Sample records for wave scattering due

  1. Numerical characterisation of guided wave scattering due to welds in rails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS


    Full Text Available such analyses. This paper employs a hybrid SAFE-3D method to investigate the scattering of guided waves interacting with discontinuities, such as welds, in continuous welded train rails. The aim of the analysis is to predict transmission and reflection...

  2. Analysis of guided wave scattering due to defects in rails using a hybrid FE-safe method (United States)

    Long, C. S.; Loveday, P. W.


    Analysis of travelling waves in elastic waveguides with complex cross-sections, such as train rails, can only conveniently be performed numerically. The semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) method has become a popular tool for performing such analyses. This paper employs a hybrid SAFE-3D FE method to investigate the scattering of guided waves at discontinuities such as welds or cracks, in continuous welded train rails. The aim of the analysis is to predict transmission and reflection coefficients for a given incident wave and known discontinuity. This characterisation is useful for predicting the long-range transmission characteristics of transducers in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and monitoring systems, such as the ultrasonic broken rail detector (UBRD) system developed by the Institute for Maritime Technology (IMT) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Furthermore, we investigate an extension of the current UBRD system to detect cracks before complete breaks occur, which will require distinguishing between reflections from cracks and other reflectors such as welds, in order to avoid false alarms.

  3. Wave propagation scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, M Sh


    The papers in this collection were written primarily by members of the St. Petersburg seminar in mathematical physics. The seminar, now run by O. A. Ladyzhenskaya, was initiated in 1947 by V. I. Smirnov, to whose memory this volume is dedicated. The papers in the collection are devoted mainly to wave propagation processes, scattering theory, integrability of nonlinear equations, and related problems of spectral theory of differential and integral operators. The book is of interest to mathematicians working in mathematical physics and differential equations, as well as to physicists studying va

  4. Study of probing beam enlargement due to forward-scattering under low wavenumber turbulence using a FDTD full-wave code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F. da [Associao EURATOM/IST, IPFN-LA, Instituto Superor Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Heuraux, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, BP70239, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Gusakov, E.; Popov, A. [Ioffe Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Forward-scattering under high level of turbulence or long propagation paths can induce significant effects, as predicted by theory, and impose a signature on the Doppler reflectometry response. Simulations using a FDTD (finite-difference time-domain) full-wave code have confirmed the main dependencies and general behavior described by theory but display a returned RMS power, at moderate amplitudes, half of the one predicted by theory due to the impossibility to reach the numerical requirements needed to describe the small wavenumber spectrum with the wanted accuracy.One justifying factor may be due to the splitting and enlargement of the probing beam. At high turbulence levels, the scattered power returning to the antenna is higher than the predicted by the theory probably due to the scattered zone being closer than the oblique cutoff. This loss of coherence of the wavefront induces a beam spreading, which is also responsible for a diminution of the wavenumber resolution. With a FDTD full-wave code we study the behavior of the probing beam under several amplitude levels of low wavenumber plasma turbulence, using long temporal simulations series to ensure statistical accuracy. (authors)

  5. Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jakeman, E


    Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...

  6. Water wave scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Birendra Nath


    The theory of water waves is most varied and is a fascinating topic. It includes a wide range of natural phenomena in oceans, rivers, and lakes. It is mostly concerned with elucidation of some general aspects of wave motion including the prediction of behaviour of waves in the presence of obstacles of some special configurations that are of interest to ocean engineers. Unfortunately, even the apparently simple problems appear to be difficult to tackle mathematically unless some simplified assumptions are made. Fortunately, one can assume water to be an incompressible, in viscid and homogeneous

  7. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Gerhard


    The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.

  8. Wave scattering in spatially inhomogeneous currents (United States)

    Churilov, Semyon; Ermakov, Andrei; Stepanyants, Yury


    We analytically study a scattering of long linear surface waves on stationary currents in a duct (canal) of constant depth and variable width. It is assumed that the background velocity linearly increases or decreases with the longitudinal coordinate due to the gradual variation of duct width. Such a model admits an analytical solution of the problem in hand, and we calculate the scattering coefficients as functions of incident wave frequency for all possible cases of sub-, super-, and transcritical currents. For completeness we study both cocurrent and countercurrent wave propagation in accelerating and decelerating currents. The results obtained are analyzed in application to recent analog gravity experiments and shed light on the problem of hydrodynamic modeling of Hawking radiation.

  9. Wave propagation and scattering in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Akira


    Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an

  10. Scattering theory of stochastic electromagnetic light waves. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu


    We generalize scattering theory to stochastic electromagnetic light waves. It is shown that when a stochastic electromagnetic light wave is scattered from a medium, the properties of the scattered field can be characterized by a 3 x 3 cross-spectral density matrix. An example of scattering of a spatially coherent electromagnetic light wave from a deterministic medium is discussed. Some interesting phenomena emerge, including the changes of the spectral degree of coherence and of the spectral degree of polarization of the scattered field.

  11. The Controlling Parameters for EMIC Wave Scattering of Relativistic Electrons (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.


    Although there is growing support for relativistic electron losses due to precipitation from electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave scattering, this mechanism is yet to be quantified. Such a quantification has been difficult in the past, because equatorial electron measurements simultaneous with EMIC waves have been limited, due to the highly localized presence of EMIC waves in the magnetosphere. In this study, we examine parameters controlling characteristics of EMIC wave induced relativistic (0.3-6 MeV) electron scattering, directly based on simultaneous wave and particle measurements from Van Allen Probes. We first present a case study when relativistic electrons respond differently during two intervals of intense ( 1 nT) EMIC wave observations: one with no scattering signature and one with efficient electron losses at >1.8 MeV. Based on the observed EMIC wave spectra and background plasma conditions, we calculate the wave diffusion rates and model the evolution of electron pitch angle distributions. By comparing the modeled results with local observations of pitch angle distributions, we demonstrate that fpe/fce is critical in controlling the effectiveness of EMIC waves in scattering multi-MeV electrons. We then expand our analysis to explore the conditions (such as fpe/fce, wave frequency spectra, and ring current ion temperature and anisotropy levels) favorable for EMIC wave scattering multi-MeV electrons through multi-event analyses. Our study is important for accurately modeling relativistic electron loss processes in radiation belt electron forecasts.

  12. Wideband spectrum analysis of ultra-high frequency radio-wave signals due to advanced one-phonon non-collinear anomalous light scattering. (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S; Arellanes, Adan Omar


    We present a principally new acousto-optical cell providing an advanced wideband spectrum analysis of ultra-high frequency radio-wave signals. For the first time, we apply a recently developed approach with the tilt angle to a one-phonon non-collinear anomalous light scattering. In contrast to earlier cases, now one can exploit a regime with the fixed optical wavelength for processing a great number of acoustic frequencies simultaneously in the linear regime. The chosen rutile-crystal combines a moderate acoustic velocity with low acoustic attenuation and allows us wide-band data processing within GHz-frequency acoustic waves. We have created and experimentally tested a 6-cm aperture rutile-made acousto-optical cell providing the central frequency 2.0 GHz, frequency bandwidth ∼0.52  GHz with the frequency resolution about 68.3 kHz, and ∼7620 resolvable spots. A similar cell permits designing an advanced ultra-high-frequency arm within a recently developed multi-band radio-wave acousto-optical spectrometer for astrophysical studies. This spectrometer is intended to operate with a few parallel optical arms for processing the multi-frequency data flows within astrophysical observations. Keeping all the instrument's advantages of the previous schematic arrangement, now one can create the highest-frequency arm using the developed rutile-based acousto-optical cell. It permits optimizing the performances inherent in that arm via regulation of both the central frequency and the frequency bandwidth for spectrum analysis.

  13. Estimation of Effective Transmission Loss Due to Subtropical Hydrometeor Scatters using a 3D Rain Cell Model for Centimeter and Millimeter Wave Applications (United States)

    Ojo, J. S.; Owolawi, P. A.


    The problem of hydrometeor scattering on microwave radio communication down links continues to be of interest as the number of the ground and earth space terminals continually grows The interference resulting from the hydrometeor scattering usually leads to the reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR) at the affected terminal and at worst can even end up in total link outage. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compute the effective transmission loss due to subtropical hydrometeors on vertically polarized signals in Earth-satellite propagation paths in the Ku, Ka and V band frequencies based on the modified Capsoni 3D rain cell model. The 3D rain cell model has been adopted and modified using the subtropical log-normal distributions of raindrop sizes and introducing the equivalent path length through rain in the estimation of the attenuation instead of the usual specific attenuation in order to account for the attenuation of both wanted and unwanted paths to the receiver. The co-channels, interference at the same frequency is very prone to the higher amount of unwanted signal at the elevation considered. The importance of joint transmission is also considered.

  14. Electromagnetic wave dynamics in matter-wave superradiant scattering. (United States)

    Deng, L; Payne, M G; Hagley, E W


    We present a small-signal wave propagation theory on matter-wave superradiant scattering. We show, in a longitudinally excited condensate, that the backward-propagating, superradiantly generated optical field propagates with ultraslow group velocity and that the small-signal gain profile has a Bragg resonance. We further show a unidirectional suppression of optical superradiant scattering, and explain why matter-wave superradiance can occur only when the pump laser is red detuned. This is the first analytical theory on field propagation in matter-wave superradiance that can explain all matter-wave superradiance experiments to date that used a single-frequency, long-pulse, red-detuned laser.

  15. Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, F G; ter Haar, D


    Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a

  16. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by rain (United States)

    Tsolakis, A.; Stutzman, W. L.


    As the operating frequencies of communications systems move higher into the millimeter wave region, the effects of multiple scattering in precipitation media become more significant. In this paper, general formulations are presented for single, first-order multiple, and complete multiple scattering. Included specifically are distributions of particle size, shape, and orientation angle, as well as variation in the medium density along the direction of wave propagation. Calculations are performed for rain. It is shown that the effects of higher-order scattering are not noticeable in either attenuation or channel isolation on a dual-polarized system until frequencies of about 30 GHz are reached. The complete multiple-scattering formulation presented gives accurate results at high millimeter wave frequencies as well as including realistic medium parameter distributions. Furthermore, it is numerically efficient.

  17. Scattering of radio frequency waves by turbulence in fusion plasmas (United States)

    Ram, Abhay K.


    In tokamak fusion plasmas, coherent fluctuations in the form of blobs or filaments and incoherent fluctuations due to turbulence are routinely observed in the scrape-off layer. Radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic waves, excited by antenna structures placed near the wall of a tokamak, have to propagate through the scrape-off layer before reaching the core of the plasma. While the effect of fluctuations on RF waves has not been quantified experimentally, there are telltale signs, arising from differences between results from simulations and from experiments, that fluctuations can modify the spectrum of RF waves. Any effect on RF waves in the scrape-off layer can have important experimental consequences. For example, electron cyclotron waves are expected to stabilize the deleterious neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) in ITER. Spectral and polarization changes due to scattering will modify the spatial location and profile of the current driven by the RF waves, thereby affecting the control of NTMs. Pioneering theoretical studies and complementary computer simulations have been pursued to elucidate the impact of fluctuations on RF waves. From the full complement of Maxwell's equations for cold, magnetized plasmas, it is shown that the Poynting flux in the wake of filaments develops spatial structure due to diffraction and shadowing. The uniformity of power flow into the plasma is affected by side-scattering, modifications to the wave spectrum, and coupling to plasma waves other than the incident RF wave. The Snell's law and the Fresnel equations have been reformulated within the context of magnetized plasmas. They are distinctly different from their counterparts in scalar dielectric media, and reveal new and important physical insight into the scattering of RF waves. The Snell's law and Fresnel equations are the basis for the Kirchhoff approximation necessary to determine properties of the scattered waves. Furthermore, this theory is also relevant for studying back-scattering

  18. A scattering approach to sea wave diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M. L., E-mail:; Garbuglia, M., E-mail:; Maponi, P., E-mail: [University of Camerino, via Madonna delle Carceri, 9, 62032, Camerino (Italy); Ruggeri, M., E-mail: [Faggiolati Pumps S.p.A., Z.Ind Sforzacosta, 62100, Macerata (Italy)


    This paper intends to show a model for the diffraction of sea waves approaching an OWC device, which converts the sea waves motion into mechanical energy and then electrical energy. This is a preliminary study to the optimisation of the device, in fact the computation of sea waves diffraction around the device allows the estimation of the sea waves energy which enters into the device. The computation of the diffraction phenomenon is the result of a sea waves scattering problem, solved with an integral equation method.

  19. Plane-wave scattering from half-wave dipole arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels E.


    A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays.......A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays....

  20. Cloaking through cancellation of diffusive wave scattering (United States)

    Chen, P. Y.; Guenneau, S.; Bağcı, H.; Salama, K. N.; Alù, A.


    A new cloaking mechanism, which makes enclosed objects invisible to diffusive photon density waves, is proposed. First, diffusive scattering from a basic core–shell geometry, which represents the cloaked structure, is studied. The conditions of scattering cancellation in a quasi-static scattering regime are derived. These allow for tailoring the diffusivity constant of the shell enclosing the object so that the fields scattered from the shell and the object cancel each other. This means that the photon flow outside the cloak behaves as if the cloaked object were not present. Diffusive light invisibility may have potential applications in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography or tissue imaging. PMID:27616925

  1. Nonreciprocal wave scattering on nonlinear string-coupled oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepri, Stefano, E-mail: [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Pikovsky, Arkady [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str 24/25, Potsdam (Germany); Department of Control Theory, Nizhni Novgorod State University, Gagarin Av. 23, 606950, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)


    We study scattering of a periodic wave in a string on two lumped oscillators attached to it. The equations can be represented as a driven (by the incident wave) dissipative (due to radiation losses) system of delay differential equations of neutral type. Nonlinearity of oscillators makes the scattering non-reciprocal: The same wave is transmitted differently in two directions. Periodic regimes of scattering are analyzed approximately, using amplitude equation approach. We show that this setup can act as a nonreciprocal modulator via Hopf bifurcations of the steady solutions. Numerical simulations of the full system reveal nontrivial regimes of quasiperiodic and chaotic scattering. Moreover, a regime of a “chaotic diode,” where transmission is periodic in one direction and chaotic in the opposite one, is reported.

  2. Modeling and Inversion of Scattered Surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riyanti, C.D.


    In this thesis, we present a modeling method based on a domain-type integral representation for waves propagating along the surface of the Earth which have been scattered in the vicinity of the source or the receivers. Using this model as starting point, we formulate an inversion scheme to estimate

  3. Electromagnetic wave scattering from some vegetation samples (United States)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Fung, Adrian K.; Antar, Yahia M.


    For an incident plane wave, the field inside a thin scatterer (disk and needle) is estimated by the generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) approximation. This leads to a scattering amplitude tensor equal to that obtained via the Rayleigh approximation (dipole term) with a modifying function. For a finite-length cylinder the inner field is estimated by the corresponding field for the same cylinder of infinite lenght. The effects of different approaches in estimating the field inside the scatterer on the backscattering cross section are illustrated numerically for a circular disk, a needle, and a finite-length cylinder as a function of the wave number and the incidence angle. Finally, the modeling predictions are compared with measurements.

  4. Cloaking through cancellation of diffusive wave scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed


    A new cloaking mechanism, which makes enclosed objects invisible to diffusive photon density waves, is proposed. First, diffusive scattering from a basic core-shell geometry, which represents the cloaked structure, is studied. The conditions of scattering cancellation in a quasi-static scattering regime are derived. These allow for tailoring the diffusivity constant of the shell enclosing the object so that the fields scattered from the shell and the object cancel each other. This means that the photon flow outside the cloak behaves as if the cloaked object were not present. Diffusive light invisibility may have potential applications in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography or tissue imaging. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Scattering of sound waves by a compressible vortex (United States)

    Colonius, Tim; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz


    Scattering of plane sound waves by a compressible vortex is investigated by direct computation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Nonreflecting boundary conditions are utilized, and their accuracy is established by comparing results on different sized domains. Scattered waves are directly measured from the computations. The resulting amplitude and directivity pattern of the scattered waves is discussed, and compared to various theoretical predictions. For compact vortices (zero circulation), the scattered waves directly computed are in good agreement with predictions based on an acoustic analogy. Strong scattering at about + or - 30 degrees from the direction of incident wave propagation is observed. Back scattering is an order of magnitude smaller than forward scattering. For vortices with finite circulation refraction of the sound by the mean flow field outside the vortex core is found to be important in determining the amplitude and directivity of the scattered wave field.

  6. Estimating the location of a tunnel using correlation and inversion of Rayleigh wave scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasililar, A.; Harmankaya, U.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.


    The investigation of near-surface scatterers, such as cavities, tunnels, abandoned mine shafts, and buried objects, is important to mitigate geohazards and environmental hazards. By inversion of travel times of cross-correlated scattered waves, due to the incident Rayleigh waves, we estimate the

  7. Chaos-induced intensification of wave scattering (United States)

    Smirnov, I. P.; Virovlyansky, A. L.; Edelman, M.; Zaslavsky, G. M.


    Sound-wave propagation in a strongly idealized model of the deep-water acoustic waveguide with a periodic range dependence is considered. It is investigated how the phenomenon of ray and wave chaos affects the sound scattering at a strong mesoscale inhomogeneity of the refractive index caused by the synoptic eddy. Methods derived in the theory of dynamical and quantum chaos are applied. When studying the properties of wave chaos we decompose the wave field into a sum of Floquet modes analogous to quantum states with fixed quasienergies. It is demonstrated numerically that the “stable islands” from the phase portrait of the ray system reveal themselves in the coarse-grained Wigner functions of individual Floquet modes. A perturbation theory has been derived which gives an insight into the role of the mode-medium resonance in the formation of Floquet modes. It is shown that the presence of a weak internal-wave-induced perturbation giving rise to ray and wave chaos strongly increases the sensitivity of the monochromatic wave field to an appearance of the eddy. To investigate the sensitivity of the transient wave field we have considered variations of the ray travel times—arrival times of sound pulses coming to the receiver through individual ray paths—caused by the eddy. It turns out that even under conditions of ray chaos these variations are relatively predictable. This result suggests that the influence of chaotic-ray motion may be partially suppressed by using pulse signals. However, the relative predictability of travel time variations caused by a large-scale inhomogeneity is not a general property of the ray chaos. This statement is illustrated numerically by considering an inhomogeneity in the form of a perfectly reflecting bar.

  8. Calculating scattering matrices by wave function matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwierzycki, M. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland); Khomyakov, P.A.; Starikov, A.A.; Talanana, M.; Xu, P.X.; Karpan, V.M.; Marushchenko, I.; Brocks, G.; Kelly, P.J. [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Xia, K. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Turek, I. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Bauer, G.E.W. [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)


    The conductance of nanoscale structures can be conveniently related to their scattering properties expressed in terms of transmission and reflection coefficients. Wave function matching (WFM) is a transparent technique for calculating transmission and reflection matrices for any Hamiltonian that can be represented in tight-binding form. A first-principles Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian represented on a localized orbital basis or on a real space grid has such a form. WFM is based upon direct matching of the scattering-region wave function to the Bloch modes of ideal leads used to probe the scattering region. The purpose of this paper is to give a pedagogical introduction to WFM and present some illustrative examples of its use in practice. We briefly discuss WFM for calculating the conductance of atomic wires, using a real space grid implementation. A tight-binding muffin-tin orbital implementation very suitable for studying spin-dependent transport in layered magnetic materials is illustrated by looking at spin-dependent transmission through ideal and disordered interfaces. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Electromagnetic wave scattering on imperfect cloaking devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isić G.


    Full Text Available Cloaking devices based on the coordinate transform approach enable, in principle, a perfect concealment of a region in space provided that the material composing the cloaking shell meets certain criteria. To achieve ideal cloaking it is necessary that the shell material parameters have singular values on the surface bounding the cloaked region which is unphysical. In this paper we assume finite values of cloak parameters and apply the scattering theory formalism to give an estimate of the overall performance of an 'imperfect' cloak. We perform full-wave numerical calculations and use our theoretical results to discuss them.

  10. Decoherence due to elastic rayleigh scattering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H


    Full Text Available for gates in quan- tum computing [1], the generation of spin squeezed states through laser-mediated interactions [2–6], and the trapping and manipulation of neutral atoms in optical lattices [7,8]. These experiments frequently involve superpositions... by [13] Ldu ~�SðtÞ ¼ ��du2 ð�^ ��^þ ~�SðtÞ � 2�^þ ~�SðtÞ�^� þ ~�SðtÞ�^��^þÞ; Lud ~�SðtÞ ¼ ��ud2 ð�^ þ�^� ~�SðtÞ � 2�^� ~�SðtÞ�^þ þ ~�SðtÞ�^þ�^�Þ: �ij is the rate for an ion initially in state jii to scatter a photon and end up in state jji...

  11. Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering. (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Feng, Yijun; Yang, Zhongjie; Cui, Li; Zhao, Junming; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Tian


    Ultrathin metasurface compromising various sub-wavelength meta-particles offers promising advantages in controlling electromagnetic wave by spatially manipulating the wavefront characteristics across the interface. The recently proposed digital coding metasurface could even simplify the design and optimization procedures due to the digitalization of the meta-particle geometry. However, current attempts to implement the digital metasurface still utilize several structural meta-particles to obtain certain electromagnetic responses, and requiring time-consuming optimization especially in multi-bits coding designs. In this regard, we present herein utilizing geometric phase based single structured meta-particle with various orientations to achieve either 1-bit or multi-bits digital metasurface. Particular electromagnetic wave scattering patterns dependent on the incident polarizations can be tailored by the encoded metasurfaces with regular sequences. On the contrast, polarization insensitive diffusion-like scattering can also been successfully achieved by digital metasurface encoded with randomly distributed coding sequences leading to substantial suppression of backward scattering in a broadband microwave frequency. The proposed digital metasurfaces provide simple designs and reveal new opportunities for controlling electromagnetic wave scattering with or without polarization dependence.

  12. Laser Light Scattering by Shock Waves (United States)

    Panda, J.; Adamovsky, G.


    Scattering of coherent light as it propagates parallel to a shock wave, formed in front of a bluff cylindrical body placed in a supersonic stream, is studied experimentally and numerically. Two incident optical fields are considered. First, a large diameter collimated beam is allowed to pass through the shock containing flow. The light intensity distribution in the resultant shadowgraph image, measured by a low light CCD camera, shows well-defined fringes upstream and downstream of the shadow cast by the shock. In the second situation, a narrow laser beam is brought to a grazing incidence on the shock and the scattered light, which appears as a diverging sheet from the point of interaction, is visualized and measured on a screen placed normal to the laser path. Experiments are conducted on shocks formed at various free-stream Mach numbers, M, and total pressures, P(sub 0). It is found that the widths of the shock shadows in a shadowgraph image become independent of M and P(sub 0) when plotted against the jump in the refractive index, (Delta)n, created across the shock. The total scattered light measured from the narrow laser beam and shock interaction also follows the same trend. In the numerical part of the study, the shock is assumed to be a 'phase object', which introduces phase difference between the upstream and downstream propagating parts of the light disturbances. For a given shape and (Delta)n of the bow shock the phase and amplitude modulations are first calculated by ray tracing. The wave front is then propagated to the screen using the Fresnet diffraction equation. The calculated intensity distribution, for both of the incident optical fields, shows good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Scattering of Rossby and Poincare waves off rough lateral boundaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Prahalad, Y; Sengupta, D.

    Unified treatment of wave scattering from a rough boundary, which was originally developed by Nakayama et al. is presented. The stationary nature of the boundary process is used to show that the wave field is also stationary, and therefore can...

  14. Quasiparticle scattering from a double vortex scatterer in d-wave superconductors (United States)

    Ganeshan, Sriram; Kulkarni, Manas; Durst, Adam C.


    The low energy quasiparticle excitations of a d-wave superconductor are massless Dirac fermions. In the presence of a magnetic field, the scattering of quasiparticles from vortices receives both a superflow contribution, due to interaction with the superflow circulating about each vortex, as well as a Berry phase contribution, due to the Berry phase acquired upon circling a vortex. Calculating the cross section for quasiparticle scattering from a double vortex provides a clean way of isolating and studying the two effects. We do so by making use of elliptical coordinates, a natural setting for studying this two-center problem. With proper gauge choice, the Berry phase contribution takes the form of a branch cut between vortex centers, providing a boundary condition for the spinor wave function across the line segment joining the foci of the elliptical coordinate system. We solve the quantum scattering of Dirac quasiparticles in elliptical coordinates. Our approach is to separate the free Dirac equation in elliptical coordinates. The separated angular and radial functions turn out to be the solutions of angular and modified Whittaker-Hill's equations. We summarize the technique to expand incident plane wave spinor in terms of Whittaker-Hill functions. We also present the asymptotic form of the separated solutions in order to setup an analytical formula for differential cross section.

  15. Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves (United States)

    Pinsker, Florian


    Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to ‘untouchable’ quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves. PMID:26857266

  16. Surface wave generation due to glacier calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław R. Massel


    Full Text Available Coastal glaciers reach the ocean in a spectacular process called "calving". Immediately after calving, the impulsive surface waves are generated, sometimes of large height. These waves are particularly dangerous for vessels sailing close to the glacier fronts. The paper presents a theoretical model of surface wave generation due to glacier calving. To explain the wave generation process, four case studies of ice blocks falling into water are discussed: a cylindrical ice block of small thickness impacting on water, an ice column sliding into water without impact, a large ice block falling on to water with a pressure impulse, and an ice column becoming detached from the glacier wall and falling on to the sea surface. These case studies encompass simplified, selected modes of the glacier calving, which can be treated in a theoretical way. Example calculations illustrate the predicted time series of surface elevations for each mode of glacier calving.

  17. Scattered P'P' waves observed at short distances (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Rost, Sebastian; Shearer, Peter M.; Thomas, Christine


    We detect previously unreported 1 Hz scattered waves at epicentral distances between 30° and 50° and at times between 2300 and 2450 s after the earthquake origin. These waves likely result from off-azimuth scattering of PKPbc to PKPbc in the upper mantle and crust and provide a new tool for mapping variations in fine-scale (10 km) mantle heterogeneity. Array beams from the Large Aperture Seismic Array (LASA) clearly image the scattered energy gradually emerging from the noise and reaching its peak amplitude about 80 s later, and returning to the noise level after 150 s. Stacks of transverse versus radial slowness (ρt, ρr) show two peaks at about (2, -2) and (-2,-2) s/°, indicating the waves arrive along the major arc path (180° to 360°) and significantly off azimuth. We propose a mantle and surface PKPbc to PKPbc scattering mechanism for these observations because (1) it agrees with the initiation time and distinctive slowness signature of the scattered waves and (2) it follows a scattering path analogous to previously observed deep-mantle PK•KP scattering (Chang and Cleary, 1981). The observed upper-mantle scattered waves and PK•KP waves fit into a broader set of scattered waves that we call P′•d•P′, which can scatter from any depth, d, in the mantle.

  18. Wave propagation, scattering and emission in complex media (United States)

    Jin, Ya-Qiu

    propagation in forested environment / K. Sarabandi, I. Koh. Angle-of-arrival fluctuations due to meteorological conditions in the diffraction zone of C-band radio waves, propagated over the ground surface / T. A. Tyufilina, A. A. Meschelyakov, M. V. Krutikov. Simulating radio channel statistics using ray based prediction codes / H. L. Bertoni. Measurement and simulation of ultra wideband antenna elements / W. Sörgel, W. Wiesbeck. The experimental investigation of a ground-placed radio complex synchronization system / V. P. Denisov ... [et al.] -- VII. Computational electromagnetics. Analysis of 3-D electromagnetic wave scattering with the Krylov subspace FFT iterative methods / R. S. Chen ... [et al.]. Sparse approximate inverse preconditioned iterative algorithm with block toeplitz matrix for fast analysis of microstrip circuits / L. Mo, R. S. Chen, E. K. N. Yung. An Efficient modified interpolation technique for the translation operators in MLFMA / J. Hu, Z. P. Nie, G. X. Zou. Efficient solution of 3-D vector electromagnetic scattering by CG-MLFMA with partly approximate iteration / J. Hu, Z. P. Nie. The effective constitution at interface of different media / L. G. Zheng, W. X. Zhang. Novel basis functions for quadratic hexahedral edge element / P. Liu ... [et al.]. A higher order FDTD method for EM wave propagation in collision plasmas / S. B. Liu, J. J. Mo, N. C. Yuan. Attenuation of electric field eradiated by underground source / J. P. Dong, Y. G. Gao.

  19. Scattering of ECRF waves by edge density fluctuations and blobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Abhay K.


    Full Text Available The scattering of electron cyclotron waves by density blobs embedded in the edge region of a fusion plasma is studied using a full-wave model. The full-wave theory is a generalization of the usual approach of geometric optics ray scattering by blobs. While the latter allows for only refraction of waves, the former, more general formulation, includes refraction, reflection, and diffraction of waves. Furthermore, the geometric optics, ray tracing, model is limited to blob densities that are slightly different from the background plasma density. Observations in tokamak experiments show that the fluctuating density differs from the background plasma density by 20% or more. Thus, the geometric optics model is not a physically realistic model of scattering of electron cyclotron waves by plasma blobs. The differences between the ray tracing approach and the full-wave approach to scattering are illustrated in this paper.

  20. Scattering of guided waves at delaminations in composite plates. (United States)

    Murat, Bibi I S; Khalili, Pouyan; Fromme, Paul


    Carbon fiber laminate composites are increasingly employed for aerospace structures as they offer advantages, such as a good strength to weight ratio. However, impact during the operation and servicing of the aircraft can lead to barely visible and difficult to detect damage. Depending on the severity of the impact, fiber and matrix breakage or delaminations can occur, reducing the load carrying capacity of the structure. Efficient nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring of composite panels can be achieved using guided ultrasonic waves propagating along the structure. The scattering of the A0 Lamb wave mode at delaminations was investigated using a full three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) analysis. The influence of the delamination geometry (size and depth) was systematically evaluated. In addition to the depth dependency, a significant influence of the delamination width due to sideways reflection of the guided waves within the delamination area was found. Mixed-mode defects were simulated using a combined model of delamination with localized material degradation. The guided wave scattering at cross-ply composite plates with impact damage was measured experimentally using a non-contact laser interferometer. Good agreement between experiments and FE predictions using the mixed-mode model for an approximation of the impact damage was found.

  1. Rays, waves, and scattering topics in classical mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, John A


    This one-of-a-kind book presents many of the mathematical concepts, structures, and techniques used in the study of rays, waves, and scattering. Panoramic in scope, it includes discussions of how ocean waves are refracted around islands and underwater ridges, how seismic waves are refracted in the earth's interior, how atmospheric waves are scattered by mountains and ridges, how the scattering of light waves produces the blue sky, and meteorological phenomena such as rainbows and coronas. Rays, Waves, and Scattering is a valuable resource for practitioners, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates in applied mathematics, theoretical physics, and engineering. Bridging the gap between advanced treatments of the subject written for specialists and less mathematical books aimed at beginners, this unique mathematical compendium features problems and exercises throughout that are geared to various levels of sophistication, covering everything from Ptolemy's theorem to Airy integrals (as well as more technica...

  2. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasr Esfahani


    Full Text Available   Replacing the wormhole geometry with an equivalent medium using the perturbation theory of scattering and the Born approximation, we have calculated the differential scattering cross section of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole. It is shown that scattering at long wavelenghts can essentially distinguish wormhole from ordinary scattering object. Some of the zeros of the scattering cross section are determined which can be used for estimating the radius of the throat of wormholes. The known result that in this kind of scattering the linear polarization remains unchanged is verified here.

  3. Scalar wave scattering from Schwarzschild black holes in modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sibandze, Dan B; Maharaj, Sunil D; Nzioki, Anne Marie; Dunsby, Peter K S


    We consider the scattering of gravitational waves off a Schwarzschild Black Hole in $f(R)$ gravity. We find that, while the reflection and transmission coefficients for tensor waves are the same as in General Relativity, a larger fraction of scalar waves are reflected compared to what one obtains for tensors. This may provide a novel observational signature for fourth order gravity.

  4. Virtual Singular Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Transformation Media Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Barabanenkov


    Full Text Available If a scatterer and an observation point (receive both approach the so-called near field zone of a source of electromagnetic waves, the scattering process becomes singular one which is mathematically attributed to the spatial singularity of the free space Green function at the origin. Starting from less well known property of left-handed material slab to transfer the singularity of the free space Green function by implementing coordinate transformation, we present a phenomenon of virtual singular scattering of electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneity located in the volume of left – handed material slab. Virtual singular scattering means that a scatterer is situated only virtually in the near field zone of a source, being, in fact, positioned in the far field zone. Such a situation is realized if a scatterer is embedded into a flat Veselago’s lens and approaches the lens’s inner focus because a slab of Veselago medium produces virtual sources inside and behind the slab and virtual scatterer (as a source of secondary waves from both slab sides. Considering a line-like dielectric scatterer we demonstrate that the scattering efficiency is proportional to product of singular quasistatic parts of two empty space Green functions that means a multiplicative quasistatic singularity of the Green function for a slab of inhomogeneous Veselago medium. We calculate a resonance value of the scattering amplitude in the regime similar to the known Mie resonance scattering.

  5. Cooperative scattering of scalar waves by optimized configurations of point scatterers (United States)

    Schäfer, Frank; Eckert, Felix; Wellens, Thomas


    We investigate multiple scattering of scalar waves by an ensemble of N resonant point scatterers in three dimensions. For up to N = 21 scatterers, we numerically optimize the positions of the individual scatterers, to maximize the total scattering cross section for an incoming plane wave, on the one hand, and to minimize the decay rate associated to a long-lived scattering resonance, on the other. In both cases, the optimum is achieved by configurations where all scatterers are placed on a line parallel to the direction of the incoming plane wave. The associated maximal scattering cross section increases quadratically with the number of scatterers for large N, whereas the minimal decay rate—which is realized by configurations that are not the same as those that maximize the scattering cross section—decreases exponentially as a function of N. Finally, we also analyze the stability of our optimized configurations with respect to small random displacements of the scatterers. These results demonstrate that optimized configurations of scatterers bear a considerable potential for applications such as quantum memories or mirrors consisting of only a few atoms.

  6. Accurate source location from P waves scattered by surface topography (United States)

    Wang, N.; Shen, Y.


    Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (> 100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P-coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example. The grid search method is combined with the 3D strain Green's tensor database type method to improve the search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solution. The strain Green's tensor is calculated by the 3D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are then obtained based on the least-square misfit between the 'observed' and predicted P and P-coda waves. A 95% confidence interval of the solution is also provided as a posterior error estimation. We find that the scattered waves are mainly due to topography in comparison with random velocity heterogeneity characterized by the von Kάrmάn-type power spectral density function. When only P wave data is used, the 'best' solution is offset from the real source location mostly in the vertical direction. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces its uncertainty. The solution remains robust with a range of random noises in data, un-modeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors that we tested.

  7. Scattering of acoustic waves by small crustaceans (United States)

    Andreeva, I. B.; Tarasov, L. L.


    Features of underwater sound scattering by small crustaceans are considered. The scattering data are obtained with the use of unique instrumentation that allows one to measure quantitative scattering characteristics (backscattering cross sections and angular scattering patterns) for crustaceans of different sizes, at different frequencies (20 200 kHz) and different insonification aspects. A computational model of crustaceans is considered with allowance for both the soft tissues of the main massive part of the animal's body and the stiff armour. The model proves to be advantageous for explaining some scattering features observed in the experiments. The scattering cross sections of crustaceans measured by other researchers are presented in a unified form appropriate for comparison. Based on such a quantitative comparison, relatively simple approximate empirical formulas are proposed for estimating the backscattering cross sections of small (within several centimeters) marine crustaceans in a broad frequency range.

  8. Acoustic Wave Dispersion and Scattering in Complex Marine Sediment Structures (United States)


    Acoustic wave dispersion and scattering in complex marine sediment structures Charles W. Holland The Pennsylvania State University Applied...shear waves on dispersion in marine sediments . The first step will be development of the theory. WORK COMPLETED A brief summary of the work...propagation and scattering in the seabed. OBJECTIVES The objectives are to advance understanding of 1) the nature and mechanisms leading to sediment

  9. Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Drift Vortex in Plasma (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Yinhua; Wang, Ge


    In a quasi-two-dimensional model, the scattering of incident ordinary electromagnetic waves by a dipole-electrostatic drift vortex is studied with first-order Born approximation. The distribution of the scattering cross-section and total cross-section are evaluated analytically in different approximate conditions, and the physical interpretations are discussed. When the wavelength of incident wave is much longer than the vortex radius (kia ll 1), it is found that the angle at which the scattering cross-section reaches its maxim depends significantly on the approximation of the parameters of the vortex used. It is also found that the total scattering cross-section has an affinitive relation with the parameters of the plasma, while it is irrelevant to the frequency of the incident wave in a wide range of parameters of the vortex. In a totally different range of parameters when incident wave is in the radar-frequency range (then kia ll 1, the wavelength of incident wave is much shorter than the vortex radius), the numerical procedure is conducted with computer in order to obtain the distribution and the total expression of the scattering cross-section. Then it is found that the total scattering cross-section in the low frequency range is much larger than that in high frequency range, so the scattering is more effective in the low frequency range than in high frequency range.

  10. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed


    We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.

  11. Directionality of A0 Lamb wave mode scattering at defects (United States)

    Fromme, P.


    Localized and distributed guided ultrasonic waves array systems offer an efficient way for the structural health monitoring for large structures. The detection sensitivity for fatigue cracks depends on the orientation of the crack relative to the location of the sensor elements. Crack-like defects have a directionality pattern of the scattered field depending on the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and on the ratio of the defect depth and length to the wavelength. From FE simulations it has been shown that for cracks and notches almost no energy is scattered in certain directions from the defect, i.e., the data processing algorithm must take into account that for some transducer combinations no change in the signal even for a significant defect will be detected. The scattered wave field directionality pattern for an incident low frequency A0 Lamb wave mode was predicted from 3D Finite Element simulations and verified from experimental measurements at machined part-through and through-thickness notches using a laser interferometer. Good agreement was found and the directionality pattern can be predicted accurately. The amplitude of the scattered wave is quantified for a systematic variation of the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation, the defect depth, and the ratio of the characteristic defect size to the wavelength. Based on these results the detection sensitivity for crack-like defects in plate structures using guided wave sensors arrays can be quantified.

  12. Light Scattering by Surface Tension Waves. (United States)

    Weisbuch, G.; Garbay, F.


    This simple and inexpensive experiment is an illustration of the physical concepts of interaction between light and surface tension waves, and provides a new method of measuring surface tension. (Author/GA)

  13. Elastodynamic wave scattering by finite-sized resonant scatterers at the surface of a horizontally layered halfspace. (United States)

    Lombaert, Geert; Clouteau, Didier


    The present paper deals with the multiple scattering by randomly distributed elastodynamic systems at the surface of a horizontally layered elastic halfspace due to an incident plane wave. Instead of solving this problem for a particular configuration of the system, multiple scattering theory is used to compute the ensemble response statistics. The Dyson equation is used to calculate the mean field, while the nonstationary second order statistics are obtained by means of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. This allows for the determination of the mean square response of the system in the time and frequency domains. This model is used to study multiple scattering between buildings under seismic excitation. The influence of multiple scattering on the seismic site response is verified. Furthermore, the influence of the footprint and the damping of the buildings are investigated. The results are compared to results of a coupled finite element/boundary element solution for a group of buildings.

  14. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering: imaging spin waves at the nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSebastian


    Full Text Available Spin waves constitute an important part of research in the field of magnetization dynamics. Spin waves are the elementary excitations of the spin system in a magnetically ordered material state and magnons are their quasi particles. In the following article, we will discuss the optical method of Brillouin light scattering (BLS spectroscopy which is a now a well established tool for the characterization of spin waves. BLS is the inelastic scattering of light from spin waves and confers several benefits: the ability to map the spin wave intensity distribution with spatial resolution and high sensitivity as well as the potential to simultaneously measure the frequency and the wave vector and, therefore, the dispersion properties.For several decades, the field of spin waves gained huge interest by the scientific community due to its relevance regarding fundamental issues of spindynamics in the field of solid states physics. The ongoing research in recent years has put emphasis on the high potential of spin waves regarding information technology. In the emerging field of textit{magnonics}, several concepts for a spin-wave based logic have been proposed and realized. Opposed to charge-based schemes in conventional electronics and spintronics, magnons are charge-free currents of angular momentum, and, therefore, less subject to scattering processes that lead to heating and dissipation. This fact is highlighted by the possibility to utilize spin waves as information carriers in electrically insulating materials. These developments have propelled the quest for ways and mechanisms to guide and manipulate spin-wave transport. In particular, a lot of effort is put into the miniaturization of spin-wave waveguides and the excitation of spin waves in structures with sub-micrometer dimensions.For the further development of potential spin-wave-based devices, the ability to directly observe spin-wave propagation with spatial resolution is crucial. As an optical

  15. Quasiparticle scattering from vortices in d-wave superconductors: Superflow and Berry phase contributions (United States)

    Durst, Adam C.; Ganeshan, Sriram; Kulkarni, Manas


    In the vortex state of a d-wave superconductor, massless Dirac quasiparticles are scattered from magnetic vortices via a combination of two basic mechanisms: effective potential scattering due to the superflow swirling about the vortices and Aharonov-Bohm scattering due to the Berry phase acquired by a quasiparticle upon circling a vortex. First, we consider the superflow contribution by calculating the differential cross section for a quasiparticle scattering from the effective non-central potential of a single vortex. Next, we consider the Berry phase contribution, which results in branch cuts between neighboring vortices across which the quasiparticle wave function changes sign. Here, the simplest problem that captures the physics is that of scattering from a single finite branch cut that stretches between two vortices. Elliptical coordinates are natural for this two-center problem and we proceed by separating the massless Dirac equation in elliptical coordinates. The separated equations take the form of the Whittaker-Hill equations, which we solve to obtain radial and angular eigenfunctions. With these eigenfunctions in hand, we construct the scattering cross section via partial wave analysis. We discuss the scattering effect of each mechanism, superflow and Berry phase, leaving the important issue of interference between the two mechanisms to future work.

  16. Spin wave vortex from the scattering on Bloch point solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Santos, V.L., E-mail: [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano - Campus Senhor do Bonfim, Km 04 Estrada da Igara, 48970-000 Senhor do Bonfim, Bahia (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Elías, R.G., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, A.S., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile)


    The interaction of a spin wave with a stationary Bloch point is studied. The topological non-trivial structure of the Bloch point manifests in the propagation of spin waves endowing them with a gauge potential that resembles the one associated with the interaction of a magnetic monopole and an electron. By pursuing this analogy, we are led to the conclusion that the scattering of spin waves and Bloch points is accompanied by the creation of a magnon vortex. Interference between such a vortex and a plane wave leads to dislocations in the interference pattern that can be measurable by means of magnon holography.

  17. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a randomly perturbed quasiperiodic surface (United States)

    Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.


    Electromagnetic-wave scattering by a quasi-periodic surface with random perturbations (as in the remote sensing of plowed fields) is investigated analytically, applying the Kirchhoff approximation and modeling the plowed fields by means of Gaussian random variation, sinusoidal variation, and Gaussian random variation about the spatial frequency. Coherent and incoherent bistatic scattering coefficients are derived in closed form by evaluating the physical-optics integral and shown to be proportional, in the geometric-optics limit, to the occurrence probability of slopes which reflect the incident wave specularly in the direction of the scattered wave. Backscattering cross sections are plotted as functions of incidence angle for a number of cases, demonstrating the strong effect of row direction.

  18. Quantum scattering beyond the plane-wave approximation (United States)

    Karlovets, Dmitry


    While a plane-wave approximation in high-energy physics works well in a majority of practical cases, it becomes inapplicable for scattering of the vortex particles carrying orbital angular momentum, of Airy beams, of the so-called Schrödinger cat states, and their generalizations. Such quantum states of photons, electrons and neutrons have been generated experimentally in recent years, opening up new perspectives in quantum optics, electron microscopy, particle physics, and so forth. Here we discuss the non-plane-wave effects in scattering brought about by the novel quantum numbers of these wave packets. For the well-focused electrons of intermediate energies, already available at electron microscopes, the corresponding contribution can surpass that of the radiative corrections. Moreover, collisions of the cat-like superpositions of such focused beams with atoms allow one to probe effects of the quantum interference, which have never played any role in particle scattering.

  19. Accurate source location from waves scattered by surface topography (United States)

    Wang, Nian; Shen, Yang; Flinders, Ashton; Zhang, Wei


    Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (>100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example to provide realistic topography. A grid search algorithm is combined with the 3-D strain Green's tensor database to improve search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solutions. The strain Green's tensor is calculated using a 3-D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are obtained based on the least squares misfit between the "observed" and predicted P and P coda waves. The 95% confidence interval of the solution is provided as an a posteriori error estimation. For shallow events tested in the study, scattering is mainly due to topography in comparison with stochastic lateral velocity heterogeneity. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces solution uncertainty. The solution remains robust with wide ranges of random noises in data, unmodeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors. The method can be extended to locate pairs of sources in close proximity by differential waveforms using source-receiver reciprocity, further reducing errors caused by unmodeled velocity structures.

  20. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena


    Springing is a two-node high frequency resonant vibration of the hull induced by unsteady wave pressure field on the hull. The excitation force may be rather complex - any wave activity (or their combination) in the Ocean matching the two-node natural hull vibration frequency. With some ship...... designs the hull natural frequency may get low enough that the corresponding level of excitation energy becomes large. Springing vibration negatively influences the fatigue life of the ship but, paradoxically, it still doesn't get much attention of the technical society. Usually, non-linear hydroelastic...... theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing...

  1. Scattering of waves by axisymmetrical edge (United States)

    Kaloshin, V. A.; Popov, A. P.


    A method of physical theory of diffraction (PTD) in an axisymmetric problem is used to obtain the first two terms of the uniform asymptotics of the radiation pattern of an edge wave with respect to inverse semiinteger powers of the wavenumber expressed through a two-term uniform asymptotics of the corresponding two-dimensional problem. As examples, calculations are made of: (1) the uniform asymptotics of the correction refining the Kirchhoff approximation for the radiation pattern of an axisymmetric reflector antenna; and (2) the asymptotics of the radiation pattern of symmetric modes from the open end of a circular flanged waveguide. An improvement of the PTD method is proposed for calculating the second term of the uniform asymptotics of an edge wave with respect to inverse powers of the wavenumber; the example of the diffraction of a toroidal wave by a bicone is considered.

  2. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half space of densely distributed dielectric scatterers (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.


    The scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers is studied. The quasi-crystalline approximation is applied to truncate the hierarchy of multiple scattering equations, and the Percus-Yevick and the Verlet-Weis results are used to represent the pair distribution function. The coherent reflected wave is studied with these approximations. The incoherent scattered wave is calculated with the distorted Born approximation. In the low-frequency limit, closed-form expressions are obtained for the effective propagation constants, the coherent reflected wave, and the bistatic scattering coeficients. Results at higher frequencies are calculated numerically. The advantage of the present approach is that, in the low-frequency limit, it reproduces the effects of specular reflection, Fresnel reflection coefficient, Brewster angle, and Clausius-Mosotti relation. In addition to the classical results, the bistatic scattering coefficients are also calculated. The theory is also applied to match backscattering data from dry snow at microwave frequencies.

  3. Elastic Waves Scattering without Conversion in Metamaterials with Simultaneous Zero Indices for Longitudinal and Transverse Waves. (United States)

    Liu, Fengming; Liu, Zhengyou


    We theoretically investigate elastic waves propagating in metamaterials with simultaneous zero indices for both the longitudinal and transverse waves. With scattering objects (here cylinders) present in the metamaterial slabs, while the elastic waves can mostly transmit through the metamaterial slabs perfectly, exhibiting the well-known cloaking effect of zero-index metamaterials, they nevertheless become totally blocked at resonances, indicating strong elastic wave scattering by the objects in the cases. However, despite the occurrence of the elastic wave scattering, there is, counterintuitively, no mode conversion between the longitudinal and transverse waves in the process, completely in contrast to that in conventional elastic media. A design of a two-dimensional phononic crystal with these peculiar properties is presented.

  4. Wave Scattering in Heterogeneous Media using the Finite Element Method (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0086 Wave Scattering in Heterogeneous Media using the Finite Element Method Chiruvai Vendhan INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...Scattering in Heterogeneous Media using the Finite Element Method 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4026 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6...heterogeneous ocean acoustic waveguide. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS Acoustics, Finite Element Methods , Wave propagation 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  5. Time-lapse monitoring of localized changes within heterogeneous media with scattered waves (United States)

    Chinaemerem, Kanu

    Time-lapse monitoring of geological and mechanical media has been the focus of various studies over the past four decades because of the information that the inferred changes within the medium provides insight into the dynamic characteristics of the medium. Time-lapse changes within a medium can be used to characterize the temporal evolution of the medium, evaluate the forces driving the changes within the medium and make predictions on the future state of the monitored medium. The detectability of the changes within a material depends on the characteristics of the change to be imaged, the sensitivity of the monitoring data to the change, and the time-lapse monitoring parameters such as the monitoring source-receiver array and the spectral content of the monitoring waves. Various time-lapse monitoring tools have been used to monitor changes within media ranging from the earth's surface to tumors within the human body. These monitoring tools include the use of 4D active surveys were an imprint of the change within the medium is extracted from the time-lapse surveys and the use of interferometric techniques that use singly or multiply scattered waves. My major goal in this study is to image and localize changes present within a scattering medium using time-lapse multiply scattered waves generated within the monitored medium. The changes to be imaged are generally localized in space. This work is an extension of coda wave interferometry. Coda wave interferometry focuses on the identification and extraction of average velocity change occurring within a scattering medium. Due to the non-linear characteristics of multiply scattered waves and limited information of the origin of the multiply scattered waves, coda wave interferometry resolves the average velocity change within the scattering medium with no or limited indication of the location of the change. In this study, I demonstrate that time-lapse changes can be imaged and localized within scattering media using

  6. Scattering of surface waves modelled by the integral equation method (United States)

    Lu, Laiyu; Maupin, Valerie; Zeng, Rongsheng; Ding, Zhifeng


    The integral equation method is used to model the propagation of surface waves in 3-D structures. The wavefield is represented by the Fredholm integral equation, and the scattered surface waves are calculated by solving the integral equation numerically. The integration of the Green's function elements is given analytically by treating the singularity of the Hankel function at R = 0, based on the proper expression of the Green's function and the addition theorem of the Hankel function. No far-field and Born approximation is made. We investigate the scattering of surface waves propagating in layered reference models imbedding a heterogeneity with different density, as well as Lamé constant contrasts, both in frequency and time domains, for incident plane waves and point sources.

  7. Distortion-induced scattering due to vacancies in NbC/sub 0. 72/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, K.; Harada, J.; Morinaga, M.; Georgopoulos, P.; Cohen, J.B.


    The diffuse X-ray (and electron) scattering from NbC/sub 0.72/, previously thought to be due to vacancy octahedra, is shown to be dominated by the scattering due to mean-square atomic displacements with wave vectors near the Brillouin-zone boundary. The atomic displacements are similar to those produced by an optical phonon. On the basis of the sign and amplitude of the displacement parameters a model for the environment around a carbon vacancy is proposed. The Nb nearest neighbors to a vacancy move away from it, whereas the C neighbors move toward it, and this appears to be due to an enhancement of the strength of the Nb-C bond arising from the presence of vacancies on the C sublattice. There is evidence that these vacancies tend to be correlated along 211 vectors.

  8. Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen


    Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.

  9. Scattering of the fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb wave at delaminations in composite laminates. (United States)

    Ng, Ching-Tai; Veidt, Martin


    An analysis of the scattering characteristics of the fundamental anti-symmetric (A(0)) Lamb wave at a delamination in a quasi-isotropic composite laminate is presented. Analytical solutions for this problem do not exist due to the anisotropic nature and multilayer characteristics of composite laminates. This study uses a three-dimensional finite element (FE) method and experimental measurements to provide physical insight into the scattering phenomena. Good agreement is found between simulations and experimental measurements. The results show that the A(0) Lamb wave scattering at a delamination in composite laminates is much more complicated than the scattering at a defect in isotropic plates. Scatter amplitudes and scatter directivity distributions depend on the delamination size to wavelength ratio and the through-thickness location of the delamination damage. The study also investigates the feasibility of the common experimental practice of simulating delamination damage by bonding masses to the surface of composite laminates for guided wave damage detection and characterization methodologies verifications. The results suggest that care is required to use bonded masses to simulate delamination damage for verifying and optimizing damage characterization techniques. In summary, the results of the investigation help to further advance the use of the A(0) Lamb wave for damage detection and characterization. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  10. Depolarization and Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves. Appendices. (United States)


    and F" are complicated (hj) - f2 , Wk) kdkdo = BL - iJ functions of 0 F. Thus, the integrals with respect to OF are not evaluated analytically. Instead...the the contribution of the term ( rgP ), increases. Fur- first term (aVv)1 = IRvxi 2, which corresponds to the thermore, an increasing number of terms...term reduces to Bragg scattering (Bahar and Chakrabarti 1985). The problem of determining the total cross section (t also becomes more complicated as

  11. FDTD Analysis of Spatial Filtering of Scattered Waves for Optical CT of Medical Diagnosis (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasumitsu; Kouno, Kouhei

    Medical image diagnosis and computer aided diagnosis are modern important medical techniques developed with computer technology. Particularly, medical image diagnosis using optical waves of lasers is very important technical tools for physiological examination of human body. Transmission properties mainly depend on optical absorption effects due to biological characteristics consisting of atomic and molecular structures. Image responses of optical transmitted projection include optical scattering characteristics that disturb transmission properties through biological structures. Computer numerical simulations of spatial filtering for optical scattering waves superposed on transmitted and attenuated waves are discussed to improve image diagnosis. By numerical simulation of FDTD method, statistical characteristics of optical waves are discussed for optical propagation, attenuation and scattering in random inhomogeneous biological media that consist of random particle models given by random numbers programming. Spatial filtering characteristics of grid structure are shown for exact image optical projection excluding scattering effects through physiological media. Spatial filtering characteristics for off-axial scattering optical waves are graphically shown by propagation properties with large attenuation in lossy waveguide-type grids by FDTD method.

  12. Scattering of shock waves in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Balitsky


    The cross section of heavy-ion collisions is represented as a double functional integral with the saddle point being the classical solution of the Yang-Mills equations with boundary conditions/sources in the form of two shock waves corresponding to the two colliding ions. I develop the expansion of this classical solution in powers of the commutator of the Wilson lines describing the colliding particles and calculate the first two terms of the expansion.

  13. Three-Dimensional Microwave Holographic Imaging Employing Forward-Scattered Waves Only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza K. Amineh


    Full Text Available We propose a three-dimensional microwave holographic imaging method based on the forward-scattered waves only. In the proposed method, one transmitter and multiple receivers perform together a two-dimensional scan on two planar apertures on opposite sides of the inspected domain. The ability to achieve three-dimensional imaging without back-scattered waves enables the imaging of high-loss objects, for example, tissues, where the back-scattered waves may not be available due to low signal-to-noise ratio or nonreciprocal measurement setup. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the proposed method in providing three-dimensional images. Resolution limits are derived and confirmed with simulation examples.

  14. Scattering on plane waves and the double copy (United States)

    Adamo, Tim; Casali, Eduardo; Mason, Lionel; Nekovar, Stefan


    Perturbatively around flat space, the scattering amplitudes of gravity are related to those of Yang–Mills by colour-kinematic duality, under which gravitational amplitudes are obtained as the ‘double copy’ of the corresponding gauge theory amplitudes. We consider the question of how to extend this relationship to curved scattering backgrounds, focusing on certain ‘sandwich’ plane waves. We calculate the 3-point amplitudes on these backgrounds and find that a notion of double copy remains in the presence of background curvature: graviton amplitudes on a gravitational plane wave are the double copy of gluon amplitudes on a gauge field plane wave. This is non-trivial in that it requires a non-local replacement rule for the background fields and the momenta and polarization vectors of the fields scattering on the backgrounds. It must also account for new ‘tail’ terms arising from scattering off the background. These encode a memory effect in the scattering amplitudes, which naturally double copies as well.

  15. Uniqueness in inverse elastic scattering with finitely many incident waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elschner, Johannes [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Yamamoto, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences


    We consider the third and fourth exterior boundary value problems of linear isotropic elasticity and present uniqueness results for the corresponding inverse scattering problems with polyhedral-type obstacles and a finite number of incident plane elastic waves. Our approach is based on a reflection principle for the Navier equation. (orig.)

  16. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous bianisotropic media: Wave propagation and light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Shalin, Alexander S.; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We develop a technique for finding closed-form expressions for electromagnetic fields in radially inhomogeneous bianisotropic media, both the solutions of the Maxwell equations and material tensors being defined by the set of auxiliary two-dimensional matrices. The approach is applied to determin...... the scattering cross-sections by spherical particles, the fields inside which correspond to the Airy-exponential waves....

  17. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of an electromagnetic wave in weakly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The importance of the laser–plasma interaction becomes an active field of research in the laser-fusion experiments, charged particle acceleration experiments, X-ray generation, propagation of EM waves in ionosphere etc. and the stimulated Bril- louin scattering (SBS) plays an important role in laser–plasma interaction as it.

  18. Spin-wave and critical neutron scattering from chromium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Axe, J.D.; Shirane, G.


    Chromium and its dilute alloys are unique examples of magnetism caused by itinerant electrons. The magnetic excitations have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering using a high-resolution triple-axis spectrometer. Spin-wave peaks in q scans at constant energy transfer ℏω could, in general...

  19. Introduction to wave scattering, localization, and mesoscopic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Ping


    This book gives readers a coherent picture of waves in disordered media, including multiple scattered waves. The book is intended to be self-contained, with illustrated problems and solutions at the end of each chapter to serve the double purpose of filling out the technical and mathematical details and giving the students exercises if used as a course textbook.The study of wave behavior in disordered media has applications in:Condensed matter physics (semi and superconductor nanostructures and mesoscopic phenomena)Materials science/analytical chemistry (analysis of composite and crystalline structures and properties)Optics and electronics (microelectronic and optoelectronic devices)Geology (seismic exploration of Earths subsurface)

  20. Characteristic energy range of electron scattering due to plasmaspheric hiss (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Angelopoulos, V.


    We investigate the characteristic energy range of electron flux decay due to the interaction with plasmaspheric hiss in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The Van Allen Probes have measured the energetic electron flux decay profiles in the Earth's outer radiation belt during a quiet period following the geomagnetic storm that occurred on 7 November 2015. The observed energy of significant electron decay increases with decreasing L shell and is well correlated with the energy band corresponding to the first adiabatic invariant μ = 4-200 MeV/G. The electron diffusion coefficients due to hiss scattering are calculated at L = 2-6, and the modeled energy band of effective pitch angle scattering is also well correlated with the constant μ lines and is consistent with the observed energy range of electron decay. Using the previously developed statistical plasmaspheric hiss model during modestly disturbed periods, we perform a 2-D Fokker-Planck simulation of the electron phase space density evolution at L = 3.5 and demonstrate that plasmaspheric hiss causes the significant decay of 100 keV-1 MeV electrons with the largest decay rate occurring at around 340 keV, forming anisotropic pitch angle distributions at lower energies and more flattened distributions at higher energies. Our study provides reasonable estimates of the electron populations that can be most significantly affected by plasmaspheric hiss and the consequent electron decay profiles.

  1. Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to kpR = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.

  2. Electron pitch-angle diffusion: resonant scattering by waves vs. nonadiabatic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the electron pitch-angle diffusion coefficients in the night-side inner magnetosphere around the geostationary orbit (L ~ 7 due to magnetic field deformation. We compare the effects of resonant wave–particle scattering by lower band chorus waves and the adiabaticity violation of electron motion due to the strong curvature of field lines in the vicinity of the equator. For a realistic magnetic field configuration, the nonadiabatic effects are more important than the wave–particle interactions for high energy (> 1 MeV electrons. For smaller energy, the scattering by waves is more effective than nonadiabatic one. Moreover, the role of nonadiabatic effects increases with particle energy. Therefore, to model electron scattering and transport in the night-side inner magnetosphere, it is important to take into account the peculiarities of high-energy electron dynamics.

  3. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in the field of a two-dimensionally localized pumping wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solikhov, D. K., E-mail: [Tajik National University, Faculty of Physics (Tajikistan); Dvinin, S. A., E-mail: [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)


    Stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in the field of a two-dimensionally localized pump wave at arbitrary scattering angles in the regime of forward scattering is analyzed. Spatial variations in the amplitudes of interacting waves are studied for different values of the pump field and different dimensions of the pump wave localization region. The intensity of scattered radiation is determined as a function of the scattering angle and the dimensions of the pump wave localization region. It is shown that the intensity increases with increasing scattering angle.

  4. Scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a Luneburg lens. II. Wave theory. (United States)

    Lock, James A


    The partial wave scattering and interior amplitudes for the interaction of an electromagnetic plane wave with a modified Luneburg lens are derived in terms of the exterior and interior radial functions of the scalar radiation potentials evaluated at the lens surface. A Debye series decomposition of these amplitudes is also performed and discussed. The effective potential inside the lens for the transverse electric polarization is qualitatively examined, and the approximate lens size parameters of morphology-dependent resonances are determined. Finally, the physical optics model is used to calculate wave scattering in the vicinity of the ray theory orbiting condition in order to demonstrate the smoothing of ray theory discontinuities by the diffraction of scattered waves.

  5. The relationship study between texture vibrating plate dynamic wettability and elastic wave scattering (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Li, Bin; Zhou, Chuanping; Xiao, Jing; Ni, Jing


    An experimental investigation of wetting behavior of liquid droplet on texture vibrating substrate and the theoretical calculations of elastic wave scattering with two holes which based on the elastodynamics, employing complex functions are investigated to study the relationship between texture vibrating plate dynamic wettability and elastic wave scattering. Experimental results show the dynamic behavior of droplet was unstable. In 0 to π/2 cycle, droplet appeared the waveform with front steep and rear gentle along the flow direction. In π/2 to π cycle, droplet appeared slightly periodic oscillation and accompanied by a certain ripple. Based on the dynamic wetting phenomenon in a single cycle, the influence of elastic wave scattering on wetting property are analyzed. Analysis has shown that the stress concentration is caused by complex elastic wave scattering. The more concentrated the stress, the more concentrated the elastic wave energy. Compared with the single hole, the variations of dynamic stress concentration factors for two holes are complex due to the influence of interaction between two holes. Droplet emerge movement is response to the local vibration. The vibration spread in elastic plate at a time of strain, this elastic force cause droplet displacement and vibration, and accompanied with energy transfer.

  6. Nonuniqueness of the Phase Shift in Central Scattering due to Monodromy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullin, Holger R.; Waalkens, Holger


    Scattering at a central potential is completely characterized by the phase shifts which are the differences in phase between outgoing scattered and unscattered partial waves. In this Letter, it is shown that, for 2D scattering at a repulsive central potential, the phase shift cannot be uniquely

  7. Measuring subsurface defect depth and metal loss by thermal wave imaging and inverse scattering of photon density waves (United States)

    Han, Xiaoyan

    Since late 1980s, thermal wave imaging has becoming a more and more powerful technique for nondestructive testing (NDT), sometimes called "nondestructive evaluation" (NDE) due to its unique characteristics: fast, non-contact and non-invasive, covers wide areas, and operates easily with single sided access to the item being inspected. This new NDT technique has been used to identify subsurface defects in various samples which are made from materials with different thermal properties, such as metals, alloys, plastics, ceramics, and composites. Several years ago we started to study the early-time behavior of thermal waves and work on the quantitative measurement of subsurface defects. As a result, we found a useful parameter for measuring the absolute depth of subsurface defects, regardless of their lateral sizes. Under the driving force of measuring corrosion thinning on aircraft, we developed another method to measure the relative thickness of good thermal conductors like aluminum. The resulting algorithms from both of the methods have been put into a thermal wave imaging software package and have been successfully applied to real-world NDE. Thermal wave imaging systems have been taken to the FAA-Center for Aviation System Reliability at Sandia, Boeing, Northwest Airlines, etc., for detecting defects and estimation of corrosion metal loss. The theory associated with these two methods are given in this dissertation, so are the theoretical and experimental results, as well as the comparison. As the second part of this dissertation, inverse scattering of photon density waves is described. Image reconstruction has always been a very important area of research. It has been used in many different fields. We all know that due to thermal diffusion, thermal wave images of deep subsurface structures get blurred. To reconstruct the subsurface structures, an inverse scattering algorithm was developed several years ago, and was successfully used in recovering scatterer shapes

  8. Water-wave scattering by vast fields of bodies


    Peter, Malte A.; Meylan, Michael H.


    A very efficient solution method to the determination of the linear water-wave scattering by a large number of bodies is presented. Several bodies are assembled in modules, which are grouped in periodic infinite line arrays. Then, using an iterative method, a finite number of these infinite arrays are stacked together. The method to calculate the scattering by the infinite line array of modules of bodies is algebraicly exact while a far-field (or wide-spacing) approximation is used in the cal...

  9. The scattering of electromagnetic waves from turbulent plasmas (United States)

    Ram, A. K.; Hizanidis, K.


    In fusion devices, radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic waves encounter turbulent plasmas along their path from the excitation structures to the core of the plasma. In order to optimize heating and current drive by the RF waves, it is necessary to understand the effect of the density turbulence on the propagation characteristics of the waves. A common approach towards quantifying the effects of turbulence is the Kirchhoff technique. Here the wave fields and their normal derivatives are evaluated at a surface separating two different densities using physical optics. The fields at any point on this surface are approximated to be the same as the fields on a tangent plane at that point. Using the Kirchhoff technique, we show that turbulence can lead to changes in the propagation vector and polarization of the waves, side-scattering, and coupling between different plasma waves. This affects the spatial uniformity of power flow into the plasma. Full wave analytical calculations and numerical simulations confirm these physical results. The theory applies to all RF waves, irrespective of their frequency, and allows for arbitrary plasma density variations. Supported by DoE Grant DE-FG02-91ER-54109 and in part by the Hellenic National Programme on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion associated with the EUROfusion Consortium.

  10. Estimating the location of a tunnel using interferometric times of Rayleigh-wave scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaslilar, A.; Harmankaya, U.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.


    Inspired by a technique called seismic interferometry, we estimate the location of a scatterer using scattered waves. We isolate the scattered wavefield and evaluate the result of correlating scattered waves at different receiver locations. The cross-correlation eliminates the travel path between a

  11. Nearly non-scattering electromagnetic wave set and its application (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Wang, Yuliang; Zhong, Shuhui


    For any inhomogeneous compactly supported electromagnetic (EM) medium, it is shown that there exists an infinite set of linearly independent EM waves which generate nearly vanishing scattered wave fields. If the inhomogeneous medium is coated with a layer of properly chosen conducting medium, then the wave set is generated from the Maxwell-Herglotz approximation to the interior perfectly electric conducting or perfectly magnetic conducting eigenfunctions and depends only on the shape of the inhomogeneous medium. If no such a conducting coating is used, then the wave set is generated from the Maxwell-Herglotz approximation to the generalised interior transmission eigenfunctions and depends on both the content and shape of the inhomogeneous medium. We characterise the nearly non-scattering wave sets in both cases with sharp estimates. The results can be used to give a conceptual design of a novel shadowless lamp. The crucial ingredient is to properly choose the source of the lamp so that nearly no shadow will be produced by surgeons operating under the lamp.

  12. Quasi-wavelet formulations of turbulence and wave scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, D. Keith; Ott, Søren; Goedecke, George H.


    types of QWs and couplings, suitable for various applicatons, can be constructed through differentiation of spherically symmetric parent functions. For velocity fluctuations, QWs with toroidal and poloidal circulations can be derived. (2) Self-similar ensembles of QWs with rotation rates scaling...... to Fourier modes, QWs can be naturally arranged in a spatially intermittent manner. Models for both local (intrinsic) and global intermittency are discussed. (5) The spatially localized nature of QWs can be advantageous in wave-scattering calculations and other applications....

  13. Inelastic scattering of neutrons by spin waves in terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden


    Measurements of spin-wave dispersion relations for magnons propagating in symmetry directions in ferromagnetic Tb; it is first experiment to give detailed information on magnetic excitations in heavy rare earths; Tb was chosen for these measurements because it is one of few rare-earth metals whic...... does not have very high thermal-neutron capture cross section, so that inelastic neutron scattering experiments can give satisfactory information on magnon dispersion relations....

  14. Single-photon scattering with counter rotating wave interaction (United States)

    He, Qi-Kai; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Z. H.; Zhou, D. L.


    Recent experiments have pushed the studies on atom-photon interactions to the ultrastrong regime, which motivates the exploration of physics beyond the rotation wave approximation. Here we study the single-photon scattering on a system composed of a coupling cavity array with a two-level atom in the center cavity, which, by varying two outside coupling parameters, corresponds to a model from a supercavity (SC) QED to a waveguide QED with counter rotating wave (CRW) interaction. By applying a time-independent scattering theory based on the bound states in the scattering region, we find that the CRW interaction obviously changes the transmission valley even in the weak atom-cavity coupling regime; in particular, the CRW interaction leads to an inelastic scattering process and a Fano-type resonance, which is directly observed in the crossover from the SC-QED case to the waveguide QED case. Predictably, our findings provide the potential of manipulating the CRW effects in realistic systems and pave the way for the numerical study of very general QED systems.

  15. Scattering of magnetosonic waves in a relativistic and anisotropic magnetized plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, J.B.; Kuijpers, J.M.E.


    Gravitational waves (GW) propagating through a magnetized plasma excite low-frequency magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In this paper, we investigate whether these waves can produce observable radio emission at higher frequencies by scattering on an anisotropic intrinsically relativistic distribution

  16. Rg Wave Scattering from Collapse Craters in Yucca Flat, NV (United States)

    Bonner, J. L.; Pitarka, A.


    Short-period, fundamental mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) have been used as indicators of shallow source depth and are often preferred waveform features for estimating yield and moment tensor for underground explosions recorded at local distances. However, in regions with significant topography and/or complex tectonic structure, Rg can be rapidly attenuated or scattered such that the phase may not be observed within a few kilometers of the source, thus limiting its seismological applications. A unique dataset was collected in Yucca Flat, Nevada that allows additional insight into the effect of surface topography on Rg. The source was a large weight drop (the Seismic Hammer™), which is an efficient surface wave generator. Stations were placed at similar distance ranges ( 0.5 km) in an azimuthal array centered on the hammer source. The source-to-station paths included deep alluvium with and without topography, the topography being the result of collapse craters associated with historic nuclear tests in Yucca Flat. The craters dimensions were as much 1/3 of the entire propagation paths, which were as deep as 30 m. For flat paths, we often observe large amplitude Rg waves in the 3-15 Hz frequency band that are slightly dispersed. Contrarily, paths that cross collapse craters exhibit reduced Rg amplitudes or, in one case, essentially no observed fundamental mode surface waves. We have used SW4, an elastic wave propagation code, and a 3D velocity model for Yucca Flat, with and without topography, to simulate wave propagation. The synthetic and recorded ground motion was analyzed to better understand the effects of topographic scattering. We anticipate that the results of these simulations will help improve the configuration of the seismic stations network designed for Phase II of the Source Physics Experiment.


    The scattering of electromagnetic waves by a body moving in a plasma is discussed in detail. General theory covering scattering phenomena is...conditions. The general theory is extended to investigate the following two problems: the scattering of electromagnetic waves from the disturbance a rapidly moving body in the ionosphere and the scattering of electromagnetic waves from the turbulent wake produuced by a re-entry vehicle. In

  18. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma. (United States)

    Tejero, E M; Crabtree, C; Blackwell, D D; Amatucci, W E; Mithaiwala, M; Ganguli, G; Rudakov, L


    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10(-6) times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth's plasma environment.

  19. Run-up on a structure due to second-order waves and current in a numerical wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Bjarne; Skourup, Jesper; Cheung, Kwok Fai


    order in current speed. The boundary-value problem is separated into a known incident wave field and an unknown scattered wave field, the latter being absorbed at the radiation boundaries using active wave absorption. The present paper focuses on the wave run-up on a structure in waves and current...

  20. The Damage To The Armour Layer Due To Extreme Waves (United States)

    Oztunali Ozbahceci, Berguzar; Ergin, Aysen; Takayama, Tomotsuka


    computation of wave time series, Deterministic Spectral Amplitude (DSA) model with FFT algorithm was used. It is possible to get thousands of time series which have different wave statistics in DSA model by setting up the target spectrum and using random numbers for phase angles (Tuah 1982). Multi-reflection in the wave channel was minimized by the absorption mode of wave generator. Incident wave energy spectrum was obtained by using the separation method introduced by Goda and Suzuki (1976). Three wave gauges in front of the model were used for the separation. Individual wave heights were determined by zero-up crossing method after obtaining incident wave train. After each test, damage of the breakwater was calculated. Van der Meer's (1988) definition of damage level, S, was used in the calculations as: S= Ae/Dn502 (1) where; Ae= Eroded area, Dn50: nominal diameter of armour stone In order to get eroded area, the profile of armour layer was measured by laser equipment through nine lines along the section. Results of the experiments indicate that the higher the extreme waves are, the more destructive the wave train is, even the data is scattered. The damage was also calculated by using Van der Meer's formulae (1988) and compared with the experimental results. The comparison shows that the damages are more than the expected results in the cases where at least one wave height in the train is higher than the twice of H1-3. In fact, the damage results calculated by Van der Meer's formulae form the lower boundary for the higher extreme wave cases. It is also found that the damage is highly correlated to the ratios of characteristic waves like H1-10/H1-3 or H1-20/H1-3. Therefore, the parameter αextreme covering the effect of all extreme waves is proposed. References Goda, Y. and Suzuki, Y. (1976) .' Estimation of Incident and Reflected Waves in Random wave experiments.' Proc. 15th. Int. Conf. Coastal Engg., Hawai,1976, pp.828-845. Goda Y. (1998), 'An Overview of Coastal

  1. Invariance property of wave scattering through disordered media. (United States)

    Pierrat, Romain; Ambichl, Philipp; Gigan, Sylvain; Haber, Alexander; Carminati, Rémi; Rotter, Stefan


    A fundamental insight in the theory of diffusive random walks is that the mean length of trajectories traversing a finite open system is independent of the details of the diffusion process. Instead, the mean trajectory length depends only on the system's boundary geometry and is thus unaffected by the value of the mean free path. Here we show that this result is rooted on a much deeper level than that of a random walk, which allows us to extend the reach of this universal invariance property beyond the diffusion approximation. Specifically, we demonstrate that an equivalent invariance relation also holds for the scattering of waves in resonant structures as well as in ballistic, chaotic or in Anderson localized systems. Our work unifies a number of specific observations made in quite diverse fields of science ranging from the movement of ants to nuclear scattering theory. Potential experimental realizations using light fields in disordered media are discussed.

  2. Strong SH-to-Love wave scattering off the Southern California Continental Borderland (United States)

    Yu, Chunquan; Zhan, Zhongwen; Hauksson, Egill; Cochran, Elizabeth S.


    Seismic scattering is commonly observed and results from wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. Yet, deterministic characterization of scatterers associated with lateral heterogeneities remains challenging. In this study, we analyze broadband waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network and observe strongly scattered Love waves following the arrival of teleseismic SH wave. These scattered Love waves travel approximately in the same (azimuthal) direction as the incident SH wave at a dominant period of ~10 s but at an apparent velocity of ~3.6 km/s as compared to the ~11 km/s for the SH wave. Back-projection suggests that this strong scattering is associated with pronounced bathymetric relief in the Southern California Continental Borderland, in particular the Patton Escarpment. Finite-difference simulations using a simplified 2-D bathymetric and crustal model are able to predict the arrival times and amplitudes of major scatterers. The modeling suggests a relatively low shear wave velocity in the Continental Borderland.

  3. Strong SH-to-Love Wave Scattering off the Southern California Continental Borderland (United States)

    Yu, Chunquan; Zhan, Zhongwen; Hauksson, Egill; Cochran, Elizabeth S.


    Seismic scattering is commonly observed and results from wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. Yet deterministic characterization of scatterers associated with lateral heterogeneities remains challenging. In this study, we analyze broadband waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network and observe strongly scattered Love waves following the arrival of teleseismic SH wave. These scattered Love waves travel approximately in the same (azimuthal) direction as the incident SH wave at a dominant period of 10 s but at an apparent velocity of 3.6 km/s as compared to the 11 km/s for the SH wave. Back projection suggests that this strong scattering is associated with pronounced bathymetric relief in the Southern California Continental Borderland, in particular the Patton Escarpment. Finite-difference simulations using a simplified 2-D bathymetric and crustal model are able to predict the arrival times and amplitudes of major scatterers. The modeling suggests a relatively low shear wave velocity in the Continental Borderland.

  4. Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum in quantum plasmas. (United States)

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B; Stenflo, L


    We investigate stimulated scattering instabilities of coherent circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons and nondegenerate ions. For this purpose, we employ the coupled equations for the CPEM wave vector potential and the driven (by the ponderomotive force of the CPEM waves) equations for the electron and ion plasma oscillations. The electrons are significantly affected by the quantum forces (viz., the quantum statistical pressure, the quantum Bohm potential, as well as the electron exchange and electron correlations due to electron spin), which are included in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamical description of the electrons. Furthermore, our investigation of the stimulated Brillouin instability of coherent CPEM waves uses the generalized ion momentum equation that includes strong ion coupling effects. The nonlinear equations for the coupled CPEM and quantum plasma waves are then analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations which exhibit stimulated Raman, stimulated Brillouin, and modulational instabilities of CPEM waves carrying OAM. The present results are useful for understanding the origin of scattered light off low-frequency density fluctuations in high-energy density plasmas where quantum effects are eminent.

  5. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didenkulov, Igor, E-mail: [Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay, E-mail: [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation)


    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  6. Detuned surface plasmon resonance scattering of gold nanorods for continuous wave multilayered optical recording and readout. (United States)

    Taylor, Adam B; Kim, Jooho; Chon, James W M


    In a multilayered structure of absorptive optical recording media, continuous-wave laser operation is highly disadvantageous due to heavy beam extinction. For a gold nanorod based recording medium, the narrow surface plasmon resonance (SPR) profile of gold nanorods enables the variation of extinction through mulilayers by a simple detuning of the readout wavelength from the SPR peak. The level of signal extinction through the layers can then be greatly reduced, resulting more efficient readout at deeper layers. The scattering signal strength may be decreased at the detuned wavelength, but balancing these two factors results an optimal scattering peak wavelength that is specific to each layer. In this paper, we propose to use detuned SPR scattering from gold nanorods as a new mechanism for continuous-wave readout scheme on gold nanorod based multilayered optical storage. Using this detuned scattering method, readout using continuous-wave laser is demonstrated on a 16 layer optical recording medium doped with heavily distributed, randomly oriented gold nanorods. Compared to SPR on-resonant readout, this method reduced the required readout power more than one order of magnitude, with only 60 nm detuning from SPR peak. The proposed method will be highly beneficial to multilayered optical storage applications as well as applications using a continuous medium doped heavily with plasmonic nanoparticles.

  7. Leaf-shape effects in electromagnetic wave scattering from vegetation (United States)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Fung, Adrian K.


    A vegetation medium is modeled as a half-space of randomly distributed and oriented leaves of arbitrary shape. In accordance with the first-order radiative transfer theory, the backscattering coefficient for such a half-space is expressed in terms of the scattering amplitudes. For disc- or needle-shaped leaves, the generalized Rayleigh-Gans approximation is used to calculate the scattering amplitudes. This approach is valid for leaf dimensions up to the size of the incident wavelength. To examine the leaf-shape effect, elliptic discs are used to model deciduous leaves, and needles are used to model coniferous leaves. The differences between the scattering characteristics of leaves of different shapes are illustrated numerically for various orientations, frequencies, and incidence angles. It is found that the scattering characteristics of elliptic disc-shaped leaves are sensitive to the three angles of orientation and disc ellipticity. In general, both like and cross polarizations may be needed to differentiate the difference in scattering due to the shapes of the leaves.

  8. SH Wave Scattering Problems for Multiple Orthotropic Elliptical Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ki Lee


    Full Text Available A volume integral equation method (VIEM is applied for the effective analysis of elastic wave scattering problems in unbounded solids containing general anisotropic inclusions. It should be noted that this numerical method does not require use of Green's function for anisotropic inclusions to solve this class of problems since only Green's function for the unbounded isotropic matrix is necessary for the analysis. This new method can also be applied to general two-dimensional elastodynamic problems involving arbitrary shapes and numbers of anisotropic inclusions. A detailed analysis of SH wave scattering problems is developed for an unbounded isotropic matrix containing multiple orthotropic elliptical inclusions. Numerical results are presented for the displacement fields at the interfaces of the inclusions in a broad frequency range of practical interest. Through the analysis of plane elastodynamic problems in an unbounded isotropic matrix with multiple orthotropic elliptical inclusions, it is established that this new method is very accurate and effective for solving plane elastic problems in unbounded solids containing general anisotropic inclusions of arbitrary shapes.

  9. Seismic Evidence for Possible Slab Melting from Strong Scattering Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Horng Lin


    Full Text Available Slab melting in young and hot subduction zones has been studied using geochemical observations and thermal modelling, but there are few data from seismic studies to confirm slab melting. Also the detailed geometry in the deep part of the melting slab is often ambiguous in that the intraslab earthquakes within the Wadati-Benioff zone are only limited to shallower depths. To improve our understanding of both the seismic features and geometry found in a young and hot subducted slab, I analyzed anomalous moonquake-like seismograms that were generated by an intermediate-depth earthquake recorded in central Japan. For this study, possible reflected (or scattered sources were examined using detailed analyses of particle motions and a grid search for travel-time differences between the direct and later P-waves. The results show that using strong seismic scattering, slab melting is likely occurring in the deeper, flexing part of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. Because the subducted Philippine Sea plate in central Japan is young and therefore hot, partial melting might have taken place to produce abundant melting spots in the subducted slab. Melting spots, identified as ¡§bright spots,¡¨ could efficiently reflect or scatter seismic energy and generate many later phases with large amplitudes.

  10. Remarks on the Radiative Transfer Approach to Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Layered Random Media (United States)



  11. Optical theorem for electromagnetic field scattering by dielectric structures and energy emission from the evanescent wave. (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V; Barabanenkov, Yu N; Barabanenkov, M Yu; Nikitov, S A


    We present an optical theorem for evanescent (near field) electromagnetic wave scattering by a dielectric structure. The derivation is based on the formalism of angular spectrum wave amplitudes and block scattering matrix. The optical theorem shows that an energy flux is emitted in the direction of the evanescent wave decay upon scattering. The energy emission effect from an evanescent wave is illustrated in two examples of evanescent wave scattering, first, by the electrical dipole and, second, one-dimensional grating with line-like rulings. Within the latter example, we show that an emitted energy flux upon evanescent wave scattering can travel through a dielectric structure even if the structure has a forbidden gap in the transmission spectrum of incident propagating waves.

  12. Nonlinear wave damping due to multi-plasmon resonances (United States)

    Brodin, G.; Ekman, R.; Zamanian, J.


    For short wavelengths, it is well known that the linearized Wigner–Moyal equation predicts wave damping due to wave-particle interaction, where the resonant velocity shifted from the phase velocity by a velocity {v}q={{\\hslash }}k/2m. Here {{\\hslash }} is the reduced Planck constant, k is the wavenumber and m is the electron mass. Going beyond linear theory, we find additional resonances with velocity shifts {{nv}}q,n=2,3, \\ldots , giving rise to a new wave-damping mechanism that we term multi-plasmon damping, as it can be seen as the simultaneous absorption (or emission) of multiple plasmon quanta. Naturally this wave damping is not present in classical plasmas. For a temperature well below the Fermi temperature, if the linear (n = 1) resonant velocity is outside the Fermi sphere, the number of linearly resonant particles is exponentially small, while the multi-plasmon resonances can be located in the bulk of the distribution. We derive sets of evolution equations for the case of two-plasmon and three-plasmon resonances for Langmuir waves in the simplest case of a fully degenerate plasma. By solving these equations numerically for a range of wave-numbers we find the corresponding damping rates, and we compare them to results from linear theory to estimate the applicability. Finally, we discuss the effects due to a finite temperature.

  13. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav


    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  14. Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution. (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Liang, Lanju; Yang, Jing; Feng, Yijun; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Jin, Biaobing; Liu, Weiwei


    Suppressing specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section is important and of broad interests in practical electromagnetic engineering. Here, we present a scheme to achieve broadband backward scattering reduction through diffuse terahertz wave reflection by a flexible metasurface. The diffuse scattering of terahertz wave is caused by the randomized reflection phase distribution on the metasurface, which consists of meta-particles of differently sized metallic patches arranged on top of a grounded polyimide substrate simply through a certain computer generated pseudorandom sequence. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the ultralow specular reflection over a broad frequency band and wide angle of incidence due to the re-distribution of the incident energy into various directions. The diffuse scattering property is also polarization insensitive and can be well preserved when the flexible metasurface is conformably wrapped on a curved reflective object. The proposed design opens up a new route for specular reflection suppression, and may be applicable in stealth and other technology in the terahertz spectrum.

  15. Electromagnetic scattering of a polarized plane wave from an ellipsoidal particle in the near field (United States)

    Chen, Feinan; Li, Jia


    Within the validity of the first-order Born approximation, we study the near-zone evanescent wave properties for a polarized plane wave scattering upon an ellipsoidal particle. Integral expressions are obtained for the three-dimensional electromagnetic field of the near-zone scattered evanescent wave, and the dependences of the scattered intensity distributions on the degree of polarization of the incident wave and the scattering potential profile of the particle are presented. The scattered intensity from the particle can exhibit a focused pattern concentrated around the central scattering region, but the scattered intensity generated from a circularly polarized wave shows a smooth distribution for different scattering angles. Moreover, the scattered intensity also enhances when either the summation index or the effective radius of the particle increases. Our results can be utilized to generate near-field focused scattered patterns that can be tuned flexibly by controlling the degree of the polarization of the plane wave and the scattering potential parameters of the ellipsoidal particle.

  16. Solving Potential Scattering Equations without Partial Wave Decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caia, George; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Wright, Louis E


    Considering two-body integral equations we show how they can be dimensionally reduced by integrating exactly over the azimuthal angle of the intermediate momentum. Numerical solution of the resulting equation is feasible without employing a partial-wave expansion. We illustrate this procedure for the Bethe-Salpeter equation for pion-nucleon scattering and give explicit details for the one-nucleon-exchange term in the potential. Finally, we show how this method can be applied to pion photoproduction from the nucleon with {pi}N rescattering being treated so as to maintain unitarity to first order in the electromagnetic coupling. The procedure for removing the azimuthal angle dependence becomes increasingly complex as the spin of the particles involved increases.

  17. Finite Element Modeling of scattered electromagnetic waves for stroke analysis. (United States)

    Priyadarshini, N; Rajkumar, E R


    Stroke has become one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide and about 800 in every 100,000 people suffer from stroke each year. The occurrence of stroke is ranked third among the causes of acute death and first among the causes for neurological dysfunction. Currently, Neurological examinations followed by medical imaging with CT, MRI or Angiography are used to provide better identification of the location and the type of the stroke, however they are neither fast, cost-effective nor portable. Microwave technology has emerged to complement these modalities to diagnose stroke as it is sensitive to the differences between the distinct dielectric properties of the brain tissues and blood. This paper investigates the possibility of diagnosing the type of stroke using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The object of interest is a simulated head phantom with stroke, created with its specifying material characteristics like electrical conductivity and relative permittivity. The phantom is then placed in an electromagnetic field generated by a dipole antenna radiating at 1 GHz. The FEM forward model solver computes the scattered electromagnetic field by finding the solution for the Maxwell's wave equation in the head volume. Subsequently the inverse scattering problem is solved using the Contrast Source Inversion (CSI) method to reconstruct the dielectric profile of the head phantom.

  18. Scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by a buried vertical dike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Lurimar S.


    Full Text Available The complete and exact solution of the scattering of a TE mode frequency domain electromagnetic plane wave by a vertical dike under a conductive overburden has been established. An integral representation composed of one-sided Fourier transforms describes the scattered electric field components in each one of the five media: air, overburden, dike, and the country rocks on both sides of the dike. The determination of the terms of the series that represents the spectral components of the Fourier integrals requires the numerical inversion of a sparse matrix, and the method of successive approaches. The zero-order term of the series representation for the spectral components of the overburden, for given values of the electrical and geometrical parameters of the model, has been computed. This result allowed to determine an approximate value of the variation of the electric field on the top of the overburden in the direction perpendicular to the strike of the dike. The results demonstrate the efficiency of this forward electromagnetic modeling, and are fundamental for the interpretation of VLF and Magnetotelluric data.

  19. A study of long-period mantle wave scattering (United States)

    Meschede, M.; Romanowicz, B. A.


    This study examines long-period mantle wave scattering on the global scale. To this end, we extend a set of existing long wavelength global tomographic shear-velocity models with a random von-Karman model to add heterogeneities at much smaller scales. The spectrum of the random model is chosen to match the power of regional models at small scales and to transfer smoothly to the global model at long scales. Because such a model includes heterogeneities with realistic strengths at scales equal and smaller than wavelengths of long-period mantle signals (> 100s) we can examine the strong scattering regime. We use a spherical-harmonics multitaper approach to estimate the power spectrum of different regional models. We compare them to the power spectrum of global models estimated from the same region, and show that both spectra transfer reasonably smoothly into each other. The heterogeneity spectrum can be approximated by a von-Karman spectrum which is a decreasing power-law at short scales. We extend the global models in the upper mantle, based on these estimates of the short scale power spectra, and in the lower mantle, by extrapolation. Naturally, knowledge of the power spectrum alone, limits our models to realistic two-point correlations on short scales, neglecting higher orders. The consequences of such semi-statistical high-resolution models on the spectro-temporal behavior of long-period waveforms are analyzed using long time (> 30h) global spectral element simulations. We focus on measuring the scattering attenuation and the behavior of the envelopes to compare with real data and better constrain the spectral character of earth models at short wavelengths.

  20. Computational studies on scattering of radio frequency waves by density filaments in fusion plasmas (United States)

    Ioannidis, Zisis C.; Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Tigelis, Ioannis G.


    In modern magnetic fusion devices, such as tokamaks and stellarators, radio frequency (RF) waves are commonly used for plasma heating and current profile control, as well as for certain diagnostics. The frequencies of the RF waves range from ion cyclotron frequency to the electron cyclotron frequency. The RF waves are launched from structures, like waveguides and current straps, placed near the wall in a very low density, tenuous plasma region of a fusion device. The RF electromagnetic fields have to propagate through this scrape-off layer before coupling power to the core of the plasma. The scrape-off layer is characterized by turbulent plasmas fluctuations and by blobs and filaments. The variations in the edge density due to these fluctuations and filaments can affect the propagation characteristics of the RF waves—changes in density leading to regions with differing plasma permittivity. Analytical full-wave theories have shown that scattering by blobs and filaments can alter the RF power flow into the core of the plasma in a variety of ways, such as through reflection, refraction, diffraction, and shadowing [see, for example, Ram and Hizanidis, Phys. Plasmas 23, 022504 (2016), and references therein]. There are changes in the wave vectors and the distribution of power-scattering leading to coupling of the incident RF wave to other plasma waves, side-scattering, surface waves, and fragmentation of the Poynting flux in the direction towards the core. However, these theoretical models are somewhat idealized. In particular, it is assumed that there is step-function discontinuity in the density between the plasma inside the filament and the background plasma. In this paper, results from numerical simulations of RF scattering by filaments using a commercial full-wave code are described. The filaments are taken to be cylindrical with the axis of the cylinder aligned along the direction of the ambient magnetic field. The plasma inside and outside the filament is

  1. Nonlinear Scattering of Acoustic Waves by Vibrating Obstacles. (United States)


    completely neglected, the waveform becomes a triangular wave at a propagation distance equal to the discontinuity distance (see the discussion of this...the farfield (nearfield) is defined to be distances greater (lesser) than the distance to the last maximum in the on-axis diffraction pattern. This last...frequently referred to as the region in which Fraunhofer (Fresnel) diffractlion effects occur. 106 2. Electrical filtering problems due to experimental

  2. Experimental characterization of anomalous strong scattering of mm-waves in TEXTOR plasmas with rotating islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Westerhof, E


    Anomalous scattering of high power millimetre waves from gyrotrons at 140 and 110 GHz is investigated for plasma with rotating islands at TEXTOR. The magnetic field and plasma density influence the spectral content of the scattered waves and their power levels significantly. Anomalous strong...

  3. Secondary Flows and Sediment Transport due to Wave - Current Interaction (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Wiegel, Robert


    expression, ρs is the seawater mass density, ρ is the river current mass density, a0 is the deep water wave amplitude, g is the acceleration of gravity, Cg is the wave group velocity, L is the deep water wave length, h is the average water depth near the river mouth, C0 is the deep water wave phase velocity, U is the average jet exit velocity and w is the river or the tidal inlet effective width. The values of the above number were found to be in the range between 1.0 and 6.0-8.0 for the examined laboratory and field case studies for non-buoyant jets. Upper bound corresponds to cases of higher wave activity on the coast while the lower bound corresponds to cases of tidal currents with minimum wave activity, Coastal Processes Modifications due to River and Ebb Current Interaction with Opposing Waves: Confirmation of the obtained theoretical expression was obtained by comparison against field data for shoreline variability at river mouths and the formation of accretion shoals and erosion spots at tidal inlets and ocean outfalls in the USA and the Nile delta coastline. The predicted extent of the coast reshaping process, due to shoreline erosion and subsequent accretion, due to the absence of the river Nile current after 1965, east of the Rosetta headland, was determined. The obtained shoreline erosion spatial extent using the above correlation showed that the long term length of coastline recession would be in the neighborhood of 16-20 km east of Rosetta headland (1990-2014). Such results were further confirmed by the recent satellite data (Ghoneim, et al, 2015). The results of the present work were well compared to the data on Fort Pierce Inlet, Florida, where severe erosion is known to exist on both sides of the inlet (Joshi, 1983). The current results are qualitatively in parallel to that obtained recently by the numerical model Delft3D coupled with the wave model SWAN ( Nardin, et al, 2013) on wave- current interaction at river mouths and the formation of mouth bars

  4. Scattering of a partially-coherent wave from a material circular cylinder. (United States)

    Hyde, Milo W; Bogle, Andrew E; Havrilla, Michael J


    The case of a partially-coherent wave scattered from a material circular cylinder is investigated. Expressions for the TMz and TEz scattered-field cross-spectral density functions are derived by utilizing the plane-wave spectrum representation of electromagnetic fields and cylindrical wave transformations. From the analytical scattered-field cross-spectral density functions, the mean scattering widths are derived and subsequently validated via comparison with those computed from Method of Moments Monte Carlo simulations. The analytical relations as well as the simulation results are discussed and physically interpreted. Key insights are noted and subsequently analyzed.

  5. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGAa) (United States)

    Katz, J.; Boni, R.; Sorce, C.; Follett, R.; Shoup, M. J.; Froula, D. H.


    A reflective optical transport system has been designed for the OMEGA Thomson-scattering diagnostic. A Schwarzschild objective that uses two concentric spherical mirrors coupled to a Pfund objective provides diffraction-limited imaging across all reflected wavelengths. This enables the operator to perform Thomson-scattering measurements of ultraviolet (0.263 μm) light scattered from electron plasma waves.

  6. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA. (United States)

    Katz, J; Boni, R; Sorce, C; Follett, R; Shoup, M J; Froula, D H


    A reflective optical transport system has been designed for the OMEGA Thomson-scattering diagnostic. A Schwarzschild objective that uses two concentric spherical mirrors coupled to a Pfund objective provides diffraction-limited imaging across all reflected wavelengths. This enables the operator to perform Thomson-scattering measurements of ultraviolet (0.263 μm) light scattered from electron plasma waves.

  7. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J.; Boni, R.; Sorce, C.; Follett, R.; Shoup, M. J. III; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)


    A reflective optical transport system has been designed for the OMEGA Thomson-scattering diagnostic. A Schwarzschild objective that uses two concentric spherical mirrors coupled to a Pfund objective provides diffraction-limited imaging across all reflected wavelengths. This enables the operator to perform Thomson-scattering measurements of ultraviolet (0.263 {mu}m) light scattered from electron plasma waves.

  8. Anomalously Hot Electrons due to Rescatter of Stimulated Raman Scattering in the Kinetic Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Winjum, B J; Tsung, F S; Mori, W B


    Using particle-in-cell simulations, we examine hot electron generation from electron plasma waves excited by stimulated Raman scattering and rescattering in the kinetic regime where the wavenumber times the Debye length (k\\lambda_D) is greater than 0.3 for backscatter. We find that for laser and plasma conditions of possible relevance to experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), anomalously energetic electrons can be produced through the interaction of a discrete spectrum of plasma waves generated from SRS (back and forward scatter), rescatter, and the Langmuir decay of the rescatter-generated plasma waves. Electrons are bootstrapped in energy as they propagate into plasma waves with progressively higher phase velocities.

  9. Competition between outer zone electron scattering by plasmaspheric hiss and magnetosonic waves (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Hua, Man; Zhou, Ruoxian; Yi, Juan; Fu, Song


    We quantify the electron scattering effects of simultaneous plasmaspheric hiss and magnetosonic waves that occurred in two neighboring time intervals but with distinct wave intensity profiles on 21 August 2013. Their combined scattering is found capable of causing electron distribution variations largely distinguishable from the consequences of individual waves. The net effect of electron diffusion relies strongly on the relative dominance of the two wave intensities, which also controls the relative contribution of each wave mode. In combination, MS waves slow down the hiss-induced loss of 100 keV electrons, and hiss efficiently inhibits the electron butterfly distribution caused by MS waves to produce a gradual acceleration process. Our results strongly suggest that comprehensive simulations of the radiation belt electron dynamics should carefully incorporate the combined scattering and complex competition resulting from simultaneous occurrences of various magnetospheric emissions, including, but not limited to, plamaspheric hiss and magnetosonic waves.

  10. Boussinesq modeling of surface waves due to underwater landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dutykh


    Full Text Available Consideration is given to the influence of an underwater landslide on waves at the surface of a shallow body of fluid. The equations of motion that govern the evolution of the barycenter of the landslide mass include various dissipative effects due to bottom friction, internal energy dissipation, and viscous drag. The surface waves are studied in the Boussinesq scaling, with time-dependent bathymetry. A numerical model for the Boussinesq equations is introduced that is able to handle time-dependent bottom topography, and the equations of motion for the landslide and surface waves are solved simultaneously. The numerical solver for the Boussinesq equations can also be restricted to implement a shallow-water solver, and the shallow-water and Boussinesq configurations are compared. A particular bathymetry is chosen to illustrate the general method, and it is found that the Boussinesq system predicts larger wave run-up than the shallow-water theory in the example treated in this paper. It is also found that the finite fluid domain has a significant impact on the behavior of the wave run-up.

  11. Elastic properties of boron carbide films via surface acoustic waves measured by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, E.; Jimenez-Villacorta, F.; Jimenez Rioboo, R.J.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Marcos, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Martin, A.; Prieto, J.E.; Joco, V. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity has been determined by high resolution Brillouin light scattering to study the mechano-elastic properties of boron carbide films prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The comparison of experimentally observed elastic behaviour with simulations made by considering film composition obtained from elastic recoil detection analysis-time of flight (ERDA-ToF) spectroscopy allows establishing that elastic properties are determined by that of crystalline boron carbide with a lessening of the SAW velocity values due to surface oxidation. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Forward and inverse viscoelastic wave scattering by irregular inclusions for shear wave elastography. (United States)

    Bernard, Simon; Cloutier, Guy


    Inversion methods in shear wave elastography use simplifying assumptions to recover the mechanical properties of soft tissues. Consequently, these methods suffer from artifacts when applied to media containing strong stiffness contrasts, and do not provide a map of the viscosity. In this work, the shear wave field recorded inside and around an inclusion was used to estimate the viscoelastic properties of the inclusion and surrounding medium, based on an inverse problem approach assuming local homogeneity of both media. An efficient semi-analytical method was developed to model the scattering of an elastic wave by an irregular inclusion, based on a decomposition of the field by Bessel functions and on a decomposition of the boundaries as Fourier series. This model was validated against finite element modeling. Shear waves were experimentally induced by acoustic radiation force in soft tissue phantoms containing stiff and soft inclusions, and the displacement field was imaged at a high frame rate using plane wave imaging. A nonlinear least-squares algorithm compared the model to the experimental data and adjusted the geometrical and mechanical parameters. The estimated shear storage and loss moduli were in good agreement with reference measurements, as well as the estimated inclusion shape. This approach provides an accurate estimation of geometry and viscoelastic properties for a single inclusion in a homogeneous background in the context of radiation force elastography.

  13. Scattering from cylinders using the two-dimensional vector plane wave spectrum: addendum. (United States)

    Pawliuk, Peter; Yedlin, Matthew


    The solution for the vector plane wave spectrum scattering from multiple cylinders by Pawliuk and Yedlin [J. Opt. Soc. A28, 1177 (2011)] only provided the single scattering coefficients for the TM polarization case. The TE solution is similar except for the form of the single scattering coefficients. Here we describe the single scattering coefficients for both polarizations and three types of cylinders: dielectrics, perfect electric conductors, and perfect magnetic conductors.

  14. Scattering and polarization conversion of electromagnetic waves obliquely incident on a magnetized plasma layer (United States)

    Cho, Suwon


    This paper addresses the scattering of electromagnetic waves obliquely incident on a magnetized plasma layer. It is shown that the polarizations of the waves can be converted when they are obliquely incident on a magnetized plasma layer. The scattering coefficients of the incident and converted waves are computed based on the analytic solutions of a uniform magnetized plasma slab. The total transmittance and reflectance are similar to those of the normal incidence, but the individual scattering coefficients of the incident and converted waves vary, depending on the dispersion characteristics of the ordinary and extraordinary modes in the plasma. The contributions of the converted wave increase with the wave number parallel to the magnetic field but decrease as the frequency increases above the upper hybrid resonance, regardless of the parallel wave number.

  15. Modeling of high‐frequency seismic‐wave scattering and propagation using radiative transfer theory (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua


    This is a study of the nonisotropic scattering process based on radiative transfer theory and its application to the observation of the M 4.3 aftershock recording of the 2008 Wells earthquake sequence in Nevada. Given a wide range of recording distances from 29 to 320 km, the data provide a unique opportunity to discriminate scattering models based on their distance‐dependent behaviors. First, we develop a stable numerical procedure to simulate nonisotropic scattering waves based on the 3D nonisotropic scattering theory proposed by Sato (1995). By applying the simulation method to the inversion of M 4.3 Wells aftershock recordings, we find that a nonisotropic scattering model, dominated by forward scattering, provides the best fit to the observed high‐frequency direct S waves and S‐wave coda velocity envelopes. The scattering process is governed by a Gaussian autocorrelation function, suggesting a Gaussian random heterogeneous structure for the Nevada crust. The model successfully explains the common decay of seismic coda independent of source–station locations as a result of energy leaking from multiple strong forward scattering, instead of backscattering governed by the diffusion solution at large lapse times. The model also explains the pulse‐broadening effect in the high‐frequency direct and early arriving S waves, as other studies have found, and could be very important to applications of high‐frequency wave simulation in which scattering has a strong effect. We also find that regardless of its physical implications, the isotropic scattering model provides the same effective scattering coefficient and intrinsic attenuation estimates as the forward scattering model, suggesting that the isotropic scattering model is still a viable tool for the study of seismic scattering and intrinsic attenuation coefficients in the Earth.

  16. Damping and scattering of electromagnetic waves by small ferrite spheres suspended in an insulator (United States)

    Englert, Gerald W.


    The intentional degradation of electromagnetic waves by their penetration into a media comprised of somewhat sparsely distributed energy absorbing ferrite spheres suspended in an electrical insulator is investigated. Results are presented in terms of generalized parameters involving wave length and sphere size, sphere resistivity, permeability, and spacing; their influence on dissipation of wave power by eddy currents, magnetic hysteresis, and scattering is shown.

  17. Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Many Nano-Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Ramm


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic wave scattering by many parallel to the z−axis, thin, impedance, parallel, infinite cylinders is studied asymptotically as a → 0. Let Dm be the cross-section of the m−th cylinder, a be its radius and xˆm = (xm1, xm2 be its center, 1 ≤ m ≤ M , M =   M (a. It is assumed that the points, xˆm, are distributed, so that N (∆  = (1 / 2πa * ∫∆ N (xˆdxˆ[1 + o(1], where N (∆ is the number of points, xˆm, in an arbitrary open subset, ∆, of the plane, xoy. The function, N (xˆ ≥ 0, is a continuous function, which an experimentalist can choose. An equation for the self-consistent (effective field is derived as a → 0. A formula is derived for the refraction coefficient in the medium in which many thin impedance cylinders are distributed. These cylinders may model nano-wires embedded in the medium. One can produce a desired refraction coefficient of the new medium by choosing a suitable boundary impedance of the thin cylinders and their distribution law.

  18. Plane wave packet formulation of atom-plus-diatom quantum reactive scattering. (United States)

    Althorpe, Stuart C


    We recently interpreted several reactive scattering experiments using a plane wave packet (PWP) formulation of quantum scattering theory [see, e.g., S. C. Althorpe, F. Fernandez-Alonso, B. D. Bean, J. D. Ayers, A. E. Pomerantz, R. N. Zare, and E. Wrede, Nature (London) 416, 67 (2002)]. This paper presents the first derivation of this formulation for atom-plus-diatom reactive scattering, and explains its relation to conventional time-independent reactive scattering. We generalize recent results for spherical-particle scattering [S. C. Althorpe, Phys. Rev. A 69, 042702 (2004)] to atom-rigid-rotor scattering in the space-fixed frame, atom-rigid-rotor scattering in the body-fixed frame, and finally A+BC rearrangement scattering. The reactive scattering is initiated by a plane wave packet, describing the A+BC reagents in center-of-mass scattering coordinates, and is detected by projecting onto a series of AC+B (or AB+C) plane wave "probe" packets. The plane wave packets are localized at the closest distance from the scattering center at which the interaction potential can be neglected. The time evolution of the initial plane wave packet provides a clear visualization of the scattering into space of the reaction products. The projection onto the probe packets yields the time-independent, state-to-state scattering amplitude, and hence the differential cross section. We explain how best to implement the PWP approach in a numerical computation, and illustrate this with a detailed application to the H+D2 reaction. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  19. Plane wave scattering by bow-tie posts (United States)

    Lech, Rafal; Mazur, Jerzy


    The theory of scattering in free space by a novel structure of a two-dimensional dielectric-metallic post is developed with the use of a combination of a modified iterative scattering procedure and an orthogonal expansion method. The far scattered field patterns for open structures are derived. The rotation of the post affects its scattered field characteristic, which permits to make adjustments in characteristic of the posts arrays.

  20. Strong Scattering of High Power Millimeter Waves in Tokamak Plasmas with Tearing Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhof, E.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Oosterbeek, J.W.


    In tokamak plasmas with a tearing mode, strong scattering of high power millimeter waves, as used for heating and noninductive current drive, is shown to occur. This new wave scattering phenomenon is shown to be related to the passage of the O point of a magnetic island through the high power...... heating beam. The density determines the detailed phasing of the scattered radiation relative to the O-point passage. The scattering power depends strongly nonlinearly on the heating beam power. ©2009 The American Physical Society...

  1. Condition for far-zone spectral isotropy of an electromagnetic light wave on weak scattering. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu


    The far-zone spectral isotropy of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering has been discussed. It is shown that a sufficient condition for the far-zone spectral isotropy of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering can be expressed by the following two requirements: the two-point correlation function of the dielectric susceptibility of the scattering medium obeys the so-called scaling law, and the normalized spectrum of the incident light wave has the same distribution along the two perpendicular directions.

  2. Solitary and cnoidal wave scattering by a submerged horizontal plate in shallow water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hayatdavoodi


    Full Text Available Solitary and cnoidal wave transformation over a submerged, fixed, horizontal rigid plate is studied by use of the nonlinear, shallow-water Level I Green-Naghdi (GN equations. Reflection and transmission coefficients are defined for cnoidal and solitary waves to quantify the nonlinear wave scattering. Results of the GN equations are compared with the laboratory experiments and other theoretical solutions for linear and nonlinear waves in intermediate and deep waters. The GN equations are then used to study the nonlinear wave scattering by a plate in shallow water. It is shown that in deep and intermediate depths, the wave-scattering varies nonlinearly by both the wavelength over the plate length ratio, and the submergence depth. In shallow water, however, and for long-waves, only the submergence depth appear to play a significant role on wave scattering. It is possible to define the plate submergence depth and length such that certain wave conditions are optimized above, below, or downwave of the plate for different applications. A submerged plate in shallow water can be used as a means to attenuate energy, such as in wave breakers, or used for energy focusing, and in wave energy devices.

  3. Analysis of the Scattering Characteristics of Sea Surface with the Influence from Internal Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yi-wen


    Full Text Available The internal wave travels beneath the sea surface and modulate the roughness of the sea surface through the wave-current interaction. This makes some dark and bright bands can be observed in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. In this paper, we first establish the profile of the internal wave based on the KdV equations; then, the action balance equation and the wave-current interaction source function are used to modify the sea spectrum; finally, the two-scale theory based facet model is combined with the modified sea spectrum to calculate the scattering characteristics of the sea. We have simulated the scattering coefficient distribution of the sea with an internal wave traveling through. The influence on the scattering coefficients and the Doppler spectra under different internal wave parameters and sea state parameters are analyzed.

  4. Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han


    We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps are to isolate the back-scattered surface waves, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. A deconvolution filter derived from the data can be used to collapse a dispersive arrival into a non-dispersive event. Results with synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. Applying this method to USArray data or passively recorded exploration data might open new opportunities in mapping tectonic features over the extent of the array.

  5. Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, S.R.; Berryman, J.G.; Harris, J.M.


    Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical framework. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single fluid saturating all the pores. In the second model, a single uniform lithology is saturated in mesoscopic ''patches'' by two immiscible fluids (e.g., air and water). In the third model, the heterogeneity is at ''microscopic'' grain scales (broken grain contacts and/or micro-cracks in the grains) and the associated fluid response corresponds to ''squirt flow''. The model of squirt flow derived here reduces to proper limits as any of the fluid bulk modulus, crack porosity, and/or frequency is reduced to zero. It is shown that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10{sup -2} < Q{sup -1} < 10{sup -1}) within the seismic band of frequencies (1 to 10{sup 4} Hz); however, either of the two mesoscopic scale models easily produce enough attenuation to explain the field data.

  6. Scattering of gravitational radiation - Second order moments of the wave amplitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, JP

    Gravitational radiation that propagates through an inhomogeneous mass distribution is subject to random gravitational tensing, or scattering, causing variations in the wave amplitude and temporal smearing of the signal. A statistical theory is constructed to treat these effects. The statistical

  7. Plasma characterization using ultraviolet Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic and electron plasma waves (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, R. K., E-mail:; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)


    Collective Thomson scattering is a technique for measuring the plasma conditions in laser-plasma experiments. Simultaneous measurements of ion-acoustic and electron plasma-wave spectra were obtained using a 263.25-nm Thomson-scattering probe beam. A fully reflective collection system was used to record light scattered from electron plasma waves at electron densities greater than 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, which produced scattering peaks near 200 nm. An accurate analysis of the experimental Thomson-scattering spectra required accounting for plasma gradients, instrument sensitivity, optical effects, and background radiation. Practical techniques for including these effects when fitting Thomson-scattering spectra are presented and applied to the measured spectra to show the improvements in plasma characterization.

  8. Modal Ring Method for the Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.


    The modal ring method for electromagnetic scattering from perfectly electric conducting (PEC) symmetrical bodies is presented. The scattering body is represented by a line of finite elements (triangular) on its outer surface. The infinite computational region surrounding the body is represented analytically by an eigenfunction expansion. The modal ring method effectively reduces the two dimensional scattering problem to a one-dimensional problem similar to the method of moments. The modal element method is capable of handling very high frequency scattering because it has a highly banded solution matrix.

  9. Baseline-Subtraction-Free (BSF) Damage-Scattered Wave Extraction for Stiffened Isotropic Plates (United States)

    He, Jiaze; Leser, Patrick E.; Leser, William P.


    Lamb waves enable long distance inspection of structures for health monitoring purposes. However, this capability is diminished when applied to complex structures where damage-scattered waves are often buried by scattering from various structural components or boundaries in the time-space domain. Here, a baseline-subtraction-free (BSF) inspection concept based on the Radon transform (RT) is proposed to identify and separate these scattered waves from those scattered by damage. The received time-space domain signals can be converted into the Radon domain, in which the scattered signals from structural components are suppressed into relatively small regions such that damage-scattered signals can be identified and extracted. In this study, a piezoelectric wafer and a linear scan via laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) were used to excite and acquire the Lamb-wave signals in an aluminum plate with multiple stiffeners. Linear and inverse linear Radon transform algorithms were applied to the direct measurements. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the Radon transform as a reliable extraction tool for damage-scattered waves in a stiffened aluminum plate and also suggest the possibility of generalizing this technique for application to a wide variety of complex, large-area structures.

  10. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by charged spheres: near-field external intensity distribution. (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Klačka, Jozef


    This Letter treats the scattering of electromagnetic waves by an electrically charged spherical particle in near-field approximation. Particular attention is paid to the external intensity distribution at the outer edges of the particle. The difference between scattering by a charged sphere and an electrically neutral sphere is significant only when size parameters exceed unity.

  11. Fast ion millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics on TEXTOR and ASDEX upgrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, S.; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, H.


    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic systems for measuring fast ions in TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade are described in this article. Both systems use millimeter waves generated by gyrotrons as probing radiation and the scattered radiation is detected with heterodyne receivers having 40...

  12. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of randomly distributed discrete scatterers and polarized backscattering ratio law (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.


    The effective-medium approximation is applied to investigate scattering from a half-space of randomly and densely distributed discrete scatterers. Starting from vector wave equations, an approximation, called effective-medium Born approximation, a particular way, treating Green's functions, and special coordinates, of which the origin is set at the field point, are used to calculate the bistatic- and back-scatterings. An analytic solution of backscattering with closed form is obtained and it shows a depolarization effect. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in the cases of snow, multi- and first-year sea-ice. The root product ratio of polarization to depolarization in backscattering is equal to 8; this result constitutes a law about polarized scattering phenomena in the nature.

  13. Scattered wave packet formalism for the energy-resolved reaction probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Chun, E-mail: [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wyatt, Robert E., E-mail: [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: The incident, scattered, and total wave functions are obtained by solving the modified time-dependent Schroedinger equation on a reduced computational grid. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scattered wave packet formalism provides a new method for open quantum systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Number of grid points is reduced for the calculation of the reaction probability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Signature of a quantum resonance can be captured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent results are obtained for a one-dimensional model chemical reaction. - Abstract: The scattered wave packet formalism developed for a quantum subsystem interacting with reservoirs through open boundaries is utilized to calculate the energy-resolved transmission probability. The total wave function is split into incident and scattered components. Markovian outgoing wave boundary conditions are imposed on the scattered or total wave function by the polynomial method. The wave packet correlation function approach is employed to compute the energy-resolved transmission probability for a one-dimensional potential barrier and a one-dimensional model chemical reaction exhibiting a quantum resonance. Accurate results demonstrate that this formalism can significantly reduce the number of grid points required in a dynamical calculation for the reaction probability.

  14. Simulations of ultrasound propagation in random arrangements of elliptic scatterers: occurrence of two longitudinal waves. (United States)

    Mézière, Fabien; Muller, Marie; Dobigny, Blandine; Bossy, Emmanuel; Derode, Arnaud


    Ultrasound propagation in clusters of elliptic (two-dimensional) or ellipsoidal (three-dimensional) scatterers randomly distributed in a fluid is investigated numerically. The essential motivation for the present work is to gain a better understanding of ultrasound propagation in trabecular bone. Bone microstructure exhibits structural anisotropy and multiple wave scattering. Some phenomena remain partially unexplained, such as the propagation of two longitudinal waves. The objective of this study was to shed more light on the occurrence of these two waves, using finite-difference simulations on a model medium simpler than bone. Slabs of anisotropic, scattering media were randomly generated. The coherent wave was obtained through spatial and ensemble-averaging of the transmitted wavefields. When varying relevant medium parameters, four of them appeared to play a significant role for the observation of two waves: (i) the solid fraction, (ii) the direction of propagation relatively to the scatterers orientation, (iii) the ability of scatterers to support shear waves, and (iv) a continuity of the solid matrix along the propagation. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that fast waves are guided by the locally plate/bar-like solid matrix. If confirmed, this interpretation could significantly help developing approaches for a better understanding of trabecular bone micro-architecture using ultrasound.

  15. Impact of Strong Scattering Resonances on Ballistic and Diffusive Wave Transport (United States)

    Tallon, Benoit; Brunet, Thomas; Page, John H.


    The strong impact of scattering resonances on all the key transport parameters of classical waves in disordered media is demonstrated through ultrasonic experiments on monodisperse emulsions. Through accurate measurements of both ballistic and diffusive transport over a wide range of frequencies, we show that the group velocity is large near sharp resonances, whereas the energy velocity (as well as the diffusion coefficient) is significantly slowed down by resonant scattering delay. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found, elucidating the effects of resonant scattering on wave transport in both acoustics and optics.

  16. Surface wave scattering theory : with applications to forward and inverse problems in seismology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snieder, R.K.


    Scattering of surface waves in a three dimensional layered elastic medium with embedded heterogeneities is described in this thesis with the Born approximation. The dyadic decomposition of the surface wave Green's function provides the crucial element for an efficient application of Born theory

  17. Surface wave scattering theory : with applications to forward and inverse problems in seismology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snieder, R.K.


    Scattering of surface waves in a three dimensional layered elastic medium with embedded heterogeneities is described in this thesis with the Born approximation. The dyadic decomposition of the surface wave Green's function provides the crucial element for an efficient application of Born theory to

  18. Wave power focusing due to the Bragg resonance (United States)

    Tao, Ai-feng; Yan, Jin; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Jin-hai; Fan, Jun; Qin, Chuan


    Wave energy has drawn much attention as an achievable way to exploit the renewable energy. At present, in order to enhance the wave energy extraction, most efforts have been concentrated on optimizing the wave energy convertor and the power take-off system mechanically and electrically. However, focusing the wave power in specific wave field could also be an alternative to improve the wave energy extraction. In this experimental study, the Bragg resonance effect is applied to focus the wave energy. Because the Bragg resonance effect of the rippled bottom largely amplifies the wave reflection, leading to a significant increase of wave focusing. Achieved with an energy conversion system consisting of a point absorber and a permanent magnet single phase linear motor, the wave energy extracted in the wave flume with and without Bragg resonance effect was measured and compared quantitatively in experiment. It shows that energy extraction by a point absorber from a standing wave field resulted from Bragg resonance effect can be remarkably increased compared with that from a propagating wave field (without Bragg resonance effect).

  19. The Radiation Belt Electron Scattering by Magnetosonic Wave: Dependence on Key Parameters (United States)

    Lei, Mingda; Xie, Lun; Li, Jinxing; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Ni, Binbin; Hua, Man; Chen, Lunjin; Li, Wen


    Magnetosonic (MS) waves have been found capable of creating radiation belt electron butterfly distributions in the inner magnetosphere. To investigate the physical nature of the interactions between radiation belt electrons and MS waves, and to explore a preferential condition for MS waves to scatter electrons efficiently, we performed a comprehensive parametric study of MS wave-electron interactions using test particle simulations. The diffusion coefficients simulated by varying the MS wave frequency show that the scattering effect of MS waves is frequency insensitive at low harmonics (f butterfly distributions in the inner part of the plasmasphere where the ratio of electron plasma-to-gyrofrequency (fpe/fce) is large, while they may essentially form a two-peak distribution outside the plasmapause and in the inner radiation belt where fpe/fce is small.

  20. Scattering of X-rays on the surface acoustic wave in the case of grazing geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, A R; Petrosian, A


    The scattering of X-rays on a crystal is considered in grazing geometry when a surface acoustic wave is excited normal to the diffraction vector. The intensity of wave field at finite distance from crystal to detector is obtained. It is shown that in the presence of surface acoustic wave the magnitude of the main peak of specular reflected diffracted wave intensity decreases and intensity of satellites increases. The main peak of specular reflected diffracted wave intensity is split up as the grazing observation angle increases.

  1. Solar Wind Strahl Observations and Their Implication to the Core-Halo Formation due to Scattering (United States)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.


    A study of the kinetic properties of the strahl electron velocity distribution functions (VDF?s) in the solar wind is presented. This study focuses on the mechanisms that control and regulate the electron VDF?s and the stability of the strahl electrons in the solar wind; mechanisms that are not yet well understood. Various parameters are investigated such as the strahl-electron density, temperature anisotropy, and electron heat-flux. These parameters are used to investigate the stability of the strahl population. The analysis check for whether the strahl electrons are constrained by some instability (e.g., the whistler or KAW instabilities), or are maintained by other types of processes. The electron heat-flux and temperature anisotropy are determined by modeling of the 3D-VDF?s from which the moments properties of the various populations are obtained. The results of this study have profound implication on the current hypothesis about the probable formation of the solar wind halo electrons produced from the scattering of the strahl population. This hypothesis is strengthened by direct observations of the strahl electrons being scattered into the core-halo in an isolated event. The observation implies that the scattering of the strahl is not a continuous process but occurs in bursts in regions where conditions for wave growth providing the scattering are optimum. Sometimes, observations indicate that the strahl component is anisotropic (Tper/Tpal approx. 2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism, however this condition is not always observed. The study is based on high time resolution data from the Cluster/PEACE electron spectrometer.

  2. Scattering of coherent sound waves by atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Chow, P. L.; Liu, C. H.; Maestrello, L.


    An analytical study of the propagation of coherent sound waves through an atmosphere containing both mean and fluctuating flow variables is presented. The general flow problem is formulated as a time-dependent wave propagation in a half-space containing the turbulent medium. The coherent acoustic waves are analyzed by a smoothing technique, assuming that mean flow variables vary with the height only. The general equations for the coherent waves are derived, and then applied to two special cases, corresponding to uniform and shear mean flow, respectively. The results show that mean shear and turbulence introduce pronounced effects on the propagation of coherent acoustic disturbances.

  3. Wave and ray analysis of a type of cloak exhibiting magnified and shifted scattering effect


    Luo, Yu; Zhang, Jingjing; Chen, Hongsheng; Wu, Bae-Ian; Ran, Lixin; Kong, Jin Au


    Ray-tracing exercise and full-wave analysis were performed to validate the performance of a new type of cloak composed of isotropic metamaterials. It is shown that objects inside the folded region of this cloak appear invisible to the incoming light from a ray tracing exercise, but exhibit magnified and shifted scattering under a plane wave illumination from a full wave analysis. Gaussian beams are introduced to resolve this interesting paradox resulted from these two methods. We show that at...

  4. Spectrum of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu


    Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric.

  5. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a periodic surface with random roughness (United States)

    Yueh, H. A.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.


    Equations for the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a randomly perturbed periodic surface have been formulated using the extended boundary condition method and solved using the small perturbation method. Surface currents and scattered fields are solved for up to the second order. The results indicate that as the correlation length of the random roughness increases, the bistatic scattering patterns of the scattered fields show several beams associated with each Bragg diffraction direction of the periodic surface. The beam shape becomes broader with smaller correlation length. Results obtained using the Kirchhoff approximation are found to agree well with the present results for the hh and vv polarized backscattering coefficients for small angles of incidence.

  6. Scattering of quasi seismic waves between self-reinforced and triclinic media (United States)

    Kumari, Pato


    Present work explores scattering of two-dimensional plane quasi longitudinal and quasi shear vertical waves through a triclinic medium laid over by a self-reinforced half space. The analytical expressions for velocity of all the scattered waves are derived in compact form. Reflection and transmission angles along with scattered velocities are computed numerically for particular model and the variations in same have been studied against propagation angle of incident qP/qSV wave. The variation of reflection/transmission angles and velocity versus incident angle for unconstrained and constrained conditions are plotted using MATLAB plots. Critical angle for grazing phenomenon is found for both incident qP and qSV waves. The present work has its utility in reflection problems where highly anisotropic source region encounters reinforced layered obstruction.

  7. Thermal diffuse scattering as a probe of large-wave-vector phonons in silicon nanostructures. (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Gokul; Holt, Martin V; McElhinny, Kyle M; Spalenka, Josef W; Czaplewski, David A; Schülli, Tobias U; Evans, Paul G


    Large-wave-vector phonons have an important role in determining the thermal and electronic properties of nanoscale materials. The small volumes of such structures, however, have posed significant challenges to experimental studies of the phonon dispersion. We show that synchrotron x-ray thermal diffuse scattering can be adapted to probe phonons with wave vectors spanning the entire Brillouin zone of nanoscale silicon membranes. The thermal diffuse scattering signal from flat Si nanomembranes with thicknesses from 315 to 6 nm, and a sample volume as small as 5 μm(3), has the expected linear dependence on the membrane thickness and also exhibits excess intensity at large wave vectors, consistent with the scattering signature expected from low-lying large-wave-vector modes of the membranes.

  8. Seismic Waves Scattering Impact through Tunnel Excavation on Adjacent Monuments Subjected to Far Field Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobakhloo E.


    Full Text Available The study of the effect of seismic wave scattering has attracted extensive attention in the past couple of decades especially in infrastructures like tunnels. A seismic wave, meeting the tunnel, can generate scattering which, in most cases, may incur damages in adjacent structures. In this study, using Finite Element Method (FEM, the effect of seismic wave scattering in far field has been investigated. The twin tunnels of Shiraz subway system are selected as the case study in this research and three far field seismic waves were chosen for time history analyses. Investigating the normal mode (before tunnel construction in comparison to the excavation mode (after tunnel construction enables calculation of the effect of displacement in adjacent structures. The analysis results indicate there is a significant difference between before and after tunnel construction (P-value<0.05. Accordingly, the influence of constructing a tunnel on adjacent surface structures is very important for tunnel design.

  9. Impact Wave Monitoring in Soil Using a Dynamic Fiber Sensor Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Cui


    Full Text Available The impact wave response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass impact on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM.

  10. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by periodic particle arrays. (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Lin


    The generalized multiparticle Mie-solution (GMM) is an extension of the well-known Mie-theory for single homogeneous spheres to the general case of an arbitrary ensemble of variously sized and shaped particles. The present work explores its specific application to periodic structures, starting from one- and two-dimensional regular arrays of identical particles. Emphasis is placed on particle arrays with a truncated periodic structure, i.e., periodic arrays (PAs) with finite overall dimensions. To predict radiative scattering characteristics of a PA with a large number of identical particles within the framework of the GMM, it is sufficient to solve interactive scattering for only one single component particle, unlike the general case where partial scattered fields must be solved for every individual constituent. The total scattering from an array as a whole is simply the convolution of the scattering from a single representative scattering center with the periodic spatial distribution of all replica constituent units, in the terminology of Fourier analysis. Implemented in practical calculations, both computing time and computer memory required by the special version of GMM formulation applicable to PAs are trivial for ordinary desktops and laptops. For illustration, the radiative scattering properties of several regular arrays of identical particles at a fixed spatial orientation are computed and analyzed. Numerical results obtained from the newly developed approach for PAs are compared with those calculated from the general GMM computer codes (that have been available online for about a decade). The two sets of numerical outputs show no significant relative deviations. However, the CPU time required by the specific approach for PAs could drop more than 10,000 times, in comparison with the general approach. In addition, an example PA is also presented, which consists of as large as 10(8) particles and the general solution process is unable to handle.

  11. Intrinsic and scattering attenuation of high-frequency S-waves in the central part of the External Dinarides (United States)

    Majstorović, Josipa; Belinić, Tena; Namjesnik, Dalija; Dasović, Iva; Herak, Davorka; Herak, Marijan


    The central part of the External Dinarides (CED) is a geologically and tectonically complex region formed in the collision between the Adriatic microplate and the European plate. In this study, the contributions of intrinsic and scattering attenuation ( Q i - 1 and Q sc - 1 , respectively) to the total S-wave attenuation were calculated for the first time. The multiple lapse-time window analysis (MLTWA method), based on the assumptions of multiple isotropic scattering in a homogeneous medium with uniformly distributed scatterers, was applied to seismograms of 450 earthquakes recorded at six seismic stations. Selected events have hypocentral distances between 40 and 90 km with local magnitudes between 1.5 and 4.7. The analysis was performed over 11 frequency bands with central frequencies between 1.5 and 16 Hz. Results show that the seismic albedo of the studied area is less than 0.5 and Q i - 1 > Q sc - 1 at all central frequencies and for all stations. These imply that the intrinsic attenuation dominates over scattering attenuation in the whole study area. Calculated total S-wave and expected coda wave attenuation for CED are in a very good agreement with the ones measured in previous studies using the coda normalization and the coda-Q methods. All estimated attenuation factors decrease with increasing frequency. The intrinsic attenuation for CED is among the highest observed elsewhere, which could be due to the highly fractured and fluid-filled carbonates in the upper crust. The scattering and the total S-wave attenuation for CED are close to the average values obtained in other studies performed worldwide. In particular, good agreement of frequency dependence of total attenuation in CED and in the regions that contributed most strong-motion records for ground motion prediction equations used in PSHA in Croatia indicates that those were well chosen and applicable to this area as far as their attenuation properties are concerned.

  12. Experimental and Computational Studies on the Scattering of an Edge-Guided Wave by a Hidden Crack on a Racecourse Shaped Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Steven Vien


    Full Text Available Reliable and quantitative non-destructive evaluation for small fatigue cracks, in particular those in hard-to-inspect locations, is a challenging problem. Guided waves are advantageous for structural health monitoring due to their slow geometrical decay of amplitude with propagating distance, which is ideal for rapid wide-area inspection. This paper presents a 3D laser vibrometry experimental and finite element analysis of the interaction between an edge-guided wave and a small through-thickness hidden edge crack on a racecourse shaped hole that occurs, in practice, as a fuel vent hole. A piezoelectric transducer is bonded on the straight edge of the hole to generate the incident wave. The excitation signal consists of a 5.5 cycle Hann-windowed tone burst of centre frequency 220 kHz, which is below the cut-off frequency for the first order Lamb wave modes (SH1. Two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation (2D FFT is applied to the incident and scattered wave field along radial lines emanating from the crack mouth, so as to identify the wave modes and determine their angular variation and amplitude. It is shown experimentally and computationally that mid-plane symmetric edge waves can travel around the hole’s edge to detect a hidden crack. Furthermore, the scattered wave field due to a small crack length, a, (compared to the wavelength λ of the incident wave is shown to be equivalent to a point source consisting of a particular combination of body-force doublets. It is found that the amplitude of the scattered field increases quadratically as a function of a/λ, whereas the scattered wave pattern is independent of crack length for small cracks a << λ. This study of the forward scattering problem from a known crack size provides a useful guide for the inverse problem of hidden crack detection and sizing.

  13. Generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) using the translational addition theorem for spherical wave functions. (United States)

    Mitri, Farid


    The generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) by an elastic spherical target in acoustics is extended to describe the arbitrary scattering of a finite beam using the addition theorem for the spherical wave functions of the first kind under a translation of the coordinate origin. The advantage of the proposed method over the standard discrete spherical harmonics transform previously used in the GTRS formalism is the computation of the off-axial beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) stemming from a closed-form partial-wave series expansion representing the axial BSCs in spherical coordinates. With this general method, the arbitrary acoustical scattering can be evaluated for any particle shape and size, whether the particle is partially or completely illuminated by the incident beam. Numerical examples for the axial and off-axial resonance scattering from an elastic sphere placed arbitrarily in the field of a finite circular piston transducer with uniform vibration are provided. Moreover, the 3-D resonance directivity patterns illustrate the theory and reveal some properties of the scattering. Numerous applications involving the scattering phenomenon in imaging, particle manipulation, and the characterization of multiphase flows can benefit from the present analysis because all physically realizable beams radiate acoustical waves from finite transducers as opposed to waves of infinite extent.

  14. Two-magnon scattering in permalloy thin films due to rippled substrates (United States)

    Körner, M.; Lenz, K.; Gallardo, R. A.; Fritzsche, M.; Mücklich, A.; Facsko, S.; Lindner, J.; Landeros, P.; Fassbender, J.


    We report on the influence of correlated substrate roughness on the two-magnon scattering in 30 nm Ni81Fe19 thin films. Using ion beam erosion, periodically modulated substrates (ripple) were produced with wavelengths between 20 and 432nm. This surface corrugation is adopted by magnetic layers grown on top yielding dipolar stray fields if magnetization and ripple ridges are aligned perpendicular to each other. In case of λ≥222nm, the evolving periodic field pattern triggers two-magnon scattering, which depends strongly on the direction of magnetization with respect to the ripple pattern. In-plane broadband ferromagnetic resonance reveals prominent peaks in the frequency-dependent linewidth measured perpendicularly to the ripple ridges. These peaks can be switched off if the magnetization is aligned along the ripple ridges. Our results are compared to predictions obtained from recent theory on spin waves in periodically perturbed films.

  15. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by vortex density structures associated with interchange instability: Analytical and large scale plasma simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J. [Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RY), Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Paraschiv, I. [University of Nevada at Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Mehlhorn, T. A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)


    The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics, and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with interchange instability. We will also present particle-in-cell simulation results of electromagnetic scattering on vortex type density structures using the large scale plasma code LSP and compare them with analytical results.

  16. Asymptotically simple spacetimes and mass loss due to gravitational waves (United States)

    Saw, Vee-Liem

    The cosmological constant Λ used to be a freedom in Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR), where one had a proclivity to set it to zero purely for convenience. The signs of Λ or Λ being zero would describe universes with different properties. For instance, the conformal structure of spacetime directly depends on Λ: null infinity ℐ is a spacelike, null, or timelike hypersurface, if Λ > 0, Λ = 0, or Λ 0 in Einstein’s theory of GR. A quantity that depends on the conformal structure of spacetime, especially on the nature of ℐ, is the Bondi mass which in turn dictates the mass loss of an isolated gravitating system due to energy carried away by gravitational waves. This problem of extending the Bondi mass to a universe with Λ > 0 has spawned intense research activity over the past several years. Some aspects include a closer inspection on the conformal properties, working with linearization, attempts using a Hamiltonian formulation based on “linearized” asymptotic symmetries, as well as obtaining the general asymptotic solutions of de Sitter-like spacetimes. We consolidate on the progress thus far from the various approaches that have been undertaken, as well as discuss the current open problems and possible directions in this area.

  17. Coherent electromagnetic waves in the presence of a half space of randomly distributed scatterers (United States)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.


    The present investigation of coherent field propagation notes, upon solving the Foldy-Twersky integral equation for a half-space of small spherical scatterers illuminated by a plane wave at oblique incidence, that the coherent field for a horizontally-polarized incident wave exhibits reflectivity and transmissivity consistent with the Fresnel formula for an equivalent continuous effective medium. In the case of a vertically polarized incident wave, both the vertical and longitudinal waves obtained for the coherent field have reflectivities and transmissivities that do not agree with the Fresnel formula.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugih Sudharma Tjandra


    Full Text Available Generation process is an important part of understanding waves, especially tsunami. Large earthquake under the sea is one major cause of tsunamis. The sea surface deforms as a response from the sea bottom motion caused by the earthquake. Analytical description of surface wave generated by bottom motion can be obtained from the linearized dispersive model. For a bottom motion in the form of a downward motion, the result is expressed in terms of improper integral. Here, we focus on analyzing the convergence of this integral, and then the improper integral is approximated into a finite integral so that the integral can be evaluated numerically. Further, we simulate free surface elevation for three different type of bottom motions, classified as impulsive, intermediate, and slow  movements. We demonstrate that the wave propagating to the right, with a depression as the leading wave, followed with subsequent wave crests. This phenomena is often observed in most tsunami events.

  19. A scattering theory for the wave equation on Kerr black hole exteriors

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, Mihalis; Shlapentokh-Rothman, Yakov


    We develop a definitive physical-space scattering theory for the scalar wave equation on Kerr exterior backgrounds in the general subextremal case |a|scattering states" and "asymptotic completeness" and we show moreover that the resulting "scattering matrix" mapping radiation fields on the past horizon and past null infinity to radiation fields on the future horizon and future null infinity is a bounded operator. The latter allows us to give a time-domain theory of superradiant reflection. The boundedness of the scattering matrix shows in particular that the maximal amplification of solutions associated to ingoing finite-energy wave packets on past null infinity is bounded. On the frequency side, this corresponds to the novel statement that the suitably normalised reflection and transmission coefficients are uniformly bounded independently of the frequency parameters. We further complement this with a demonstration that super...

  20. Effective medium approximation for effective propagation constant calculation in a dense random medium. [electromagnetic wave scattering (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.; Fung, A. K.


    The effective medium approximation (EMA) formalism developed for scalar wave calculations in solid state physics is generalized to electromagnetic wave scattering in a dense random medium. Results are applied to compute the effective propagation constant in a dense medium involving discrete spherical scatterers. When compared with a common quasicrystalline approximation (QCA), it is found that EMA accounts for backward scattering and the effect of correlation among three scatterers which are not available in QCA. It is also found that there is not much difference in the calculated normalized phase velocity between the use of these two approximations. However, there is a significant difference in the computed effective loss tangent in a nonabsorptive random medium. The computed effective loss tangent using EMA and measurements from a snow medium are compared, showing good agreement.

  1. Observations of short period seismic scattered waves by small seismic arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simini


    Full Text Available The most recent observations of well correlated seismic phases in the high frequency coda of local earthquakes recorded throughout the world are reported. In particular the main results, obtained on two active volcanoes, Teide and Deception, using small array are described. The ZLC (Zero Lag Cross-correlation method and polarization analysis have been applied to the data in order to distinguish the main phases in the recorded seismograms and their azimuths and apparent velocities. The results obtained at the Teide volcano demonstrate that the uncorrelated part of the seismograms may be produced by multiple scattering from randomly distributed heterogeneity, while the well correlated part, showing SH type polarization or the possible presence of Rayleigh surface waves, may be generated by single scattering by strong scatterers. At the Deception Volcano strong scattering, strongly focused in a precise direction, is deduced from the data. In that case, all the coda radiation is composed of surface waves.

  2. Ray and wave scattering in smoothly curved thin shell cylindrical ridges

    CERN Document Server

    Sondergaard, Niels


    We propose wave and ray approaches for modelling mid- and high- frequency structural vibrations through smoothed joints on thin shell cylindrical ridges. The models both emerge from a simplified classical shell theory setting. The ray model is analysed via an appropriate phase-plane analysis, from which the fixed points can be interpreted in terms of the reflection and transmission properties. The corresponding full wave scattering model is studied using the finite difference method to investigate the scattering properties of an incident plane wave. Through both models we uncover the scattering properties of smoothed joints in the interesting mid-frequency region close to the ring frequency, where there is a qualitative change in the dynamics from anisotropic to simple geodesic propagation.

  3. Generalized Debye series expansion of electromagnetic plane wave scattering by an infinite multilayered cylinder at oblique incidence. (United States)

    Li, Renxian; Han, Xiang'e; Ren, Kuan Fang


    The Debye series expansion expresses the Mie scattering coefficients into a series of Fresnel coefficients and gives physical interpretation of different scattering modes, but when an infinite multilayered cylinder is obliquely illuminated by electromagnetic plane waves, the scattering process becomes very complicated because of cross polarization. Based on the relation of boundary conditions between global scattering process and local scattering processes, the generalized Debye series expansion of plane wave scattering by an infinite multilayered cylinder at oblique incidence is derived in this paper. The formula and the code are verified by the comparison of the results with that of Lorenz-Mie theory in special cases and those presented in the literatures.

  4. Wave-amplitude synthesis applied to Gaussian-beam scattering by an off-axis sphere. (United States)

    Chrissoulidis, Dimitrios P; Richalot, Elodie


    Electromagnetic scattering of a Gaussian beam by an off-axis dielectric sphere is treated by the sum-of-waves formulation, which is inherent in Lorenz-Mie theory. Each "wave" is a spherical eigenvector, defined in the natural frame of the scatterer, and the coefficient of that wave is the "wave amplitude." Decomposition of the beam into homogeneous plane waves lays the ground for a synthesis of the wave amplitudes, which is done by an integration over the polar angle that defines the direction of propagation of the plane-wave constituents of the beam. Concise analytical results are developed for (a) the electric-field intensity in every part of space, (b) the bistatic and monostatic radar cross sections of the scatterer, and (c) the power extracted from the beam by scattering and absorption. Numerical calculations are made for a spherical glycerol droplet of radius 1.5 μm that is excited by an adjacent, infrared, Gaussian beam of wavelength 1.1424 μm and spot size 2 μm. The numerical application manifests (a) how the beam is coupled with the droplet and (b) the effect of the droplet on the power intercepted by a receiver-end fiber placed on the beam axis, beyond the focal plane. Comparisons to numerical results obtained by a finite-element method software (a) validate the sum-of-waves theory, (b) evaluate the performance of the code implementing that theory, and, succinctly, (c) manifest the limits of the plane-wave decomposition of the beam.

  5. P-wave scattering and the distribution of heterogeneity around Etna volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Zieger


    Full Text Available Volcanoes and fault zones are areas of increased heterogeneity in the Earth crust that leads to strong scattering of seismic waves. For the understanding of the volcanic structure and the role of attenuation and scattering processes it is important to investigate the distribution of heterogeneity. We used the signals of air-gun shots to investigate the distribution of heterogeneity around Mount Etna. We devise a new methodology that is based on the coda energy ratio which we define as the ratio between the energy of the direct P-wave and the energy in a later coda window. This is based on the basic assumption that scattering caused by heterogeneity removes energy from the direct P-waves. We show that measurements of the energy ratio are stable with respect to changes of the details of the time windows definitions. As an independent proxy of the scattering strength along the ray path we measure the peak delay time of the direct P-wave. The peak delay time is well correlated with the coda energy ratio. We project the observation in the directions of the incident rays at the stations. Most notably is an area with increased wave scattering in the volcano and east of it. The strong heterogeneity found supports earlier observations and confirms the possibility to use P-wave sources for the determination of scattering properties. We interpret the extension of the highly heterogeneous zone towards the east as a potential signature of inelastic deformation processes induced by the eastward sliding of flank of the volcano.

  6. Formation of whispering gallery modes by scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by two cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, Arnold, E-mail: [Kuang-Chi Institute of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen, 518057 (China); Kostikov, Alexander [Donbass State Engineering Academy, 84303, Kramatorsk, Donetsk (Ukraine)


    We report the effect of scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders on whispering gallery mode (WGM) formation in a cylinder. WGM can occur because of the presence of additional cylinder scatterers at specific location, while WGMs can only form in a single cylinder for specific cylinder radius and/or wavelength values, the matching accuracy required would be much greater than that required in our model for the additional cylinders locations. Analysis of the general solution to the problem showed that the effect can be explained by the interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main cylinder. - Highlights: • We consider scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders. • WGMs occur because of the presence of additional cylinder at specific location. • The accuracy for the locations is much less than required for specific values of single cylinder. • The interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main is responsible for the effect.

  7. Kapitza-Dirac scattering of electrons from a bichromatic standing laser wave

    CERN Document Server

    Dellweg, Matthias M


    Coherent scattering of an electron beam by the Kapitza-Dirac effect from a standing laser wave which comprises two frequency components is studied. To this end, the Schr\\"odinger equation is solved numerically with a suitable ponderomotive potential. Besides, an analytical solution for electron diffraction in the asymptotic domain of large field amplitudes is obtained and a mathematical model in reduced dimensionality for the scattering amplitude in the Bragg regime is presented. We demonstrate distinct interference signatures and relative phase effects when the standing wave contains a fundamental frequency and its second harmonic. The influence of the relative field intensities on the Rabi oscillation dynamics is also discussed.

  8. Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Small Impedance Particles of an Arbitrary Shape and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Ramm


    Full Text Available The proposal deals with electromagnetic (EM wave scattering by one and many small impedance particles of an arbitrary shape. Analytic formula is derived for EM wave scattering by one small impedance particle of an arbitrary shape and an integral equation for the effective field in the medium where many such particles are embedded. These results are applied for creating a medium with a desired refraction coefficient. The proposed theory has no analogs in the literature. (Mathematical Subject Classiffication: 35J05, 35J25, 65N12, 78A25, 78A48.

  9. Wave scattering theory a series approach based on the Fourier transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Eom, Hyo J


    The book provides a unified technique of Fourier transform to solve the wave scattering, diffraction, penetration, and radiation problems where the technique of separation of variables is applicable. The book discusses wave scattering from waveguide discontinuities, various apertures, and coupling structures, often encountered in electromagnetic, electrostatic, magnetostatic, and acoustic problems. A system of simultaneous equations for the modal coefficients is formulated and the rapidly-convergent series solutions amenable to numerical computation are presented. The series solutions find practical applications in the design of microwave/acoustic transmission lines, waveguide filters, antennas, and electromagnetic interference/compatibilty-related problems.

  10. Geometric optics with atomic beams scattered by a detuned standing laser wave

    CERN Document Server

    Prants, S V; Konkov, L E


    We report on theoretical and numerical study of propagation of atomic beams crossing a detuned standing-wave laser beam in the geometric oprics limit. The interplay between external and internal atomic degrees of freedom is used to manipulate the atomic motion along the optical axis by light. By adjusting the atom-laser detuning, we demonstrate how to focus, split and scatter atomic beams in a real experiment. The novel effect of chaotic scattering of atoms at a regular near-resonant standing wave is found numerically and explained qualitatively. Some applications of the effects found are discussed.

  11. Multiple Scattering of Waves in Discrete Random Media. (United States)


    chiral inclusions themselves made up of microminiature helices suspended in some other, or the same, host medium. As a wave traverses such a composite...compuietvedrs functio fo fequ omoen forb ledt[ proiaearemn]ih.h esre auso Fe~ artcls dsprse i aPVCmarix Te delcti agn r e art [2]fo the dicpoite propties

  12. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by an array of parallel gyrotropic rods. (United States)

    Es'kin, V A; Kudrin, A V; Zaboronkova, T M; Krafft, C


    We study multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by an array of parallel gyrotropic circular rods and show that such an array can exhibit fairly unusual scattering properties and provide, under certain conditions, a giant enhancement of the scattered field. Among the scattering patterns of such an array at its resonant frequencies, the most interesting is the distribution of the total field in the form of a perfect self-similar structure of chessboard type. The scattering characteristics of the array are found to be essentially determined by the resonant properties of its gyrotropic elements and cannot be realized for arrays of nongyrotropic rods. It is expected that the results obtained can lead to a wide variety of practical applications.

  13. Ordinary mode reflectometry. Modification of the scattering and cut-off responses due to the shape of localized density fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique du Solide; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee


    Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author). 18 refs.

  14. Effect of Oblique Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves on Relativistic Electron Scattering: CRRES Based Calculation (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.


    We consider the effect of oblique EMIC waves on relativistic electron scattering in the outer radiation belt using simultaneous observations of plasma and wave parameters from CRRES. The main findings can be s ummarized as follows: 1. In 1comparison with field-aligned waves, int ermediate and highly oblique distributions decrease the range of pitc h-angles subject to diffusion, and reduce the local scattering rate b y an order of magnitude at pitch-angles where the principle absolute value of n = 1 resonances operate. Oblique waves allow the absolute va lue of n > 1 resonances to operate, extending the range of local pitc h-angle diffusion down to the loss cone, and increasing the diffusion at lower pitch angles by orders of magnitude; 2. The local diffusion coefficients derived from CRRES data are qualitatively similar to the local results obtained for prescribed plasma/wave parameters. Conseq uently, it is likely that the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients, if estimated from concurrent data, will exhibit the dependencies similar to those we found for model calculations; 3. In comparison with f ield-aligned waves, intermediate and highly oblique waves decrease th e bounce-averaged scattering rate near the edge of the equatorial lo ss cone by orders of magnitude if the electron energy does not excee d a threshold (approximately equal to 2 - 5 MeV) depending on specified plasma and/or wave parameters; 4. For greater electron energies_ ob lique waves operating the absolute value of n > 1 resonances are more effective and provide the same bounce_averaged diffusion rate near the loss cone as fiel_aligned waves do.

  15. Angle-Beam Shear Wave Scattering from Buried Crack-like Defects in Bonded Specimens (Postprint) (United States)


    corresponding depth renders guided wave methods [7,8] less useful . Ultrasonic wavefield imaging combined with signal processing can be applied to...Approved for public release (PA): distribution unlimited. Phase Velocity Filtering Fourier domain frequency-wavenumber filtering is used to separate the...Positive wavenumber filtering is done by applying a Gaussian filter to W( , kx, ky). The incident and forward scattered waves, which correspond to +ky, are

  16. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)


    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  17. Scattering of ECRF waves by edge density blobs and fluctuations in tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kominis Yannis


    Full Text Available There are two basic approaches to studying the effects of density blobs and edge fluctuations on the coupling of electron cyclotron (EC radio frequency waves to the core of tokamak plasmas. The first is the geometric optics approach in which the effect of fluctuations is to change the refractive properties of the EC beam or rays. There are two consequences of refractive scattering – diffusion in real space leading to a spatial deflection of the rays and diffusion in wave vector space leading to the broadening of the launched spectrum. The geometric optics approach is limited to small density fluctuations of 10% or less. The second approach to studying the effect of blobs on EC fields is using the full wave approach. This approach extends the range of validity well beyond that of geometric optics; however, it is theoretically and computationally much more challenging. In this paper a full wave model for scattering of radio frequency waves is developed. Results from the model demonstrate diffractive scattering of EC waves by density blobs and the enhancement of the electric fields near the surface of the blob.

  18. Finite element modeling of guided wave scattering at delaminations in composite panels (United States)

    Murat, B. I. S.; Fromme, P.


    Carbon fiber laminate composites, consisting of layers of polymer matrix reinforced with high strength carbon fibers, are increasingly employed for aerospace structures. They offer advantages for aerospace applications, e.g., good strength to weight ratio. However, impact during the operation and servicing of the aircraft can lead to barely visible and difficult to detect damage. Depending on the severity of the impact, delaminations can occur, reducing the load carrying capacity of the structure. Efficient structural health monitoring of composite panels can be achieved using guided ultrasonic waves propagating along the structure. The guided ultrasonic wave (A0 Lamb wave mode) scattering at delaminations was modelled using full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) simulations. The influence of the delamination size was systematically investigated from a parameter study. The angular dependency of the scattered guided wave amplitude was calculated using a baseline subtraction method. A significant influence of the delamination width on the guided wave scattering was found. The sensitivity of guided waves for the detection of barely visible impact damage in composite panels has been predicted.

  19. Spin-resolved inelastic electron scattering by spin waves in noncollinear magnets (United States)

    dos Santos, Flaviano José; dos Santos Dias, Manuel; Guimarães, Filipe Souza Mendes; Bouaziz, Juba; Lounis, Samir


    Topological noncollinear magnetic phases of matter are at the heart of many proposals for future information nanotechnology, with novel device concepts based on ultrathin films and nanowires. Their operation requires understanding and control of the underlying dynamics, including excitations such as spin waves. So far, no experimental technique has attempted to probe large wave-vector spin waves in noncollinear low-dimensional systems. In this paper, we explain how inelastic electron scattering, being suitable for investigations of surfaces and thin films, can detect the collective spin-excitation spectra of noncollinear magnets. To reveal the particularities of spin waves in such noncollinear samples, we propose the usage of spin-polarized electron-energy-loss spectroscopy augmented with a spin analyzer. With the spin analyzer detecting the polarization of the scattered electrons, four spin-dependent scattering channels are defined, which allow us to filter and select specific spin-wave modes. We take as examples a topological nontrivial skyrmion lattice, a spin-spiral phase, and the conventional ferromagnet. Then we demonstrate that, counterintuitively and in contrast to the ferromagnetic case, even non-spin-flip processes can generate spin waves in noncollinear substrates. The measured dispersion and lifetime of the excitation modes permit us to fingerprint the magnetic nature of the substrate.

  20. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berginc, G [THALES, 2 avenue Gay-Lussac 78995 ELANCOURT (France)


    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  1. Mass loss due to gravitational waves with Λ > 0 (United States)

    Saw, Vee-Liem


    The theoretical basis for the energy carried away by gravitational waves that an isolated gravitating system emits was first formulated by Hermann Bondi during the ’60s. Recent findings from the observation of distant supernovae revealed that the rate of expansion of our universe is accelerating, which may be well explained by sticking a positive cosmological constant into the Einstein field equations for general relativity. By solving the Newman-Penrose equations (which are equivalent to the Einstein field equations), we generalize this notion of Bondi mass-energy and thereby provide a firm theoretical description of how an isolated gravitating system loses energy as it radiates gravitational waves, in a universe that expands at an accelerated rate. This is in line with the observational front of LIGO’s first announcement in February 2016 that gravitational waves from the merger of a binary black hole system have been detected.

  2. Windowing of Full Wavefield Data in Multiple Domains to Characterize Angle-Beam Shear Wave Scattering (Postprint) (United States)


    they are readily generated using conventional longitudinal transducers and a wedge. Full wavefield imaging can be employed to measure such waves on...filtering, Ultrasonic scattering, Scattering measurement , Rayleigh, Longitudinal wave 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18...8 8 Distribution A. Approved for public release (PA): distribution unlimited. Ultrasonic Testing of Materials Nondestructive Evaluation: Theory

  3. Measurements of Intrinsic Ion Bernstein Waves in a Tokamak by Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Bindslev, Henrik


    In this Letter we report measurements of collective Thomson scattering (CTS) spectra with clear signatures of ion Bernstein waves and ion cyclotron motion in tokamak plasmas. The measured spectra are in accordance with theoretical predictions and show clear sensitivity to variation in the density...

  4. Modelling Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Layered Media: An Up-to-Date Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Imperatore


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the subject of electromagnetic wave scattering in layered media, thus covering the recent progress achieved with different approaches. Existing theories and models are analyzed, classified, and summarized on the basis of their characteristics. Emphasis is placed on both theoretical and practical application. Finally, patterns and trends in the current literature are identified and critically discussed.

  5. Observation of depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in partially uncoated optical fibers (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji


    We observed the depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) spectrum in a highly nonlinear fiber with a partially side-stripped polymer coat. The linewidth of the GAWBS spectral line at 941 MHz was measured to be 6.4 MHz, which was 0.9 times that of a coated fiber.

  6. Resonant soft x-ray scattering and charge density waves in correlated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusydi, Andrivo


    Summary This work describes results obtained on the study of charge density waves (CDW) in strongly correlated systems with a new experimental method: resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS). The basic motivation is the 1986 discovery by Bednorz and Müler of a new type of superconductor, based on Cu

  7. Direct observation of the two-plasmon-decay common plasma wave using ultraviolet Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, R. K. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy.; Edgell, D. H. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Henchen, R. J. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Hu, S. X. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Katz, J. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Michel, D. T. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Myatt, J. F. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Shaw, J. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Froula, D. H. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy.


    A 263-nm Thomson-scattering beam was used to directly probe two-plasmon-decay (TPD) excited electron plasma waves (EPWs) driven by between two and five 351-nm beams on the OMEGA Laser System. The amplitude of these waves was nearly independent of the number of drive beams at constant overlapped intensity, showing that the observed EPWs are common to the multiple beams. In an experimental configuration where the Thomson-scattering diagnostic was not wave matched to the common TPD EPWs, a broad spectrum of TPD-driven EPWs was observed, indicative of nonlinear effects associated with TPD saturation. Electron plasma waves corresponding to Langmuir decay of TPD EPWs were observed in both Thomson-scattering spectra, suggesting the Langmuir decay instability as a TPD saturation mechanism. Simulated Thomson-scattering spectra from three-dimensional numerical solutions of the extended Zakharov equations of TPD are in excellent agreement with the experimental spectra and verify the presence of the Langmuir decay instability.

  8. Covariant spectator theory of $np$ scattering:\\\\ Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron wave functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz Gross, Alfred Stadler


    We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron wave functions that accompany our recent high precision fits (with \\chi^2/N{data} \\simeq 1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The wave functions are expanded in a series of analytical functions (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these wave functions can be obtained from the authors.

  9. Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh Roy, Dilip N


    The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.

  10. Time-resolved X-ray scattering by electronic wave packets: analytic solutions to the hydrogen atom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmermacher, Mats; Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Møller, Klaus Braagaard


    description of time-resolved X-ray scattering by non-stationary electronic wave packets in atomic systems. A consistent application of the Waller-Hartree approximation is discussed and different contributions to the total differential scattering signal are identified and interpreted. Moreover......, it is demonstrated how the scattering signal of wave packets in the hydrogen atom can be expressed analytically. This permits simulations without numerical integration and establishes a benchmark for both efficiency and accuracy. Based on that, scattering patterns of an exemplary wave packet in the hydrogen atom...

  11. Scattering of Evanescent Acoustic Waves by Regular and Irregular Objects (United States)


    simulated bottom. This system of liquids is more suitable for long-term indoor use than the vegetable-oil/ glycerin system used in related studies by a...published [ 18,19]. X. Reference List for the Main Report [1] C. F. Osterhoudt, Ph. D. Thesis (in preparation). [2] P. L. Marston, Annual Report for...evanescent waves incident on targets in a simulated sediment," to be presented at the December 2006 ASA meeting. [9] C. F. Osterhoudt, Ph.D. thesis in

  12. Plane-wave coupling formalism for T -matrix simulations of light scattering by nonspherical particles (United States)

    Theobald, Dominik; Egel, Amos; Gomard, Guillaume; Lemmer, Uli


    The computation of light scattering by the superposition T -matrix scheme has been restricted thus far to systems made of particles that are either sparsely distributed or of near-spherical shape. In this work, we extend the range of applicability of the T -matrix method by accounting for the coupling of scattered fields between highly nonspherical particles in close vicinity. This is achieved using an alternative formulation of the translation operator for spherical vector wave functions, based on a plane-wave expansion of the particle's scattered electromagnetic field. The accuracy and versatility of the present approach is demonstrated by simulating arbitrarily oriented and densely packed spheroids, for both dielectric and metallic particles.

  13. Fractional biharmonic operator equation model for arbitrary frequency-dependent scattering attenuation in acoustic wave propagation. (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Fang, Jun; Pang, Guofei; Holm, Sverre


    This paper proposes a fractional biharmonic operator equation model in the time-space domain to describe scattering attenuation of acoustic waves in heterogeneous media. Compared with the existing models, the proposed fractional model is able to describe arbitrary frequency-dependent scattering attenuation, which typically obeys an empirical power law with an exponent ranging from 0 to 4. In stark contrast to an extensive and rapidly increasing application of the fractional derivative models for wave absorption attenuation in the literature, little has been reported on frequency-dependent scattering attenuation. This is largely because the order of the fractional Laplacian is from 0 to 2 and is infeasible for scattering attenuation. In this study, the definition of the fractional biharmonic operator in space with an order varying from 0 to 4 is proposed, as well as a fractional biharmonic operator equation model of scattering attenuation which is consistent with arbitrary frequency power-law dependency and obeys the causal relation under the smallness approximation. Finally, the correlation between the fractional order and the ratio of wavelength to the diameter of the scattering heterogeneity is investigated and an expression on exponential form is also provided.

  14. Measurement of diffuse photon-pairs density wave in a multiple-scattering medium. (United States)

    Yu, Li-Ping; Chou, Chien; Wu, Jheng-Syong; Chan, Yi-Hsin


    As a continuation of the previously developed theory of a diffuse photon-pairs density wave (DPPDW) [Appl. Opt.44, 1416-1425 (2005)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.44.001416], this research experimentally studies and verifies the DPPDW theory in a heterogeneous multiple-scattering medium. The DPPDW is generated by collecting the scattered linear polarized photon pairs (LPPPs) in the multiple-scattering medium. Theoretically, the common-path propagation of LPPPs not only provides common phase noise rejection mode but also performs coherence technique via heterodyne detection. In addition, the polarization gating and spatial coherence gating of LPPPs would suppress the severe scattered photon in the multiple-scattering medium. In the experiment, the amplitude and phase wavefronts of DPPDWs, which are distorted by a small object embedded in a homogeneous multiple-scattering medium, are measured in one dimension or two dimensions by scanning the source detector pair. The measured distortion of DPPDW wavefronts are detected precisely and are consistent with the theoretical calculation of DPPDW. It implies an improvement on the detection sensitivity of a small object compared with the conventional diffuse photon density wave (DPDW).

  15. Electromagnetic wave scattering from a forest or vegetation canopy - Ongoing research at the University of Texas at Arlington (United States)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Amar, Faouzi; Fung, Adrian K.


    The Wave Scattering Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington has developed a scattering model for forest or vegetation, based on the theory of electromagnetic-wave scattering in random media. The model generalizes the assumptions imposed by earlier models, and compares well with measurements from several forest canopies. This paper gives a description of the model. It also indicates how the model elements are integrated to obtain the scattering characteristics of different forest canopies. The scattering characteristics may be displayed in the form of polarimetric signatures, represented by like- and cross-polarized scattering coefficients, for an elliptically-polarized wave, or in the form of signal-distribution curves. Results illustrating both types of scattering characteristics are given.

  16. Intensity statistics of very high frequency sound scattered from wind-driven waves. (United States)

    Walstead, Sean P; Deane, Grant B


    The interaction of vhf 100-1000 kHz underwater sound with the ocean surface is explored. The bistatic forward scatter of 300 kHz sound is measured in a wind driven wave channel. Fluctuations in arrival amplitude are described by the scintillation index (SI) which is a measure of arrival intensity variance. SI initially increases with wind speed but eventually saturates to a value of 0.5 when the root-mean-square (rms) roughness is 0.5 mm. An adjusted scintillation index (SI*) is suggested that accounts for the multiple arrivals and properly saturates to a value of 1. Fluctuations in arrival time do not saturate and increase proportionately to the dominant surface wave component. Forward scattering is modeled at frequencies ranging from 50 to 2000 kHz using the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral with surface wave realizations derived from wave gauge data. The amplitude and temporal statistics of the simulated scattering agree well with measured data. Intensity saturation occurs at lower wind speeds for higher frequency sound. Both measured and modeled vhf sound is characterized by many surface arrivals at saturation. Doppler shifts associated with wave motion are expected to vary rapidly for vhf sound however further analysis is required.

  17. Statistical wave scattering: from the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, P.A. [IFUNAM, 01000 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)


    Universal statistical aspects of wave scattering by a variety of physical systems ranging from atomic nuclei to mesoscopic systems and microwave cavities are described. A statistical model for the scattering matrix is employed to address the problem of quantum chaotic scattering. The model, introduced in the past in the context of nuclear physics, discusses the problem in terms of a prompt and an equilibrated component: it incorporates the average value of the scattering matrix to account for the prompt processes and satisfies the requirements of flux conservation, causality and ergodicity. The main application of the model is the analysis of electronic transport through ballistic mesoscopic cavities whose classical dynamics is chaotic, although it can be applied to the propagation of microwaves through cavities of a similar shape. The model describes well the results from the numerical solutions of the Schrodinger equation for two-dimensional cavities. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur YALÇIN


    Full Text Available In this study, quasi-optical scattering of finite source electromagnetic waves from a dielectric coated cylindrical surface is analysed with Physical Optics (PO approach. A linear electrical current source is chosen as the finite source. Reflection coefficient of the cylindrical surface is derived by using Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. Then, with the help of this coefficient, fields scattered from the surface are obtained. These field expressions are used in PO approach and surface scattering integral is determined. Evaluating this integral asymptotically, fields reflected from the surface and surface divergence coefficient are calculated. Finally, results obtained in this study are evaluated numerically and effects of the surface impedance to scattered fields are analysed. The time factor is taken as j te? in this study.

  19. The Investigation of EM Scattering from the Time-Varying Overturning Wave Crest Model by the IEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Meng


    Full Text Available Investigation of the electromagnetic (EM scattering of time-varying overturning wave crests is a worthwhile endeavor. Overturning wave crest is one of the reasons of sea spike generation, which increases the probability of false radar alarms and reduces the performance of multitarget detection in the environment. A three-dimensional (3D time-varying overturning wave crest model is presented in this paper; this 3D model is an improvement of the traditional two-dimensional (2D time-varying overturning wave crest model. The integral equation method (IEM was employed to investigate backward scattering radar cross sections (RCS at various incident angles of the 3D overturning wave crest model. The super phenomenon, where the intensity of horizontal polarization scattering is greater than that of vertical polarization scattering, is an important feature of sea spikes. Simulation results demonstrate that super phenomena may occur in some time samples as variations in the overturning wave crest.

  20. 2D numerical modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in concrete: A parameterization study in a multiple-scattering medium (United States)

    Yu, Ting; Chaix, Jean-François; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Garnier, Vincent; Audibert, Lorenzo; Henault, Jean-Marie


    Multiple scattering is important when ultrasounds propagate in a heterogeneous medium such as concrete, the scatterer size of which is in the order of the wavelength. The aim of this work is to build a 2D numerical model of ultrasonic wave propagation integrating the multiple scattering phenomena in SPECFEM software. The coherent field of multiple scattering could be obtained by averaging numerical wave fields, and it is used to determine the effective phase velocity and attenuation corresponding to an equivalent homogeneous medium. After the creation of numerical model under several assumptions, its validation is completed in a case of scattering by one cylinder through the comparison with analytical solution. Two cases of multiple scattering by a set of cylinders at different concentrations are simulated to perform a parametric study (of frequency, scatterer concentration, scatterer size). The effective properties are compared with the predictions of Waterman-Truell model as well, to verify its validity.

  1. Measuring the scattering mean free path of Rayleigh waves on a volcano from spatial phase decoherence (United States)

    Obermann, Anne; Larose, Eric; Margerin, Ludovic; Rossetto, Vincent


    We analyze the statistics of phase fluctuations of seismic signals obtained from a temporary small aperture array deployed on a volcano in the French Auvergne. We demonstrate that the phase field satisfies Circular Gaussian statistics. We then determine the scattering mean free path of Rayleigh waves from the spatial phase decoherence. This phenomenon, observed for diffuse wavefields, is found to yield a good approximation of the scattering mean free path. Contrary to the amplitude, spatial phase decoherence is free from absorption effects and provides direct access to the scattering mean free path. Our method may find applications in various areas of seismology where the effects of scattering are prominent and a knowledge of the scattering properties is necessary to describe the propagation. As an example, an unbiased estimate of the scattering mean free path is crucial for the localization of changes in multiply scattering media, where a sensitivity kernel based on diffusion theory is used (Larose et al. 2010; Obermann et al. 2013a,b). Our experimental approach may also provide independent estimates of the scattering mean free path in volcanic areas where particularly strong scattering has been proposed, based on the fitting of energy envelopes using energy transport approaches (Wegler & Lühr 2001; Yamamoto & Sato 2010). References: Larose, E., Planès, T., Rossetto, V. & Margerin, L., 2010. Locating a small change in a multiple scattering environment, Appl. Phys. Lett., 96(204101), 1-3. Obermann, A., Planès, T., Larose, E. & Campillo, M., 2013a. Imaging pre and co-eruptive structural and mechanical changes on a volcano with ambient seismic noise, J. geophys. Res., 118, 1-10. Obermann, A., Planès, T., Larose, E., Sens-Schönfelder, C. & Campillo,M., 2013b. Depth sensitivity of seismic coda waves to velocity perturbations in an elastic heterogeneous medium, Geophys. J. Int., 194(1), 372-382. Wegler, U. & Lühr, B.G., 2001. Scattering behaviour at Merapi volcano

  2. Resonant Scattering of Radiation Belt Electrons by Off-Equatorial Magnetosonic Waves (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Zou, Zhengyang; Fu, Song; Cao, Xing; Gu, Xudong; Xiang, Zheng


    Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves are commonly regarded as electromagnetic waves that are characteristically confined within ±3° of the geomagnetic equator. We report two typical off-equatorial MS events observed by Van Allen Probes, that is, the 8 May 2014 event that occurred at the geomagnetic latitudes of 7.5°-9.2° both inside and outside the plasmasphere with the wave amplitude up to 590 pT and the 9 January 2014 event that occurred at the latitudes of—(15.7°-17.5°) outside the plasmasphere with a smaller amplitude about 81 pT. Detailed test particle simulations quantify the electron resonant scattering rates by the off-equatorial MS waves to find that they can cause the pitch angle scattering and momentum diffusion of radiation belt electrons with equatorial pitch angles belt electron butterfly distributions for a broad energy range from 100 keV to >1 MeV within an hour. Our study clearly demonstrates that the presence of off-equatorial MS waves, in addition to equatorial MS waves, can contribute importantly to the dynamical variations of radiation belt electron fluxes and their pitch angle distribution.

  3. Blackening of unprotected dental X-ray films due to scattered radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewerin, I.; Stoltze, K.


    Unexposed films awaiting exposure as well as exposed films awaiting processing are subjected to scattered radiation if kept unprotected in the dental X-ray clinic. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of various storing principles, film speed, and distance from X-ray source upon the degree of film blackening. Test films were subjected to scattered radiation from 150 exposures. Maximum additional blackening (0.27 D) was recorded for type E films not protected by lead foil at the shortest distance studied (55 cm). At a distance of 200 cm blackening was reduced to 0.02 D and could be further reduced by utilizing the inherent protective effect of the lead foil. It is concluded that if dental X-ray films not in use are kept a distance of 200 cm from the X-ray source and protected by lead foil additional blackening due to scattered radiation is negligible and further protective precautions are unnecessary.

  4. Piezoelectric T-matrix approach and multiple scattering of electroacoustic waves in thin plates (United States)

    Darabi, Amir; Ruzzene, Massimo; Leamy, Michael J.


    Metamaterial-enhanced harvesting (MEH) of wave energy in thin plates and other structures has appeared recently for powering small sensors and devices. To support continued MEH concept development, this paper proposes a fully coupled T-matrix formulation for analyzing scattering of incident wave energy from a piezoelectric patch attached to a thin plate. More generally, the T-matrix represents an input–output relationship between incident and reflected waves from inclusions in a host layer, and is introduced herein for a piezoelectric patch connected to an external circuit. The utility of a T-matrix formalism is most apparent in scenarios employing multiple piezoelectric harvesters, where it can be re-used with other T-matrices (such as those previously formulated for rigid, void, and elastic inclusions) in a multiple scattering context to compute the total wavefield and other response quantities, such as harvested power. Following development of the requisite T-matrix, harvesting in an example funnel-shaped metamaterial waveguide structure is predicted using the multiple scattering approach. Enhanced wave energy harvesting predictions are verified through comparisons to experimental results of a funnel-shaped waveguide formed by placing rigid aluminum inclusions in, and multiple piezoelectric harvesters on, a Lexan plate. Good agreement with predicted response quantities is noted.

  5. Theoretical investigations of the Au++H2 reactive scattering by the time-dependent quantum wave packet method (United States)

    Lee, Wentao; He, Haixiang; Chen, Maodu


    Employing the state-to-state time-dependent quantum wave packet method, the Au++H2 reactive scattering with initial states v = 0, j = 0 and 1 were investigated. Total reaction probabilities, product state-resolved integral cross-sections (ICSs) and differential cross-sections (DCSs) were calculated up to collision energy of 4.5 eV. The numerical results show that total reaction probabilities and ICSs increase with increasing collision energies, and there is little effect to the reactive scattering processes from the rotational excitation of H2 molecule. Below collision energy of around 3.0 eV, the role of the potential well in the entrance channel is significant and the reactive scattering proceeds dominantly by an indirect process, which leads to a nearly symmetric shape of the DCSs. With collision energy higher than 4.0 eV, the reactive scattering proceeds through a direct process, which leads to a forward biased DCSs, and also a hotter rotational distributions of the products. Total ICS agrees with the results by the quasi-classical trajectories theory very well, which suggests that the quantum effects in this reactive process are not obvious. However, the agreement between the experimental total cross-section and our theoretical result is not so good. This may be due to the uncertainty of the experiment or/and the inaccuracy of the potential energy surface.

  6. On Peculiarities of Radio Wave Scattering by a Sound Pulse in the Atmosphere (United States)

    Bryukhovetski, A. S.; Vichkan', A. V.


    Purpose: Scattering of radio waves by a sound pulse in the atmosphere is investigated theoretically. Design/methodology/approach: The asymptotic of the scattered field in the approximation of the Fresnel diffraction is analyzed using the quadratic expansion of the phase and Gaussian directional patterns of radiating systems. Findings: It is shown that for small angles of backscattering the field is determined by the focusing effects. Conclusions: Explanation of the focus by “degenerate” saddle points of the studied integrand phase is suggested.

  7. Bragg scattering of electromagnetic waves by microwave-produced plasma layers (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Zhang, Y. S.


    A set of parallel plasma layers is generated by two intersecting microwave pulses in a chamber containing dry air at a pressure comparable to the upper atmosphere. The dependencies of breakdown conditions on the pressure and pulse length are examined. The results are shown to be consistent with the appearance of tail erosion of the microwave pulse caused by air breakdown. A Bragg scattering experiment, using the plasma layers as a Bragg reflector, is then performed. Both time domain and frequency domain measurements of wave scattering are conducted. The experimental results are found to agree very well with the theory.

  8. Effect of magnetic impurity scattering in a d-wave superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, C H


    We study the effect of magnetic impurity scattering in a d-wave superconductor by taking into account the magnetic moment and the anisotropy of the impurity potential. We compute the transition temperate, the superfluid density, the residual resistivity, and the residual density of states as a function of the impurity concentration by solving the t-matrix equation of impurity scattering. In the Ginzburg-Landau region, we derive the general expression for the various physical quantities to discuss the effect of arbitrary phase shifts of the impurity potential. We also compare the results with the experiments for Zn and Ni substitutions in the high temperature superconductors.

  9. Strong fluctuation theory for electromagnetic wave scattering by a layer of random discrete scatterers. [in microwave remote sensing of snow fields (United States)

    Jin, Y. Q.; Kong, J. A.


    The strong fluctuation theory is applied to the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers. The singularity of the dyadic Green's function is taken into account in the calculation of the effective permittivity functions. The correlation functions for the random medium with different scatterer constituents and size distributions are derived. Applying the dyadic Green's function for a two-layer medium and using the bilocal and distorted Born approximations, the first and the second moments of the fields are then calculated. Both the backscattering and bistatic scattering coefficients are obtained, and the former is shown to match favorably with experimental data obtained from snow fields.

  10. Scattering-induced changes in the degree of polarization of a stochastic electromagnetic plane-wave pulse. (United States)

    Ding, Chaoliang; Cai, Yangjian; Zhang, Yongtao; Pan, Liuzhan


    The scattering of a stochastic electromagnetic plane-wave pulse on a deterministic spherical medium is investigated. An analytical formula for the degree of polarization (DOP) of the scattered field in the far zone is derived. Letting pulse duration T(0) → ∞, our formula can be applied to study the scattering of a stationary stochastic electromagnetic light wave. Numerical results show that the DOP of the far zone field is closely determined by the size of the spherical medium when the incident field is a stochastic electromagnetic plane-wave pulse. This is much different from the case when the incident field is a stationary stochastic electromagnetic light wave, where the DOP of the far zone field is independent of the size of the medium. One may obtain the information of the spherical medium by measuring the scattering-induced changes in the DOP of a stochastic electromagnetic plane-wave pulse.

  11. Coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneously Brillouin-scattered light waves in a single-mode fiber (United States)

    Shimizu, Kaoru; Horiguchi, Tsuneo; Koyamada, Yahei; Kurashima, Toshio


    Time-domain reflectometry of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in a single-mode optical fiber is performed with a coherent self-heterodyne detection system containing a recently proposed external frequency translator and a single light-wave source. The light wave is divided into probe and reference light waves. The frequency of the probe light wave is upconverted by the translator by an amount approximately equal to the Brillouin frequency shift. The frequency-converted probe is launched into the fiber and spontaneously Brillouin scattered. As the frequency of the scattered probe is downconverted to near that of the reference light wave, coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering becomes possible without having to use a fast-speed detector.

  12. A new formulation of electromagnetic wave scattering using an on-surface radiation boundary condition approach (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Gregory A.; Taflove, Allen; Umashankar, Koradar R.


    A new formulation of electromagnetic wave scattering by convex, two-dimensional conducting bodies is reported. This formulation, called the on-surface radiation condition (OSRC) approach, is based upon an expansion of the radiation condition applied directly on the surface of a scatterer. It is now shown that application of a suitable radiation condition directly on the surface of a convex conducting scatterer can lead to substantial simplification of the frequency-domain integral equation for the scattered field, which is reduced to just a line integral. For the transverse magnetic case, the integrand is known explicitly. For the transverse electric case, the integrand can be easily constructed by solving an ordinary differential equation around the scatterer surface contour. Examples are provided which show that OSRC yields computed near and far fields which approach the exact results for canonical shapes such as the circular cylinder, square cylinder, and strip. Electrical sizes for the examples are ka = 5 and ka = 10. The new OSRC formulation of scattering may present a useful alternative to present integral equation and uniform high-frequency approaches for convex cylinders larger than ka = 1. Structures with edges or corners can also be analyzed, although more work is needed to incorporate the physics of singular currents at these discontinuities. Convex dielectric structures can also be treated using OSRC.

  13. Scattering Cross Section of Sound Waves by the Modal Element Method (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.


    #he modal element method has been employed to determine the scattered field from a plane acoustic wave impinging on a two dimensional body. In the modal element method, the scattering body is represented by finite elements, which are coupled to an eigenfunction expansion representing the acoustic pressure in the infinite computational domain surrounding the body. The present paper extends the previous work by developing the algorithm necessary to calculate the acoustics scattering cross section by the modal element method. The scattering cross section is the acoustical equivalent to the Radar Cross Section (RCS) in electromagnetic theory. Since the scattering cross section is evaluated at infinite distance from the body, an asymptotic approximation is used in conjunction with the standard modal element method. For validation, the scattering cross section of the rigid circular cylinder is computed for the frequency range 0.1 is less than or equal to ka is less than or equal to 100. Results show excellent agreement with the analytic solution.

  14. General framework for multiple scattering of polarized waves including anisotropies and Berry phase. (United States)

    Rossetto, V


    We develop a framework for the multiple scattering of a polarized wave. We consider particles with spin propagating in a medium filled with scatterers. We write the amplitudes of each spin eigenstate in a local mobile frame. One of the axes is in the direction of propagation of the particle. We use this representation to define a directional Green's operator of the homogeneous medium and also to write the spin-dependent scattering amplitudes. We show that this representation reveals a Berry phase. We establish a generalized Green-Dyson equation for the multiple-scattering problem in this framework. We show that the generalized Green-Dyson equation can be solved by linear algebra if one uses a representation of the rotations based on Wigner D matrices. The properties of light scattering are retrieved if we use spin 1 particles. Our theory allows to take into account several kinds of anisotropies such as circular or linear dichroism and birefringence, Faraday effects, and Mie scattering within the same formalism. Several anisotropies can be present at the same time.

  15. Testing the Predictions of Random Matrix Theory in Low Loss Wave Chaotic Scattering Systems (United States)

    Yeh, Jen-Hao; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven


    Wave chaos is a field where researchers apply random matrix theory (RMT) to predict the statistics of wave properties in complicated wave scattering systems. The RMT predictions have successfully demonstrated universality of the distributions of these wave properties, which only depend on the loss parameter of the system and the physical symmetry. Examination of these predictions in very low loss systems is interesting because extreme limits for the distribution functions and other predictions are encountered. Therefore, we use a wave-chaotic superconducting cavity to establish a low loss environment and test RMT predictions, including the statistics of the scattering (S) matrix and the impedance (Z) matrix, the universality (or lack thereof) of the Z- and S-variance ratios, and the statistics of the proper delay times of the Wigner-Smith time-delay matrix. We have applied an in-situ microwave calibration method (Thru-Reflection-Line method) to calibrate the cryostat system, and we also applied the random coupling model to remove the system-specific features. Our experimental results of different properties agree with the RMT predictions. This work is funded by the ONR/Maryland AppEl Center Task A2 (contract No. N000140911190), the AFOSR under grant FA95500710049, and Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials.

  16. Condition for invariant spectrum of an electromagnetic wave scattered from an anisotropic random media. (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping


    Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.

  17. Scattering of ice-coupled waves by variable sea-ice terrain (United States)

    Vaughan, Gareth L.; Squire, Vernon A.

    The reflection and transmission of ice-coupled waves under a sea-ice sheet is re-examined in this work. Recent theory can account for inhomogeneities in ice sheets such as the sails of pressure ridges and cracks or leads, but has only examined small numbers of features. Here the scattering coefficients can be obtained for an ice sheet containing a region of arbitrarily varying thickness that more closely approximates a real ice sheet and, consequently, models wave scattering more effectively. We explore the consequences of inverting ridge keels, placing the mass above the ice sheet as a technique by which the keel can be partially accounted for. It is found that the ridge sails themselves can reasonably be neglected. Upward-looking submarine sonar data are used to demonstrate the use of the model, noting that there are choices as to how to interpret such data. The model is tested to establish its sensitivity to these choices.

  18. Sensitivity kernels for coda-wave interferometry and scattering tomography: theory and numerical evaluation in two-dimensional anisotropically scattering media (United States)

    Margerin, Ludovic; Planès, Thomas; Mayor, Jessie; Calvet, Marie


    Coda-wave interferometry is a technique which exploits tiny waveform changes in the coda to detect temporal variations of seismic properties in evolving media. Observed waveform changes are of two kinds: traveltime perturbations and distortion of seismograms. In the last 10 yr, various theories have been published to relate either background velocity changes to traveltime perturbations, or changes in the scattering properties of the medium to waveform decorrelation. These theories have been limited by assumptions pertaining to the scattering process itself-in particular isotropic scattering, or to the propagation regime-single-scattering and/or diffusion. In this manuscript, we unify and extend previous results from the literature using a radiative transfer approach. This theory allows us to incorporate the effect of anisotropic scattering and to cover a broad range of propagation regimes, including the contribution of coherent, singly scattered and multiply scattered waves. Using basic physical reasoning, we show that two different sensitivity kernels are required to describe traveltime perturbations and waveform decorrelation, respectively, a distinction which has not been well appreciated so far. Previous results from the literature are recovered as limiting cases of our general approach. To evaluate numerically the sensitivity functions, we introduce an improved version of a spectral technique known as the method of `rotated coordinate frames', which allows global evaluation of the Green's function of the radiative transfer equation in a finite domain. The method is validated through direct pointwise comparison with Green's functions obtained by the Monte Carlo method. To illustrate the theory, we consider a series of scattering media displaying increasing levels of scattering anisotropy and discuss the impact on the traveltime and decorrelation kernels. We also consider the related problem of imaging variations of scattering properties based on intensity

  19. Near-surface fault detection by migrating back-scattered surface waves with and without velocity profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han


    We demonstrate that diffraction stack migration can be used to discover the distribution of near-surface faults. The methodology is based on the assumption that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. We first isolate the back-scattered surface waves by muting or FK filtering, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. We have also proposed a natural migration method that utilizes the intrinsic traveltime property of the direct and the back-scattered waves at faults. For the synthetic data sets and the land data collected in Aqaba, where surface wave velocity has unexpected perturbations, we migrate the back-scattered surface waves with both predicted velocity profiles and natural Green\\'s function without velocity information. Because the latter approach avoids the need for an accurate velocity model in event summation, both the prestack and stacked migration images show competitive quality. Results with both synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. We believe applying this method to global or passive seismic data can open new opportunities in unveiling tectonic features.

  20. Giant J (Osborn) Wave due to Bonsai Abuse: Comments on Clinical Practice. (United States)

    Yalçın, Murat; Aparcı, Mustafa; Eroğlu, Murat; Işılak, Zafer; Özmen, Namık


    Osborn wave, typically associated with hypothermia, is currently referred to as one of the J wave syndromes due to its clinical potential to develop lethal cardiac arrhythmia; it may rarely be observed in a non-hypothermic setting such as cannabis abuse. In this paper, we presented two young cases who presented to the emergency services with unconsciousness, drowsiness, and hypoxia, and also J wave on electrocardiography (ECG) due to Bonsai abuse. Osborn wave may be a significant criterion to initiate close monitoring in a coronary care unit, with supportive treatment and mechanical ventilation as necessary in those patients who abuse Bonsai.

  1. Realization of low-scattering metamaterial shell based on cylindrical wave expanding theory. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Hu, Chenggang; Wang, Min; Pu, Mingbo; Luo, Xiangang


    In this paper, we demonstrate the design of a low-scattering metamaterial shell with strong backward scattering reduction and a wide bandwidth at microwave frequencies. Low echo is achieved through cylindrical wave expanding theory, and such shell only contains one metamaterial layer with simultaneous low permittivity and permeability. Cut-wire structure is selected to realize the low electromagnetic (EM) parameters and low loss on the resonance brim region. The full-model simulations show good agreement with theoretical calculations, and illustrate that near -20dB reduction is achieved and the -10 dB bandwidth can reach up to 0.6 GHz. Compared with the cloak based on transformation electromagnetics, the design possesses advantage of simpler requirement of EM parameters and is much easier to be implemented when only backward scattering field is cared.

  2. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres. (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Shi, Yan'e; Bai, Lu; Li, Hai-Ying


    An exact analytical solution is obtained for the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a plane wave with arbitrary directions of propagation and polarization by an aggregate of interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres with parallel primary optical axes. The expansion coefficients of a plane wave with arbitrary directions of propagation and polarization, for both TM and TE modes, are derived in terms of spherical vector wave functions. The effects of the incident angle α and the polarization angle β on the radar cross sections (RCSs) of several types of collective uniaxial anisotropic spheres are numerically analyzed in detail. The characteristics of the forward and backward RCSs in relation to the incident wavelength are also numerically studied. Selected results on the forward and backward RCSs of several types of square arrays of SiO₂ spheres illuminated by a plane wave with different incident angles are described. The accuracy of the expansion coefficients of the incident fields is verified by comparing them with the results obtained from references when the plane wave is degenerated to a z-propagating and x- or y-polarized plane wave. The validity of the theory is also confirmed by comparing the numerical results with those provided by a CST simulation.

  3. Electron Scattering by High-Frequency Whistler Waves at Earth's Bow Shock (United States)

    Oka, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Phan, T. D.; Hull, A. J.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.; Argall, M. R.; Le Contel, O.; Agapitov, O.; Gersham, D. J.; hide


    Electrons are accelerated to non-thermal energies at shocks in space and astrophysical environments. While different mechanisms of electron acceleration have been proposed, it remains unclear how non-thermal electrons are produced out of the thermal plasma pool. Here, we report in situ evidence of pitch-angle scattering of non-thermal electrons by whistler waves at Earths bow shock. On 2015 November 4, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission crossed the bow shock with an Alfvn Mach number is approximately 11 and a shock angle of approximately 84deg. In the ramp and overshoot regions, MMS revealed bursty enhancements of non-thermal (0.52 keV) electron flux, correlated with high-frequency (0.2 - 0.4 Omega(sub ce), where Omega(sub ce) is the cyclotron frequency) parallel-propagating whistler waves. The electron velocity distribution (measured at 30 ms cadence) showed an enhanced gradient of phase-space density at and around the region where the electron velocity component parallel to the magnetic field matched the resonant energy inferred from the wave frequency range. The flux of 0.5 keV electrons (measured at 1ms cadence) showed fluctuations with the same frequency. These features indicate that non-thermal electrons were pitch-angle scattered by cyclotron resonance with the high-frequency whistler waves. However, the precise role of the pitch-angle scattering by the higher-frequency whistler waves and possible nonlinear effects in the electron acceleration process remains unclear.

  4. Electron Scattering by High-frequency Whistler Waves at Earth’s Bow Shock (United States)

    Oka, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Phan, T. D.; Hull, A. J.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.; Argall, M. R.; Le Contel, O.; Agapitov, O.; Gershman, D. J.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J. C.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Saito, Y.; Avanov, L. A.; Paterson, W.; Ergun, R. E.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P. A.


    Electrons are accelerated to non-thermal energies at shocks in space and astrophysical environments. While different mechanisms of electron acceleration have been proposed, it remains unclear how non-thermal electrons are produced out of the thermal plasma pool. Here, we report in situ evidence of pitch-angle scattering of non-thermal electrons by whistler waves at Earth’s bow shock. On 2015 November 4, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission crossed the bow shock with an Alfvén Mach number ˜11 and a shock angle ˜84°. In the ramp and overshoot regions, MMS revealed bursty enhancements of non-thermal (0.5-2 keV) electron flux, correlated with high-frequency (0.2-0.4 {{{Ω }}}{ce}, where {{{Ω }}}{ce} is the cyclotron frequency) parallel-propagating whistler waves. The electron velocity distribution (measured at 30 ms cadence) showed an enhanced gradient of phase-space density at and around the region where the electron velocity component parallel to the magnetic field matched the resonant energy inferred from the wave frequency range. The flux of 0.5 keV electrons (measured at 1 ms cadence) showed fluctuations with the same frequency. These features indicate that non-thermal electrons were pitch-angle scattered by cyclotron resonance with the high-frequency whistler waves. However, the precise role of the pitch-angle scattering by the higher-frequency whistler waves and possible nonlinear effects in the electron acceleration process remains unclear.

  5. Investigating Seismic Wave Scattering in Heterogeneous Environments and Implications for Seismic Imaging (United States)

    Bongajum, Emmanuel Leinyuy


    Inhomogeneities in the earth (fractures, layering, shape, composition) are responsible for seismic wave scattering and contribute towards amplitude, travel time, frequency and spectral fluctuations observed in seismic records. This thesis presents findings that complement our understanding of seismic scattering and imaging in heterogeneous media. Interest focused on probing the correlation between spatial variations in attributes that characterize the state (physical, chemical) of rocks and seismic waveform data with consideration towards potential implications for seismic survey design to optimize imaging, imaging with converted waves, microseismic monitoring, velocity modeling and imaging of lithological boundaries. The highlights of the research strategy include: • The use of stochastic methods to build realistic earth models that characterize the 1D, 2D and 3D spatial variations in rock properties. These petrophysical earth models are conditioned by experimental ("hard") data such as geology, wave velocities and density from case study areas like the Bosumtwi impact crater and the base metal deposits in Nash Creek (Canada) and Thompson (Canada). The distributions of the sulfide mineralization at Nash Creek and at Thompson represent two end members of the heterogeneity spectrum. While the sulfide mineralization at Nash Creek is highly disseminated in nature, the sulfide rich zones at Thompson occur as well defined volumes (lens-shaped) having a strong density contrast with respect to the host rocks. • Analysis of modeled forward (transmitted) and backward scattered wave propagation in the heterogeneous earth models. As a result of a study aimed at correlating resonant frequencies to scale length parameters, it is observed that the efficiency of the spectral ratio method is undermined by its sensitivity to the interference between P- and S-waves as well as the impedance contrast. It is also demonstrated that travel time of direct arrivals (transmitted waves

  6. Effects of multiple scatter on the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves in a field-aligned-striated cold magneto-plasma: implications for ionospheric modification experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    Full Text Available A new theory of the propagation of low power electromagnetic test waves through the upper-hybrid resonance layer in the presence of magnetic field-aligned plasma density striations, which includes the effects of multiple scatter, is presented. The case of sinusoidal striations in a cold magnetoplasma is treated rigorously and then extended, in an approximate manner, to the broad-band striation spectrum and warm plasma cases. In contrast to previous, single scatter theories, it is found that the interaction layer is much broader than the wavelength of the test wave. This is due to the combined electric fields of the scattered waves becoming localised on the contour of a fixed plasma density, which corresponds to a constant value for the local upper-hybrid resonance frequency over the whole interaction region. The results are applied to the calculation of the refractive index of an ordinary mode test wave during modification experiments in the ionospheric F-region. Although strong anomalous absorption arises, no new cutoffs occur at the upper-hybrid resonance, so that in contrast to the predictions of previous single scatter theories, no additional reflections occur there. These results are consistent with observations made during ionospheric modification experiments at Tromsø, Norway.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  7. Heat-Flux Measurements in Laser-Produced Plasmas Using Thomson Scattering from Electron Plasma Waves (United States)

    Henchen, R. J.; Goncharov, V. N.; Cao, D.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.; Rozmus, W.


    An experiment was designed to measure heat flux in coronal plasmas using collective Thomson scattering. Adjustments to the electron distribution function resulting from heat flux affect the shape of the collective Thomson scattering features through wave-particle resonance. The amplitude of the Spitzer-Härm electron distribution function correction term (f1) was varied to match the data and determines the value of the heat flux. Independent measurements of temperature and density obtained from Thomson scattering were used to infer the classical heat flux (q = - κ∇Te) . Time-resolved Thomson-scattering data were obtained at five locations in the corona along the target normal in a blowoff plasma formed from a planar Al target with 1.5 kJ of 351-nm laser light in a 2-ns square pulse. The flux measured through the Thomson-scattering spectra is a factor of 5 less than the κ∇Te measurements. The lack of collisions of heat-carrying electrons suggests a nonlocal model is needed to accurately describe the heat flux. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  8. Coronal Holes and Solar f -Mode Wave Scattering Off Linear Boundaries (United States)

    Hess Webber, Shea A.


    Coronal holes (CHs) are solar atmospheric features that have reduced emission in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum due to decreased plasma density along open magnetic field lines. CHs are the source of the fast solar wind, can influence other solar activity, and track the solar cycle. Our interest in them deals with boundary detection near the solar surface. Detecting CH boundaries is important for estimating their size and tracking their evolution through time, as well as for comparing the physical properties within and outside of the feature. In this thesis, we (1) investigate CHs using statistical properties and image processing techniques on EUV images to detect CH boundaries in the low corona and chromosphere. SOHO/EIT data is used to locate polar CH boundaries on the solar limb, which are then tracked through two solar cycles. Additionally, we develop an edge-detection algorithm that we use on SDO/AIA data of a polar hole extension with an approximately linear boundary. These locations are used later to inform part of the helioseismic investigation; (2) develop a local time-distance (TD) helioseismology technique that can be used to detect CH boundary signatures at the photospheric level. We employ a new averaging scheme that makes use of the quasi-linear topology of elongated scattering regions, and create simulated data to test the new technique and compare results of some associated assumptions. This method enhances the wave propagation signal in the direction perpendicular to the linear feature and reduces the computational time of the TD analysis. We also apply a new statistical analysis of the significance of differences between the TD results; and (3) apply the TD techniques to solar CH data from SDO/HMI. The data correspond to the AIA data used in the edge-detection algorithm on EUV images. We look for statistically significant differences between the TD results inside and outside the CH region. In investigation (1), we found that the polar CH

  9. Electromagnetic wave scattering in a two-layer anisotropic random medium (United States)

    Lee, J. K.; Kong, J. A.


    For electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in an anisotropic random medium, the Dyson equation for the mean field and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the correlation or the covariance of the field were derived. With the random permittivity expressed in a general anisotropic form, the bilocal and the nonlinear approximations are employed to solve the Dyson equation, and the ladder approximation to solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The mean dyadic Green's function for a two-layer anisotropic random medium with arbitrary three-dimensional correlation functions has been investigated with the zeroth-order solutions to the Dyson equation under the nonlinear approximation. The effective propagation constants are calculated for the four characteristic waves associated with the coherent vector fields, propagating in an anisotropic random-medium layer, which are the ordinary and extraordinary waves with upward- and downward-propagating vectors.

  10. Estimate of damage area due to a random optical wave (United States)

    Kragh, Frank E.; Phillips, Ronald L.


    The light intensity of a laser beam which has propagated through the atmosphere will be irregular due to inhomogeneities in the atmosphere. Thus the intensity falling on a target is higher on some target areas and lower in others leading to damaged areas randomly distributed over the illuminated area. This study predicts the average area, A, of a single damaged area using a mathematical treatment, focusing largely on the concepts of two dimensional level crossings and excursion areas. After developing a solution for A for arbitrary probability density function (pdf), a solution for gamma distributed intensity is developed. This solution is then applied to several models for the spectral distribution of the intensity, including graphs illustrating the results. To reduce the problem to a manageable task, several assumptions and approximations are made. First, the pdf for the intensity is assumed to be the gamma distribution. This gamma distribution is applicable for the intensity of a gaussian field, a sum of gaussian fields, and therefore thermal light'. Second, the covariance function of the intensity is assumed to be isotropic. Furthermore, the intensity required to damage an area, Icrit, is assumed to be sufficiently high so that the probability of a damaged area containing an island of undamaged area is small. Although this assumption makes the calculated results approximate, these results become a better approximation for larger values of Icrit. Lastly, the variations in intensity are assumed to be spacially ergodic.

  11. Experimental observation of strong mixing due to internal wave focusing over sloping terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, A.; Manders, A.; Harlander, U.; Maas, L.R.M.


    This paper reports on experimental observation of internal waves that are focused due to a sloping topography. A remarkable mixing of the density field was observed. This result is of importance for the deep ocean, where internal waves are believed to play a role in mixing. The experiments were

  12. Upper mantle anisotropy in western Iran: observations from quasi-Love surface wave scattering (United States)

    Sadeghi-Bagherabadi, Amir; Margheriti, Lucia; Aoudia, Abdelkrim; Sobouti, Farhad; Lucente, Francesco Pio; Baccheschi, Paola


    The Iranian plateau is made up of different tectonic and structural provinces such as the Zagros and Alborz orogenic belts, the Sanandaj-Sirjan and Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arcs, and the active subduction zone of Makran. We use data from a temporary seismic network in western Iran. The network was deployed in 2013 and 2014 and consisted of 63 broadband seismometers installed along three parallel profiles that crossed the Zagros Mountains, central Iran and the Alborz Mountains. Diverse patterns of upper mantle anisotropy in these regions are revealed by recent studies on shear wave splitting of core-refracted phases. Observation of quasi-Love surface waves is a proxy for the lateral gradients of anisotropy. We quantitatively analyzed the relative presence or absence of coupled Love and Rayleigh waves recorded by the temporary seismic stations. The records were filtered between 70 s and 200 s which are sensitive to structures deeper than 100 km. Assuming a horizontal anisotropic symmetry axis, Love to Rayleigh scattering is expected to be maximized when the incoming surface wave direction is at a 45 orientation to the fast anisotropy axis. The presence of quasi-Love is predicted by the geometric relation between the fast axis as inferred from shear wave splitting measurements, and the surface wave back-azimuths. Our coherent observations of SKS measurements and Love-to-Rayleigh scattering suggest a deep origin of anisotropy and allow us to argue for the existence of an upper mantle anisotropic structure with laterally-variable horizontal symmetry axis. The anisotropic pattern so found puts new constraints on the geodynamic models of the Iranian region of Arabia-Eurasia collision zone.

  13. Application of the Method of Auxiliary Sources for the Analysis of Plane-Wave Scattering by Impedance Spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Breinbjerg, Olav


    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is applied to 3D scattering problems involving spherical impedance scatterers. The MAS results are compared with the reference spherical wave expansion (SWE) solution. It is demonstrated that good agreement is achieved between the MAS and SWE results....

  14. Scattering of elastic waves from media with fracture-induced anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugen, Geir Ultveit


    To characterize oil reservoirs, one must know the fracture systems even at large distances from the reservoir and this knowledge comes from seismic data. This thesis models and analyses wave propagation in fractured rocks. It uses effective medium theory to include the fracturing and obtains closed form solutions for the resulting stiffness coefficients for several geometries. A linearized expression provides a simple way of calculating the first-order effects of the fracturing. For isotropic media with one set of embedded fractures, their effect upon the directional velocities is quantified. Compact formulas are given for the plane-wave scattering matrix for amplitudes and for vertical energy flux. When the norm of the relative difference in the eigenvector matrices is assumed to be small, this enables a weak-contrast/weak-anisotropy approximation of the scattering matrix in anisotropic media to be found. To obtain this, a simple formula is derived for the inverse of the eigenvector matrix regardless of the normalization. The new formalism is used to derive a new analytical approximation of the P-wave reflection coefficient in the crack-strike and the crack-normal plane for a model consisting of shale over vertically fractured sandstone. These approximations show how the fracture information can be obtained from the azimuthal AVO response. Next, the impact of the fracturing on the properties of the sandstone layer is quantified. Finally, using a linear slip boundary condition to model the non-weldedness, it is shown that a fracture or fault may be thought of as having a set of characteristic widths, which roughly specify the wavelength range of acoustic energy that interacts with the fracture. Compact plane wave scattering coefficients are derived. These show that observation of reflected signals can provide significant information on the physical properties of the fracture, such as texture and the nature of the in filling fluids. 75 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Identification of delamination interface in composite laminates using scattering characteristics of lamb wave: numerical and experimental studies (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ramadas, C.; Balachandra Shetty, P.; Satyanarayana, K. G.


    Considering the superior strength properties of polymer based composites over metallic materials, they are being used in primary structures of aircrafts. However, these polymeric materials are much more complex in behaviour due to their structural anisotropy along with existence of different materials unlike in metallic alloys. These pose challenge in flaw detection, residual strength determination and life of a structure with their high susceptibility to impact damage in the form of delaminations/disbonds or cracks. This reduces load-bearing capability and potentially leads to structural failure. With this background, this study presents a method to identify location of delamination interface along thickness of a laminate. Both numerical and experimental studies have been carried out with a view to identify the defect, on propagation, mode conversion and scattering characteristics of fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb mode (Ao) when it passed through a semi-infinite delamination. Further, the reflection and transmission scattering coefficients based on power and amplitude ratios of the scattered waves have been computed. The methodology was applied on numerically simulated delaminations to illustrate the efficacy of the method. Results showed that it could successfully identify delamination interface.

  16. Nonlinear Interaction of Langmuir and Whistler Waves Observed with Incoherent Scatter Radar (United States)

    Akbari, H.; Semeter, J. L.


    High-latitude ionosphere is characterized by particle precipitations of different origins. Among these are electron precipitation caused by quasi-static parallel electric fields and Alfven wave-particle interactions. In-situ measurements of fields and particles have commonly detected various plasma modes, such as Langmuir and whistler, enhanced by these precipitating electrons. The waves have been shown to undergo various nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interaction including parametric type instabilities. Detecting such processes with in-situ instruments however is not always straightforward and certain processes may remain undetected. We present new incoherent scatter radar data from the auroral F-region where strong echoes simultaneously appear in the ion- and both up- and down-shifted plasma lines channels. While aspects of these observations have been previously discussed in detail in terms of electron beam-generated Langmuir turbulence, some new aspects, namely the presence of two peaks separated by 300 kHz in both the up- and down-shifted plasma line channels are discussed in this paper. The unique and asymmetric displacement of the peaks with respect to the radar transmitting frequency suggests that the anomalous spectra are produced as a result of the existence of non-resonant waves generated by nonlinear beating between intense Langmuir and whistler modes. The results suggest that such nonlinear interactions contribute to the appearance of wave activities close to the plasma frequency as observed by in-situ electric field spectral measurements and that not all these wave activities are directly generated by the initial electron beam. The anomalous plasma lines spectra are often observed just above the altitude where Langmuir turbulence is observed. This altitudinal morphology and its implications are also discussed is this paper.

  17. Radial transport of radiation belt electrons due to stormtime Pc5 waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Ukhorskiy


    Full Text Available During geomagnetic storms relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt exhibit dynamic variability over multiple orders of magnitude. This requires radial transport of electrons across their drift shells and implies violation of their third adiabatic invariant. Radial transport is induced by the interaction of the electron drift motion with electric and magnetic field fluctuations in the ULF frequency range. It was previously shown that solar-wind driven ULF waves have long azimuthal wave lengths and thus can violate the third invariant of trapped electrons in the process of resonant interaction with their gradient-curvature motion. However, the amplitude of solar-wind driven ULF waves rapidly decreases with decreasing L. It is therefore not clear what mechanisms are responsible for fast transport rates observed inside the geosynchronous orbit. In this paper we investigate wether stormtime Pc5 waves can contribute to this process. Stormtime Pc5s have short azimuthal wave lengths and therefore cannot exhibit resonance with the the electron drift motion. However we show that stormtime Pc5s can cause localized random scattering of electron drift motion that violates the third invariant. According to our results electron interaction with stormtime Pc5s can produce rapid radial transport even as low as L≃4. Numerical simulations show that electron transport can exhibit large deviations from radial diffusion. The diffusion approximation is not valid for individual storms but only applies to the statistically averaged response of the outer belt to stormtime Pc5 waves.

  18. A fractional Fourier transform analysis of the scattering of ultrasonic waves (United States)

    Tant, Katherine M.M.; Mulholland, Anthony J.; Langer, Matthias; Gachagan, Anthony


    Many safety critical structures, such as those found in nuclear plants, oil pipelines and in the aerospace industry, rely on key components that are constructed from heterogeneous materials. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) uses high-frequency mechanical waves to inspect these parts, ensuring they operate reliably without compromising their integrity. It is possible to employ mathematical models to develop a deeper understanding of the acquired ultrasonic data and enhance defect imaging algorithms. In this paper, a model for the scattering of ultrasonic waves by a crack is derived in the time–frequency domain. The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is applied to an inhomogeneous wave equation where the forcing function is prescribed as a linear chirp, modulated by a Gaussian envelope. The homogeneous solution is found via the Born approximation which encapsulates information regarding the flaw geometry. The inhomogeneous solution is obtained via the inverse Fourier transform of a Gaussian-windowed linear chirp excitation. It is observed that, although the scattering profile of the flaw does not change, it is amplified. Thus, the theory demonstrates the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio permitted by the use of coded excitation, as well as establishing a time–frequency domain framework to assist in flaw identification and classification. PMID:25792967

  19. A fractional Fourier transform analysis of the scattering of ultrasonic waves. (United States)

    Tant, Katherine M M; Mulholland, Anthony J; Langer, Matthias; Gachagan, Anthony


    Many safety critical structures, such as those found in nuclear plants, oil pipelines and in the aerospace industry, rely on key components that are constructed from heterogeneous materials. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) uses high-frequency mechanical waves to inspect these parts, ensuring they operate reliably without compromising their integrity. It is possible to employ mathematical models to develop a deeper understanding of the acquired ultrasonic data and enhance defect imaging algorithms. In this paper, a model for the scattering of ultrasonic waves by a crack is derived in the time-frequency domain. The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is applied to an inhomogeneous wave equation where the forcing function is prescribed as a linear chirp, modulated by a Gaussian envelope. The homogeneous solution is found via the Born approximation which encapsulates information regarding the flaw geometry. The inhomogeneous solution is obtained via the inverse Fourier transform of a Gaussian-windowed linear chirp excitation. It is observed that, although the scattering profile of the flaw does not change, it is amplified. Thus, the theory demonstrates the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio permitted by the use of coded excitation, as well as establishing a time-frequency domain framework to assist in flaw identification and classification.

  20. Particle acceleration by wave scattering off dielectric spheres at whispering-gallery-mode resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Żakowicz


    Full Text Available The large electromagnetic fields, created in wave scattering near a perfect dielectric sphere at the condition of whispering-gallery-mode resonances, are investigated as driving units for high energy charged particle accelerators. For optimal trajectories passing near the scattering sphere, particle coupling with the field reduces to very short intervals, of the order of the wave period. Interacting fields can be almost 1000 times stronger than that in the incident wave. An example considered indicates that the instantaneous energy yield during this strong coupling interval is equivalent to ∼30  GeV/m, assuming the incident electric field E_{0}=100  MV/m. It was shown that the particle transverse deflection is negligible if the phase of the particle is optimal for acceleration. Hence, the acceleration process can be repeated many times. A rough estimate of the energy gain in a periodic chain of such elementary accelerating unit cells gives ΔEnergy/m≈5  GeV/m, which is several hundred times more than in contemporary operating and projected accelerators. Preliminary estimates of absorption losses in the scheme are given.

  1. Laser Light Scattering Diagnostic for Measurement of Flow Velocity in Vicinity of Propagating Shock Waves (United States)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Buggele, Alvin E.


    A laser light scattering diagnostic for measurement of dynamic flow velocity at a point is described. The instrument is being developed for use in the study of propagating shock waves and detonation waves in pulse detonation engines under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The approach uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer to measure the Doppler shift of laser light scattered from small (submicron) particles in the flow. The high-speed detection system required to resolve the transient response as a shock wave crosses the probe volume uses fast response photodetectors, and a PC based data acquisition system. Preliminary results of measurements made in the GRC Mach 4, 10 by 25 cm supersonic wind tunnel are presented. Spontaneous condensation of water vapor in the flow is used as seed. The tunnel is supplied with continuous air flow at up to 45 psia and the flow is exhausted into the GRC laboratory-wide altitude exhaust system at pressures down to 0.3 psia.

  2. Effects of admittance and gyrotropy on the scattering due to chiro-ferrite medium coated microstructured PMC cylinder (United States)

    Iqbal, N.; Choudhury, P. K.


    The paper deals with scattering of electromagnetic (EM) waves by perfectly magnetic conducting (PMC) cylinder coated with chiro-ferrite medium under the assumption of oblique angle of incidence wave with perpendicular polarization (transverse electric; TE). An on-demand (in respect of orientation) kind of conducting sheath helix structure is assumed to exist at the outer surface of cylinder. The effects of sheath helix orientation, along with the material parameters, such as chirality admittance and gyrotropy, on the echo width as well as the magnitude and phase of the electric and magnetic fields are investigated. Control on the anisotropic property remains greatly useful in obtaining the required optical response from the scatterer - the feature which would find fabulous sensing related applications.

  3. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in disordered magnetic media localization parameter, energy transport velocity and diffusion constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pinheiro, F A; Martínez, A S


    We review some of our recent results concerning the single and multiple electromagnetic scattering by magnetic spherical particles. For a single electromagnetic scattering we show that the magnetic contribution alters, when compared to nonmagnetic scattering, the behavior of the cross sections and mean cosine of the scattering angle (cos omega). For ferromagnetic particles, resonances may occur even in the small-particle limit when the particle radius is much smaller than the wavelength. The resonances increase the cross sections while (cos omega) is diminished , and even may become negative. Several quantities such the Ioffe-Regel parameter for localization are calculated for the multiple scattering regime. We show that magnetic scattering favors the observation of localization of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions. Further, this is also verified for dynamical experiments, where we show that the diffusion constant can be very small. Since the magnetic permeability of the scatterers can vary significan...

  4. Comparison of finite difference and finite element methods for simulating two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frehner, Marcel; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Saenger, Erik H.; Steeb, Holger Karl


    Two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves in a medium containing a circular heterogeneity is investigated with an analytical solution and numerical wave propagation simulations. Different combinations of finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) are used to numerically solve

  5. Bragg-Scattering Four-Wave Mixing in Nonlinear Fibers with Intracavity Frequency-Shifted Laser Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krupa


    Full Text Available We experimentally study four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fibers using two independent and partially coherent laser pumps and a third coherent signal. We focus our attention on the Bragg-scattering frequency conversion. The two pumps were obtained by amplifying two Intracavity frequency-shifted feedback lasers working in a continuous wave regime.

  6. Guided wave scattering by a geometrical or damage feature: application to fatigue crack and machined notch (United States)

    Quaegebeur, Nicolas; Bouslama, Nidhal; Bilodeau, Maxime; Masson, Patrice; Maslouhi, Ahmed; Micheau, Philippe


    Guided-wave based Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems validation under realistic conditions or environment requires complex setups. Numerical or theoretical approaches are useful to save time and cost associated with experimental tests but the interaction with realistic geometrical (rivets, thickness changes, stiffeners, extrusions) or damage features (fatigue cracks, fillet cracks, delaminations, disbonds) must be accurately captured in order to be representative. In this paper, an experimental methodology is presented for estimating the far-field scattering of geometrical or damage features. The principle is based on the use of a Hankel transform of the measured 3D velocity field in order to evaluate with precision the scattered pattern using a spatially averaged method. Application to scattering of a hole with simulated machined and real fatigue cracks is proposed. It is observed that the simulated machined crack generally used as a reference standard can only model accurately the transmission behaviour while the scattering patterns are only similar when the wavelength is about the size of the crack, limiting the practical use of machined cracks for experimental validation of SHM or NDE systems.

  7. Neutron Scattering Investigation of the Temperature Dependence of Long-Wavelength Spin Waves in Ferromagnetic Rb2CrCI4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Lindgård, Per-Anker


    The long-wavelength spin waves in Rb2CrCl4, a nearly two-dimensional ferromagnet, have been investigated at several temperatures below Tc=52.4K using neutron inelastic scattering techniques. The data have been analysed in terms of a Hartree-Fock theory using matching-matrix elements to give...... correctly the effects of anisotropy. Values for the parameters in the spin Hamiltonian have been found, and the theory accounts well for the energy renormalisation of the spin waves and for the transition temperature and variation of magnetic moment with temperature. Due to weak uniaxial anisotropy terms...

  8. Scattering from cylinders using the two-dimensional vector plane wave spectrum. (United States)

    Pawliuk, Peter; Yedlin, Matthew


    The two-dimensional vector plane wave spectrum (VPWS) is scattered from parallel circular cylinders using a boundary value solution with the T-matrix formalism. The VPWS allows us to define the incident, two-dimensional electromagnetic field with an arbitrary distribution and polarization, including both radiative and evanescent components. Using the fast Fourier transform, we can quickly compute the multiple scattering of fields that have any particular functional or numerical form. We perform numerical simulations to investigate a grating of cylinders that is capable of converting an evanescent field into a set of propagating beams. The direction of propagation of each beam is directly related to a spatial frequency component of the incident evanescent field.

  9. Scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a Luneburg lens. I. Ray theory. (United States)

    Lock, James A


    For a plane wave incident on either a Luneburg lens or a modified Luneburg lens, the magnitude and phase of the transmitted electric field are calculated as a function of the scattering angle in the context of ray theory. It is found that the ray trajectory and the scattered intensity are not uniformly convergent in the vicinity of edge ray incidence on a Luneburg lens, which corresponds to the semiclassical phenomenon of orbiting. In addition, it is found that rays transmitted through a large-focal-length modified Luneburg lens participate in a far-zone rainbow, the details of which are exactly analytically soluble in ray theory. Using these results, the Airy theory of the modified Luneburg lens is derived and compared with the Airy theory of the rainbows of a homogeneous sphere.

  10. Neutron-Scattering Study of Spin Waves in the Ferrimagnet RbNiF3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.


    by a 180° antiferromagnetic exchange between nearest-neighbor A, B spins and a 90° ferromagnetic exchange between nearest-neighbor B spins. In this paper we report a detailed inelastic-neutron-scattering study of the spin waves in RbNiF3 both at low temperatures and through Tc. The magnetic unit cell......-magnon Raman scattering. At higher temperatures it is found that the c-axis acoustic magnons renormalize like the magnetization, whereas the high-lying optic modes are nearly temperature independent. This leads one to the physical picture in which RbNiF3 at high temperatures is viewed as a set of strongly...

  11. Incomplete LU preconditioning for large scale dense complex linear systems from electromagnetic wave scattering problems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee Jeong Hwa


    We consider the preconditioned iterative solution of large dense linear systems, where the coefficient matrix is a complex valued matrix arising from discretizing the integral equation of electromagnetic scattering. For some scattering structures this matrix can be poorly conditioned. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a class of incomplete LU (ILU) factorization preconditioners for solving this type of matrices. We solve the electromagnetic wave equations using the BiCG method with an ILU preconditioner in the context of a multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). The novelty of this work is that the ILU preconditioner is constructed using the near part block diagonal submatrices generated from the MLFMA. Experimental results show that the ILU preconditioner reduces the number of BiCG iterations substantially, compared to the block diagonal preconditioner. The preconditioned iteration scheme also maintains the computational complexity of the MLFMA, and consequently reduces the...

  12. Review of FD-TD numerical modeling of electromagnetic wave scattering and radar cross section (United States)

    Taflove, Allen; Umashankar, Korada R.


    Applications of the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method for numerical modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions with structures are reviewed, concentrating on scattering and radar cross section (RCS). A number of two- and three-dimensional examples of FD-TD modeling of scattering and penetration are provided. The objects modeled range in nature from simple geometric shapes to extremely complex aerospace and biological systems. Rigorous analytical or experimental validatons are provided for the canonical shapes, and it is shown that FD-TD predictive data for near fields and RCS are in excellent agreement with the benchmark data. It is concluded that with continuing advances in FD-TD modeling theory for target features relevant to the RCS problems and in vector and concurrent supercomputer technology, it is likely that FD-TD numerical modeling will occupy an important place in RCS technology in the 1990s and beyond.

  13. Redistribution of pump power and impairments in gain-equalized distributed fiber Raman amplifiers due to four-wave mixing and parametric amplification


    Soto, Marcelo A.; Olivares,Ricardo


    In this work, by using a comprehensive numerical model which rigorously describes the interaction between stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and four-wave mixing (FWM), we verify that FWM processes, including depletion and parametric gain, generate a redistribution of pump power in distributed fiber Raman amplifiers (DFRAs). As a consequence of pump–pump FWM, several FWM components can be generated, which act as new sources of SRS for Raman pumping. Due to new SRS–FWM interactions, a redistrib...

  14. Coherent scattering of an atom in the field of a standing wave under conditions of initial quantum correlation of subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubilko, A. I., E-mail: [St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations (Russian Federation)


    Coherent scattering of a two-level atom in the field of a quantized standing wave of a micromaser is considered under conditions of initial quantum correlation between the atom and the field. Such a correlation can be produced by a broadband parametric source. The interaction leading to scattering of the atom from the nonuniform field occurs in the dispersion limit or in the wing of the absorption line of the atom. Apart from the quantized field, the atom simultaneously interacts with two classical counterpropagating waves with different frequencies, which are acting in the plane perpendicular to the atom’s propagation velocity and to the wavevector of the standing wave. Joint action of the quantized field and two classical waves induces effective two-photon and Raman resonance interaction on the working transition. The effective Hamiltonian of the interaction is derived using the unitary transformation method developed for a moving atom. A strong effect is detected, which makes it possible to distinguish the correlated initial state of the atom and the field in the scattering of atom from the state of independent systems. For all three waves, scattering is not observed when systems with quantum correlation are prepared using a high-intensity parametric source. Conversely, when the atom interacts only with the nonuniform field of the standing wave, scattering is not observed in the case of the initial factorized state.

  15. Locating the Origin of Scattered Waves By Simulating Time Reversal of the Seismic Wavefield (United States)

    Myers, S. C.; Pitarka, A.; Sjogreen, B.; Petersson, A.; Simmons, N. A.; Johannesson, G.


    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is a series of underground chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are improving our physical understanding how explosion sources generate seismic waves. Better understanding the origin of S-waves from explosions is a primary goal of the SPE. Even at distances of a few kilometers from the SPE sources, seismic recordings include arrivals of unknown origin that could originate as S-waves at the explosive source or from topographic and subsurface scatterers. Back propagation of time reversed seismograms has been used to determine the location of seismic events (e.g. Tromp et al., 2005; Larmat et al., 2006), and Myers et al. (2007) demonstrated that the time-reversal method can be used to determine the origin of direct and scattered waves in seismic simulations. In this study we identify the origin of distinct features in synthetic seismograms that are generated by elastic, finite-difference simulation of seismic propagation from SPE explosions through a model that has been developed specifically for the SPE. The SPE model includes 3-dimensional velocity discontinuities at geologic boundaries, as well as free-surface topography. Although the largest arrivals in the synthetic seismograms are expected to originate at the explosion source, other prominent features are likely to originate as scattered energy from model discontinuities. Scattering sources in the SPE model that are needed in order to match synthetic seismograms to field recordings of SPE shots will be identified. Conversely, model structures may be removed if they result in disagreement between synthetic seismograms and field recordings. Ultimately, we plan to constrain the origin of prominent features in field recordings of SPE shots by directly using the field recordings as inputs to time reversal simulations. Direct use of field recordings will require development of methods that account for the uncertainty of the seismic model through which

  16. Brillouin light scattering from shear waves in an epoxy resin through the glass transition (United States)

    Comez, L.; Fioretto, D.; Verdini, L.; Rolla, P. A.


    The temperature dependences of the characteristic frequency and lifetime of hypersonic transverse acoustic waves in the epoxy system EPON 828 have been probed by means of the Brillouin light scattering technique. Evidence has been found of a very broad dispersion region, together with a discontinuity close to the glass transition temperature 0953-8984/9/19/016/img7. For temperatures higher than 0953-8984/9/19/016/img7, the shear loss data obtained from Brillouin spectra are in quantitative agreement with dielectric data for the same system. For lower temperatures, the Brillouin data deviate from the dielectric ones, the former being more sensitive to the secondary relaxation processes.

  17. The role of terahertz surface plasmons in the scattering pattern of electromagnetic waves in an unstable elliptical plasma antenna (United States)

    Safari, S.; Jazi, B.


    The scattering phenomenon of plane waves from an unstable elliptical plasma antenna is investigated. The role of surface plasmon excitation in the scattering pattern is studied. In the antenna mentioned above, there is a metallic rod with dielectric cover embedded in a long plasma column with an elliptical cross section. The antenna is considered unstable because of the injection of an electron beam into the plasma layer. The effects of applied accelerating voltage and applied current intensity on the scattering pattern and resonance frequency are investigated. The geometrical structure and its effect on the scattering cross section and creation of new resonance frequency are studied.

  18. Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser (United States)

    Haberland, Udo; Jansen, Peter; Blazek, Vladimir; Schmitt, Hans J.


    A new near-infrared coherent imaging technique that can reveal scattering bodies embedded in highly scattering media is presented. Its underlying principle is extended from frequency modulated continuous wave radar systems. This technique has advantages over low coherence tomography as it does not require the reference mirror to be scanned. The tunable laser is characterized and the system's performance is demonstrated on images recorded from solid scattering phantoms. Furthermore a combination of our chirp-tomography (C-OCT) and laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) is demonstrated. The influence of moving scatterers on the tomographic images are discussed.

  19. Extraction of state-to-state reactive scattering attributes from wave packet in reactant Jacobi coordinates. (United States)

    Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Dong H


    The S-matrix for a scattering system provides the most detailed information about the dynamics. In this work, we discuss the calculation of S-matrix elements for the A+BC-->AB+C, AC+B type reaction. Two methods for extracting S-matrix elements from a single wave packet in reactant Jacobi coordinates are reviewed and compared. Both methods are capable of extracting the state-to-state attributes for both product channels from a single wave packet propagation. It is shown through the examples of H+HD, Cl+H(2), and H+HCl reactions that such reactant coordinate based methods are easy to implement, numerically efficient, and accurate. Additional efficiency can be gained by the use of a L-shaped grid with two-dimensional fast Fourier transform.

  20. Selective spatial damping of propagating kink waves due to resonant absorption (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Goossens, M.; Verth, G.


    Context. There is observational evidence of propagating kink waves driven by photospheric motions. These disturbances, interpreted as kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are attenuated as they propagate upwards in the solar corona. Aims: We show that resonant absorption provides a simple explanation to the spatial damping of these waves. Methods: Kink MHD waves are studied using a cylindrical model of solar magnetic flux tubes, which includes a non-uniform layer at the tube boundary. Assuming that the frequency is real and the longitudinal wavenumber complex, the damping length and damping per wavelength produced by resonant absorption are analytically calculated in the thin tube (TT) approximation, valid for coronal waves. This assumption is relaxed in the case of chromospheric tube waves and filament thread waves. Results: The damping length of propagating kink waves due to resonant absorption is a monotonically decreasing function of frequency. For kink waves with low frequencies, the damping length is exactly inversely proportional to frequency, and we denote this as the TGV relation. When moving to high frequencies, the TGV relation continues to be an exceptionally good approximation of the actual dependency of the damping length on frequency. This dependency means that resonant absorption is selective as it favours low-frequency waves and can efficiently remove high-frequency waves from a broad band spectrum of kink waves. The efficiency of the damping due to resonant absorption depends on the properties of the equilibrium model, in particular on the width of the non-uniform layer and the steepness of the variation in the local Alfvén speed. Conclusions: Resonant absorption is an effective mechanism for the spatial damping of propagating kink waves. It is selective because the damping length is inversely proportional to frequency so that the damping becomes more severe with increasing frequency. This means that radial inhomogeneity can cause solar

  1. Coupling of an acoustic wave to shear motion due to viscous heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Goree, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)


    Viscous heating due to shear motion in a plasma can result in the excitation of a longitudinal acoustic wave, if the shear motion is modulated in time. The coupling mechanism is a thermal effect: time-dependent shear motion causes viscous heating, which leads to a rarefaction that can couple into a longitudinal wave, such as an acoustic wave. This coupling mechanism is demonstrated in an electrostatic three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a dusty plasma, in which a localized shear flow is initiated as a pulse, resulting in a delayed outward propagation of a longitudinal acoustic wave. This coupling effect can be profound in plasmas that exhibit localized viscous heating, such as the dusty plasma we simulated using parameters typical of the PK-4 experiment. We expect that a similar phenomenon can occur with other kinds of plasma waves.

  2. The exact theory for scattering of waves by thick holes in a slab and other objects with non-separable geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, B. J.


    The theory for scattering of electromagnetic waves is developed for scattering objects for which the natural modes of the field inside the object do not couple one-to-one with those outside the scatterer. Key feature of the calculation of the scattered fields is the introduction of a new set of

  3. Accurate source location from waves scattered by surface topography: Applications to the Nevada and North Korean test sites (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Wang, N.; Bao, X.; Flinders, A. F.


    Scattered waves generated near the source contains energy converted from the near-field waves to the far-field propagating waves, which can be used to achieve location accuracy beyond the diffraction limit. In this work, we apply a novel full-wave location method that combines a grid-search algorithm with the 3D Green's tensor database to locate the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada test site and the North Korean nuclear tests. We use the first arrivals (Pn/Pg) and their immediate codas, which are likely dominated by waves scattered at the surface topography near the source, to determine the source location. We investigate seismograms in the frequency of [1.0 2.0] Hz to reduce noises in the data and highlight topography scattered waves. High resolution topographic models constructed from 10 and 90 m grids are used for Nevada and North Korea, respectively. The reference velocity model is based on CRUST 1.0. We use the collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids to calculate the strain Green's tensor and obtain synthetic waveforms using source-receiver reciprocity. The `best' solution is found based on the least-square misfit between the observed and synthetic waveforms. To suppress random noises, an optimal weighting method for three-component seismograms is applied in misfit calculation. Our results show that the scattered waves are crucial in improving resolution and allow us to obtain accurate solutions with a small number of stations. Since the scattered waves depends on topography, which is known at the wavelengths of regional seismic waves, our approach yields absolute, instead of relative, source locations. We compare our solutions with those of USGS and other studies. Moreover, we use differential waveforms to locate pairs of the North Korea tests from years 2006, 2009, 2013 and 2016 to further reduce the effects of unmodeled heterogeneities and errors in the reference velocity model.

  4. Drift wave shear damping annulment due to parametric coupling and magnetic field variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydova, T.A. [Inst. for Nuclear Research, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Jovanovic, D.; Vranjes, J. [Inst. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Weiland, J. [Inst. for Electromagnetic Field Theory, Chalmers Univ. of Technology and EURATOM-NFR Association, Gothenburg (Sweden)


    Nonlinear suppression of the drift wave shear damping by the simultaneous action of a strong standing pump wave and of the magnetic field variation along the magnetic field line is studied using a version of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. The threshold for the parametric destabilization is calculated as a function of the plasma parameters. Destabilization occurs due to the elimination of the energy convection towards the dissipative layer, by both the linear toroidal coupling and nonlinear parametric coupling.

  5. Drift wave shear damping annulment due to parametric coupling and magnetic field variation (United States)

    Davydova, T. A.; Jovanović, D.; Vranješ, J.; Weiland, J.


    Nonlinear suppression of the drift wave shear damping by the simultaneous action of a strong standing pump wave, and of the magnetic field variation along the magnetic field line is studied using a version of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. The threshold for the parametric destabilization is calculated as a function of the plasma parameters. Destabilization occurs due to the elimination of the energy convection towards the dissipative layer, by both the linear toroidal coupling and nonlinear parametric coupling.

  6. Scattering of acoustic and electromagnetic waves by small impedance bodies of arbitrary shapes applications to creating new engineered materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Alexander G


    The behavior of acoustic or electromagnetic waves reflecting off, and scattering from, intercepted bodies of any size and kind can make determinations about the materials of those bodies and help in better understanding how to manipulate such materials for desired characteristics. This book offers analytical formulas which allow you to calculate acoustic and electromagnetic waves, scattered by one and many small bodies of an arbitrary shape under various boundary conditions. Equations for the effective (self-consistent) field in media consisting of many small bodies are derived. These results and formulas are new and not available in the works of other authors. In particular, the theory developed in this book is different from the classical work of Rayleigh on scattering by small bodies: not only analytical formulas are derived for the waves scattered by small bodies of an arbitrary shape, but the amplitude of the scattered waves is much larger, of the order O(a 2-k), than in Rayleigh scattering, where the or...

  7. Grand canonical ensemble, multi-particle wave functions and scattering data

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk; Kloiber, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin


    We show that information about scattering data of a quantum field theory can be obtained from studying the system at finite density and low temperatures. In particular we consider models formulated on the lattice which can be exactly dualized to theories of conserved charge fluxes on lattice links. Apart from eliminating the complex action problem at nonzero chemical potential mu, these dualizations allow for a particle world line interpretation of the dual fluxes from which one can extract data about the 2-particle wave function. As an example we perform dual Monte Carlo simulations of the 2-dimensional O(3) model at nonzero mu and finite volume, whose non-perturbative spectrum consists of a massive triplet of particles. At nonzero mu particles are induced in the system, which at sufficiently low temperature give rise to sectors of fixed particle number. We show that the scattering phase shifts can be obtained either from the critical chemical potential values separating the sectors or directly from the wave...

  8. Analysis of a finite PML approximation to the three dimensional elastic wave scattering problem

    KAUST Repository

    Bramble, James H.


    We consider the application of a perfectly matched layer (PML) technique to approximate solutions to the elastic wave scattering problem in the frequency domain. The PML is viewed as a complex coordinate shift in spherical coordinates which leads to a variable complex coefficient equation for the displacement vector posed on an infinite domain (the complement of the scatterer). The rapid decay of the PML solution suggests truncation to a bounded domain with a convenient outer boundary condition and subsequent finite element approximation (for the truncated problem). We prove existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the infinite domain and truncated domain PML equations (provided that the truncated domain is sufficiently large). We also show exponential convergence of the solution of the truncated PML problem to the solution of the original scattering problem in the region of interest. We then analyze a Galerkin numerical approximation to the truncated PML problem and prove that it is well posed provided that the PML damping parameter and mesh size are small enough. Finally, computational results illustrating the efficiency of the finite element PML approximation are presented. © 2010 American Mathematical Society.

  9. Analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on nonlinear scatterers using time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda


    Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half

  10. Electron scattering due to dislocation wall strain field in GaN layers


    Krasavin, S. E.


    The effect of edge-type dislocation wall strain field on the Hall mobility in n-type epitaxial GaN was theoretically investigated through deformation potential within the relaxation time approach. It was found that this channel of scattering can play a considerable role in the low-temperature transport at the certain set of the model parameters. The low temperature experimental data were fitted by including this mechanism of scattering along with ionized impurities and charge dislocation ones.

  11. Radial transport of radiation belt electrons due to stormtime Pc5 waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Ukhorskiy


    Full Text Available During geomagnetic storms relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt exhibit dynamic variability over multiple orders of magnitude. This requires radial transport of electrons across their drift shells and implies violation of their third adiabatic invariant. Radial transport is induced by the interaction of the electron drift motion with electric and magnetic field fluctuations in the ULF frequency range. It was previously shown that solar-wind driven ULF waves have long azimuthal wave lengths and thus can violate the third invariant of trapped electrons in the process of resonant interaction with their gradient-curvature motion. However, the amplitude of solar-wind driven ULF waves rapidly decreases with decreasing L. It is therefore not clear what mechanisms are responsible for fast transport rates observed inside the geosynchronous orbit. In this paper we investigate wether stormtime Pc5 waves can contribute to this process. Stormtime Pc5s have short azimuthal wave lengths and therefore cannot exhibit resonance with the the electron drift motion. However we show that stormtime Pc5s can cause localized random scattering of electron drift motion that violates the third invariant. According to our results electron interaction with stormtime Pc5s can produce rapid radial transport even as low as L≃4. Numerical simulations show that electron transport can exhibit large deviations from radial diffusion. The diffusion approximation is not valid for individual storms but only applies to the statistically averaged response of the outer belt to stormtime Pc5 waves.

  12. Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a standard dynamic light scattering setup (United States)

    Fahimi, Zahra; Aangenendt, Frank J.; Voudouris, Panayiotis; Mattsson, Johan; Wyss, Hans M.


    Diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) extends dynamic light scattering measurements to samples with strong multiple scattering. DWS treats the transport of photons through turbid samples as a diffusion process, thereby making it possible to extract the dynamics of scatterers from measured correlation functions. The analysis of DWS data requires knowledge of the path length distribution of photons traveling through the sample. While for flat sample cells this path length distribution can be readily calculated and expressed in analytical form; no such expression is available for cylindrical sample cells. DWS measurements have therefore typically relied on dedicated setups that use flat sample cells. Here we show how DWS measurements, in particular DWS-based microrheology measurements, can be performed in standard dynamic light scattering setups that use cylindrical sample cells. To do so we perform simple random-walk simulations that yield numerical predictions of the path length distribution as a function of both the transport mean free path and the detection angle. This information is used in experiments to extract the mean-square displacement of tracer particles in the material, as well as the corresponding frequency-dependent viscoelastic response. An important advantage of our approach is that by performing measurements at different detection angles, the average path length through the sample can be varied. For measurements performed on a single sample cell, this gives access to a wider range of length and time scales than obtained in a conventional DWS setup. Such angle-dependent measurements also offer an important consistency check, as for all detection angles the DWS analysis should yield the same tracer dynamics, even though the respective path length distributions are very different. We validate our approach by performing measurements both on aqueous suspensions of tracer particles and on solidlike gelatin samples, for which we find our DWS-based microrheology

  13. Size validity of plasma-metamaterial cloaking monitored by scattering wave in finite-difference time-domain method (United States)

    Bambina, Alexandre; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Iwai, Akinori; Miyagi, Shigeyuki; Sakai, Osamu


    Limitation of the cloak-size reduction is investigated numerically by a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. A metallic pole that imitates an antenna is cloaked with an anisotropic and parameter-gradient medium against electromagnetic-wave propagation in microwave range. The cloaking structure is a metamaterial submerged in a plasma confined in a vacuum chamber made of glass. The smooth-permittivity plasma can be compressed in the radial direction, which enables us to decrease the size of the cloak. Theoretical analysis is performed numerically by comparing scattering waves in various cases; there exists a high reduction of the scattering wave when the radius of the cloak is larger than a quarter of one wavelength. This result indicates that the required size of the cloaking layer is more than an object scale in the Rayleigh scattering regime.

  14. Dependence of wave front refraction on pupil size due to the presence of higher order aberrations. (United States)

    Iseli, H P; Bueeler, M; Hafezi, F; Seiler, T; Mrochen, M


    Propagation of light through the optical pathway within the eye can lead to a deformation of the wave front that might affect objective but also subjective refraction depending on pupil size. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in wave front refraction that is calculated on the basis of second order Zernike polynomials when varying the pupil size from 6 mm to 3 mm. The change was correlated with the amount of fourth and sixth order spherical aberration and fourth and sixth order astigmatism. Wave front aberrations were measured in 130 eyes by means of a Tscherning wave front sensor at a pupil size of 6 mm. Wave front aberrations in terms of Zernike coefficients up to sixth order were approximated for 6 mm and 3 mm pupil size. The wave front refraction was calculated based on the second order Zernike coefficients for both pupil diameters. Resulting differences in wave front refraction (sphere or cylinder) due to the change in pupil size were correlated with the initial higher order aberrations determined for the 6.0 mm pupil by means of a linear regression (Spearman rank correlation coefficient). The correlation between the change in sphere and cylinder on one hand and the spherical aberration and higher order astigmatism on the other hand was found to be highly significant (ppupil size should be established in the ophthalmic community.

  15. Hybrid Theory of P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering (United States)

    Bhatia, Anand


    We report on a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a combination of a modified method of polarized orbitals and the optical potential formalism. The calculation is restricted to P waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions are of Hylleraas type. It is found that the phase shifts are not significantly affected by the modification of the target function by a method similar to the method of polarized orbitals and they are close to the phase shifts calculated earlier by Bhatia. This indicates that the correlation function is general enough to include the target distortion (polarization) in the presence of the incident electron. The important fact is that in the present calculation, to obtain similar results only 35-term correlation function is needed in the wave function compared to the 220-term wave function required in the above-mentioned previous calculation. Results for the phase shifts, obtained in the present hybrid formalism, are rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts.

  16. Surface and Internal Waves due to a Moving Load on a Very Large Floating Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Kakinuma


    Full Text Available Interaction of surface/internal water waves with a floating platform is discussed with nonlinearity of fluid motion and flexibility of oscillating structure. The set of governing equations based on a variational principle is applied to a one- or two-layer fluid interacting with a horizontally very large and elastic thin plate floating on the water surface. Calculation results of surface displacements are compared with the existing experimental data, where a tsunami, in terms of a solitary wave, propagates across one-layer water with a floating thin plate. We also simulate surface and internal waves due to a point load, such as an airplane, moving on a very large floating structure in shallow water. The wave height of the surface or internal mode is amplified when the velocity of moving point load is equal to the surface- or internal-mode celerity, respectively.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    ISSN 1597-6343. Numerical Solutions of Some Parametric Effects Due to Electromagnetic Wave. Scattering by an Infinite Circular Cylinder. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF SOME PARAMETRIC EFFECTS DUE. TO ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE SCATTERING BY AN INFINITE. CIRCULAR CYLINDER. *1 Suleiman A. B. and 1 ...

  18. An IBEM solution to the scattering of plane SH-waves by a lined tunnel in elastic wedge space (United States)

    Liu, Zhongxian; Liu, Lei


    The indirect boundary element method (IBEM) is developed to solve the scattering of plane SH-waves by a lined tunnel in elastic wedge space. According to the theory of single-layer potential, the scattered-wave field can be constructed by applying virtual uniform loads on the surface of lined tunnel and the nearby wedge surface. The densities of virtual loads can be solved by establishing equations through the continuity conditions on the interface and zero-traction conditions on free surfaces. The total wave field is obtained by the superposition of free field and scattered-wave field in elastic wedge space. Numerical results indicate that the IBEM can solve the diffraction of elastic wave in elastic wedge space accurately and efficiently. The wave motion feature strongly depends on the wedge angle, the angle of incidence, incident frequency, the location of lined tunnel, and material parameters. The waves interference and amplification effect around the tunnel in wedge space is more significant, causing the dynamic stress concentration factor on rigid tunnel and the displacement amplitude of flexible tunnel up to 50.0 and 17.0, respectively, more than double that of the case of half-space. Hence, considerable attention should be paid to seismic resistant or anti-explosion design of the tunnel built on a slope or hillside.

  19. The simulation of the extreme storm waves due to Typhoon CHABA (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Yong; Jun, Ki-Cheon; Kwon, Jae-Il; Park, Kwang-Soon


    On October, 2016 Category 4 typhoon CHABA landed the southeast coast of the Korean peninsula. Due to the typhoon CHABA, flood inundation and wave overtopping damages occurred in many ports and coasts. Especially, damages of Gamcheon Port and Dadaepo Port were the greatest. The maximum significant wave height at the Korea Straits Buoy Station (KS) of the Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Agency (KHOA) which is the closest observation station from above two ports was recorded 13.0 m, and the wave direction is S SSW. Meantime, the observed wind speeds during the passage of typhoon CHABA at KS were 25 27 m / s. Considering the path of typhoon CHABA, 13.m of extreme was height at KS was an unusual event. Because two wave observing stations which were experienced the effect of CHABA earlier than KS were recorded 11.5 m (at GeoJe station where is 25 km southwest of KS) and 11.4 m (at South-East station where is 100 km southwest of KS), respectively. In this study, we tried to find the cause of the difference of extreme waves within relatively short distance using numerical experiments. In order to simulate the typhoon winds, we used a typhoon parameter model and WRF with 4 km spatial resolution. For wave simulation, the WaveWatch III with a 2 km spatial resolution is used. A wave-current coupled model was constructed to simulate the effect of interaction between wave and currents, where, the currents include 3 dimension oceanic and tidal components.

  20. Disturbance of SH-type waves due to moving stress discontinuity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The disturbance and propagation of SH-type waves in an anisotropic soil layer overlying an inhomogeneous elastic half-space by a moving stress discontinuity is considered. Stress discontinuity moves with non-uniform velocity and is impulsive in nature. The displacements are obtained in exact form by themethod due to ...

  1. Disturbance of SH-type waves due to moving stress discontinuity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Disturbance of SH-type waves due to moving stress discontinuity in an anisotropic soil layer overlying an inhomogeneous elastic half-space. D MANDAL1,2∗, P C PAL2 and S KUMAR2. 1Government Engineering College, Chaibasa 833 215, India. 2Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines,. Dhanbad ...

  2. Dust acoustic shock wave generation due to dust charge variation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for star formation. The DA shock transition to its far downstream amplitude is oscillatory in nature due to dust charge fluctuations, the oscillation amplitude and shock width depending on ... forming to the frame of the wave with velocity λ ... five, ∆Nd is found to exhibit oscillatory increase while |Qd|continues to decrease and so.

  3. Acoustic formulation of elastic guided wave propagation and scattering in curved tubular structures. (United States)

    Brath, Alex J; Simonetti, Francesco; Nagy, Peter B; Instanes, Geir


    Recently, the use of guided wave technology in conjunction with tomographic techniques has provided the possibility of obtaining point-by-point maps of corrosion or erosion depth over the entire volume of a pipeline section between two ring arrays of ultrasonic transducers. However, current research has focused on straight pipes and little work has been done on pipe bends and other curved tubular structures which are also the most susceptible to developing damage. Tomography of curved tubes is challenging because of the complexity and computational cost of the 3-D elastic model required to accurately describe guided wave propagation. Based on the definition of travel-time-preserving orthogonal parametric representations of curved tubes, this paper demonstrates that guided wave propagation and scattering can be approximated by an equivalent 2-D acoustic model which is inhomogeneous and elliptically anisotropic. Numerical methods to solve the full wave equation and predict ray paths and travel times are introduced and applied to the case of a bend. Particular emphasis is given to the shortest-path ray tracing method, which is applied to the 2-D model to compute ray paths and predict travel times of the fundamental flexural mode, A0, propagating across a curved pipe. Good agreement is found between predictions and experiments performed on a 220-mm-diameter (8-in-diameter) (D) pipe with 1.5D bend radius. The 2-D model also reveals the existence of an acoustic lensing effect which leads to a focusing phenomenon also confirmed by the experiments. The computational efficiency of the 2-D model makes it ideally suited for tomographic algorithms.

  4. Density fluctuations measured by ISEE 1-2 in the Earth's magnetosheath and the resultant scattering of radio waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lacombe


    Full Text Available Radio waves undergo angular scattering when they propagate through a plasma with fluctuating density. We show how the angular scattering coefficient can be calculated as a function of the frequency spectrum of the local density fluctuations. In the Earth's magnetosheath, the ISEE 1-2 propagation experiment measured the spectral power of the density fluctuations for periods in the range 300 to 1 s, which produce most of the scattering. The resultant local angular scattering coefficient can then be calculated for the first time with realistic density fluctuation spectra, which are neither Gaussian nor power laws. We present results on the variation of the local angular scattering coefficient during two crossings of the dayside magnetosheath, from the quasi-perpendicular bow shock to the magnetopause. For a radio wave at twice the local electron plasma frequency, the scattering coefficient in the major part of the magnetosheath is b(2fp ≃ 0.5 – 4 × 10–9 rad2/m. The scattering coefficient is about ten times stronger in a thin sheet (0.1 to1RE just downstream of the shock ramp, and close to the magnetopause.

  5. Nonlinear coda wave analysis of hysteretic elastic behavior in strongly scattering media (United States)

    Ouarabi, M. Ait; Boubenider, F.; Gliozzi, A. S.; Scalerandi, M.


    Strongly scattering elastic media, such as consolidated granular materials, respond to ultrasonic pulse excitations with a long response signal with peculiar properties. The portion of the signal at late times, termed coda, is due to multiple scattering. It contains information about the elastic properties of the material, and it has been proven to be very sensitive to small variations in the modulus. Here we propose a technique based on a nonlinear analysis of the coda of a signal, which might be applied to quantify the nonlinear elastic response in consolidated granular media exhibiting a hysteretic elastic behavior. The method proposed allows for an intrinsic definition of the reference signal which is normally needed for applying coda-based methods.

  6. Nonreactive scattering of the O+ + H2: A time dependent wave packet approach (United States)

    Kłos, Jacek; Bulut, Niyazi; Akpinar, Sinan


    Time dependent wave packet calculations have been performed for the O+ + H2 nonreactive scattering on the recent potential energy surface of Martinez et al. [J. Chem. Phys., 120, 4705, 2004]. Exact total reflection probabilities at the total angular momentum J = 0 and approximate ones for J > 0 have been calculated by using Centrifugal Sudden approximation. Integral cross sections over collision energy range of 0.08-0.7 eV were obtained. Time independent quantum calculations have also been performed for a comparison. Initial state-selected rate constants have been obtained by means of Capture model based on a simple and Uniform J-shifting techniques and they display an Arrhenius behavior.

  7. Stimulated Brillouin scattering continuous wave phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics. (United States)

    Massey, Steven M; Spring, Justin B; Russell, Timothy H


    Continuous wave (CW) stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation in step-index optical fibers was studied experimentally and modeled as a function of fiber length. A phase conjugate fidelity over 80% was measured from SBS in a 40 m fiber using a pinhole technique. Fidelity decreases with fiber length, and a fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.06 was found to generate good phase conjugation fidelity over longer lengths than a fiber with 0.13 NA. Modeling and experiment support previous work showing the maximum interaction length which yields a high fidelity phase conjugate beam is inversely proportional to the fiber NA(2), but find that fidelity remains high over much longer fiber lengths than previous models calculated. Conditions for SBS beam cleanup in step-index fibers are discussed.

  8. Collective Thomson scattering measurements of fast-ion transport due to sawtooth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Pedersen, Morten Stejner


    . Here we present the first collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements of sawtooth-induced redistribution of fast ions at ASDEX Upgrade. These also represent the first localized fast-ion measurements on the high-field side of this device. The results indicate fast-ion losses in the phase...

  9. Gas bubble size estimation in peat soils from EM wave scattering observed with ground penetrating radar (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Slater, Lee


    The size of biogenic gas bubbles in peatlands is believed to regulate ebullition of carbon gases to the atmosphere. The measurement of electromagnetic (EM) wave travel times using ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a proven field-scale method for indirect estimation of volumetric gas content. However, there is also the possibility that information on the size of the gas bubbles can be determined from the analysis of the spectral content of GPR signals as scattering attenuation possesses a frequency dependence for bubbles smaller than the EM wavelength (Rayleigh-type scattering). Theoretical modeling shows that GPR data acquired with typical antenna frequencies are likely to be affected by bubble size in peat soils. Analysis of GPR data from two recent studies on peat monoliths where biogenic gas production was documented produced results consistent with the model predictions. Using the approach, zero offset cross-borehole GPR data in a northern peatland suggest that large bubble clusters (i.e., 0.05 m radius) occur in peat. These findings broaden the utility of GPR for providing information on biogenic gas dynamics in peatlands.

  10. Determination of the pion-nucleon coupling constant and s-wave scattering lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Samaranayake, V K


    Presently available values of D/sub +or-/, the real parts of the pi /sup +or-/p elastic scattering amplitudes in the forward direction in the laboratory frame, obtained by extrapolation of experimental data to the forward direction, have been fitted up to a pion lab. kinetic energy of 2 GeV using forward dispersion relation. A substantial number of data points have to be discarded to obtain a reasonable goodness of fit. Above 300 MeV the values of D/sub +or-/ obtained from the CERN phase shift analysis are strongly favoured compared with those from the Saclay analysis. The final results for the pion-nucleon coupling constant and s-wave scattering lengths are: 10/sup 3/f/sup 2 /=76.3+or-2.0, 10/sup 3/D/sub +/( mu )=-102.4+or-5.2, 10/sup 3/D/sub - /( mu )=104.8+or-5.4, 10/sup 3/(a/sub 1/-a/sub 3/)=270.6+or-11.3, 10 /sup 3/(a/sub 1/+2a/sub 3/)=3.1+or-8.0. The errors quoted take account of experimental uncertainties and also attempt to include systematic errors arising from the unphysical continuum and from the v...

  11. Medium energy nucleon-nucleus scattering theory by semi-classical distorted wave approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)


    The semiclassical distorted wave model (SCDW) is one of the quantum mechanical models for nucleon inelastic and charge exchange scattering at intermediate energies. SCDW can reproduce the double differential inclusive cross sections for multi-step direct processes quite well in the angular and outgoing energy regions where the model is expected to work. But the model hitherto assumed on-the-energy-shell (on-shell) nucleon-nucleon scattering in the nucleus, neglecting the difference in the distorting potentials for the incoming and the outgoing particles and also the Q-value in the case of (p,n) reactions. There had also been a problem in the treatment of the exchange of colliding nucleons. Now we modify the model to overcome those problems and put SCDW on sounder theoretical foundations. The modification results in slight reduction (increase) of double differential cross sections at forward (backward) angles. We also examine the effect of the in-medium modification of N-N cross sections in SCDW and find it small. A remedy of the disagreement at very small and large angles in terms of the Wigner transform of the single particle density matrix is also discussed. This improvement gives very promising results. (author)

  12. Probe experiment characterizing 30-MHz radio wave scatter in the high-latitude ionosphere (United States)

    Nishino, M.; Gorokhov, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamagishi, H.; Hansen, T.


    A probe experiment, consisting of radio links between a common 30-MHz transmitter located at Murmansk, Russia, and two receivers used as the imaging riometer (two-dimensional 64 multiple-beam antenna) located at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, and Tjornes, Iceland, was carried out to characterize wave scatter in the high-latitude ionosphere. They are nearly aligned with and perpendicular to the geomagnetic meridian, respectively. In experiments conducted in March-April 1994, the 30-MHz probe signals were identified at nighttime more frequently than during the day at both receiver stations during periods of increased geomagnetic activity near the path midpoints, indicating that a relationship between the propagation path and the location of the auroral oval controls signal identification. For the nighttime propagation paths within or crossing through the auroral oval, duty cycles of the probe signals were roughly correlated with increases in geomagnetic activity. Their arrival directions showed a spread with a dominant power on the low elevation and a normal distribution in azimuth. These results indicate that the probe signals are characterized as nonmeteoric "auroral E" scatter caused by irregular, large-scale profiles of electron density enhancements at the lower edge of the ionosphere. However, on 2 days of weak geomagnetic activity, strong probe signals with bursty behavior were identified by an extremely high duty cycle (˜98%) for the nighttime meridian path only, and their arrival directions showed an isotropic spread in azimuth. Such nonmeteoric probe signals are characterized as "coherent" scatter caused by small-scale (˜5 m) field-aligned irregularities in electron density in the E region ionosphere, related to "sporadic E" occurrence.

  13. Analysis of scattering wave for a conducting cylinder coated with eccentric plasma (United States)

    Yin, Bo; Yang, Feng; Hao, Honggang; Li, Changyong


    Object coated with plasma has stimulated great interests of many people because of its stealth capability. The study on a conducting cylinder coated with coaxial plasma is very much, but there are little works on a conducting cylinder coated with eccentric plasma. In this article, a model for a conducting cylinder coated with eccentric unmagnetized plasma is set up, the scattering cross section of the object cylinder is studied by adopting the superposition of cylindrical wave functions and the coordinate transformation, where these wave functions are the solutions of Maxwell's equations with boundary conditions in cylindrical coordinates. The results show that the radar cross section for a conducting cylinder coated with eccentric plasma in every direction decrease obviously with an increase of the distance between two eccentric axes, but is almost not impacted by electron-neutral collision frequency of plasma, and the backscattering cross section of the target reduce with the increase of electron density. Comparing with the coaxial model, the backscattering cross section of the eccentric model has a smaller value in a wide frequency band. This is of significance for the target plasma stealth technology in practice.

  14. Diffusely scattered and transmitted elastic waves by random rough solid-solid interfaces using an elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Lowe, Mike; Craster, Richard


    Elastic waves scattered by random rough interfaces separating two distinct media play an important role in modeling phonon scattering and impact upon thermal transport models, and are also integral to ultrasonic inspection. We introduce theoretical formulas for the diffuse field of elastic waves scattered by, and transmitted across, random rough solid-solid interfaces using the elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation. The new formulas are validated by comparison with numerical Monte Carlo simulations, for a wide range of roughness (rms σ ≤λ /3 , correlation length λ0≥ wavelength λ ), demonstrating a significant improvement over the widely used small-perturbation approach, which is valid only for surfaces with small rms values. Physical analysis using the theoretical formulas derived here demonstrates that increasing the rms value leads to a considerable change of the scattering patterns for each mode. The roughness has different effects on the reflection and the transmission, with a strong dependence on the material properties. In the special case of a perfect match of the wave speed of the two solid media, the transmission is the same as the case for a flat interface. We pay particular attention to scattering in the specular direction, often used as an observable quantity, in terms of the roughness parameters, showing a peak at an intermediate value of rms; this rms value coincides with that predicted by the Rayleigh parameter.

  15. Future heat waves due to climate change threaten the survival of Posidonia oceanica seedlings. (United States)

    Guerrero-Meseguer, Laura; Marín, Arnaldo; Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos


    Extreme weather events are major drivers of ecological change, and their occurrence is likely to increase due to climate change. The transient increases in atmospheric temperatures are leading to a greater occurrence of heat waves, extreme events that can produce a substantial warming of water, especially in enclosed basins such as the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we tested the effects of current and predicted heat waves on the early stages of development of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Temperatures above 27 °C limited the growth of the plant by inhibiting its photosynthetic system. It suffered a reduction in leaf growth and faster leaf senescence, and in some cases mortality. This study demonstrates that the greater frequency of heat waves, along with anticipated temperature rises in coming decades, are expected to negatively affect the germination of P. oceanica seedlings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature coefficient of sideband frequency produced by polarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in highly nonlinear fibers (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Suzuki, Kohei; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji


    We measured the temperature dependence of the polarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) spectrum using a highly nonlinear fiber. The temperature coefficient is 168 kHz/K, which is 1.7 times larger than that of small-core photonic crystal fibers. This result indicates that highly temperature-sensitive GAWBS-based sensing is feasible.

  17. Sensitive absorption detection for micro-column liquid chromatography by ultraviolet forward-scattering degenerate four-wave mixing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, T.; Beso, P.; Velthorst, N.H.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Gooijer, C.; Hoornweg, G.Ph.


    The performance of forward-scattering degenerate four-wave mixing (F-D4WM) in the mid-ultraviolet (UV) region (351nm) as a detection technique for micro-column liquid chromatography (μLC) is studied, using nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NO

  18. Main-ion temperature and plasma rotation measurements based on scattering of electron cyclotron heating waves in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh


    We demonstrate measurements of spectra of O-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) waves scattered collectively from microscopic plasma fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade discharges with an ITER-like ECRH scenario. The measured spectra are shown to allow determination of the main ion...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The results of line shape analysis, resonance light scattering and femtosecond four-wave mixing measurements are reported on several organic molecules in solution. It is shown that a Brownian oscillator model for line broadening provides a full description for the optical dynamics in aprotic

  20. Three-dimensional dispersion of spin waves measured in NiO by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (United States)

    Betto, D.; Peng, Y. Y.; Porter, S. B.; Berti, G.; Calloni, A.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Brookes, N. B.


    We used resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Ni L3 edge to measure the dispersion of spin waves in NiO thin films along the [101], [001], and [111] directions. Samples with tensile and compressive in-plane strain show identical dispersion within the experimental uncertainty. The fitting of the data with a linear spin wave model applied to a three-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic lattice provides a leading superexchange parameter J'=18 meV . The magnon energy at the Brillouin zone boundary and the value of J' are 5 % smaller than those determined by inelastic neutron scattering on bulk single crystals. This discrepancy is likely induced by the strain or other structural differences between bulk and epitaxially grown samples. These results demonstrate the capabilities of high-resolution RIXS in the study of the magnetic structure of thin films and heterostructures for which neutron scattering is not sensitive enough.

  1. Manipulation of p-wave scattering of cold atoms in low dimensions using the magnetic field vector. (United States)

    Peng, Shi-Guo; Tan, Shina; Jiang, Kaijun


    It is well known that the magnetic Feshbach resonances of cold atoms are sensitive to the magnitude of the external magnetic field. Much less attention has been paid to the direction of such a field. In this work we calculate the scattering properties of spin polarized fermionic atoms in reduced dimensions, near a p-wave Feshbach resonance. Because of the spatial anisotropy of the p-wave interaction, the scattering has a nontrivial dependence on both the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field. In addition, we identify an inelastic scattering process which is impossible in the isotropic-interaction model; the rate of this process depends considerably on the direction of the magnetic field. Significantly, an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled pair of identical fermions may be produced during this inelastic collision. This work opens a new method to manipulate resonant cold atomic interactions.

  2. Relationship of scattering phase shifts to special radiation force conditions for spheres in axisymmetric wave-fields. (United States)

    Marston, Philip L; Zhang, Likun


    When investigating the radiation forces on spheres in complicated wave-fields, the interpretation of analytical results can be simplified by retaining the s-function notation and associated phase shifts imported into acoustics from quantum scattering theory. For situations in which dissipation is negligible, as taken to be the case in the present investigation, there is an additional simplification in that partial-wave phase shifts become real numbers that vanish when the partial-wave index becomes large and when the wave-number-sphere-radius product vanishes. By restricting attention to monopole and dipole phase shifts, transitions in the axial radiation force for axisymmetric wave-fields are found to be related to wave-field parameters for traveling and standing Bessel wave-fields by considering the ratio of the phase shifts. For traveling waves, the special force conditions concern negative forces while for standing waves, the special force conditions concern vanishing radiation forces. An intermediate step involves considering the functional dependence on phase shifts. An appendix gives an approximation for zero-force plane standing wave conditions. Connections with early investigations of acoustic levitation are mentioned and some complications associated with viscosity are briefly noted.

  3. Prediction of Near-Field Wave Attenuation Due to a Spherical Blast Source (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Kwang; Park, Duhee


    Empirical and theoretical far-field attenuation relationships, which do not capture the near-field response, are most often used to predict the peak amplitude of blast wave. Jiang et al. (Vibration due to a buried explosive source. PhD Thesis, Curtin University, Western Australian School of Mines, 1993) present rigorous wave equations that simulates the near-field attenuation to a spherical blast source in damped and undamped media. However, the effect of loading frequency and velocity of the media have not yet been investigated. We perform a suite of axisymmetric, dynamic finite difference analyses to simulate the propagation of stress waves induced by spherical blast source and to quantify the near-field attenuation. A broad range of loading frequencies, wave velocities, and damping ratios are used in the simulations. The near-field effect is revealed to be proportional to the rise time of the impulse load and wave velocity. We propose an empirical additive function to the theoretical far-field attenuation curve to predict the near-field range and attenuation. The proposed curve is validated against measurements recorded in a test blast.

  4. Groundwater flow due to a nonlinear wave set-up on a permeable beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Przyborska


    Full Text Available Water flow through the beach body plays an important role in the biological status of the organisms inhabiting the beach sand. For tideless seas, the groundwater flow in shallow water is governed entirely by the surface wave dynamics on the beach. As waves propagate towards the shore, they become steeper owing to the decreasing water depth and at some depth, the waves lose their stability and start to break. When waves break, their energy is dissipated and the spatial changes of the radiation stress give rise to changes in the mean sea level, known as the set-up. The mean shore pressure gradient due to the wave set-up drives the groundwater circulation within the beach zone. This paper discusses the circulation of groundwater resulting from a nonlinear set-up. The circulation of flow is compared with the classic Longuet-Higgins (1983 solution and the time series of the set-up is considered for a 24 h storm. Water infiltrates into the coastal aquifer on the upper part of the beach near the maximum run-up and exfiltration occurs on the lower part of the beach face near the breaking point.

  5. Kinetic Evidence of Magnetic Reconnection Due to Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves (United States)

    Li, W.; Andre, M.; Khotainstev, Yu. V.; Vaivads, A.; Graham, D. B.; Toledo-Redondo, S.; Norgren, C.; Henri, P.; Wang, C.; Tang, B. B.; hide


    The Kelvin-Helmholtz (ICH) instability at the Earth's magnetopause is predominantly excited during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Magnetic reconnection due to KH waves has been suggested as one of the mechanisms to transfer solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere. We investigate KH waves observed at the magnetopause by the Magnetospheric Multlscale (MMS) mission; in particular, we study the trailing edges of KH waves with Alfvenic ion jets. We observe gradual mixing of magnetospheric and magnetosheath ions at the boundary layer. The magnetospheric electrons with energy up to 80 keV are observed on the magnetosheath side of the jets, which indicates that they escape into the magnetosheath through reconnected magnetic field lines. At the same time, the low-energy (below 100eV) magnetosheath electrons enter the magnetosphere and are heated in the field-aligned direction at the high-density edge of the jets. Our observations provide unambiguous kinetic evidence for ongoing reconnection due to KH waves.

  6. A mathematical description for the scattering phenomena of plane wave from elliptical plasma antenna located in oblique static magnetic field (United States)

    Safari, Samaneh; Jazi, Bahram


    The problem of electromagnetic wave scattering from an elliptical plasma cylinder in the presence of an external oblique magnetic field is investigated. The electromagnetic waves are landed obliquely on the plasma column. Knowing the dielectric permittivity tensor of the plasma column, the electric potential and the electric field inside and outside the plasma column are obtained for the long-wavelength waves. The graphs of the electric field profile and pattern scattering are presented. Also, the dependence of those graphs on the incident angle, the geometrical dimensions of the plasma column and the magnetic field angle are analyzed. The physical justifications based on the theory of Fresnel's transmission coefficients for describing the graphs, have been presented. Moreover, the effective factors on the shift of the resonance frequency are investigated. Finally, to verify the accuracy of the obtained results, some limiting cases are discussed.

  7. Diagnosis of energetic ions and ion composition in fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering of mm-waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank


    distributions in fusion plasmas1,2. A beam of mm-waves with a diameter of 5–10 cm and a power of 150–600 kW is sent through the plasma, and radiation scattered from this probe beam by the microscopic fluctuations in the plasma is detected. These microscopic fluctuations are in part induced by the ion motion......In fusion plasmas, the dominant heating source will be fusion generated energetic ions slowing down in the plasma. The same ions can also drive waves and instabilities in the plasma. Their distribution in velocity and in space has major impact on plasma dynamics, and plasma dynamics in turn affects...... the energetic ion distributions. The dynamics of energetic ions is thus important to measure in order to understand fusion plasmas, and important to monitor as part of input to plasma control. The collective Thomson scattering of millimeter waves has proven to be a valuable means of diagnosing energetic ion...

  8. Heat transfer analysis of Rabinowitsch fluid flow due to metachronal wave of cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Sher Akbar


    Full Text Available The present investigation concerns with the mechanical properties of a Rabinowitsch fluid model and the effects of thermal conductivity over it. Flow is considered to be occurring due to metachronal wave produced as a result of constant beating of cilia at the walls of a horizontal circular tube. The expressions for flow characteristics have been derived results are analyzed graphically and discussed briefly.

  9. Initiation of breakout of half-buried submarine pipe from sea bed due to wave action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.W.K. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Civil and Structural Engineering; Foda, M.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    A formulation is presented for the analysis of the breakout of a half-buried submarine pipe due to wave action. The formulation accounts for the contact between the pipe and the soil due to the oscillating horizontal hydrodynamic force. Results demonstrate the existence of an initial gap in the breakout experiments. With this initial gap the gap flux dominated the influx of water into the gap throughout the breakout process. The linear pipe rise persisted although the second-order expansion of the gap should have grown to the same order of magnitude as the initial gap with the poro-rigid soil assumption. It is postulated that the persistence of the linear rise was due to the localized passive failure around the ends of the soil trench which inhibited the growth of the opening due to the pipe`s rise. (Author)

  10. Errors due to random noise in velocity measurement using incoherent-scatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. S. Williams

    Full Text Available The random-noise errors involved in measuring the Doppler shift of an 'incoherent-scatter' spectrum are predicted theoretically for all values of Te/Ti from 1.0 to 3.0. After correction has been made for the effects of convolution during transmission and reception and the additional errors introduced by subtracting the average of the background gates, the rms errors can be expressed by a simple semi-empirical formula. The observed errors are determined from a comparison of simultaneous EISCAT measurements using an identical pulse code on several adjacent frequencies. The plot of observed versus predicted error has a slope of 0.991 and a correlation coefficient of 99.3%. The prediction also agrees well with the mean of the error distribution reported by the standard EISCAT analysis programme.

  11. Errors due to random noise in velocity measurement using incoherent-scatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. S. Williams


    Full Text Available The random-noise errors involved in measuring the Doppler shift of an 'incoherent-scatter' spectrum are predicted theoretically for all values of Te/Ti from 1.0 to 3.0. After correction has been made for the effects of convolution during transmission and reception and the additional errors introduced by subtracting the average of the background gates, the rms errors can be expressed by a simple semi-empirical formula. The observed errors are determined from a comparison of simultaneous EISCAT measurements using an identical pulse code on several adjacent frequencies. The plot of observed versus predicted error has a slope of 0.991 and a correlation coefficient of 99.3%. The prediction also agrees well with the mean of the error distribution reported by the standard EISCAT analysis programme.

  12. Attenuation of surface waves due to monsoon rains: A model study for the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Kumar, B.P.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    The dynamic interaction of intense rain with waves based on momentum exchange is applied to a second generation wave model to predict wave attenuation during monsoon. The scheme takes into account the characteristics of rain and wave parameters...

  13. Comparison of collective Thomson scattering signals due to fast ions in ITER scenarios with fusion and auxiliary heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Asunta, O.; Eriksson, L.-G.


    Auxiliary heating such as neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) will accelerate ions in ITER up to energies in the MeV range, i.e. energies which are also typical for alpha particles. Fast ions of any of these populations will elevate the collective Thomson...... is chosen such that near perpendicular and near parallel velocity components are resolved. In the investigated ICRH scenario, waves at 50MHz resonate with tritium at the second harmonic off-axis on the low field side. Effects of a minority heating scheme with He-3 are also considered. CTS scattering...... functions for fast deuterons, fast tritons, fast He-3 and the fusion born alphas are presented, revealing that fusion alphas dominate the measurable signal by an order of magnitude or more in the Doppler shift frequency ranges typical for fast ions. Hence the observable CTS signal can mostly be attributed...

  14. Multiple Volume Scattering in Random Media and Periodic Structures with Applications in Microwave Remote Sensing and Wave Functional Materials (United States)

    Tan, Shurun

    The objective of my research is two-fold: to study wave scattering phenomena in dense volumetric random media and in periodic wave functional materials. For the first part, the goal is to use the microwave remote sensing technique to monitor water resources and global climate change. Towards this goal, I study the microwave scattering behavior of snow and ice sheet. For snowpack scattering, I have extended the traditional dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) approach to include cyclical corrections that give rise to backscattering enhancements, enabling the theory to model combined active and passive observations of snowpack using the same set of physical parameters. Besides DMRT, a fully coherent approach is also developed by solving Maxwell's equations directly over the entire snowpack including a bottom half space. This revolutionary new approach produces consistent scattering and emission results, and demonstrates backscattering enhancements and coherent layer effects. The birefringence in anisotropic snow layers is also analyzed by numerically solving Maxwell's equation directly. The effects of rapid density fluctuations in polar ice sheet emission in the 0.5˜2.0 GHz spectrum are examined using both fully coherent and partially coherent layered media emission theories that agree with each other and distinct from incoherent approaches. For the second part, the goal is to develop integral equation based methods to solve wave scattering in periodic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials that can be used for broadband simulations. Set upon the concept of modal expansion of the periodic Green's function, we have developed the method of broadband Green's function with low wavenumber extraction (BBGFL), where a low wavenumber component is extracted and results a non-singular and fast-converging remaining part with simple wavenumber dependence. We've applied the technique to simulate band diagrams and modal solutions of periodic structures, and to

  15. Seismic wave attenuation and dispersion due to wave-induced fluid flow in rocks with strong permeability fluctuations. (United States)

    Germán Rubino, J; Monachesi, Leonardo B; Müller, Tobias M; Guarracino, Luis; Holliger, Klaus


    Oscillatory fluid movements in heterogeneous porous rocks induced by seismic waves cause dissipation of wave field energy. The resulting seismic signature depends not only on the rock compressibility distribution, but also on a statistically averaged permeability. This so-called equivalent seismic permeability does not, however, coincide with the respective equivalent flow permeability. While this issue has been analyzed for one-dimensional (1D) media, the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cases remain unexplored. In this work, this topic is analyzed for 2D random medium realizations having strong permeability fluctuations. With this objective, oscillatory compressibility simulations based on the quasi-static poroelasticity equations are performed. Numerical analysis shows that strong permeability fluctuations diminish the magnitude of attenuation and velocity dispersion due to fluid flow, while the frequency range where these effects are significant gets broader. By comparing the acoustic responses obtained using different permeability averages, it is also shown that at very low frequencies the equivalent seismic permeability is similar to the equivalent flow permeability, while for very high frequencies this parameter approaches the arithmetic average of the permeability field. These seemingly generic findings have potentially important implications with regard to the estimation of equivalent flow permeability from seismic data.

  16. Ultrasonic guided wave detection of scatterers on large clad steel plates (United States)

    Gong, Peng; Harley, Joel B.; Berges, Mario; Junker, Warren R.; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.


    "Clad steel" refers to a thick carbon steel structural plate bonded to a corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) plate, such as stainless steel or titanium, and is widely used in industry to construct pressure vessels. The CRA resists the chemically aggressive environment on the interior, but cannot prevent the development of corrosion losses and cracks that limit the continued safe operation of such vessels. At present there are no practical methods to detect such defects from the exposed outer surface of the thick carbon steel plate, often necessitating removing such vessels from service and inspecting them visually from the interior. In previous research, sponsored by industry to detect and localize damage in pressurized piping systems under operational and environmental changes, we investigated a number of data-driven signal processing methods to extract damage information from ultrasonic guided wave pitch-catch records. We now apply those methods to relatively large clad steel plate specimens. We study a sparse array of wafer-type ultrasonic transducers adhered to the carbon steel surface, attempting to localize mass scatterers grease-coupled to the stainless steel surface. We discuss conditions under which localization is achieved by relatively simple first-arrival methods, and other conditions for which data-driven methods are needed; we also discuss observations of plate-like mode properties implied by these results.

  17. Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers. (United States)

    Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias


    Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.

  18. Application of P-wave Hybrid Theory to the Scattering of Electrons from He+ and Resonances in He and H ion (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.


    The P-wave hybrid theory of electron-hydrogen elastic scattering [Phys. Rev. A 85, 052708 (2012)] is applied to the P-wave scattering from He ion. In this method, both short-range and long-range correlations are included in the Schroedinger equation at the same time, by using a combination of a modified method of polarized orbitals and the optical potential formalism. The short-correlation functions are of Hylleraas type. It is found that the phase shifts are not significantly affected by the modification of the target function by a method similar to the method of polarized orbitals and they are close to the phase shifts calculated earlier by Bhatia [Phys. Rev. A 69, 032714 (2004)]. This indicates that the correlation function is general enough to include the target distortion (polarization) in the presence of the incident electron. The important fact is that in the present calculation, to obtain similar results only a 20-term correlation function is needed in the wave function compared to the 220- term wave function required in the above-mentioned calculation. Results for the phase shifts, obtained in the present hybrid formalism, are rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts. The lowest P-wave resonances in He atom and hydrogen ion have been calculated and compared with the results obtained using the Feshbach projection operator formalism [Phys. Rev. A, 11, 2018 (1975)]. It is concluded that accurate resonance parameters can be obtained by the present method, which has the advantage of including corrections due to neighboring resonances, bound states and the continuum in which these resonance are embedded.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, J.; Hanasoge, S.; Antia, H. M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai-400005 (India)


    Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modeled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the “surface term.” The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modeling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelengths (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary three-dimensional (3D) flows, can be reduced to an effective “quiet-Sun” wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt–Väisäla frequency, and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of 3D flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from 3D numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection.

  20. Separation of radiated sound field components from waves scattered by a source under non-anechoic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn


    A method of estimating the sound field radiated by a source under non-anechoic conditions has been examined. The method uses near field acoustic holography based on a combination of pressure and particle velocity measurements in a plane near the source for separating outgoing and ingoing wave...... components. The outgoing part of the sound field is composed of both radiated and scattered waves. The method compensates for the scattered components of the outgoing field on the basis of the boundary condition of the problem, exploiting the fact that the sound field is reconstructed very close...... to the source. Thus the radiated free-field component is estimated simultaneously with solving the inverse problem of reconstructing the sound field near the source. The method is particularly suited to cases in which the overall contribution of reflected sound in the measurement plane is significant....

  1. Determination of the s-wave pion-nucleon threshold scattering parameters from the results of experiments on pionic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oades, G.C. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Rasche, G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Woolcock, W.S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, IAS, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Matsinos, E. [Varian Medical Systems Imaging Laboratory GmbH, Taefernstrasse 7, CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)], E-mail:; Gashi, A. [Mediscope AG, Alfred Escher-Str. 27, CH-8002 Zuerich (Switzerland)


    We give the conversion equations which lead from experimental values of the 3p{yields}1s transition energy in pionic hydrogen and the total width of the 1s level to values of the s-wave threshold scattering parameters for the processes {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup -}p and {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup 0}n respectively. Using a three-channel potential model, we then calculate the electromagnetic corrections to these quantities, which remove the effects of the Coulomb interaction, the external mass differences and the presence of the {gamma}n channel. We give the s-wave scattering parameters obtained from the present experimental data and these electromagnetic corrections. Finally we discuss the implications for isospin invariance.

  2. Effect of spatio-energy correlation in PCD due to charge sharing, scatter, and secondary photons (United States)

    Rajbhandary, Paurakh L.; Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.


    Charge sharing, scatter and fluorescence events in a photon counting detector (PCD) can result in multiple counting of a single incident photon in neighboring pixels. This causes energy distortion and correlation of data across energy bins in neighboring pixels (spatio-energy correlation). If a "macro-pixel" is formed by combining multiple small pixels, it will exhibit correlations across its energy bins. Charge sharing and fluorescence escape are dependent on pixel size and detector material. Accurately modeling these effects can be crucial for detector design and for model based imaging applications. This study derives a correlation model for the multi-counting events and investigates the effect in virtual non-contrast and effective monoenergetic imaging. Three versions of 1 mm2 square CdTe macro-pixel were compared: a 4×4 grid, 2×2 grid, or 1×1 composed of pixels with side length 250 μm, 500 μm, or 1 mm, respectively. The same flux was applied to each pixel, and pulse pile-up was ignored. The mean and covariance matrix of measured photon counts is derived analytically using pre-computed spatio-energy response functions (SERF) estimated from Monte Carlo simulations. Based on the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound, a macro-pixel with 250×250 μm2 sub-pixels shows 2.2 times worse variance than a single 1 mm2 pixel for spectral imaging, while its penalty for effective monoenergetic imaging is <10% compared to a single 1 mm2 pixel.

  3. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers using volume electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin


    A marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain volume electric field integral equation (TD-VEFIE) solver is proposed for accurate and stable analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers. The stability is achieved using band-limited but two-sided (non-causal) temporal interpolation functions and an extrapolation scheme to cast the time marching into a causal form. The extrapolation scheme is designed to be highly accurate for oscillating and exponentially decaying fields, hence it accurately captures the physical behavior of the resonant modes that are excited inside the dielectric scatterer. Numerical results demonstrate that the resulting MOT scheme maintains its stability as the number of resonant modes increases with the contrast of the scatterer.

  4. Novel Observational Technique of Gravitational Wave (GW) Events: Detecting and Locating Electromagnetic Counterparts to GW Sources using Dust Scattering Halos (United States)

    Nederlander, Richard; Paerels, Frits


    We discuss a novel observational technique for detecting and locating the electromagnetic counterpart to its GW source, providing astronomers with a several-hour reprieve after a GW event’s occurrence. The technique relies on identifying a dust scattering halo caused by GW-produced X-rays scattering off Galactic dust clouds. The travel time delay of these scattered photons makes them detectable for up to several hours after the prompt event, and the location of the gravitational wave source will be at the geometric center of the halo. The center can be determined with precision sufficient enough to allow the host galaxy to be discerned. This novel technique will be especially relevant for binary black-hole mergers because their counterparts have, as of now, been difficult to detect.

  5. Electromagnetic wave attenuation due to the charged particles in dust&sand (DUSA) storms (United States)

    Dou, X. Q.; Xie, L.


    In this paper, we calculated the attenuation of the electromagnetic waves (EMWs) propagating through the dust&sand (DUSA) storms using the predicting model based on Mie theory, in which the charges carried on the DUSA particles, the ambient relative humidity (RH) and the particle size distribution are considered simultaneously. It can be found that the charges carried on the DUSA particles and the RH can change the value of the absorption and scattering efficiency, but they can't change the domain attenuation mechanism caused by the DUSA storms in the EMWs frequency regions (3 GHz, 4 GHz), (8 GHz, 40 GHz) and (75 GHz, 100 GHz). Whatever the DUSA storms are formed by equal-size particles or the mixed-size particles, the charge carried on the particle surface and the RH have a significant impact on the attenuation caused by the DUSA storms, and the change ratio of the attenuation caused by the charge or RH depends on the particle size. By the comparison of the calculated attenuation with the measured one, we found that the charges carried on the particles and the RH will be important factors to affect the attenuation of the EMWs.

  6. Ultraviolet Thomson Scattering from Two-Plasmon-Decay Driven Electron Plasma Waves at Quarter-Critical Densities (United States)

    Follett, R. K.; Michel, D. T.; Hu, S. X.; Myatt, J. F.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.


    Thomson scattering (TS) was used to probe electron plasma waves (EPW's) driven by the two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability near quarter-critical density. TPD-driven EPW's were observed at densities consistent with the common-wave TPD model. Five laser beams (λ3ω = 351nm) produced 400- μm-diam (FWHM) laser spots with overlapped intensities up to 3 ×1014W/cm2 . A 263-nm TS beam was used to probe densities ranging from 0.18 to 0.26 nc, where nc is the critical density for 351-nm light. The experimental geometry was chosen to match the five-beam TPD common wave k vector. The TS spectrum shows a large amplitude, narrow (~1.6-nm FHWM) feature centered around 423.4 nm. This wavelength corresponds to scattering from EPW's with a normalized wave vector k / k3 ω = 1 . 3 , a density of ne/nc = 0.243, and a temperature of Te = 2 keV. This is consistent with the predicted values given by the dispersion relations and TPD maximum growth hyperbola. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  7. Optimal computation of guided wave propagation and scattering in pipeworks comprising elbows: Numerical and experimental validations and parametric studies (United States)

    El Bakkali, M.; Lhémery, A.; Chapuis, B.; Berthelot, F.; Grondel, S.


    Simulation tools of guided wave (GW) examination are developed at CEA to help inspection design and results interpretation. In a previous paper [M. El Bakkali, A. Lhémery, V. Baronian and F. Berthelot, (AIP Conf. Proc. 1581), pp. 332-9 (2014)], a model was developed to deal with GW propagation in elbows, GW scattering at the junction of a straight and a curved guides and GW multiple-scattering by an elbow joined to two straight pipes. The method is computationally optimal: many results are obtained by fast post-processing. Modes in the straight and curved guides are computed once by the semi-analytic finite element method; this implies solving two systems of equations over their shared cross-section meshed by FE. Scattering at a junction of straight and curved pipes requires computing surface integrals over the same section for applying the mode-matching method. For varying elbow angle, computing scattering coefficients of the straight-curved-straight double junction requires multiplying scattering matrices local to one junction with analytic propagation matrices in the curved guide that are angle-dependent. The aim here is twofold. First, the model is validated by comparison of its predictions with results computed by the finite element method and with measurements. Second, the model is used for parametric studies made easy by its computing efficiency.

  8. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela


    -critical simulation, the boundary condition is a known downstream WSE, in this case the elevated water level due to wave setup, wind setup and inverted barometer, while the upstream boundary condition consisted in WSE corresponding to river discharges associated to different return periods. The results of the simulations evidence, for the last 10 kilometers of the river, the burst of critical inundation scenarios even with moderate flow discharge, if associated with concurrent storm surge which increase the water level at the river mouth, obstructing normal flow discharge.

  9. Water-waves frequency upshift of the spectral mean due to wind forcing (United States)

    Eeltink, Debbie; Chabchoub, Amin; Brunetti, Maura; Kasparian, Jerome; Kimmoun, Olivier; Branger, Hubert


    The effect of wind forcing on monochromatic modulated water waves was investigated both numerically and experimentally in the context of the Modified Non-Linear Schrödinger (MNLS) equation framework. While wind is usually associated with a frequency downshift of the dominant spectral peak, we show that it may induce an upshift of the spectral mean due to an asymmetric amplification of the spectrum. Here the weighted average spectral mean is equal to the ratio of the momentum of the envelope to its norm and it detects any asymmetries in the spectrum (Segur et al. 2005). Wind can however indirectly induce frequency downshifts, by promoting dissipative effects like wave breaking. We highlight that the definition of the up- and downshift in terms of peak frequency or average frequency is critical for a relevant discussion. In our model, the wind input consists of a leading order forcing term that amplifies all frequencies equally and induces a broadening of the spectrum, and a higher order asymmetric term (Brunetti et al. 2014; Brunetti & Kasparian 2014) that amplifies higher frequencies more than lower ones and induces a permanent upshift of the spectral mean. The effect of MNLS + wind is exactly opposite to MNLS + viscosity, where the lower order viscosity terms damp the whole spectrum, while the higher order viscosity terms damp higher frequencies more than lower ones and thus causes a permanent downshift, as evidenced by Carter & Govan (2016). We corroborated the model with wave tank experiments conducted in the IRPHE/Pytheas large wind-wave facility located in Marseille, France. Wave data analysis show the temporary downshift in the spectral peak sense caused by the wind, and the temporary upshift in the spectral mean sense characteristic of the MNLS. As the tank-length was limited, we used long-range simulations to obtain upshift in the spectral mean sense caused by the wind. The limit of the model is reached when breaking events occur. We acknowledge financial

  10. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from random media with strong permittivity fluctuations. [with application to atmospheric turbulence effects on microwave remote sensing (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.


    By taking into account the singularity of the dyadic Green's function in the renormalization method, a theory is derived for vector electromagnetic wave propagation in a random medium with large permittivity fluctuations and with anisotropic correlation function. The strong fluctuation theory is then applied to a discrete scatterer problem in which the permittivity can assume only two values. The results are found to be consistent with those derived from discrete scatterer theory for all values of dielectric constants of the scatterers.

  11. Rotational superradiant scattering in a vortex flow (United States)

    Torres, Theo; Patrick, Sam; Coutant, Antonin; Richartz, Maurício; Tedford, Edmund W.; Weinfurtner, Silke


    When an incident wave scatters off of an obstacle, it is partially reflected and partially transmitted. In theory, if the obstacle is rotating, waves can be amplified in the process, extracting energy from the scatterer. Here we describe in detail the first laboratory detection of this phenomenon, known as superradiance. We observed that waves propagating on the surface of water can be amplified after being scattered by a draining vortex. The maximum amplification measured was 14% +/- 8%, obtained for 3.70 Hz waves, in a 6.25-cm-deep fluid, consistent with the superradiant scattering caused by rapid rotation. We expect our experimental findings to be relevant to black-hole physics, since shallow water waves scattering on a draining fluid constitute an analogue of a black hole, as well as to hydrodynamics, due to the close relation to over-reflection instabilities.

  12. Spectral Dependent Degradation of the Solar Diffuser on Suomi-NPP VIIRS Due to Surface Roughness-Induced Rayleigh Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Shao


    Full Text Available The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (SNPP uses a solar diffuser (SD as its radiometric calibrator for the reflective solar band calibration. The SD is made of Spectralon™ (one type of fluoropolymer and was chosen because of its controlled reflectance in the Visible/Near-Infrared/Shortwave-Infrared region and its near-Lambertian reflectance property. On-orbit changes in VIIRS SD reflectance as monitored by the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor showed faster degradation of SD reflectance for 0.4 to 0.6 µm channels than the longer wavelength channels. Analysis of VIIRS SD reflectance data show that the spectral dependent degradation of SD reflectance in short wavelength can be explained with a SD Surface Roughness (length scale << wavelength based Rayleigh Scattering (SRRS model due to exposure to solar UV radiation and energetic particles. The characteristic length parameter of the SD surface roughness is derived from the long term reflectance data of the VIIRS SD and it changes at approximately the tens of nanometers level over the operational period of VIIRS. This estimated roughness length scale is consistent with the experimental result from radiation exposure of a fluoropolymer sample and validates the applicability of the Rayleigh scattering-based model. The model is also applicable to explaining the spectral dependent degradation of the SDs on other satellites. This novel approach allows us to better understand the physical processes of the SD degradation, and is complementary to previous mathematics based models.

  13. Diffractive S and D-wave vector mesons in deep inelastic scattering


    Ivanov, I. P.; Nikolaev, N.N.


    We derive helicity amplitudes for diffractive leptoproduction of the S and D wave states of vector mesons. We predict a dramatically different spin dependence for production of the S and D wave vector mesons. We find very small $R=\\sigma_{L}/\\sigma_{T}$ and abnormally large higher twist effects in production of longitudinally polarized D-wave vector mesons.

  14. Plane waves as tractor beams (United States)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz


    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  15. Experiments and Numerical Simulations of Dike Erosion due to a Wave Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Evangelista


    Full Text Available Dike erosion is a crucial issue in coastal and fluvial flood risk management. These defense structures appear vulnerable to extreme hydrological events, whose potential occurrence risk seems to be recently increased due to climate change. Their design and reinforcement is, however, a complex task, and although numerical models are very powerful nowadays, real processes cannot be accurately predicted; therefore, physical models constitute a useful tool to investigate different features under controlled conditions. This paper presents some laboratory experimental results of erosion of a sand dike produced by the impact of a dam break wave. Experiments have been conducted in the Water Engineering Laboratory at the University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy, in a rectangular channel: here, the sudden opening of a gate forming the reservoir generates the wave impacting the dike, made in turn of two different, almost uniform sands. The physical evidence proves that the erosion process is strongly unsteady and significantly different from a gradual overtopping and highlights the importance of apparent cohesion for the fine sand dike. The experimental results have also been compared against the ones obtained through the numerical integration of a two-phase model, which shows the reasonable predictive capability of the temporal free surface and dike profile evolution.

  16. Higher order equivalent edge currents for fringe wave radar scattering by perfectly conducting polygonal plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav


    of EECs contain very few singularity problems. In order to obtain an approximation to the scattered field, the three sets are added and integrated along the circumference of the scatterer. This procedure is straightfoward, and since most singularity problems have been eliminated, it is numerically well...

  17. General method for eliminating wave reflection in 2D photonic crystal waveguides by introducing extra scatterers based on interference cancellation of waves (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Ouyang, Zhengbiao


    We propose a general method for eliminating the reflection of waves in 2 dimensional photonic crystal waveguides (2D-PCWs), a kind of 2D material, by introducing extra scatterers inside the 2D-PCWs. The intrinsic reflection in 2D-PCWs is compensated by the backward-scattered waves from these scatterers, so that the overall reflection is greatly reduced and the insertion loss is improved accordingly. We first present the basic theory for the compensation method. Then, as a demonstration, we give four examples of extremely-low-reflection and high-transmission 90°bent 2D-PCWs created according to the method proposed. In the four examples, it is demonstrated by plane-wave expansion method and finite-difference time-domain method that the 90°bent 2D-PCWs can have high transmission ratio greater than 90% in a wide range of operating frequency, and the highest transmission ratio can be greater than 99.95% with a return loss higher than 43 dB, better than that in other typical 90°bent 2D-PCWs. With our method, the bent 2D-PCWs can be optimized to obtain high transmission ratio at different operating wavelengths. As a further application of this method, a waveguide-based optical bridge for light crossing is presented, showing an optimum return loss of 46.85 dB, transmission ratio of 99.95%, and isolation rates greater than 41.77 dB. The method proposed provides also a useful way for improving conventional waveguides made of cables, fibers, or metal walls in the optical, infrared, terahertz, and microwave bands.

  18. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  19. Confluent Heun functions and the physics of black holes: Resonant frequencies, Hawking radiation and scattering of scalar waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, H.S., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)


    We apply the confluent Heun functions to study the resonant frequencies (quasispectrum), the Hawking radiation and the scattering process of scalar waves, in a class of spacetimes, namely, the ones generated by a Kerr–Newman–Kasuya spacetime (dyon black hole) and a Reissner–Nordström black hole surrounded by a magnetic field (Ernst spacetime). In both spacetimes, the solutions for the angular and radial parts of the corresponding Klein–Gordon equations are obtained exactly, for massive and massless fields, respectively. The special cases of Kerr and Schwarzschild black holes are analyzed and the solutions obtained, as well as in the case of a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a magnetic field. In all these special situations, the resonant frequencies, Hawking radiation and scattering are studied. - Highlights: • Charged massive scalar field in the dyon black hole and massless scalar field in the Ernst spacetime are analyzed. • The confluent Heun functions are applied to obtain the solution of the Klein–Gordon equation. • The resonant frequencies are obtained. • The Hawking radiation and the scattering process of scalar waves are examined.

  20. Thomson-Scattering Measurements of Ion-Acoustic Wave Amplitudes Driven by the Two-Plasmon-Decay Instability (United States)

    Follett, R. K.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Hu, S. X.; Yaakobi, B.; Froula, D. H.


    Thomson scattering was used to measure enhanced ion-acoustic waves (IAW's) driven by the two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability. The IAW amplitude scales with the 3/2φ emission (a TPD signature). Up to 20 beams with 860-μm-diam laser spots generated by 2-ns-long pulses of 3φ (0.351-μm) light with overlapped intensities up to 4 x 10^14 W/cm^2 were used to produce ˜300-μm density-scale lengths. The IAW amplitudes were measured using 4φ Thomson scattering near 3φ quarter-critical densities. Time-resolved 3/2φ spectroscopy was used to compare the amplitude of 3/2φ emission to the IAW amplitude. QZAKfootnotetext K. Y. Sanbonmatsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 932 (1999).^,footnotetext K. Y. Sanbonmatsu et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2824 (2000). modeling shows a similar onset threshold and wave amplitude as the experiments. The model suggests that the source of the IAW growth is from the beating of electron-plasma waves, which drive density perturbations through the ponderomotive force. This conclusion is supported by the experimental geometry. This process is shown to be a saturation mechanism for TPD from simulations.footnotetext R. Yan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 175002 (2009). This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  1. Atmospheric gravity waves due to the Tohoku-Oki tsunami observed in the thermosphere by GOCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, R.F.; Doornbos, E.N.; Bruinsma, S.; Hebert, H.


    Oceanic tsunami waves couple with atmospheric gravity waves, as previously observed through ionospheric and airglow perturbations. Aerodynamic velocities and density variations are computed from Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) accelerometer and thruster data during

  2. Snow Slab Failure Due to Biot-Type Acoustic Wave Propagation


    Sidler Rolf


    Even though seismic methods are among the most used geophysical methods today their application in snow has been sparse. This might be related to the fact that commonly observed wave velocity attenuation and reflection coefficients can not be well explained by the widely used elastic or visco elastic models for wave propagation. Biot's well established model of wave propagation in porous media instead is much better suited to describe acoustic wave propagation in snow. This model predicts als...

  3. Modelling the effect of fractures in geothermal reservoirs on the seismic wave field - anisotropy, scattering and localisation (United States)

    Möller, Thomas; Friederich, Wolfgang


    Fractures and cracks in rocks have a significant influence on the propagation of seismic waves. Their presence causes reflections and scattering of the waves and generates effective anisotropy within the rocks. In geothermics, gaining information on how a system of fractures affects the wave field is of great importance for reservoir characterisation. We present a numerical approach to the simulation of seismic wave propagation in fractured media that does not require explicit modelling of the fracture itself, but uses the concept of linear slip interfaces developed by Schoenberg (1980). This concept states that at an interface between two imperfectly bonded elastic media, stress is continuous across the interface while displacement is discontinuous. It is assumed that the jump of displacement is proportional to stress which implies a jump in particle velocity at the interface. We use this concept as a boundary condition to the elastic wave equation and solve this equation in the framework of a Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin scheme using a velocity-stress formulation. The concept of linear slip interfaces has been implemented into the 1D and 2D versions of the discontinuous Galerkin solver "NEXD". We verified the implementation for the case of an elastic linear slip interface. We use this concept to demonstrate the effect of fractures by the following examples: (1) A system of parallel fractures embedded in a homogenous background medium with a source in the center of the system and (2) varyingly oriented fracture systems embedded in a sample reservoir with layered velocity structure. We show that waves traveling perpendicular to the fractures experience high attenuation whereas waves traveling parallel to the fractures are almost not influenced. Synthetic seismograms show a distinct change in curvature of the wavefront when fractures are present, underlining the effective anisotropy caused by the fractures. In addition we show the contribution such systems have to

  4. Damage Accumulation in Vertical Breakwaters due to Combined Impact Loading and Pulsating Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R. K.


    Vertical wall breakwaters used to protect for example an harbour from large waves usually consist of large concrete caissons placed on the seabed. The wave loads can be divided in two types, pulsating and impact loads. For some types of breakwaters especially the impact wave loads can be very large...

  5. Energy loss and set-up due to breaking random waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.; Janssen, J.P.F.M.


    A description is given of a model developed for the prediction of the dissipation of energy in random waves breaking on a beach. The dissipation rate per breaking wave is estimated from that in a bore of corresponding height, while the probability of occurrence of breaking waves is estimated on the

  6. Research on the FDTD method of scattering effects of obliquely incident electromagnetic waves in time-varying plasma sheath on collision and plasma frequencies (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-xin; Li, Jiang-ting


    This study analyzes the scattering characteristics of obliquely incident electromagnetic (EM) waves in a time-varying plasma sheath. The finite-difference time-domain algorithm is applied. According to the empirical formula of the collision frequency in a plasma sheath, the plasma frequency, temperature, and pressure are assumed to vary with time in the form of exponential rise. Some scattering problems of EM waves are discussed by calculating the radar cross section (RCS) of the time-varying plasma. The laws of the RCS varying with time are summarized at the L and S wave bands.

  7. Electromagnetic scattering from microwave absorbers - Laboratory verification of the coupled wave theory (United States)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Jackson, D. M.


    W-band measurements of the bistatic scattering function of some common microwave absorbing structures, including periodic wedge-type and pyramid-type iron-epoxy calibration loads and flat carbon-foam 'Echosorb' samples, were made using a network analyzer interface to a focused-lens scattering range. Swept frequency measurements over the 75-100 GHz band revealed specular and Bragg reflection characteristics in the measured data.

  8. [Review on Application of Optical Scattering Spectroscopy for Elastic Wave Velocity Study on Materials in Earth's Interior]. (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-jun; Li, He-ping; Dai, Li-dong; Hu, Hai-ying; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Chao-shuai


    In-situ experimental results on the elastic wave velocity of Earth materials at high pressure and high temperature in combination with data from seismic observation can help to inverse the chemical composition, state and migration of materials in Earth's interior, providing an important approach to explore information of deep earth. Applying the Brillouin scattering into the Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) to obtain the in situ elastic wave velocities of minerals, is the important approach to investigate elastic properties of Earth's Interior. With the development of DAC technology, on the one hand, the high temperature and high pressure experimental environment to simulate different layers of the earth can be achieved; on the other hand, the optical properties of DAC made many kinds of optical analysis and test methods have been widely applied in this research field. In order to gain the elastic wave velocity under high temperature and high pressure, the accurate experimental pressure and heating temperature of the sample in the cavity should be measured and calibrated first, then the scattering signal needs to dealt with, using the Brillouin frequency shift to calculate the velocity in the sample. Combined with the lattice constants obtained from X ray technique, by a solid elastic theory, all the elastic parameters of minerals can be solved. In this paper, firstly, application of methods based on optical spectrum such as Brillouin and Raman scattering in elasticity study on materials in Earth's interior, and the basic principle and research progress of them in the velocity measurement, pressure and temperature calibration are described in detail. Secondly, principle and scope of application of two common methods of spectral pressure calibration (fluorescence and Raman spectral pressure standard) are analyzed, in addition with introduce of the application of two conventional means of temperature calibration (blackbody radiation and Raman temperature scale) in

  9. Polarized-neutron-scattering study of the spin-wave excitations in the 3-k ordered phase of uranium antimonide. (United States)

    Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Lander, G H; Hiess, A; Regnault, L-P


    The anisotropy of magnetic fluctuations propagating along the [1 1 0] direction in the ordered phase of uranium antimonide has been studied using polarized inelastic neutron scattering. The observed polarization behavior of the spin waves is a natural consequence of the longitudinal 3-k magnetic structure; together with recent results on the 3-k-transverse uranium dioxide, these findings establish this technique as an important tool to study complex magnetic arrangements. Selected details of the magnon excitation spectra of USb have also been reinvestigated, indicating the need to revise the currently accepted theoretical picture for this material.

  10. On backward scattering of acoustic waves in a turbulent atmosphere and intensity of SODAR echo-signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusakov, Yu.S. [Science and Production Association Typhoon, Obninsk (Russian Federation)


    The backscattering of acoustic waves in the atmosphere has been studied with an absolutely calibrated sodar and a measuring complex at a 300-m meteorological mast (HMM). It has been shown that the backward differential cross-section of the atmosphere and excess attenuation of sound are by an order of magnitude greater than formerly recognized. The effects have been qualitatively justified on the basis of consideration of the small-scale turbulence intermittence and a model of sound scattering on the ensemble of local inhomogeneities. (orig.)

  11. SU-E-I-55: The Contribution to Skin Dose Due to Scatter From the Patient Table and the Head Holder During Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, N; Xiong, Z; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S; Bednarek, D [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)


    Purpose: To determine contributions to skin dose due to scatter from the table and head holder used during fluoroscopy, and also to explore alternative design material to reduce the scatter dose. Methods: Measurements were made of the primary and scatter components of the xray beam exiting the patient table and a cylindrical head holder used on a Toshiba Infinix c-arm unit as a function of kVp for the various beam filters on the machine and for various field sizes. The primary component of the beam was measured in air with the object placed close to the x-ray tube with an air gap between it and a 6 cc parallel-plate ionization chamber and with the beam collimated to a size just larger than the chamber. The primary plus scatter radiation components were measured with the object moved to a position in the beam next to the chamber for larger field sizes. Both sets of measurements were preformed while keeping the source-to-chamber distance fixed. The scatter fraction was estimated by taking the ratio of the difference between the two measurements and the reading that included both primary and scatter. Similar measurements were also made for a 2.3 cm thick Styrofoam block which could substitute for the patient support. Results: The measured scatter fractions indicate that the patient table as well as the head holder contributes an additional 10–16% to the patient entrance dose depending on field size. Forward scatter was reduced with the Styrofoam block so that the scatter fraction was about 4–5%. Conclusion: The results of this investigation demonstrated that scatter from the table and head holder used in clinical fluoroscopy contribute substantially to the skin dose. The lower contribution of scatter from Styrofoam suggests that there is an opportunity to redesign patient support accessories to reduce the skin dose. Partial support from NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation Equipment Grant.

  12. Theory of magnetic surface anisotropy and exchange effects in the Brillouin scattering of light by magnetostatic spin waves (invited) (United States)

    Rado, G. T.; Hicken, R. J.


    A new theory of the Brillouin shift in the inelastic scattering of light by magnetostatic spin waves is presented. Contrary to previous work, the present calculations do include exchange effects and treat the magnetic surface anisotropy constants Ks and Kss directly rather than via the stratagem of effective volume anisotropies. The experimental data for {110} Fe on W are explained about as well by the present theory as by previous work. A detailed analysis reveals the previously unnoticed fact that the signs of Ks and Kss for (1¯10) Fe on W are opposite to those for (1¯10) Fe on GaAs. Some new spin-wave modes arising from exchange are predicted and shown to occur outside the frequency range which has been investigated experimentally. A quantitative explanation is proposed for the occasional applicability of a theory based on effective volume anisotropies and zero exchange.

  13. Scattering and diffraction of plane P-waves in a 2-D elastic half-space II: shallow arbitrary shaped canyon (United States)

    Brandow, Heather P.; Lee, Vincent


    Scattering and Diffraction of elastic in-plane P- and SV- waves by a surface topography such as an elastic canyon at the surface of a half-space is a classical problem which has been studied by earthquake engineers and strong-motion seismologists for over forty years. The case of out-of-plane SH waves on the same elastic canyon that is semi-circular in shape on the half-space surface is the first such problem that was solved by analytic closed form solutions over forty years ago by Trifunac. The corresponding case of in-plane P- and SV-waves on the same circular canyon is a much more complicated problem because, the in-plane P- and SV- scattered waves have different wave speeds and together they must have zero normal and shear stresses at the half-space surface. It is not until recently in 2014 that analytic solution for such problem is found by the author in the work of Lee and Liu. This paper uses the technique of Lee and Liu of defining these stress-free scattered waves to solve the problem of the scattered and diffraction of these in-plane waves on an almost-circular surface canyon that is arbitrary in shape.

  14. Development of hydroacoustical techniques for the monitoring and classification of benthic habitats in Puck Bay: Modeling of acoustic waves scattering by seagrass (United States)

    Raczkowska, A.; Gorska, N.


    Puck Bay is an area of high species biodiversity belonging to the Coastal Landscape Park of Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA) and is also included in the list of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and covered by the protection program "Natura 2000". The underwater meadows of the Puck Bay are important for Europe's natural habitats due to their role in enhancing the productivity of marine ecosystems and providing shelter and optimal feeding conditions for many marine organisms. One of the dominant species comprising the underwater meadows of the Southern Baltic Sea is the seagrass Zostera marina. The spatial extent of underwater seagrass meadows is altered by pollution and eutrophication; therefore, to properly manage the area one must monitor its ecological state. Remote acoustic methods are useful tools for the monitoring of benthic habitats in many marine areas because they are non-invasive and allow researchers to obtain data from a large area in a short period of time. Currently there is a need to apply these methods in the Baltic Sea. Here we present an analysis of the mechanism of scattering of acoustic waves on seagrass in the Southern Baltic Sea based on the numerical modeling of acoustic wave scattering by the biological tissues of plants. The study was conducted by adapting a model developed on the basis of DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation) developed by Stanton and Chu (2005) for fluid-like objects, including the characteristics of the Southern Baltic seagrass. Input data for the model, including the morphometry of seagrass leaves, their angle of inclination and the density plant cover, was obtained through the analysis of biological materials collected in the Puck Bay in the framework of a research project financed by the Polish Government (Development of hydroacoustic methods for studies of underwater meadows of Puck Bay, 6P04E 051 20). On the basis of the developed model, we have analyzed the dependence of the target strength of a single

  15. Wave dissipation due to spatially varying bottom roughness: Observations from Oahu, Hawaii (United States)

    Siegelman, M. N.; Merrifield, M. A.; Becker, J. M.; Pawlak, G. R.; Reyns, J.


    The influence of bottom friction on waves shoaling over reef topography prior to breaking is examined using across-shore array of wave sensors on the Leeward side of Oahu during the winter of 2014. Offshore wave heights ranged from 2 to 5 m during a succession of northwest swell events. Wave energy flux is approximately conserved between an offshore wave buoy and the deepest wave sensor at 15 m depth. Between 15 m and 6 m depths, where rough reef bathymetry replaces sand, significant dissipation is inferred with a 60% reduction in the wave energy flux. Equating the energy flux divergence to bottom friction dissipation results in a wave friction factor of 0.38 ± 0.03, higher than typical wave factors reported in previous reef field studies. The estimated friction factor between 6 m and 5 m reduces to 0.14 ± 0.01. AUV surveys of the study site provide high resolution depth measurements that are used to relate bottom roughness to the variable friction factor estimated across the transect. A numerical model is used to assess the influence of the high friction factors on simulations over two-dimensional bathymetry. The results highlight the need for spatially dependent bottom roughness estimates for accurate wave predictions in reef environments.

  16. Extended Linear Embedding via Green's Operators for Analyzing Wave Scattering from Anisotropic Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lancellotti


    Full Text Available Linear embedding via Green’s operators (LEGO is a domain decomposition method particularly well suited for the solution of scattering and radiation problems comprised of many objects. The latter are enclosed in simple-shaped subdomains (electromagnetic bricks which are in turn described by means of scattering operators. In this paper we outline the extension of the LEGO approach to the case of penetrable objects with dyadic permittivity or permeability. Since a volume integral equation is only required to solve the scattering problem inside a brick and the scattering operators are inherently surface operators, the LEGO procedure per se can afford a reduction of the number of unknowns in the numerical solution with the Method of Moments and subsectional basis functions. Further substantial reduction is achieved with the eigencurrents expansion method (EEM which employs the eigenvectors of the scattering operator as local entire-domain basis functions over a brick’s surface. Through a few selected numerical examples we discuss the validation and the efficiency of the LEGO-EEM technique applied to clusters of anisotropic bodies.

  17. Effects of fracture contact areas on seismic attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow (United States)

    Germán Rubino, J.; Müller, Tobias M.; Milani, Marco; Holliger, Klaus


    Wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) between fractures and the embedding matrix is considered to be a predominant seismic attenuation mechanism in fractured rocks. That is, due to the strong compressibility contrast between fractures and embedding matrix, seismic waves induce strong fluid pressure gradients, followed by local fluid flow between such regions, which in turn produces significant energy dissipation. Natural fractures can be conceptualized as two surfaces in partial contact, containing very soft and highly permeable material in the inner region. It is known that the characteristics of the fracture contact areas control the mechanical properties of the rock sample, since as the contact area increases, the fracture becomes stiffer. Correspondingly, the detailed characteristics of the contact area of fractures are expected to play a major role in WIFF-related attenuation. To study this topic, we consider a simple model consisting of a horizontal fracture located at the center of a porous rock sample and represented by a number of rectangular cracks of constant height separated by contact areas. The cracks are modelled as highly compliant, porous, and permeable heterogeneities, which are hydraulically connected to the background material. We include a number of rectangular regions of background material separating the cracks, which represent the presence of contact areas of the fracture. In order to estimate the WIFF effects, we apply numerical oscillatory relaxation tests based on the quasi-static poro-elastic equations. The equivalent undrained, complex plane-wave modulus, which allows to estimate seismic attenuation and velocity dispersion for the vertical direction of propagation, is expressed in terms of the imposed displacement and the resulting average vertical stress at the top boundary. In order to explore the effects of the presence of fracture contact areas on WIFF effects, we perform an exhaustive sensitivity analysis considering different

  18. High-frequency waves in the corona due to null points (United States)

    Santamaria, I. C.; Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.; de Vicente, A.


    This work aims to understand the behavior of non-linear waves in the vicinity of a coronal null point. In previous works we have shown that high-frequency waves are generated in such a magnetic configuration. This paper studies those waves in detail in order to provide a plausible explanation of their generation. We demonstrate that slow magneto-acoustic shock waves generated in the chromosphere propagate through the null point and produce a train of secondary shocks that escape along the field lines. A particular combination of the shock wave speeds generates waves at a frequency of 80 mHz. We speculate that this frequency may be sensitive to the atmospheric parameters in the corona and therefore can be used to probe the structure of this solar layer. Movies attached to Figs 2 and 4 are available at

  19. Continuous-wave spatial quantum correlations of light induced by multiple scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Huck, Alexander


    We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance and ...... theory and form a basis for future research on, e. g., quantum interference of multiple quantum states in a multiple scattering medium.......We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance...... and reflectance. Utilizing frequency-resolved quantum noise measurements, we observe that the strength of the spatial quantum correlation function can be controlled by changing the quantum state of an incident bright squeezed-light source. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with the developed...

  20. Scattering properties of electromagnetic waves from metal object in the lower terahertz region (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Dang, H. X.; Hu, T. Y.; Su, Xiang; Lv, R. C.; Li, Hao; Tan, X. M.; Cui, T. J.


    An efficient hybrid algorithm is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic scattering properties of metal objects in the lower terahertz (THz) frequency. The metal object can be viewed as perfectly electrical conducting object with a slightly rough surface in the lower THz region. Hence the THz scattered field from metal object can be divided into coherent and incoherent parts. The physical optics and truncated-wedge incremental-length diffraction coefficients methods are combined to compute the coherent part; while the small perturbation method is used for the incoherent part. With the MonteCarlo method, the radar cross section of the rough metal surface is computed by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm and the proposed hybrid algorithm, respectively. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm has good accuracy to simulate the scattering properties rapidly in the lower THz region.

  1. Delay-time distribution in the scattering of time-narrow wave packets (II)—quantum graphs (United States)

    Smilansky, Uzy; Schanz, Holger


    We apply the framework developed in the preceding paper in this series (Smilansky 2017 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 50 215301) to compute the time-delay distribution in the scattering of ultra short radio frequency pulses on complex networks of transmission lines which are modeled by metric (quantum) graphs. We consider wave packets which are centered at high wave number and comprise many energy levels. In the limit of pulses of very short duration we compute upper and lower bounds to the actual time-delay distribution of the radiation emerging from the network using a simplified problem where time is replaced by the discrete count of vertex-scattering events. The classical limit of the time-delay distribution is also discussed and we show that for finite networks it decays exponentially, with a decay constant which depends on the graph connectivity and the distribution of its edge lengths. We illustrate and apply our theory to a simple model graph where an algebraic decay of the quantum time-delay distribution is established.

  2. Observation of sound focusing and defocusing due to propagating nonlinear internal waves. (United States)

    Luo, J; Badiey, M; Karjadi, E A; Katsnelson, B; Tskhoidze, A; Lynch, J F; Moum, J N


    Fluctuations of the low frequency sound field in the presence of an internal solitary wave packet during the Shallow Water '06 experiment are analyzed. Acoustic, environmental, and on-board ship radar image data were collected simultaneously before, during, and after a strong internal solitary wave packet passed through the acoustic track. Preliminary analysis of the acoustic wave temporal intensity fluctuations agrees with previously observed phenomena and the existing theory of the horizontal refraction mechanism, which causes focusing and defocusing when the acoustic track is nearly parallel to the front of the internal waves [J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 122(2), pp. 747-760 (2007)].

  3. Sound generation and upstream influence due to instability waves interacting with non-uniform mean flows (United States)

    Goldstein, M. E.


    Attention is given to the sound produced by artificially excited, spatially growing instability waves on subsonic shear layers. Real flows that always diverge in the downstream direction allow sound to be produced by the interaction of the instability waves with the resulting streamwise variations of the flow. The upstream influence, or feedback, can interact with the splitter plate lip to produce a downstream-propagating instability wave that may under certain conditions be the same instability wave that originally generated the upstream influence. The present treatment is restricted to very low Mach number flows, so that compressibility effects can only become important over large distances.

  4. Propagation and Directional Scattering of Ocean Waves in the Marginal Ice Zone and Neighboring Seas (United States)


    the Marginal Ice Zone and Neighboring Seas William Perrie Bedford Institute of Oceanography 1 Challenger Dr. Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 4A2...the spatial and temporal variability of sea state, and improve forecasting of waves on the open ocean and in the marginal ice zone; 2. Develop an...the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, of relevance to oil and gas exploitation. This project also involves wave-ice interactions in the marginal ice zone, MIZ

  5. Influence of Guided Waves in Tibia on Non-linear Scattering of Contrast Agents. (United States)

    Wang, Diya; Zhong, Hui; Zhai, Yu; Hu, Hong; Jin, Bowen; Wan, Mingxi


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the linear and non-linear responses of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) to frequency-dispersive guided waves from the tibia cortex, particularly two individual modes, S0 (1.23 MHz) and A1 (2.06 MHz). The UCA responses to guided waves were illustrated through the Marmottant model derived from measured guided waves, and then verified by continuous infusion experiments in a vessel-tibia flow phantom. These UCA responses were further evaluated by the enhanced ratio of peak values and the resolutions of UCA backscattered echoes. Because of the individual modes S0 and A1 in the tibia, the peak values of the UCA backscattered echoes were enhanced by 83.57 ± 7.35% (p wave disturbances, respectively. Even though the resolution was partly degenerated, the subharmonic detection sensitivity of UCA was improved by the guided waves. Thus, UCA responses to the double-frequency guided waves should be further explored to benefit the detection of capillary perfusion in tissue layers near the bone cortex, particularly for perfusion imaging in the free flaps and skeletal muscles. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transient Marangoni waves due to impulsive motion of a submerged body

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun


    The Oseen problem in a viscous fluid is formulated for studying the transient free-surface and Marangoni waves generated by the impulsive motion of a submerged body beneath a surface with surfactants. Wave asymptotics and wavefronts for large Reynolds numbers are obtained by employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme. The results obtained show explicitly the effects of viscosity and surfactants on Kelvin wakes.

  7. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on quantum frequency conversion using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; McKinstrie, C. J.; Rottwitt, Karsten


    Recently, we solved the coupled-mode equations for Bragg scattering (BS) in the low- and high-conversion regimes, but without the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM). We now present solutions and Green functions in the low-conversion regime that include NPM. We find that NPM does not change...

  8. On the existence of motion-induced heat flux due to thermoelastic waves in a one-dimensional solid rod (United States)

    Semperlotti, Fabio; Sen, Mihir


    In this Letter, we show the existence of motion-induced heat transfer in homogeneous isotropic solids due to the propagation of thermoelastic waves. In particular, using the linearized governing equations for thermoelastic waves, we show that heat transfer in a one-dimensional rod is not only due to conduction but also to the local particle displacement a phenomenon which, in principle, is similar to advective heat transfer in fluids. It is found that the time-averaged heat transfer is dependent on both the material properties and the external excitation parameters. This mechanism can potentially be useful in ultrasonic welding and in the development of solid state refrigerators or heat pumps.

  9. Two-dimensional dissipative rogue waves due to time-delayed feedback in cavity nonlinear optics. (United States)

    Tlidi, Mustapha; Panajotov, Krassimir


    We demonstrate a way to generate two-dimensional rogue waves in two types of broad area nonlinear optical systems subject to time-delayed feedback: in the generic Lugiato-Lefever model and in the model of a broad-area surface-emitting laser with saturable absorber. The delayed feedback is found to induce a spontaneous formation of rogue waves. In the absence of delayed feedback, spatial pulses are stationary. The rogue waves are exited and controlled by the delay feedback. We characterize their formation by computing the probability distribution of the pulse height. The long-tailed statistical contribution, which is often considered as a signature of the presence of rogue waves, appears for sufficiently strong feedback. The generality of our analysis suggests that the feedback induced instability leading to the spontaneous formation of two-dimensional rogue waves is a universal phenomenon.

  10. Determination of the S-Wave Pi Pi Scattering Lengths From a Study of K - to Pi - Pi0 Pi0 Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batley, J.R.; Culling, A.J.; Kalmus, G.; /Cambridge U.; Lazzeroni, C.; /Cambridge U. /Birmingham U.; Munday, D.J.; /Cambridge U.; Slater, M.W.; /Cambridge U. /Birmingham U.; Wotton, S.A.; /Cambridge U.; Arcidiacono, R.; /CERN /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Bocquet, G.; /CERN; Cabibbo, N.; /CERN /Rome U. /INFN, Rome; Ceccucci, A.; /CERN; Cundy, D.; /CERN /Turin, Cosmo-Geofisica Lab; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; /CERN; Norton, A.; /CERN /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; /CERN /Dubna, JINR /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Birmingham U. /Dubna, JINR /CERN /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Sofiya U. /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /INFN, Perugia /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Northwestern U. /Dubna, JINR /Chicago U., EFI /Marseille, CPPM /Chicago U., EFI /Edinburgh U. /George Mason U. /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Florence /Modena U. /INFN, Florence /INFN, Florence /Urbino U. /INFN, Florence /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Bonn U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Northwestern U. /SLAC /Northwestern U. /Northwestern U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Northwestern U. /Northwestern U. /UCLA /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Frascati /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Barcelona, IFAE /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /CERN /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /Siegen U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Bern U. /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /CERN /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Madrid, CIEMAT /Vienna, OAW


    We report the results from a study of the full sample of {approx}6.031 x 10{sup 7} K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. As first observed in this experiment, the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} invariant mass (M{sub 00}) distribution shows a cusp-like anomaly in the region around M{sub 00} = 2m{sub +}, where m{sub +} is the charged pion mass. This anomaly has been interpreted as an effect due mainly to the final state charge exchange scattering process {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} in K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay. Fits to the M{sub 00} distribution using two different theoretical formulations provide the presently most precise determination of a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}, the difference between the {pi}{pi} S-wave scattering lengths in the isospin I = 0 and I = 2 states. Higher-order {pi}{pi} rescattering terms, included in the two formulations, allow also an independent, though less precise, determination of a{sub 2}.

  11. Determination of the S-wave $\\pi \\pi$ scattering lengths from a study of $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{0} \\pi^{0}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J R; Kalmus, G; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, N; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, D; Falaleev, V; Fidecaro, Maria; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Kubischta, W; Norton, A; Maier, A; Patel, M; Peters, A; Balev, S; Frabetti, P L; Goudzovski, E; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Marinova, E; Molokanova, N; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A; Monnier, E; Swallow, E; Winston, R; Rubin, P; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; Fiorini, M; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Wahl, H; Calvetti, M; Iacopini, E; Ruggiero, G; Bizzeti, A; Lenti, M; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Kleinknecht, K; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Renk, B; Wache, M; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Coward, D; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca-Martin, T; Shieh, M; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Wood, M D; Anzivino, G; Imbergamo, E; Nappi, A; Piccini, M; Raggi, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Cenci, P; Pepé, M; Pettrucci, M C; Cerri, C; Fantechi, R; Collazuol, G; Di Lella, L; Lamanna, G; Mannelli, I; Michetti, A; Costantini, F; Doble, N; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Pierazzini, G; Sozzi, M; Venditti, S; Bloch-Devaux, B; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Derré, J; Marel, G; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Bifani, S; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Marchetto, F; Bifani, S; Clemencic, M; Goy-Lopez, S; Dibon, H; Jeitler, M; Markytan, M; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L


    We report the results from a study of the full sample of $~6.031 x 10^{7} K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{0} \\pi^{0}$ decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. As first observed in this experiment, the $\\pi^{0} \\pi^{0}$ invariant mass (M_00) distribution shows a cusp-like anomaly in the region around $M_{00} = 2m_{+}$, where m_{+} is the charged pion mass. This anomaly has been interpreted as an effect due mainly to the final state charge exchange scattering process $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-} \\to \\pi^{0} \\pi^{0}$ in $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ decay. Fits to the M_{00} distribution using two different theoretical models provide the presently most precise determination of $a_{0}-a_{2}$, the difference between the pi pi S-wave scattering lengths in the isospin I = 0 and I = 2 states. Higher-order pi pi rescattering terms, included in the two models, allow also an independent, though less precise, determination of a_2.

  12. Determination of the S-wave π π scattering lengths from a study of K ±→ π ± π 0 π 0 decays (United States)

    Batley, J. R.; Culling, A. J.; Kalmus, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D. J.; Slater, M. W.; Wotton, S. A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; Balev, S.; Frabetti, P. L.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R.; Rubin, P.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H.; Calvetti, M.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M. D.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M. C.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Collazuol, G.; Dilella, L.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Michetti, A.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Cheshkov, C.; Chèze, J. B.; de Beer, M.; Derré, J.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F.; Bifani, S.; Clemencic, M.; Goy Lopez, S.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.


    We report the results from a study of the full sample of ˜6.031×107 K ±→ π ± π 0 π 0 decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. As first observed in this experiment, the π 0 π 0 invariant mass ( M 00) distribution shows a cusp-like anomaly in the region around M 00=2 m +, where m + is the charged pion mass. This anomaly has been interpreted as an effect due mainly to the final state charge exchange scattering process π + π -→ π 0 π 0 in K ±→ π ± π + π - decay. Fits to the M 00 distribution using two different theoretical formulations provide the presently most precise determination of a 0- a 2, the difference between the π π S-wave scattering lengths in the isospin I=0 and I=2 states. Higher-order π π rescattering terms, included in the two formulations, allow also an independent, though less precise, determination of a 2.

  13. Electromagnetic wave scattering from vegetation (Potato) and vegetation covered soil moisture for remote sensing (United States)

    Singh, Keshev

    In the country with limited resources, where the nutrition level of the population has to be maintained under inhospitable situation, the potato has a special value as food. Therefore efforts should be made for improvement and spreading the cultivation of this important crop. It demands an effective program that may provide information about potato growing areas and the growth conditions. Remote sensing has been acknowledged to be a valuable source of spatially comprehensive and temporally repeatable information of crop covered soil moisture, crop growth climatic information etc, which is useful and necessary for agriculture purposes. For this purpose, microwave remote sensing has evolved as an important tool. Since microwave are able to penetrate more deeply into vegetation and underneath ground surface. It is also preferred to the optical frequency band because microwave can work in all type of weather and have a wide signal dynamic range compared optical wavelengths. However interpretation of microwave scattering from agricultural crops requires an understanding the interaction among microwave, vegetative material and the soil. In order to develop useful forward and inverse models for retrieving the vegetation characteristic, it is necessary to know in detail the dielectric properties and plant structure of the vegetation over the range of expected growing conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model based on microwave interaction with potato crop along with examination of biomass of potato crop with the varying underlying soil moisture is studied. For this purpose, X-band (9.5GHz) scatterometer is used for studying the interaction of microwave with potato crop biomass and underlying soil moisture at various sensor parameters (i.e. angular variation and polarization, HH- and VV-). Although there may be a lot of crop parameters (i.e. crop height, leaf area index, etc) which also gives their effect on microwave. All this parameters are interlinked in the crop

  14. Long-Term Change of Sound Wave Propagation Attenuation Due to the Effects of Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Gotoh, S.; Tsuchiya, T.; Hiyoshi, Y.


    In recent years, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing due to global warming. And, the ocean acidification advances because this melts into seawater, pH decrease in seawater are concerned. The sound wave to propagate seawater, pH is known to affect absorption loss (α) by chemical buffer effects of the seawater. However, conventionally, α has not been investigated much in the calculation of pH. Therefore, when calculating the propagation distance in the sonar equation, pH =8~8.1 (Weak alkaline) are used empirically. Therefore we used an actual value of pH of 30 years from 1984 in the sea near the Japan, and investigated change over the years of absorption loss (α) at some frequency. As a result, we found that α value decreases gradually in the past 30 years, as high-latitude decreases. Further, the future, assuming that ocean acidification is more advanced, and to simulate a change of the absorption loss and propagation loss in end of this century using the pH value reported from the "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" (IPCC). As a result, it was just suggested that α decreased more in the end of this century and affected the submarine detection. In addition, in recent years, we examined the effects of noise that offshore wind power construction proceeds in each country emits gives to the underwater sound. As a result, in the end of this century, an underwater noise increases about 17%, and underwater sound environmental degradation of the sea is concerned.

  15. Observations of Low-Frequency Magnetic Waves due to Newborn Interstellar Pickup Ions Using ACE, Ulysses, and Voyager Data (United States)

    Smith, Charles W.; Aggarwal, Poornima; Argall, Matthew R.; Burlaga, Leonard F.; Bzowski, Maciej; Cannon, Bradford E.; Gary, S. Peter; Fisher, Meghan K.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Hollick, Sophia J.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Joyce, Colin J.; Murphy, Neil; Nuno, Raquel G.; Pine, Zackary B.; Richardson, John D.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Sokół, Justyna M.; Taylor, David K.; Vasquez, Bernard J.


    Wave excitation by newborn interstellar pickup ions (PUIs) plays a significant role in theories that attempt to describe IBEX and Voyager observations in the solar wind and heliosheath. The same dynamic processes can be far-reaching and extend into the inner heliosphere to at least 1AU and likely to smaller heliocentric distances. While the high-resolution magnetic field measurements required to study these waves are not yet available in the heliosheath, we have studied a range of available observations and found evidence of waves due to interstellar PUIs using ACE (1998-2015 at 1 AU), Ulysses (1996-2006 at 2 to 5 AU, high and low latitudes) and Voyager (1978-1979 and 2 to 6 AU) observations. Efforts to extend the Voyager observations to 35 AU are ongoing. We have examined these data sets and report on observations of low-frequency waves that result from newborn interstellar pickup H+ and He+ ions. Although not as common as theory originally predicted, we presently have identified 524 independent occurrences. Our conclusion from studying these waves is that they are seen only when the ambient turbulence is sufficiently weak. The instability that generates these waves requires a slow accumulation of wave energy over several to tens of hours to achieve observable wave amplitudes. In regions where the turbulence is moderate to strong, the turbulence absorbs the wave energy before it can reach observable levels and transports the energy to the dissipation scales where it heats the background thermal particles. Only intervals with the weakest turbulence will permit energy accumulation over this time scale. These conditions are most often, but not exclusively, achieved in solar wind rarefaction regions.

  16. Spatial observations by the CUTLASS coherent scatter radar of ionospheric modification by high power radio waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Bond


    Full Text Available Results are presented from an experimental campaign in April 1996, in which the new CUTLASS (Co-operative UK twin-located Auroral Sounding System coherent scatter radar was employed to observe artificial field aligned irregularities (FAI generated by the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter heating facility at Tromsø, Norway. The distribution of backscatter intensity from within the heated region has been investigated both in azimuth and range with the Finland component of CUTLASS, and the first observations of artificial irregularities by the Iceland radar are also presented. The heated region has been measured to extend over a horizontal distance of 170±50km, which by comparison with a model of the heater beam pattern corresponds to a threshold electric field for FAI of between 0.1 and 0.01V/m. Differences between field-aligned and vertical propagation heating are also presented.

  17. Spatial observations by the CUTLASS coherent scatter radar of ionospheric modification by high power radio waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Bond

    Full Text Available Results are presented from an experimental campaign in April 1996, in which the new CUTLASS (Co-operative UK twin-located Auroral Sounding System coherent scatter radar was employed to observe artificial field aligned irregularities (FAI generated by the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter heating facility at Tromsø, Norway. The distribution of backscatter intensity from within the heated region has been investigated both in azimuth and range with the Finland component of CUTLASS, and the first observations of artificial irregularities by the Iceland radar are also presented. The heated region has been measured to extend over a horizontal distance of 170±50km, which by comparison with a model of the heater beam pattern corresponds to a threshold electric field for FAI of between 0.1 and 0.01V/m. Differences between field-aligned and vertical propagation heating are also presented.

  18. Attosecond Interference Induced by Coulomb-Field-Driven Transverse Backward-Scattering Electron Wave-Packets

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Xiaohong; Lin, Cheng; Sheng, Zhihao; Yu, Xianhuan; Yang, Weifeng; Hu, Shilin; Chen, Jing; Xu, SongPo; Chen, YongJu; Quan, Wei; Liu, XiaoJun


    A novel and universal interference structure is found in the photoelectron momentum distribution of atoms in intense infrared laser field. Theoretical analysis shows that this structure can be attributed to a new form of Coulomb-field-driven backward-scattering of photoelectrons in the direction perpendicular to the laser field, in contrast to the conventional rescattering along the laser polarization direction. This transverse backward-scattering process is closely related to a family of photoelectrons initially ionized within a time interval of less than 200 attosecond around the crest of the laser electric field. Those electrons, acquiring near-zero return energy in the laser field, will be pulled back solely by the ionic Coulomb field and backscattered in the transverse direction. Moreover, this rescattering process mainly occurs at the first or the second return times, giving rise to different phases of the photoelectrons. The interference between these photoelectrons leads to unique curved interference ...

  19. Binary matter-wave compactons induced by inter-species scattering length modulations (United States)

    Abdullaev, F. Kh; Hadi, M. S. A.; Salerno, Mario; Umarov, B. A.


    Binary mixtures of quasi one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in deep optical lattices (OLs) in the presence of periodic time modulations of the inter-species scattering length are investigated. We adopt a mean field description and use the tight-binding approximation and averaging method to derive averaged model equations in the form of two coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations (DNLSEs) with tunneling constants that nonlinearly depend on inter-species coupling. We show that for strong and rapid modulations of the inter-species scattering length, the averaged system admits exact compacton solutions, e.g. solutions that have no tails and are fully localized on a compact which is achieved when the densities at the compact edges are in correspondence with zeros of the Bessel function (zero tunneling condition). Deviations from exact conditions give rise to the formation of quasi-compactons, e.g. non-exact excitations which look like compactons for any practical purpose, for which the zero tunneling condition is achieved dynamically thanks to an effective nonlinear dispersive coupling induced by scattering length modulation. The stability properties of compactons and quasi-compactons are investigated by linear analysis and numerical integrations of the averaged system, respectively, and the results are compared with those of the original time dependent driven system. In particular, the occurrence of delocalizing transitions with the existence of thresholds in the mean inter-species scattering length is explicitly demonstrated. Under proper management conditions, stationary compactons and quasi-compactons are quite stable and robust excitations that can survive on a very long time scale. A parameter design and a possible experimental setting for the observation of these excitations are briefly discussed.

  20. Morphological changes at Godavari delta region due to waves, currents and the associated physical processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Vethamony, P.; Swamy, G.N.

    Wave conditions, the most important in coastal modification, prevailing in the region of Godavari Delta for different seasons are illustrated. The analysis of GEOSAT altimeter data for the period November 1986 to October 1987 shows that only during...

  1. Lagrangian temperature and vertical velocity fluctuations due to gravity waves in the lower stratosphere (United States)

    Podglajen, Aurélien; Hertzog, Albert; Plougonven, Riwal; Legras, Bernard


    Wave-induced Lagrangian fluctuations of temperature and vertical velocity in the lower stratosphere are quantified using measurements from superpressure balloons (SPBs). Observations recorded every minute along SPB flights allow the whole gravity wave spectrum to be described and provide unprecedented information on both the intrinsic frequency spectrum and the probability distribution function of wave fluctuations. The data set has been collected during two campaigns coordinated by the French Space Agency in 2010, involving 19 balloons over Antarctica and 3 in the deep tropics. In both regions, the vertical velocity distributions depart significantly from a Gaussian behavior. Knowledge on such wave fluctuations is essential for modeling microphysical processes along Lagrangian trajectories. We propose a new simple parameterization that reproduces both the non-Gaussian distribution of vertical velocities (or heating/cooling rates) and their observed intrinsic frequency spectrum.

  2. Thomson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.


    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  3. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders - A Reference Solution for the Numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav


    To facilitate the validation of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources an analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is derived in this paper. The Analytical solution is valid for transverse magnetic, and electric, plane wave scattering by circular impedance Cylinders, and it is derived...... of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources for a range of scattering configurations....... with their singularities at different positions away from the origin. The transformation necessitates a truncation of the wave transformation but the inaccuracy introduced hereby is shown to be negligible. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is employed as a reference to investigate the accuracy...

  4. Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities: A numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayed, Karim El; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko


    We present a theoretical investigation of ultrafast transient four-wave mixing (FWM) of GaAs quantum wells for coherent excitation of excitons and a large number of continuum states. It is shown that in this case the line shape of the FWM signal is drastically altered due to an interaction-induce...

  5. Source depopulation potential and surface-wave tomography using a crosscorrelation method in a scattering medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouedard, P.; Roux, P.; Campillo, M.; Verdel, A.R.; Yao, H.; Van der Hilst, R.D.


    We use seismic prospecting data on a 40 × 40 regular grid of sources and receivers deployed on a 1 km × 1 km area to assess the feasibility and advantages of velocity analysis of the shallow subsurface by means of surface-wave tomography with Green's functions estimated from crosscorrelation. In a

  6. Applications of mesoscopic physics to novel correlations and fluctuations of speckle patterns: Imaging and tomography with multiply scattered classical waves. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shechao Charles


    This is the final report on the grant, entitled `applications of mesoscopic physics to novel correlations and fluctuations of speckle patterns: imaging and tomography with multiply scattered classical waves`, which expired on September 14, 1994. The author summarizes the highlights of this research program, and lists the publications supported by this grant. The report is divided into sections, titled: application of mesoscopic fluctuations theory to correlations and fluctuations of multiply scattered light; quantum transport in localized electronic systems; electron-phonon inelastic scattering rate and the temperature scaling exponent in integer quantum Hall effect; high frequency quantum transport in quantum well devices.

  7. D-Wave Electron-H, -He+, and -Li2+ Elastic Scattering and Photoabsorption in P States of Two-Electron Systems (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.


    In previous papers [A. K. Bhatia, Phys. Rev. A 85, 052708 (2012); 86, 032709 (2012); 87, 042705 (2013)] electron-H, -He+, and -Li2+ P-wave scattering phase shifts were calculated using the variational polarized orbital theory. This method is now extended to the singlet and triplet D-wave scattering in the elastic region. The long-range correlations are included in the Schrodinger equation by using the method of polarized orbitals variationally. Phase shifts are compared to those obtained by other methods. The present calculation provides results which are rigorous lower bonds to the exact phase shifts. Using the presently calculated D-wave and previously calculated S-wave continuum functions, photoionization of singlet and triplet P states of He and Li+ are also calculated, along with the radiative recombination rate coefficients at various electron temperatures.

  8. Determination of the {ital S}-wave scattering length in pionic deuterium with a high resolution crystal spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatellard, D.; Egger, J.; Jeannet, E. [Institut de Physique de l`Universite, Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Badertscher, A.; Bogdan, M.; Goudsmit, P.F.A.; Leisi, H.J.; Matsinos, E.; Schroeder, H.; Sigg, D.; Zhao, Z.G. [Institut fuer Teilchenphysik der Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Aschenauer, E.C.; Gabathuler, K.; Hauser, P.; Simons, L.M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Rusi, A.J.; Hassani, E. [Ecole Mohammadia des Ingenieurs, Rabat (Morocco)


    The pionic deuterium 3{ital P}{minus}1{ital S} x-ray transition was measured with a quartz crystal spectrometer in combination with a cyclotron trap and charge coupled device detectors. The strong interaction shift and total decay width of the 1{ital S} level are {epsilon}{sub 1{ital S}}(shift)=2.48{plus_minus}0.10 eV (repulsive), {Gamma}{sub 1{ital S}}(width)=1.02{plus_minus}0.21 eV, where the statistical and systematic errors were added linearly. They yield the total pionic deuterium {ital S}-wave scattering length: {ital a}{sub {pi}{sup {minus}}{ital d}}= {minus}0.0264({plus_minus}0.0011)+{ital i}0.0054({plus_minus}0.0011){ital m}{sub {pi}}{sup {minus}1}.

  9. Broadband electromagnetic characterization of a 100  Ω traveling-wave electrode by measuring scattering parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Consoli


    Full Text Available The Single Bunch Selector (SBS will be used on the Spiral2 linear accelerator to reduce the rate of high energy bunches reaching the target with, in principle, no residual particles from the suppressed bunches. For this purpose, a pulsed electromagnetic wave will travel along the 100  Ω microstrip meander line electrode of the SBS. In this work we describe the broadband accurate characterization of the electrode electromagnetic features. The method applied here leads to the analytical determination of complex characteristic impedance, propagation constant, and group velocity from a measurement of the 50  Ω scattering parameters on the meander transmission line. Particular care is given to the de-embedding phase of the transitions required to connect the meander electrode to the measurement device.

  10. Rheological assessment of a polymeric spherical structure using a three-dimensional shear wave scattering model in dynamic spectroscopy elastography. (United States)

    Montagnon, Emmanuel; Hadj-Henni, Anis; Schmitt, Cédric; Cloutier, Guy


    With the purpose of assessing localized rheological behavior of pathological tissues using ultrasound dynamic elastography, an analytical shear wave scattering model was used in an inverse problem framework. The proposed method was adopted to estimate the complex shear modulus of viscoelastic spheres from 200 to 450 Hz. The inverse problem was formulated and solved in the frequency domain, allowing assessment of the complex viscoelastic shear modulus at discrete frequencies. A representative rheological model of the spherical obstacle was determined by comparing storage and loss modulus behaviors with Kelvin-Voigt, Maxwell, Zener, and Jeffrey models. The proposed inversion method was validated by using an external vibrating source and acoustic radiation force. The estimation of viscoelastic properties of three-dimensional spheres made softer or harder than surrounding tissues did not require a priori rheological assumptions. The proposed method is intended to be applied in the context of breast cancer imaging.

  11. Extreme Wave Simulation due to Typhoon Bolaven based on locally Enhanced Fine-Mesh Unstructured Grid Model (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Byung Ho; Jung, Kyung Tae


    The performance of an integrally coupled wave-tide-surge model using the unstructured mesh system has been tested for the typhoon Bolaven which is regarded as the most powerful storm to strike the Korean Peninsula in nearly a decade with wind gusts measured up to 50 m/s, causing serious damages with 19 victims. Use of the unstructured mesh in coastal sea regions of marginal scale allows all energy from deep to shallow waters to be seamlessly followed; the physics of wave-circulation interactions can be then correctly resolved. The model covers the whole Yellow and East China Seas with locally refined meshes near the regions of Gageo Island (offshore southwestern corner of the Korean Peninsula) and south of Jeju Island (Gangjeong and Seogwipo ports). The wind and pressure fields during the passage of typhoon Bolaven are generated by the blending method. Generally the numerical atmospheric model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the strength of typhoons due to dynamic and resolution restrictions. In this study we could achieve an improved conservation of the typhoon strength by blending the Holland typhoon model result by the empirical formula onto the ambient meteorological fields of NCEP dataset. The model results are compared with the observations and the model performance is then evaluated. The computed wave spectrums for one and two dimensions are compared with the observation in Ieodo station. Results show that the wind wave significantly enhances the current intensity and surge elevation, addressing that to incorporate the wave-current interaction effect in the wave-tide-surge coupled model is important for the accurate prediction of current and sea surface elevation as well as extreme waves in shallow coastal sea regions. The resulting modeling system can be used for hindcasting and forecasting the wave-tide-surges in marine environments with complex coastlines, shallow water depth and fine sediment.

  12. Dust ion-acoustic shock waves due to dust charge fluctuation in a superthermal dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinejad, H., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Babol University of Technology, Babol 47148-71167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences (RIFS), University of Tabriz, 51664, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tribeche, M. [Plasma Physics Group, Faculty of Sciences – Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria); Mohammadi, M.A. [Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences (RIFS), University of Tabriz, 51664, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The nonlinear propagation of dust ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves is studied in a charge varying dusty plasma with electrons having kappa velocity distribution. We use hot ions with equilibrium streaming speed and a fast superthermal electron charging current derived from orbit limited motion (OLM) theory. It is found that the presence of superthermal electrons does not only significantly modify the basic properties of shock waves, but also causes the existence of shock profile with only positive potential in such plasma with parameter ranges corresponding to Saturn's rings. It is also shown that the strength and steepness of the shock waves decrease with increase of the size of dust grains and ion temperature. -- Highlights: ► The presence of superthermal electrons causes the existence of shock waves with only positive potential. ► The strength and steepness of the shock waves decrease with increase of the size of dust grains and ion temperature. ► As the electrons evolve toward their thermodynamic equilibrium, the shock structures are found with smaller amplitude.

  13. Apparent temperature anisotropies due to wave activity in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Verscharen


    Full Text Available The fast solar wind is a collisionless plasma permeated by plasma waves on many different scales. A plasma wave represents the natural interplay between the periodic changes of the electromagnetic field and the associated coherent motions of the plasma particles. In this paper, a model velocity distribution function is derived for a plasma in a single, coherent, large-amplitude wave. This model allows one to study the kinetic effects of wave motions on particle distributions. They are by in-situ spacecraft measured by counting, over a certain sampling time, the particles coming from various directions and having different energies. We compare our results with the measurements by the Helios spacecraft, and thus find that by assuming high wave activity we are able to explain key observed features of the measured distributions within the framework of our model. We also address the recent discussions on nonresonant wave–particle interactions and apparent heating. The applied time-averaging procedure leads to an apparent ion temperature anisotropy which is connected but not identical to the intrinsic temperature of the underlying distribution function.

  14. Specular Scattering of Acoustic Waves from a Rough Surface in the Fraunhofer and Fresnel Approximations (United States)


    Ctir p l~ ~an~a (,ye1 ftIr=0t~r 7. 1 attrlW-t ©ýefieienti S tuiar ,.i#A1 Viva .- 𔃿 4 : 4;A LIST OF, FIGURlES Figure Title Page 1$ Scattering...coettl;ielnt il the -it p lr dietion for e of t_𔃿 klz art , praentd in FIgsZ 17, 18, 19, and 21. These resulto were obtin*d trpv-i ný1Morm of

  15. High-speed Brillouin imaging via continuous-wave stimulated Brillouin scattering (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Remer, Itay; Bilenca, Alberto


    Brillouin spectroscopy is a noncontact technique for characterizing the mechanical properties of materials. Typically, Brillouin spectrometers have been realized using scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometers that measure, with long acquisition times, spontaneous Brillouin scattering from the samples. In the last few years, the use of virtually imaged phase array (VIPA) etalons for constructing Brillouin spectrometers has enabled to acquire spontaneous Brillouin spectra times. We will show that this improvement, combined with micrometer-step-size spatial scanning of the sample, provides precise Brillouin profiles of layered liquids at 30-milliseconds pixel-dwell-time, facilitating Brillouin profilometry analysis of materials at high speed.

  16. Low and high frequency asymptotics acoustic, electromagnetic and elastic wave scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Varadan, VK


    This volume focuses on asymptotic methods in the low and high frequency limits for the solution of scattering and propagation problems. Each chapter is pedagogical in nature, starting with the basic foundations and ending with practical applications. For example, using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, the canonical problem of edge diffraction is first solved and then used in solving the problem of diffraction by a finite crack. In recent times, the crack problem has been of much interest for its applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of flaws in structural materials.

  17. Loads on a 3D body due to second order waves and a current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Jesper; Cheung, K. F.; Bingham, Harry B.


    are expanded about the still-water level by Taylor series so that the solution is evaluated on a time-invariant geometry. A formulation correct to second order in the wave steepness and to first order in the current speed is used. Numerical results are obtained for the first-order and the second-order...... oscillatory forces and for the second-order mean force on a fixed vertical circular cylinder in waves and a current. The second-order oscillatory forces on the body in waves and current are new results, while the remaining force components are verified by comparison with established numerical and analytical...... models. It is shown that the current can have a significant influence on the forces, and especially on the amplitude of the second-order oscillatory component....

  18. Quantum wave packet study of Li+H2+ inelastic scattering (United States)

    Bulut, Niyazi; Gogtas, Fahrettin; Akpinar, Sinan


    Time dependent quantum wave packet calculations have been carried for the astrophysically important Li+H2+ collision process. The state-to-state and state-to-all inelastic probabilities for the entitled collision have been calculated. Sharp resonance features are observed in all transition probabilities at low collision energies. J-shifting approximation has been employed to estimate the inelastic integral cross-sections.

  19. Sub-harmonic frequency lock-in and vortex shedding synchronization due to regular and irregular surface waves. (United States)

    Gunnoo, Hans; Abcha, Nizar; Bennis, Anne-claire; Levacher, Daniel


    created in the wake of the cylinder for three different regimes: current only, sub-harmonic frequency lock-in and harmonic frequency lock-in. For each regime the time evolution of the bed profiles have been observed in a region of 1mx0.35m around the cylinder. It was found that sub-harmonic frequency lock-in regime leads to the intensification of vortices and the formation of a more regular sand ripple structure behind the cylinder compared to that created by current only. Furthermore, in the harmonic frequency lock-in regime, the sand ripples generated are more important than in the first and second regimes. We can observe that the increase in sand ripples is due to the intensification of vortices in the wake of the cylinder caused by surface waves. Keywords: Surface waves, von Karman Street, Frequency lock-in, Synchronization, Scouring

  20. Resonant absorption of electromagnetic radiation in a quantum channel due to the scattering of electrons by impurities (United States)

    Karpunin, V. V.; Margulis, V. A.


    We have found an analytical expression for the absorption coefficient of electromagnetic radiation in a quantum channel with a parabolic confinement potential. The calculation has been performed using the second-order perturbation theory taking into account the scattering of a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas by ionized impurities. We have analyzed the dependences of the absorption coefficient on the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation and the magnetic field. The appearance of additional resonant peaks, which are caused by scattering by impurities, has been found.

  1. Uniform asymptotic approximations for transient waves due to an initial disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Schäffer, Hemming A.; Fuhrman, David R.


    In this work, we first present a semi-analytical method for the evolution of linear fully-dispersive transient waves generated by an initial surface displacement and propagating over a constant depth. The procedure starts from Fourier and Hankel transforms and involves a combination of the method...

  2. Noncontact Elastic Wave Imaging Optical Coherence Elastography for Evaluating Changes in Corneal Elasticity Due to Crosslinking (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Wang, Shang; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.


    The mechanical properties of tissues can provide valuable information about tissue integrity and health and can assist in detecting and monitoring the progression of diseases such as keratoconus. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is a rapidly emerging technique, which can assess localized mechanical contrast in tissues with micrometer spatial resolution. In this work we present a noncontact method of optical coherence elastography to evaluate the changes in the mechanical properties of the cornea after UV-induced collagen cross-linking. A focused air-pulse induced a low amplitude (μm scale) elastic wave, which then propagated radially and was imaged in three dimensions by a phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (PhS-SSOCT) system. The elastic wave velocity was translated to Young’s modulus in agar phantoms of various concentrations. Additionally, the speed of the elastic wave significantly changed in porcine cornea before and after UV-induced corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). Moreover, different layers of the cornea, such as the anterior stroma, posterior stroma, and inner region, could be discerned from the phase velocities of the elastic wave. Therefore, because of noncontact excitation and imaging, this method may be useful for in vivo detection of ocular diseases such as keratoconus and evaluation of therapeutic interventions such as CXL. PMID:27547022

  3. Predicting phase shift of elastic waves in pipes due to fluid flow and imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Dahl, Jonas; Fuglede, Niels


    . This is relevant for understanding wave propagation in elastic media in general, and for the design and trouble-shooting of phase-shift measuring devices such as Coriolis mass flowmeters in particular. A multiple time scaling perturbation analysis is employed for a simple model of a fluid-conveying pipe...

  4. Liquefaction and erosion of mud due to waves and current : Experiments on China Clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.; Winterwerp, J.C.; De Wit, P.J.


    A research project was started at the Delft University of Technology in order to study the interaction between waves as well as a current and a muddy bed. For this purpose several experiments were made on artificial clays. In the present report only flume experiments on China Clay are discussed. In

  5. Liquefaction and erosion of mud due to waves and current : Experiments on Westwald Clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, P.J.


    A research project was carried out at the Delft University of Technology in order to study the interaction between waves as weil as a current and a muddy bed. For this purpose several experiments were made on two artificial clays, namely China Clay and Westwald Clay. The results of the experiments

  6. Flow features that arise due to the interaction of a plane shock wave with concave profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacLucas, David A


    Full Text Available The focus of the author's thesis was the aerodynamic flow field that develops as a result of the interaction of a moving plane shock wave with concave profiles. In this presentation, he discusses some of the interesting flow phenomena that arise...

  7. Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of ultrafast transient four-wave mixing of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells for coherent excitation of exciton and continuum states. The signal appears at the exciton resonance and is shown to consist of two contributions: an intense spectrally...

  8. Localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element studied by micro-focused Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.; Kwon, J.-H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Grünberg, P. [Grünberg Center for Magnetic Nanomaterials, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B.K., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Direct evidence of localized mode in a triangular nano-magnet using μ-BLS. • Localized regions are identified by the internal field distribution. • The spatially resolved measurement was performed to obtain 2-D intensity map. • Spin modes in same positions can be distinguish comparing with simulated spectrum. • Localized modes were identified by comparing with the simulated spatial profiles. - Abstract: Localized spin-wave modes, which were thermally excited at a specific position in a triangular magnetic element, were investigated using micro-focused Brillouin light scattering in two saturated states, the buckle and Y-states, with an applied magnetic field of 0.24 T parallel and perpendicular to the basal edge, respectively. The measured frequency spectrum at a specific beam spot position, rather than an integrated spectrum, was analyzed by comparing it with the simulation data at a precisely selected position within the beam spot area. The analyzed results were used to plot a two-dimensional intensity map and simulation spatial profile to verify the validity of the analysis. From the analysis process, two localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element were successfully identified near the apex region in the buckle state and near the basal edge region in the Y-state.

  9. Theoretical study of collinear optical frequency comb generation under multi-wave, transient stimulated Raman scattering in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetanin, S N [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Using mathematical modelling we have studied the conditions of low-threshold collinear optical frequency comb generation under transient (picosecond) stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and parametric four-wave coupling of SRS components in crystals. It is shown that Raman-parametric generation of an octave-spanning optical frequency comb occurs most effectively under intermediate, transient SRS at a pump pulse duration exceeding the dephasing time by five-to-twenty times. We have found the optimal values of not only the laser pump pulse duration, but also of the Raman crystal lengths corresponding to highly efficient generation of an optical frequency comb from the second anti-Stokes to the fourth Stokes Raman components. For the KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} (high dispersion) and Ba(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (low dispersion) crystals pumped at a wavelength of 1.064 μm and a pulse duration five or more times greater than the dephasing time, the optimum length of the crystal was 0.3 and 0.6 cm, respectively, which is consistent with the condition of the most effective Stokes – anti-Stokes coupling ΔkL ≈ 15, where Δk is the wave detuning from phase matching of Stokes – anti-Stokes coupling, determined by the refractive index dispersion of the SRS medium. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  10. Propagation of photon-density waves in strongly scattering media containing an absorbing semi-infinite plane bounded by a straight edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkin, J.B.; Gratton, E. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))


    Light propagation in strongly scattering media can be described by the diffusion approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation. The authors have derived analytical expressions based on the diffusion approximation that describe the photon density in a uniform, infinite, strongly scattering medium that contains a sinusoidally intensity-modulated point source of light. These expressions predit that the photon density will propagate outward from the light source as a spherical wave of constant phase velocity with an amplitude that attenuates with distance r from the source as exp([minus]r)/r. The properties of the photon-density wave are given in terms of the spectral properties of the scattering medium. The authors have used the Green's function obtained from the diffusion approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation with a sinusoidally modulated point source to derive analytic expressions describing the diffraction and the reflection of photon-density waves from an absorbing and/or reflecting semi-infinite plane bounded by a straight edge immersed in a strongly scattering medium. The analytic expressions given are in agreement with the results of frequency-domain experiments performed in skim-milk media and with Monte Carlo simulations. These studies provide a basis for the understanding of photon diffusion in strongly scattering media in the presence of absorbing and reflecting objects and allow for a determination of the conditions for obtaining maximum resolution and penetration for applications to optical tomography. 20 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  12. Magnetic and electric coherence in forward- and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere. (United States)

    Geffrin, J M; García-Cámara, B; Gómez-Medina, R; Albella, P; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Eyraud, C; Litman, A; Vaillon, R; González, F; Nieto-Vesperinas, M; Sáenz, J J; Moreno, F


    Magnetodielectric small spheres present unusual electromagnetic scattering features, theoretically predicted a few decades ago. However, achieving such behaviour has remained elusive, due to the non-magnetic character of natural optical materials or the difficulty in obtaining low-loss highly permeable magnetic materials in the gigahertz regime. Here we present unambiguous experimental evidence that a single low-loss dielectric subwavelength sphere of moderate refractive index (n=4 like some semiconductors at near-infrared) radiates fields identical to those from equal amplitude crossed electric and magnetic dipoles, and indistinguishable from those of ideal magnetodielectric spheres. The measured scattering radiation patterns and degree of linear polarization (3-9 GHz/33-100 mm range) show that, by appropriately tuning the a/λ ratio, zero-backward ('Huygens' source) or almost zero-forward ('Huygens' reflector) radiated power can be obtained. These Kerker scattering conditions only depend on a/λ. Our results open new technological challenges from nano- and micro-photonics to science and engineering of antennas, metamaterials and electromagnetic devices.

  13. Surface Wave Mode Conversion due to Lateral Heterogeneity and its Impact on Waveform Inversions (United States)

    Datta, A.; Priestley, K. F.; Chapman, C. H.; Roecker, S. W.


    Surface wave tomography based on great circle ray theory has certain limitations which become increasingly significant with increasing frequency. One such limitation is the assumption of different surface wave modes propagating independently from source to receiver, valid only in case of smoothly varying media. In the real Earth, strong lateral gradients can cause significant interconversion among modes, thus potentially wreaking havoc with ray theory based tomographic inversions that make use of multimode information. The issue of mode coupling (with either normal modes or surface wave modes) for accurate modelling and inversion of body wave data has received significant attention in the seismological literature, but its impact on inversion of surface waveforms themselves remains much less understood.We present an empirical study with synthetic data, to investigate this problem with a two-fold approach. In the first part, 2D forward modelling using a new finite difference method that allows modelling a single mode at a time, is used to build a general picture of energy transfer among modes as a function of size, strength and sharpness of lateral heterogeneities. In the second part, we use the example of a multimode waveform inversion technique based on the Cara and Leveque (1987) approach of secondary observables, to invert our synthetic data and assess how mode conversion can affect the process of imaging the Earth. We pay special attention to ensuring that any biases or artefacts in the resulting inversions can be unambiguously attributed to mode conversion effects. This study helps pave the way towards the next generation of (non-numerical) surface wave tomography techniques geared to exploit higher frequencies and mode numbers than are typically used today.

  14. Elastic I=3 /2 p -wave nucleon-pion scattering amplitude and the Δ (1232) resonance from Nf=2+1 lattice QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Walther; Bulava, John; Hörz, Ben


    We present the first direct determination of meson-baryon resonance parameters from a scattering amplitude calculated using lattice QCD. In particular, we calculate the elastic I=3/2, p-wave nucleon-pion amplitude on a single ensemble of Nf=2+1 Wilson-clover fermions with mπ=280 MeV and mK=460 Me...

  15. Electromagnetic wave scattering at near-grazing incidence from a gently undulating, rough surface (United States)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Sperley, E. J.; Zebker, H. A.


    Models to estimate the reflection coefficient of a statistically rough surface, for example the works of Beckmann, Smith, and Vesecky are discussed. Bistatic radar experiments carried out during the Apollo 16 mission provide a data set with which to compare theoretical models and experimental data. These bistatic S-band radar experiments provide experimental estimates of the Moon's bistatic, forward scatter, reflection coefficient for grazing angles of 2.5 to 78 deg. Theoretical expressions for the reflection coefficient are developed for comparison with these experimental data. At grazing angles below 10 deg the models of Smith and Vesecky compare favorably with the data. Beckmann's model falls significantly more rapidly with decreasing grazing angle than does the data.

  16. Definition of Scatterer in Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Environment Using Image Processing Based on FDTD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Falah


    Full Text Available In this paper, we implement real irregular terrain model in computer program by using image processing. We show how this approach can be used in simulation of E.M. wave propagation on irregular earth’s surface in a realistic manner. Some simulations are performed for implementation of longitudinal height differences over the propagation path as PEC surface .We also describe that how this approach can be used for any boundary condition in computational space. The results observed in Snapshots of the field profiles taken at different simulation times, validates capability of this method.

  17. Nonreciprocal nonlinear wave scattering by loss-compensated active hyperbolic structures (United States)

    Shramkova, O. V.; Tsironis, G. P.


    The combinatorial frequency generation (CFG) in active periodic semiconductor-dielectric structures has been explored through illumination by a pair of pump waves with dissimilar frequencies and incidence angles. We study the influence of gain on linear refraction properties of the stack and on the efficiency of the mixing processes by the system with the resistive character of nonlinearity. We demonstrate that the introduction of gain dielectric material inside the stack not only compensates for losses caused by the collisions of the electrons in semiconductor media but also improves the efficiency of the CFG. We show that in systems with weak asymmetry of linear response we can get significant nonreciprocity of nonlinear interaction.

  18. Sixty gigahertz indoor radio wave propagation prediction method based on full scattering model (United States)

    Järveläinen, J.; Haneda, K.


    In radio system deployment, the main focus is on assuring sufficient coverage, which can be estimated with path loss models for specific scenarios. When more detailed performance metrics such as peak throughput are studied, the environment has to be modeled accurately in order to estimate multipath behavior. By means of laser scanning we can acquire very accurate data of indoor environments, but the format of the scanning data, a point cloud, cannot be used directly in available deterministic propagation prediction tools. Therefore, we propose to use a single-lobe directive model, which calculates the electromagnetic field scattering from a small surface and is applicable to the point cloud, and describe the overall field as fully diffuse backscattering from the point cloud. The focus of this paper is to validate the point cloud-based full diffuse propagation prediction method at 60 GHz. The performance is evaluated by comparing characteristics of measured and predicted power delay profiles in a small office room and an ultrasonic inspection room in a hospital. Also directional characteristics are investigated. It is shown that by considering single-bounce scattering only, the mean delay can be estimated with an average error of 2.6% and the RMS delay spread with an average error of 8.2%. The errors when calculating the azimuth and elevation spreads are 2.6° and 0.6°, respectively. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the applicability of a single parameter set to characterize the propagation channel in all transmit and receive antenna locations in the tested scenarios.

  19. An examination of errors in computed water-leaving radiances due to a simplified treatment of water Raman scattering effects (United States)

    Bismarck, Jonas von; Fischer, Jürgen


    Studies in the past have shown that solar shortwave radiation that has been Raman scattered in the ocean, and therefore undergone a wavelength shift, can contribute significantly to the signals observed by remote sensing satellites. While radiative transfer models that qualitatively approximate the effect of water Raman scattering on the water leaving irradiance have been available for a while, we have developed a new version of the radiative transfer code MOMO, which enables the accurate and fully angle resolved inclusion of inelastic scattering sources, and therefore allows detailed quantitative analyses of the effect on the light field in the ocean-atmosphere system. This article focuses on a study performed with this new model on the impact of azimuthally averaging the Raman scattering phase function, which is done in some RT models and significantly decreases computation time, on the water-leaving radiance. At the request of the authors and Proceedings Editors the above article has been updated to include a number of post-publication amendments. Changes made to the previously published article are detailed in the pages attached to the end of the updated article PDF file. The updated article was re-published on 15 August 2013.

  20. Self phase modulation and stimulated raman scattering due to high power femtosecond pulse propagation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mégret, P.; Dekker, R.; Wuilpart, M.; Klein, E.J.; Niehusmann, J.; Bette, S.; Staquet, N.; Först, M.; Ondracek, F.; Ctyroky, J.; Usechak, N.; Driessen, A.


    Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) in silicon waveguides have been observed and will be discussed theoretically using a modified Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation. The high optical peak powers needed for the experiments were obtained by coupling sub-picosecond (200fs)

  1. Impulse waves due to avalanche impact into Kuehtai reservoir; Impulswellen infolge Lawineneinstoss in den Speicher Kuehtai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Helge; Pfister, Michael; Boes, Robert [ETH Zuerich (CH). Versuchsanstalt fuer Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie (VAW); Perzlmaier, Sebastian; Reindl, Robert [Tiroler Wasserkraft AG (TIWAG), Innsbruck (Austria). Bereich Engineering Services


    The Tyrolean Hydropower Company TIWAG-Tiroler Wasserkraft AG plans the Kuehtai reservoir as an addition to the existing pump-storage scheme Sellrain-Silz. Two relevant natural hazards potentially affecting the dam were identified: an avalanche near the dam axis and a rockslide further upstream, both possibly impinging the reservoir at full supply level and thereby generating impulse waves. A preliminary analysis based on literature led to the conclusion that dam overtopping cannot be excluded. The Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology (VAW) of ETH Zurich was therefore assigned to perform related hydraulic model tests. However, no overtopping occurred in these model tests, such that no measures as breakwater or increase of the freeboard were required. The article discusses the effect of avalanche generated impulse waves and compares an analytical estimation with results derived from the model tests. (orig.)

  2. Lamb wave interaction at debondings due to impact damage in complex stiffened CFRP structures (United States)

    Eckstein, B.; Moix Bonet, M.; Bach, M.; Fritzen, C.-P.


    The increasing usage of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) for primary aerospace structures involves dealing with the principal susceptibility of composite laminates to impact loads as well as the occurrence of barely visible impact damages. One special case among the variety of impact sources is the so called blunt impact, which may cause primarily damage to the internal structure. Thus, the assessment of debonding of stiffening elements in CFRP structures poses an attractive application case for Structural Health Monitoring by Guided Ultrasonic Waves. Wave propagation phenomena at impact damages as well as the utilized signal processing to extract a damage related feature (i.e. damage index) contribute to the sensitivity and thus to the reliability of SHM systems. This work is based on data from the EU-funded project SARISTU, where a generic CFRP door surrounding fuselage panel with an integrated sensor network has been built and tested by introducing a large number of impact damages. Wave interaction of stringer debondings of different size and morphology in omega-stringer stiffened structures are examined to highlight the factors contributing to the sensitivity. Common damage indicator formulations for use with imaging algorithms, such as the Reconstruction Algorithm for the Probabilistic Inspection of Damage (RAPID), are applied on data from various damage cases. Furthermore, the difference in detectability of debondings and delaminations as well as the implications on imaging algorithms are examined.

  3. Quantum quench spectroscopy of a Luttinger liquid: Ultrarelativistic density wave dynamics due to fractionalization in an XXZ chain


    Foster, Matthew S.; Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Reichman, David R.; Yuzbashyan, Emil A.


    We compute the dynamics of localized excitations produced by a quantum quench in the spin 1/2 XXZ chain. Using numerics combining the density matrix renormalization group and exact time evolution, as well as analytical arguments, we show that fractionalization due to interactions in the pre-quench state gives rise to "ultrarelativistic" density waves that travel at the maximum band velocity. The system is initially prepared in the ground state of the chain within the gapless XY phase, which a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagoub Nassar Al-Nassar


    Full Text Available 0 0 1 169 965 International Islamic University 8 2 1132 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} This paper focuses on the interaction of SH elastic waves in a plate with a tapered free end. The plate is modeled as a semi-infinite elastic structure, which was assumed to have traction-free surfaces. The results of the analysis based on mode matching are presented for various combinations of normalized frequencies and angles of free end inclination. The reported observations form important guidelines for the interpretation of experimental data when using horizontally polarized wave as a mean for nondestructive evaluation of elastic plates.  ABSTRAK: Kertas kerja ini adalah khusus berkenaan interaksi gelombang anjal SH di dalam plat yang mempunyai hujung bebas yang tirus. Plat ini dimodelkan sebagai satu struktur elastik separa tak terhingga, yang diandaikan mempunyai permukaan nirgeseran. Keputusan analisis berdasarkan mod pemadanan dibentangkan untuk pelbagai kombinasi frekuensi ternormal dan sudut kecondongan hujung bebas. Pemerhatian yang dibentangkan memberi panduan penting dalam menginterpretasi data eksperimental penggunaan gelombang berkutub mendatar sebagai satu kaedah penilaian tanpa musnah plat anjal.

  5. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering from thin polymer films with lamellar structures - the scattering cross section in the distorted-wave Born approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Busch, Peter; Rauscher, Markus


    Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray or neutron scattering of thin polymer films reveals information about the ordering and preferential orientations of the phase-separated microdomains within the films. The grazing-incidence geometry enhances the surface sensitivity; however, the scattering has t...

  6. Non-linear Springing Excitation Due to a Bidirectional Wave Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher


    Significant springing vibrations in ships have recently been measured in a large ocean-going bulk carrier. So far calculations using various linear and non-linear hydrodynamic procedures have not been able to predict the measured responses. In the present paper it is shown that the springing...... response depends strongly on second order (sum frequency) terms involving cross-coupling terms from the combined wind- and swell-driven wave system. The calculations are based on the second order strip theory formulation and thus no three-dimensional effects are accounted for. The agreement with measured...

  7. Surface water waves due to an oscillatory wavemaker in the presence of surface tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Mandal


    Full Text Available The initial value problem of generation of surface water waves by a harmonically oscillating plane vertical wavemaker in an infinite incompressible fluid under the action of gravity and surface tension is investigated. In the asymptotic evaluation of the free surface depression for large time and distance, the contribution to the integral by stationary phase method gives rise to transient component of the free surface depression while the contribution from the poles give rise to steady state component. It is observed that the presence of surface tension sometimes changes the qualitative nature of the transient component of free surface depression.

  8. Nonlinear interactions in superfluid dynamics: Nonstationary heat transfer due to second sound shock waves (United States)

    Liepmann, H. W.; Torczynski, J. R.


    Second sound techniques were used to study superfluid helium. Second sound shock waves produced relative velocities in the bulk fluid. Maximum counterflow velocities produced in this way are found to follow the Langer-Fischer prediction for the fundamental critical velocity in its functional dependence on temperature and pressure. Comparison of successive shock and rotating experiments provides strong evidence that breakdown results in vorticity production in the flow behind the shock. Schlieren pictures have verified the planar nature of second sound shocks even after multiple reflections. The nonlinear theory of second sound was repeatedly verified in its prediction of double shocks and other nonlinear phenomena.

  9. Modeling of Breaching Due to Overtopping Flow and Waves Based on Coupled Flow and Sediment Transport

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zhiguo; Zhao, Liang; Wu, Ganfeng; Pähtz, Thomas


    Breaching of earthen or sandy dams/dunes by overtopping flow and waves is a complicated process with strong, unsteady flow, high sediment transport, and rapid bed changes in which the interactions between flow and morphology should not be ignored. This study presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) coupled flow and sediment transport model to investigate the flow and breaching processes with and without waves. Bed change and variable flow density are included in the flow continuity and momentum equations to consider the impacts of sediment transport. The model adopts the non-equilibrium approach for total-load sediment transport and specifies different repose angles to handle non-cohesive embankment slope avalanching. The equations are solved using an explicit finite volume method on a rectangular grid with the improved Godunov-type central upwind scheme and the nonnegative reconstruction of the water depth method to handle mixed-regime flows near the breach. The model has been tested against two sets o...

  10. High Intensity Compton Scattering in a strong plane wave field of general form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartin, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    Photon emission by an electron embedded in a strong external field of general form is studied theoretically. The external field considered is a plane wave electromagnetic field of any number of components, period and polarisation. Exact, Volkov solutions of the Dirac equation with the 4-potential of the general external field are obtained. The photon emission is considered in the usual perturbation theory using the Volkov solutions to represent the electron. An expression for the transition probability of this process is obtained after the usual spin and polarisation sums, trace calculation and phase space integration. The final transition probability in the general case contains a single sum over contributions from external field photons, an integration over one of the phase space components and the Fourier transforms of the Volkov phases. The validity of the general expression is established by considering specific external fields. Known specific analytic forms of the transition probability are obtained after substitution of the 4-potential for a circularly polarised and constant crossed external field. As an example usage of the general result for the transition probability, the case of two circularly polarised external fields separated by a phase difference is studied both analytically and numerically. (orig.)

  11. Relaxation of a kinetic hole due to carrier-carrier scattering in multisubband single-quantum-well semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.


    We describe a theoretical model for carrier-carrier scattering in an inverted semiconductor quantum well structure using a multisubband diagram. The model includes all possible nonvanishing interaction terms within the static screening approximation, and it enables one to calculate accurately...... the temporal evolution of the carrier densities and the gain following a perturbation by a short optical pulse. We present a theoretical formalism and detailed numerical calculations. The addition of more than one subband in each band as well as the use of all exchange terms yields several results. First...

  12. Densification of fused silica due to shock waves and its implications for 351 nm laser induced damage. (United States)

    Kubota, A; Caturla, M J; Stolken, J; Feit, M


    High-power 351 nm (3 ) laser pulses can produce damaged areas in high quality fused silica optics. Recent experiments have shown the presence of a densified layer at the bottom of damage initiation craters. We have studied the propagation of shock waves through fused silica using large-scale atomistic simulations since such shocks are expected to accompany laser energy deposition. These simulations show that the shocks induce structural transformations in the material that persist long after the shock has dissipated. Values of densification and thickness of densified layer agree with experimental observations. Moreover, our simulations give an atomistic description of the structural changes in the material due to shock waves and their relation to Raman spectra measurements.

  13. Inappropriate Shock Due to T-Wave Oversensing by a Subcutaneous ICD after Alcohol Septal Ablation for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Van Dijk, Vincent F; Liebregts, Max; Luermans, Justin G L M; Balt, Jippe C


    A 53-year-old female patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) was admitted for alcohol septal ablation (ASA). A subcutaneous internal cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) was implanted for primary prevention. After ASA, the patient developed a right bundle branch block, and the S-ICD delivered a total of five inappropriate shocks due to T-wave oversensing (TWOS). TWOS is a relatively frequent cause of inappropriate shocks in S-ICD patients. After invasive treatment for HOCM, there is a risk of developing intraventricular conduction delay and subsequent changes in QRS and T-wave morphology. This should be taken into consideration when ICD indication is evaluated in HOCM patients. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Spontaneous Brillouin scattering in a microdroplet (United States)

    Ching, S. C.; Leung, P. T.; Young, K.


    Spontaneous Brillouin scattering in a micrometer-sized liquid droplet is analyzed from first principles, using the spherical-wave normal-mode basis. Instead of the conservation of linear momentum, this interaction is governed by a selection rule due to the conservation of angular momentum. The Brillouin spectrum is then calculated, both for observation at a given angle and for the sum over all angles, and compared with scattering in a bulk medium. Special attention is paid to the case where the incident and scattered radiation fall on an electromagnetic resonance of the droplet. The analysis lays the foundation for formulating stimulated Brillouin scattering in the same system.

  15. An algorithm for computing synthetic body waves due to underside conversion on an undulating interface and application to the 410 km discontinuity (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Ni, Sidao; Chu, Risheng; Schmandt, Brandon


    The topography of the 410 km discontinuity provides helpful constraints on both petrologic and geodynamic models of the mantle transition zone. Previous studies involving differential times between scattered phases (S410S, p410P, s410P, etc.) and reference phases (SS, P, pP, sP, etc.) have revealed large-scale topography on the 410 km discontinuity. In contrast, amplitude variations of converted phases are more sensitive to smaller scale topography. We develop an algorithm to calculate synthetic S-to-P conversions at the 410 km discontinuity above deep earthquakes using ray theory and the representation theorem. After benchmarking our method with geometrical ray theory, we perform tests on elevated and depressed topography with dome or ridge shapes. We find that focusing/defocusing due to discontinuity topography substantially alters the amplitudes of converted phases (60 per cent-300 per cent based on our examples). We then use the new algorithm to model amplitude variations of the s410P waves from a deep earthquake beneath western Brazil. A grid search over potential values for the width and height of a ridge-like elevation of the 410 km discontinuity found that the observed amplitude pattern can be explained by a ridge with a height of 12 km and width of 180 km near the expected location of a subducted slab. The new method demonstrated here can be easily adapted to model downgoing S410P or S660P waves, but the representation theorem needs to be combined with numerical solvers to tackle complex 3-D structures near mantle discontinuities.

  16. Amplification of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Due to Substrate-Mediated Localized Surface Plasmons in Gold Nanodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng


    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is ubiquitous in chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and identification. Maximizing SERS enhancement is a continuous effort focused on the design of appropriate SERS substrates. Here we show that significant improvement in a SERS signal can be achieved with substrates combining localized surface plasmon resonances and a nonresonant plasmonic substrate. By introducing a continuous gold (Au) film underneath Au nanodimers antenna arrays, an over 10-fold increase in SERS enhancement is demonstrated. Triangular, rectangle and disc dimers were studied, with bowtie antenna providing highest SERS enhancement. Simulations of electromagnetic field distributions of the Au nanodimers on the Au film support the observed enhancement dependences. The hybridization of localized plasmonic modes with the image modes in a metal film provides a straightforward way to improve SERS enhancement in designer SERS substrate.

  17. Degradation of spatial resolution in thin-foil x-ray microchemical analysis due to plural scattering of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twigg, Mark Erickson [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)


    A computer-based Monte Carlo simulation of incoherent plural scattering of electrons has been developed in order to estimate the broadening of an electron probe as it propagates through a solid. By applying this approach to modeling the spreading of a fine (50 A) probe focused on a thin foil in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), we have estimated the spatial resolution of the compositional analysis obtainable using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Specifically, an attempt has been made to determine how the apparent microchemistry of a feature of finer dimensions than the broadened beam differs from the actual composition of the given feature. The apparent Ge concentration profile in the vicinity of a 200 A wide Ge platelet in a 5000 A thick Al foil was measured, using STEM and EDS, and compared with the profile predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Results are presented and discussed.

  18. Mapping of electron-hole excitations in the charge-density-wave system 1T-TiSe2 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. (United States)

    Monney, C; Zhou, K J; Cercellier, H; Vydrova, Z; Garnier, M G; Monney, G; Strocov, V N; Berger, H; Beck, H; Schmitt, T; Aebi, P


    In high-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the Ti L edge of the charge-density-wave system 1T-TiSe(2), we observe sharp low energy loss peaks from electron-hole pair excitations developing at low temperature. These excitations are strongly dispersing as a function of the transferred momentum of light. We show that the unoccupied bands close to the Fermi level can effectively be probed in this broadband material. Furthermore, we extract the order parameter of the charge-density-wave phase from temperature-dependent measurements.

  19. A high-order perturbation of surfaces method for scattering of linear waves by periodic multiply layered gratings in two and three dimensions (United States)

    Hong, Youngjoon; Nicholls, David P.


    The capability to rapidly and robustly simulate the scattering of linear waves by periodic, multiply layered media in two and three dimensions is crucial in many engineering applications. In this regard, we present a High-Order Perturbation of Surfaces method for linear wave scattering in a multiply layered periodic medium to find an accurate numerical solution of the governing Helmholtz equations. For this we truncate the bi-infinite computational domain to a finite one with artificial boundaries, above and below the structure, and enforce transparent boundary conditions there via Dirichlet-Neumann Operators. This is followed by a Transformed Field Expansion resulting in a Fourier collocation, Legendre-Galerkin, Taylor series method for solving the problem in a transformed set of coordinates. Assorted numerical simulations display the spectral convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Stationary Light Waves in Anizotropy and Nonolinear Plane Media, whose Dielectric Tensor's Principal Values Arbitrarily Depend upon Intensity Case of Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ochirbat, G


    A plane medium, whose dielectric tensor's principal values arbitrarily depend upon intensity, is considered. The problems of the TM and TE waves, within the problem of light scattering, are reduced to quadrature. A question of integrability of the full system of Maxwell equations is discussed. A closed equation has been obtained for an auxiliary variable for a nonlinearity of Kerr type. A scheme for integrating the full system of Maxwell equations by solving the equation over the auxiliary variable is suggested.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Medium Term Morphological Changes at Manavgat River Mouth Due to Combined Action of Waves and River Discharges (United States)

    Demirci, E.; Baykal, C.; Guler, I.


    In this study, hydrodynamic conditions due to river discharge, wave action and sea level fluctuations within a seven month period and the morphological response of the Manavgat river mouth are modeled with XBeach, a two-dimensional depth-averaged (2DH) numerical model developed to compute the natural coastal response during time-varying storm and hurricane conditions (Roelvink et al., 2010). The study area shows an active behavior on its nearshore morphology, thus, two jetties were constructed at the river mouth between years 1996-2000. Recently, Demirci et al. (2016) has studied the impacts of an excess river discharge and concurrent wave action and tidal fluctuations on the Manavgat river mouth morphology for the duration of 12 days (December 4th and 15th, 1998) while the construction of jetties were carried on. It is concluded that XBeach has presumed the final morphology fairly well with the calibrated set of input parameters. Here, the river mouth modeled at a further past date before the construction of jetties with the similar set of input parameters (between August 1st, 1995-March 8th, 1996) to reveal the drastic morphologic change near the mouth due to high river discharge and severe storms happened in a longer period of time. Wave climate effect is determined with the wave hindcasting model, W61, developed by Middle East Technical University-OERC with the NCEP-CFSR wind data as well as the sea level data. River discharge, wave and sea level data are introduced as input parameters in the XBeach numerical model and the final output morphological change is compared with the final bed level measurements. References:Demirci, E., Baykal, C., Guler, I., Ergin, A., & Sogut, E. (postponed). Numerical Modelling on Hydrodynamic Flow Conditions and Morphological Changes Using XBeach Near Manavgat River Mouth. Accepted as Oral presentation at the 35thInt. Conf. on Coastal Eng., Istanbul, Turkey. Guler, I., Ergin, A., Yalçıner, A. C., (2003). Monitoring Sediment

  2. Computation of Green's Function of 3-D Radiative Transport Equations for Non-isotropic Scattering of P and Unpolarized S Waves (United States)

    Margerin, Ludovic


    In this work, I propose to model the propagation of high-frequency seismic waves in the heterogeneous Earth by means of a coupled system of radiative transfer equations for P and S waves. The model describes the propagation of both coherent and diffuse waves in a statistically isotropic heterogeneous medium and takes into account key phenomena such as scattering conversions between propagation modes, scattering anisotropy and absorption. The main limitation of the approach lies in the neglect of the shear wave polarization information. The canonical case of a medium with uniform scattering and absorption properties is studied in details. Using an adjoint formalism, Green's functions (isotropic point source solutions) of the transport equation are shown to obey a reciprocity relation relating the P energy density radiated by an S source to the S energy density radiated by a P source. A spectral method of calculation of the Green's function is presented. Application of Fourier, Hankel and Legendre transforms to time, space and angular variables, respectively, turns the equation of transport into a numerically tractable penta-diagonal linear system of equations. The implementation of the spectral method is discussed in details and validated through one-to-one comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical experiments in different propagation regimes illustrate that the ratio between the correlation length of heterogeneities and the incident wavelength plays a key role in the rate of stabilization of the P-to- S energy ratio in the coda. The results suggest that the rapid stabilization of energy ratios observed in the seismic coda is a signature of the broadband nature of crustal heterogeneities. The impact of the texture of the medium on both pulse broadening and generation of converted S wave arrivals by explosion sources is illustrated. The numerical study indicates that smooth media enhance the visibility of ballistic-like S arrivals from P sources.

  3. Computation of Green's Function of 3-D Radiative Transport Equations for Non-isotropic Scattering of P and Unpolarized S Waves (United States)

    Margerin, Ludovic


    In this work, I propose to model the propagation of high-frequency seismic waves in the heterogeneous Earth by means of a coupled system of radiative transfer equations for P and S waves. The model describes the propagation of both coherent and diffuse waves in a statistically isotropic heterogeneous medium and takes into account key phenomena such as scattering conversions between propagation modes, scattering anisotropy and absorption. The main limitation of the approach lies in the neglect of the shear wave polarization information. The canonical case of a medium with uniform scattering and absorption properties is studied in details. Using an adjoint formalism, Green's functions (isotropic point source solutions) of the transport equation are shown to obey a reciprocity relation relating the P energy density radiated by an S source to the S energy density radiated by a P source. A spectral method of calculation of the Green's function is presented. Application of Fourier, Hankel and Legendre transforms to time, space and angular variables, respectively, turns the equation of transport into a numerically tractable penta-diagonal linear system of equations. The implementation of the spectral method is discussed in details and validated through one-to-one comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical experiments in different propagation regimes illustrate that the ratio between the correlation length of heterogeneities and the incident wavelength plays a key role in the rate of stabilization of the P-to-S energy ratio in the coda. The results suggest that the rapid stabilization of energy ratios observed in the seismic coda is a signature of the broadband nature of crustal heterogeneities. The impact of the texture of the medium on both pulse broadening and generation of converted S wave arrivals by explosion sources is illustrated. The numerical study indicates that smooth media enhance the visibility of ballistic-like S arrivals from P sources.

  4. Enhancement of Resonant Energy Transfer Due to an Evanescent Wave from the Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poudel, Amrit [Department; Chen, Xin [Center of Nanomaterials; Ratner, Mark A. [Department


    The high density of evanescent modes in the vicinity of a metal leads to enhancement of the near-field Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) rate. We present a classical approach to calculate the FRET rate based on the dyadic Green’s function of an arbitrary dielectric environment and consider the nonlocal limit of material permittivity in the case of the metallic half-space and thin film. In a dimer system, we find that the FRET rate is enhanced due to shared evanescent photon modes bridging a donor and an acceptor. Furthermore, a general expression for the FRET rate for multimer systems is derived. The presence of a dielectric environment and the path interference effect enhance the transfer rate, depending on the combination of distance and geometry.

  5. Beam loss and backgrounds in the CDF and D0 detectors due to nuclear elastic beam-gas scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandr I. Drozhdin; Valery A. Lebedev; Nikolai V. Mokhov


    Detailed simulations were performed on beam loss rates in the vicinity of the Tevatron Collider detectors due to beam-gas nuclear elastic interactions. It turns out that this component can drive the accelerator-related background rates in the CDF and D0 detectors, exceeding those due to outscattering from collimation system, inelastic beam-gas interactions and other processes [1, 2]. Results of realistic simulations with the STRUCT and MARS codes are presented for the interaction region components and the CDF and D0 detectors. It is shown that a steel mask placed upstream of the detectors can reduce the background rates by almost an order of magnitude.

  6. Evidence for Back Scattering of Near-Podal Seismic P'P' Waves From the 150-220 km Zone in Earth's Upper Mantle (United States)

    Flanagan, M. P.; Tkalcic, H.; Cormier, V. F.


    P'P' (PKPPKP) are P waves that travel from a hypocenter through the Earth's core, reflect from the free surface and travel back through the core to a recording station on the surface. P'P' waves are sometimes accompanied by precursors, which were reported first in the 1960s as small-amplitude arrivals on seismograms at epicentral distances of about 50°-70°. Most prominent of these observed precursors were explained by P'P' waves generated by earthquakes or explosions that did not reach the Earth's surface but were reflected from the underside of first order velocity discontinuities at 410 and 660 km in the upper mantle or by forward scattering from the mantle. Here we report the discovery of hitherto unobserved precursors to near-podal P'P' (at epicentral distance Gutenberg.

  7. Finite-Difference Modeling of Seismic Wave Scattering in 3D Heterogeneous Media: Generation of Tangential Motion from an Explosion Source (United States)

    Hirakawa, E. T.; Pitarka, A.; Mellors, R. J.


    Evan Hirakawa, Arben Pitarka, and Robert Mellors One challenging task in explosion seismology is development of physical models for explaining the generation of S-waves during underground explosions. Pitarka et al. (2015) used finite difference simulations of SPE-3 (part of Source Physics Experiment, SPE, an ongoing series of underground chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site) and found that while a large component of shear motion was generated directly at the source, additional scattering from heterogeneous velocity structure and topography are necessary to better match the data. Large-scale features in the velocity model used in the SPE simulations are well constrained, however, small-scale heterogeneity is poorly constrained. In our study we used a stochastic representation of small-scale variability in order to produce additional high-frequency scattering. Two methods for generating the distributions of random scatterers are tested. The first is done in the spatial domain by essentially smoothing a set of random numbers over an ellipsoidal volume using a Gaussian weighting function. The second method consists of filtering a set of random numbers in the wavenumber domain to obtain a set of heterogeneities with a desired statistical distribution (Frankel and Clayton, 1986). This method is capable of generating distributions with either Gaussian or von Karman autocorrelation functions. The key parameters that affect scattering are the correlation length, the standard deviation of velocity for the heterogeneities, and the Hurst exponent, which is only present in the von Karman media. Overall, we find that shorter correlation lengths as well as higher standard deviations result in increased tangential motion in the frequency band of interest (0 - 10 Hz). This occurs partially through S-wave refraction, but mostly by P-S and Rg-S waves conversions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore

  8. Lamb waves beam deviation due to small inclination of the test structure in air-coupled ultrasonic NDT. (United States)

    Kichou, H B; Chavez, J A; Turo, A; Salazar, J; Garcia-Hernandez, M J


    In Lamb waves inspection, an air-coupled transmitter transducer is oriented at a specific angle such that it generates a pure Lamb mode which propagates along the structure and interacts with any existing defects. For this inspection system, amplitude losses appears when small inclinations of the tested structure occurs. An important factor which affects directly these losses has been observed, it consists of the Lamb waves beam (LWB) deviation due to this bad alignment. In this work, a simple expression of LWB deviation has been deduced. This expression includes the test structure angle, phase velocity of generated Lamb mode, and the phase velocity of waves propagating in the coupled medium. A(0) Lamb mode is generated and detected in 1 mm thick aluminium plate sample using 1 MHz PZ27 piezoelectric transducers of 20 mm of diameter. Experimental LWB deviation angles are measured for different inclination angles of the test sample. A comparative study is released with theoretical results. For 1 degree of misalignment in the aluminium plate inclination, and transducers separation distance of 35 mm, LWB deviation angle is around 7 degrees and the amplitude is reduced by around 11%. Then, for a large separation distance, we must move the receiver transducer to detect the deviated LWB. It is shown that, for both theoretical and experimental studies, the LWB deviation and its measured amplitude are very sensitive to the alignment of the tested structure with respect to the transmitter-receiver transducers plane. In metal plates it is most satisfactory to use A(0) mode compared with S(0) mode since it is easy to excite and has a large amplitude and small deviation beam angles.

  9. Comment on ``Enhanced transmission of light through a gold film due to excitation of standing surface-plasmon Bloch waves"


    Weiner, J.


    The purpose of this comment is first to correct a misapprehension of the role played by composite wave diffraction on surface-wave generation at subwavelength structures and second to point out that periodic Bloch structures are unnecessary for the efficient production of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) guided mode either as traveling or standing waves. Guided surface waves originate from simple slit or groove edges illuminated under normal incidence, and one-dimensional (1-D) surface cav...

  10. High-Efficiency Nanowire Solar Cells with Omnidirectionally Enhanced Absorption Due to Self-Aligned Indium-Tin-Oxide Mie Scatterers. (United States)

    van Dam, Dick; van Hoof, Niels J J; Cui, Yingchao; van Veldhoven, Peter J; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Gómez Rivas, Jaime; Haverkort, Jos E M


    Photovoltaic cells based on arrays of semiconductor nanowires promise efficiencies comparable or even better than their planar counterparts with much less material. One reason for the high efficiencies is their large absorption cross section, but until recently the photocurrent has been limited to less than 70% of the theoretical maximum. Here we enhance the absorption in indium phosphide (InP) nanowire solar cells by employing broadband forward scattering of self-aligned nanoparticles on top of the transparent top contact layer. This results in a nanowire solar cell with a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 17.8% and a short-circuit current of 29.3 mA/cm(2) under 1 sun illumination, which is the highest reported so far for nanowire solar cells and among the highest reported for III-V solar cells. We also measure the angle-dependent photocurrent, using time-reversed Fourier microscopy, and demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional absorption enhancement for unpolarized light up to 60° with a wavelength average of 12% due to Mie scattering. These results unambiguously demonstrate the potential of semiconductor nanowires as nanostructures for the next generation of photovoltaic devices.

  11. On the relationship between aspect sensitivity, wave activity, andmultiple scattering centers of mesosphere summer echoes: a case study using coherent radar imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-S. Chen


    Full Text Available A mesosphere-summer-echo layer, observed by the OSWIN VHF radar (54.1°N, 11.8°E with vertical and 7° oblique radar beams, was examined using the method of coherent radar imaging (CRI. We disclosed the echo events having multiple scattering centers (MSC in the radar volume by means of the high angular resolution of the CRI technique and found that the MSC events occurred more frequently in the upper portion of the echo layer. More examinations showed that the characteristics were different between the upper and lower portions of the layer. For example, the differences in echo power between vertical and oblique beams changed mostly from positive to negative along the increase of altitude, and strong turbulent echoes were seen in the upper portion of the layer. These observations indicate that the aspect sensitivity of the echoes became less and less with the increase of altitude. Moreover, the scattering centers of the echoes were close to zenith for the lower portion of the layer but were usually several degrees from the zenith for the upper portion of the layer. Observable wave-like variation in the scattering center was also seen in the upper part of the layer. Based on these features, we drew some conclusions for this case study: (a the MSC events might result from the slanted layer/anisotropic structure tilted by short-wave activities, (b the tilt angle of the layer structure could be 6°–10°, causing the echo power received by the 7° oblique beam was larger than or comparable to that received by the vertical beam, and (c short-wave activities not only tilted the layer structure, but also induced isotropic irregularities.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics. Radio science (interferometry; instruments and techniques

  12. Detections and simulations of tropospheric water vapor fluctuations due to trapped lee waves by ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 ScanSAR interferometry (United States)

    Kinoshita, Youhei; Morishita, Yu; Hirabayashi, Yukiko


    Detailed wave-like spatial patterns of atmospheric propagation delay signals associated with mountain lee waves were detected in Hokkaido and Tohoku by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) with the ScanSAR mode observation data of a Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar 2 on board the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2. Both cases occurred under stable atmosphere conditions. The InSAR-observed peak-to-trough line of sight changes in the mountain wave signals was 4 and 5 cm with the horizontal wavelengths of 9 and 15 km in Hokkaido and Tohoku, respectively. Locations of positive phase maxima in the mountain wave signals coincides with locations of cloud streets observed by visible satellite imagery, indicating that crests of mountain waves contain relatively much water vapor compared with wave troughs. Numerical weather simulations with the horizontal grid spacing of 1 km were performed to reproduce InSAR phase variations, and as a result those simulations could reasonably reproduce observed wave amplitudes and wavelengths in both cases. On the other hand, numerical simulations tended to overestimate wave attenuation rates: simulated mountain waves decreased as the wave propagated faster than those of observed signals. Because the simulated wave attenuation rate is sensitive to physics in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), we investigated the reproducibility of five PBL schemes implemented in the WRF model. As a result, all the PBL schemes showed little attenuation except for the Yonsei University scheme (YSU), while the wavelength in the YSU was most close to the observation. Our study demonstrated the uniqueness and usefulness of InSAR for meteorological application as the ability to map the detailed water vapor distribution regardless of cloud cover. In addition, the reasonable reproducibility of the water vapor delay signal due to lee waves by the numerical weather model encourages researchers who tackle the correction of the

  13. Elastic I =3 /2 p -wave nucleon-pion scattering amplitude and the Δ (1232 ) resonance from Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD (United States)

    Andersen, Christian Walther; Bulava, John; Hörz, Ben; Morningstar, Colin


    We present the first direct determination of meson-baryon resonance parameters from a scattering amplitude calculated using lattice QCD. In particular, we calculate the elastic I =3 /2 , p -wave nucleon-pion amplitude on a single ensemble of Nf=2 +1 Wilson-clover fermions with mπ=280 MeV and mK=460 MeV . At these quark masses, the Δ (1232 ) resonance pole is found close to the N -π threshold and a Breit-Wigner fit to the amplitude gives gΔN π BW=19.0 (4.7 ) in agreement with phenomenological determinations.

  14. Noncommutative quantum mechanics and skew scattering in ferromagnetic metals (United States)

    Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Nagaosa, Naoto


    The anomalous Hall effect is classified into two effects based on the mechanism. The first one is the intrinsic Hall effect due to the Berry curvature in momentum space. This is a Hall effect that solely arises from the band structure of solids. On the other hand, another contribution to the Hall effect, the so-called extrinsic mechanism, comes from impurity scatterings such as skew scattering and side jump. These two mechanisms are often discussed separately; the intrinsic Hall effect is related to the Berry curvature of the band while the skew scattering is studied using the scattering theory approaches. However, we here show that, in an electronic system with finite Berry curvature, the skew scattering by nonmagnetic impurities is described by the noncommutative nature of the real-space coordinates due to the Berry curvature of the Block wave functions. The anomalous Hall effect due to this skew scattering is estimated and compared with the intrinsic contribution.

  15. High-frequency seismic wave propagation within the heterogeneous crust: effects of seismic scattering and intrinsic attenuation on ground motion modelling (United States)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Manabu; Yoshimoto, Kazuo


    For practical modelling of high-frequency (>1 Hz) seismic wave propagation, we analysed the apparent radiation patterns and attenuations of P and S waves using observed Hi-net velocity seismograms for small-to-moderate crustal earthquakes in the Chugoku region, southwestern Japan. By comparing observed and simulated seismograms, we estimated practical parameter sets of crustal small-scale velocity heterogeneity and intrinsic attenuations of P and S waves ( and Numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation were conducted via the finite-difference method using a 1-D crustal velocity structure model with additional 3-D small-scale velocity heterogeneity and intrinsic attenuation. The estimated crustal small-scale velocity heterogeneity is stochastically characterized by an exponential-type power spectral density function with correlation length of 1 km and root-mean-square value of 0.03. Estimated and values range from 10-2.6 to 10-2.0 and 10-2.8 to 10-2.4, respectively, indicating > for high frequencies (>1 Hz). Intrinsic attenuation dominates over scattering attenuation, which is caused by small-scale velocity heterogeneity. The crustal parameters obtained in this study are useful for evaluating peak ground velocities and coda envelopes for moderate crustal earthquakes via physical-based simulations using a 3-D heterogeneous structure model.

  16. Modification of surface gravity waves due to the presence of fluid mud within the surf zone: a study based on video imagery. (United States)

    Pereira, P. D. S.; Calliari, L. J.; Holman, R. A.


    As the waves propagate towards the shore, their length, energy and velocity changes as they interact with the bottom. In addition, unusual bottom types and the fluid characteristics can further increase complexity, sometimes in surprising ways. The aim of the present work is to study the modification of surface gravity waves due to the presence of fluid mud within the surf zone. The study site is Cassino Beach, a beach in southernmost of Brazil where mud deposition events occurs occasionally in the surf zone. These anomalous water properties appear to increase wavenumber, slow the waves, and cause refraction. Optical time stacks were collected from video imagery from an Argus station. Wavenumber was estimated across the surf zone using a tomography approach during conditions of fluid mud concentration. By comparing the estimated wave number with those obtained from linear wave theory, anomalously high wavenumbers were detected. The increase in wave number yields a decrease in wave celerity and wave refraction when lateral gradients are present.

  17. Lectures in scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sitenko, A G


    Lectures in Scattering Theory discusses problems in quantum mechanics and the principles of the non-relativistic theory of potential scattering. This book describes in detail the properties of the scattering matrix and its connection with physically observable quantities. This text presents a stationary formulation of the scattering problem and the wave functions of a particle found in an external field. This book also examines the analytic properties of the scattering matrix, dispersion relations, complex angular moments, as well as the separable representation of the scattering amplitude. Th

  18. Energy Dissipation of Rayleigh Waves due to Absorption Along the Path by the Use of Finite Element Method (United States)


    the reader is referred to Anderson, et al (5) and Tryggvason (115). The effect of geometrical discontinuities on the propagation of Rayleigh waves have...two bound- aries are the common boundaries between the heterogeneous medium and two semiinfinite horizontal layered media extending to left and right...Tolstoy, I. Wave Propagation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973. 115. Tryggvason , E. E. "Dissipation of Rayleigh Wave Energy." Jour. Geophys. Res. 70

  19. Synchrotron x-ray scattering study of charge-density-wave order in HgBa2CuO4 +δ (United States)

    Tabis, W.; Yu, B.; Bialo, I.; Bluschke, M.; Kolodziej, T.; Kozlowski, A.; Blackburn, E.; Sen, K.; Forgan, E. M.; Zimmermann, M. v.; Tang, Y.; Weschke, E.; Vignolle, B.; Hepting, M.; Gretarsson, H.; Sutarto, R.; He, F.; Le Tacon, M.; Barišić, N.; Yu, G.; Greven, M.


    We present a detailed synchrotron x-ray scattering study of the charge-density-wave (CDW) order in simple tetragonal HgBa2CuO4 +δ (Hg1201). Resonant soft x-ray scattering measurements reveal that short-range order appears at a temperature that is distinctly lower than the pseudogap temperature and in excellent agreement with a prior transient reflectivity result. Despite considerable structural differences between Hg1201 and YBa2Cu3O6 +δ , the CDW correlations exhibit similar doping dependencies, and we demonstrate a universal relationship between the CDW wave vector and the size of the reconstructed Fermi pocket observed in quantum oscillation experiments. The CDW correlations in Hg1201 vanish already below optimal doping, once the correlation length is comparable to the CDW modulation period, and they appear to be limited by the disorder potential from unit cells hosting two interstitial oxygen atoms. A complementary hard x-ray diffraction measurement, performed on an underdoped Hg1201 sample in magnetic fields along the crystallographic c axis of up to 16 T, provides information on the form factor of the CDW order. As expected from the single-CuO2-layer structure of Hg1201, the CDW correlations vanish at half-integer values of L and appear to be peaked at integer L . We conclude that the atomic displacements associated with the short-range CDW order are mainly planar, within the CuO2 layers.

  20. Seismic scatterers in the mid-lower mantle beneath Tonga-Fiji (United States)

    Kaneshima, Satoshi


    We analyze deep and intermediate-depth earthquakes at the Tonga-Fiji region in order to reveal the distribution of scattering objects in the mid-lower mantle. By array processing waveform data recorded at regional seismograph stations in the US, Alaska, and Japan, we investigate S-to-P scattering waves in the P coda, which arise from kilometer-scale chemically distinct objects in the mid-lower mantle beneath Tonga-Fiji. With ten scatterers previously reported by the author included, twenty-three mid-lower mantle scatterers have been detected below 900 km depth, while scatterers deeper than 1900 km have not been identified. Strong mid-lower mantle S-to-P scattering most frequently occurs at the scatterers located within a depth range between 1400 km and 1600 km. The number of scatterers decreases below 1600 km depth, and the deeper objects tend to be weaker. The scatterer distribution may reflect diminishing elastic anomalies of basaltic rocks with depth relative to the surrounding mantle rocks, which mineral physics has predicted to occur. The predominant occurrence of strong S-to-P scattering waves within a narrow depth range may reflect significant reduction of rigidity due to the ferro-elastic transformation of stishovite in basaltic rocks. Very large signals associated with mid-mantle scatterers are observed only for a small portion of the entire earthquake-array pairs. Such infrequent observations of large scattering signals, combined with quite large event-to-event differences in the scattering intensity for each scatterer, suggest both that the strong arrivals approximately represent ray theoretical S-to-P converted waves at objects with a plane geometry. The plane portions of the strong scatterers may often dip steeply, with the size exceeding 100 km. For a few strong scatterers, the range of receivers showing clear scattered waves varies substantially from earthquake-array pair to pair. Some of the scatterers are also observed at different arrays that have

  1. Computation of set-up, longshore currents, run-up and overtopping due to wind-generated waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.


    The main problem dealt with in this thesis is the calculation of certain effects caused by random waves breaking on a slope. The solution to this problem is greatly complicated by the fact that wave breaking is a highly nonlinear process. The flow field is further complicated by far stronger in

  2. Nonlinear gain amplification due to two-wave mixing in a broad-area semiconductor amplifier with moving gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Huignard, J.-P.; Petersen, Paul Michael


    -wave equations of two-wave mixing are derived based on the Maxwell’s wave equation and rate equation of the carrier density. The analytical solutions of the coupled-wave equations are obtained in the condition of small signal when the total intensity is far below the saturation intensity of the amplifier......The two-wave mixing in a broad-area semiconductor amplifier with moving gratings is investigated theoretically, where a pump beam and a signal beam with different frequencies are considered, thus both a moving phase grating and a moving gain grating are induced in the amplifier. The coupled....... The results show that the optical gain of the amplifier is affected by both the moving phase grating and the moving gain grating, and there is energy exchange between the pump and signal beams. Depending on the moving direction of the gratings and the anti-guiding parameter, the optical gain may increase...

  3. Energy-dependent partial-wave analysis of all antiproton-proton scattering data below 925 MeV/c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Daren; Timmermans, Rob G. E.


    Background: There is a renewed experimental interest in antiproton-proton scattering with an intense, possibly polarized antiproton beam. On the theoretical side, significant progress has been made in the understanding of the nuclear force from chiral effective field theory. Purpose: We provide a

  4. Determination of the S-wave {pi}{pi} scattering lengths from a study of K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} {pi}0 decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batley, J.R.; Culling, A.J.; Kalmus, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D.J.; Slater, M.W.; Wotton, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A. [CERN, Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Balev, S.; Frabetti, P.L.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R. [Univ. of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Rubin, P.; Walker, A. [Univ. of Edinburgh, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H. [Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione dell' INFN di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Calvetti, M.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G. [Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione dell' INFN di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M. [Sezione dell' INFN di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A. [Univ. Mainz, Inst. fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M.D. [Northwestern Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Evanston, IL (United States); Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M. [Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione dell' INFN di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M.C. [Sezione dell' INFN di Perugia, Perugia (Italy)] [and others


    We report the results from a study of the full sample of {proportional_to}6.031 x 10{sup 7} K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS. As first observed in this experiment, the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} invariant mass (M{sub 00}) distribution shows a cusp-like anomaly in the region around M{sub 00}=2m{sub +}, where m{sub +} is the charged pion mass. This anomaly has been interpreted as an effect due mainly to the final state charge exchange scattering process {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} in K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay. Fits to the M{sub 00} distribution using two different theoretical formulations provide the presently most precise determination of a{sub 0}-a{sub 2}, the difference between the {pi}{pi} S-wave scattering lengths in the isospin I=0 and I=2 states. Higher-order {pi}{pi} rescattering terms, included in the two formulations, allow also an independent, though less precise, determination of a{sub 2}. (orig.)

  5. A Highly Stable Marching-on-in-Time Volume Integral Equation Solver for Analyzing Transient Wave Interactions on High-Contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan


    ). Numerical results demonstrate that this new MOT-VIE solver maintains its stability and accuracy even when used in analyzing transient wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers.

  6. Electromagnetic Waves


    Blok, H.; van den Berg, P.M.


    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc.

  7. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  8. The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method with active gain material applications (United States)

    Li, Ming

    material expressed by electric field dependent dielectric constant. Next, the concepts of spectrum interpolation (Chapter 3), higher-order incident (Chapter 4) and perfectly matched layer (Chapter 5) are introduced and applied to TMM, with detailed simulation for 1D, 2D, and 3D photonic crystal examples. Curvilinear coordinate transform is applied to the Maxwell's Equations to study waveguide bend (Chapter 6). By finding the phase difference along propagation direction at various XY plane locations, the behaviors of electromagnetic wave propagation (such as light bending, focusing etc) can be studied (Chapter 7), which can be applied to diffractive optics for new devices design. Numerical simulation tools for lasing devices are usually based on rate equations which are not accurate above the threshold and for small scale lasing cavities (such as nano-scale cavities). Recently, we extend the TMM package function to include the capacity of dealing active gain materials. Both lasing (above threshold) and spontaneous emission (below threshold) can be studied in the frame work of our Gain-TMM algorithm. Chapter 8 will illustrate the algorithm in detail and show the simulation results for 3D photonic crystal lasing devices. Then, microwave experiments (mainly resonant cavity embedded at layer-by-layer woodpile structures) are performed at Chapter 9 as an efficient practical way to study photonic crystal devices. The size of photonic crystal under microwave region is at the order of centimeter which makes the fabrication easier to realize. At the same time due to the scaling property, the result of microwave experiments can be applied directly to optical or infrared frequency regions. The systematic TMM simulations for various resonant cavities are performed and consistent results are obtained when compared with microwave experiments. Besides scaling the experimental results to much smaller wavelength, designing potential photonic crystal devices for application at microwave is

  9. Scaling EUV and X-ray Thomson sources to optical free-electron laser operation with traveling-wave Thomson scattering (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Steiniger, Klaus; Albach, Daniel; Debus, Alexander; Loeser, Markus; Pausch, Richard; Roeser, Fabian; Schramm, Ulrich; Siebold, Matthias; Bussmann, Michael


    Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering (TWTS) allows for the realization of optical free-electron lasers (OFELs) from the interaction of short, high-power laser pulses with brilliant relativistic electron bunches. The laser field provides the optical undulator which is traversed by the electrons. In order to achieve coherent amplification of radiation through electron microbunching the interaction between electrons and laser must be maintained over hundreds to thousands of undulator periods. Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering is the only scattering geometry so far allowing for the realization of optical undulators of this length which is at the same time scalable from extreme ultraviolet to X-ray photon energies. TWTS is also applicable for the realization of incoherent high peak brightness hard X-ray to gamma-ray sources which can provide orders of magnitude higher photon output than classic head-on Thomson sources. In contrast to head-on Thomson sources TWTS employs a side-scattering geometry where laser and electron propagation direction of motion enclose an angle. Tilting the laser pulse front with respect to the wave front by half of this interaction angle optimizes electron and laser pulse overlap. In the side-scattering geometry the tilt of the pulse-front compensates the spatial offset between electrons and laser pulse-front which would be present otherwise for an electron bunch far from the interaction point where it overlaps with the laser pulse center. Thus the laser pulse-front tilt ensures continuous overlap between laser pulse and electrons while these traverse the laser pulse cross-sectional area. This allows to control the interaction distance in TWTS by the laser pulse width rather than laser pulse duration as is the case for head-on Thomson scattering. Utilizing petawatt class laser pulses with millimeter to centimeter scale width allows for the realization of compact optical undulators with thousands of periods. When laser pulses for TWTS are prepared

  10. VHF volume-imaging radar observation of aspect-sensitive scatterers tilted in mountain waves above a convective boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington


    Full Text Available Thin stable atmospheric layers cause VHF radars to receive increased echo power from near zenith. Layers can be tilted from horizontal, for instance by gravity waves, and the direction of VHF "glinting" is measurable by spatial domain interferometry or many-beam Doppler beam swinging (DBS. This paper uses the Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, Shigaraki, Japan as a volume-imaging radar with 64-beam DBS, to show tilting of layers and air flow in mountain waves. Tilt of aspect-sensitive echo power from horizontal is nearly parallel to air flow, as assumed in earlier measurements of mountain-wave alignment. Vertical-wind measurements are self-consistent from different beam zenith angles, despite the combined effects of aspect sensitivity and horizontal-wind gradients.

  11. Simulation of long-wave phonon ({lambda}> b) scattering at geometric imperfections in nanowires by FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamatov, E.I. [Physico-Technical Institute, UrB RAS, 132 Kirov Street, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)


    Elementary acts of acoustic phonon scattering in nanowires are studied numerically by the FDTD method. The points of bifurcation of the main waveguide are considered as defects. The particularities of the reflection/transmission coefficient of phonons of different polarizations are studied as a function of the frequency and geometrical parameters of the problem. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Measurement of radio wave reflection due to temperature rising from rock salt and ice irradiated by an electron beam for an ultra-high-energy neutrino detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanikawa, Takahiro; Chiba, Masami; Kamijo, Toshio; Yabuki, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Osamu; Akiyama, Hidetoshi; Chikashige, Yuichi; Kon, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yutaka; Utsumi, Michiaki; Fujii, Masatoshi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Ohsawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Technology, Seikei University, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Department of Applied Science and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); School of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo-shi, Shimane 693-8501 (Japan)


    An ultra-high-energy neutrino (UHE{nu}) gives temperature rise along the hadronic and electromagnetic shower when it enters into rock salt or ice. Permittivities of them arise with respect the temperatures at ionization processes of the UHE{nu} shower. It is expected by Fresnel's formula that radio wave reflects at the irregularity of the permittivity in the medium. We had found the radio wave reflection effect in rock salt. The reflection effect and long attenuation length of radio wave in rock salt and ice would yield a new UHE{nu} detection method. An experiment for ice was performed to study the reflection effect. A coaxial tube was filled with rock salt powder or ice. Open end of the coaxial tube was irradiated by a 2 MeV electron beam. Radio wave of 435 MHz was introduced to the coaxial tube. We measured the reflection wave from the open end. We found the radio wave reflection effect due to electron beam irradiation in ice as well as in rock salt.

  13. Temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of disturbance wave in a hypersonic boundary layer due to single-frequency entropy disturbance. (United States)

    Wang, Zhenqing; Tang, Xiaojun; Lv, Hongqing; Shi, Jianqiang


    By using a high-order accurate finite difference scheme, direct numerical simulation of hypersonic flow over an 8° half-wedge-angle blunt wedge under freestream single-frequency entropy disturbance is conducted; the generation and the temporal and spatial nonlinear evolution of boundary layer disturbance waves are investigated. Results show that, under the freestream single-frequency entropy disturbance, the entropy state of boundary layer is changed sharply and the disturbance waves within a certain frequency range are induced in the boundary layer. Furthermore, the amplitudes of disturbance waves in the period phase are larger than that in the response phase and ablation phase and the frequency range in the boundary layer in the period phase is narrower than that in these two phases. In addition, the mode competition, dominant mode transformation, and disturbance energy transfer exist among different modes both in temporal and in spatial evolution. The mode competition changes the characteristics of nonlinear evolution of the unstable waves in the boundary layer. The development of the most unstable mode along streamwise relies more on the motivation of disturbance waves in the upstream than that of other modes on this motivation.

  14. ITER Plasma at Ion Cyclotron Frequency Domain: The Fusion Alpha Particles Diagnostics Based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Fast Magnetosonic Wave off High Harmonic Ion Bernstein Modes (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander


    A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.

  15. Wave packet propagation study of the electron transfer in back-scattering of H sup - ions from alkali adsorbates on an Al surface

    CERN Document Server

    Sjakste, J; Gauyacq, J P


    The charge transfer between an H sup - ion and a free-electron metal surface with a single alkali adsorbate (Li and Cs) is studied with the wave packet propagation approach in the back-scattering geometry. Both the static problem for a fixed projectile-surface distance and the problem of charge transfer during a collision are considered. The three body (projectile-adsorbate-surface) aspect of the charge transfer process in this case results in an avoided crossing between the projectile and adsorbate-localized quasi-stationary states. We analyze and discuss the local effect of the adsorbate on the resonant charge transfer and the applicability of the rate equation approach.

  16. Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O’Boyle


    Full Text Available Wave energy converters (WECs inherently extract energy from incident waves. For wave energy to become a significant power provider in the future, large farms of WECs will be required. This scale of energy extraction will increase the potential for changes in the local wave field and coastal environment. Assessment of these effects is necessary to inform decisions on the layout of wave farms for optimum power output and minimum environmental impact, as well as on potential site selection. An experimental campaign to map, at high resolution, the wave field variation around arrays of 5 oscillating water column WECs and a methodology for extracting scattered and radiated waves is presented. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the full extent of the WEC behavior when assessing impacts on the wave field. The effect of radiated waves on the wave field is not immediately apparent when considering changes to the entire wave spectrum, nor when observing changes in wave climate due to scattered and radiated waves superimposed together. The results show that radiated waves may account for up to 50% of the effects on wave climate in the near field in particular operating conditions.

  17. Inverse Compton Scattered Merger-nova: Late X-Ray Counterpart of Gravitational-wave Signals from NS–NS/BH Mergers (United States)

    Ai, Shunke; Gao, He


    The recent observations of GW170817 and its electromagnetic (EM) counterparts show that double neutron star mergers could lead to rich and bright EM emissions. Recent numerical simulations suggest that neutron star and neutron star/black hole (NS–NS/BH) mergers would leave behind a central remnant surrounded by a mildly isotropic ejecta. The central remnant could launch a collimated jet and when the jet propagates through the ejecta, a mildly relativistic cocoon would be formed and the interaction between the cocoon and the ambient medium would accelerate electrons via external shock in a wide angle, so that the merger-nova photons (i.e., thermal emission from the ejecta) would be scattered into higher frequency via an inverse Compton (IC) process when they propagate through the cocoon shocked region. We find that the IC scattered component peaks at the X-ray band and it will reach its peak luminosity on the order of days (simultaneously with the merger-nova emission). With current X-ray detectors, such a late X-ray component could be detected out to 200 Mpc, depending on the merger remnant properties. It could serve as an important electromagnetic counterpart of gravitational-wave signals from NS–NS/BH mergers. Nevertheless, simultaneous detection of such a late X-ray signal and the merger-nova signal could shed light on the cocoon properties and the concrete structure of the jet.

  18. Effects of Heterogeneities on the Propagation, Scattering and Attenuation of Seismic Waves and the Characterization of Seismic Source (United States)


    this involves a tensor product of l-D splines [De Boor, 1980]. Velocity discontinuities are included by introducing interfaces between layers with...of amplitude ratios of body waves recorded by instruments with widely separated and, often, narrow frequency bands (e.g., Gutenberg , 1958; Solomon...with discontinuities in the earth. We first discuss the attenuation operator which is the domi- nant propagation effect in the coherent portion of

  19. Radiowave Propagation Prediction in a Wind Farm Enviroment and Wind Turbine Scattering Model


    Calo Casanova, Alejandro; Calvo Ramón, Miguel; Haro Ariet, Leandro de; Blanco Gonzalez, Pedro


    One of the environmental effects of wind farms is the electromagnetic interference due to the scattering produced by the wind turbines on the electromagnetic waves of different radio communication services propagating through them. A previous work [4] is updated here and the scattering models for the nacelle and the wind turbine are shown and validated. Radio wave propagation losses are estimated more precisely through a parabolic equation approach. Finally, a comparison bet...

  20. Analysis and Simulation of 3D Scattering due to Heterogeneous Crustal Structure and Surface Topography on Regional Phases; Magnitude and Discrimination (United States)


    inversion technique that is based on different weights for relatively high frequency waveform modeling of Pnl and relatively long period surface waves ( al., 2006). Pnl and surface waves are also allowed to shift in time to take into account of uncertainties in velocity structure. Joint...inversion of Pnl and surface waves provides better constraints on focal depth as well as source mechanisms. The pure strike-slip mechanism of the earthquake