We have utilized a new high-accuracy automatic S-wave picker to increase the number of usable S-wave arrivals by more than a factor of two, thereby substantially improving the VS model. Compared to previous studies, our new higher-resolution VP model based on more observations shows a clear VP contrast (higher VP on the southeast hanging wall side) at depths of 5-10 km near the DFDP drill sites. With our better resolved VS model, in the same region, we detect a sharply defined high VS body (VS > 3.7 km s-1) within the hanging wall. Our earthquake relocations reveal the presence of clusters within and around low-velocity zones in the hanging wall southeast of the Alpine Fault. Together with the improved earthquake locations, the P- and S-wave tomography results reveal the Alpine Fault to be marked by a velocity contrast throughout most of the study region. The fault dips southeastwards at about 50° from 5 to 15 km depth, as inferred from the velocity structure, seismicity and observations of fault zone guided waves.

  11. Analysis of the effect of the fluid-structure interface on elastic wave velocity in cornea-like structures by OCE and FEM (United States)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.


    Air-pulse optical coherence elastography (OCE) is a promising technique for quantifying biomechanical properties of the cornea. This technique typically involves imaging and analysis of the propagation of the air-pulse induced elastic waves to reconstruct corneal biomechanical properties using an analytical model. However, the effect of the fluid-structure interface (FSI) at the corneal posterior surface on the elastic wave velocity is not accounted for in many models. In this study, we examined the effect of the FSI with OCE experiments on contact lenses with and without fluid in the posterior gap. Finite element models (FEM), also with and without the FSI, were constructed to simulate the elastic wave propagation based on the OCE measurements. The FEM and OCE results were in good agreement demonstrating the feasibility of the method. To further investigate the effect of the FSI, OCE experiments and subsequent FEM simulations were conducted on in situ rabbit corneas before and after rose bengal/green light corneal collagen cross-linking (RGX). Both the OCE experiments and the FE simulations demonstrated that the FSI significantly reduced the group velocity of the elastic wave, and thus, should be considered when determining corneal biomechanical properties from an appropriate mechanical model. By matching the FEM-calculated velocity to the OCE-measured velocity, the corneal elasticity was quantified. The Young’s modulus of the rabbit cornea before RGX was E  =  65  ±  10 kPa at a controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15 mmHg. After RGX, the Young’s modulus increased to E  =  102  ±  7 kPa at the same IOP.

  12. Comparison of echotracking and magnetic resonance assessment of abdominal aorta distensibility and relationships with pulse wave velocity. (United States)

    Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Maestroni, Silvia; Salvioni, Alessandra; Maloberti, Alessandro; Nava, Stefano; Cairo, Matteo; Madotto, Fabiana; Zerboni, Filippo; Sironi, Sandro; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe


    Arterial distensibility can be measured either by echotracking or by nuclear magnetic resonance (MRI). Little information, however, is available on the comparison between the two methods and on the relationships between the results obtained with the two approaches and the arterial stiffness gold standard measurement, i.e., pulse wave velocity (PWV). In 28 normotensive subjects (age 33.0 ± 10.4 years, mean ± SD) we measured aortic diameter 1 cm above iliac bifurcation, aortic pulse pressure by tonometry and calculated arterial distensibility via the Reneman formulae for both methods. Aortic diameter and aortic distensibility were not superimposable and higher values were systematically detected with the MRI approach than with the ultrasound one. However, PWV showed a significant correlation with aortic distensibility values obtained by both methods (r = 0.50 and r = 0.49, p < 0.05). These data provide evidence that MRI-measured distensibility value is higher than that obtained via echotracking. The significant correlation with PWV, however, suggests that both methods can be regarded as valuable approaches. Considering the greater economic cost and the lower availability in daily clinical and research practice of MRI, echotracking ultrasonography can be regarded as a reliable and feasible method to assess aortic distensibility. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Exercise 1 - Wave measurement and generation in ECN's wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter


    Exercise for the 2nd AAU and ECN EWTEC affiliated PhD course. The purpose of this exercise is to get knowledge about the analysis of 2-D and 3-D irregular waves.......Exercise for the 2nd AAU and ECN EWTEC affiliated PhD course. The purpose of this exercise is to get knowledge about the analysis of 2-D and 3-D irregular waves....

  14. Plasma Wave Measurements from the Van Allen Probes


    Hospodarsky, George B.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C. A.; Bounds, S. R.; Santolik, O.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.


    The twin Van Allen Probes spacecraft were launched on August 30, 2012 to study the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) investigation includes a plasma wave instrument (Waves) that simultaneously measures three orthogonal components of the wave magnetic field from ~10 Hz to 12 kHz and, with the support of the Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) instrument sensors, three components of the wave electric field from ~10 H...

  15. Measurement of Plasma Ion Temperature and Flow Velocity from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The distinction between Doppler broadening and Doppler shift has been analysed, the differences between Gaussian fitting and the distribution of chord-integral line shape have also been discussed. Local ion temperature and flow velocity have been derived from the chord-averaged emission line profile by a ...

  16. Three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field measurement using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 13, 2014 ... In the present study, a digital holography microscope has been developed to study instantaneous 3D velocity field in a square channel of 1000 × 1000 2 cross-section. The flow field is seeded with polystyrene microspheres of size d p = 2.1 m. The volumetric flow rate is set equal to 20 l/min.

  17. High speed velocity measurements on an EFI-system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinse, W.C.; Hof, P.G. van 't; Cheng, L.K.; Scholtes, J.H.G.


    For the development of an Exploding Foil Initiator for Insensitive Munitions applications the following topics are of interest: the electrical circuit, the exploding foil, the velocity of the flyer, the driver explosive, the secondary flyer and the acceptor explosive. Several parameters of the EFI

  18. Application of Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) technique for determination of 1-D shear wave velocity in a landslide area (United States)

    Coccia, S.; Del Gaudio, V.; Venisti, N.; Wasowski, J.


    The application of the Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) method on slopes affected by or prone to landsliding is complicated by the presence of lateral lithological heterogeneities and irregular topography, which may hinder the extension of the geophone array to the minimum lengths (100-200 m) usually adopted in standard applications of this technique. We focus on deriving one-dimensional shear-wave velocity (Vs) vertical profiles from the analysis of microtremor recordings carried out in the municipality of Caramanico Terme (central Italy) where the seismic response has been monitored with a local accelerometer network since 2002. The stability of the ReMi data acquisitions and the reliability of the results in irregular landslide terrain were tested by using ReMi campaigns in three different periods and different acquisition parameters (seismograph channel number, geophone frequency and spacing). We also investigated the possible presence of directional variations in soil properties by carrying out noise recordings along L-shaped arrays. The influence of changing environmental conditions and of different acquisition parameters was tested by comparing the data obtained from different campaigns, using the same acquisition parameters, with the data from simultaneous acquisitions using different parameters. The tests showed that stable results can be obtained under different acquisition conditions provided that i) the ratio between the coherent and incoherent part of ambient noise is sufficiently high and ii) spatial aliasing does not contaminate the signal in the p (slowness)- f (frequency) matrix near the picking area: the latter condition can be satisfied by selecting geophone frequency and spacing appropriate for the site characteristics and for the investigation purpose. The differences in Vs measured in two orthogonal directions did not exceed 10-20 % and their analysis suggests that these directional variations are most likely due to anisotropy in noise source

  19. Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.


    To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...

  20. Anisotropy of S wave velocity in the lowermost mantle using broad-band data recorded at Syowa in Antarctica (United States)

    Usui, Y.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Furumoto, M.; Kanao, M.


    We investigate the velocity structure of the lowermost mantle (D") beneath the Antarctic Ocean. We analyze seismograms from 16 deep earthquakes in south Pacific subduction zones from 1990 to 2001 recorded by STS-1 broad-band seismographs at Syowa station in Antarctica. The source-receiver combinations span distances range 85\\deg-95\\deg with associated S waves passing through D" beneath the Antarctic ocean. Differential travel times of split S waves are estimated to be up to 2s, showing that longitudinal components (SV) energy arrives earlier than transverse components (SH) energy. The absence of significant splitting for S waves with turning points more than four hundred kilometers above the core-mantle boundary (CMB) indicates that anisotropy is localized within the D" region. Differential travel times among S, ScS and SKS phases and waveform modeling are used to construct the velocity structure in D". We calculate synthetic waveforms by the Direct Solution Method (DSM: Geller and Ohminato, 1994; Geller and Takeuchi, 1995). SH shows a double arrival at the epicentral distance near 89\\deg. However SV in this range remains a single arrival. Isotropic model_@can not explain these observation. We find that synthetics for transverse isotropic models with SH velocity discontinuity (SYYM model) explain well the observed differential travel times and waveforms. The thickness of the anisotropic zone, where SH wave is faster up to 2.0% than SV wave, estimated to be about 350 km. This study region corresponds to the high velocity region at the lowermost mantle by tomographic studies (Kuo et al., 2000; Masters et al., 2000). This kind of transverse anisotropy correlates with high velocity regions where paleo-slabs may descend into the lower mantle (Kendall and Silver, 1996; Garnero and Lay, 1997). We conclude that these observations may be explained by an anisotropic D" layer and D" layer anisotropy is attributed to the paleo-slab material subducted during 120Myr-180Myr.

  1. Crustal surface wave velocity structure of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, from ambient noise recordings (United States)

    Sippl, C.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.; Gessner, K.; Spaggiari, C. V.


    Group and phase velocity maps in the period range 2-20 s for the Proterozoic east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, are extracted from ambient seismic noise recorded with the 70-station ALFREX array. This 2 yr temporary installation provided detailed coverage across the orogen and the edge of the Neoarchean Yilgarn Craton, a region where no passive seismic studies of this scale have occurred to date. The surface wave velocities are rather high overall (>3 km s-1 nearly everywhere), as expected for exposed Proterozoic basement rocks. No clear signature of the transition between Yilgarn Craton and Albany-Fraser Orogen is observed, but several strong anomalies corresponding to more local geological features were obtained. A prominent, NE-elongated high-velocity anomaly in the northern part of the array is coincident with a Bouguer gravity high caused by the upper crustal metamorphic rocks of the Fraser Zone. This feature disappears towards longer periods, which hints at an exclusively upper crustal origin for this anomaly. Further east, the limestones of the Cenozoic Eucla Basin are clearly imaged as a pronounced low-velocity zone at short periods, but the prevalence of low velocities to periods of ≥5 s implies that the uppermost basement in this area is likewise slow. At longer periods, slightly above-average surface wave velocities are imaged below the Eucla Basin.

  2. Evaluation of arterial stiffness by finger-toe pulse wave velocity: optimization of signal processing and clinical validation. (United States)

    Obeid, Hasan; Khettab, Hakim; Marais, Louise; Hallab, Magid; Laurent, Stéphane; Boutouyrie, Pierre


    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) (cf-PWV) is the gold standard for measuring aortic stiffness. Finger-toe PWV (ft-PWV) is a simpler noninvasive method for measuring arterial stiffness. Although the validity of the method has been previously assessed, its accuracy can be improved. ft-PWV is determined on the basis of a patented height chart for the distance and the pulse transit time (PTT) between the finger and the toe pulpar arteries signals (ft-PTT). The objective of the first study, performed in 66 patients, was to compare different algorithms (intersecting tangents, maximum of the second derivative, 10% threshold and cross-correlation) for determining the foot of the arterial pulse wave, thus the ft-PTT. The objective of the second study, performed in 101 patients, was to investigate different signal processing chains to improve the concordance of ft-PWV with the gold-standard cf-PWV. Finger-toe PWV (ft-PWV) was calculated using the four algorithms. The best correlations relating ft-PWV and cf-PWV, and relating ft-PTT and carotid-femoral PTT were obtained with the maximum of the second derivative algorithm [PWV: r = 0.56, P signal processing chain. Selecting the maximum of the second derivative algorithm for detecting the foot of the pressure waveform, and combining it with an optimized signal processing chain, improved the accuracy of ft-PWV measurement in the current population sample. Thus, it makes ft-PWV very promising for the simple noninvasive determination of aortic stiffness in clinical practice.

  3. Speckle-based three-dimensional velocity measurement using spatial filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We present an optical method for measuring the real-time three-dimensional (3D) translational velocity of a diffusely scattering rigid object observed through an imaging system. The method is based on a combination of the motion of random speckle patterns and regular fringe patterns. The speckle...... spatial filters designed to measure the three components of the object’s translational velocity. Furthermore, experimental data are presented that demonstrate full 3D velocity measurement....

  4. Unseeded Large Scale PIV measurements accounting for capillary-gravity waves phase speed

    CERN Document Server

    Benetazzo,; Gamba,; M.,; Barbariol,; F,


    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) is widely recognized as a reliable method to measure water surface velocity field in open channels and rivers. LSPIV technique is based on a camera view that frames the water surface in a sequence, and image-processing methods to compute water surface displacements between consecutive frames. Using LSPIV, high flow velocities, as for example flood conditions, were accurately measured, whereas determinations of low flow velocities is more challenging, especially in absence of floating seeding transported by the flow velocity. In fact, in unseeded conditions, typical surface features dynamics must be taken into account: besides surface structures convected by the current, capillary-gravity waves travel in all directions, with their own dynamics. Discrimination between all these phenomena is here discussed, providing a new method to distinguish and to correct unseeded LSPIV measurements associated with wavy structures, accounting for their phase speed magnitude and ...

  5. In-situ changes in the elastic wave velocity of rock with increasing temperature using high-resolution coda wave interferometry (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Baud, Patrick


    Rock undergoes fluctuations in temperature in various settings in Earth's crust, including areas of volcanic or geothermal activity, or industrial environments such as hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoirs. Changes in temperature can cause thermal stresses that can result in the formation of microcracks, which affect the mechanical, physical, and transport properties of rocks. Of the affected physical properties, the elastic wave velocity of rock is particularly sensitive to microcracking. Monitoring the evolution of elastic wave velocity during the thermal stressing of rock therefore provides valuable insight into thermal cracking processes. One monitoring technique is Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), which infers high-resolution changes in the medium from changes in multiple-scattered elastic waves. We have designed a new experimental setup to perform CWI whilst cyclically heating and cooling samples of granite (cylinders of 20 mm diameter and 40 mm length). In our setup, the samples are held between two pistons within a tube furnace and are heated and cooled at a rate of 1 °C/min to temperatures of up to 300 °C. Two high temperature piezo-transducers are each in contact with an opposing face of the rock sample. The servo-controlled uniaxial press compensates for the thermal expansion and contraction of the pistons and the sample, keeping the coupling between the transducers and the sample, and the axial force acting on the sample, constant throughout. Our setup is designed for simultaneous acoustic emission monitoring (AE is commonly used as a proxy for microcracking), and so we can follow thermal microcracking precisely by combining the AE and CWI techniques. We find that during the first heating/cooling cycle, the onset of thermal microcracking occurs at a relatively low temperature of around 65 °C. The CWI shows that elastic wave velocity decreases with increasing temperature and increases during cooling. Upon cooling, back to room temperature, there is an

  6. Evidence for thermospheric gravity waves in the southern polar cap from ground-based vertical velocity and photometric observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Innis

    Full Text Available Zenith-directed Fabry-Perot Spectrometer (FPS and 3-Field Photometer (3FP observations of the λ630 nm emission (~240 km altitude were obtained at Davis station, Antarctica, during the austral winter of 1999. Eleven nights of suitable data were searched for significant periodicities common to vertical winds from the FPS and photo-metric variations from the 3FP. Three wave-like events were found, each of around one or more hours in duration, with periods around 15 minutes, vertical velocity amplitudes near 60 ms–1 , horizontal phase velocities around 300 ms–1 , and horizontal wavelengths from 240 to 400 km. These characteristics appear consistent with polar cap gravity waves seen by other workers, and we conclude this is a likely interpretation of our data. Assuming a source height near 125 km altitude, we determine the approximate source location by calculating back along the wave trajectory using the gravity wave property relating angle of ascent and frequency. The wave sources appear to be in the vicinity of the poleward border of the auroral oval, at magnetic local times up to 5 hours before local magnetic midnight.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics; waves and tides

  7. Retinal hemodynamic oxygen reactivity assessed by perfusion velocity, blood oximetry and vessel diameter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver Niels; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Larsen, Michael


    PURPOSE: To test the oxygen reactivity of a fundus photographic method of measuring macular perfusion velocity and to integrate macular perfusion velocities with measurements of retinal vessel diameters and blood oxygen saturation. METHODS: Sixteen eyes in 16 healthy volunteers were studied at two...... measurements may provide comprehensive information about retinal metabolism....

  8. Three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field measurement using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 13, 2014 ... Abstract. In the present study, a digital holography microscope has been developed to study instantaneous 3D velocity field in a square channel of 1000 × 1000 μm2 cross-section. The flow field is seeded with polystyrene microspheres of size dp = 2.1 μm. The volumetric flow rate is set equal to 20 μl/min.

  9. Seismic Velocity Estimation in the Middle East from Multiple Waveform Functionals: P & S Receiver Functions, Waveform Fitting, and Surface Wave Dispersion (United States)


    senstivity to the uppermost mantle shear wave structure and to velocity contrasts across the Moho (Gangopadhyay et al., 2007). The amplitudes and signal-to...uppermost mantle shear wave structure and to velocity contrasts across the Moho (Gangopadhyay et al., 2007). Mutually satisfying constraints imposed by

  10. Methods to quantify the velocity dependence of common gait measurements from automated rodent gait analysis devices. (United States)

    Neckel, Nathan D


    Walking slowly is a different biomechanical task than walking quickly, thus measures of gait will be different at different velocities, such as pre/post injury. It is necessary to determine if the difference in gait measures are from the experimental changes, or simply from traveling at different speeds. Instead of limiting this effect, we have developed techniques to embrace the velocity dependence of gait measures. By translating the pawprints into a body coordinate frame we are able to measure location of paw placement in addition to the standard gait measures. At higher velocities rats have greater consistency of steps, place their forelimb initial contact more medially and anteriorly, and place their hindlimb toe off more medially and posteriorly. Interlimb phasing also becomes more consistent at higher velocities. Following a cervical spinal cord injury consistency is reduced and the velocity dependent behaviors are significantly different. Translating the coordinate frame improves the ability to measure changes in base of support following spinal cord injury. Employing a treadmill, or limiting analysis to a narrow velocity window does address the effects of velocity. We feel that measuring across all velocities is more appropriate than dictating that the animals match speeds. Quantifying locomotion with automated gait analysis devices is a great way to evaluate the changes that experimental treatments provide. These new methods allow for a more appropriate way to address the confound of many gait measures being velocity dependent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes of blood flow velocity indicating mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during rotation of the head in the normal human measured with transcranial Doppler sonography


    Rossiti, Sandro; Volkmann, Reinhard


    The dynamical changes of blood flow velocity of the intracranial vertebral arteries (VA's) and proximal basilar artery (BA) provoked by rotation of the head in normal volunteers were measured using pulsed-wave transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). In another group both VA's were examined simultaneously with 2-channel TCD. Blood flow velocities diminished compared to the neutral position in all vessels, independently of die side. Total obstruction of the flow was not observed. Our findings re...

  12. Indoor seismology by probing the Earth's interior by using sound velocity measurements at high pressures and temperatures. (United States)

    Li, Baosheng; Liebermann, Robert C


    The adiabatic bulk (K(S)) and shear (G) moduli of mantle materials at high pressure and temperature can be obtained directly by measuring compressional and shear wave velocities in the laboratory with experimental techniques based on physical acoustics. We present the application of the current state-of-the-art experimental techniques by using ultrasonic interferometry in conjunction with synchrotron x radiation to study the elasticity of olivine and pyroxenes and their high-pressure phases. By using these updated thermoelasticity data for these phases, velocity and density profiles for a pyrolite model are constructed and compared with radial seismic models. We conclude that pyrolite provides an adequate explanation of the major seismic discontinuities at 410- and 660-km depths, the gradient in the transition zone, as well as the velocities in the lower mantle, if the uncertainties in the modeling and the variations in different seismic models are considered. The characteristics of the seismic scaling factors in response to thermal anomalies suggest that anticorrelations between bulk sound and shear wave velocities, as well as the large positive density anomalies observed in the lower mantle, cannot be explained fully without invoking chemical variations.

  13. Deep-Ocean Measurements of Tsunami Waves (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Eblé, Marie C.


    Deep-ocean tsunami measurements play a major role in understanding the physics of tsunami wave generation and propagation, and in improving the effectiveness of tsunami warning systems. This paper provides an overview of the history of tsunami recording in the open ocean from the earliest days, approximately 50 years ago, to the present day. Modern tsunami monitoring systems such as the self-contained Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis and innovative cabled sensing networks, including, but not limited to, the Japanese bottom cable projects and the NEPTUNE-Canada geophysical bottom observatory, are highlighted. The specific peculiarities of seafloor longwave observations in the deep ocean are discussed and compared with observations recorded in coastal regions. Tsunami detection in bottom pressure observations is exemplified through analysis of distant (22,000 km from the source) records of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the northeastern Pacific.

  14. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Velocity: Selected Glacier Site Velocity Maps from InSAR (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program. This data set provides maps of glacier outlet...

  15. Near Source Acoustical Particle Velocity Measurements with Ambient Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Jelmer; Philippens, D.R.; de Boer, Andries


    An acoustical measurement very near a structure can be a cheap alternative to other contactless vibration measurement techniques such as laser vibrometry. However, measurements of the acoustical pressure suffer greatly from ambient noise, making these measurements unsuitable for many industrial

  16. Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Southern African Crust: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kgaswane, E M; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Dirks, P H H M; Durrheim, R J; Pasyanos, M E


    Crustal structure in southern Africa has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations spanning much of the Precambrian shield of southern Africa. 1-D shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the inversion yield Moho depths that are similar to those reported in previous studies and show considerable variability in the shear wave velocity structure of the lower part of the crust between some terrains. For many of the Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the shield, S velocities reach 4.0 km/s or higher over a substantial part of the lower crust. However, for most of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain, mean shear wave velocities of {le} 3.9 km/s characterize the lower part of the crust along with slightly ({approx}5 km) thinner crust. These findings indicate that the lower crust across much of the shield has a predominantly mafic composition, except for the southwest portion of the Kaapvaal Craton and western portion of the Zimbabwe Craton, where the lower crust is intermediate-to-felsic in composition. The parts of the Kaapvaal Craton underlain by intermediate-to-felsic lower crust coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, and thus we suggest that the intermediate-to-felsic composition of the lower crust and the shallower Moho may have resulted from crustal melting during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga and concomitant crustal thinning caused by rifting.

  17. ABCA1-dependent serum cholesterol efflux capacity inversely correlates with pulse wave velocity in healthy subjects[S (United States)

    Favari, Elda; Ronda, Nicoletta; Adorni, Maria Pia; Zimetti, Francesca; Salvi, Paolo; Manfredini, Matteo; Bernini, Franco; Borghi, Claudio; Cicero, Arrigo F. G.


    The capacity of HDL to induce cell cholesterol efflux is considered one of its main antiatherogenic properties. Little is known about the impact of such HDL function on vascular physiology. We investigated the relationship between ABCA1-dependent serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), an HDL functionality indicator, and pulse wave velocity (PWV), an indicator of arterial stiffness. Serum of 167 healthy subjects was used to conduct CEC measurement, and carotid-femoral PWV was measured with a high-fidelity tonometer. J774 macrophages, labeled with [3H]cholesterol and stimulated to express ABCA1, were exposed to sera; the difference between cholesterol efflux from stimulated and unstimulated cells provided specific ABCA1-mediated CEC. PWV is inversely correlated with ABCA1-dependent CEC (r = −0.183; P = 0.018). Moreover, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, serum LDL, HDL-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, PWV displays a significant negative regression on ABCA1-dependent CEC (β = −0.204; 95% confidence interval, −0.371 to −0.037). The finding that ABCA1-dependent CEC, but not serum HDL cholesterol level (r = −0.002; P = 0.985), is a significant predictor of PWV in healthy subjects points to the relevance of HDL function in vascular physiology and arterial stiffness prevention. PMID:23103472

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance and sound velocity measurements of chalk saturated with magnesium rich brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    composition. In this study we relate NMR data to changes in P-wave velocity and electrical resistivity. Core plugs from outcrop Stevns chalk, of 44% porosity, were divided into groups of three and saturated with deionized water, calcite equilibrated water, as well as sodium chloride and magnesium chloride...

  19. Measurement of viscous flow velocity and flow visualization using two magnetic resonance imagers (United States)

    Boiko, A. V.; Akulov, A. E.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Cherevko, A. A.; Denisenko, N. S.; Savelov, A. A.; Stankevich, Yu. A.; Khe, A. K.; Yanchenko, A. A.; Tulupov, A. A.


    The accuracies of measuring the velocity field using clinical and research magnetic resonance imagers are compared. The flow velocity of a fluid simulating blood in a carotid artery model connected to a programmable pump was measured. Using phase-contrast magnetic resonance tomography, the velocity distributions in the carotid artery model were obtained and compared with the analytical solution for viscous liquid flow in a cylindrical tube (Poiseuille flow). It is found that the accuracy of the velocity measurement does not depend on the field induction and spatial resolution of the imagers.

  20. P-Wave Velocity Tomography from Local Earthquakes in Western Mexico (United States)

    Ochoa-Chávez, Juan A.; Escudero, Christian R.; Núñez-Cornú, Francisco J.; Bandy, William L.


    In western Mexico, the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North America plate has deformed and fragmented the overriding plate, forming several structural rifts and crustal blocks. To obtain a reliable subsurface image of the continental crust and uppermost mantle in this complex area, we used P-wave arrivals of local earthquakes along with the Fast Marching Method tomography technique. We followed an inversion scheme consisting of (1) the use of a high-quality earthquake catalog and corrected phase picks, (2) the selection of earthquakes using a maximum location error threshold, (3) the estimation of an improved 1-D reference velocity model, and (4) the use of checkerboard testing to determine the optimum configuration of the velocity nodes and inversion parameters. Surprisingly, the tomography results show a very simple δVp distribution that can be described as being controlled by geologic structures formed during two stages of the separation of the Rivera and Cocos plates. The earlier period represents the initial stages of the separation of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath western Mexico; the later period represents the more advanced stage of rifting where the Rivera and Cocos plates had separated sufficiently to allow melt to accumulate below the Colima Volcanic complex. During the earlier period (14 or 10-1.6 Ma), NE-SW-oriented structures/lineaments (such as the Southern Colima Rift) were formed as the two plates separated. During the second period (1.6 Ma to the present), the deformation is attributed to magma, generated within and above the tear zone between the Rivera and Cocos plates, rising beneath the region of the Colima Volcanic Complex. The rising magma fractured the overlying crust, forming a classic triple-rift junction geometry. This triple-rift system is confined to the mid- to lower crust perhaps indicating that this rifting process is still in an early stage. This fracturing, along with fluid circulation and associated

  1. Measuring Body Wave Amplitudes of Shallow Earthquakes (United States)

    Sigloch, K.; Nolet, G.


    We present and evaluate a method to measure body wave amplitudes of shallow earthquakes. Compared to deep events the measurement is complicated by crustal echoes and more complex source time functions, but the effort of processing this data is very worthwhile since shallow events are far more abundant than deep ones. We use a linear model that inverts for source time function, moment tensor and amplitudes in an iterative least squares procedure. The waveform fitting is tested on digital broadband seismograms from the temporary PASSCAL line array LA RISTRA and on global GSN data. We find that robust and reproducible amplitude measurements can be obtained. Signal-to-noise ratios are adequate for fitting waveforms of shallow earthquakes with magnitude of 5.9 and higher. Waveform fits to seismograms from the same event routinely achieve a coherence of 90%-98%. Observed amplitude anomalies are on the order of ± 20%, with outliers being as large as ± 60%. The accuracy is estimated from a limited set of doublet eartquakes and was ± 3% in the best case, for time series lowpassed at 16 second period. Along the 1000-km-long RISTRA array we find several smooth amplitude trends on the scale of hundreds of kilometers. At least one of these trends changes sign depending on the event azimuth, which may indicate that the effect is caused by refraction in the mantle.

  2. Shear wave velocity structure in the lithosphere and asthenosphere across the Southern California continent and Pacific plate margin using inversion of Rayleigh wave data from the ALBACORE project. (United States)

    Price, A. C.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Kohler, M. D.; Rathnayaka, S.; Escobar, L., Sr.


    The North American and Pacific plate boundary is a unique example of past subduction of an oceanic spreading center which has involved oceanic plate capture and inception of a continental transform boundary that juxtaposes continental and oceanic lithosphere on a single plate. The amphibious ALBACORE seismic project (Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment) deployed 34 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) on 15-35 Ma seafloor and offers a unique opportunity to compare the LAB in continental and oceanic lithosphere in one seismic study. Rayleigh waves were recorded simultaneously by our offshore array and 82 CISN network land stations from 2010-2011. Here we predict phase velocities for a starting shear wave velocity model for each of 5 regions in our study area and compare to observed phase velocities from our array in a least-squares sense that produces the best fit 1-D shear wave velocity structure for each region. Preliminary results for the deep ocean (seafloor 25-32 Ma) indicates high velocities reaching 4.5 km/s at depths of 50 km associated with the lithosphere for seafloor 25-32 Ma. A negative velocity gradient is observed below this which reaches a minimum of 4.0 km/s at 160 km depth. The mid-ocean region (age 13-25 Ma) indicates a slightly lower magnitude and shallower LVZ. The Inner Borderland displays the highest lithospheric velocities offshore reaching 4.8 km/s at 40 km depth indicating underplating. The base of the LVZ in the Borderland increases sharply from 4.0 km/s to 4.5 km/s at 80-150 km depth indicating partial melt and compositional changes. The LVZ displays a very gradual positive velocity gradient in all other regions such as the deep seafloor and continent reaching 4.5 km/s at 300 km depth. The deep ocean, Borderlands, and continental region each have unique lithospheric velocities, LAB depths, and LVZ character that indicate stark differences in mantle structure that occur on a

  3. Volumetric velocity measurements of vortex rings from inclined exits (United States)

    Troolin, Daniel R.; Longmire, Ellen K.


    Vortex rings were generated by driving pistons within circular cylinders of inner diameter D = 72.8 mm at a constant velocity U 0 over a distance L = D. The Reynolds number, U 0 L/(2ν), was 2500. The flow downstream of circular and inclined exits was examined using volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V). The circular exit yields a standard primary vortex ring that propagates downstream at a constant velocity and a lingering trailing ring of opposite sign associated with the stopping of the piston. By contrast, the inclined nozzle yields a much more complicated structure. The data suggest that a tilted primary vortex ring interacts with two trailing rings; one associated with the stopping of the piston, and the other associated with the asymmetry of the cylinder exit. The two trailing ring structures, which initially have circulation of opposite sign, intertwine and are distorted and drawn through the center of the primary ring. This behavior was observed for two inclination angles. Increased inclination was associated with stronger interactions between the primary and trailing vortices as well as earlier breakdown.

  4. Volumetric velocity measurements of vortex rings from inclined exits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troolin, Daniel R. [TSI Incorporated, Fluid Mechanics Division, St. Paul, MN (United States); Longmire, Ellen K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Vortex rings were generated by driving pistons within circular cylinders of inner diameter D=72.8 mm at a constant velocity U{sub 0} over a distance L=D. The Reynolds number, U{sub 0}L/(2{nu}), was 2500. The flow downstream of circular and inclined exits was examined using volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V). The circular exit yields a standard primary vortex ring that propagates downstream at a constant velocity and a lingering trailing ring of opposite sign associated with the stopping of the piston. By contrast, the inclined nozzle yields a much more complicated structure. The data suggest that a tilted primary vortex ring interacts with two trailing rings; one associated with the stopping of the piston, and the other associated with the asymmetry of the cylinder exit. The two trailing ring structures, which initially have circulation of opposite sign, intertwine and are distorted and drawn through the center of the primary ring. This behavior was observed for two inclination angles. Increased inclination was associated with stronger interactions between the primary and trailing vortices as well as earlier breakdown. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Liu, Siqing; Gong, Jiancun [Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Ning [School of Tourism and Geography, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China); Lin, Jun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China)


    We numerically study the detailed evolutionary features of the wave-like disturbance and its propagation in the eruption. This work is a follow-up to Wang et al., using significantly upgraded new simulations. We focus on the contribution of the velocity vortices and the fast shock reflection and refraction in the solar corona to the formation of the EUV waves. Following the loss of equilibrium in the coronal magnetic structure, the flux rope exhibits rapid motions and invokes the fast-mode shock at the front of the rope, which then produces a type II radio burst. The expansion of the fast shock, which is associated with outward motion, takes place in various directions, and the downward expansion shows the reflection and the refraction as a result of the non-uniform background plasma. The reflected component of the fast shock propagates upward and the refracted component propagates downward. As the refracted component reaches the boundary surface, a weak echo is excited. The Moreton wave is invoked as the fast shock touches the bottom boundary, so the Moreton wave lags the type II burst. A secondary echo occurs in the area where reflection of the fast shock encounters the slow-mode shock, and the nearby magnetic field lines are further distorted because of the interaction between the secondary echo and the velocity vortices. Our results indicate that the EUV wave may arise from various processes that are revealed in the new simulations.

  6. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in a healthy adult sample: The ELSA-Brasil study. (United States)

    Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Cunha, Roberto S; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Chór, Dora; Griep, Rosane H; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Barreto, Sandhi M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Mill, José Geraldo


    Aging declines essential physiological functions, and the vascular system is strongly affected by artery stiffening. We intended to define the age- and sex-specific reference values for carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) in a sample free of major risk factors. The ELSA-Brasil study enrolled 15,105 participants aged 35-74years. The healthy sample was achieved by excluding diabetics, those over the optimal and normal blood pressure levels, body mass index ≤18.5 or ≥25kg/m2, current and former smokers, and those with self-report of previous cardiovascular disease. After exclusions, the sample consisted of 2158 healthy adults (1412 women). Although cf-PWV predictors were similar between sex (age, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate), cf-PWV was higher in men (8.74±1.15 vs. 8.31±1.13m/s; adjusted for age and MAP, PBrasil population (n=15,105) increased by twice the age-related slope of cf-PWV growth, regardless of sex (0.0919±0.182 vs. 0.0504±0.153m/s per year for men, 0.0960±0.173 vs. 0.0606±0.139m/s per year for women). cf-PWV is different between men and women and even in an optimal and normal range of MAP and free of other classical risk factors for arterial stiffness, reference values for cf-PWV should take into account MAP levels. Also, the presence of major risk factors in the general population doubles the age-related rise in cf-PWV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kil Ha


    Full Text Available BackgroundBrachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV is known to be a good surrogate marker of clinical atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a major predictor for developing neuropathy. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between baPWV and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsA retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted involving 692 patients with type 2 diabetes. The correlation between increased baPWV and DPN, neurological symptoms, and neurological assessment was analyzed. DPN was examined using the total symptom score (TSS, ankle reflexes, the vibration test, and the 10-g monofilament test. DPN was defined as TSS ≥2 and an abnormal neurological assessment. Data were expressed as means±standard deviation for normally distributed data and as median (interquartile range for non-normally distributed data. Independent t-tests or chi-square tests were used to make comparisons between groups, and a multiple logistic regression test was used to evaluate independent predictors of DPN. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test was used to adjust for age.ResultsPatients with DPN had higher baPWV and systolic blood pressure, and were more likely to be older and female, when compared to the control group. According to univariate analysis of risk factors for DPN, the odds ratio of the baPWV ≥1,600 cm/sec was 1.611 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.072 to 2.422; P=0.021 and the odds ratio in female was 1.816 (95% CI, 1.195 to 2.760; P=0.005.ConclusionIncreased baPWV was significantly correlated with peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Development of ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method for velocity profile and flowrate measurement (United States)

    Wada, Sanehiro; Furuichi, Noriyuki; Shimada, Takashi


    We present a novel technique for measuring the velocity profile and flowrate in a pipe. This method, named the ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method (UPTD), has the advantages of expanding the velocity range and setting the smaller measurement volume with low calculation and instrument costs in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic pulse Doppler method. The conventional method has limited measurement of the velocity range due to the Nyquist sampling theorem. In addition, previous reports indicate that a smaller measurement volume increases the accuracy of the measurement. In consideration of the application of the conventional method to actual flow fields, such as industrial facilities and power plants, the issues of velocity range and measurement volume are important. The UPTD algorithm, which exploits two pulses of ultrasound with a short interval and envelope detection, is proposed. Velocity profiles calculated by this algorithm were examined through simulations and excellent agreement was found in all cases. The influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the algorithm was also estimated. The result indicates that UPTD can measure velocity profiles with high accuracy, even under a small SNR. Experimental measurements were conducted and the results were evaluated at the national standard calibration facility of water flowrate in Japan. Every detected signal forms a set of two pulses and the enveloped line can be observed clearly. The results show that UPTD can measure the velocity profiles over the pipe diameter, even if the velocities exceed the measurable velocity range. The measured flowrates were under 0.6% and the standard deviations for all flowrate conditions were within  ±0.38%, which is the uncertainty of the flowrate measurement estimated in the previous report. In conclusion, UPTD provides superior accuracy and expansion of the velocity range.

  9. A Raman anemometer for component-selective velocity measurements of particles in a flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florisson, O.; de Mul, F.F.M.; de Winter, H.G.


    An anemometer for the measurement of the velocity of particles of different components in a flow, separate and apart from that of the flow itself, is described. As a component-selective mechanism Raman scattering is used. The velocity is measured by relating the autocorrelated scattering signal to

  10. Simultaneous measurement of size and velocity of small particles in laminar flows (United States)

    Es-Satte, M.; Pellat-Finet, P.; Schmied, L.; Lesage, A.; Richou, J.


    A new laser anemometer gauge is presented here. The velocity and the size of spherical particles are simultaneously measured without uniform illumination and preliminary calibration. The used method is based on Mie's scattering light theory. The device is able to measure the velocity and size of hydrogen bubbles electrolytically produced by a platinum wire immersed in the water flow.

  11. Measuring low levels of protein aggregation by sedimentation velocity. (United States)

    Gabrielson, John P; Arthur, Kelly K


    The required performance of an analytical method depends on the purpose for which it will be used. As a methodology matures, it may find new application, and the performance demands placed on the method can increase. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC) has a long and distinguished history with important contributions to molecular biology. Now the technique is transitioning into industrial settings, and among them, SV-AUC is now used to quantify the amount of protein aggregation in biopharmaceutical protein products, often at levels less than 1% of the total protein mass. In this paper, we review recent advances to SV methodology which have been shown to improve quantitation of protein aggregation. Then we discuss the performance of the SV method in its current state, with emphasis on the precision and quantitation limit of the method, in the context of existing industrial guidance on analytical method performance targets for quantitative methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarrete


    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a photoacoustic flowmeter with probe-beam deflection. A pulsedlaser beam produces an acoustic pulse, whose propagation is registered by its deflection effects on two cw probebeams. The acoustic pulse in a flowing fluid is produced by absorption of a laser pulse (30 ns, 1.1 mJ focused overa path flow line. The acoustic propagations, along and against the flow, are monitored by two cw probe beams. Inthe interaction, the probe beam undergoes a transient deflection that is detected by a fast response photodiode.The velocity distribution data profile of a square pipe is obtained by means of the acoustic pulse arrival timemeasured through its cross section applying the cylindrical shockwave model developed by Vlasses. The profilesdetermined with this experimental technique are compared with two turbulent pipe flow models.

  13. A Measuring Method About the Bullet Velocity in Electromagnetic Rail Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming LIU


    Full Text Available The operating principle of electromagnetic rail gun by store capacitor was analyzed. A simulation model about the bullet velocity in the electromagnetic rail gun was built. The results of computer simulation experiment showed the relationships between the bullet velocity and the capacitor charging voltage and the pellet mass. By ten coil targets, a new kind of measuring method for the bullet velocity in electromagnetic rail gun was presented. The results of the actual experiment were analyzed. The improving method for measuring bullet velocity was put forward.

  14. Development of site class and site coefficient maps of Semarang, Indonesia using field shear wave velocity data


    Partono Windu; Irsyam Masyhur; Prabandiyani Retno Wardani Sri


    The new Indonesian National Code for seismic resistance design (SNI-03-1726-2012) issued recently utilizes seismic response spectra for the whole area of the country. Site class and site coefficient are two parameters needed for designing response spectra. Site class can be estimated using average standard penetration test (N-SPT), average shear wave velocity (Vs) and average un-drained shear strength (Su) of top 30 meter soil deposit. Site coefficients can be predicted using probabilistic se...

  15. Impact of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial blood pressure index on mortality in hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Kitahara, Tokuyuki; Ono, Kumeo; Tsuchida, Akiyasu; Kawai, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiko; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Koyanagi, Hikaru; Noguchi, Toshiharu; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Sekihara, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Yukiyasu; Kanai, Hideo; Ishida, Hideki; Nojima, Yoshihisa


    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABPI) are markers for atherosclerosis, and each predicts mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, there have been no studies in the past that compared head-to-head the clinical validity of these 2 parameters. Compared with conventional aortic PWV, brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) is considered simple and thereby easily applicable to clinical use. To clarify the relationship between baPWV and ABPI and assess their prognostic values, we analyzed 785 hemodialysis patients with a mean age of 60.2 +/- 12.5 (SD) years for whom ABPI and baPWV at baseline had been measured simultaneously and who were followed up for 33.8 +/- 10.8 months. Of 785 patients, 131 deaths were recorded. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, all-cause mortality was progressively and significantly greater from the lowest quartile of baPWV onward (log-rank test, 41.8; P hemodialysis patients. However, baPWV was useful to pick a high-risk population in patients with ABPI greater than 0.9. Thus, screening hemodialysis patients by means of baPWV and ABPI provides complementary information in identifying a high-risk population.

  16. A prospective study on pulse wave velocity (PWV) and response to anti-hypertensive treatments: PWV determines BP control. (United States)

    Zheng, Meili; Huo, Yong; Wang, Xiaobin; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Fan, Fangfang; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Xiping; Yang, Xinchun; Chen, Yundai; Qian, Geng


    Recent data indicate that hypertension is not well controlled in many populations throughout the world. The factors that influence individual response to anti-hypertensive treatment need to be clarified. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), as a marker of arterial stiffness, has been demonstrated to have important relationships with BP progression; however, little information is available on the role of PWV in blood pressure (BP) control. We aimed to assess BP control during the run-in treatment period in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). These analyses included a total of 3056 treated hypertensive subjects (age: 59.6±7.5years, male/female 1339/1717) with PWV measured at baseline. The average BP at enrollment was 166/95mmHg, and declined to 141/85mmHg after short-term antihypertensive treatment (a median follow-up of 20days). There was an inverse relationship between PWV level and BP reduction during the treatment, most notably for systolic BP (with estimated coefficients of -9.01 (Panti-hypertensive treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of workplace smoking bans on heart rate variability and pulse wave velocity of non-smoking hospitality workers. (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Wellenius, Gregory A; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Moeller, Alexander; Röösli, Martin


    To investigate the effect of a change in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), this study utilized a quasi-experimental setting when a smoking ban was introduced. HRV, a quantitative marker of autonomic activity of the nervous system, and PWV, a marker of arterial stiffness, were measured in 55 non-smoking hospitality workers before and 3-12 months after a smoking ban and compared to a control group that did not experience an exposure change. SHS exposure was determined with a nicotine-specific badge and expressed as inhaled cigarette equivalents per day (CE/d). PWV and HRV parameters significantly changed in a dose-dependent manner in the intervention group as compared to the control group. A one CE/d decrease was associated with a 2.3% (95% CI 0.2-4.4; p = 0.031) higher root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), a 5.7% (95% CI 0.9-10.2; p = 0.02) higher high-frequency component and a 0.72% (95% CI 0.40-1.05; p < 0.001) lower PWV. PWV and HRV significantly improved after introducing smoke-free workplaces indicating a decreased cardiovascular risk.

  18. Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and the Risk Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Kario, Kazuomi; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Maeda, Yasutaka; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Watada, Hirotaka; Munakata, Masanori; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Ito, Norihisa; Nakamura, Michinari; Shoji, Tetsuo; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Yamashina, Akira


    An individual participant data meta-analysis was conducted in the data of 14 673