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Sample records for wave union tdc

  1. A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) TDC for the Fermilab SeaQuest (E906) Experiment and Its Test with a Novel External Wave Union Launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Yin; Wu, Jinyuan; Yao, Shi-Hong; Chang, Wen-Chen

    2014-12-01

    We developed a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) TDC module for the tracking detectors of the Fermilab SeaQuest (E906) experiment, including drift chambers, proportional tubes, and hodoscopes. This 64-channel TDC module had a 6U VMEbus form factor and was equipped with a low-power, radiation-hardened Microsemi ProASIC3 Flash-based FPGA. The design of the new FPGA firmware (Run2-TDC) aimed to reduce the data volume and data acquisition (DAQ) deadtime. The firmware digitized multiple input hits of both polarities while allowing users to turn on a multiple-hit elimination logic to remove after-pulses in the wire chambers and proportional tubes. A scaler was implemented in the firmware to allow for recording the number of hits in each channel. The TDC resolution was determined by an internal cell delay of 450 ps. A measurement precision of 200 ps was achieved. We used five kinds of tests to ensure the qualification of 93 TDCs in mass production. We utilized the external wave union launcher in our test to improve the TDC's measurement precision and also to illustrate how to construct the Wave Union TDC using an existing multi-hit TDC without modifying its firmware. Measurement precision was improved by a factor of about two (108 ps) based on the four-edge wave union. Better measurement precision (69 ps) was achieved by combining the approaches of Wave Union TDC and multiple-channel ganging.

  2. The integration of FPGA TDC inside White Rabbit node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Xue, T.; Gong, G.; Li, J.

    2017-04-01

    White Rabbit technology is capable of delivering sub-nanosecond accuracy and picosecond precision of synchronization and normal data packets over the fiber network. Carry chain structure in FPGA is a popular way to build TDC and tens of picosecond RMS resolution has been achieved. The integration of WR technology with FPGA TDC can enhance and simplify the TDC in many aspects that includes providing a low jitter clock for TDC, a synchronized absolute UTC/TAI timestamp for coarse counter, a fancy way to calibrate the carry chain DNL and an easy to use Ethernet link for data and control information transmit. This paper presents a FPGA TDC implemented inside a normal White Rabbit node with sub-nanosecond measurement precision. The measured standard deviation reaches 50ps between two distributed TDCs. Possible applications of this distributed TDC are also discussed.

  3. Third All-Union Symposium on Wave Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-02

    the field takes the form of cylindrical wave where U=Cos 0 , aCosO , (5) * - angle between the direction to observation point and x axis, and 0. - angle...numerous regions in the cylindrical coordinate systems. In many instances instead of the labor -consuming integration of the squares of eigenfunctions for...Bola, Miklovich, etc. The calculation of contour integrals by integration for the coasts of shear/sections proved to be very labor -consuming, but for

  4. TDC annual review 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This Montreal-based centre is a component of Transport Canada's research and development organization, under the Safety and Security Group. Its mandate is to enhance the department's technological capabilities, to address departmental strategic objectives and federal government priorities, and to promote innovation in transportation. The Centre cooperates with similar research groups in the United States, Mexico, South America, Europe and the Pacific Rim countries, as well as with regional economic associations such as NAFTA, APEC and the European Union. Research and development highlights for 1999-2000 included determination of the Department's role in the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) study which will provide a unified framework for coordinating the deployment of ITS programs by public and private agencies, and an in-service evaluation of a freeway traffic management system. In the area of air traffic, the Centre extended the Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement program for another five years. The objective of this program is to develop reliable guidelines for pilots and airport operators on safe landing distances in winter conditions. The Centre also entered into a partnership in the Canada-U.S. Aircraft Icing Research Alliance, developed a prototype aviation safety sharing system, undertook an in-depth study of airport security system integration and data fusion, and investigated the effects of commercially available emission control technology. In the area of road transport, the Centre developed recommendations for reducing the weight of inter-city buses, conducted studies on the safety of rail-highway grade crossings, on inter-city bus accessibility for persons with sensory disabilities, and recommended practices for fatigue management programs in the trucking industry. In marine transport, the Centre cooperated with the Canadian Coast Guard in developing a methodology for setting minimum safe practice levels for aids

  5. A 32-channel 840Msps TDC based on Altera Cyclone III FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, D. N.; Kasyanenko, P. V.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Shamov, A. G.; Talyshev, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    In this work we present a newly developed TDC (Time-to-Digital Converter) board in the VME-32 standard. The 32-channel TDC board is based on a single FPGA Altera Cyclone III chip. The main parameters of the TDC are as follows: a resolution of 1.19 ns, a dead time of 4.76 ns, and a maximal time interval of 19 504 ns.

  6. A method for high purity sorting of rare cell subsets applied to TDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuka, Mirela; Ashwell, Jonathan D

    2013-12-31

    T(DC) are a recently described subset of polyclonal αβ T-cells with dendritic cell properties. Because of their low number in peripheral immune compartments, isolation and characterization of T(DC) with existing purification methods are technically challenging. Here we describe a customized gating strategy and a flow cytometry-based cell sorting protocol for isolation of T(DC). The protocol was developed because, despite very conservative gating for dead-cell and doublet exclusion, cells obtained with normal sorting procedures were enriched for T(DC) but not pure. Re-sorting the output of the first round of sorting results in highly pure T(DC). Cells obtained with this method are viable and can be used for in vitro characterization. Moreover, this double-round sorting strategy can be universally applied to the isolation of other rare cell subsets. © 2013.

  7. A 7.4 ps FPGA-Based TDC with a 1024-Unit Measurement Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Hai; Liu, Yan

    2017-04-14

    In this paper, a high-resolution time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device is proposed and tested. During the implementation, a new architecture of TDC is proposed which consists of a measurement matrix with 1024 units. The utilization of routing resources as the delay elements distinguishes the proposed design from other existing designs, which contributes most to the device insensitivity to variations of temperature and voltage. Experimental results suggest that the measurement resolution is 7.4 ps, and the INL (integral nonlinearity) and DNL (differential nonlinearity) are 11.6 ps and 5.5 ps, which indicates that the proposed TDC offers high performance among the available TDCs. Benefitting from the FPGA platform, the proposed TDC has superiorities in easy implementation, low cost, and short development time.

  8. Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) as an index of localized arm skin water: differences between measuring probes and genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, H N; Weingrad, D N; Brlit, F; Lopez, L B; Desfor, R

    2015-03-01

    An easily measured, non-invasive, quantitative estimate of local skin tissue water is useful to assess local lymphedema and its change. One method uses skin tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values that at 300 MHz TDC depend on free and bound water within the measurement volume. In practice such measurements have been done with a research-type multi-probe, but recently a hand-held compact-probe has become available that may be more clinically convenient. Because most available published data is based on multiprobe measurements it is important to characterize possible differences between devices that unless known might lead to ambiguous quantitative comparisons between TDC values. Thus, our purpose was to evaluate potential differences in measured TDC values between multi-probe and compact-probe devices with respect to probe effective sampling depth, anatomical site, and gender and also to compare compact-probe TDC values measured on women with and without breast cancer (BC). TDC was measured bilaterally on forearms and biceps of 32 male and 32 female volunteers and on 12 female patients awaiting surgery for breast cancer. Results show that 1) TDC values at 2.5 mm depth were significantly less than at 1.5 mm; 2) Female TDC values were significantly less than male values; 3) TDC values were not different between females with and without BC; and 4) dominant/non-dominant arm TDC ratios were not significantly different for any probe among genders or arm anatomical site. These findings indicate that probe type differences in absolute TDC values are present and should be taken into account when TDC values are compared. However, comparisons based on inter-arm TDC ratios are not statistically different among probes with respect to gender or anatomical location.

  9. A new drift chamber TDC readout for the high intensity program of the NA48 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ramusino, A C; Cartiglia, N; Chiozzi, S; Clemencic, M; Damiani, C; Gianoli, A; Milano, L; Malaguti, R; Petrucci, F; Scarpa, M

    2004-01-01

    A new read-out for the drift chambers (DCH) (8192 channels) of the NA48 experiment at CERN has been developed and realized by the Ferrara and Torino INFN sites and has taken data during the 2002 run. The core of the system is a set of 32 VME-9U Time-to-Digital- Converter boards (NA48-TDC). The NA48-TDCs record the time of arrival of signals from the DCH and store them in 40 MHz pipelined ring memories pending the trigger supervisor's decision. Dual memories and data extraction resources allow independent and simultaneous processing of level-1 and level-2 trigger requests. Time measurements are performed by the TDC-F1 commercial ASICs, having an intrinsic time resolution of 120 ps and multi-hit capabilities. The NA48-TDC board features a maximum sustained rate of 500 kHz per channel.

  10. Frequency signal acquisition of scalar atomic magnetometer based on using TDC and FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y. H.; Chen, Q. Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Xia, M. Y.

    2017-09-01

    An improved equal precision frequency measurement method is presented for acquisition of frequency signal output from high sensitivity scalar atomic magnetometers. The frequency range to be measured is from 75 kHz to 350 kHz with a resolution better than 0.01 Hz, and the sampling rate should be at least 10 Hz. To meet the requirements on dynamic range, measurement accuracy and speed, at least eight significant digits must be kept. The TDC and FPGA are used to improve the traditional equal precision method. The FPGA acts as the controlling and computing centre, while the TDC measures the time deviation to eliminate the counting error of ±1 reference signal. A prototype frequency detector is fabricated and tested. The measured data show that the design is viable and further improvement is possible.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of biodegradative threonine deaminase (TdcB) from Salmonella typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanshu, Dhirendra K.; Chittori, Sagar [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Savithri, H. S. [Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Murthy, M. R. N., E-mail: mrn@mbu.iisc.ernet.in [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2006-03-01

    S. typhimurium biodegradative threonine deaminase (TdcB), a member of the β-family of PLP-dependent enzymes, has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in three different crystal forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Biodegradative threonine deaminase (TdcB) catalyzes the deamination of l-threonine to α-ketobutyrate, the first reaction in the anaerobic breakdown of l-threonine to propionate. Unlike the biosynthetic threonine deaminase, TdcB is insensitive to l-isoleucine and is activated by AMP. Here, the cloning of TdcB (molecular weight 36 kDa) from Salmonella typhimurium with an N-terminal hexahistidine affinity tag and its overexpression in Escherichia coli is reported. TdcB was purified to homogeneity using Ni–NTA affinity column chromatography and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in three different crystal forms. Crystal forms I (unit-cell parameters a = 46.32, b = 55.30, c = 67.24 Å, α = 103.09, β = 94.70, γ = 112.94°) and II (a = 56.68, b = 76.83, c = 78.50 Å, α = 66.12, β = 89.16, γ = 77.08°) belong to space group P1 and contain two and four molecules of TdcB, respectively, in the asymmetric unit. Poorly diffracting form III crystals were obtained in space group C2 and based on the unit-cell volume are most likely to contain one molecule per asymmetric unit. Two complete data sets of resolutions 2.2 Å (crystal form I) and 1.7 Å (crystal form II) were collected at 100 K using an in-house X-ray source.

  12. Development and verification of a compact TDC-based data acquisition system for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Gaisbauer, Dominic; Konorov, Igor; Paul, Stephan; Poeschl, Thomas [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The advances of solid-state detectors and in particular those for the detection of photons have made their application in space systems increasingly attractive in recent years. The use of, for example, silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) paired with a suitable scintillating material allows the development of compact and lightweight particle detectors. The Antiproton Flux in Space experiment (AFIS) intends to measure the flux of antiprotons trapped in Earth's magnetosphere aboard a nanosatellite using an active target tracking detector, consisting of plastic scintillating fibers read out by SiPMs. In order to implement a large number of detector channels while adhering to the given space, mass and power constraints, the development of a compact TDC-based data acquisition system was proposed. This talk presents a current prototype featuring 900 channels, real-time multi-channel temperature measurement and bias regulation. Possible alternative applications as well as the next steps in the development are also discussed.

  13. Development of front-end electronics and TDC LSI for the ATLAS MDT

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Y

    2000-01-01

    Architecture of the front-end electronics for the ATLAS muon precision chamber (MDT) is presented. Especially, test results of a prototype TDC chip are described in detail. The chip was fabricated in a 0.3 mu m CMOS gate-array technology. Measurements of critical elements of the chip such as the PLL, and data buffering circuits demonstrated adequate performance. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation, using a /sup 60/Co source, and neutron irradiation, were also examined. The test results revealed radiation tolerance adequate for the operation of the circuits in the environment of the ATLAS MDT. Mounting of the front-end electronics to the MDT is scheduled to start in the year 2001. (10 refs).

  14. Compensation of PVT Variations in ToF Imagers with In-Pixel TDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Vornicu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of a direct time-of-flight complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS image sensor (dToF-CIS based on a single-photon avalanche-diode (SPAD array with an in-pixel time-to-digital converter (TDC must contemplate system-level aspects that affect its overall performance. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the impact of process parameters, voltage supply, and temperature (PVT variations on the time bin of the TDC array. Moreover, the design and characterization of a global compensation loop is presented. It is based on a phase locked loop (PLL that is integrated on-chip. The main building block of the PLL is a voltage-controlled ring-oscillator (VCRO that is identical to the ones employed for the in-pixel TDCs. The reference voltage that drives the master VCRO is distributed to the voltage control inputs of the slave VCROs such that their multiphase outputs become invariant to PVT changes. These outputs act as time interpolators for the TDCs. Therefore the compensation scheme prevents the time bin of the TDCs from drifting over time due to the aforementioned factors. Moreover, the same scheme is used to program different time resolutions of the direct time-of-flight (ToF imager aimed at 3D ranging or depth map imaging. Experimental results that validate the analysis are provided as well. The compensation loop proves to be remarkably effective. The spreading of the TDCs time bin is lowered from: (i 20% down to 2.4% while the temperature ranges from 0 °C to 100 °C; (ii 27% down to 0.27%, when the voltage supply changes within ±10% of the nominal value; (iii 5.2 ps to 2 ps standard deviation over 30 sample chips, due to process parameters’ variation.

  15. THick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detector readout based on TDC-FPGAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Kremser, Paul; Schopferer, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Collaboration: THGEM Group of the COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The RD51 program has been investigating a novel photon detector technology called THGEM, aimed to be operated in future Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) Counters. The THGEM design is adopted from the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) using Printed Circuit Board (PCB) material. The manufacturing process uses standard PCB drilling and etching techniques which allows to cover large detector areas at gains up to 10{sup 6} in a mechanically robust and very cost-efficient manner. Promising results have also been obtained with a hybrid approach, which combines the THGEM with a Micromega layer to further suppress the ion back flow to the photocathode. In the course of the RICH-1 detector upgrade of the COMPASS experiment at CERN, the existing Multi Wire Proportional Chambers will partly be replaced by a set of THGEMs. For the digital readout, we are designing a front-end board processing 384 detector channels by TDC-FPGAs. The boards reading a single THGEM chamber are connected in a star topology in order to exploit the data rate capability of the optical transceivers interfacing with the downstream data acquisition system.

  16. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  17. Dicas de aprendizagem auxiliam as crianças com TDC na aquisição de uma habilidade motora complexa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Medina Papst

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar se as dicas de aprendizagem auxiliam crianças com TDC na aquisição de uma habilidade motora complexa. Dez crianças com TDC e 14 de desenvolvimento típico, de 9 a 11 anos, foram divididas nos grupos TDC com dicas (TDCD, TDC sem dicas (TDCS, desenvolvimento típico com dicas (GDTD e desenvolvimento típico sem dicas (GDTS. As crianças participaram de sete aulas, durante três semanas, para a aprendizagem do rolamento peixe, com o uso das dicas "empurre o chão", "coloque a mão o mais longe possível" e "queixo no peito". Os resultados não foram estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos, o que evidencia que as dicas não apresentaram efeito positivo na aprendizagem do rolamento peixe.

  18. Labor unions

    OpenAIRE

    Streeck, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    "Labor unions are interest associations of workers in waged employment. They are formed to improve the market situation and the life chances of their members, by representing them in the labor market, at the workplace, and in the polity, and in particular by collectively regulating their members' terms of employment. Unions emerged in the transition to industrial society in the nineteenth century, together with the de-fedualization of work, the rise of free labor markets, and the commodificat...

  19. Two-Dimensional Cutting (TDC Vitrectome: In Vitro Flow Assessment and Prospective Clinical Study Evaluating Core Vitrectomy Efficiency versus Standard Vitrectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanis Pavlidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate comparative aspiration flow performance and also vitrectomy operating time efficiency using a double-cutting open port vitreous cutting system incorporated in a two-dimensional cutting (TDC, DORC International vitrectome design versus standard vitreous cutter. Methods. In vitro investigations compared aspiration flow rates in artificial vitreous humor at varying cutter speeds and vacuum levels using a TDC vitrectome and a standard vitrectome across different aspiration pump systems. A prospective single-centre clinical study evaluated duration of core vitrectomy in 80 patients with macular pucker undergoing 25-gauge or 27-gauge vitrectomy using either a TDC vitrectome at 16,000 cuts per minute (cpm or standard single-cut vitrectome, combined with a Valve Timing intelligence (VTi pump system (EVA, DORC International. Results. Aspiration flow rates remained constant independent of TDC vitrectome cut rate, while flow rates decreased linearly at higher cutter speeds using a classic single-blade vitrectome. Mean duration of core vitrectomy surgeries using a TDC vitreous cutter system was significantly (p<0.001 shorter than the mean duration of core vitrectomy procedures using a single-cut vitrectome of the same diameter (reduction range, 34%–50%. Conclusion. Vitrectomy surgery performed using a TDC vitrectome was faster than core vitrectomy utilizing a standard single-action vitrectome at similar cut speeds.

  20. Crash testing difference-smoothing algorithm on a large sample of simulated light curves from TDC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathna Kumar, S.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we propose refinements to the difference-smoothing algorithm for the measurement of time delay from the light curves of the images of a gravitationally lensed quasar. The refinements mainly consist of a more pragmatic approach to choose the smoothing time-scale free parameter, generation of more realistic synthetic light curves for the estimation of time delay uncertainty and using a plot of normalized χ2 computed over a wide range of trial time delay values to assess the reliability of a measured time delay and also for identifying instances of catastrophic failure. We rigorously tested the difference-smoothing algorithm on a large sample of more than thousand pairs of simulated light curves having known true time delays between them from the two most difficult 'rungs' - rung3 and rung4 - of the first edition of Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge (TDC1) and found an inherent tendency of the algorithm to measure the magnitude of time delay to be higher than the true value of time delay. However, we find that this systematic bias is eliminated by applying a correction to each measured time delay according to the magnitude and sign of the systematic error inferred by applying the time delay estimator on synthetic light curves simulating the measured time delay. Following these refinements, the TDC performance metrics for the difference-smoothing algorithm are found to be competitive with those of the best performing submissions of TDC1 for both the tested 'rungs'. The MATLAB codes used in this work and the detailed results are made publicly available.

  1. GOSSIPO-4: Evaluation of a Novel PLL-Based TDC-Technique for the Readout of GridPix-Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, C; Zappon, F; Van Beuzekom, M; Campbell, M; Desch, K; Van der Graaf, H; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Llopart, X; Poikela, T; Zivkovic, V

    2014-01-01

    The direct readout of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) with bare pixel chips introduces the need for a new generation of readout electronics featuring a high spatial granularity as well as a highly accurate time measurement in each pixel. GOSSIPO-4, fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology, is a demonstrator ASIC investigating the potential of a new TDC-concept that is based on a chip-wide 40 MHz clock which is complemented by an additional 640 MHz clock. The latter is created upon demand by local oscillators distributed across the pixel matrix. PLL tuning of the local oscillators allows for automatic compensation of frequency fluctuations caused by process parameter, supply voltage and temperature variations. The developed PLL locks within s and achieves a duty cycle of 50.75% with a time interval error of only 23.4 ps. Mean DNL and INL of the TDC are less than 20% of the time bin size of 1.56 ns under all anticipated conditions.

  2. A Dynamic Range Enhanced Readout Technique with a Two-Step TDC for High Speed Linear CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic range (DR enhanced readout technique with a two-step time-to-digital converter (TDC for high speed linear CMOS image sensors. A multi-capacitor and self-regulated capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA structure is employed to extend the dynamic range. The gain of the CTIA is auto adjusted by switching different capacitors to the integration node asynchronously according to the output voltage. A column-parallel ADC based on a two-step TDC is utilized to improve the conversion rate. The conversion is divided into coarse phase and fine phase. An error calibration scheme is also proposed to correct quantization errors caused by propagation delay skew within −Tclk~+Tclk. A linear CMOS image sensor pixel array is designed in the 0.13 μm CMOS process to verify this DR-enhanced high speed readout technique. The post simulation results indicate that the dynamic range of readout circuit is 99.02 dB and the ADC achieves 60.22 dB SNDR and 9.71 bit ENOB at a conversion rate of 2 MS/s after calibration, with 14.04 dB and 2.4 bit improvement, compared with SNDR and ENOB of that without calibration.

  3. Orders of Magnitude Extension of the Effective Dynamic Range of TDC-Based TOFMS Data Through Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, Andreas; Ebbels, Timothy M. D.

    2014-10-01

    In a recent article, we derived a probability distribution that was shown to closely approximate that of the data produced by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) instruments employing time-to-digital converters (TDCs) as part of their detection system. The approach of formulating detailed and highly accurate mathematical models of LC/MS data via probability distributions that are parameterized by quantities of analytical interest does not appear to have been fully explored before. However, we believe it could lead to a statistically rigorous framework for addressing many of the data analytical problems that arise in LC/MS studies. In this article, we present new procedures for correcting for TDC saturation using such an approach and demonstrate that there is potential for significant improvements in the effective dynamic range of TDC-based mass spectrometers, which could make them much more competitive with the alternative analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The degree of improvement depends on our ability to generate mass and chromatographic peaks that conform to known mathematical functions and our ability to accurately describe the state of the detector dead time—tasks that may be best addressed through engineering efforts.

  4. Uso da placa onda no tratamento das fraturas diafisárias do fêmur não consolidadas The wave plate method in non union femoral shaft fractures treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Nogueira Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se retrospectivamente 25 pacientes com fratura diafisária do fêmur não consolidadas e que foram tratados com placa onda. A consolidação ocorreu em 96% dos pacientes num tempo médio de 5,32 meses, variando entre três e sete meses. Vinte e um pacientes (84% foram considerados como resultados excelentes e bons nos critérios de avaliação final. O método de tratamento não ocasionou diferença no comprimento dos membros. Não ocorreram desvios rotacionais. O arco de movimento dos quadris e joelhos não foi acometido, embora em quatro pacientes (16% tenha-se encontrado limitação na flexão do joelho, esta era prévia ao tratamento com placa onda. Dois pacientes (8% tiveram infecção profunda durante o tratamento com a placa onda, recidiva de processo infeccioso prévio. Houve soltura da placa no nono mês de pós-operatório em um paciente (4%, embora tenha havido a consolidação óssea. Em outro paciente (4% a placa onda quebrou um ano e dois meses após a cirurgia, tendo-se trocado a primeira por outra placa onda e posterior consolidação. Mesmo assim, considerou-se falha do método. A placa onda é uma opção de tratamento das fraturas do fêmur não consolidadas pelas suas propriedades biomecânicas favoráveis à consolidação óssea, conferindo estabilidade sem prejudicar o suprimento sangüíneo, com características de síntese biológica.Twenty-five patients with non union femoral diaphyseal fractures treated with the wave plate method were retrospectively studied. Union was achieved in 24 patients (96% in an average time of 5.32 months, ranging from three to seven months. We observed excellent and good results in 21 patients (84% in the endpoint evaluation. This treatment approach didn't cause leg-length discrepancy. No rotational deviations were seen. The range of motion of hips and knees was not affected, although in four patients (16% knee flexion restraint was found, but previously to the wave plate treatment

  5. Arm, Leg, and Foot Skin Water in Persons With Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in Relation to HbA1c Assessed by Tissue Dielectric Constant (TDC) Technology Measured at 300 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Volosko, Irina; Sarkar, Bansari; Pandya, Naushira

    2017-05-01

    DM is associated with structural skin changes. However, few studies have investigated changes in dermal water and specifically its relationship to glucose control as measured by HbA1c. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that skin water, assessed by its tissue dielectric constant (TDC), is inversely related to HbA1c. Water content of 3 skin sites (forearm, lower leg, and foot dorsum) of 50 persons with DM was estimated by measuring TDC at 300 MHz. TDC is the ratio of tissue dielectric constant to vacuum and depends on free and bound water in the measured volume. TDC was measured in triplicate to 4 depths, 0.5. 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mm to include different skin components. At each site increased measurement depth showed (1) a significant decrease in absolute TDC values and (2) a significant increase in foot-to-arm TDC ratios. TDC values at forearm were shown to be greater than at either leg or foot. However, testing of these 50 patients at 3 sites and 4 skin depths did not show any significant relationship between TDC and HbA1c or fasting glucose. The data indicate no relationship between TDC values, as indices for skin water, and HbA1c or fasting glucose. This implies that skin TDC values to assess skin property features and changes in persons with DM are not sensitive to recent glucose control. Furthermore, the results introduce a newly applied TDC technology useful to assess skin properties of persons with DM.

  6. Framing the debate over teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The power of teacher unions in the U.S. has waned since the 2010 mid-term elections.  The convergence of business conservatism and teacher accountability ideologies has led to an intense targeting of public teacher unions as a problem, both economically and educationally.  Using the target audience framework of Schneider and Ingram (1993, I break down the framing used in the present anti-union movement and explore a local example of anti-union legislation in Pennsylvania.  The analysis reveals a socially constructed dichotomy in which victimized children are pitted against greedy teachers.  To stem this wave of anti-unionism, teacher unions must recognize their position as public contenders and rearticulate their message using child-first rhetoric.

  7. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  8. The glycyl-radical enzyme 2-ketobutyrate formate-lyase, TdcE, interacts specifically with the formate-translocating FNT-channel protein FocA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Dörte; Doberenz, Claudia; Hunger, Doreen; Sawers, R Gary

    2016-07-01

    Formate is a major product of mixed-acid fermentation in Escherichia coli. Because formate can act as an uncoupler at high concentration it must be excreted from the cell. The FNT (formate-nitrite transporter) membrane channel FocA ensures formate is translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane. Two glycyl-radical enzymes (GREs), pyruvate formate-lyase (PflB) and 2-ketobutyrate formate-lyase (TdcE), generate formate as a product of catalysis during anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli. We demonstrate in this study that TdcE, like PflB, interacts specifically with FocA. His-tagged variants of two other predicted GREs encoded in the genome of E. coli were over-produced and purified and were shown not to interact with FocA, indicating that interaction with FocA is not a general property of GREs per se. Together, these data show that only the GREs TdcE and PflB interact with the FNT channel protein and suggest that, like PflB, TdcE can control formate translocation by FocA.

  9. TCR signal strength alters T-DC activation and interaction times and directs the outcome of differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eVan Panhuys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into effector subsets underpins their ability to shape the immune response and mediate host protection. During T cell receptor induced activation of CD4+ T cells both the quality and quantity of specific activatory peptide/MHC ligands have been shown to control the polarization of naïve CD4+ T cells in addition to co-stimulatory and cytokine based signals. Recently, advances in two photon microscopy and tetramer based cell tracking methods have allowed investigators to greatly extend the study of the role of TCR signaling in effector differentiation under in vivo conditions. In this review we consider data from recent in vivo studies analyzing the role of TCR signal strength in controlling the outcome of CD4+ T cell differentiation and discuss the role of the TCR in controlling the critical nature of CD4+ T cell interactions with dendritic cells during activation. We further propose a model whereby TCR signal strength controls the temporal aspects of T:DC interactions and the implications for this in mediating the downstream signaling events which influence the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of effector differentiation.

  10. Design aspects and prototype test of a very precise TDC system implemented for the multigap RPC of the ALICE-TOP

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Basile, M; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cosenza, F; D'Antone, I; De Caro, A; De Pasquale, S; Di Bartolomeo, A; Fusco-Girard, M; Golovine, V; Guerzoni, M; Guida, M; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kaidalov, A B; Kim, D H; Kisselev, S M; Laurenti, G; Lioublev, E; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Luvisetto, M L; Margotti, A; Martemyanov, A N; Massera, F; Meneghini, S; Michinelli, R; Nania, R; Otiougova, P; Pancaldi, G; Pesci, A; Pilastrini, R; Pinazza, O; Polozov, P A; Rizzi, M; Scapparone, E; Scioli, G; Sellitto, S B; Semeria, F; Smirnitsky, A V; Tchoumakov, M M; Ugolini, E; Usenko, E; Valenti, G; Voloshin, K G; Williams, M C S; Zagreev, B V; Zampolli, C; Zichichi, A; Zucchini, M; Zuffa, M

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE Time-of-Flight system will be a large area (150m**2) detector made by Multigap RPC (MRPC). T he time digitisation is based on the High Performance TDC chip (HPTDC). Tests carried out on board prototypes are discussed, emphasising the optimisation of the effective time resolution of the chip when working in its Very High Resolution Mode. Lab bench tests and test beam results show that a 20 ps resolution has been achieved.

  11. A SPAD-based 3D imager with in-pixel TDC for 145ps-accuracy ToF measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornicu, I.; Carmona-Galán, R.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Á.

    2015-03-01

    The design and measurements of a CMOS 64 × 64 Single-Photon Avalanche-Diode (SPAD) array with in-pixel Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) are presented. This paper thoroughly describes the imager at architectural and circuit level with particular emphasis on the characterization of the SPAD-detector ensemble. It is aimed to 2D imaging and 3D image reconstruction in low light environments. It has been fabricated in a standard 0.18μm CMOS process, i. e. without high voltage or low noise features. In these circumstances, we are facing a high number of dark counts and low photon detection efficiency. Several techniques have been applied to ensure proper functionality, namely: i) time-gated SPAD front-end with fast active-quenching/recharge circuit featuring tunable dead-time, ii) reverse start-stop scheme, iii) programmable time resolution of the TDC based on a novel pseudo-differential voltage controlled ring oscillator with fast start-up, iv) a global calibration scheme against temperature and process variation. Measurements results of individual SPAD-TDC ensemble jitter, array uniformity and time resolution programmability are also provided.

  12. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  13. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... are to regain power. Third, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries, unions are building external coalitions with other social movements, including across borders, to compensate for the loss of power resources that were tied to national collective bargaining and policy-making. Research has shown that unions, even...

  14. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  15. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  16. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  17. Perspectives and expectations of union member and non- union member teachers on teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer FİDAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unions, which can be regarded as one of the constitutive elements of democracy, are the pressure groups in political and social fields. Unions were born out of industrial confrontations and expanded into the field of public services over time, and thus teachers – who are also public employees-, also obtained the right to establish and affiliate to unions. In this research the views of union member and non-union member teachers on the most important functions and operational effectiveness of unions, teachers’ expectations from unions and teachers’ evaluation of the solidarity, competition and cooperation between unions were determined and the perspectives of teachers on unionization were revealed. qualitative research design was used. The data needed were collected through semi-structured interviews from volunteering union member and non-union member teachers who were working in the primary and secondary schools in Ankara province and who were selected through “maximum variation sampling approach”. The data were then analyzed by using the content analysis technique. In conclusion, it was found that political ideology was the most important reason for membership of teachers’ unions. Protection and development of personal rights was found to be the most important function of teacher unions and unions were thought to be insufficient in performing those functions.

  18. Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  19. Use DAS algorithm to break through the device limitations of switched-capacitor-based DAC in an ADC consisting of pipelined SAR and TDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhongyi; Tang, Xian; Pun, Kong-Pang

    2017-12-01

    Switched capacitors are widely used in integrated circuits for discrete-time signal processing. Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors and MOSFET switches are commonly used for switched-capacitor circuits. They impose limitations in the power consumption and the bandwidth of the circuits. For instance, the switched-capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is the critical circuit block that determines the performance in a successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADC). In this paper, a design using the detect-and-skip (DAS) algorithm to break through the device limitations of switched-capacitor-based DACs is analyzed in a coarse-fine SAR ADC architecture. When it is shown that compared with the state-of-the-art Vcm-based capacitive DAC (CDAC), the DAS algorithm reduces 55% of the energy and extends the valid bandwidth from 2 MHz to 16 MHz with a 6-bit resolution under the same setting and technology. Besides, a time-to-digital converter (TDC)-assisted pipelined SAR ADC architecture using the DAS algorithm is proposed. Implemented in a 180 nm CMOS process, the 10-bit 10-MS/s prototype measures an energy efficiency of 57.8 fJ/conv.-step.

  20. Union Members Are Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  1. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  2. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states...... or individual donor countries, thus to a large extent determines whether initiatives will actually be implemented and whether institutions will actually be established or remain empty shells....

  3. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent social democratic parties still benefit from the support of union members at the polls. Not only are social democratic parties confronted with new competitors in the party systems, but also the union confederations of the socialist labour movement...... are in some countries losing their dominant position due to the rise of separate professional confederations. It is argued in the article that the effect of union membership on voting choice is conditioned by the structure of the trade union movement. The support of union members for social democracy...... still enjoy important support from trade union members, but at the same time are under fierce competition from bourgeois and green parties among members of white-collar confederations. This reinforces the challenges for social democracy to build new voters’ coalitions in post-industrial societies....

  4. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... them an excellent tool for studying and measuring policy change in the EU. In this article, I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data for the main categories of expenditure and how they have changed over the last three decades (1979–2013). Using time-series analysis, I find that the ability...

  5. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income.

  6. Financial Restructuring and Credit Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Greinke, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The nature of credit unions as mutual financial institutions is examined and the economic implications of mutuality explored. While manager-shareholder agency costs are likely to be exacerbated within credit unions, shareholder-debtholder agency costs are likely to be eliminated. In this context, the implications for credit unions of the Campbell Report, the Financial Institutions scheme, and the Wallis Inquiry are discussed. While the imposition of risk-weighted capital adequacy requirements...

  7. A Union Catalog for ETD's

    OpenAIRE

    Chachra, Vinod

    2003-01-01

    Two years ago the NDLTD steering Committee requested that VTLS Inc. build a union catalog for NDLTD. Such a catalog has now been built and can be accessed at www.vtls.com/NDLTD. This presentation will discuss the nature of the NDLTD Union Catalog for ETDs and why it was important to build such a catalog. The present status of this multilingual union catalog will be discussed followed by a brief demonstration of the system. The presentation will finish with a discussion on how the union ...

  8. Developing services in student union

    OpenAIRE

    Säilä, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was made for the student union of Häme University of Applied Sciences. Student unions have quite bad situations with the funding they receive. Universities of Applied Sciences are making losses, cuts are made to higher education and the funding for the student unions are getting cut as well. It is time for student unions to look for other means to finance their operations. This can be achieved by increasing rate of self-financing. Basically it means getting new members to pay the m...

  9. International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics: Symposium on Adiabatic Waves in liquid-Vapor Systems Held at Goettingen (Germany, F.R.) on 28 August-1 September 1989. Abstracts of the Contributed Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    THE LIQUID- VAPOR CRITICAL POINT" P.A. Thompson, J.E. Shepherd, H.J. Cho, S.Can Gulen (Troy). Non-euilibrium in dinamic systems, critical phenomena...V.E.Nakoryakov Institute of Thermophysice Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences Novosibirsk, 630090, USSR ABSTRACT The structure and dynamics of...obtained. The relation between critical indices of thermophysical substance properties, velocity and structure of internal waves is shown

  10. Schubert unions in Grassman varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    , their number of Fq -rational points. Moreover, we study a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of Fq -rational points for Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and as an application to coding theory, we study...

  11. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions with a ...

  12. International trade and currency unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This short article critically reviews the existing empirical literature on the potential trade benefi ts of currency unions and, more in particular, the EMU. Joining a currency union decreases transaction and information costs associated with international trade. From the existing literature two

  13. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  14. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  15. Union Roles in Workplace Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Stephen Michael

    1993-01-01

    Discusses roles for labor unions in resolving workforce deficiencies, suggesting that labor, management, and government must work together to develop cooperative training initiatives. Describes labor's historic role in basic and workplace literacy training, lists skills workers need in the "new" workplace, describes exemplary union-management…

  16. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  17. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  18. Wave energy in Europe: current status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Alain [Exole Centrale de Nantes, Nantes, (France); McCullen, Pat [ESBI (Ireland); Falcao, Antonio [IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Firoentino, Antonio [Ponte di Archimede nello Streto di Messina, Messina (Italy); Gardner, Fred [Teamwork Technology (Netherlands); Hammarlund, Karin [Hammarlund A., Konsult (Sweden); Lemonis, George [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Attika (Greece); Lewis, Tony [University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2002-10-01

    The progress in wave energy conversion in Europe during the past ten years is reviewed, and current activities and initiatives in the wave energy sector at National and Union level are described. Other important activities worldwide are summarized. The technical and economic status in wave energy conversion is outlined, and important wave energy developments are presented.

  19. Rationalities in trade union work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    as ‘customers’ tend to transform the role of the trade unions from the position of ‘political actors’ to ‘service providers’ in the advanced liberal societies. In closing, the paper will gesture to possible contestations, points of resistance and alternative discourses that are silenced in the strategy...... and exclusion, the territoriality of the unions, political ambitions, etc. By destabilizing the predominant neo-liberal discourses of the trade unions, the paper thus aims to point to alternative discursive resources and practices for strategy development....... papers. Using discourse analytic methods the paper will analyze, discuss and compare the current strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation will clarify the discursive premises of the unions and it will be shown how...

  20. Multinationals and Unionism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riani Rachmawati

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the factors shaping the interaction between multinationals and trade unions in Indonesia, focusing on the recent period of democratization following the downfall of the Suharto regime. It has been suggested that union growth risks undermining Indonesia’s competitive advantages (cheap labour and could encourage the exit of multinationals to cheaper competitors. In order to test this proposition, two case studies were conducted: one in the automotive industry and the other in the banking industry. The paper first provides an overview of multinational activity and FDI in Indonesia, and their interaction with a nascent union movement. This is followed by presenting the findings of interviews conducted at the multinational enterprises with managers and union officials; to provide empirical insights into the bargaining process. The final part of the paper provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of union behaviour on MNC profitability and competitiveness in Indonesia. In contrast to traditional views of unions as impeding MNC profitability and “encouraging” exit, the paper finds that unions and MNCs can engage in constructive partnerships, but that pressures and contradictions in the relationship remain.

  1. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...

  2. Union Organization in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; P Willman

    2007-01-01

    Union membership and density in Britain has experienced substantial decline since 1979. The fall in private sector membership and density has been much greater than in the public sector. The size of the union sector, measured by employer recognition, has shrunk. Membership decline has been accompanied by financial decline. Much of the decline occurred before 1997, under Conservative governments. Since 1997 and the return of a Labour government, the position has in some respects stabilized. Cu...

  3. 76 FR 79531 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD95 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration... credit unions (corporates). The final amendments make technical corrections to and clarify certain...

  4. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to any...

  5. 75 FR 75648 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 704, and 741 RIN 3133-AD74 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union... Board issued a proposed rule amending its corporate credit union rule. 75 FR 73000 (November 29, 2010...

  6. Consulting in Union-Mangement Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the development of unions in libraries, measures the impact of unionism on library administration, examines the sources of assistance in union-management relations available to library administrators, and cnsiders questions pertaining to the role of library consultants in union matters. (FM)

  7. The Impact of Police Unions: Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juris, Hervey A.; Feuille, Peter

    To assess the impact of police unionism on the operation and administration of police departments, in-depth field surveys of active police unions were conducted in the summer and fall of 1971 in 22 cities where police unions were active. In the summary report the development of police unions is discussed, and the sources and dimensions of union…

  8. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  9. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding......What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...... of normative theory; that seeks to work ‘within categories of existing thought' regarding EU external actions, radicalise them and show ‘in varying degrees both their problems and their unrecognised possibilities' (Calhoun 1995: 23)....

  10. Highlights of the Customs Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladimirovich Kharlov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors summarize the main results of two years of the operation of the Customs Union in Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, which is hardly impressive in the aftermath of the global financial crisis and economic instability in Belarus. However, the authors stressed that it is too early to jump to conclusions about the effectiveness of the Customs Union. In addition, the structure of trade, working arrangements and the list of goods are changed. Separately it is analyzed the changing economic situation in Kazakhstan, where the increased influx of Russian investments are after joining the Customs Union fully operational. In different sectors of the domestic economy are active joint Kazakh-Russian companies because Kazakhstan has more attractive business environment, compared to Russia. Russian companies are interested in Kazakhstan and produce this product to sell back to Russia or Belarus. For Kazakhstan benefit is job creation, expansion of production base, increasing tax revenues, new investments.

  11. Social Attitudes, Labor Law, and Union Organizing: Toward A New Economics of Union Density

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written about union wage bargaining. Much less has been written about union density, which has been viewed as simply the employment outcome under the wage bargain. This paper presents a new dynamic model of union density that exhibits multiple equilibria and path-dependency. The model builds upon Freeman (1998) who identified the importance of union spending on organizing and business spending on opposing unions. It emphasizes the demand for union representation which depends on...

  12. Why do people join trade unions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    In this study the reasons for joining a trade union are analyzed statistically using high quality data from Statistics Denmark comprising the entire Danish workforce combined with European Social Survey data from rounds 1-3. These data enables measuring the effect of union density at the workplace...... level on union recruitment, which is not done before. Workplace union density is taken to measure the strength of the workplace’s custom of being union member creating an instrumental incentive to join the union. Self-placement on a political left-right scale measures political attitude taken...

  13. Revitalizing the Malaysian Trade Union Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article takes an historic perspective on contemporary issues of trade union revival in Malaysia, focusing on the challenge of raising union density and analysing the process of organizing employees in the strategically important electronics industry. It concludes that the political support...... trade unions been included in the larger politics of development strategies. Unions must be part of a larger socio-political movement and regime change in order to overcome the restrictive labour laws as well as the anti-union practices of transnational corporations. Yet the majority of the peak union...... a more developed market economy....

  14. Relative Wage Effects of German Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Christoph M

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to the United States or the United Kingdom where union status is generally tied to the job, the typical unionized worker in Germany is a member of an industry union and there is no direct institutional link between union membership and the worker's wage. Using micro data from the period 1978--88, this paper demonstrates the absence of relative union wage effects in the traditional sense. Union membership is an indicator for the labour force attachment of female workers, however. T...

  15. A sociological analysis of labour unions and labour union elites in Developing countries: Turkish labour union elites

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arslan

    2016-01-01

    This study will concern itself with Turkish labour unions and social portrait of contemporary Turkish labour union elites: firstly, brief information on theoretical and historical background of labour (trade) unions is given, then major findings about contemporary Turkish labour union elites are presented. Multiple methodological approaches were used to define the research subject, to outline the research universe. Extensive field researches comprise the major data sources of the study. V...

  16. Manual de uniones atornilladas laterales

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Herrera, Jesús; Hernando García, José Ignacio; Cervera Bravo, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    El manual presenta de manera detallada y extensa los criterios y procedimientos de análisis, de comprobación y de puesta en obra de uniones atornilladas laterales, con inclusión de ejemplos y herramientas informáticas para su mejor comprensión y manejo.

  17. TOWARDS THE CAPITAL MARKET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian PANAIT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the main characteristics of the proposed Capital Markets Union in Europe, as they are introduced by the European Commission and various authors, and emphasises some important advantages and disadvantages of this project for the developing and frontier markets in UE, especially for Romania.

  18. If Your Graduate Students Unionize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Edward T., II

    2001-01-01

    Describes the effects of and universities' response to a recent National Labor Relations Board decision which defined graduate assistants at private institutions as employees, giving them the right to organize, collectively bargain, and strike. Includes a sidebar on the effects of the graduate student union at the University of Iowa. (EV)

  19. Wage Setting in Democratic Labour Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand...

  20. 78 FR 2449 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Notice of Funding Opportunity. SUMMARY: The National Credit...

  1. 75 FR 17083 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Correction AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  2. Saved by the Union: Romanians’ Attitudes toward the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chiciudean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we show that, in the aftermath of the economic crisis, Romanians remain among the most enthusiastic citizens of the European Union, in what concerns trust in the European institutions, projections for the future, the image of the EU and general attitudes toward the union. Relying on data provided by eurobarometers since the Romanian integration, we argue that the reasons for this peculiar position of Romanians within the EU is largely due to how people evaluate the economic and political performance of their own country: from evaluations of the economy to trust in national institutions, Romanians are very pessimistic about how their country handles the present situation and about perspectives for the future. In this context, they turn to the European Union as to a Savior, who represents their hope and promise for a better future, for economic prosperity and security. This is the reason why, more than five years after the beginning of the financial crisis, Romanians are still among the most optimistic citizens of Europe.

  3. The Effectiveness And Efficiency Of Trade Unions In The Labour Market Of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖKE, Assoc Prof.Dr. M.Kemal

    2009-01-01

    Since some decades many things have been changed such as culture, attitude, behaviour, structures in the economy and society naturally these process leads to industrial relations, but nothing has been changed in the field of structure and policy and stragedy of trade unions. As we remember one of challenging vawe has been realised during the Keynesian Age which called Post Fordism. This wave affected labour deeply, because new wave swepeed out blue colour workers at the manifacture sector. Th...

  4. The economic effects of labor unions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedder, R.; Gallaway, L. [Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2002-12-31

    Using a variety of statistical techniques, it is concluded that labor unions have reduced U.S. output by significant amounts - trillions of dollars over time. Additionally, the employment-population ratio and the unemployment rate have been adversely affected by the presence of unions. From the very beginning, unionization materially lowered employment in the auto and steel industries, and union militancy in coal mining has contributed importantly to largely eliminating employment in this once large industry. While some individual workers have profited from unions, the aggregate economic impact is strongly negative.

  5. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...... years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. The aim of this report was to characterize...... the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden...

  6. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms......' returns and the riskiness of corporate ownership. To remunerate this higher volatility and stronger risk, firms' equities have to grant high return. This mechanism is able to offer an explanation of for the "equity puzzle", that is it can explain the difference between equity returns and the risk free...... rate. It is a welcome result that the simulated excess return is about the empirical estimate and this result is obtained with a logarithmic specification of the shareholders preferences....

  7. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor powe...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  8. union publique HR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assur...

  9. Navigating the "New" Marriage Market: How Attitudes toward Partner Characteristics Shape Union Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldscheider, Frances; Kaufman, Gayle; Sassler, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Trends in divorce and nonmarital childbearing suggest that the marriage market is increasingly filled with people who have been married and/or have children. This study examines the effect of personal attitudes on entrance into a union with a partner who has been previously married or has children. Using data from two waves of the National Survey…

  10. Assessment Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (AS-BDD: psychometric properties Escala de Avaliação do Transtorno Dismórfico Corporal (EA-TDC: propriedades psicométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Perez Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the psychometric properties of the second version of the Assessment Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (AS-BDD. It is a scale of self-report, with 40 items, developed to evaluate 3 dimensions of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD: (a excessive concern with a minor or imagined flaw in his/her personal physical characteristics, (b significant clinical suffering and functional damage in important areas of life, and (c such concern is not better explained by another disorder. The construct analysis by judges indicated accordance in 35 items which were answered by 30 patients diagnosed with BDD and 400 university students. The validity of criterion measures indicated ability to discriminate the items among the individuals of both sampled groups. The exploratory factor analysis suggested a unidimensional structure of the scale which allows to measuring "excessive concern with a minor or imagined flaw in his/her personal physical characteristics and the functional damages in different areas of life". The withheld items have shown excellent internal consistency. Cut point definitions and the ability to discriminate other disorders should be further studied.Este estudo analisou as propriedades psicométricas da segunda versão da Escala de Avaliação do Transtorno Dismórfico Corporal - EA-TDC, de auto-relato, 40 itens, desenvolvidos para avaliar três critérios do Transtorno Dismórfico Corporal caracterizado por: preocupação excessiva com um imaginado defeito na aparência; sofrimento clinicamente significativo e prejuízo funcional em campos importantes da vida; a preocupação não é melhor explicada por outro transtorno. A análise de construto por juízes indicou acordo sobre 35 itens. Esses foram respondidos por 30 pacientes diagnosticados com TDC e 400 universitários. A validade de critério indicou capacidade de discriminação dos itens entre os indivíduos dos dois grupos amostrais. A análise fatorial explorat

  11. Extension of NHWAVE to Couple LAMMPS for Modeling Wave Interactions with Arctic Ice Floes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    physical processes governing the attenuation of wave energy in the marginal ice zone (MIZ). 3. Conducting comparative simulations to evaluate MIZ...Discrete element method simulations of wave-ice interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone”, 2014 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union...Orzech, M., Shi, F., Calantoni, J., Bateman, S., and Veeramony, J., “Small-scale modeling of waves and floes in the Marginal Ice Zone”, 2014 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union.

  12. European Union a New Babylon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  13. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address......Inclusiveness of different social groups and responsiveness to the needs of increasingly diverse societies are key criteria for policy analysts to assess the quality of public policies. We argue that an intersectional approach attentive to the interaction of gender with other inequalities...

  14. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  15. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  16. Job satisfaction and employee’s unionization decision: the mediating effect of perceived union instrumentality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, H.; Hu, E.; Zhi, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Given the current lack of literature in the background of China labor force, this study aims to investigate the relationships among job satisfaction, perceived union instrumentality, and unionization from a reference-frame-based perspective and explore the referred relationships in the context of Chinese labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The study introduces perceived union instrumentality as a mediator to the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. The applicability of western theories was tested in the Chinese context by a questionnaire survey on 390 employees who were working in private sectors of Jiangsu Province in China. Four hypothesis were proposed and tested by data analysis to verify the model. Findings: The study found that most aspects of job satisfaction were negatively correlated with unionization and perceived union instrumentality, while perceived union instrumentality had a positive relationship with unionization. Perceived union instrumentality was also found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. Originality/value: The paper adapted and tested a number of western industrial relation theories in the backdrop of China, contributing to the gap in Chinese-context research by examining the relationships between job satisfaction, unionization and union instrumentality of Chinese employees. It pays a regular contribution to labor union studies both inside and outside China. (Author)

  17. Job satisfaction and employee’s unionization decision: The mediating effect of perceived union instrumentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Shan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Given the current lack of literature in the background of China labor force, this study aims to investigate the relationships among job satisfaction, perceived union instrumentality, and unionization from a reference-frame-based perspective and explore the referred relationships in the context of Chinese labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The study introduces perceived union instrumentality as a mediator to the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. The applicability of western theories was tested in the Chinese context by a questionnaire survey on 390 employees who were working in private sectors of Jiangsu Province in China. Four hypothesis were proposed and tested by data analysis to verify the model. Findings and Originality/value: The study found that most aspects of job satisfaction were negatively correlated with unionization and perceived union instrumentality, while perceived union instrumentality had a positive relationship with unionization. Perceived union instrumentality was also found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. Originality/value: The paper adapted and tested a number of western industrial relation theories in the backdrop of China, contributing to the gap in Chinese-context research by examining the relationships between job satisfaction, unionization and union instrumentality of Chinese employees. It pays a regular contribution to labor union studies both inside and outside China.

  18. Dual Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Kallosh, Renata

    1994-01-01

    We study the gravitational waves in the 10-dimensional target space of the superstring theory. Some of these waves have unbroken supersymmetries. They consist of Brinkmann metric and of a 2-form field. Sigma-model duality is applied to such waves. The corresponding solutions we call dual partners of gravitational waves, or dual waves. Some of these dual waves upon Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction to 4 dimensions become equivalent to the conformo-stationary solutions of axion-dilaton gravity...

  19. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, joint...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....

  20. Theory and reform in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Chryssochoou, Dimitris N.; Tsinisizelis, Michael J.; Stavridis, Stelios; Ifantis, Kostas

    2003-01-01

    This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a rich spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing. The book examines constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links ...

  1. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  2. Trade union organization in employment relations

    OpenAIRE

    Čeledová, Jaroslava

    2012-01-01

    Trade unions organizations in employment relations The thesis deals with trade union organization as the most important representative of employees in collective employment relations. The purpose of this thesis is to describe a task of trade union organization as a legal subject from the view of legal theory, as well as from the view of contemporary legal regulation which has recently been substantially changed due to the recodification of private law. These contemporary amendments change a s...

  3. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michele Ford

    2015-01-01

    .... The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings...

  4. Wage and Labor Union in Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pipit Pitriyan; Adiatma Y.M Siregar

    2012-01-01

    The presence of Labor Unions is expected to provide a higher bargaining power for its members so that the rights of workers can be better acknowledged. In Indonesia, presently, the role of unions is more highlighted in the determination of the minimum wage. This study aims to estimate the the role of labor union on wage determination of Indonesia’s labor intensive manufacturing sector and whether wage differentials occurs among labor union member/non-member of Indonesia’s labor intensive manu...

  5. Wave transmission at low-crested structures using neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosten, R.P.; Peixó Marco, J.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Van Gent, M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The European Union funded project DELOS was focused on wave transmission and an extensive database on low-crested rubble mound structures was generated. During DELOS, new empirical wave transmission formulae were derived. These formulae still showed a considerable scatter due to a limited number of

  6. 75 FR 15573 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part III National Credit Union Administration 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 59...

  7. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    “Extreme Ocean Waves”, edited by E. Pelinovsky and C. Kharif, second edition, Springer International Publishing, 2016; ISBN: 978-3-319-21574-7, ISBN (eBook): 978-3-319-21575-4The second edition of “Extreme Ocean Waves” published by Springer is an update of a collection of 12 papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif following the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. In this edition, three new papers have been added and three more have been substantially revised. Color figures are now included, which greatly aids in reading several of the papers, and is especially helpful in visualizing graphs as in the paper on symbolic computation of nonlinear wave resonance (Tobisch et al.). A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, including deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (which are alternatively termed freak waves), and internal waves. One new paper on tsunamis (Viroulet et al.) is now included in the second edition of this volume. Throughout the book, the reader will find a combination of laboratory, theoretical, and statistical/empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the Introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting a dramatic instance of damaging extreme waves that recently occurred in 2014.

  8. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repullo Junior, Rodolpho; Gomes, Jorge da Rocha

    2005-01-02

    Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. Qualitative study. Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Publica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights guarantees and amplifies the improvement of health and working conditions.

  9. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  10. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  11. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  12. Should the 'Outs' Join the Banking Union?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hüttl (Pia); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Single Market stimulates cross-border banking throughout the European Union. This paper documents the banking linkages between the 9 ‘outs’ and 19 ‘ins’ of the Banking Union. We find that some of the major banks, based in Sweden and Denmark, have substantial banking claims across the

  13. Union-Find with Constant Time Deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Thorup, Mikkel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    modification of the classical union-find data structure that supports delete, as well as makeset and union operations, in constant worst-case time, while still supporting find operations in O(log n) worst-case time and O(α_M/N_(n)) amortized time. Our analysis supplies, in particular, a very concise potential...

  14. New roles for the trade unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peer Hull; Rocha, Robson Silva Sø

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on lessons from Denmark and the Nordic area to offer a novel and comprehensive logic of action within the emerging political economy that may be used to assess the possible new roles that unions can take on. The authors argue that unions are capable of “civilizing” globalizati...

  15. Banking Union- Present Stage and its Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking Union is very important for financial stability of EU, for preventing any future crisis, for improving corporate governance in the banking sector, for completing the single market for financial services and for the strengthening of monetary union, for opening the way to fiscal union and to political union. There is not enough theoretical research in the field of banking union, but there are many recent contributions on behalf of foreign and Romanian experts and analysts, which refer mainly to the three components/pillars of EU banking union: a Single Supervision Mechanism (SSM, a Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM and an harmonized system of deposit guarantee schemes. Some micro studies and surveys carried out by prestigious institutions, like Deutsche Bank, Brookings Institution, CEPS have been run over and analyzed together with the positions and opinions of different European officials, and also with the content of EU secondary legislation. An empirical research was made with the aim to identify all essential aspects relating to EU banking union, which may concern the academics, researchers and business community. The paper is based on a previous research study coordinated by author and contains his own conclusions focused on the main arguments in favour of banking union.

  16. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  17. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  18. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, complexity, instability and turbulence that of trade unions needs to be understood in terms of ...

  19. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus that is...

  20. Labor Unions and Political Parties in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorwin, Val R.

    1975-01-01

    The balance of power inside the dominant socialist and Catholic blocs in Belgium, which were once incontestably led by the political elites, has been shifting toward the trade unions. Regionalism has fragmented the political system far more than the industrial relations system; the unions' political influence will continue in importance. (Author)

  1. The Defense of Teachers' Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Luce

    1990-01-01

    The author sees cause for concern in the number of complaints to the International Labour Organisation alleging violations of teachers' union rights. She examines the right of public employees to organize and strike and government interference, concluding that greater protection for teachers' unions may be needed. (SK)

  2. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  3. Why Union Activists Write Good Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Helena H.

    2013-01-01

    The representative structure of a union is a maze which, when travelled as a narrative, has drama at every turn. It sets up expectations, pits good against evil, involves many characters with different interests, keeps the clock ticking, and offers opportunities for happy endings (and disappointments) at every level. Union members who are not…

  4. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  5. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  6. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  7. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the dilemmas facing trade unions seeking to engage on questions of forced labour and human trafficking. The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings. However, trade unions have limited capacity to effect real change in relation to these issues because of limitations on their influence, determined largely by membership density and the limited number of sectors in which they are present, but also internal assessments of what constitutes ‘core business’. As a consequence, while trade unions may advocate for legislative or policy change, partner with non-governmental organisations to deal with particular cases, or even engage directly with vulnerable populations, the integration of those populations into the day to day concerns of trade unions necessarily remains elusive—particularly in the global south, where forced labour is most prevalent.

  8. Vocational Training in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BALCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union requires some standards in all areas. Today, the importance of training qualified individuals which holds an important place in the development of countries increases and certain standards are adopted creating common European Union tools in the field of vocational and technical education. In this study, vocational education and training policies system and the standards adopted by the European Union are discussed. Furthermore, this study was accepted as a European Union project in 2010 and the results obtained from the Leonardo Da Vinci Life Learning European Union project called “Web Based Basic Vocational Training” between the years 2010-2012 were presented. Since the partners of these projects are Turkey, Spain and Germany, the structure of vocational education, institutions of public and private vocational education and the diplomas and certificates entitled after these educations are included. As Turkey is on its way to become a European Union member, a number of advices are presented for Turkey to reach its destination about vocational education standards that European Union has aimed. The purpose of the study is not only to be a guide for the young who want to get professional training in the countries that are European Union members or candidates about how and where to have education opportunities but also to give a chance for trainers and training managers, participating in vocational training, so as to glimpse different practices from different countries and compare these practices between the countries of European Union and their countries. The study is also very important as it has the opportunities for training managers to see if their countries' vocational education is close enough to vocational education in European Union.

  9. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  10. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  11. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  12. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...... that helps drain the reservoir of goodwill that the European Union will need fordealing with other conflicts amongst member states....... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict...

  13. CFC legislation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with ...

  14. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  15. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  16. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies......, concerning a hydraulic evaluation and optimisation of the geometry of the Wave Dragon, is presented. Furthermore, the plans for the future development projects are sketched....

  17. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  18. Electromagnetic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, H.; van den Berg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc.

  19. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...

  20. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  1. Trade Union Cooperation in the EU: Views Among Swedish Trade Unions and Their Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Furåker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares views among Swedish trade unions with those of their members regarding cross-national union cooperation in Europe or the EU. Data are derived from two different surveys, one among trade unions in 2010–2011 and the other among employees in 2006. It turns out that trade unions are generally more affirmative than their members to transnational union cooperation. In the employee survey, differences appear between members of the three peak-level organizations—the LO (manual workers, the TCO (white-collar workers, and Saco (professionals. However, controlling for education, these differences cannot be verified statistically. Higher education—which above all Saco members have—is linked to more positive attitudes toward transnational union cooperation. The gap between the organizations and their affiliates concerning engagement in European issues appears to be larger in the LO than in Saco, with the TCO somewhere in the middle.

  2. 76 FR 10209 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... an infringement on the name of any corporation in its trade area. This responsibility also includes researching any service marks or trademarks used by any other corporation (including credit unions) in its...

  3. Shop stewards' learning and union strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    paid to the learning processes involved in shop stewards' daily practice in their workplaces. In the paper I will discuss results from a research and development project involving shop stewards from four different unions, all part of LO (the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions, an umbrella...... different theoretical traditions: Shop steward's learning is situational, relational and cross-contextual. Shop stewards' learning is lifelong and life wide. And shop stewards' learning is closely connected to the development of the labour market and not least the unions' priorities, interpretation...... and reaction to this development. In the first part of the paper I shortly discuss challenges of unions today following the decline in number of members. In the second part I present results from the research project. Thirdly, I discuss how different theoretical approaches to learning are relevant for studies...

  4. Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge: Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Union...

  5. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  6. Non-union in forearm fractures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayakumar, P; Jupiter, J B

    2014-01-01

    Non-union in forearm fractures is an uncommon but complex problem. This is especially given the unique anatomical structure and function of the forearm, making treatment distinctly different to that of other long bone fractures...

  7. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  8. The virtual union catalog: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Coyle

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A Virtual union catalog is a possible alternative to the centralized database of distributed resources found in many library systems. Such a catalog would not be maintained in a single location but would be created in real time by searching each local campus or affiliate library’s catalog through the Z39.50 protocol. This would eliminate the redundancy of record storage as well as the expense of loading and maintaining access to the central catalog. This article describes a test implementation of a virtual union catalog for the University of California system. It describes some of the differences between the virtual catalog and the existing, centralized union catalog (MELVYL. The research described in the paper suggests enhancements that must be made if the virtual union catalog is to become a reasonable service alternative to the MELVYL® catalog.

  9. The public control of credit unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García Müller

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public control is the activity of investigation or review by the government takes over a company, to verify the conformity of its actions to law. This paper analyzes the control over credit unions.

  10. Bank Decapitalization and Credit Union Capitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Klinedinst

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the theory and empirical findings of excessive compensation on the recent financial implosion across institutional forms in banking. Compensation levels have gone up dramatically over the last 30 years as deregulation and concentration have grown. Some banks and quite a few credit unions avoided closure by prudent portfolio selection and keeping reserves up by maintaining compensation levels closer to the median level. Empirical findings here are based on a unique panel data set on U.S. commercial banks, thrifts, and credit unions from 1994 through 2010 (more than 300,000 observations that provide evidence that the firms with the highest net worth typically are smaller institutions, are credit unions, have smaller insider loans as a percentage of assets, and have lower average pay levels. The favorable results here for credit unions, financial cooperatives, should help guide policy when deciding which type of financial institutions should be encouraged.

  11. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared between the worker and the firm. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I show that under collective wage bargaining, the worker......: the union wage premium fluctuates counter-cyclically, and employment is more cyclical but less persistent when wages are collectively bargained....

  12. Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.

    This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries...... for both the overall performance of the monetary union and the country-specific situation are analysed. It is shown that asymmetries are not only critical for countryspecific performance but also for the overall performance of the monetary union. A striking finding is that aggregate output volatility...... this is not necessarily the case for aggregate shocks. There may thus be a tension between the degree of flexibility considered optimal at the country level and at the aggregate level within the monetary union....

  13. US student assistants win union rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The US National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) has ruled that graduate students in private universities and colleges who work as teaching or research assistants are statutory employees of their institutions who have the right to join unions.

  14. The Negotiated Curriculum in Trade Union Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Mel

    1993-01-01

    Examines how participants in trade union courses can effectively influence their learning experience through discussion, consultation, and negotiation with the instructor while the training activity is in progress. (JOW)

  15. College Education and Attitudes Toward Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muczyk, Jan P.; Gannon, Martin J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that labor unions have not grown in the white-collar sector due to biases projected by professors in classrooms. In the research using 437 undergraduate subjects, support was found for this hypothesis. (EK)

  16. Labor unions: a public health institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Beth; Minkler, Meredith; Stock, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Using a social-ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union-public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners.

  17. Marriage or dissolution? Union transitions among poor cohabiting women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Daniel T; Qian, Zhenchao; Mellott, Leanna M

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the incentives and barriers to marriage among cohabiting women, especially disadvantaged mothers who are targets of welfare reform. We use the newly released cohabitation data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2000), which tracks the partners of cohabiting women across survey waves. Our results support several conclusions. First, cohabiting unions are short-lived--about one-half end within one year, and over 90% end by the fifth year. Unlike most previous research, our results show that most cohabiting unions end by dissolution of the relationship rather than by marriage. Second, transitions to marriage are especially unlikely among poor women; less than one-third marry within five years. Cohabitation among poor women is more likely than that among nonpoor women to be a long-term alternative or substitute for traditional marriage. Third, our multinomial analysis of transitions from cohabitation into marriage or dissolution highlights the salience of economically disadvantaged family backgrounds, cohabitation and fertility histories, women's economic resources, and partner characteristics. These results are interpreted in a policy environment that increasingly views marriage as an economic panacea for low-income women and their children.

  18. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-10

    obliging the Ukrainian Helsinki Union people—can you have forgotten the artistic Ukrainian films "The High Pass," "The White Bird with the Black Mark...34 and a multitude of documentary films debunking nationalism? With respect to V. Kuznetsov (script writer for the films "The Mentality, Honor, and...Helsinki Union conducted its congress over the two-day period prior to the First of May holiday at the House of Cinematography . The Ukrainian Helsinki

  19. Taxation of credit unions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Георгіївна Волкова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of income taxation of credit unions in Ukraine by the tax on profits of enterprises and tax of revenues of their members accrued on the interest of contributions (deposits on deposit accounts and mutual funds the tax to incomes of physical persons. The consequences of the influence of tax rules on capitalization of unions and the level of their financial support is defined

  20. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-01-01

    In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. ...

  1. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Canter

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the ...

  2. 78 FR 4875 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Loan Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... equipment, including branch facilities, ATMs, and electronic banking facilities; and (v) Operational... credit union's marketing strategy to reach members and the community; and include financial projections...

  3. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, Marvin C

    2013-01-01

    This article is the presentation I gave at the D'Arsonval Award Ceremony on June 14, 2011 at the Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It summarizes my research activities in acoustic and electromagnetic millimeter waves over the past 47 years. My earliest research involved acoustic millimeter waves, with a special interest in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and its safety. For the last 21 years my research expanded to include electromagnetic millimeter waves, with a special interest in the mechanisms underlying millimeter wave therapy. Millimeter wave therapy has been widely used in the former Soviet Union with great reported success for many diseases, but is virtually unknown to Western physicians. I and the very capable members of my laboratory were able to demonstrate that the local exposure of skin to low intensity millimeter waves caused the release of endogenous opioids, and the transport of these agents by blood flow to all parts of the body resulted in pain relief and other beneficial effects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  6. Legalization of consensual unions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, N; Pebley, A R

    1981-01-01

    In Latin America, socially sanctioned conjugal unions take 2 forms: legal marriage and consensual unions. While legal marriage is more prestigious, consensual unions offer practical advantages. An examination of the legalization of consensual unions in rural areas in Colombia, Peru, Costa Rica, and Mexico is undertaken using data from the 1969 Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia's (CELADE) comparative survey of fertility. The survey in each country is based on a self weighted sample of 2000-3000 women aged 15-49 living in areas with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. The union histories addressed types of unions, duration, and age and date of onset and of termination. The samples consisted of 881 unions in Colombia, 646 in Costa Rica, 865 in Mexico, and 1009 in Peru. The risk of legalization was measured by life table procedures, using only single decrement values for comparisons among subgroups. Between 32-41% of the unions are consensual in the rural areas of these countries. With the exception of Peru, consensual unions are higher among 2nd and later unions than among 1st unions. As expected from previous studies, they are more prevalent among younger women, those without education and among non-Catholics or non-practicing Catholics. About 30% of the consensual unions become legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and in Peru the rate of conversion is about 50%. Less than 20% in Colombia and Peru remain intact for more than 25 years; about 25% are terminated within the 1st 2 years. The single decrement values suggest that in the absence of separation or death of a partner, almost 50% of the unions would eventually be legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, about 65% in Peru. The probability of conversion is highest among women in their 1st union and in the 1st year. Only 2-8% of the women legalize higher order unions. Of the factors related to the probability of legalization, age is an important differential in Costa Rica, education in Mexico, and

  7. 12 CFR 702.307 - Incentives for new credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives for new credit unions. 702.307 Section 702.307 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Alternative Prompt Corrective Action for New Credit Unions § 702.307 Incentives...

  8. Exploring Novice Teachers' Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Teacher Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Jones, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The distinct needs and interests of novice teachers are not always reflected in the priorities of teacher unions, which may impact novice teachers' attachment to teacher unionism. Using survey data from teachers, we examined novice teachers' involvement in their unions and their desire for union involvement in their work lives compared to their…

  9. The effects of union mergers and internal restructuring:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Larsen, Trine Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Trade union mergers and restructuring are often seen as strategy for union revitalisation and renewal and have been ongoing in the majority of European trade unions. This paper explores how recent union mergers and internal restructuring has affected unions service provision, union democracy...... and interest representation. This is analysed drawing on longitudinal data from two Danish shop steward surveys conducted in 1998 and 2010, comparing shop stewards in merged and non-merged unions respectively. The main results are that although it could be expected that union mergers and internal restructuring......, where union size and less so the union’s recent merger and restructuring history appears to affect shop stewards’ relations with their unions....

  10. Do Unions Matter? An Examination of the Historical and Contemporary Role of Labor Unions in the Social Work Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jessica; Rosenberg, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    The attitudes among social workers toward labor unions are a topic of significance. Historically, social workers have had an ambivalent relationship with unions. This article analyzes the extent to which unions matter to social workers and whether unions represent the interests of professional social workers. The relationship between social work…

  11. History and Status of the CIS Customs Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, T.M.; Erickson, S.A.

    1999-08-31

    This report explores the history of the CIS Customs Union and the major obstacles the Union faces in its implementation. Investigation of the Customs Union is necessary as its implementation could effect the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program. Russian Customs contends that radiation detectors should not be installed along the Customs Union members borders of as the borders will be dissolved when the Union is implemented.

  12. Regional Utilization of the Union Catalog of Medical Periodicals System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Michael D.

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes regional utilization of the Union Catalog of Medical Periodicals system and data base in producing union lists outside Metropolitan New York, the area served by the Union Catalog. A basic introduction to the Medical Library Center of New York's UCMP system is set forth, demonstrating the system's value in the production of such medical and paramedical union lists throughout the country. Several applications are then described, showing how these union lists were produced. PMID:5789816

  13. Trade Union Membership and Earnings in Kenyan Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Manda , Damiano Kulundu; Bigsten, Arne; Mwabu , Germano

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of trade unions on earnings in Kenyan manufacturing using a switching regression model, which takes into account endogeneity of union status of workers. In contrast to earlier studies of the Kenyan labour market, which indicate that the union effect on wages is negative, our results show a strong positive trade union effect. We also show that it is workers with relatively weak position in the labour market that joins the union.

  14. European Union Climate Change Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewiner, C.

    2007-08-15

    In March 2007, the European Union Ministers asked Member States to commit to energy consumption and Greenhouse Gases (GHG), mainly CO2 emissions, reductions of 20%, as well as a portion of 20% of renewable energies in their energy production. The horizon of this 'three times 20% objective' is 2020. The underlying assumption is of course an improved security of energy (and electricity) supplies as well as a growing European economy with sustained tertiary and industrial employment. These objectives were articulated to respond to the present Climate Change issues by avoiding an increase of our Planet's temperature beyond 2 to 3 degrees. In the US, the current government has recognized that CO2 is an issue and has begun to take action, issuing a number of executive orders to reduce emissions. This follows a ruling by the US Supreme Court on CO2. It may be that what is happening in Europe will be a model that the US will follow. These different objectives are interlinked and each European country is in a different situation. Moreover, 2020 is a relatively short time horizon compared to the lead time for construction of large plants such as nuclear plants. It is also a short time frame for the industrialization, at reasonable costs, of carbon sequestration equipment, for the renovation of a significant portion of the existing buildings and houses, and for the switch of the present car fleet to electrical cars. More than 20% of the cars bought in 2007 will still be on the road in 2020. More than 80% of the refrigerators bought in 2007 will still be in operation in 2020, and less than 1/3 of the industrial and utility infrastructures in place today will be renewed by 2020. It is even shorter at the Research and Development time scale to find and industrialize new energy savings devices or low energy consumption and low carbon emitting equipment. One important question is also the net cost linked to these objectives that has not been evaluated today. The

  15. 75 FR 81378 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... NCUA's neutrality in the final rule and has made this change. A commenter also suggested including this..., where the net worth ratio of the merging credit union exceeds the net worth ratio of the continuing... are entitled to the net worth of a merging credit union. The NCUA Board disagrees. As discussed in the...

  16. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF FOREIGN TRADE UNIONS TO AMERICAN TRADE UNIONS SUSTEM EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Александрович Шиленко

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade union as a social institution in charge of monitoring the social and labor rights was first formed in the west, and later became the basis for the organization of a similar structure in pre-revolutionary Russia. This organizational structure, having undergone a transformation during the first half of the XX century, was formed in the Soviet trade unions. However, there has been a tendency to reduce the popularity of the trade unions in the countries in which originated the concept of trade unions. Therefore there are some reasons, both economic and political. To analyze this issue, consider examples of typical cases of foreign trade unions. These cases can be seen in the media, as well as in the analysis of studies on the characteristics of modern trade unions, both in our country and abroad. As a results-based on facts and stereotypes to define the place of trade unions in the modern economic system and a comparative analysis of the structure of our country and the United States ' Trade Union.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-99

  17. The influence of criminal offending on union formation and union dissolution for disadvantaged individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoutewelle-Terovan, M.; van der Geest, V.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Bijleveld, C.

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 males and females from The Netherlands, we study the effect of criminal offending on union formation and union dissolution. Criminal and relational careers of high-risk respondents are analyzed using a long observation period (age 12 to age 36). Findings for men support the

  18. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  19. Janus Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Papazoglou, Dimitris G.; Fedorov, Vladimir Yu.; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a family of waves that share a common interesting property affecting the way they propagate and focus. These waves are a superposition of twin waves, which are conjugate to each other under inversion of the propagation direction. In analogy to holography, these twin "real" and "virtual" waves are related respectively to the converging and the diverging part of the beam and can be clearly visualized in real space at two distinct foci under the action of a focusing lens...

  20. Geoscience international: the role of scientific unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik

    2016-11-01

    International geoscientific unions (geounions) have been coordinating and promoting international efforts in Earth and space sciences since the beginning of the 20th century. Thousands of scientists from many nations and specific scientific disciplines have developed ways of cooperation through international unions and learned how to work together to promote basic geosciences. The unions have been initiating, developing, and implementing international cooperative programmes, setting scientific standards, developing research tools, educating and building capacity, and contributing to science for policy. This paper analyses the role of geounions in and their added value to the promotion of geoscience internationally in the arena of the existing and emerging professional societies of geoscientists. The history of the geounions and the development of international cooperation in geosciences are reviewed in the paper in the context of scientific and political changes over the last century. History is considered here to be a key element in understanding and shaping the future of geounions. Scientific and organisational aspects of their activities, including cooperation with international and intergovernmental institutions, are analysed using the example of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). The geounions' activities are compared to those of professional societies. Future development of scientific unions and their role in the changing global landscape of geosciences are discussed.

  1. The new architecture of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  2. Non-Union Current Treatment Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Moghaddam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: This article wants to give a current concept for the challenging decision for conservative or operative treatment strategies of non-unions according to the principles of ‘diamond concept’ and aspects that have to be attended. Evidence Acquisition: Between February 2010 and March 2014, 424 patients with non-unions were treated at Heidelberg university hospital. This database has been analyzed at least one year after the treatment. The analysis and the experience in surgery and treatment of non-unions as well as present literature were prepared for this review as a current concept. Results: If an atrophic non-union is suggested, reosteosynthesis and biological stimulation is required. A revision surgery of autologous transplantation of cancellous bone from the iliac crest is often enough. Alternatively, reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA can be taken out of the femur with lower complications and pain in the extraction area and be combined with growth factors like bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, if consolidation after cancellous bone is still absent. In complex cases, consequential and radical removal of the infection often improved circulation through interventional angiography and use of the two-step procedure (the Masquelet technique as well as a tissue covering are required. Conclusions: By using the ‘diamond concept’ as a complex concept, non-unions can be treated in different stages in a targeted manner.

  3. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  4. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  5. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Canter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the need for an integrated policy framework to ensure the security for potential investors and a coordinated approach between Member States. This paper will present recent developments for the most important policies to combat and mitigate climate change in the European Union, starting with "20-20-20" objectives, which are to be met through the package "Energy-Climate Change", continuing with 2030 and 2050 timeframes, and finally presenting the main lines of action to combat climate change.

  6. Strong trade unions meet EEC workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Hansen, Jens Arnholtz

    2008-01-01

    Although Denmark has not experienced an increase in the number of migrant workers from Eastern Europe to same degree as the UK or Ireland, Danish unions in the construction sector are concerned that the collective bargaining system could be undermined by the presence of Eastern European Country...... (EEC) workers. The argument is that migrant and, in particular, posted workers' conditions of employment often are characterised by evasions of collective agreements, whether in the form of underpayment or other violations of terms and conditions specified in the agreements. However, the trade union...... with distrust on behalf of the migrants. Or should they focus first and foremost on the workplace and aim to organise the EEC workers? Or might they be able to do both? In this article we describe problems and challenges trade unions have faced due to the presence of EEC workers in the Danish construction...

  7. Labor Unions and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Milkman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of the Great Recession on the U.S. labor movement. After reviewing the classic industrial relations literature on the relationship between unionization rates and business cycles, we analyze historical union density trends. After documenting the relentless downward trend in the private sector from the early 1980s, with no apparent relationship to the business cycle, we analyze the negative impact of the political dynamic that unfolded in the wake of the Great Recession on public-sector unionism in sharp contrast to what took place during the Great Depression. We also explore the new forms of labor organizing that have emerged in the private sector, which have capitalized on the growing public concern about rising inequality sparked by Occupy Wall Street.

  8. Rossby Waves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut quiz Tutorial Quiz Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial reviews the mechanisms of Rossby waves. Rossby waves in both the northern and southern hemispheres are considered. The interactions involve answering simple fill-in-the-blank questions. Diagrams are used to illustrate some of the concepts reviewed. MR4322 Dynamic Meteorology

  9. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  10. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  11. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  12. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  13. Standard Of Living In The European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Wawrzyniak Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The European Union countries are diversified in terms of the standard of living of the population. The reduction of disparities in the standard of living, along with the elimination of the negative phenomena related to social exclusion form an EU policy priority. In this context, the aim of this article is to compare the standard of living in the various European Union countries and to determine Poland’s position in the ranking. In the study, countries with a similar standard of living of the...

  14. From Single Market to Economic Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb.......Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb....

  15. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  16. EURASIAN CUSTOMS UNION – ANALYSES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa-Nicoleta PINCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Globalization the process of integration is speeded and taken to a different level. After the EU model, we are facing now with different entities trying to copy this model and adjusting it to their needs. Such a project is the Eurasian Customs Union, a project which has only recently come into being. The present paper will analyze the driven forces behind this and its capacity to fully function as a customs union before the year 2020- the time limit set by the Russian President Vladimir Putin.

  17. Men’s Fertility in Second Unions in Three European Countries: The Effect of Parenthood Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murinkó, Lívia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we investigate how fatherhood influences childbirth in the second union of men in three European countries. We use data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey for France (2005, Norway (2007/8 and Hungary (2004/5 and we apply piecewise exponential event history models. The analysis complements earlier literature by focusing on men, taking a comparative perspective, looking at change over time, considering both cohabiting and marital unions, and also differentiating between the effects of non-residential and (part- or full-time residential fatherhood. Findings show that the probability of childbearing in the second union is the lowest if both partners already have child(ren and highest if neither of them are parents. However we found different results if only one of the partners has pre-union children in the three countries. Findings are discussed in view of demographic trends, family and gender role attitudes, and relevant family policies.

  18. Current Options for Determining Fracture Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saam Morshed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining whether a bone fracture is healed is one of the most important and fundamental clinical determinations made in orthopaedics. However, there are currently no standardized methods of assessing fracture union, which in turn has created significant disagreement among orthopaedic surgeons in both clinical and research settings. An extensive amount of research has been dedicated to finding novel and reliable ways of determining healing with some promising results. Recent advancements in imaging techniques and introduction of new radiographic scores have helped decrease the amount of disagreement on this topic among physicians. The knowledge gained from biomechanical studies of bone healing has helped us refine our tools and create more efficient and practical research instruments. Additionally, a deeper understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the bone healing process has led to emergence of serologic markers as possible candidates in assessment of fracture union. In addition to our current physician centered methods, patient-centered approaches assessing quality of life and function are gaining popularity in assessment of fracture union. Despite these advances, assessment of union remains an imperfect practice in the clinical setting. Therefore, clinicians need to draw on multiple modalities that directly and indirectly measure or correlate with bone healing when counseling patients.

  19. The geography of civil unions in Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulmont, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, Vermont established "civil unions" meant for same-sex couples. This form of marriage relies on the existence of a local gay and lesbian community, while contributing to the development of "gay and lesbian tourism" and pushing certain churches to revisit their treatment of same-sex couples. Gay and lesbian rights and rural communities are not mutually exclusive.

  20. Legal Liability: When Is the Union Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margaret J.

    1986-01-01

    Issues concerning legal liability for college student unions are examined, and guidelines are presented to reduce the risk of liability claims exposure for both the individual and the institution. General information is provided on: tort liability, civil rights liability, criminal liability, and contractual liability. In determining the potential…

  1. Union Contracts and Teacher Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V. Bredeson

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I report the results of an investigation that examined the impact of teacher union contracts on the development of professional learning communities in schools. There are three primary sources of data used in the study: 1 100 written teacher union contract documents; 2 structured interview data from 21 educators (school superintendents, principals, directors of staff development, and teacher union representatives; and 3 focus group interview data from educational leaders in schools. The analysis and discussion focus on five areas related to teacher professional development with implications for policy and practice: explicit language covering opportunities for teaching learning in their work; governance and decision making structures, that is, specific provisions covering wages, hours, and conditions of employment; the description of legitimate and sponsored activities for the professional development of teachers; and the resources supporting the on-going professional growth of teachers. The findings indicate that rethinking, restructuring, and organizational re-culturing in schools are initial expressions of a new unionism that has the potential to lead to the development of more powerful professional learning communities in schools.

  2. Manual de uniones atornilladas frontales pretensadas

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Herrera, Jesús; Hernando García, José Ignacio; Cervera Bravo, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    El manual presenta de manera detallada y extensa los criterios y procedimientos de análisis, de comprobación y de puesta en obra de uniones atornilladas frontales pretensadas, con inclusión de ejemplos y herramientas informáticas para su mejor comprensión y manejo.

  3. Consumer Sales guarantees in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiewiorowska, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    The thesis pursues three main aims. The first aim is to present the current legislative situation in the European Union and the process that led to accepting the assumptions concerning guarantees that laid foundations for the rules on the guarantee contained in the Consumer Sales Directive. The

  4. The European Union: Stability Despite Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolle Michael

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has remained stable despite all its past and current challenges. This essay explores the reasons for that. We argue that the secret behind its stability lies in its system of negotiation. Against this backdrop, we analyse two recent challenges of the European Union. First, we show how domestically bound European governments were able to bring about a stable internationally negotiated solution for what became known as euro crisis. By means of game theory we boil down why the European Union remained stable even after havoc struck. Second, we analyze the dynamics behind the failed negotiations with Ukraine that have led to the current conflict. Thereby, the role of vested interest in negotiations for stability is emphasized. We prognosticate that due to the very same vested interests that led to the failure of the negotiations, Ukraine will remain united and return to stability in the mid-term. Finally, we conclude that, despite challenges like these, the European Union never experienced a crisis in terms of system theory since it never fell short to fulfil its purpose which is to allow for peaceful cooperative solutions.

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-31

    Collar Trade Unions is a legal person, manned only from Kazakhs , whose territory contains and it possesses its own seal and bank accounts. most of them...defense shops is being defense complex together with their functions. carried on in a kind of semi- handicraft fashion. Talk is cheap, but our opponents do

  6. Trade Unionism, Collective Bargaining and Nation Building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    It is a well known fact that the growth and development of any .... which in addition to promoting the economic well being of the ..... Thus a good working condition and welfare package can influence the level of productivity in any country's economy. It is the collective effort of the members of these trade unions and the ...

  7. Framing Gender Intersections in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which the emergence of an antidiscrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...

  8. Sustainability Begets Unsustainability?: The European Union's Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandatory target for the European Union (EU) for the use of renewable energy in transport by the year 2020 has created a situation where the African continent has witnessed a number of European agricultural firms gaining access to large tracts of land in order to grow crops for the production of agrofuels. This article ...

  9. The European Union: a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Fransen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed policies and instruments that address – both directly and indirectly – sexual violence in conflict and beyond. Policy areas that are important in this respect include human rights, gender equality, development cooperation, humanitarian aid and conflict prevention.

  10. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy.

  11. The Economic and Monetary Union's Institutional Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2002-01-01

    The chapters emphasise is on the EMU's institutions. The chapter contains i.a. a short review of the contents, objectives, developments from 1990-2002 of the EMU, the ESCB (structure & tasks) as well as interaction with other institutions incuding the Council of Ministers. An underlying issue is ...... is the coordination of the Union's economic and monetary policies....

  12. Union Oil Center - Los Angeles (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira y Luckman, Arquitectos

    1959-05-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo acento vertical, en la más horizontal de las ciudades del mundo —Los Angeles—, se ha acabado recientemente: el "Union Oil Center", conjunto arquitectónico que expresa un estilo lleno de utilidad, fuerza y belleza.

  13. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  14. HUELGA, A MILESTONE IN FARM UNIONISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COHEN, IRVING J.

    EARLY ATTEMPTS DURING THE 20TH CENTURY TO ORGANIZE FARM WORKERS, TO GAIN WAGE INCREASES, AND TO SECURE EMPLOYER RECOGNITION OF A UNION AS THE WORKERS' AGENT FOR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING FAILED. AN ESTIMATED 380 AGRICULTURAL STRIKES INVOLVED OVER 200,000 WORKERS IN 33 STATES BETWEEN 1930 AND 1948. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT, ENACTED AS A RESULT…

  15. 78 FR 72537 - Credit Union Service Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... disadvantage to their non-CUSO competitors. Commenters also expressed concern that certain requirements under... technology (IT), and custody, safekeeping, and investment management services for credit unions. C. What are... 4--A student lending CUSO sold participations of purchased student loans to six FICUs. Related loan...

  16. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-27

    royal jelly, bee glue, and especially bee venom . The union is taking measures to organize the wide production of these products, and to create centers...centers in the republic; there is an agreement that they will help us as well. Apiary products are useful to the radiation victims: honey , pollen

  17. Retrenchment Clauses in Faculty Union Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Examination of retrenchment clauses in the faculty union contracts at 42 colleges and universities focused on implications for tenure rights and the roles prescribed for faculty and administrators. Concepts of financial exigency and shared governance are highlighted. Contracts were found to provide faculty with a limited and reactive role during…

  18. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  19. The Organizational Impact of University Labor Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    The current review presents both postulated and empirically tested consequences of university unionization and labor strikes on the North American institution's administration, faculty, and students. The review explores the impact of collective bargaining on employee working conditions including job security, academic freedom, university…

  20. The Educational Role of Soviet Trade Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach

    1983-01-01

    How to increase the productivity of the labor force is of extreme importance in Russia today because of the declining birthrate. What trade unions are doing to educate their currently employed workers and youth is the focus of the articles in this issue. (RM)

  1. Special Issue: Women's Participation in Trade Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Shirley; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This special issue explores women's participation in trade unions through the following topics: empowerment; strategies to increase women's participation; the effect of women on the world of work; the need for self-analysis, gender sensitization, educational programs, and mentors; and regional reports from Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin…

  2. A comparative approach to European Union citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.N.J. Goudappel (Flora)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAfter a short description of the theoretical and philosophical background of the notions of citizenship and nationality, the contents of European Union citizenship will be described. This notion of European Citizenship will then be compared to the notions of citizenship and nationality

  3. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  4. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  5. Slaves, Contrabands, and Freedmen: Union Policy in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    This study examines Union slave policy in the Civil War. Prior to the initiation of hostilities, President Abraham Lincoln stated that the conflict between the states was over the preservation of the Union, and not over...

  6. Unions, the rule of law, and political rent seeking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thieblot, Armand

    2010-01-01

    .... The first section of this article covers the relationship between unions, the rule of law, and economic rents from the origin of the union movement through the changing patterns of the three phases...

  7. Wage determination in the union and nonunion sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, F E; Kuskin, M S

    1978-01-01

    This study contains estimates of wage equations for white male union and nonunion employees. The authors find that nonunion wages are generally more responsive than union wages to individuals' education and experience and to regional price-level variation. Despite those differences, however, estimates of union-nonunion wage differentials based on these separate equations do not differ greatly from a differential obtained from a union dummy variable in an equation based on combined union and nonunion observations. Union-nonunion differentials vary widely across occupational groups and are generally larger in the lower skilled and more highly unionized occupations. The results for manufacturing, for which additional industry data are available, indicate a negative impact of high concentration ratios on the wages of all workers and a greater impact of establishment size on nonunion than on union wages. Data were drawn from the May 1973 Current Population Survey.

  8. 75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... foreclosed real estate in federally insured credit unions remains elevated. The credit union CAMEL ratings... to present a challenge for the financial services sector. Housing remains a risk as foreclosures...

  9. Applications of Soft Union Sets in the Ring Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Yang

    2013-01-01

    through discussing quotient soft subsets, an approach for constructing quotient soft union rings is made. Finally, isomorphism theorems of λ,μ-soft union rings related to invariant soft sets are discussed.

  10. 32 CFR 231.7 - Procedures-domestic credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intrastation telephone service, credit unions shall be required to pay for all communication services to include telephone lines, long distance data services and Internet connections. Credit unions also shall...

  11. Early Revision Surgery for Tibial Plateau Non-union and Mal-union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nielen, Dominic L; Smith, Christopher S; Helfet, David L; Kloen, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Although relatively rare, non-unions and mal-unions of tibial plateau fractures present significant challenges for the orthopedic surgeon. With careful pre-operative planning, tibial plateau mal-union or non-union revision surgery with intra-articular and varus opening osteotomies can provides good functional results when performed early (within 1 year) after primary surgical procedure. We present our treatment algorithm for approaching and treating non-union or mal-union of tibial plateau fractures. Our aim is to give surgeons treating these difficult injuries an overview of the pertinent literature as well as describe the challenges and pitfalls we have experienced when treating non-union or mal-union of tibial plateau fractures. Using two case examples from our institution, one for mal-union and one for mal-reduction, we describe our treatment algorithm and surgical technique for managing these difficult injuries. We also provide a brief literature review outlining relevant studies and summarizing outcomes for similar injuries. A systematic literature review was conducted with the aim of determining the methods and outcomes commonly reported in the literature regarding revision surgery following tibial plateau non-union or mal-union. Due to the nature of revision surgery, there are no long-term randomized trials dealing with outcomes, but rather several smaller case series exist from which larger conclusions have to be drawn. To date, we have successfully treated approximately 35 patients with this technique, and clinical follow-up continues to show good functional outcomes with reduced pain and little radiographic evidence of arthritic changes. Restoring long leg alignment, anatomic reduction of the articular surface, and achieving stable internal fixation are paramount in achieving the best long-term outcome. Due to the shallow soft tissue envelope around the proximal tibia, and the tendency for these fractures to fall into progressive valgus collapse, these

  12. Consolidation Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Ward; Smit, Han

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explains why consolidation acquisitions occur in waves and it predicts the differing role each firm is likely to play in the consolidation game. We propose that whether a firm assumes the role of rival consolidator, target, or passive observer depends on the position of the firm relative to the entity that merges first. Our model predicts that an initial acquisition triggers a wave of follow-on acquisitions, where the process of asset accumulation by the consolidator is...

  13. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  14. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  15. German and British Trade Unions: Problems and opportunities after enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Zahn, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements in 2004 and 2007, enlargements that are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In particular, the paper undertakes a contextualized comparison of trade union behaviour in responding to the changing regulatory and opportunity structures which present themselves following the enlargements. Account is taken of the role that trade unions adopt wit...

  16. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  17. Union Jack and checkerboard lattices with easy plane single ion anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. S. T.

    2017-11-01

    The zero-temperature phase diagrams of the antiferromagnetic Union Jack and checkerboard lattices, with spin one and an easy-plane single anisotropy term, are studied using the SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism (also known as flavor wave theory). We find that the Union Jack lattice has a quantum phase transition (QPT) at J2/J1 = 0.707 between a Néel and a collinear phase, while the checkerboard lattice has a QPT at J2/J1 = 0.785, from the Néel to a magnetically disordered phase. The ground state phase diagrams of the two models are different, both from each other and from that of the square lattice antiferromagnet with all the next nearest neighbors. For the checkerboard lattice, we calculate the spin gap and the ground state energy in the disordered phase. This phase is a candidate for a spin liquid state.

  18. BUILDING A BANKING UNION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – A SOLUTION TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica (ŞAGUNA FIGHIROAE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for a deeper integration of the banking system, as a warranty to support long-term financial stability. It was argued that the grounds of the crisis lie also in an uncoordinated national response to the failure of banks, in a fragmentation of the Single Market in lending and funding and, therefore, a better regulation and supervision of the financial sector can ensure financial stability and growth in the European Union. In order to restore the proper functioning of the internal market and to avoid future crisis, the European Commission launched a set of initiatives, in order to assure a safer and sounder financial sector for the single market; are included here: stronger prudential requirements for banks, improved depositor protection and rules for managing failing banks and a single rulebook for all the 28 Member States of the European Union. The single rule book is the step towards the Banking Union sits. The banking union consists of three pillars: a Single Supervisory Mechanism, a Single Resolution Mechanism and a joint deposit-insurance scheme. As on 4 November 2014 the European Central Bank assumed responsibility for euro area banking supervision, the Banking Union is still under construction. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyse the process of building a Banking Union in Europe. Therefore, the objectives of my paper are to explore the steps to fulfilling a real integration of the European banking system, as a solution to the financial crisis.

  19. 75 FR 80678 - Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 708a and 708b RIN 3133-AD84; 3133-AD85 Conversions of Insured Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Interim final rule with request for comments. SUMMARY...

  20. 76 FR 13504 - Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 708a and 708b RIN 3133-AD84; 3133-AD85 Conversions of Insured Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NCUA is confirming as final a...

  1. 78 FR 77608 - Requirements for Contacts with Federal Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE34 Requirements for Contacts with Federal Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The NCUA Board (Board...

  2. Union Membership and Political Participation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrissey, Jasmine; Schofer, Evan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effect of union membership on civic and political participation in the late 20th century in the United States. We discuss why and how unions seek to mobilize their members and where mobilization is channeled. We argue that union membership affects electoral and collective action outcomes and will be larger for low…

  3. Prospector: A Multivendor, Multitype, and Multistate Western Union Catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Bush

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Prospector project represents a unique union catalog. The origin, goals, and design of the union catalog that uses the INN-Reach system are presented. Challenges of the union catalog include the integration of records from libraries that do not use the Innovative Interfaces system and the development of best practices for participating libraries.

  4. The African Union Peace and Security Council's engagement in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Union has adopted a stance that can be defined as 'interventionist' as far as peace and security issues in Africa are .... the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU). The ASF will be comprised of five brigades, ... Article 4(h) of the AU Constitutive Act affirms the right of the Union to intervene in a member state with respect to crisis ...

  5. On the Relation of Monetary and Political Union

    OpenAIRE

    Issing, Otmar

    2016-01-01

    When EMU took effect in 1999, no progress in the direction of political union had been achieved — indeed, it had not even been attempted. Therefore, from the beginning the euro was confronted with a kind of sword of Damocles: can monetary union survive without political union?

  6. The Labour Relations Act, majoritarianism and union structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which have been established via mergers between large unions, rather than the more usual process of a merger between a large union and one or more smaller unions. But the underlying ..... is not defined in the LRA, but in the case of disputes about the acquisition of organisational rights, the directives provided to the ...

  7. 29 CFR 452.77 - Permissible use of union funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subordinate union may be contributed to a committee formed to challenge the results of a national union... their pre-election status; it does not place any candidate into office.” 39 39 Retail Clerks Union, Local 648 v. Retail Clerks International Association, 299 F.Supp. 1012, 1024 (D.D.C. 1969). ...

  8. The Impact of Teacher Unions on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The overall impact of unions and collective bargaining agreements on student achievement has produced a literature with decidedly mixed results. Unions are seen to have both positive and negative influences on a teachers' ability to perform the teaching act. This study researches the impact of unions on state level student achievement, controlling…

  9. Learning, Labour and Union Learning Representatives: Promoting Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The initiative by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and affiliated trade unions in the UK to appoint trade union learning representatives (ULRs), to promote learning among their members, is a significant development in adult learning. Understandably, the initiative has attracted the attention of academic researchers, but primarily from the…

  10. The Structure of Firm-Specific Labour Unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Upmann (Thorsten); J. Müller (Julia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate trade union formation. To this end we apply a model with two types of labour where both groups decide on whether they prefer to be represented by either two independent craft-specific (professional) labour unions or by a joint (encompassing) labour union.

  11. New "Right to Work" Laws Could Hobble Faculty Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Faculty unions outside Michigan have reason to be concerned with its passage of legislation barring unions from collecting fees from workers who do not join them. But the experiences of faculty unions in states that adopted such laws years ago suggest that while the measures can be a major hindrance to their work, they are not a death blow.…

  12. What Can Trade Unions Do To Combat Child Labour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrstad, Geir

    1999-01-01

    Examines mainly practical activities of trade unions to fight child labor. Argues that trade unions can give the most significant contribution to the struggle against child labor by focusing on methods that are typical for, or even exclusive to, the trade union movement, in particular negotiations and collective bargaining. (Author)

  13. Union Type and Depressive Symptoms among Mexican Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative…

  14. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  15. Employees Who Refuse to Pay Union Dues: First and Fourteenth Amendment Issues in Nonassociation Union Security Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews court decisions relevant to the conflict between union contract provisions requiring financial contributions from employees who choose not to be union members and the constitutional rights of employees whose religious beliefs prevent them from joining or financially supporting a union. (JG)

  16. Local labor unions' positions on worksite tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, G; Stoddard, A M; Youngstrom, R; Emmons, K; Barbeau, E; Khorasanizadeh, F; Levenstein, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report describes local unions' positions on tobacco control initiatives and factors related to these positions. METHODS: A national random sample of local union leaders was surveyed by telephone. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of local unions supported worksite smoking bans or restrictions, and only 8% opposed both a ban and a restriction. CONCLUSIONS: Support for tobacco control initiatives among local unions was higher than might be expected on the basis of previous evidence. Engaging unions in smoking policy formation is likely to contribute to the larger public health goal of reducing smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke among workers. PMID:10754979

  17. Turkish Students’ Metaphors about the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Ocak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to examine and compare the metaphors of Primary School Secondary Level Students related to the European Union. A total of 399 Primary School Secondary Level students were involved in this study. In the form given to students for data collection, the students were asked to express their opinions about European Union. According to the data gathered, the metaphors of the participants were categorized into 8 groups. According to the analysis and the results of the study, the students tried to explain the EU with positive concepts such as development of future, democracy, freedom, success. However, they also produced negative metaphors like dead end, abyss, colonist, difficulty, utilitarian, blankness. This study used a phenomenological design. The data was collected through a semi-structured Interview Form. The data were analysed with content analysis.

  18. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  20. The making of a European healthcare union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2016-01-01

    that federalism offers the most fruitful way to do so because of its sensitivity to the EU’s institutional settings and to the territorial dimension of politics. The division of competences and national diversity of healthcare systems have been major obstacles for the formation of a healthcare union. However......, the EU obtained a role in healthcare through the impact of non-healthcare legislation, voluntary co-operation, court rulings, governments’ joint-decision traps, and fiscal stress of member states. The emerging European healthcare union is a system of cooperative federalism without much cost......-sharing. The healthcare union’s robustness is limited, also because it does not generate much loyalty towards the EU....

  1. Political Budget Cycles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides research on the theme of the political budget cycles. The goal is to find out whether or not the government tries to manipulate the state budget and its components for the purpose of re-election across the countries of the European Union. In order to verify this theory a dynamic panel data model was used. The results were significant, but only if predetermined elections were not counted into the estimations. In that case, the theory of the political budget cycles could be accepted as valid for the EU countries. The main driving force of the political budget cycles across the countries of the European Union is fluctuation of the government expenditures. During the election year, the government expenditures are higher, and a year after the election, government expenditures are lower. This is reflected into the state budget balance.

  2. [European Union funds and clinical toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiszniewiecka, Monika; Cejrowski, Daniel; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Since 2014 we are heading the third programming period of help from European Union (EU). The new budget will run until 2020. From common resources of EU, 106 billion euro will reach Poland, of which about 82.3 billion to cohesion policy, levelling differences of regional development. Clinical toxicology centres will be able to apply for funding under the allocation for the health service. Polish health service very actively benefited from EU funds in previous programming periods, between 2004-2006, and 2007-2013. Thanks to grants from the EU, a large number of health centres were built or renovated. Unfortunately the needs of hospitals, which were underinvested for many years, exceeded available funds according to UE programmes. Except investment projects, also projects training of health professionals were executed. In the current programming period European Union will still support projects aimed at health service. Clinical toxicology centres should have a try of using this period to fulfil their plans.

  3. Intersections and Unions of Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşku Acay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior work has extended the deep, logical connection between the linear sequent calculus and session-typed message-passing concurrent computation with equi-recursive types and a natural notion of subtyping. In this paper, we extend this further by intersection and union types in order to express multiple behavioral properties of processes in a single type. We prove session fidelity and absence of deadlock and illustrate the expressive power of our system with some simple examples. We observe that we can represent internal and external choice by intersection and union, respectively, which was previously suggested by Padovani for a different language of session types motivated by operational rather than logical concerns.

  4. FACTORING PERSPECTIVE: CROATIA VS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  5. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified ...

  6. Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Kaux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.

  7. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-15

    into place after the official publica - tion of the Birlik program: I think that people with nationalistic tendencies will be disappointed in us...8217 Union? Russian readers are not the only ones surprised by the consistently antiRussian politica of the journal. After all, it was OKTYABR that...55 on the board. What is the evidence against the journal? In the first place, publica - tion of a story by V. Grossman "Everything Passes;" in the

  9. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. Nevertheless, we can say that the Stability and Growth Pact which aimed towards the coordination of national fiscal policies for ensuring the stability and prudence of the budgetary climate, has failed. This failure was primarily due to the lack of specific sanctions for those members that have not fought against the fiscal imbalances and secondly to the stopping the steps forward towards a common fiscal policy. Thus, we can say that the European Monetary Union is driven now by the wrong rule of “no taxation with representation”. For these reasons, this paper aims at showing that the European fiscal federalism is still far away from becoming reality and that the new instruments chosen for the new stability of the European Monetary Union will be the task of the Member States themselves. This paper will also review the main rules that are projected to be the source for the future European financial stability and growth: the balanced budgets and the deficits built only on the “Golden Rule” premises, for which other amendments on European Treaties are expected.

  10. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  11. European Union Financial Crisis: a Marxist Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Farneubun, Petrus K.

    2016-01-01

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national government and economic policies. Responding to the crisis, numerous attemps have been proposed to accelerate the recovery, but the crisis still hit Eurozone and brought serious consequences politically and...

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-27

    artificially on captured territory in the Ukraine and Byelorussia, had become outdated. Throughout its history believers saw this unnatural union as...we had encountered a kind of mythological octopus with its single center, which for a long time had carefully prepared to overthrow the Soviet...supporting the revival of its glorious traditions and the preservation of its residents’ habitat , the sooner long-awaited changes for the better will

  13. JPRS Report Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-16

    enterprise activity and the assurance of a degree course of economic reform was sounded both at the of social protection for all members of society ...of the activity of the All-Union Economic Society . the commission. The Academy of the National Economy of the USSR [Aleksandrov] What are the means of...TRADE 16 October 1989 FOOD PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION [State Committee for Statistics] data, moonshine pro- duction is not growing. It is even dropping

  14. The virtual union catalog: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Karen

    2000-01-01

    A Virtual union catalog is a possible alternative to the centralized database of distributed resources found in many library systems. Such a catalog would not be maintained in a single location but would be created in real time by searching each local campus or affiliate library's catalog through the Z39.50 protocol. This would eliminate the redundancy of record storage as well as the expense of loading and maintaining access to the central catalog. This article describes a test implementatio...

  15. The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    military power. This buildup has succeeded in establishing the Soviet Union as a coequal with the United States in this critical dimension of power and...may have relied too much on the military dimension of their foreign policy. In the current climate of glasnost (candor or openness) and "new...Volkogonov, a former deputy chief of the Main Political Administration, " vegetarian pacifists" with little interest in the "martial traditions and

  16. Climate change in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Anda Veronica Dan

    2007-01-01

    It is now universally accepted that climate change is happening and that is caused by man’s behaviour. Global warming is accelerating and the average temperature is likely to rise up to 4 degrees by the end of this century if nothing is done. The European Union has risen the occasion by putting in place the world’s most famous ambitions global strategy for combating climate change.

  17. Physician unionization in the United States: fad or phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, T J

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the current trends and issues surrounding physician unionization in the United States, using data from secondary sources and nine interviews with leaders of organizations at the forefront of physician unionizing efforts. Several key points are supported by these data and prior unionization research. First, unions should become a viable organizing alternative for the almost 50% of doctors who are salaried employees because of fewer legal barriers to collective representation, the involvement of national labor unions with resources to spend on organizing, more physicians belonging to demographic groups less hostile to organized labor. and work-related pressures faced by physician-employee under managed care. A second key point is that unions will find it difficult to represent self-employed physicians because of the influence of organized medicine and legal barriers to gaining collective bargaining rights for this group. This discussion is intended to raise awareness of the physician union issue among health care policy-makers and researchers.

  18. Tolerance towards homosexuality in Europe: Population composition, economic affluence, religiosity, same-sex union legislation and HIV rates as explanations for country differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slenders, S.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explain variation in the level of tolerance towards homosexuality between European countries. Results of multi-level regression analyses on 40 countries from the 2008 wave of the European Values Study show that countries' economic affluence and laws on same-sex unions are

  19. Supranational Cultural Norms, Domestic Value Orientations and the Diffusion of Same-sex Union Rights in Europe, 1988–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, J.; Lutter, M.

    2013-01-01

    The process of policy diffusion is gaining increasing attention among social scientists. Following world society theory, a burgeoning literature reports a positive relationship between national linkages to global cultural norms and the diffusion of public policies. However, previous analyses do not simultaneously control for time-varying domestic cultural orientations. In order to conduct a stricter test of this theory, this article examines the wave of same-sex union (SSU) laws in Europe. Wh...

  20. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (2). Hence, small amplitude waves are also called linear waves. Most of the aspects of the ocean waves can be explained by the small amplitude wave theory. Let us now see the water particle motion due to waves. While wave energy is carried by the wave as it progresses forward, the water particles oscillate up and down.

  1. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Hereman, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  2. Wave groups in unidirectional surface wave models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1998-01-01

    Uni-directional wave models are used to study wave groups that appear in wave tanks of hydrodynamic laboratories; characteristic for waves in such tanks is that the wave length is rather small, comparable to the depth of the layer. In second-order theory, the resulting Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS)

  3. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  4. Spatial Distribution of Wave Pressures on Seawave Slot-Cone Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results on loading acting on an innovative caisson breakwater for electricity production. The work reported here is part of the European Union Sixth Framework programme priority 6.1 (Sustainable Energy System), contract 019831, titled "Full-scale demonstration of robust and high......-efficiency wave energy converter" (WAVESSG). Information on wave loadings acting on Wave Energy Convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) exposed to extreme wave conditions are reported. The SSG concept is based on the principle of overtopping and storing the wave energy in several reservoirs placed one...

  5. Simulating and understanding sand wave variation: A case study of the Golden Gate sand waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlini, F.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Hanes, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed comparison between measured features of the Golden Gate sand wave field and the results of a nonlinear sand wave model. Because the Golden Gate sand waves exhibit large variation in their characteristics and in their environmental physics, this area gives us the opportunity to study sand wave variation between locations, within one well-measured, large area. The nonlinear model used in this paper is presently the only tool that provides information on the nonlinear evolution of large-amplitude sand waves. The model is used to increase our understanding of the coupling between the variability in environmental conditions and the sand wave characteristics. Results show that the model is able to describe the variation in the Golden Gate sand waves well when both the local oscillating tidal current and the residual current are taken into account. Current and water depth seem to be the most important factors influencing sand wave characteristics. The simulation results give further confidence in the underlying model hypothesis and assumptions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  7. Injury Risk in International Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S.; Ranson, Craig; Mathema, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within international Rugby Union, only injury rates during the Rugby World Cup have been reported. Therefore, injury rates and types during other international tournaments are unknown. Purpose: To assess the 3-year incidence, severity, nature, and causes of match and training injuries sustained during different international tournaments played by the Welsh national Rugby Union team. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data for all players (n = 78) selected for 1 national Rugby Union team over a 3-year period were analyzed using the international consensus statement methods. Player height (cm) and mass (kg) were recorded. Tournaments were grouped for comparisons as: autumn tournaments (2012 and 2013), Rugby World Cup (RWC; 2011), Six Nations (2012, 2013, and 2014), and summer tournaments (2012, 2013, and 2014). Injury incidence (injuries/1000 hours), prevalence (% of players unavailable), and severity (days lost) were calculated for each tournament. Injury location, type, and cause of match and training injuries were analyzed. Results: Match injury incidence was highest during autumn tournaments (262.5/1000 match-hours) and lowest during the RWC (178.6/1000 match-hours). Summer tournaments had the highest training incidence (5.5 injuries/1000 training-hours). Mild injuries were most likely during the RWC (risk ratio [RR], 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.24), while severe injuries were most likely during autumn tournaments (RR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.70-6.29). Quadriceps hematomas (18.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 11.3-31.1) and concussions (13.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 7.6-24.8) were the most common match injuries, with shoulder dislocations being the most severe (111 mean days lost per injury). Conclusion: Injury rates were considerably higher than those previously reported for multiple teams during RWC tournaments. Further investigation of injury rates and risk factors is recommended to accurately gauge their impact within international Rugby

  8. The Fiscal Framework in a Currency Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws out lessons from the euro area (EA) that are transferable to the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) and other Caribbean economies with fixed exchange rates. Based on observations from both the EA and the ECCU, we present a new policy framework which is capable of imposing...... fiscal discipline, with the aim of avoiding the risk of unsustainable fiscal policies reappearing and of preventing monetary policy from being undermined by undisciplined national governments. In the ECCU case, we find that fiscal deficits are more a result of financial and trade imbalances than fiscal...

  9. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  10. A Sustainable European Union Own Resources System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieslukowski Maciej

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available From 1992, after the UN “Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro, sustainable development has become a priority of many countries and international organizations, including the European Union. After the crisis of 2008+ and the strong criticism of traditional economics, it also became a fundamental element of economic development in the XXI century. This new model is based on a solid and integrated economic, socio-cultural and ecological order. Such a development should be supported by suitable budgetary systems at each level of public government. The paper presents a conception of the sustainable EU own resources system and proposes the methodology of its evaluation.

  11. Energy Cultures in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicki, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    The main object of the analysis presented in the text was to point to and confirm the existence of special “energy cultures” in the European Union. In order to achieve this aim the use was made of research present in the literature, inter alia, in the publications containing statistical analyses by: (1) A. Pach-Gurgul, (2) P. Tapio and his research team – Banister, J. Luukkanen, J. Vehma i R. Willamo, also in a review, (3) Z. Łucki and W. Misiak. Compared with the invoked research, the timefr...

  12. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  13. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  14. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  15. Wave Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarese, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics

  16. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  17. Free riders: the rise of alternative unionism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Flemming; Høgedahl, Laust; Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyse some disturbing trends in the Danish labour market: while collective bargaining coverage is still relatively high, union density has been declining and—worse than that—there has been a substantial shift away from recognised and in favour of alternative unionism....... The alternative unions are not parties to collective agreements, and they offer membership much cheaper than the recognised unions, in effect taking a free ride on the institutional supports that used to be effective only for the recognised unions. The article explains this conundrum by pointing to the political...... and institutional backgrounds to this development, which threatens to erode the very basis for the Danish collective bargaining system. On the background of general statistics and of a general employee survey, we point out the reasons behind the challenges confronting the recognised unions, pointing out...

  18. Trade Union Responses to Labour Immigrants: Selective Solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolle Alho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish service sector trade union Palvelualojen ammattiliitto or Service Union United has the largest amount of migrant members of all Finnish trade unions. It walks the narrow line between defending the perceived interests of its members from the ‘threat’ of labour immigration, and simultaneously trying to act as an immigrant-friendly force. This qualitative case study analyses the outcomes of the union’s strategies in questions related to immigration. The outcomes affect different immigrant groups in a different manner. Furthermore, the established quasi-state character of the Finnish trade union movement affects both the strengths and weaknesses of its strategies. The politicized anti-immigration views in the Finnish society indirectly to some degree impact trade union strategies. Results suggest that the lay distinction between ‘us’ and ‘them’ based on nationality still shapes trade union strategy in a way that can be labeled selective solidarity.

  19. A decade of African Union and European Union trans-national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy nine security missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security and. Defence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions that. European states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategy designed ...

  20. Meeting and mating across borders: union formation in the European union single market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.; Díez Medrano, J.

    2014-01-01

    This editorial introduces a special issue and its different contributions. We provide an overarching background for the special issue by situating it in the context of the European Union integration process and through a general discussion of the role of intermarriage in establishing links across

  1. 78 FR 77721 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... providing basic financial services to their low-income members to stimulate economic activities in their...-income members. It also serves as a source of funding to help low-income designated credit unions (LICUs... Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) number issued by Dun and Bradstreet (D&B) in order to be...

  2. Union Learning Representatives: A Case Study of the Public and Commercial Services Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Alex; Davies, John Dwyfor; Lee, John

    2005-01-01

    Union Learning Representatives (ULRs) are a relatively recent phenomenon and are a new category of lay representation within the workplace in the United Kingdom. They are part of the present New Labour administration's drive to expand and improve lifelong learning and create the new "learning society"--in this case, particularly amongst…

  3. Attitudes towards protective headgear in UK rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Andrew; Rumbold, James L; Olusoga, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim Concussions in rugby union pose a major threat to player welfare. Research has found protective headgear offers no significant protection against concussions but suggests a large proportion of players perceive headgear to be effective in preventing concussions. This study aimed to explore UK rugby union players’ attitudes towards wearing protective headgear.\\ud \\ud \\ud Methods 545 rugby union players (85% male) from a range of playing standards completed an online survey. Quant...

  4. The Energy Union Pillars: Competitiveness, Security and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the study of energy union, from the perspective of the three pillars: competitiveness, sustainability and security. The author uses descriptive research methodology to analyze the implementation of the main objectives of energy union. The article analyzes, based on the literature in the energy field, the weaknesses and the strengths of each pillar. The study findings show the opportunities, but also the challenges that hinder the development of energy union and identify the priorities for Romania.

  5. POSSIBLE TRADE EFFECTS OF THE NEXT EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union next enlargement will constitute a significant qualitative change in the structure of the current Union, as the accession of the Western Balkan countries and of Turkey in particular will bring a brand new set of economic problems. It is expected that this enlargement to have a considerable effect for the new entrants, as well as for the European Union as a whole.\\r\

  6. Movement Demands of Elite U20 International Rugby Union Players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Daniel; Shearer, David A; Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    ...) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS...

  7. Emerging Administrations under European Union Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of emergence is generally used to indicate the appearance of patterns, structures, orproperties that cannot be adequately explained by referring only to the system’s pre-existing componentsand their interactions. The term “emergence” has an interdisciplinary approach specific to administrativesciences, too. In this article, the concept of “emergence” signifies lato sensu a kind of change and it will beused to refer to countries that have a high volatility and that are in transition and to define the changes thatsuffer the public administrations of the countries which are part of the European construction. EuropeanUnion through its policies and legislation has a great impact on economic and social conditions in MemberStates. The aim of the paper is to present a theoretical approach on the dimension of emergingadministrations understood as changes and reforms that suffer the institutions from the EU member statesunder the pressure of the European Union rules. The study is using the concept of emergence to researchand to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of thesystems theory.

  8. Where do we go with Union Catalogues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Chamberlain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom boasts union catalogues for its major research libraries, journal holdings, archives and, most recently, for its public library collections. For researchers wanting to locate material across the UK, such aggregations have long served as a first stop for researchers wanting to find the right material and also provided a showcase for our formidable research collections. In the global networked environment, search engines and social networks can fulfil much of the functionality of union catalogues and have become the natural places to which our users go for search and discovery, even in academic situations. Right now, there is a ‘disconnect’ between the data describing our collections and the places users first turn to start their searches. This can be fixed by exposing descriptive data to wider audiences beyond the silo of the local catalogue, but data publishing is a fast moving area with little obvious short-term institutional-level gain and some start-up barriers. Publishing library data to the open web at the level of a national aggregation would utilize existing skill sets and infrastructure, minimize risk and maximize impact.

  9. Controls on flood and sediment wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Maarten; Lane, Stuart N.; Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter

    2015-04-01

    temporal and spatial erosion and deposition patterns. Knowledge of these forcing mechanisms and flood and sediment wave propagation in general can be applied in flow management and infrastructural/ecological development along the river. Heidel, S. G. (1956). "The progressive lag of sediment concentration with flood waves." Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 37(1): 56-66.

  10. REFLECTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES FROM SOUND WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reflection of electromagnetic waves normally incident on the wavefronts of a semi-infinite standing sound wave is discussed. By analogy with the...with the sound frequency. An experiment is described in which the Bragg reflection of 3 cm electromagnetic waves from a standing sound wave beneath a water surface is observed.

  11. Impact of Wave Dragon on Wave Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Tedd, James; Kramer, Morten

    This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator....

  12. Political public relations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...... to a political context. The nature of the analysis is exploratory rather than definitive, and specific investigations are needed to thoroughly explore and better theorize political reputation and relationship management in various political contexts....

  13. International Astronomical Union Sympoisum No.50

    CERN Document Server

    Westerlund, B

    1973-01-01

    Dr J. Landi Dessy, Director of the Astronomical Observatory, Cordoba, Argentina, invited the International Astronomical Union to hold a Symposium in Cordoba in connection with the celebration of the Centennial of the Cordoba Observatory; the date of foundation is October 24, 1871. He proposed that the Symposium should deal with Spectral Classification and Multicolour Photometry as seven years had elapsed since the Symposium No. 24 in Saltsj6baden, and much development had occurred in the field. The invitation and the proposal were accepted by the IAU, and the Symposium was held in Villa Carlos Paz, near Cordoba, between October 18 and October 24, 1971. It was attended by about 50 scientists representing Argentina, Canada, Chile, Den­ mark, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K., U.S.A., Vatican City State and Venezuela. The Symposium was divided into four sessions: 1. Classification of slit spectra, 2. Classification of objective-prism spectra, 3. Photometric classification, 4. Catalogues ...

  14. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... remarkably over the last decades. In this paper, we investigate how and why the net fiscal position of each member state towards the rest of the EU changes over time. Using a novel panel dataset (1979-2014), we study how some key national and EU-level political and economic variables affect the EU...... find that the political orientation of national governments does not per se influence redistributive politics with in the EU. However, when the unemployment rate is rising, right-wing governments are able to extract significantly larger budgetary benefits....

  15. DEBATE ON ROMANIA INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. SÎRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Romanian integration into the European Union through the analysis of statistical data related to the absorption way of structural and cohesion funds available in 2007-2013 (absorption indicators and economic competitiveness indicators: Gross Domestic Product, employment rate, unemployment, population. In addition there are analyzed the structural and cohesion funds available for Romania in 2014-2020, for each category of available operational program and also the measures that must be implemented for Romania to adapt in a performance way to Europe 2020. The analysis results are considered as prerequisites for the development of an underlying model of investment decisions in the integrated sustainable development of Romania.

  16. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  17. The Rise of a European Healthcare Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare has only slowly appeared on the European Union’s (EU) policy agenda. EU involvement in policies concerning the organization, financing and the provision of diagnosis, care and cures to ill people developed along three fragmented tracks: (a) EU public health policies concerning the well......-being of all people; (b) the application of the free movement principle to national healthcare systems in particular by the EU’s Court of Justice (CJEU); and (c) the austerity packages and the stricter EU surveillance of national budgets since the debt crises. The key questions of this special issue...... are whether this fragmented EU involvement has now developed into a distinct European healthcare union, and if so what its driving forces have been. Thus, it explores how European integration in healthcare has moved forward despite widespread reluctance. It also examines the underexplored political dynamics...

  18. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  19. Reforming Public School Systems through Sustained Union-Management Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Saul A.; McCarthy, John E.

    2011-01-01

    For most of the past decade the policy debate over improving U.S. public education has centered on teacher quality. In this debate, teachers and their unions have often been seen as the problem, not part of the solution. Further, current discourse often assumes that conflicting interests between teacher unions and administration is inevitable.…

  20. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...

  1. Physical fitness of elite female Rugby Union players | Hene | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby union is a contact sport in which players require high levels of physical fitness, which is a composite of aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscle strength and power, speed, agility and body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness characteristics of elite female rugby union players.

  2. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial market is possible through a new regulation of the markets. In this project, monetary union of the EU member countries is possible by implementing single mechanism of supervision (Single Supervisory Mechanism and single mechanism of resolution (Single Resolution Mechanism. European Banking Union may be made by monitoring of a single banking supervisor based on a common system for managing and resolving banking crises and a uniform system of protecting people's savings. Romania opted for these unique mechanisms of macro-prudential supervision of the financial system. And by performing the real convergence criteria of integration, Romania will have all conditions of integration in the ,,euro area,,.

  3. Children's Drawings from China and the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, David G.

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the cultural differences (and similarities) of China and the Soviet Union as reflected in the drawings of each country's children. In China, children's drawings reflected friendship and warmth toward others. In the Soviet Union, children's reserved and cautious attitudes about drawing are consistent with the perspective of that…

  4. The Banking Union: An Overview and Open Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe move to European Banking Union involving the supervision and resolution of banks at euro-area level was stimulated by the sovereign debt crisis in the euro area in 2012. However, the long-term objective of Banking Union is dealing with intensified cross-border banking. The

  5. Monetary union without fiscal coordination may discipline policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    We show that, with benevolent policymakers and fiscal leadership, monetary unification reduces inflation, taxes and public spending. These disciplining effects of a monetary union, which rise with the number of fiscal players in the union, are likely to raise welfare. Joining an optimally designed

  6. Trade Union Participation in Organized Leather Industry in Kolkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It further attempts to analyse the trend of trade union participation based on research hypothesis framed according to objectives. However, the research accepts its own limitations and encourages further studies based on the observation made through this paper. Keywords: Significant factors, trade union participation, three ...

  7. Labour Unionism and Its Effects on Organizational Productivity: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Productivity: A Case Study of Jos International. Breweries (JIB) PLC, Nigeria. Collins, Emma ... Labour unionism is one activity that most organizations today fail to recognize and to also understand its significant ... assumptions of legal existence through the enactment of Trade Union. Organization Act 1938 which permits ...

  8. Limiting organisational rights of minority unions: POPCRU v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majoritarian model aims to minimise the proliferation of trade unions in a single workplace and to encourage the system of a representative trade union. ... In so doing, the Labour Court had to reconcile the fundamental principle of freedom of association and the right to fair labour practices (to organise and engage in ...

  9. Surveillance of injuries among Kenya Rugby Union (KRU) players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence and characteristics of injury amongst Kenya rugby union players and associated factors. Design: A whole population prospective cohort study. Methods: 364 registered Kenya rugby union (KRU) players were studied throughout the 2010 season. Data on their demographics, injury ...

  10. Strength and energetics of elite rugby union players | Lombard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comprehensive assessments of the various physical and physiological demands of a rugby union match, can contribute towards scientific based conditioning to enhance performance. The study compared physical and physiological differences between elite and non-elite South African Rugby Union players. A comparison ...

  11. 20 CFR 633.319 - Lobbying, political activities and unionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lobbying, political activities and unionization. 633.319 Section 633.319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobbying, political activities and unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used in any way: (a...

  12. 20 CFR 638.814 - Lobbying; political activities; unionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lobbying; political activities; unionization. 638.814 Section 638.814 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 638.814 Lobbying; political activities; unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used in...

  13. Intertrochanteric fracture non-unions with implant failure of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Failure of internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture is associated with delayed union or malunion resulting in persistent pain and diminished function. We report a rare case of implant failure of the gamma nail with intertrochanteric fracture non union treated by DCS plate screw and bone graft. Pan African Medical Journal ...

  14. Communist Theory in the Nigerian Trade Union Movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Waterman (Peter)

    1973-01-01

    textabstractThe subject of this paper is the Nigerian Trade Union Congress (NTUC), the Communist trade union organisation in Nigeria. More specifically, it is about the central leadership of the NTUC, since the organisation is in origin and structure a central, national and Lagos-based federation of

  15. Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regulating labour market and Managerial Relations with employees. Similarly, it is the opinion of this article that theoretically speaking and to some extent, Trade Unions adopt democratic constitutions by giving their members ultimate control over certain policy decisions and the organisation of their own union activities.

  16. Union Pacific Railroad Company - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Union Pacific Railroad Company (“Respondent” or “Union Pacific”) for alleged violations of Section 311(b)(3) of the CWA, 33 U.S.C. § 1321(b)(3), and regulations promulgated

  17. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  18. Faculty Unions, Business Models, and the Academy's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses questions about the future of faculty unions, business models, and the academy by providing some current and historical context regarding the causes of and conflicts about faculty unions. He also reviews trends in college and university management over the past three decades, using California, Ohio, and…

  19. The Arab Maghreb Union Marks 20th Anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    R V Salamova

    2010-01-01

    The Arab Maghreb Union was formed in 1989 in order to coordinate regional policies on military, economic, cultural and international issues. The reasons of lack of understanding among countries - participants of the Arab Maghreb Union and factors of organizational strengthening in future are examined.

  20. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  1. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  2. Labour Unionism and Its Effects on Organizational Productivity: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Labour unionism is one activity that most organizations today fail to recognize and to also understand its significant contributions towards organizational productivity. This study attempts to find out whether or not labour unionism in organizations are partners in progress, that complement management's effort towards ...

  3. Students' Unions, Consumerism and the Neo-Liberal University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rachel; Byford, Kate; Sela, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the economic relationships between individual students' unions and their wider institutions, and the ways in which they articulate with a pervasive consumerist agenda across the higher education sector. We draw on data from a UK-wide study to argue that students' unions have an ambivalent relationship with consumerist…

  4. Union Power, Cost of Job Loss, and Workers' Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Francis; McIntosh, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Data from 2,061 British companies in the Workplace Industrial Relations Survey supported the hypothesis that powerful unions reduce the external threat of job loss and therefore the pace of work in unionized firms is less responsive to such threats. (SK)

  5. Monetary union without fiscal coordination may discipline policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    With benevolent policymakers and fiscal leadership, monetary unification reduces inflation, taxes, and public spending. These disciplining effects of a monetary union, which become stronger if the number of participants in the union increases, are likely to raise welfare. Two types of arrangements

  6. The contribution of teacher unions in the restoration of teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lynette

    The following paragraphs examine the professional status of teachers and the role of the unions to improve the professional status and to improve the positive COLT in schools. The discussion below is based on both the literature study and interviews with the three senior officials of the three teachers unions in South Africa.

  7. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  8. Geriatric medicine in the European union : Unification of diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hastie, IR; Duursma, SA

    The numbers of older people in the European Union are increasing and, with their associated healthy needs, there is a requirement for the speciality of Geriatric Medicine to be available throughout Europe. At present, specialists in Geriatric Medicine are not recognised in some of the European Union

  9. 146 Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    . It should be ... of achieving this goal http:www.the free library.com/union .... Labour Leaders used the Unions to condemn laws which they considered were not in the interest of the people. And they organized political demonstrations some of.

  10. A review of the African Union's experience in facilitating peaceful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the African Union's experience in facilitating peaceful power transfers: Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast, Libya and Sudan: Are there prospects for reform? ... of African Unity (OAU), whose main concern had been decolonisation, the African Union (AU) began focusing on enhancing human security and consolidating ...

  11. Human resource management in a union-free environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.P. [Bluegrass Coal Development Company, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The title would suggest that there are two separate styles in managing companies: those that are represented and those that are union-free. In actuality, the management style is the same for both types of operations. For example, Zeigler Coal Holding Company has both types of operations; union-represented and union-free, and the company fundamentally manages them the same. A review of past employees relations shows that from the 1920s through the 1960s, there were two opposing positions which were anti-union and pro-company. The atmosphere was almost always confrontational and was normally a win/lose relationship, at best. It is good to first clarify terminology. A union is a third party who represents employees to management. Non-union is usually referred to smaller operations with limited resources and workers who are not represented by a union. Union-free operations are those that are not represented but practice positive employee relations and attempt to develop a win/win situation. This latter should be the management style regardless of whether or not employees are represented.

  12. Work reorganisation and technological change: limits of trade union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a case study of the Vanderbijlpark Plant currently owned by the global steel corporation ArcelorMittal International, this article shows that the National Union of Metal Workers of South Africa (NUMSA) - the biggest trade union in South Africa - adopted a bargaining strategy which consistently ignored production issues ...

  13. Die Civil Union Act, Draft Domestic Partnership Bill en moontlike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil Union Act, Draft Domestic Partnership Bill and possible deregulation of marriage: The Civil Union Act 17/2006 is compared to the Marriage Act 25/1961 to determine whether similar life partnerships should be regulated by more than one act. Thereafter the Draft Domestic Partnership Bill is investigated to determine the ...

  14. The state of women's rugby union in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several international rugby unions, including the South African Rugby Union, have adopted the long-term athlete development (LTAD) model, which is based on physiological principles that categorise players into specific stages of development. The original model proposes different age categories for boys and girls within ...

  15. the effect of the european union (mpp6) infrastructural development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and ... Key words: rural infrastructure, agricultural productivity, infrastructural index, European Union Micro Project Program .... state is characterized by tropical climate with high humidity and ...

  16. 29 CFR 452.76 - Campaigning by union officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Campaigning by union officers. 452.76 Section 452.76 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... constitutional provisions to the contrary, union officers and employes retain their rights as members to...

  17. 29 CFR 452.49 - Other union rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other union rules. 452.49 Section 452.49 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... and that any rights guaranteed him by the constitution and bylaws are protected. Similarly, a union...

  18. 29 CFR 452.73 - Use of union funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of union funds. 452.73 Section 452.73 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... literature submitted to the union by the candidates pursuant to the rights granted by section 401(c), as...

  19. Trade unions and social movements: methods and forms of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Tupytsia

    2017-07-01

    New typological features of social movements are formed on the basis of a new type of social and communication links. Social hierarchy and class antagonisms, which provided the basis for the existence and development of trade unions in the past, expired. Therefore, the organizational forms of trade unions as social movements have become more available and acceptable for contemporary citizens.

  20. Union Learning Representatives: Facilitating Professional Development for Scottish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Alex; O'Brien, Jim

    2007-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, teachers' professional associations and labor organizations, notably in the form of trade unions have historically been involved in education and training in the workplace. Recently, in the United Kingdom this activity has gained greater credence and importance due to the emergence of trade union learning representatives who…

  1. Universities and Unions: A Gap in the World's Educational System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Albert

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of labor education to union leaders. He suggests that the current gap in education for union leaders should be filled by university-based institutes that undertake research, education, training, and supportive activities such as journal publication and library development. (CH)

  2. Trade Union Education in Times of Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinone, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses a number of important factors having a bearing on the new requirements of workers' education. They include the expansion of workers' interests and trade unions' responsibilities, the expansion of collective bargaining, a movement toward effective tripartism, and the incorporation of rural workers into unions. (CT)

  3. Education for Trade Union Officials and Militants in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglay, M. V.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes labor education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The course system consists of three levels of courses, including (1) local short-term trade union courses, (2) regional permanent courses that last up to a month, and (3) seminars at the Trade Unionist Upgrading Institute. (CH)

  4. Worksite Health Promotion, Labor Unions and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1989-01-01

    By working with labor unions, health educators have the opportunity to reach worker groups that have been ignored by many worksite health promotion programs. A union-based smoking cessation program is described, and general guidelines for worksite health promotion are given. (IAH)

  5. Labor Unions or Professional Organizations: Which Have Our First Loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Renee N.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Five hundred California librarians were surveyed regarding their membership in labor unions and professional associations. Respondents were asked to give their reasons for joining (or not) and the perceived benefits of membership. In general, the librarians were more loyal to their union than to their professional associations and were motivated…

  6. Proportionate mortality among unionized roofers and waterproofers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, F B; Ruder, A M; Chen, G

    2000-05-01

    The United Union of Roofers, Waterproofers, and Allied Workers (UURWAW) is one of the 15 building and construction trades departments in the AFL-CIO. The U.S. roofing industry, including both roofing and waterproofing applications, both unionized and nonunionized, comprises about 25,000 firms, employing approximately 300,000 people, about 200,000 of whom are involved in the application of roofs. The specific toxins to which roofers may be exposed at the job site include, among others, bitumens (asphalt and/or coal tar pitch) as well as asbestos and fiberglass from roof removal operations. Excess deaths from occupational injuries are also of concern. This study evaluated causes of mortality among 11,144 members of the UURWAW. Age-adjusted proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were computed with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using U.S. age-, gender-, and race-specific proportional mortality rates for the years of the study, 1950-1996. Statistically significant increased PMRs were found for all injuries (PMR = 142, CI = 134-150), especially falls (PMR = 464, CI = 419-513) and other injuries (PMR = 121, CI = 107-137), cancers of the lung (PMR = 139, CI = 131-148), bladder (PMR = 138, CI = 111-170), esophagus (PMR = 134, CI = 107-166), larynx (PMR = 145, CI = 106-193), and cancers of other and unspecified sites (PMR = 130, CI = 112-149), pneumoconioses and other nonmalignant respiratory diseases (PMR = 115, CI = 103-128), and homicides (PMR = 153, CI = 135-172). The occupational exposures which may have contributed to the excess risks of malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases include, among others, asphalt fumes, coal tar pitch volatiles and asbestos; however, cigarette smoking must also be considered a contributing factor. The present study underscores the need to control airborne exposures to hazardous substances and especially to examine fall prevention efforts within the roofing industry. Am. J. Ind. Med. 37:478-492, 2000. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Democracy and Governance in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Jachtenfuchs

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that internationalization undermines governance and democracy. This phenomenon has two dimensions. On the one hand, it is a real process which has to be understood. On the other hand, it constitutes a challenge for a number of concepts and theories in the social sciences as well as in law. These concepts and theories are often implicitly based on the idea of a sovereign nation-state. In consequence, it is difficult to conceptualize even the possibility of the transformation of the state as a result of internationalization. This general problematique is most strongly visible in the European Union which over time has developed into a political system of a new type. This system has enormous consequences on democracy and governance in its member states. The first part of the paper presents a view on the EU's political system which does not preclude the possibility of a fundamental transformation of governance and democracy in the EU by the choice of its basic concepts. The second part presents those features of the EU's political system which are most important for the future of democracy and governance. They are uneven Europeanization, permanent institutional change and new patterns of legitimation. The third part discusses two models of the European Union which might be the result of these processes. They represent two different mixtures of the institutionalization of governance and democracy. Both seem to be at least potentially stable forms of political organization but none of them can be reduced to the traditional forms of'state' and 'international organization'. The final part contains an assessment of the prospective development of the EU in the light of the central features of the EU and the system models discussed in the two previous section.

  8. Monetary Union is the future of EAEU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav S. Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The president of Russian Federation V. Putin's Order from the 10th of March 2015 to the Government and Central Bank of Russia to work on the plan of creating Monetary Union of EAEU by the 1st of September cannot be ignored by scientific community's attention of Russia and other Eurasian countries. Strategic goal of this document is pretty clear - to create an island of currency stability in the surrounding of Jamaica's Monetary nonsystem and existing monopolar and assimetric world's dollar order, to minimize the dependency of Eurasian countries on US dollar, to hold its world expansion, to freeze the process of financing of USA imbalances by all countries, to turn back the process of dollarization of Eurasian countries and world's dollarization and relieve the world's community from future financial crises. The world's financial and economic crisis of 2008-2010 has clearly shown that US monetary, credit and banking system has become a permanent source of future turmoil of world's scale. It creates a necessity to activate the process of monetary integration of countries on the regional level and transformation of the modern Jamaica's world's dollar standard into the world's multipolar monetary standard. In this article the author analyses he stages of setting up the Eurasian regional monetary order from the creation of multilateral settlement system using common regional currency unit to the introduction of Eurasian currency system with Eurasian currency unit, which can be transformed in the future into the Eurasian Economic and monetary union with common regional currency (euras, which can restrict the world's monopoly position of the dollar.

  9. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  10. INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Nica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences registered in the early 90s between the economy of the European Union as compared to the economies of the United States and Japan, in regards of growth rates, investment rates, R&D and innovation, international trade, etc., as well as the fast changes of the world economy determined the European Commission to issue the white paper on “Growth, Competitiveness and Employment”, underlining the meaning of the European economy’s competitiveness in the new conditions, and the legal frame for EU’s industrial policy was settled through the Treaty of Maastricht. The document was setting theobjectives, priorities and the six basic principles of the European industrial policy, in a unitary concept. In the spring of 2000, the European Council from Lisbon sets the objective of transforming the European Union in the most dynamic and competitive economy of the world, and, therefore, foresees a working agenda with specific actions going until the horizon of 2009. In December 2002, after EUs enlargement, the Commission forwards to the Council the document titled “Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe”, in which theindustrial development at the moment of new member states integration is analyzed, as well as the effects of EU’s enlargement over the industry, and it suggests actions for the future development of the sector. The industrial policy of the EU must offer solutions for industrial development, by answering the challenges concerning globalization, the technological and organizational changes, the increasing role of innovation and entrepreneurship, and the sustainable development taking into consideration the new socialrequirements. The development objectives set at European level cannot be reached without a tight interconnection of the industrial policy measures with those of some complementary policies, such as thecommercial policy, the single market policy, transport and energy policies, research and development policies

  11. Nuclear Energy and European Union; Energia nuclear y la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-07-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  12. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  13. Analysis of Abdi Kerta Rahardja Union Health Assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indo Yama Nasarudin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyse the health assessment union of Abdi Kerta Raharja. Health assessment used measurement and calculation in Rule Deputy Control of Ministry of Union and SMEs of the Republic of Indonesia Number 6 Year 2016. Aspects for health assessment consists the capital aspect, productive asset quality aspects, management aspects, aspects of efficiency, liquidity aspect, the aspect of self-reliance and growth and aspects of the identity of union. Based on the results obtained value for all aspects of health assessment union of Abdi Raharja Kerta is 81.00. It can be concluded that the union of Abdi Kerta Raharja have a healthy category for health assessmentDOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i2.3865

  14. European Union energy handbook; Petit memento energetique de l'Union Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    While providing graphs and data tables, this document presents and comments key figures about energy in the European Union. The first part gives an overview of the general energy accounting, outlines its traps, gives the main demographic and economic indicators for each of the 27 members, defines and describes the energy production and consumption indicators, and gives an energy appraisal for the European Union. Then, it more specifically deals with final energy consumption in the European Union (per energy source, per sector), with primary energy production and consumption per source (oil products, natural gas, coal, biomass, uranium), with electricity production and consumption, with heat production and consumption. After this overview on energy production and consumption, a set of sheets deals with greenhouse gases and nuclear wastes (climate change and greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, nitrogen oxide emissions, industrial gas emissions, nuclear wastes). The last part deals with the European policies in terms of energy and climate, of energy efficiency, of renewable energies, and of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  15. Radiographic scoring system to evaluate union of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaun P; Anthony, Shawn G; Zurakowski, David; Didolkar, Manjiri M; Kim, Peter S; Wu, Jim S; Kung, Justin W; Dolan, Martin; Rozental, Tamara D

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the intra- and interobserver reliability of a scoring system for distal radius fracture union based on specific radiographic parameters obtainable from x-rays. Two sets of 35 anteroposterior and lateral x-rays were obtained by retrospective review of consecutive patients with distal radius fractures (AO types A and C) treated by a single surgeon in 2009. One set was assembled for those patients treated nonsurgically and 1 set for those treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with volar plating. Radius union scoring system (RUSS) scores were compiled from a 5-person review panel consisting of hand surgeons and musculoskeletal radiologists. Union of each of the 4 cortices was graded on a 3-point scale (0, fracture line visible with no callus; 1, callus formation but fracture line present; 2, cortical bridging without clear fracture line). Reviewers also recorded their overall impression of fracture union (united or not united). Each set of radiographs was reviewed twice by the 5 reviewers, 2 weeks apart. Inter- and intraobserver reliability were determined using intraclass correlation coefficients. For nonsurgically treated fractures, substantial agreement in union scores was found with regard to both intra- and interobserver reliability. For fractures treated with ORIF, substantial agreement was found in union scores with regard to intraobserver reliability and moderate agreement with regard to interobserver reliability. In addition, when using the reviewers' overall assessment of union as a reference standard, RUSS had a statistically significant predictive value in being able to differentiate between united and not united fractures. This radiographic union tool demonstrated substantial intra- and interobserver reliability for the determination of fracture union in the distal radius. The RUSS is a simple method for a standardized assessment of radiographic union of DRF treated nonsurgically or with ORIF. Economic/decision analysis IV

  16. Concave Soft Sets, Critical Soft Points, and Union-Soft Ideals of Ordered Semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed.

  17. When strong unions meet precarious migrants: Building trustful relations to unionise labour migrants in a high union-density setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them......Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...

  18. The European Union and Russian energy politics. External energy relations and interdependency between the European Union and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akca Prill, Melek

    2012-07-01

    The European Union and Russia Energy Politics aims to analyse the energy relationships, energy foreign policy and energy dialogue between the European Union Member States and the Russian Federation. To understand the recent developments in Russian - European Union energy relations better, the study aims to assert the disciplines and approaches of international relations in the example of Russia and the European Union systems of government. The important question here, whether diversification of energy supplier or energy supply routes is possible. If there is a possibility to diversify the supplier, is this then too costly to build, operate and rely on new pipeline routes? More crucial issue is, whether Russia is a reliable energy supplier in terms of European Energy Security approach. Throughout these assumptions, the role and vision of European Union Member States, the possible energy exporter countries, their policies and contributions are going to be discussed.

  19. When strong unions meet precarious migrants: Building trustful relations to unionise labour migrants in a high union-density setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...

  20. The physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Georgi, Howard

    1993-01-01

    The first complete introduction to waves and wave phenomena by a renowned theorist. Covers damping, forced oscillations and resonance; normal modes; symmetries; traveling waves; signals and Fourier analysis; polarization; diffraction.

  1. Union organizing drives dealt a blow by Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D J

    1992-04-01

    The Lechmere case is important because it reaffirms that employers' property rights take precedence over the rights of nonemployees to engage in union organizing on employers' property. This is particularly important for hospitals and health care institutions because of their heightened exposure to union organizing activity after American Hospital Association v. National Labor Relations Board, discussed above. Providers should, however, remember two points. First, the principal focus of Lechmere was on union organizing by nonemployees; nothing in Lechmere limited the basic right of employees to form and join labor unions as guaranteed by Section 7 of the NLRA. Additionally, Lechmere notwithstanding, providers must be careful not to discriminate in their approach to union organizing activities--even by nonemployees. Thus, if a provider allows nonemployee groups other than unions to enter upon its property for purposes of soliciting employees and/or distributing literature, any attempt to bar nonemployee union organizers from the property would probably be deemed discriminatory and could indeed be an unfair labor practice. (In Lechmere, the employer consistently enforced a ban against all such nonemployee groups.)

  2. Aspects concerning counterfeiting and piracy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global problem of counterfeiting and piracy has increased in European Union though there are special laws defending Intellectual Properties Rights. The aim of this paper is to point out the aspects on the topic of counterfeiting and piracy inside the European Union Single Market. Analysing the information gathered, we can conclude that there are evident facts of growing and increasingly dangerous phenomena in the European Union, with significant impact on the economic and social sectors. European Commission is the one that identifies strategies and effective practices to help rightful owners protect their Intellectual Property Rights.

  3. Architects – Founders of the Union of Architects in Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Lyapin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to foundation of the East-Siberian (Irkutsk Branch of the Union of Architects. It presents the role of the Organizational Bureau in formation of the Union of Architects, which included such architects as K.V. Mital, B.M. Kerbel, I.G. Efimov, S.M. Zaslavsky, V.N. Kolyanovsky and V.N. Volkov. The article tells about the first Board of the Union of Architects in Irkutsk and gives the plan of the Union’s activity in the pre-war period.

  4. Factors Favoring Military Unions in the United States Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-19

    threat to national security that a public law is required to make that action illegal and punishable by fine or imprisonment. Europea Militar Unions ...I AD-A116 753 ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA F/G51 IACTORS FAVORING ML TARY UNIONS IN THE UNITED STATES ARMED FOR--ETC(U) UNCLASSIFIED N...Military Unions in the US Armed Forces 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(o) LTC. Thomas P. Easum, Jr. 9

  5. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissler, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the “microgeographic races” of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography. PMID:27432989

  6. THE IMPACTOF THEMAFIAINITALIANECONOMYIN CRISISOF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mancini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the extent of the financial activity of the Italian Mafia in the economy following the 2008 financial crisis. And pointed out as very relevant in support of the financial flows of the country and its trade relations with Europe.The expansion of financial activity mafia accompanies the integration of markets, with the possibilities of creating companies in sectors with high profitability enough to justify moving the capital. The paper presents empirical evidence of the impact of the mafia in economic variables. The results will be compared and in dialogue with the literature on organized crime and its economic effects. In the European Union, Member States are faced with the additional challenge of analyzing the issue from the perspective of which core values are being put at risk by crime, and if these values are the sum of the values of the members, or the EU represents a set unique values. Themes, from which are questioned failures of public institutions that contribute to the support and expansion of organized crime.

  7. Rugby union injuries in Scottish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alastair; Pollock, Allyson; Kirkwood, Graham; Parekh, Nikesh; Robson, James

    2011-06-01

    Rugby union is the most popular worldwide collision sport, yet concerns have been raised regarding the safety of the sport due to the physical, high impact nature and an increasing number of injuries. A prospective, cohort study of the incidence, pattern and severity of injuries in rugby players in six Scottish schools during the second half of the 2008-09 season. Definition of injury and severity of injury were taken from International Rugby Board (IRB) consensus guidelines. Injury report forms and exposure data for match play were completed by a nominated staff member. Four hundred and seventy consent forms with survey information were returned. Of 37 rugby injuries in the study, 11 occurred during training. Head and face were the most injured body part and sprain/ligament injury the most common injury. Twenty injuries required attendance at Accident & Emergency with one admission. The tackle was the commonest phase of play causing injury. In the 193 matches played, the injury incidence during the match play was 10.8 injuries per 1000 player hours. This study confirms the feasibility of collecting relevant injury data in schools rugby in Scotland. The findings are consistent with other studies with respect to incidence and profile of injuries sustained.

  8. Patentability of genes: a European Union perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Paul

    2014-10-16

    Unlike the position in the United States following the recent Supreme Court decision in Myriad, in the European Union naturally occurring genetic sequences, whether of human or other origin, remain patent-eligible. Here the basis for such eligibility in legislation and in case law is explained. The utility of a sequence must be disclosed as a condition of eligibility, and requirements outlined in European Patent Office (EPO) and U.K. case law are discussed. A claimed sequence must also satisfy requirements of novelty and inventive step, the latter being considered primarily using the tests of "obvious to try" and reasonable expectation of success. From both positive and negative examples the significance of an identifiable difficulty supported by documentary and/or experimental evidence is apparent. Issues of priority and subject matter added by amendment during prosecution of an application can create unexpected problems given the narrow interpretation within the EPO of the identity of a disclosed sequence, and these problems are explored using as an example an opposition to a European patent covering BRCA1 gene sequences. Practical steps for the drafting of patent specifications to be filed in Europe are outlined. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  10. The European Union Clearinghouse on Operating Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escrig, D.

    2015-07-01

    In the European Union, a regional network has been established to enhance nuclear safety through improvement of the use of lessons learned from Operating Experience. This network’s hub is located at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Petten, the Netherlands. This organisation is known as the European Clearinghouse on Operating Experience Feedback for Nuclear Power Plants. The ‘Clearinghouse’ is comprised of dedicated staff from JRC and member states that have joined the organisation. Membership is mainly composed of nuclear safety regulatory authorities and their Technical Support Organizations within the EU region. Its Centralised Office gathers nuclear safety experts performing the following technical tasks in support to the EU Member States: “Topical Studies” providing in-depth assessment of either articularly significant events or either families of events. Trend analysis of events in order to identify priority areas.Improvement of the quality of event reports submitted by the EU Member States to the International Reporting System jointly operated by the OECD-NEA and the IAEA.Reporting every three months the main events having occurred in NPPs. Database: a European central OE repository being developed in order to ensure long term storage of OE and to facilitate information retrieval. (Author.

  11. Farm land rent in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Střeleček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Great share of rented land in total utilised area as well as a significant variability of land rent and market prices of land causes a need of research activity that would assess which factors influence the land rent as well as the price of land and how significant such factor are in each state. An average land rent is significantly lower in new member states compared to EU 15 members. There is a strong dependence of land rent on the intensity of production. The influence of subsidies to land rent reports moderate to medium dependence. The same relation occurs in case of the relation of the farm income and land rent. Positive increase of production intensity was connected to lower production use of land rent i.e. a decrease of its cost/revenue ratio. This is reflected in a relative saving of land rent. States with greater land rent per ha of agricultural area usually reports greater saving. An increase of land rent in new member states of the European Union is presumed so that it will be necessary to increase the intensity of production in the corresponding way.

  12. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  13. Making public offers in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Florentina Vasile (Epure

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available If a couple of decades ago, the external capital of the European corporations was obtained almost entirely by bank loans, in the present, the situation changed and the finance obtained by issuance of securities is more important. The most significant increase took place on the stock exchange where, in the last few years, the average annual increase of the volume of transactions was major. In these conditions, the problem of creating a standard framework and, consequently, more efficient at the level of the European Union became more stringent because it facilitates for the European corporations the access to the capital with lower costs. The European Commission regulated through some Directives the access to the capital markets and through the MiFiD Directive, major changes were brought with regards to the whole image of the financial markets. It is difficult to estimate accurately the impact that it will be brought by these changes. Maybe the "Bing Bang" notion, used already by part of the analysts, it is not the most suited, but surely the MiFiD Directive will form the catalytic agent of the significant changes of the markets.

  14. Teenage fertility in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenet, L

    1996-05-01

    A large proportion of pregnancies which occur among women during their teenage years are unwanted. As such, the abortion rate is high among teenage pregnant women. Teenage women who choose to carry their fetuses to term run an excess risk of delivering premature and low birthweight babies. Teenage mothers often have not finished their studies and will find it difficult to remain in the educational system. There is a high rate of school dropout among teenage mothers. Moreover, they have limited job opportunities, especially in countries like the UK where child care facilities are scarce. Teenage fertility varies widely among the countries of the European Union (EU). In the UK, there are 32 live births per 1000 women aged 15-19, the highest rate in the EU. In the Netherlands, the rate of teenage fertility is only 4 live births per 1000 women aged 15-19 years. In the context of general delayed childbearing throughout the EU, the rate of teenage fertility in the UK has increased in recent years. A more holistic approach to family planning services, improved communication with teenagers, and more appropriate sex education programs are needed if the British government is to succeed in reducing by 50% the conception rate among women younger than age 16 years by the year 2000. An active policy to fight socioeconomic deprivation at the local level should also positively affect teenage fertility.

  15. The European Union and its Neighbours:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chilosi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the status of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the light of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013 and of the present internal state of the European Union. Even if in theory the ENP could have been a valid substitute for enlargement, it does not seem to have reached its aim of providing an adequate surrogate for full membership. Considering the figures of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013, the issue of market access, and the internal power dynamics of the EU, we see that it is hardly conceivable that the ENP could ever give to its neighbours the same economic advantages that membership gives to the poorer members of the EU. Another controversial aspect is the clear asymmetric nature of the ENP, whereby the payoff for neighbours is conditioned on their “good behaviour”, thus amounting to a form of soft imperialism. While ENP tries to establish a comprehensive and coherent framework of the EU’s relations with its neighbourhood, the actual behaviour of EU towards its neighbours is shown to present some inconsistences due to political expedience and pragmatic concerns. The consideration of some related basic issues of EU institutional reform, such as the weakening of the powers of the member states, or the introduction of some intermediate forms of partial membership, concludes the paper.

  16. Transitional Democracy, Legitimacy and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplánová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the ongoing global crisis has triggered an issue how to set up a theoretical framework of global governance. The integration to a supranational level of governance has been a contemporary process of democratization in recent decades. To analyze the institutionalization of global governance means to recognize a normative idea of democracy. The theory of international relations demonstrates that there are four normative models of democracy at the supranational level of governance. In my opinion, a crucial difference of the institutionalization is a concept of legitimacy of global democratic regime. Because of a divided understanding of legitimacy at the transnational level of governance is difficult to find a consensus in which way should be a transnational democracy framed. A dual legitimacy in a supranational organization like the European Union also triggers a specific democratic deficit. My point of view corresponds with the division of transnational orders in normative way and its correspondence to legitimacy. Cla rifying the duality of legitimacy can help us not only to solve all globalizing problems but of course to decide in which way we want to make the supranational organizations work.

  17. Rationalities in Trade Union Practices: A Discourse Analytic Perspective on The Strategies of Three Danish Trade Unions for Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Buch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this paper is to analyze the discursive practices of three Danish trade unions for professional and managerial staff as found in their strategy and position papers. Using discourse analytic methods, the paper analyzes, discusses, and compares the strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation clarifies the discursive premises of the unions and it shows how these premises restrain and afford their agendas. The overall purpose of the paper is to investigate and describe the dominant logics and rationalities that shape the documents and to point to their limits and bounds. Through an archaeological investigation, the paper critically examines the implicit and tacit naturalizations made in the documents and reveals the ideological presuppositions of the discursive practices of the authors. The paper documents how “strategic management” has become an integral part of Danish trade unions practices and the paper sets out to discuss this trend in relation to the general neo-liberal decentering of the “social” and promotion of “community” as the locus of governance. Through examples from the practices of the Danish trade unions for professionals, the paper substantiates how new technologies of governance and the subjectification of union members as “customers” tend to transform the role of the trade unions from the position of “political actors” to “service providers” in the advanced liberal societies.

  18. Consolidation of Library Softwares for Creation of Non-Farsi Union Catalog Case Study: Union Catalog of Agricultural Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayabeh Shahmirzadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of using a union list to forestall redundant purchase and to centralize ordering, the present study deals with a case study concerning consolidation of union list of non-farsi publications among 75 libraries affiliated with the ministry of Agricultural Jahad nationwide. During the process, 3500 records containing bibliographic data as well as notes and holding of publications were consolidated into a database that could be interrogated using four GUI. Union List data was designed over NOSA and Pars Azarakhsh Library software and could be updated. It is available through Nosa Simorgh Web interface at www.agrisis.org.

  19. The Role of Graduate Employee Unions in Gender Equality (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Freeland, Emily

    2009-04-01

    Graduate employee unions represent a significant fraction of graduate employees in the United States, Canada, and other nations. The collective bargaining process is a unique forum where issues ranging from paid parental leave, hostile work environment, and access to lactation rooms can be addressed on an even footing with the employing universities. Because employment is governed by a collective bargaining agreement, violations are subject to a grievance policy. The Teaching Assistants' Association at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is one of the oldest graduate employee unions in the world. We discuss this example union, including successes in both the collective bargaining process and the grievance procedure. In particular, we find that graduate employee unions are an effective means of fighting pregnancy discrimination. We also provide a comparison of parental leave policies for graduate students at various universities.

  20. RLC Vegetative Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This dataset is a 1:4 million scale vegetation map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Three hundred seventy-three cover classes are...

  1. RLC Vegetative Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is a 1:4 million scale vegetation map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Three hundred seventy-three cover classes are distinguished, of...

  2. Budgeting Issues in the Act on Metropolitan Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ofiarska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resolved in 2015 the act on metropolitan unions was meant to be a legal instrument with complex character. It included regulations concerning constitution and tasks of the unions and basics of budget management, as well the budgetary procedures. They are not exhaustive regulations and some of them may be even regarded as needless from point of view of correct legislative standards. However, for the metropolitan unions budgeting issues, the regulations have no comprehensive nature and basically they are only an outline of the financial status concept, including budgetary one, of these entities. The metropolitan union's financial law and budgeting position must be therefore shaped using regulations taken from separate laws, especially, the law on public finances and the law on regional accounting chambers.

  3. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  4. Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Year 1997 Annual Narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge and Iowa Wetland Management District summarizes Refuge activities during the 1997 fiscal year....

  5. Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge and Iowa Wetland Management District summarizes Refuge activities during the 1999 fiscal year....

  6. Fishery management assessment Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses the current fishery program at Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge. Recommendations contained in this assessment were developed in...

  7. What are European Union Public Attitudes towards Robots? (Invited Paper)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donald Loffredo; Alireza Tavakkoli

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a very brief overview of public attitudes towards robots from different geographical regions of the world but focuses on one such study in one particular geographic area, the European Union (EU) of 27 countries...

  8. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management processes, due to credit, liquidity, market, fiduciary, operational, and similar types of risks... significant adverse impact upon a corporate credit union. (5) Operating management of the corporate credit...

  9. RLC Forest Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a 1:15 million scale forest cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Twenty-two land cover classes are distinguished, of...

  10. City of West Union, Iowa - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of West Union, IA, a municipality, for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (permit No. IA-0035378) for discharges from

  11. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  12. Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Year 1995 Annual Narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge and Iowa Wetland Management District summarizes Refuge activities during the 1995 fiscal year....

  13. Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Iowa: Avian selenium study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2006 and 2007, we tested selenium concentrations in the eggs and nestling carcasses of tree swallows attracted to artificial nest boxes installed around Union...

  14. Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Union Slough NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  15. Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge and Iowa Wetland Management District summarizes Refuge activities during the 1998 fiscal year....

  16. Generalized Geology of the Former Soviet Union (geo1ec)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set outlines and describes the general geologic age and type of bedrock of the Former Soviet Union and selected adjacent areas. It also includes shoreline...

  17. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  18. Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Iowa: Contaminants investigation: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Technical staff from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service studied water quality at Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Kossuth County, Iowa between 1995 and 1997....

  19. New trajectories of unionization in the Nordic Ghent countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedahl, Laust Kristian; Kongshøj, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Unemployment insurance funds (the ‘Ghent system’), subsidized by the state and controlled by the labour movement, have contributed to high trade union densities in the Nordic countries. However, dependence on these funds as a recruiting mechanism makes trade union membership sensitive...... to institutional changes to unemployment insurance benefits and the institutional setup surrounding and regulating them. In this article, we investigate recent institutional changes in the three Nordic countries following the Ghent model, Finland, Sweden and Denmark, and analyse the consequences for union and fund...... membership. These countries have witnessed different combinations of two types of reform, less attractive unemployment benefits plus new institutional alternatives to the traditional union-run funds, and this has led to different outcomes in each country. Benefit retrenchment and increased contributions led...

  20. Challenges in Trade Union Education: A Case for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Mel

    1992-01-01

    Because labor unions are voluntary, democratic, collective organizations, labor education is better delivered through active participative learning methods, built on participant knowledge, with the teacher as facilitator of the process. (SK)

  1. Factors which influence physicians to join labor unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, C Joseph; O'Hair, H Dan

    2004-03-01

    As members of a fiercely independent and individualistic profession, physicians have historically resisted the lure of organizing into collectives and have steadfastly maintained their autonomy. With the advent of managed care, the conditions of work have been altered and many of the assumptions guiding unions and collective bargaining have taken on renewed interest. Proponents of organizing physicians argue that unions can act as representative agents for health care providers to negotiate effectively with managed care organizations (MCO), insurance companies and government for conditions of work to help make their practice of medicine better for patients. Many physicians who previously rejected the notion of unions have reconsidered their entrenched positions and are beginning to weigh the costs and benefits associated with union membership.

  2. The Lula government, the National Labor Forum and union reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelsom Rozentino de Almeida

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to contribute to the analysis of union reform, resulting from the National Labor Forum that sought a consensus among corporations and workers based on the notion of a 'social pact'. The federal government's intention was to update labor and union laws, adapting them to the new demands of national development in order to create an environment more propitious to the generation of employment and income. The Forum sought to modernize the labor regulatory institutes, particularly the Labor Courts and the Ministry of Labor and Employment; to stimulate dialog and tripartism and to assure social justice in the realm of labor laws, the solution of conflicts and union guarantees. In a critical manner, it intends to characterize the process of preparing the union reform of the Lula government, the composition of the representatives of workers and business, as well as the interests represented during the debates and in the final result.

  3. The role of labor unions in fostering economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Pencavel, John

    1995-01-01

    In this essay on how labor unions work, the author proposes a framework for the law on collective bargaining in developing countries. The structure of developing economies cannot sustain as high a level of unionism as in industrial economies. Typically less (often much less) than a quarter of the workers in a developing country are covered by collective bargaining agreements-and those covered (the labor elite) are likely to be employed by the state and by large private sector employers. In th...

  4. The influence of union leadership on the role of principalship

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    D.Ed. (Educational Management) The influence of union leadership plays an important role in determining both the perspectives and leadership styles of the principals who hold positions of leadership in teacher unions. Although there is extensive literature on the basics of the development of the concept of identity in general, little is known about how identity is forged in education unionisation in general and what specific leadership character may result out of the principals who are uni...

  5. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  6. The Civil War: Black American Contributions to Union Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Arizona, on 30 June 1995. Tubman �s Triumphs Harriet Tubman , another black woman involved in intelligence col lection for the Union, is much more famous for...raiding party up the Harriet Tubman From Great Negroes Past and Present, Volume 1, by Russell L. Adams, African American Images, Chicago, Illinois...developed an interest in the Union flag-signal system, and he learned all he could about it. The intelligence Harriet Tubman and her spy organization

  7. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Tanase Diana; Frant Florin,; Manciu Venera; Tanase Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore...

  8. The Linguistic Interpretation for Language Union – Language Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Balalykina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the problem of determination of the essence of language union and language family in modern linguistics, which is considered important, because these terms are often used as absolute synonyms. The research is relevant due to the need to distinguish the features of languages that are inherited during their functioning within either language union or language family when these languages are compared. The research has been carried out in order to present the historical background of the problem and to justify the need for differentiation of language facts that allow relating languages to particular language union or language family. In order to fulfill the goal of this work, descriptive, comparative, and historical methods have been used. A range of examples has been provided to prove that some languages, mainly Slavonic and Baltic languages, form a language family rather than a language union, because a whole number of features in their systems are the heritage of their common Indo-European past. Firstly, it is necessary to take into account changes having either common or different nature in the system of particular languages; secondly, one must have a precise idea of what features in the phonetic and morphological systems of compared languages allow to relate them to language union or language family; thirdly, it must be determined whether the changes in compared languages are regular or of any other type. On the basis of the obtained results, the following conclusions have been drawn: language union and language family are two different types of relations between modern languages; they allow identifying both degree of similarity of these languages and causes of differences between them. It is most important that one should distinguish and describe the specific features of two basic groups of languages forming language family or language union. The results obtained during the analysis are very important for linguistics

  9. Self-Interested Governments, Unionization, and Legal and Illegal Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Tapio Palokangas

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines an economy with following properties. Attempts to restrain illegal immigration incur costs. Illegal workers can work only in the competitive sector. Workers and employers bargain over wages in the unionized sector and lobby the government for immigration policy and workers’ bargaining power. The main findings are as follows. If the government can determine legal immigration, then it expropriates rents from labor unions. In that case, neither workers nor employers are worse...

  10. PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION AT THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of historical retrospective of integrationprocesses in former Soviet Union, ways and opportunities for furtherdevelopment thereof.The authors make a study of the problems of development and functioningof Eurasian cooperation, the effectiveness of interaction with certain states,analyze the reasons of failures, emphasize the achievements results ofcooperation, point out the opportunities for integration processes betweendifferent CIS and provide practical recommendations for effectiveness thereof in former Soviet Union.

  11. ELECTRON CYCLOTRON WAVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  12. Electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  13. Electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  14. Waves in inhomogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we study wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. Examples of the classical (massless) waves we consider are acoustic waves (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light, for example). Interaction with inhomogeneities embedded in a reference medium alter the propagation direction, velocity

  15. Scientific collaboration between 'old' and 'new' member states: Did joining the European Union make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo

    This paper provides new insights on the effects of the enlargement of the European Union (EU) and European integration by investigating the issue of scientific collaboration within the new EU member states vis - à - vis the old EU member states. The question addressed is whether the EU membership following the two enlargement waves 2004 and 2007 has significantly increased the co-publication intensity of the new member states with other member countries. The empirical results based on data collected from the Web of Science database and Difference-in-Difference estimations point towards a conclusion that joining the EU indeed has had an additional positive impact on the co-publication intensity between the new and old member states and, in particular, within the new member states themselves. These results give tentative support for the successfulness of the EU's science policies in achieving a common 'internal market' in research. We also find evidence for early anticipation effects of the consecutive EU accession.

  16. Uniones de nitruro de silicio. Superaleaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barea, R.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial applications of silicon nitride materials are limited by the difficulty and cost of making complex shapes. In the present work, the use of some superalloys as bonding interlayer between two silicon nitride pieces has been investigated. Three types of Ni based superalloys have been chosen because their technological interest. Joining experiments have been performed by thermocompression at different temperatures and pressures, in a medium vacuum atmosphere. Reactions taking place at the superalloy / Si3N4 interface have been studied using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A comparative study among the three superalloys /Si3N4 interfaces has been done.

    El posible uso del nitruro de silicio en el ámbito industrial se ve limitado por la dificultad y el coste que supone mecanizar geometrías complicadas. En el presente trabajo se estudia la posibilidad del uso de superaleaciones como interlámina de unión entre piezas de este material. Se han seleccionado tres superaleaciones con base niquel-cromo debido a su interés tecnológico. Las uniones se han llevado a cabo por termocompresión en vacío, utilizando varias presiones y temperaturas. Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo de las intercaras de unión en las tres aleaciones, analizando mediante microanálisis por energías dispersadas de Rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido las reacciones que tienen lugar.

  17. Tre proposte per rivitalizzare l’Unione Europea (Three proposals for revitalising the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, the perception that the convergence on the current set of rules is not capable of producing convergence on results, or generally better results, has increased socio-political fragmentation. The result has been an increasing demand for re-nationalisation of sovereign powers. Focusing on the euro area, the paper proposes to revise the monetary operations of the European Central Bank, current fiscal rules and the financial regulatory approach in order to tackle some of the main inconsistencies, rigidities and fragilities in the current design. The new design is thought out to require no changes in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, but at least a minimum political convergence. If successfully implemented, it would contribute to give a viable perspective to the design of the Economic and Monetary Union, capable of attracting those EU non-euro area countries that consider the mismanagement of the recent crisis and of its after-effects reason enough for resisting further losses of sovereignty.JEL codes: E52, E62, F33, F36, F45, G28

  18. Wave Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alikhani, Amir; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1998-01-01

    The data collected over the course of the experiment must be analysed and converted into a form suitable for its intended use. Type of analyses range from simple to sophisticated. Depending on the particular experiment and the needs of the researcher. In this study three main part of irregular wave...... data analyses are presented e.g. Time Domain (Statistical) Analyses, Frequency Domain (Spectral) Analyses and Wave Reflection Analyses. Random wave profile and definitions of representative waves, distributions of individual wave height and wave periods and spectra of sea waves are presented....

  19. Socioeconomic and cultural features of consensual unions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Consensual unions are a well-known practice among the lower social strata in Latin America. However, this type of union is increasing in the region, among higher educated groups and in countries where they were never widespread, such as in Brazil. This study uses couples' data from the demographic census available at IPUMS (N=193,689 to identify the socioeconomic and cultural features of consensual unions in Brazil. The effects of women's education, couples' income, children, and religion on nuptial behavior are analyzed. Utilizing logistic multilevel analysis, special attention is paid to the effect of differences in the cultural environment of states in the five major regions in which these unions occur. Results indicate that socioeconomic factors affect the incidence of consensual unions in Brazil. Consensual unions are more common among lower income couples and less educated women, but are also found among the upper classes. Cultural diversity between Brazilian states is also reflected in nuptial behavior. Significant variance at the state level is partially explained by the ethnic composition of each state.

  20. Labor union members play an OLG repeated game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Michihiro; Obayashi, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Humans are capable of cooperating with one another even when it is costly and a deviation provides an immediate gain. An important reason is that cooperation is reciprocated or rewarded and deviations are penalized in later stages. For cooperation to be sustainable, not only must rewards and penalties be strong enough but individuals should also have the right incentives to provide rewards and punishments. Codes of conduct with such properties have been studied extensively in game theory (as repeated game equilibria), and the literature on the evolution of cooperation shows how equilibrium behavior might emerge and proliferate in society. We found that community unions, a subclass of labor unions that admits individual affiliations, are ideal to corroborate these theories with reality, because (i) their activities are simple and (ii) they have a structure that closely resembles a theoretical model, the overlapping generations repeated game. A detailed case study of a community union revealed a possible equilibrium that can function under the very limited observability in the union. The equilibrium code of conduct appears to be a natural focal point based on simple heuristic reasoning. The union we studied was created out of necessity for cooperation, without knowing or anticipating how cooperation might be sustained. The union has successfully resolved about 3,000 labor disputes and created a number of offspring. PMID:25024211

  1. Ports modernization and its influence on trade unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Regina Heloisa; Lopes, Taise Araújo; Gonçalves, Rosemary Cavalcante

    2012-01-01

    The restructuring of production resulting from the Port Modernization Law (Law 8.630/90) caused significant changes in work organization of Brazilian Ports. In the case of Mucuripe (Fortaleza, Ceará), in particular, the changes were very intense as Mucuripe is an old port that, before the Law, had labor regulation being governed by Trade Unions. This paper aims to present the perceptions of Union Representatives on the changes brought about by the Law on work organization in the port of Fortaleza, its influence in the organization and in the way the Unions deal with this new reality. Open and exploratory interviews were conducted with representatives of occasional labor workers registered in the Port of Fortaleza OGMO (Orgão Gestor de Mão de Obra, Labor Regulation Management). The analysis of the collected material in the interviews was based on the technique of content analysis proposed by Bardin (1979). Trade Unions have undergone a great loss of power and it has reflected in a relative inability to perform its function and to fight for the rights of the workers. The obvious Trade Unions weakness - a reduction of strikes and less unionized workers - reflects the dominating ideology of capital.

  2. Labor union members play an OLG repeated game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Michihiro; Obayashi, Shinya

    2014-07-22

    Humans are capable of cooperating with one another even when it is costly and a deviation provides an immediate gain. An important reason is that cooperation is reciprocated or rewarded and deviations are penalized in later stages. For cooperation to be sustainable, not only must rewards and penalties be strong enough but individuals should also have the right incentives to provide rewards and punishments. Codes of conduct with such properties have been studied extensively in game theory (as repeated game equilibria), and the literature on the evolution of cooperation shows how equilibrium behavior might emerge and proliferate in society. We found that community unions, a subclass of labor unions that admits individual affiliations, are ideal to corroborate these theories with reality, because (i) their activities are simple and (ii) they have a structure that closely resembles a theoretical model, the overlapping generations repeated game. A detailed case study of a community union revealed a possible equilibrium that can function under the very limited observability in the union. The equilibrium code of conduct appears to be a natural focal point based on simple heuristic reasoning. The union we studied was created out of necessity for cooperation, without knowing or anticipating how cooperation might be sustained. The union has successfully resolved about 3,000 labor disputes and created a number of offspring.

  3. Reachout: Associations of College Unions-International Proceedings of the Forty Eighth Annual Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Coll. Unions-International, Madison, WI.

    A wide range of articles concerned with the major work and interests of college unions are organized into six topical areas; (1) philosophical considerations about the purposes and directions of college unions; (2) management and operation of the college union; (3) food service; (4) programming; (5) contemporary society and the college union; and…

  4. Career Transitions after a Long Experience as Trade Union Officer: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Scali, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In France, trade union officers are former shop stewards who have chosen to work full-time for the union for several years. This research investigates the career transitions of former union officers who have returned to the labour market following extended experience with high-level responsibilities in the union. Semi-directed interviews were…

  5. Wave disc engine apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  6. Automatic Certification or Mandatory Representation Votes? How the Choice of Union Recognition Procedure Affects Union Certification Success

    OpenAIRE

    S Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Union recognition procedures are about to be reformed in the U.K. Current legislative reform proposes automatic certification. Business prefers mandatory representation votes. Will the choice of union recognition procedure affect certification success? This paper provides empirical evidence on the impact of the choice of recognition procedure on certification success. Cross-section time-series analysis of nine Canadian jurisdictions over nineteen years is used to identify the effect of mandat...

  7. The fifth wave of the European Union enlargement: pro et contra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the principal complex of economic and political motivations of the states of Central and Eastern Europe and the EU members related to the EU enlargement towards the East. Special attention is paid to the discussion on the reasonableness of the EU enlargement and the positions of certain EU members.

  8. The Governance System of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin M. Ionescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European governance is an institutional arrangement enabling the cooperation and the competition among the states, the individuals and the pressure groups looking to maximize their welfare. The European governance system is a multi-level non-hierarchical structure, and authority is shared among the supranational bodies, as well as among the latter and the Member States. The structure of the European governance system is influenced by the need to achieve a political balance among the stakeholders, in the environment of a permanent conflict among the public interest regulations and the “captive” regulations (George J. Stigler1 , the latter being determined by the rent extraction rent seeking. In this short analysis I describe the European governance, taking into account the policy-making framework under, “Two-pack”, “Sixpack”, and the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union (TSCG that increases the power of the supranational bodies2 . For this purpose I embarked on two different approaches: the economic theory of regulation (G. Stigler, G. Tullock, S. Peltzman, R.Posner and the normative theories on power distribution. For the time being there is no bridge between these two theories. However, in the specialised literature, the approach to European governance system is mainly based on the normative theories on power distribution (the integration theories. The economic theory of regulation expresses the economic rationale of the decisions made by the EU supranational bodies and by the Member States at national level. This theory also helps the understanding of the behaviour at the supranational level of certain states whenever they negotiate economic policies with regard to currency, energy, tax coordination. For this reason, the economic theory of regulation is the framework for adjust the inefficient institutions3 whereas identifies solutions for public policies. The normative theories on

  9. Robust Wave Resource Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the wave energy resource at the location of the Danish Wave Energy test Centre (DanWEC) is presented in this paper. The Wave Energy Converter (WEC) test centre is located at Hanstholm in the of North West Denmark. Information about the long term wave statistics of the resource...... is necessary for WEC developers, both to optimise the WEC for the site, and to estimate its average yearly power production using a power matrix. The wave height and wave period sea states parameters are commonly characterized with a bivariate histogram. This paper presents bivariate histograms and kernel...... density estimates of the PDF as a function both of Hm0 and Tp, and Hm0 and T0;2, together with the mean wave power per unit crest length, Pw, as a function of Hm0 and T0;2. The wave elevation parameters, from which the wave parameters are calculated, are filtered to correct or remove spurious data...

  10. Bildung in der Europaischen Union: Daten und Kennzahlen = Education across the European Union: Statistics and Indicators = Education dans L'Union Europeennee Statistiques et Indicateurs, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This publication provides comparable statistics and indicators on education across the 15 member states of the European Union. The main source of data is the joint UOE (UNESCO, Organisation for Economic Development, Eurostat) revised questionnaire on education statistics introduced in 1995. Educational attainment information draws on data from the…

  11. The Future of the European Union: A Critical Trade Union View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Medhurst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a radical critique of the current framework of economic policy within the European Union and its negative effect on social cohesion. It defends the aspirations of the “Social Europe” model but suggests this model is now withering on the vine, not least because employers and governments no longer support it and have withdrawn from genuine social partnership. The paper asserts that the undemocratic nature of European policy making institutions is a fundamental bloc to progressive reform of the EU, and criticises the economic philosophy inherent in the Lisbon Agenda and recent controversial European Court of Justice decisions that have expanded that agenda. Lastly, it sketches some alternatives to this direction of travel, drawn from successful models within and outside Europe.

  12. Job insecurity, union support and the intention to resign membership. A psychological contract perspective tested among union members in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Hans; Sverke, Magnus; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Goslinga, Sjoerd; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Hellgren, Johnny; Näswall, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of job insecurity among union members. Starting from the dominance of the instrumental motive for union membership, and using psychological contract theory, we hypothesize that the perception of job insecurity will correlate with a lower level of perceived union

  13. [The founding fathers of the International Union for Health Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senault, R

    1991-03-01

    At the Fourteenth World Conference on Health Education in Helsinki in June 1991, a special ceremony will celebrate the fortieth anniversary of the founding of the International Union for Health Education. The Union was created following studies and discussions among delegates from thirty-five countries and representatives from fifteen non-governmental organizations (NGO), and in the presence of observers from WHO and UNESCO. The document creating the Union was signed at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs on May 30, 1951. This article evokes the memory of the pioneers under whose authority the Union was formed and has developed. The leading thinkers in health education were the creators of a work still referred to today when we examine the history and evolution of the IUHE. Our pioneers were Jacques Parisot and Lucien Bivorel in France, Clair E. Turner in the United States of America, and Giovanni Canaperia in Italy. An English translation of this homage to the founders of the international Union for Health Education will appear as a publication made available at the Fourteenth International Conference on Health Education in Helsinki. It will also be available from the IUHE's Headquarters.

  14. Injuries in Australian school-level rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Hides, Julie A

    2017-11-01

    There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. In youth rugby union, there are large variations in injury rates reported. Our study investigated the rates of injuries in school-level rugby union players in Australia using the consensus statement for rugby union injuries. Injury surveillance was conducted on 480 rugby players from 1 school in Queensland, Australia. Injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the 8-week rugby season using a "medical-attention" injury definition. In total, 76 players sustained one or more injuries, with a total of 80 injuries recorded. The overall injury rate was 31.8 injuries/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 25.4-39.4). Concussion had an incidence rate of 6.0/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 3.5-9.6). The incidence of upper limb and lower limb injuries were 9.1 and 9.9/1000 match player hours, respectively (95% CI, 5.9-13.5 and 6.6-14.5). The older age divisions had higher injury rates and most injuries occurred while tackling or being tackled. The injury rates observed in this sample of Australian school rugby union players provides direction for future studies to enable informed decisions relating to development of injury prevention programmes at this level of rugby.

  15. Is European Union at the Heart of Citizens' Identity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CĂRĂUŞAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The departure point of many discussions on European identity is the idea that a political community needs a common set of values and references to ensure its coherence, to guide his actions and to endow these with legitimacy and meaning. The motto “unity in diversity” is generally seen as best describing the aims of the European Union; opinions differ widely as to ho understood. That is why we will try to identify those values which brought the European countries together almost 60 years ago. And we will continue to see, based on the Eurobarometers results, which are the European citizens’ values and what European Union represents for them, in terms of values. For that we will put together the items obtained in the last five years and we will see in the end to which value European Union should pay more attention in the future. Even the surveys show that European Union citizens continue to identify first of all with their own countries and we consider it important to find an answer to the following question: Is European Union a community of shared values?

  16. THE EUROPEAN UNION A CRITICAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria NEGROPONTI-DELIVANIS

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, this study deals with some issues that have amassed within EU, practically in all fields of activity, especially after the last wave of enlargement, thus the fears of deepened distance between EU and its population being brought up to light. EU undergoes an identity crisis with multiple facets: geographical, socio-economic, moral, ideologic, and strategic ones, etc. The main goal of EU for the last three decades is no longer population welfare, but ôcompetitivenessö , and the chief means of increasing it is production costsÆ diminution that occurs by massive layoffs and wage decreases. EU enlargement and in-depth processes have created new issues such as enterprises relocalisation, immigration, social protection system, and foregoing the chance to dominate the world. The second part analyses the consequences related to the turmoil within EU: co-existence of welfare and poverty (increased unemployment, growth of discrepancies between countries; massive absence at the latest polls; lack of confidence in political personalities; risks of enlargement without previous operated in-depth changes, etc. Despite its flagrant shortcommings it is less probable that the EU would dissolve. It amassed a lot of red-tape (bureaucracy and embodied so many interests, so that the most likely development seems to be an even greater enlargement, until it will become completely ineffective. The single means of improving EU is that populations become aware of the other side of the medal.

  17. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  18. Viscothermal wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the accuracy, efficiency and range of applicability of various (approximate) models for viscothermal wave propagation are investigated. Models for viscothermal wave propagation describe thewave behavior of fluids including viscous and thermal effects. Cases where viscothermal effects

  19. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  20. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  1. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  2. Detonation Wave Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  3. Immunoendocrine responses over a three week international rugby union series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, B; Hore, A J; Whitcombe, D M; Jones, K P; Davies, B; Baker, J S

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated changes in immunoendocrine makers over an international series in professional rugby union players (N.=8). Venous bloods were taken on camp-entry, as well as before and after (0, 14 and 38 h) two games spaced over 21-days. Samples were analysed for changes in serum C-reactive protein (CRP), cortisol (C), testosterone (T), blood leukocytes, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK). Significant reductions in CK activity and CRP concentrations were evident on day 5 (pre-game 1) when compared to camp-entry (day 1); Pvalues 35% and 45% higher on days 19 and 21 than those observed at camp-entry (Prugby union series. Monitoring of previous club activity is essential to ensure optimal player readiness prior to participation in international rugby union games.

  4. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the new politics opened up new opportunities for businesses and citizens. The aim of the article is to analyze the balance of the Polish membership in the European Union in the economic, financial, political and social dimensions.

  5. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Diana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore, the paper analyses labour productiveness, employment rate and unemployment rate both in Romania and in the other countries of the European Union. In the end the authors forward conclusions regarding the possibilities of increasing competitiveness on Romania’s labour market.

  6. IDENTIFYING KEY TRENDS OF DIRECT SALES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA BRUTU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selling is the most representative marketing action; without customers there is no organization, and without sales there is no customer. Selling does not mean only to conclude a business (giving an economical good and receiving an amount of money, but also to obtain satisfied, loyal customers. An alternative to the traditional sale is the direct sale. The main objective of this paper is to present briefly the opinions of some renowned researchers regarding selling in general, and direct selling in particular; the righteous dimensioning of direct selling within the European Union and Romania, detecting Romania’s deviations towards the European Union in relation with the characteristics of direct selling, achieving researches, through the SPSS program, which can detect the main trends of direct selling within the European Union.

  7. The Virtual Enterprise – Citizen of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Davidescu (Vasile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Enterprise is a rather young and unclear concept in the business world. A virtual enterprise is a temporary network of companies that share their different resources in order to reach a given goal (the creation of a new product, or the entry on a new market and is a powerful tool in the hands of the business community. The question this article raises is whether European Union's businesses are able to take advantage of this opportunity within the European Union. We discuss several obstacles towards the creation of virtual enterprises: regulatory uncertainties, operational management that dismisses the advantage of an excellent infrastructure, the orientation of innovation creators towards theoretical research and the European business culture. The article also looks at research on the virtual enterprise in the European Union, the legal framework and technologies for virtualization.

  8. The Effect of Union Status at First Childbirth on Union Stability: Evidence from Eastern and Western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnor, Christine

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that cohabitation is much less stable than marriage. If cohabitation becomes more common among parents, children may be increasingly exposed to separation. However, little is known about how the proportion of cohabiting parents relates to their separation behavior. Higher shares of childbearing within cohabitation might reduce the proportion of negatively selected couples among cohabiting parents, which could in turn improve their union stability. This study focuses on parents who were cohabiting when they had their first child. It compares their union stability within a context in which they represent the majority or the minority. The German case is well-suited to this research goal because non-marital childbearing is common in eastern Germany (60 %) but not in western Germany (27 %). The data came from the German Family Panel (pairfam), and include 1,844 married and cohabiting mothers born in 1971-1973 and 1981-1983. The empirical results suggest that the union stability of cohabiting mothers is positively related to their prevalence: survival curves showed that eastern German cohabiting mothers had a greater degree of union stability than their western German counterparts. This difference increased in the event-history model, which accounted for the particular composition of eastern German society, including the relatively low level of religious affiliation among the population. Controlling for unobserved heterogeneity did not change this result. In sum, these findings indicate that context plays an important role in the union stability of cohabiting parents.

  9. A Selected Interactive Videodisc Bibliography. TDC Research Report No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rae; Sayre, Scott

    This bibliography lists 360 monographs, journal articles, research reports, and conference proceedings on interactive videodisc and educational applications of this technology. Materials through December 1988 are included. A sidebar provides background on interactive video technology. (MES)

  10. Determining a piston's top dead center (TDC) in an automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smart structures and MEMS are considered important field recently, due to the importance and high capabilities in measurement and the power of reaction and response to changes of the surroundings. This research concerns two fields of practical vision in the automotive industry and discuss the energy recycled industrial ...

  11. Trade unions and the economic performance of brazilian establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, for the first time in the literature, the impact of trade unions on various performance indicators of Brazilian establishments. A unionism retrospective survey was carried out among 1,000 establishments in the manufacturing sector and its results were matched to performance indicators available from the Brazilian Industrial Surveys between 1990 and 2000. The results using the pooled data indicate that the relationship between unionism and some performance indicators, such as average wages, employment and productivity is non-linear (concave, so that a rise in unionism from low levels is associated with higher performance, but at a decreasing rate. Unions also reduce profitability. Establishments that introduced profit-sharing schemes increased their productivity and profitability overall and paid higher wages in more unionized plants.Este artigo analisa, pela primeira vez na literatura, o impacto dos sindicatos de trabalhadores em vários indicadores de desempenho econômico de firmas industriais brasileiras. Realizou-se uma pesquisa retrospectiva sobre a densidade sindical de 1000 estabelecimentos industriais brasileiros e seus resultados foram combinados aos indicadores de desempenho econômico da Pesquisa Industrial Anual (PIA de 1990 a 2000. Os resultados indicam que a relação entre a densidade sindical na firma e seus salários, emprego e produtividade, é não-linear, ou seja, um aumento no grau de sindicalização leva a um melhor desempenho, porém a taxas decrescentes. Observou-se, também, uma relação negativa entre sindicalização e rentabilidade. Finalmente, estabelecimentos que introduziram mecanismos de 'participação nos lucros' aumentaram sua produtividade e rentabilidade no período e pagaram maiores salários nas firmas onde o grau de sindicalização era maior.

  12. Modelling sand wave variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke

    2009-01-01

    The sea floor of shallow seas is rarely flat and often dynamic. A widely occurring bedform type is the sand wave. Sand waves form more or less regular wavelike patterns on the seabed with crests up to one third of the water depth, wave lengths of hundreds of metres and a migration rate of metres up

  13. Wave Dragon MW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the experience gained a full scale, multi MW prototype...

  14. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...... wave overtopping was studied as well....

  15. Modeling Regional Seismic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-25

    Shear waves are almost always observed from underground explosions. One can visualize many ways to convert explosion P waves into SV waves. An ob- vious...of the observed moment to the input source moment, Moba /Mo, as a function of the compressional velocities a, of the embedded sphere for different whole

  16. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  17. B-waves revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spiegelberg

    2016-12-01

    With the still unmet need for a clinically acceptable method for acquiring intracranial compliance, and the revival of ICP waveform analysis, B-waves are moving back into the research focus. Herein we provide a concise review of the literature on B-waves, including a critical assessment of non-invasive methods for obtaining B-wave surrogates.

  18. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a broad overview of the emerging field of gravitational-wave astronomy. Although gravitational waves have not been directly de- tected yet, the worldwide scientific community is engaged in an exciting search for these elusive waves. Once detected, they will open up a new observational window to the Universe.

  19. The Effects of Bill 4330/2004 on Union Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Prata Mendes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze in which way the bill 4330/2004 affects the union representativeness of outsourced workers. In order to accomplish the settled purpose, it is necessary firstly to frame the outsourcing phenomena in the context of the evolution of capitalism. In relation to the main problem of the work, it’s necessary to investigate if the bill 4330/2004 implies an offense to the union representativeness of outsourced workers. The conclusions obtained show that bill 4330/2004 compounds the representativeness trouble, since this bill proposes the agglutination of workers pertained to very different realities, what stunts the collective protection of interests.

  20. Liability of the European Union for acts of its Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaescu, Bucura Catalina

    2011-01-01

    The following article will assess the real extent of the potential liability of the European Union. It will fi rstly focus on the recognition and the development by the EU Courts of the conditions which must be fulfi lled in order for the EU to incur liability for the acts of its institutions. It will be emphasised in this regard that, as the EU Courts’ case-law currently stand, the criteria for Union liability can differ, depending on a number of variables including whether the c...

  1. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the ne...

  2. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  3. Challenges in diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the European Union, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Solovic, I.; Jonsson, J.; Korzeniewska-Kosela, M.; Chiotan, D. I.; Pace-Asciak, A.; Slump, E.; Rumetshofer, R; Abubakar, I; Kos, S.; Svetina-Sorli, P.; Haas, Walter; Bauer, T.; Sandgren, A; Werf, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union (EU) 72,334 tuberculosis (TB) cases were notified in 2011, of which 16,116 (22%) had extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). The percentage of TB cases with EPTB ranged from 4% to 48% in the reporting countries. This difference might be explained by differences in risk factors for EPTB or challenges in diagnosis. To assess the practices in diagnosis of EPTB we asked European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries to participate in a report describing the diagnostic ...

  4. Workers' attitudes toward unions and collective action in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Maceira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available After the transformations in social and political conditions of Argentine workers in the '90, the organized fractions of the working class have recovered their prominence since 2003, because of the economic reactivation. In this study, we explore some aspects of the subjective reconstruction of this collective actor: representations and attitudes regarding unions and collective action. Research is based on a group of in-depth interviews with unionized workers who work either in the manufacture industry or in the construction sector, in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. We describe the main tendencies, the profiles of different generations and the relations between trade-unionist consciousness and peronist identity.

  5. PPPs IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. GUIDELINES FOR ROMANIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian GORIŢĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several starting points could be used in an analysis on the possible routes for developing Public-Private Partnership1 (henceforth PPP projects in Romania, regarded as an alternative financing mechanism for public infrastructure. This paper follows a “classical” approach, with a focus on the pros and cons of the Public-Private Partnership concept, legal forms met in the European acquis, the Eurostat view on such projects in terms of the statistical classification of assets, financing and policy directions in the European Union and lessons learnt for practitioners in Romania, while taking into account the recent developments of the PPP market in the European Union

  6. Unity in Diversity. The Language Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the connections between the law and language in the European Union. The paper concerns the language policy of the European Union (EU and English language priority. The EU faces challenges of finding a common ground for respecting the diversity of its members. So many different states are gathered in one organisation which establishes the law for diversified legal orders. The research question is - which language(s is or should be used in the EU? Does English become lingua franca of the EU?

  7. TOWARDS THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION-Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos G. TURLIUC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has made the need for a more integrated regulatory and supervisory framework for the financial services sector evident. An important step towards this aim is the establishment of the Single Supervisory Mechanism. European leaders have committed to moving toward a banking union, in which bank regulation and supervision, deposit guarantees, and the handling of troubled banks will be integrated across at least the euro area and possibly across the wider European Union. This paper provides an overview of research on this topic. We also identify important future research questions that emerge from both the literature and the current debate.

  8. Latin American astronomers and the International Astronomical Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2017-07-01

    Selected aspects of the participation of the Latin American astronomers in the International Astronomical Union are presented: Membership, Governing bodies, IAU meetings, and other activities. The Union was founded in 1919 with 7 initial member states, soon to be followed by Brazil. In 1921 Mexico joined, and in 1928 Argentina also formed part of the Union, while Chile joined in 1947. In 1961 Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Venezuela were already member countries. At present (October 2016) 72 countries contribute financially to the Union. The Union lists 12,391 professional astronomers as individual members; of those, 692 astronomers work in Latin America and the Caribbean, from 13 member states (Argentina, Bolivia , Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, Panamá, Perú, Uruguay and Venezuela) as well as from Ecuador and Puerto Rico. This group comprises 5.58% of the total membership, a figure somewhat lower than the fraction of the population in the region, which is 8.6% of the world population. Of the Latin American members, 23.4% are women and 76.6% are men; slightly higher than the whole membership of Union, which is of 16.9%. In the governing bodies it can be mentioned that there have been 2 Presidents of the Union (Jorge Sahade and Silvia Torres-Peimbert), 7 VicePresidents (Guillermo Haro, Jorge Sahade, Manuel Peimbert Claudio Anguita, Silvia Torres-Peimbert, Beatriz Barbuy, and Marta G. Rovira). The IAU meetings held in the region, include 2 General Assemblies (the 1991 XXI GA took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina and the 2009 XXVIII GA, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 15 Regional Meetings (in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay), 29 Symposia (in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Mexico), 5 Colloquia (in Argentina and Mexico), 8 International Schools for Young Astronomers (in Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Honduras and Mexico), and 11 projects sponsored by the Office of Astronomy

  9. The European Union's Normative Power in a more Global Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era requires a reconsideration of the nature of European Union (EU) power and actorness in a more global era. The article does this by first looking at the study of the EU in a more global era. Second, the normative power approach will be exa......The globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era requires a reconsideration of the nature of European Union (EU) power and actorness in a more global era. The article does this by first looking at the study of the EU in a more global era. Second, the normative power approach...

  10. Illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J G

    1994-01-01

    "This paper develops a general equilibrium framework of a two-sector economy which incorporates illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions. It demonstrates that stricter enforcement of immigration laws, by reducing the demand for or supply of illegal aliens, benefits all legal workers in the economy. The model is used to evaluate the impact of these policy changes on national income. Results indicate that national income does not necessarily fall when immigration controls are tightened. The existence of a union mitigates the negative welfare impact of a reduction in the number of illegal immigrants." excerpt

  11. Spin wave generation by surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Labanowski, Dominic; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2017-07-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAW) on piezoelectric substrates can excite spin wave resonance (SWR) in magnetostrictive films through magnetoelastic coupling. This acoustically driven SWR enables the excitation of a single spin wave mode with an in-plane wave vector k matched to the magnetoelastic wave vector. A 2D frequency domain finite element model is presented that fully couples elastodynamics, micromagnetics, and piezoelectricity with interface spin pumping effects taken into account. It is used to simulate SAW driven SWR on a ferromagnetic and piezoelectric heterostructure device with an interdigital transducer configuration. These results, for the first time, present the spatial distribution of magnetization components that, together with elastic wave, exponentially decays along the propagation direction due to magnetic damping. The results also show that the system transmission rate S21(dB) can be tuned by both an external bias field and the SAW wavevector. Acoustic spin pumping at magnetic film/normal metal interface leads to damping enhancement in magnetic films that decreases the energy absorption rate from elastic energy. This weakened interaction between the magnetic energy and elastic energy leads to a lower evanescence rate of the SAW that results in a longer distance propagation. With strong magnetoelastic coupling, the SAW driven spin wave is able to propagate up to 1200 μm. The results give a quantitative indication of the acoustic spin pumping contribution to linewidth broadening.

  12. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  13. Resources and the environment: Development trends in the European Union; Ressourcen und Umwelt - Entwicklungstendenzen in der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaechter, N. [Wirtschaftsvereinigung Bergbau e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    The 6th Environmental Programme of the European Union focuses on ecology, while economic and social aspects are largely neglected. Four priority fieds of action are defined: Climate; Nature and biological diversity; Environment, health and quality of life; Natural resources and waste. The contribution presents examples to show the effects on the German raw materials industry. [German] Die umweltpolitischen Zielsetzungen und Massnahmen, welche die Europaeische Union innerhalb der naechsten zehn Jahre verwirklichen will, werden in dem 6. Umweltaktionsprogramm konkretisiert. Die Ziele und Massnahmen sind fast ausschliesslich auf die oekologische Ebene ausgerichtet, ohne die gleichrangigen oekonomischen und sozialen Belange angemessen zu beruecksichtigen. Das Programm konzentriert sich auf 4 prioritaere Aktionsbereiche - Klimaaenderungen. Natur und biologische Vielfalt, Umwelt, Gesundheit und Lebensqualitaet und Natuerliche Ressourcen und Abfaelle. An wenigen, ausgewaehlten Beispielen soll verdeutlicht werden, welche Auswirkungen diese Entwicklungstendenzen der Europaeischen Union auf die deutsche Rohstoffwirtschaft haben koennten. (orig.)

  14. Exothermic waves in continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyi, G. G.

    Theoretical and experimental research related to the generation and propagation of exothermic waves in combustible gas mixtures as well as solid and liquid combustible media is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to detonation phenomena, the stationary structure of chemical detonation waves for various gas and condensed explosive models, discontinuous solutions for motions with exothermic discontinuities, and heat release in thermonuclear reactions. The discussion also covers frontal polymerization and crystallization waves, stationary combustion waves in systems with high-temperature self-propagating synthesis, and initiation of exothermic waves in continua with allowance for transfer processes.

  15. The Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Hansen, R.; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type, utilizing a patented wave reflector design to focus the waves towards a ramp, and the overtopping is used for electricity production through a set of Kaplan/propeller hydro turbines. During the last 2 years, excessive...... design an testing has been performed on a scale 1:50 model of the Wave Dragon, and on a scale 1:3:5 model turbine. Thus survivability, overtopping, hydraulic response, turbine performance and feasibility have been verified....

  16. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......'s first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype...

  17. Pulsars and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. J.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between pulsar-like compact stars and gravitational waves is briefly reviewed. Due to regular spins, pulsars could be useful tools for us to detect ~nano-Hz low-frequency gravitational waves by pulsar-timing array technique; besides, they would also be ~kilo-Hz high-frequency gravitational wave radiators because of their compactness. The wave strain of an isolated pulsar depends on the equation state of cold matter at supra-nuclear densities. Therefore, a real detection of gravitational wave should be very meaningful in gravity physics, micro-theory of elementary strong interaction, and astronomy.

  18. Physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, William C

    1985-01-01

    Because of the increasing demands and complexity of undergraduate physics courses (atomic, quantum, solid state, nuclear, etc.), it is often impossible to devote separate courses to the classic wave phenomena of optics, acoustics, and electromagnetic radiation. This brief comprehensive text helps alleviate the problem with a unique overview of classical wave theory in one volume.By examining a sequence of concrete and specific examples (emphasizing the physics of wave motion), the authors unify the study of waves, developing abstract and general features common to all wave motion. The fundam

  19. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  20. The European Banking Union: Will It Be a True Union without Risk Sharing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments of the Euro crisis reveal the lack of clear or coherent thinking on the part of both the Eurozone finance ministers and the European Commission. The crisis in Cyprus is partly the consequence of decisions made on private sector involvement in the previous Greek bailout, and other such examples may be made. It is time, therefore, to look reality in the face and strengthen the structures of the EMU. The article is devoted to what has been done and what must still be done to make the European banking system more robust and less permeable to crises, and to preserve the single financial market. It looks at the initiatives of both the European Commission and the European Council to complete the EMU by creating a banking union, the doubts on the wisdom of entrusting banking oversight to the ECB, the organization of the ECB’s new tasks, the continuing absence of facilities for the recovery or liquidation of banks, as well as for a Euro-wide deposit insurance, the need for some form of risk-sharing in order to stabilise the economy, and thus the recourse to a common budget and the possibility of joint debt for the Eurozone.