DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe
2012-01-01
The noise properties of a supercontiuum can be significantly improved both in terms of coherence and intensity stability by modulating the input pulse with a seed. In this paper, we numerically investigate the influence of the seed wavelength, the pump power, and the modulation instability gain...... spectrum on the seeding process. The results can be clearly divided into a number of distinct dynamical regimes depending on the initial four-wave mixing process. We further demonstrate that seeding can be used to generate coherent and incoherent rogue waves, depending on the modulation instability gain...... spectrum. Finally, we show that the coherent pulse breakup afforded by seeding is washed out by turbulent solitonic dynamics when the pump power is increased to the kilowatt level. Thus our results show that seeding cannot improve the noise performance of a high power supercontinuum source....
Measurements of the power spectrum and dispersion relation of self-excited dust acoustic waves
Nosenko, V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Kim, S.-H.; Heinrich, J.; Merlino, R. L.; Morfill, G. E.
2009-12-01
The spectrum of spontaneously excited dust acoustic waves was measured. The waves were observed with high temporal resolution using a fast video camera operating at 1000 frames per second. The experimental system was a suspension of micron-size kaolin particles in the anode region of a dc discharge in argon. Wave activity was found at frequencies as high as 450 Hz. At high wave numbers, the wave dispersion relation was acoustic-like (frequency proportional to wave number). At low wave numbers, the wave frequency did not tend to zero, but reached a cutoff frequency instead. The cutoff value declined with distance from the anode. We ascribe the observed cutoff to the particle confinement in this region.
Directional spectrum of ocean waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Fernandes, A.A; Gouveia, A; Nagarajan, R.
This paper describes a methodology for obtaining the directional spectrum of ocean waves from time series measurement of wave elevation at several gauges arranged in linear or polygonal arrays. Results of simulated studies using sinusoidal wave...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chao, Winston C. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, Mail Code 610.1, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiouhua [University of Hawaii at Manoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)
2009-11-15
The popular method of presenting wavenumber-frequency power spectrum diagrams for studying tropical large-scale waves in the literature is shown to give an incomplete presentation of these waves. The so-called ''convectively coupled Kelvin (mixed Rossby-gravity) waves'' are presented as existing only in the symmetric (anti-symmetric) component of the diagrams. This is obviously not consistent with the published composite/regression studies of ''convectively coupled Kelvin waves,'' which illustrate the asymmetric nature of these waves. The cause of this inconsistency is revealed in this note and a revised method of presenting the power spectrum diagrams is proposed. When this revised method is used, ''convectively coupled Kelvin waves'' do show anti-symmetric components, and ''convectively coupled mixed Rossby-gravity waves (also known as Yanai waves)'' do show a hint of symmetric components. These results bolster a published proposal that these waves should be called ''chimeric Kelvin waves,'' ''chimeric mixed Rossby-gravity waves,'' etc. This revised method of presenting power spectrum diagrams offers an additional means of comparing the GCM output with observations by calling attention to the capability of GCMs to correctly simulate the asymmetric characteristics of equatorial waves. (orig.)
Kanai, Hiroshi; Jang, Yun-Seok; Chubachi, Noriyoshi; Tanahashi, Yoshikatsu
1994-05-01
This paper investigates the difference in the spectrum of sound radiated before and after the break of a phantom at a focal point of the piezoelectric extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptor (ESWL) in order to identify the break time or to examine whether a calculus exists exactly at the focal point or not. From the preliminary experiments using a piece of chalk as a phantom of a calculus to measure the sound radiated when impact is applied to the chalk by an impact hammer, it is found that the bending vibration component of the vibration is exhibited in the spectrum of sound. However, for small-sized chalk shorter than 3 cm, the peak frequency of the bending vibration is higher than 20 kHz. From the experiments using a piezoeletric ESWL, it is found that there is clear difference in the power spectra among the sound radiated before the break, that radiated just after the break in the breaking process, and that radiated when the chalk does not exist at the focal point of the ESWL. These characteristics will be effective for the examination of the existence of the calculus at the focal point.
Newman, J. N.
1979-01-01
Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)
Supernovae anisotropy power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghodsi, Hoda; Baghram, Shant [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Farhang, E-mail: h.ghodsi@mehr.sharif.ir, E-mail: baghram@sharif.edu, E-mail: habibi@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)
2017-10-01
We contribute another anisotropy study to this field of research using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this work, we utilise the power spectrum calculation method and apply it to both the current SNe Ia data and simulation. Using the Union2.1 data set at all redshifts, we compare the spectrum of the residuals of the observed distance moduli to that expected from an isotropic universe affected by the Union2.1 observational uncertainties at low multipoles. Through this comparison we find a dipolar anisotropy with tension of less that 2σ towards l = 171° ± 21° and b = −26° ± 28° which is mainly induced by anisotropic spatial distribution of the SNe with z > 0.2 rather than being a cosmic effect. Furthermore, we find a tension of ∼ 4σ at ℓ = 4 between the two spectra. Our simulations are constructed with the characteristics of the upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which shall bring us the largest SNe Ia collection to date. We make predictions for the amplitude of a possible dipolar anisotropy that would be detectable by future SNe Ia surveys.
Millimeter wave spectrum of nitromethane
Ilyushin, Vadim
2018-03-01
A new study of the millimeter wave spectrum of nitromethane, CH3NO2, is reported. The new measurements covering the frequency range from 49 GHz to 237 GHz have been carried out using the spectrometer in IRA NASU (Ukraine). Transitions belonging to the |m| ≤ 8 torsional states have been analyzed using the Rho-axis-method and the RAM36 program, which has been modified for this study to take into account the quadrupole hyperfine structure due to presence of the nitrogen atom. A data set consisting of 5925 microwave line frequencies and including transitions with J up to 55 was fit using a model consisting of 97 parameters, and a weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.84 was achieved. The analysis of the spectrum covers the m torsional states lying below the lowest small amplitude vibration in nitromethane molecule, which is the NO2 in plane rock at 475 cm-1. It serves as a preparatory step in further studies of intervibrational interactions in this molecule.
Effect of discrete RF spectrum on fast wave current drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okazaki, Takashi; Yoshioka, Ken; Sugihara, Masayoshi
1987-08-01
Effect of discrete RF spectrum has been studied for the fast wave current drive with the ion cyclotron range of frequency. Driven current and power densities decrease in this spectrum than in the continuous spectrum. However, there is a possibility to have the mechanism which allows electrons outside the resonance region to interact with the fast wave, taking into account the electron trapping by discrete RF spectrum. In the case of neglecting the electron trapping effect, driven current and power densities decrease up to 0.6 - 0.8 of those which are obtained for the continuous spectrum for the FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor). However, their driven current and power densities can be almost doubled in their magnitude for the discrete spectrum by taking into account the trapping effect. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1983-10-01
The Tapered Channel Wave Power Plant (TAPCHAN) is based on a new method for wave energy conversion. The principle of operation can be explained by dividing the system into the following four sub-systems: Firstly, a collector which is designed to concentrate the water energy and optimize collection efficiency for a range of frequencies and directions. Secondly, the energy converter, in which the energy of the collected waves is transformed into potential energy in an on-shore water reservoir. This is the unique part of the power plant. It consists of a gradually narrowing channel with wall heights equal to the filling level of the reservoir (typical heights 3-7 m). The waves enter the wide end of the channel and as they propagate down the narrowing channel, the wave height is amplified until the wavecrests spill over the walls. Thirdly, a reservoir which provides a stable water supply for the turbines. Finally, the hydroelectric power plant, where well established techniques are used for the generation of electric power. The water turbine driving the electric generator is of a low head type, such as a Kaplan or a tubular turbine. It must be designed for salt water operation and should have good regulation capabilities. Power plants based on the principle described, are now offered on a commercial basis.
Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor
2016-01-01
Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess...
The spectrum of axisymmetric torsional Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sy, W.N.
1977-03-01
The spectrum of axisymmetric torsional Alfven waves propagating in a cylindrical, non-uniform, resistive plasma waveguide has been analysed by a method of singular perturbations. A simple condition has been derived which predicts whether the spectrum is continuous or discrete under given physical conditions. Application of this result to resolve an apparent discrepancy in experimental observations is briefly discussed. (Author)
Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berins J.
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.
Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation
Berins, J.; Berins, J.; Kalnacs, A.
2017-08-01
The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.
Wavenumber Spectrum of Intermediate-Scale Ocean Surface Waves
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hwang, Paul A
2005-01-01
... (wavelengths between 0.02 and 6 m) under various sea-state conditions. The main result of the analysis is that the dependence of the dimensionless wave spectrum on the dimensionless wind friction velocity follows a power-law function...
Modelling the TSZ power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharya, Suman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shaw, Laurie D [YALE; Nagai, Daisuke [YALE
2010-01-01
The structure formation in university is a hierarchical process. As universe evolves, tiny density fluctuations that existed in the early universe grows under gravitational instability to form massive large scale structures. The galaxy clusters are the massive viralized objects that forms by accreting smaller clumps of mass until they collapse under their self-gravity. As such galaxy clusters are the youngest objects in the universe which makes their abundance as a function of mass and redshift, very sensitive to dark energy. Galaxy clusters can be detected by measuring the richness in optical waveband, by measuring the X-ray flux, and in the microwave sky using Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect has long been recognized as a powerful tool for detecting clusters and probing the physics of the intra-cluster medium. Ongoing and future experiments like Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the South Pole Telescope and Planck survey are currently surveying the microwave sky to develop large catalogs of galaxy clusters that are uniformly selected by the SZ flux. However one major systematic uncertainties that cluster abundance is prone to is the connection between the cluster mass and the SZ flux. As shown by several simulation studies, the scatter and bias in the SZ flux-mass relation can be a potential source of systematic error to using clusters as a cosmology probe. In this study they take a semi-analytic approach for modeling the intra-cluster medium in order to predict the tSZ power spectrum. The advantage of this approach is, being analytic, one can vary the parameters describing gas physics and cosmology simultaneously. The model can be calibrated against X-ray observations of massive, low-z clusters, and using the SZ power spectrum which is sourced by high-z lower mass galaxy groups. This approach allows us to include the uncertainty in gas physics, as dictated by the current observational uncertainties, while measuring the
Partnership for Wave Power - Roadmaps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim; Krogh, Jan; Brodersen, Hans Jørgen
This Wave Energy Technology Roadmap is developed by the Partnership for Wave Power including nine Danish wave energy developers. It builds on to the strategy [1] published by the Partnership in 2012, a document that describes the long term vision of the Danish Wave Energy sector: “By 2030...
Sitnikova, E.Y.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van
2009-01-01
Periods in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that immediately precede the onset of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWD) were examined in WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. Precursors of SWD (preSWD) were classified based on the distribution of EEG power in delta-theta-alpha frequency bands as
Millimeter-wave power amplifiers
du Preez, Jaco
2017-01-01
This book provides a detailed review of millimeter-wave power amplifiers, discussing design issues and performance limitations commonly encountered in light of the latest research. Power amplifiers, which are able to provide high levels of output power and linearity while being easily integrated with surrounding circuitry, are a crucial component in wireless microwave systems. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to mm-wave wireless systems and power amplifiers. In turn, the second focuses on design principles and EDA concepts, while the third discusses future trends in power amplifier research. The book provides essential information on mm-wave power amplifier theory, as well as the implementation options and technologies involved in their effective design, equipping researchers, circuit designers and practicing engineers to design, model, analyze, test and implement high-performance, spectrally clean and energy-efficient mm-wave systems.
Width of electromagnetic wave instability spectrum in tungsten plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rinkevich, A.B.
1995-01-01
Based on the study of high-frequency signal modulation and spectrum analysis of the envelope a measurement of spectrum width for electromagnetic wave instability was carried out under conditions of current pulse action on tungsten plate in magnetic field. The existence of amplitude-frequency wave modulation was revealed. The width of current disturbance spectrum in a specimen was evaluated. Current disturbances are shown to cause the instability of electromagnetic wave. 11 refs.; 6 figs
Sitnikova, Evgenia; van Luijtelaar, Gilles
2009-04-01
Periods in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that immediately precede the onset of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWD) were examined in WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. Precursors of SWD (preSWD) were classified based on the distribution of EEG power in delta-theta-alpha frequency bands as measured in the frontal cortex. In 95% of preSWD, an elevation of EEG power was detected in delta band (1-4Hz). 73% of preSWD showed high power in theta frequencies (4.5-8Hz); these preSWD might correspond to 5-9Hz oscillations that were found in GAERS before SWD onset [Pinault, D., Vergnes, M., Marescaux, C., 2001. Medium-voltage 5-9Hz oscillations give rise to spike-and-wave discharges in a genetic model of absence epilepsy: in vivo dual extracellular recording of thalamic relay and reticular neurons. Neuroscience 105, 181-201], however, theta component of preSWD in our WAG/Rij rats was not shaped into a single rhythm. It is concluded that a coalescence of delta and theta in the cortex is favorable for the occurrence of SWD. The onset of SWD was associated with strengthening of intracortical and thalamo-cortical coherence in 9.5-14Hz and in double beta frequencies. No features of EEG coherence can be considered as unique for any of preSWD subtype. Reticular and ventroposteromedial thalamic nuclei were strongly coupled even before the onset of SWD. All this suggests that SWD derive from an intermixed delta-theta EEG background; seizure onset associates with reinforcement of intracortical and cortico-thalamic associations.
Power spectrum of dark matter substructure in strong gravitational lenses
Diaz Rivero, Ana; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dvorkin, Cora
2018-01-01
Studying the smallest self-bound dark matter structure in our Universe can yield important clues about the fundamental particle nature of dark matter. Galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing provides a unique way to detect and characterize dark matter substructures at cosmological distances from the Milky Way. Within the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, the number of low-mass subhalos within lens galaxies is expected to be large, implying that their contribution to the lensing convergence field is approximately Gaussian and could thus be described by their power spectrum. We develop here a general formalism to compute from first principles the substructure convergence power spectrum for different populations of dark matter subhalos. As an example, we apply our framework to two distinct subhalo populations: a truncated Navarro-Frenk-White subhalo population motivated by standard CDM, and a truncated cored subhalo population motivated by self-interacting dark matter (SIDM). We study in detail how the subhalo abundance, mass function, internal density profile, and concentration affect the amplitude and shape of the substructure power spectrum. We determine that the power spectrum is mostly sensitive to a specific combination of the subhalo abundance and moments of the mass function, as well as to the average tidal truncation scale of the largest subhalos included in the analysis. Interestingly, we show that the asymptotic slope of the substructure power spectrum at large wave number reflects the internal density profile of the subhalos. In particular, the SIDM power spectrum exhibits a characteristic steepening at large wave number absent in the CDM power spectrum, opening the possibility of using this observable, if at all measurable, to discern between these two scenarios.
Primordial power spectrum features and consequences
Goswami, G.
2014-03-01
The present Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy data is consistent with not only a power law scalar primordial power spectrum (PPS) with a small running but also with the scalar PPS having very sharp features. This has motivated inflationary models with such sharp features. Recently, even the possibility of having nulls in the power spectrum (at certain scales) has been considered. The existence of these nulls has been shown in linear perturbation theory. What shall be the effect of higher order corrections on such nulls? Inspired by this question, we have attempted to calculate quantum radiative corrections to the Fourier transform of the 2-point function in a toy field theory and address the issue of how these corrections to the power spectrum behave in models in which the tree-level power spectrum has a sharp dip (but not a null). In particular, we have considered the possibility of the relative enhancement of radiative corrections in a model in which the tree-level spectrum goes through a dip in power at a certain scale. The mode functions of the field (whose power spectrum is to be evaluated) are chosen such that they undergo the kind of dynamics that leads to a sharp dip in the tree level power spectrum. Next, we have considered the situation in which this field has quartic self interactions, and found one loop correction in a suitably chosen renormalization scheme. Thus, we have attempted to answer the following key question in the context of this toy model (which is as important in the realistic case): In the chosen renormalization scheme, can quantum radiative corrections be enhanced relative to tree-level power spectrum at scales, at which sharp dips appear in the tree-level spectrum?
Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation
Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert
2016-01-01
In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.
Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation
Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar
2016-10-06
In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.
Wave directional spectrum from array measurements
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Fernandes, A.A; Sarma, Y; Menon, H.B.
Using the method of Esteva (1976, 1977), whcih assumes that at the frequency band the waves approach from just a single "mean" wave direction, wave direction has been consistently, accurately and unambiguously evaluated as a function of frequency...
The Spectrum of Wind Power Fluctuations
Bandi, Mahesh
2016-11-01
Wind is a variable energy source whose fluctuations threaten electrical grid stability and complicate dynamical load balancing. The power generated by a wind turbine fluctuates due to the variable wind speed that blows past the turbine. Indeed, the spectrum of wind power fluctuations is widely believed to reflect the Kolmogorov spectrum; both vary with frequency f as f - 5 / 3. This variability decreases when aggregate power fluctuations from geographically distributed wind farms are averaged at the grid via a mechanism known as geographic smoothing. Neither the f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum nor the mechanism of geographic smoothing are understood. In this work, we explain the wind power fluctuation spectrum from the turbine through grid scales. The f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum results from the largest length scales of atmospheric turbulence of order 200 km influencing the small scales where individual turbines operate. This long-range influence spatially couples geographically distributed wind farms and synchronizes farm outputs over a range of frequencies and decreases with increasing inter-farm distance. Consequently, aggregate grid-scale power fluctuations remain correlated, and are smoothed until they reach a limiting f - 7 / 3 spectrum. This work was funded by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Japan.
The role of the generalized Phillips' spectrum in wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newell, A.C.; Zakharov, V.E.
2008-01-01
We suggest the generalized Phillips' spectrum, which we define as that spectrum for which the statistical properties of wave turbulence inherit the symmetries of the original governing equations, is, in many circumstances, the spectrum which obtains in those regions of wavenumber space in which the Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra are no longer valid. This spectrum has many very special properties. We discuss its connection with the singularities which are associated with the whitecap events observed in windblown seas
Spin wave spectrum of magnetic nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, A.L.; Landeros, P.; Nunez, Alvaro S.
2010-01-01
We investigate the spin wave spectra associated to a vortex domain wall confined within a ferromagnetic nanotube. Basing our study upon a simple model for the energy functional we obtain the dispersion relation, the density of states and dissipation induced life-times of the spin wave excitations in presence of a magnetic domain wall. Our aim is to capture the basics spin wave physics behind the geometrical confinement of nobel magnetic textures.
A wave parameters and directional spectrum analysis for extreme winds
Montoya Ramírez, Rubén Darío; Osorio Arias, Andres Fernando; Ortiz Royero, Juan Carlos; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier
2013-01-01
In this research a comparison between two of the most popular ocean wave models, WAVEWATCH III™ and SWAN, was performed using data from hurricane Katrina in the Gulf of Mexico. The numerical simulation of sea surface directional wave spectrum and other wave parameters for several parameter- izations and its relation with the drag coefﬁcient was carried out. The simulated data were compared with in-situ NOAA buoy data. For most of the buoys, WAVEWATCH III™ presented the best statistical compar...
Shape of power spectrum of intermittent chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
So, B.C.; Mori, H.
1984-01-01
Power spectra of intermittent chaos are calculated analytically. It is found that the power spectrum near onset point consists of a large number of Lorentzian lines with two peaks around frequencies ω = 0 and ω = ω 0 , where ω 0 is a fundamental frequency of a periodic orbit before the onset point, and furthermore the envelope of lines around ω = 0 obeys the power law 1/ + ω +2 , whereas the envelope around ω 0 obeys 1/ + ω-ω 0 +4 . The universality of these power law dependence in a certain class of intermittent chaos are clarified from a phenomenological view point. (author)
A multimodal wave spectrum-based approach for statistical downscaling of local wave climate
Hegermiller, Christie; Antolinez, Jose A A; Rueda, Ana C.; Camus, Paula; Perez, Jorge; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Mendez, Fernando J.
2017-01-01
Characterization of wave climate by bulk wave parameters is insufficient for many coastal studies, including those focused on assessing coastal hazards and long-term wave climate influences on coastal evolution. This issue is particularly relevant for studies using statistical downscaling of atmospheric fields to local wave conditions, which are often multimodal in large ocean basins (e.g. the Pacific). Swell may be generated in vastly different wave generation regions, yielding complex wave spectra that are inadequately represented by a single set of bulk wave parameters. Furthermore, the relationship between atmospheric systems and local wave conditions is complicated by variations in arrival time of wave groups from different parts of the basin. Here, we address these two challenges by improving upon the spatiotemporal definition of the atmospheric predictor used in statistical downscaling of local wave climate. The improved methodology separates the local wave spectrum into “wave families,” defined by spectral peaks and discrete generation regions, and relates atmospheric conditions in distant regions of the ocean basin to local wave conditions by incorporating travel times computed from effective energy flux across the ocean basin. When applied to locations with multimodal wave spectra, including Southern California and Trujillo, Peru, the new methodology improves the ability of the statistical model to project significant wave height, peak period, and direction for each wave family, retaining more information from the full wave spectrum. This work is the base of statistical downscaling by weather types, which has recently been applied to coastal flooding and morphodynamic applications.
Orientation identification of the power spectrum
Rudnaya, M.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Maubach, J.M.L.
2010-01-01
The image Fourier transform is widely used for defocus and astigmatism correction in electron microscopy. The shape of a power spectrum (the square of a modulus of image Fourier transform) is directly related to the three microscope’s controls, namely defocus and two-fold (two-parameter)
Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, Oregon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Downie, Bruce [Project Manager
2013-10-21
Ocean wave power can be a significant source of large‐scale, renewable energy for the US electrical grid. The Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) conservatively estimated that 20% of all US electricity could be generated by wave energy. Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. (OPT), with funding from private sources and the US Navy, developed the PowerBuoy to generate renewable energy from the readily available power in ocean waves. OPT's PowerBuoy converts the energy in ocean waves to electricity using the rise and fall of waves to move the buoy up and down (mechanical stroking) which drives an electric generator. This electricity is then conditioned and transmitted ashore as high‐voltage power via underwater cable. OPT's wave power generation system includes sophisticated techniques to automatically tune the system for efficient conversion of random wave energy into low cost green electricity, for disconnecting the system in large waves for hardware safety and protection, and for automatically restoring operation when wave conditions normalize. As the first utility scale wave power project in the US, the Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, OR, will consist of 10 PowerBuoys located 2.5 miles off the coast. This U.S. Department of Energy Grant funding along with funding from PNGC Power, an Oregon‐based electric power cooperative, was utilized for the design completion, fabrication, assembly and factory testing of the first PowerBuoy for the Reedsport project. At this time, the design and fabrication of this first PowerBuoy and factory testing of the power take‐off subsystem are complete; additionally the power take‐off subsystem has been successfully integrated into the spar.
Shallow water effects on wave energy converters with hydraulic power take-off system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashank Sinha
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of water depth on the power absorption by a single heaving point absorber wave energy converter, attached to a hydraulic power take-off system, is simulated and analysed. The wave energy flux for changing water depths is presented and the study is carried out at a location in the north-west Portuguese coast, favourable for wave power generation. This analysis is based on a procedure to modify the wave spectrum as the water depth reduces, namely, the TMA spectrum (Transformation spectrum. The present study deals with the effect of water depth on the spectral shape and significant wave heights. The reactive control strategy, which includes an external damping coefficient and a negative spring term, is used to maximize power absorption by the wave energy converter. The presented work can be used for making decisions regarding the best water depth for the installation of point absorber wave energy converters in the Portuguese nearshore.
Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.
Castañeda, Román
2016-09-01
The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices.
Analytic moment method calculations of the drift wave spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thayer, D.R.; Molvig, K.
1985-11-01
A derivation and approximate solution of renormalized mode coupling equations describing the turbulent drift wave spectrum is presented. Arguments are given which indicate that a weak turbulence formulation of the spectrum equations fails for a system with negative dissipation. The inadequacy of the weak turbulence theory is circumvented by utilizing a renormalized formation. An analytic moment method is developed to approximate the solution of the nonlinear spectrum integral equations. The solution method employs trial functions to reduce the integral equations to algebraic equations in basic parameters describing the spectrum. An approximate solution of the spectrum equations is first obtained for a mode dissipation with known solution, and second for an electron dissipation in the NSA
Buoy-Rope-Drum Wave Power System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linsen Zhu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A buoy-rope-drum wave power system is a new type of floating oscillating buoy wave power device, which absorbs energy from waves by buoy-rope-drum device. Based on the linear deep water wave theory and pure resistive load, with cylinder buoy as an example, the research sets up the theoretical model of direct-drive buoy-rope-drum wave power efficiency and analyzes the influence of the mass and load of the system on its generating efficiency. It points out the two main categories of the efficient buoy-rope-drum wave power system: light thin type and resonance type, and optimal designs of their major parameters are carried out on the basis of the above theoretical model of generating efficiency.
Millimetre Wave Rotational Spectrum of Glycolic Acid
Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczolkowski, Lech; Bialkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Charnley, Steven B.
2016-01-01
The pure rotational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, was studied in the region 115-318 GHz. For the most stable SSC conformer, transitions in all vibrational states up to 400 cm(exp -1) have been measured and their analysis is reported. The data sets for the ground state, v21 = 1, and v21 = 2 have been considerably extended. Immediately higher in vibrational energy are two triads of interacting vibrational states and their rotational transitions have been assigned and successfully fitted with coupled Hamiltonians accounting for Fermi and Coriolis resonances. The derived energy level spacings establish that the vibrational frequency of the v21 mode is close to 100 cm(exp -1). The existence of the less stable AAT conformer in the near 50 C sample used in our experiment was also confirmed and additional transitions have been measured.
Influence of the Alfven wave spectrum on the scrape-off layer of the TCA tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, Y.; Hollenstein, C.
1989-01-01
The study of the scrape-off layer (SOL) during Alfven wave heating may lead to a better understanding of the antenna-plasma interaction. The scrape-off layer of the TCA tokamak has been widely investigated by means of Langmuir probes. The aim of this work is to present measurements on the influence of the Alfven wave spectrum on the scrape-off layer. These experiments have shown that the plasma boundary layer is strongly affected by the wave field, in particular the ion saturation current and the floating potential. In TCA, as the spectrum evolves due to a density rise, the passage of the Alfven continua and their associated eigenmodes, the Discrete Alfven Wave (DAW) induces a strong depletion in the edge density of up to 70% during the continuum part and a density increase during the crossing of an eigenmode. The floating potential becomes negative during the continua and even more negative crossing the eigenmodes. In case of MHD mode activity, this behaviour changes for power exceeding 100 kW. The profiles of basic parameters are modified, depending on the wave spectrum. MHD mode activity which can occur during the RF (radio frequency) phase considerably alters the behaviour mentioned above. Finally, the modulation of the RF power allows us to characterize the coupling between RF power and typical edge parameters. (orig.)
The power spectrum of inflationary attractors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broy, Benedict J.; Westphal, Alexander; Roest, Diederik
2014-08-01
Inflationary attractors predict the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio to take specific values that are consistent with Planck. An example is the universal attractor for models with a generalised non-minimal coupling, leading to Starobinsky inflation. In this letter we demonstrate that it also predicts a specific relation between the amplitude of the power spectrum and the number of e-folds. The length and height of the inflationary plateau are related via the non-minimal coupling: in a wide variety of examples, the observed power normalisation leads to at least 55 flat e-foldings. Prior to this phase, the inflationary predictions vary and can account for the observational indications of power loss at large angular scales.
Reheating signature in the gravitational wave spectrum from self-ordering scalar fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuroyanagi, Sachiko [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hiramatsu, Takashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Jun' ichi, E-mail: skuro@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: hiramatz@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan (Japan)
2016-02-01
We investigate the imprint of reheating on the gravitational wave spectrum produced by self-ordering of multi-component scalar fields after a global phase transition. The equation of state of the Universe during reheating, which usually has different behaviour from that of a radiation-dominated Universe, affects the evolution of gravitational waves through the Hubble expansion term in the equations of motion. This gives rise to a different power-law behavior of frequency in the gravitational wave spectrum. The reheating history is therefore imprinted in the shape of the spectrum. We perform 512{sup 3} lattice simulations to investigate how the ordering scalar field reacts to the change of the Hubble expansion and how the reheating effect arises in the spectrum. We also compare the result with inflation-produced gravitational waves, which has a similar spectral shape, and discuss whether it is possible to distinguish the origin between inflation and global phase transition by detecting the shape with future direct detection gravitational wave experiments such as DECIGO.
Testing Rastall's theory using matter power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batista, C.E.M.; Fabris, J.C.; Daouda, M.H.
2010-01-01
Rastall's theory is a modification of the General Relativity theory leading to a different expression for the conservation law in the matter sector compared with the usual one. It has been argued recently that such a theory may have applications to the dark energy problem, since a pressureless fluid may lead to an accelerated universe. In the present work we confront Rastall's theory with the power spectrum data. The results indicate a configuration that essentially reduces Rastall's theory to General Relativity, unless the non-usual conservation law refers to a scalar field, situation where other configurations are eventually possible.
On the dynamics of the power spectrum during lower hybrid current drive in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bizarro, J.P.
1993-01-01
An investigation is provided on the propagation and absorption of the power spectrum during lower hybrid current drive in Tokamaks. A combined ray tracing and Fokker-Planck code is utilized and stochastic effects induced by toroidicity are correctly taken into account by using a large number of rays. It is shown that when strong wave damping prevails the absorbed spectrum is very similar in shape to the launched one, although some broadening and shifting in parallel wave index generally occur, and power deposition is localized. If the wave damping is weak and stochastic effects are important, rays end up sweeping the entire plasma cross-section, power deposition turns out to be extended, and the absorbed spectrum is much broader than the launched one
Power spectrum analysis for defect screening in integrated circuit devices
Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole Jr., Edward I.; Stein, David J.
2011-12-01
A device sample is screened for defects using its power spectrum in response to a dynamic stimulus. The device sample receives a time-varying electrical signal. The power spectrum of the device sample is measured at one of the pins of the device sample. A defect in the device sample can be identified based on results of comparing the power spectrum with one or more power spectra of the device that have a known defect status.
Wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters
Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul
2016-06-01
Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.
Influence of the Alfven wave spectrum on the scrape-off layer of the TCA tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, Y.; Hollenstein, Ch.
1988-01-01
The study of the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) during Alfven wave heating may lead to a better understanding of the antenna-plasma interaction. The SOL of the TCA tokamak has been widely investigated by means of Langmuir probes. The aim of the present work is to present in detail the influence of the Alfven wave spectrum on the SOL. The experiments have shown that the plasma boundary layer is strongly affected by the RF, in particular the ion density, the electron temperature and the floating potential. In TCA, as the spectrum evolves due to a density rise, the passage of the Alfven continua and their associated eigenmodes (DAW) induces a strong depletion in the edge density of up to 70% during the continuum part and a density increase during the crossing of an eigenmode. The floating potential becomes negative during the continua and even more negative crossing the eigenmodes. This behaviour changes as a function of the power transmitted to the plasma through the antennae, especially we have found with MHD modes a change around 100 kW. The profiles of the basic parameters are modified, depending on the wave spectrum. MHD mode activity which can occur during the RF phase considerably alters the behaviour mentioned above. Finally, the modulation of the RF power allows us to characterize the difference in coupling, for the continua and the eigenmodes, between the Alfven wave field and the scrape-off layer. (author) 5 figs., 6 refs
The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmueller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K.
2013-05-01
Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying Ω GW h 2 ∝10 -13 -10 -8 , much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO and BBO/DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.
The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchmueller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Schmitz, K. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI)
2013-05-15
Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying {Omega}{sub GW}h{sup 2}{proportional_to}10{sup -13}-10{sup -8}, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO and BBO/DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aistov, A.V.; Gavrilenko, V.G.
1996-01-01
The normal incidence of a small-amplitude electromagnetic wave upon a semi-infinite turbulent collisional plasm with an oblique external magnetic field is considered. Within a small-angle-scattering approximation of the radiative transport theory, a system of differential equations is derived for statistical moments of the angular power spectrum of radiation. The dependences of the spectrum centroid, dispersion, and asymmetry on the depth of penetration are studied numerically. The nonmonotonic behavior of the dispersion is revealed, and an increase in the spectrum width with absorption anisotropy is found within some depth interval. It is shown that, at large depths, the direction of the displacement of the spectrum centroid, does not always coincide with the direction of minimum absorption
Power Generation Using Mechanical Wave Energy Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srinivasan Chandrasekaran
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Ocean wave energy plays a significant role in meeting the growing demand of electric power. Economic, environmental, and technical advantages of wave energy set it apart from other renewable energy resources. Present study describes a newly proposed Mechanical Wave Energy Converter (MEWC that is employed to harness heave motion of floating buoy to generate power. Focus is on the conceptual development of the device, illustrating details of component level analysis. Employed methodology has many advantages such as i simple and easy fabrication; ii easy to control the operations during rough weather; and iii low failure rate during normal sea conditions. Experimental investigations carried out on the scaled model of MWEC show better performance and its capability to generate power at higher efficiency in regular wave fields. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA shows rare failure rates for all components except the floating buoy.
Variability of the Magnetic Field Power Spectrum in the Solar Wind at Electron Scales
Roberts, Owen Wyn; Alexandrova, O.; Kajdič, P.; Turc, L.; Perrone, D.; Escoubet, C. P.; Walsh, A.
2017-12-01
At electron scales, the power spectrum of solar-wind magnetic fluctuations can be highly variable and the dissipation mechanisms of the magnetic energy into the various particle species is under debate. In this paper, we investigate data from the Cluster mission’s STAFF Search Coil magnetometer when the level of turbulence is sufficiently high that the morphology of the power spectrum at electron scales can be investigated. The Cluster spacecraft sample a disturbed interval of plasma where two streams of solar wind interact. Meanwhile, several discontinuities (coherent structures) are seen in the large-scale magnetic field, while at small scales several intermittent bursts of wave activity (whistler waves) are present. Several different morphologies of the power spectrum can be identified: (1) two power laws separated by a break, (2) an exponential cutoff near the Taylor shifted electron scales, and (3) strong spectral knees at the Taylor shifted electron scales. These different morphologies are investigated by using wavelet coherence, showing that, in this interval, a clear break and strong spectral knees are features that are associated with sporadic quasi parallel propagating whistler waves, even for short times. On the other hand, when no signatures of whistler waves at ∼ 0.1{--}0.2{f}{ce} are present, a clear break is difficult to find and the spectrum is often more characteristic of a power law with an exponential cutoff.
Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies
Ofman, L.
2010-01-01
Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.
Ofman, Leon; Ozak, Nataly; Vinas, Adolfo F.
2016-01-01
Near the Sun (plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super- Alfvenic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.
Impact of dissipation on the energy spectrum of experimental turbulence of gravity surface waves
Campagne, Antoine; Hassaini, Roumaissa; Redor, Ivan; Sommeria, Joël; Valran, Thomas; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas
2018-04-01
We discuss the impact of dissipation on the development of the energy spectrum in wave turbulence of gravity surface waves with emphasis on the effect of surface contamination. We performed experiments in the Coriolis facility, which is a 13-m-diam wave tank. We took care of cleaning surface contamination as well as possible, considering that the surface of water exceeds 100 m2. We observe that for the cleanest condition the frequency energy spectrum shows a power-law decay extending up to the gravity capillary crossover (14 Hz) with a spectral exponent that is increasing with the forcing strength and decaying with surface contamination. Although slightly higher than reported previously in the literature, the exponent for the cleanest water remains significantly below the prediction from the weak turbulence theory. By discussing length and time scales, we show that weak turbulence cannot be expected at frequencies above 3 Hz. We observe with a stereoscopic reconstruction technique that the increase with the forcing strength of energy spectrum beyond 3 Hz is mostly due to the formation and strengthening of bound waves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ofman, Leon, E-mail: Leon.Ofman@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Visiting, Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ozak, Nataly [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)
2016-03-25
Near the Sun (< 10R{sub s}) the acceleration, heating, and propagation of the solar wind are likely affected by the background inhomogeneities of the magnetized plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super-Alfvénic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.
Modeling the Complete Gravitational Wave Spectrum of Neutron Star Mergers.
Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Nagar, Alessandro
2015-08-28
In the context of neutron star mergers, we study the gravitational wave spectrum of the merger remnant using numerical relativity simulations. Postmerger spectra are characterized by a main peak frequency f2 related to the particular structure and dynamics of the remnant hot hypermassive neutron star. We show that f(2) is correlated with the tidal coupling constant κ(2)^T that characterizes the binary tidal interactions during the late-inspiral merger. The relation f(2)(κ(2)^T) depends very weakly on the binary total mass, mass ratio, equation of state, and thermal effects. This observation opens up the possibility of developing a model of the gravitational spectrum of every merger unifying the late-inspiral and postmerger descriptions.
Wind speed power spectrum analysis for Bushland, Texas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eggleston, E.D. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX (United States)
1996-12-31
Numerous papers and publications on wind turbulence have referenced the wind speed spectrum presented by Isaac Van der Hoven in his article entitled Power Spectrum of Horizontal Wind Speed Spectrum in the Frequency Range from 0.0007 to 900 Cycles per Hour. Van der Hoven used data measured at different heights between 91 and 125 meters above the ground, and represented the high frequency end of the spectrum with data from the peak hour of hurricane Connie. These facts suggest we should question the use of his power spectrum in the wind industry. During the USDA - Agricultural Research Service`s investigation of wind/diesel system power storage, using the appropriate wind speed power spectrum became a significant issue. We developed a power spectrum from 13 years of hourly average data, 1 year of 5 minute average data, and 2 particularly gusty day`s 1 second average data all collected at a height of 10 meters. While the general shape is similar to the Van der Hoven spectrum, few of his peaks were found in the Bushland spectrum. While higher average wind speeds tend to suggest higher amplitudes in the high frequency end of the spectrum, this is not always true. Also, the high frequency end of the spectrum is not accurately described by simple wind statistics such as standard deviation and turbulence intensity. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Oscillations and waves in a spatially distributed system with a 1/f spectrum
Koverda, V. P.; Skokov, V. N.
2018-02-01
A spatially distributed system with a 1/f power spectrum is described by two nonlinear stochastic equations. Conditions for the formation of auto-oscillations have been found using numerical methods. The formation of a 1/f and 1/k spectrum simultaneously with the formation and motion of waves under the action of white noise has been demonstrated. The large extreme fluctuations with 1/f and 1/k spectra correspond to the maximum entropy, which points to the stability of such processes. It is shown that on the background of formation and motion of waves at an external periodic action there appears spatio-temporal stochastic resonance, at which one can observe the expansion of the region of periodic pulsations under the action of white noise.
Slow-roll inflation and BB-mode angular power spectrum of CMB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malsawmtluangi, N.; Suresh, P.K. [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India)
2016-05-15
The BB-mode correlation angular power spectrum of CMB is obtained by considering the primordial gravitational waves in the squeezed vacuum state for various inflationary models and results are compared with the joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck 353 GHz data. The present results may constrain several models of inflation. (orig.)
Electron Acceleration by High Power Radio Waves in the Ionosphere
Bernhardt, Paul
2012-10-01
At the highest ERP of the High Altitude Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, high frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves in the ionosphere produce artificial aurora and electron-ion plasma layers. Using HAARP, electrons are accelerated by high power electrostatic (ES) waves to energies >100 times the thermal temperature of the ambient plasma. These ES waves are driven by decay of the pump EM wave tuned to plasma resonances. The most efficient acceleration process occurs near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in earth's magnetic field. Mode conversion plays a role in transforming the ES waves into EM signals that are recorded with ground receivers. These diagnostic waves, called stimulated EM emissions (SEE), show unique resonant signatures of the strongest electron acceleration. This SEE also provides clues about the ES waves responsible for electron acceleration. The electron gas is accelerated by high frequency modes including Langmuir (electron plasma), upper hybrid, and electron Bernstein waves. All of these waves have been identified in the scattered EM spectra as downshifted sidebands of the EM pump frequency. Parametric decay is responsible low frequency companion modes such as ion acoustic, lower hybrid, and ion Bernstein waves. The temporal evolution of the scattered EM spectrum indicates development of field aligned irregularities that aid the mode conversion process. The onset of certain spectral features is strongly correlated with glow plasma discharge structures that are both visible with the unaided eye and detectable using radio backscatter techniques at HF and UHF frequencies. The primary goals are to understand natural plasma layers, to study basic plasma physics in a unique ``laboratory with walls,'' and to create artificial plasma structures that can aid radio communications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iglesias, G.; Carballo, R. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Hydraulic Eng., EPS, Campus Univ. s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain)
2010-12-15
The island of La Palma (Spain), dubbed La Isla Bonita for its beauty, is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in the Atlantic Ocean. The island's authorities are aiming for energy self-sufficiency based on wave energy and other renewables. In this research its wave resource is investigated using a 44-years hindcast dataset obtained through numerical modelling and validated with wave buoy records. First, its distribution around La Palma is studied. Significant variations are found, with the largest resource occurring off the north and northwest coasts; the northwest presents operational advantages (proximity to a port). Second, the seasonal variations in this area are studied. Wave energy is provided essentially by powerful NNW-NW swells in winter and autumn, by less energetic NNE-N waves in summer and spring. Finally, the resource is characterised in terms of sea states; it is found that the bulk of the energy is provided by waves between 9.5 s and 13.5 s of energy period and 1.5 m and 3.5 m of significant wave height, so the selection of the Wave Energy Converters to be installed should guarantee maximum efficiency in these ranges. (author)
Probing dark energy using convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dinda, Bikash R., E-mail: bikash@ctp-jamia.res.in [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)
2017-09-01
Weak lensing convergence statistics is a powerful tool to probe dark energy. Dark energy plays an important role to the structure formation and the effects can be detected through the convergence power spectrum, bi-spectrum etc. One of the most promising and simplest dark energy model is the ΛCDM . However, it is worth investigating different dark energy models with evolving equation of state of the dark energy. In this work, detectability of different dark energy models from ΛCDM model has been explored through convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum.
Estimating the Crustal Power Spectrum From Vector Magsat Data: Crustal Power Spectrum
Lowe, David A. J.; Parker, Robert L.; Purucker, Michael E.; Constable, Catherine G.
2000-01-01
The Earth's magnetic field can be subdivided into core and crustal components and we seek to characterize the crustal part through its spatial power spectrum (R(sub l)). We process vector Magsat data to isolate the crustal field and then invert power spectral densities of flight-local components along-track for R(sub l) following O'Brien et al. [1999]. Our model (LPPC) is accurate up to approximately degree 45 (lambda=900 km) - this is the resolution limit of our data and suggests that global crustal anomaly maps constructed from vector Magsat data should not contain features with wavelengths less than 900 km. We find continental power spectra to be greater than oceanic ones and attribute this to the relative thicknesses of continental and oceanic crust.
Wave energy and its possibilities in the Danish power supplies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Traeholt Madsen, N.; Lorenzen, S.; Haunstrup Christensen, T.
1997-06-01
Mathematical theory of wave forces (wave height, spectrua, energy distribution and effect) is summarized. An attempt to estimate the Danish wave power potential on the basis of previous investigations og wave effect in various regions is presented. A brief review of wave energy applications and research constitutes basis for two scenarios of wave power adjustment into the 'Green society'. Power quality, environment, economics and supply reliability are estimated. (EG) 42 refs
Ocean wave characteristic in the Sunda Strait using Wave Spectrum Model
Rachmayani, R.; Ningsih, N. S.; Adiprabowo, S. R.; Nurfitri, S.
2018-03-01
The wave characteristics including significant wave height and direction, seas and swell in the Sunda Strait are analyzed seasonally to provide marine weather information. This is crucial for establishing secured marine activities between islands of Sumatera and Java. Ocean wave characteristics in the Sunda Strait are simulated for one year (July 1996–June 1977) by using SWAN numerical model. The ocean wave characteristics in the Sunda Strait are divided into three areas of interest; southern, centre and northern part of the Sunda Strait. Despite a weaker local wind, the maximum significant wave height is captured at the southern part with its height of 2.6 m in November compared to other seasonally months. This is associated with the dominated swell from the Indian Ocean contributes on wave energy toward the Sunda Strait. The 2D spectrum analysis exhibits the monthly wave characteristic at southern part that is dominated by seas along the year and swell propagating from the Indian Ocean to the Sunda Strait during December to February (northwest monsoon), May, and November. Seas and swell at northern part of the Sunda Strait are apprehended weaker compared to other parts of the Sunda Strait due to its location is farther from the Indian Ocean.
Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K; Paget, C
2011-01-01
The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.
Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 2AA (United Kingdom); Paget, C, E-mail: kurala@cardiff.ac.uk [Airbus Operations Ltd, New Filton Road, BS99 7AR Bristol (United Kingdom)
2011-07-19
The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.
Microstrip natural wave spectrum mathematical model using partial inversion method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pogarsky, S.A.; Litvinenko, L.N.; Prosvirnin, S.L.
1995-01-01
It is generally agreed that both microstrip lines itself and different discontinuities based on microstrips are the most difficult problem for accurate electrodynamic analysis. Over the last years much has been published about principles and accurate (or full wave) methods of microstrip lines investigations. The growing interest for this problem may be explained by the microstrip application in the millimeter-wave range for purpose of realizing interconnects and a variety of passive components. At these higher operating rating frequencies accurate component modeling becomes more critical. A creation, examination and experimental verification of the accurate method for planar electrodynamical structures natural wave spectrum investigations are the objects of this manuscript. The moment method with partial inversion operator method using may be considered as a basical way for solving this problem. This method is outlook for accurate analysis of different planar discontinuities in microstrip: such as step discontinuities, microstrip turns, Y- and X-junctions and etc., substrate space steps dielectric constants and other anisotropy types
All-sky analysis of the general relativistic galaxy power spectrum
Yoo, Jaiyul; Desjacques, Vincent
2013-07-01
We perform an all-sky analysis of the general relativistic galaxy power spectrum using the well-developed spherical Fourier decomposition. Spherical Fourier analysis expresses the observed galaxy fluctuation in terms of the spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions that are angular and radial eigenfunctions of the Helmholtz equation, providing a natural orthogonal basis for all-sky analysis of the large-scale mode measurements. Accounting for all the relativistic effects in galaxy clustering, we compute the spherical power spectrum and its covariance matrix and compare it to the standard three-dimensional power spectrum to establish a connection. The spherical power spectrum recovers the three-dimensional power spectrum at each wave number k with its angular dependence μk encoded in angular multipole l, and the contributions of the line-of-sight projection to galaxy clustering such as the gravitational lensing effect can be readily accommodated in the spherical Fourier analysis. A complete list of formulas for computing the relativistic spherical galaxy power spectrum is also presented.
THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY 21 cm POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobs, Daniel C.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bowman, Judd D. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Hazelton, B. J.; Sullivan, I. S.; Barry, N.; Carroll, P. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Trott, C. M.; Pindor, B.; Briggs, F.; Gaensler, B. M. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Dillon, Joshua S.; Oliveira-Costa, A. de; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pober, J. C. [Brown University, Department of Physics, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Bernardi, G. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Emrich, D., E-mail: daniel.c.jacobs@asu.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); and others
2016-07-10
We present the 21 cm power spectrum analysis approach of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization project. In this paper, we compare the outputs of multiple pipelines for the purpose of validating statistical limits cosmological hydrogen at redshifts between 6 and 12. Multiple independent data calibration and reduction pipelines are used to make power spectrum limits on a fiducial night of data. Comparing the outputs of imaging and power spectrum stages highlights differences in calibration, foreground subtraction, and power spectrum calculation. The power spectra found using these different methods span a space defined by the various tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and systematic control. Lessons learned from comparing the pipelines range from the algorithmic to the prosaically mundane; all demonstrate the many pitfalls of neglecting reproducibility. We briefly discuss the way these different methods attempt to handle the question of evaluating a significant detection in the presence of foregrounds.
Time-dependent spectrum analysis of high power gyrotrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlaich, Andreas
2015-01-01
In this work, an investigation of vacuum electronic oscillators capable of generating multi-megawatt continuous wave output power in the millimeter-wave range (so-called gyrotrons) through spectral measurements is presented. The centerpiece is the development of a measurement system with a high dynamic range (50-60 dB) for time-dependent spectrum analysis, covering the frequency range 100-170 GHz with instantaneous bandwidths of 6-12 GHz. Despite relying on heterodyne reception through harmonic mixers, the Pulse Spectrum Analysis (PSA) system maintains RF unambiguity in the spectrogram output through the application of a novel RF reconstruction technique. Using the new possibilities, a wide range of spectral phenomena in gyrotrons has been investigated, such as cavity mode jumps, lowfrequency modulation, frequency tuning in long pulses and the spectral behavior during the presence of an RF window arc. A dedicated investigation on parasitic RF oscillations in W7-X gyrotrons combining several analysis techniques led to the conclusion that after-cavity oscillations can be physical reality in high power gyrotrons, and are the probable cause for the undesired signals observed. Apart from systematic parameter sweeps using the PSA system, an analytical dispersion analysis in the Brillouin diagram was applied, and numerical gyrotron interaction simulations of unprecedented extent were conducted. Furthermore, the improved frequency measurement capabilities were employed to analyze the frequency tuning through thermal expansion and electrostatic neutralization caused by ionization inside the tube in long-pulse operation. By macroscopically modeling the gas dynamics and ionization processes in combination with a fitting process, the time dependences of the two processes could be investigated. In doing so, indication was found that the neutralization in W7-X gyrotrons amounts to only 60% of the electrostatic depression voltage, instead of 100% as widely believed for
Time-dependent spectrum analysis of high power gyrotrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlaich, Andreas
2015-07-01
In this work, an investigation of vacuum electronic oscillators capable of generating multi-megawatt continuous wave output power in the millimeter-wave range (so-called gyrotrons) through spectral measurements is presented. The centerpiece is the development of a measurement system with a high dynamic range (50-60 dB) for time-dependent spectrum analysis, covering the frequency range 100-170 GHz with instantaneous bandwidths of 6-12 GHz. Despite relying on heterodyne reception through harmonic mixers, the Pulse Spectrum Analysis (PSA) system maintains RF unambiguity in the spectrogram output through the application of a novel RF reconstruction technique. Using the new possibilities, a wide range of spectral phenomena in gyrotrons has been investigated, such as cavity mode jumps, lowfrequency modulation, frequency tuning in long pulses and the spectral behavior during the presence of an RF window arc. A dedicated investigation on parasitic RF oscillations in W7-X gyrotrons combining several analysis techniques led to the conclusion that after-cavity oscillations can be physical reality in high power gyrotrons, and are the probable cause for the undesired signals observed. Apart from systematic parameter sweeps using the PSA system, an analytical dispersion analysis in the Brillouin diagram was applied, and numerical gyrotron interaction simulations of unprecedented extent were conducted. Furthermore, the improved frequency measurement capabilities were employed to analyze the frequency tuning through thermal expansion and electrostatic neutralization caused by ionization inside the tube in long-pulse operation. By macroscopically modeling the gas dynamics and ionization processes in combination with a fitting process, the time dependences of the two processes could be investigated. In doing so, indication was found that the neutralization in W7-X gyrotrons amounts to only 60% of the electrostatic depression voltage, instead of 100% as widely believed for
Imprint of spatial curvature on inflation power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masso, Eduard; Zsembinszki, Gabriel; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh
2008-01-01
If the Universe had a large curvature before inflation there is a deviation from the scale invariant perturbations of the inflaton at the beginning of inflation. This may have some effect on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy at large angular scales. We calculate the density perturbations for both open and closed universe cases using the Bunch-Davies vacuum condition on the initial state. We use our power spectrum to calculate the temperature anisotropy spectrum and compare the results with the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy map five year data. We find that our power spectrum gives a lower quadrupole anisotropy when Ω-1>0, but matches the temperature anisotropy calculated from the standard Ratra-Peebles power spectrum at large l. The determination of spatial curvature from temperature anisotropy data is not much affected by the different power spectra which arise from the choice of different boundary conditions for the inflaton perturbation.
Anisotropic power spectrum of refractive-index fluctuation in hypersonic turbulence.
Li, Jiangting; Yang, Shaofei; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Mingjian
2016-11-10
An anisotropic power spectrum of the refractive-index fluctuation in hypersonic turbulence was obtained by processing the experimental image of the hypersonic plasma sheath and transforming the generalized anisotropic von Kármán spectrum. The power spectrum suggested here can provide as good a fit to measured spectrum data for hypersonic turbulence as that recorded from the nano-planar laser scattering image. Based on the newfound anisotropic hypersonic turbulence power spectrum, Rytov approximation was employed to establish the wave structure function and the spatial coherence radius model of electromagnetic beam propagation in hypersonic turbulence. Enhancing the anisotropy characteristics of the hypersonic turbulence led to a significant improvement in the propagation performance of electromagnetic beams in hypersonic plasma sheath. The influence of hypersonic turbulence on electromagnetic beams increases with the increase of variance of the refractive-index fluctuation and the decrease of turbulence outer scale and anisotropy parameters. The spatial coherence radius was much smaller than that in atmospheric turbulence. These results are fundamental to understanding electromagnetic wave propagation in hypersonic turbulence.
O Electromagnetic Power Waves and Power Density Components.
Petzold, Donald Wayne
1980-12-01
On January 10, 1884 Lord Rayleigh presented a paper entitled "On the Transfer of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field" to the Royal Society of London. This paper had been authored by the late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, Professor J. H. Poynting and in it he claimed that there was a general law for the transfer of electromagnetic energy. He argued that associated with each point in space is a quantity, that has since been called the Poynting vector, that is a measure of the rate of energy flow per unit area. His analysis was concerned with the integration of this power density vector at all points over an enclosing surface of a specific volume. The interpretation of this Poynting vector as a true measure of the local power density was viewed with great skepticism unless the vector was integrated over a closed surface, as the development of the concept required. However, within the last decade or so Shadowitz indicates that a number of prominent authors have argued that the criticism of the interpretation of Poynting's vector as a local power density vector is unjustified. The present paper is not concerned with these arguments but instead is concerned with a decomposition of Poynting's power density vector into two and only two components: one vector which has the same direction as Poynting's vector and which is called the forward power density vector, and another vector, directed opposite to the Poynting vector and called the reverse power density vector. These new local forward and reverse power density vectors will be shown to be dependent upon forward and reverse power wave vectors and these vectors in turn will be related to newly defined forward and reverse components of the electric and magnetic fields. The sum of these forward and reverse power density vectors, which is simply the original Poynting vector, is associated with the total electromagnetic energy traveling past the local point. Another vector which is the difference between the forward
Collective behaviour of linear perturbation waves observed through the energy density spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scarsoglio, S [Department of Water Engineering, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); De Santi, F; Tordella, D, E-mail: stefania.scarsoglio@polito.it [Department of Aeronautics and Space Engineering, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)
2011-12-22
We consider the collective behaviour of small three-dimensional transient perturbations in sheared flows. In particular, we observe their varied life history through the temporal evolution of the amplification factor. The spectrum of wave vectors considered fills the range from the size of the external flow scale to the size of the very short dissipative waves. We observe that the amplification factor distribution is scale-invariant. In the condition we analyze, the system is subject to all the physical processes included in the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. With the exception of the nonlinear interaction, these features are the same as those characterizing the turbulent state. The linearized perturbative system offers a great variety of different transient behaviours associated to the parameter combination present in the initial conditions. For the energy spectrum computed by freezing each wave at the instant where its asymptotic condition is met, we ask whether this system is able to show a power-law scaling analogous to the Kolmogorov argument. At the moment, for at least two typical shear flows, the bluff-body wake and the plane Poiseuille flow, the answer is yes.
1/f noise in music and speech. [Power spectrum studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voss, R.F.; Clarke, J.
1975-11-27
The power spectrum, S(f), of many fluctuating physical variables, V(t), is approximately ''1/f-like.'' Loudness fluctuations in music and speech and pitch (melody) fluctuations in music were found to exhibit 1/f power spectra. This observation has implications for stochastic music composition. 3 figures. (RWR)
A flowsheet for a wave power unit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobierajski, E.; Kasperowicz, Z.
1984-01-01
A flowsheet is examined for a wave power unit designed to produce electricity, for flooding or drying a coastal zone, cleaning or protecting water areas of ports from sand deposits. The unit includes a vertical cylinder attached to the sea floor with input and output water ducts and valves. The cylinder has a rod with piston that is actuated through a flexible cable by float arranged next to the cylinder. The water injected under pressure into the pressure pipe can be used directly or as an intermediate energy source.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Masayasu; Yokomizo, Hideaki
1987-11-01
The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is dominated from supra-thermal electron in discharge applying LH wave. We obtain informations of supra-thermal electron by applying the model of the relativistic anti-loss-cone distribution to ECE spectrum in the discharge. In this model, the emission perpendicular to the magnetic field are considered. The frequency range is considered to be well above the plasma and electron cyclotron frequencies, thus collective effects can be neglected. The electron distribution is assumed to be anisotropic in the velocity space and strongly extended in the direction parallel to the magnetic field, namely the relativistic anti-loss-cone distribution. The informations of supra-thermal electron are obtained by the following way. The temperature and density of the supra-thermal electron and the anti-loss-cone angle are obtained from the power spectrum of LH wave launched, the measured slope of the spectrum of ECE and the spectral radiance of ECE. (author)
Power/response spectrum transformations in equipment qualification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unruh, J.F.; Kana, D.D.
1985-01-01
Since its introduction a few years ago the use of the power/response spectrum transformation has gained considerable interest and acceptance, and a number of new applications of the transformation have been developed in the equipment qualification area. A brief review of the power/response spectrum transformation is given with a discussion of the input/output relationships for linear systems required for elevated power spectrum generation. Frequency content of earthquakelike signals is discussed with emphasis on the resolution given by the PSD. The problem of excessive ZPA due to inconsistent spectra enveloping and mechanical nonlinearities is also discussed. The PSD/RS transformation is applied to the problems of combining various dynamic load events, developing bounding spectra, and developing damping consistent test spectra. Development of elevated component spectra corrected for base overtest and generation from in-situ measurements is reviewed
Signature of short distance physics on inflation power spectrum and CMB anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Suratna; Mohanty, Subhendra
2009-01-01
The inflaton field responsible for inflation may not be a canonical fundamental scalar. It is possible that the inflaton is a composite of fermions or it may have a decay width. In these cases the standard procedure for calculating the power spectrum is not applicable and a new formalism needs to be developed to determine the effect of short range interactions of the inflaton on the power spectrum and the CMB anisotropy. We develop a general formalism for computing the power spectrum of curvature perturbations for such non-canonical cases by using the flat space Källén-Lehmann spectral function in curved quasi-de Sitter space assuming implicitly that the Bunch-Davis boundary conditions enforces the inflaton mode functions to be plane wave in the short wavelength limit and a complete set of mode functions exists in quasi-de Sitter space. It is observed that the inflaton with a decay width suppresses the power at large scale while a composite inflaton's power spectrum oscillates at large scales. These observations may be vindicated in the WMAP data and confirmed by future observations with PLANCK
Effect of water depth on wind-wave frequency spectrum I. Spectral form
Wen, Sheng-Chang; Guan, Chang-Long; Sun, Shi-Cai; Wu, Ke-Jian; Zhang, Da-Cuo
1996-06-01
Wen et al's method developed to obtain wind-wave frequency spectrum in deep water was used to derive the spectrum in finite depth water. The spectrum S(ω) (ω being angular frequency) when normalized with the zeroth moment m 0 and peak frequency {ie97-1}, contains in addition to the peakness factor {ie97-2} a depth parameter η=(2π m o)1/2/ d ( d being water depth), so the spectrum behavior can be studied for different wave growth stages and water depths.
On the nonlinear shaping mechanism for gravity wave spectrum in the atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. P. Chunchuzov
2009-11-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear mechanism of shaping of a high vertical wave number spectral tail in the field of a few discrete internal gravity waves in the atmosphere is studied in this paper. The effects of advection of fluid parcels by interacting gravity waves are taken strictly into account by calculating wave field in Lagrangian variables, and performing a variable transformation from Lagrangian to Eulerian frame. The vertical profiles and vertical wave number spectra of the Eulerian displacement field are obtained for both the case of resonant and non-resonant wave-wave interactions. The evolution of these spectra with growing parameter of nonlinearity of the internal wave field is studied and compared to that of a broad band spectrum of gravity waves with randomly independent amplitudes and phases. The calculated vertical wave number spectra of the vertical displacements or relative temperature fluctuations are found to be consistent with the observed spectra in the middle atmosphere.
Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.
2009-01-01
A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...... producing electrical power. Through air chambers it is possible to control the level of the WD. It is important to control the level in order to maximize the power production in proportion to the wave height, here the amount of overtopping water and the amount of potential energy is conflicting...
Weak lensing of the cosmic microwave background: Power spectrum covariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooray, Asantha
2002-01-01
We discuss the non-Gaussian contribution to the power spectrum covariance of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies resulting through weak gravitational lensing angular deflections and the correlation of deflections with secondary sources of temperature fluctuations generated by the large scale structure, such as the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. This additional contribution to the covariance of binned angular power spectrum, beyond the well known cosmic variance and any associated instrumental noise, results from a trispectrum, or a four point correlation function, in temperature anisotropy data. With substantially wide bins in multipole space, the resulting non-Gaussian contribution from lensing to the binned power spectrum variance is insignificant out to multipoles of a few thousand and is not likely to affect the cosmological parameter estimation with acoustic peaks and the damping tail. The non-Gaussian contribution to covariance, however, should be considered when interpreting binned CMB power spectrum measurements at multipoles of a few thousand corresponding to angular scales of few arcminutes and less
COSMIC EMULATION: FAST PREDICTIONS FOR THE GALAXY POWER SPECTRUM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwan, Juliana; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Frontiere, Nicholas; Pope, Adrian [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Department of Physics, Yale University, 260 Whitney Ave., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lawrence, Earl [Statistical Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)
2015-09-01
The halo occupation distribution (HOD) approach has proven to be an effective method for modeling galaxy clustering and bias. In this approach, galaxies of a given type are probabilistically assigned to individual halos in N-body simulations. In this paper, we present a fast emulator for predicting the fully nonlinear galaxy–galaxy auto and galaxy–dark matter cross power spectrum and correlation function over a range of freely specifiable HOD modeling parameters. The emulator is constructed using results from 100 HOD models run on a large ΛCDM N-body simulation, with Gaussian Process interpolation applied to a PCA-based representation of the galaxy power spectrum. The total error is currently ∼1% in the auto correlations and ∼2% in the cross correlations from z = 1 to z = 0, over the considered parameter range. We use the emulator to investigate the accuracy of various analytic prescriptions for the galaxy power spectrum, parametric dependencies in the HOD model, and the behavior of galaxy bias as a function of HOD parameters. Additionally, we obtain fully nonlinear predictions for tangential shear correlations induced by galaxy–galaxy lensing from our galaxy–dark matter cross power spectrum emulator. All emulation products are publicly available at http://www.hep.anl.gov/cosmology/CosmicEmu/emu.html.
A robust power spectrum split cancellation-based spectrum sensing method for cognitive radio systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi Pei-Han; Li Zan; Si Jiang-Bo; Gao Rui
2014-01-01
Spectrum sensing is an essential component to realize the cognitive radio, and the requirement for real-time spectrum sensing in the case of lacking prior information, fading channel, and noise uncertainty, indeed poses a major challenge to the classical spectrum sensing algorithms. Based on the stochastic properties of scalar transformation of power spectral density (PSD), a novel spectrum sensing algorithm, referred to as the power spectral density split cancellation method (PSC), is proposed in this paper. The PSC makes use of a scalar value as a test statistic, which is the ratio of each subband power to the full band power. Besides, by exploiting the asymptotic normality and independence of Fourier transform, the distribution of the ratio and the mathematical expressions for the probabilities of false alarm and detection in different channel models are derived. Further, the exact closed-form expression of decision threshold is calculated in accordance with Neyman—Pearson criterion. Analytical and simulation results show that the PSC is invulnerable to noise uncertainty, and can achive excellent detection performance without prior knowledge in additive white Gaussian noise and flat slow fading channels. In addition, the PSC benefits from a low computational cost, which can be completed in microseconds. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
A robust power spectrum split cancellation-based spectrum sensing method for cognitive radio systems
Qi, Pei-Han; Li, Zan; Si, Jiang-Bo; Gao, Rui
2014-12-01
Spectrum sensing is an essential component to realize the cognitive radio, and the requirement for real-time spectrum sensing in the case of lacking prior information, fading channel, and noise uncertainty, indeed poses a major challenge to the classical spectrum sensing algorithms. Based on the stochastic properties of scalar transformation of power spectral density (PSD), a novel spectrum sensing algorithm, referred to as the power spectral density split cancellation method (PSC), is proposed in this paper. The PSC makes use of a scalar value as a test statistic, which is the ratio of each subband power to the full band power. Besides, by exploiting the asymptotic normality and independence of Fourier transform, the distribution of the ratio and the mathematical expressions for the probabilities of false alarm and detection in different channel models are derived. Further, the exact closed-form expression of decision threshold is calculated in accordance with Neyman—Pearson criterion. Analytical and simulation results show that the PSC is invulnerable to noise uncertainty, and can achive excellent detection performance without prior knowledge in additive white Gaussian noise and flat slow fading channels. In addition, the PSC benefits from a low computational cost, which can be completed in microseconds.
Impact of large-scale tides on cosmological distortions via redshift-space power spectrum
Akitsu, Kazuyuki; Takada, Masahiro
2018-03-01
Although large-scale perturbations beyond a finite-volume survey region are not direct observables, these affect measurements of clustering statistics of small-scale (subsurvey) perturbations in large-scale structure, compared with the ensemble average, via the mode-coupling effect. In this paper we show that a large-scale tide induced by scalar perturbations causes apparent anisotropic distortions in the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in a way depending on an alignment between the tide, wave vector of small-scale modes and line-of-sight direction. Using the perturbation theory of structure formation, we derive a response function of the redshift-space power spectrum to large-scale tide. We then investigate the impact of large-scale tide on estimation of cosmological distances and the redshift-space distortion parameter via the measured redshift-space power spectrum for a hypothetical large-volume survey, based on the Fisher matrix formalism. To do this, we treat the large-scale tide as a signal, rather than an additional source of the statistical errors, and show that a degradation in the parameter is restored if we can employ the prior on the rms amplitude expected for the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model. We also discuss whether the large-scale tide can be constrained at an accuracy better than the CDM prediction, if the effects up to a larger wave number in the nonlinear regime can be included.
Position dependent spin wave spectrum in nanostrip magnonic waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Qi; Zhang, Huaiwu; Ma, Guokun; Liao, Yulong; Zhong, Zhiyong; Zheng, Yun
2014-01-01
The dispersion curves of propagating spin wave along different positions in nanostrip magnonic waveguides were studied by micromagnetic simulation. The results show that the modes of spin wave in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide are dependent on the position and the weak even modes of spin wave are excited even by symmetric excitation fields in a nanostrip magnonic waveguide. The reasons of the position dependent dispersion curve are explained by associating with geometrical confinement in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide
Samaitis, Vykintas; Mažeika, Liudas
2017-08-08
Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW)-based condition monitoring has shown great promise in detecting, localizing, and characterizing damage in complex systems. However, the application of guided waves for damage detection is challenging due to the existence of multiple modes and dispersion. This results in distorted wave packets with limited resolution and the interference of multiple reflected modes. To develop reliable inspection systems, either the transducers have to be optimized to generate a desired single mode of guided waves with known dispersive properties, or the frequency responses of all modes present in the structure must be known to predict wave interaction. Currently, there is a lack of methods to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes, especially in cases when multiple modes are being excited simultaneously. Such methods are of vital importance for further understanding wave propagation within the structures as well as wave-damage interaction. In this study, a novel method to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes was proposed based on Fourier analysis of the particle velocity distribution on the excitation area. The method proposed in this study estimates an excitability function based on the spatial dimensions of the transducer, type of vibration, and dispersive properties of the medium. As a result, the response amplitude as a function of frequency for each guided wave mode present in the structure can be separately obtained. The method was validated with numerical simulations on the aluminum and glass fiber composite samples. The key findings showed that it can be applied to estimate the response spectrum of a guided wave mode on any type of material (either isotropic structures, or multi layered anisotropic composites) and under any type of excitation if the phase velocity dispersion curve and the particle velocity distribution of the wave source was known initially. Thus, the proposed method may be a beneficial tool to explain
A spectrum of power plant simulators for effective training
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foulke, L.R.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses the subject of training simulator fidelity and describes a spectrum of fidelity levels of power plant simulators to optimize training effectiveness. The body of knowledge about the relationship between power plant simulator fidelity and training effectiveness is reviewed, and a number of conjectures about this relationship are made based on the perspective of over 20 simulator-years of experience in training nuclear power plant operators. Developments are described for a new class of emerging simulator which utilize high resolution graphics to emphasize the visualization step of effective training
Spectrum of spin waves in cold polarized gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreeva, T. L., E-mail: phdocandreeva@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2017-02-15
The spin dynamics of cold polarized gases are investigated using the Boltzmann equation. The dispersion relation for spin waves (transverse component of the magnetic moment) and the spin diffusion coefficient of the longitudinal component of the magnetic moment are calculated without using fitting parameters. The spin wave frequency and the diffusion coefficient for rubidium atoms are estimated numerically.
Nonlinear evolution of f(R) cosmologies. II. Power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Hu, Wayne; Lima, Marcos
2008-01-01
We carry out a suite of cosmological simulations of modified action f(R) models where cosmic acceleration arises from an alteration of gravity instead of dark energy. These models introduce an extra scalar degree of freedom which enhances the force of gravity below the inverse mass or Compton scale of the scalar. The simulations exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, necessary for satisfying local constraints on gravity, where this scale depends on environment, in particular, the depth of the local gravitational potential. We find that the chameleon mechanism can substantially suppress the enhancement of power spectrum in the nonlinear regime if the background field value is comparable to or smaller than the depth of the gravitational potentials of typical structures. Nonetheless power spectrum enhancements at intermediate scales remain at a measurable level for models even when the expansion history is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant, cold dark matter model. Simple scaling relations that take the linear power spectrum into a nonlinear spectrum fail to capture the modifications of f(R) due to the change in collapsed structures, the chameleon mechanism, and the time evolution of the modifications.
Constraining the primordial power spectrum from SNIa lensing dispersion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Dayan, Ido [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kalaydzhyan, Tigran [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
2013-09-15
The (absence of detecting) lensing dispersion of Supernovae type Ia (SNIa) can be used as a novel and extremely efficient probe of cosmology. In this preliminary example we analyze its consequences for the primordial power spectrum. The main setback is the knowledge of the power spectrum in the non-linear regime, 1 Mpc{sup -1}
Multifractal signal reconstruction based on singularity power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiong, Gang; Yu, Wenxian; Xia, Wenxiang; Zhang, Shuning
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We propose a novel multifractal reconstruction method based on singularity power spectrum analysis (MFR-SPS). • The proposed MFR-SPS method has better power characteristic than the algorithm in Fraclab. • Further, the SPS-ISE algorithm performs better than the SPS-MFS algorithm. • Based on the proposed MFR-SPS method, we can restructure singularity white fractal noise (SWFN) and linear singularity modulation (LSM) multifractal signal, in equivalent sense, similar with the linear frequency modulation(LFM) signal and WGN in the Fourier domain. - Abstract: Fractal reconstruction (FR) and multifractal reconstruction (MFR) can be considered as the inverse problem of singularity spectrum analysis, and it is challenging to reconstruct fractal signal in accord with multifractal spectrum (MFS). Due to the multiple solutions of fractal reconstruction, the traditional methods of FR/MFR, such as FBM based method, wavelet based method, random wavelet series, fail to reconstruct fractal signal deterministically, and besides, those methods neglect the power spectral distribution in the singular domain. In this paper, we propose a novel MFR method based singularity power spectrum (SPS). Supposing the consistent uniform covering of multifractal measurement, we control the traditional power law of each scale of wavelet coefficients based on the instantaneous singularity exponents (ISE) or MFS, simultaneously control the singularity power law based on the SPS, and deduce the principle and algorithm of MFR based on SPS. Reconstruction simulation and error analysis of estimated ISE, MFS and SPS show the effectiveness and the improvement of the proposed methods compared to those obtained by the Fraclab package.
Exact wave packet decoherence dynamics in a discrete spectrum environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tu, Matisse W Y; Zhang Weimin
2008-01-01
We find an exact analytical solution of the reduced density matrix from the Feynman-Vernon influence functional theory for a wave packet in an environment containing a few discrete modes. We obtain two intrinsic energy scales relating to the time scales of the system and the environment. The different relationship between these two scales alters the overall form of the solution of the system. We also introduce a decoherence measure for a single wave packet which is defined as the ratio of Schroedinger uncertainty over the delocalization extension of the wave packet and characterizes the time-evolution behaviour of the off-diagonal reduced density matrix element. We utilize the exact solution and the decoherence measure to study the wave packet decoherence dynamics. We further demonstrate how the dynamical diffusion of the wave packet leads to non-Markovian decoherence in such a microscopic environment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yichao Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Along with the commercialization of offshore wind energy in China, the South China Sea has been identified as ideal for constructing offshore wind farms, especially for farms consisting of floating wind turbines over deep waters. Since the wind profiles and wave spectra are somewhat primitive for the design of an offshore wind turbine, engineering models describing the wind and wave characteristics in the South China Sea area are necessary for the offshore wind energy exploitation given the meteorological, hydrological, and geographical differences between the South China Sea and the North/Norwegian Sea, where the commonly used wind profile and wave spectrum models were designated. In the present study; a series of numerical simulations were conducted to reveal the wave characteristics in the South China Sea under both typhoon and non-typhoon conditions. By analyzing the simulation results; the applicability of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP spectrum model; in terms of characterizing the wind-induced wave fields in the South China Sea; was discussed. In detail; the key parameters of the JONSWAP spectrum model; such as the Phillips constant; spectral width parameter; peak-enhancement factor, and high frequency tail decay; were investigated in the context of finding suitable values.
Hartle-Hawking wave function and large-scale power suppression of CMB*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yeom Dong-han
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this presentation, we first describe the Hartle-Hawking wave function in the Euclidean path integral approach. After we introduce perturbations to the background instanton solution, following the formalism developed by Halliwell-Hawking and Laflamme, one can obtain the scale-invariant power spectrum for small-scales. We further emphasize that the Hartle-Hawking wave function can explain the large-scale power suppression by choosing suitable potential parameters, where this will be a possible window to confirm or falsify models of quantum cosmology. Finally, we further comment on possible future applications, e.g., Euclidean wormholes, which can result in distinct signatures to the power spectrum.
Power spectrum of an injection-locked Josephson oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stancampiano, C.V.; Shapiro, S.
1975-01-01
Experiments have shown that a Josephson oscillator, exposed to a weak narrow-band input signal, exhibits behavior characteristic of an injection-locked oscillator. When in lock, Adler's theory of injection locking describes the experimental observations reasonably well. The range of applicability of the theory is extended to the out-of-lock regime where a spectrum of output frequencies is observed. Obtaining the theoretical output power spectrum requires solving a differential equation having the same form as the equation describing the resistively shunted junction model of Stewart and of McCumber. Experimental measurements of the output spectrum of a nearly locked Josephson oscillator are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the theory. Additional results discussed briefly include the observation of a frequency dependence of the locked Josephson oscillator output and experiments in which a Josephson oscillator-mixer was injection locked by a weak signal at the rf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Narita
2011-02-01
Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.
Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan
2009-01-01
A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (Author)
Normalized Noise Power Spectrum of Full Field Digital Mammography System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isa, Norriza Mohd; Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad Saridan
2010-01-01
A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality.
Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy
Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Onions, Julian; Reed, Darren S.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Pearce, Frazer R.; Scoccimarro, Roman
2015-01-01
Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day $N$-body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to...
Charting the Parameter Space of the 21-cm Power Spectrum
Cohen, Aviad; Fialkov, Anastasia; Barkana, Rennan
2018-05-01
The high-redshift 21-cm signal of neutral hydrogen is expected to be observed within the next decade and will reveal epochs of cosmic evolution that have been previously inaccessible. Due to the lack of observations, many of the astrophysical processes that took place at early times are poorly constrained. In recent work we explored the astrophysical parameter space and the resulting large variety of possible global (sky-averaged) 21-cm signals. Here we extend our analysis to the fluctuations in the 21-cm signal, accounting for those introduced by density and velocity, Lyα radiation, X-ray heating, and ionization. While the radiation sources are usually highlighted, we find that in many cases the density fluctuations play a significant role at intermediate redshifts. Using both the power spectrum and its slope, we show that properties of high-redshift sources can be extracted from the observable features of the fluctuation pattern. For instance, the peak amplitude of ionization fluctuations can be used to estimate whether heating occurred early or late and, in the early case, to also deduce the cosmic mean ionized fraction at that time. The slope of the power spectrum has a more universal redshift evolution than the power spectrum itself and can thus be used more easily as a tracer of high-redshift astrophysics. Its peaks can be used, for example, to estimate the redshift of the Lyα coupling transition and the redshift of the heating transition (and the mean gas temperature at that time). We also show that a tight correlation is predicted between features of the power spectrum and of the global signal, potentially yielding important consistency checks.
Dark Energy Constraints from the Thermal Sunyaev Zeldovich Power Spectrum
Bolliet, Boris; Comis, Barbara; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Macías-Pérez, Juan Francisco
2018-03-01
We constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, using the power spectrum of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect. We improve upon previous analyses by taking into account the trispectrum in the covariance matrix and marginalising over the foreground parameters, the correlated noise, the mass bias B in the Planck universal pressure profile, and all the relevant cosmological parameters (i.e., not just Ωm and σ8). We find that the amplitude of the tSZ power spectrum at ℓ ≲ 103 depends primarily on F ≡ σ8(Ωm/B)0.40h-0.21, where B is related to more commonly used variable b by B = (1 - b)-1. We measure this parameter with 2.6% precision, F = 0.460 ± 0.012 (68% CL). By fixing the bias to B = 1.25 and adding the local determination of the Hubble constant H0 and the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum constrained by the Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data, we find w = -1.10 ± 0.12, σ8 = 0.802 ± 0.037, and Ωm = 0.265 ± 0.022 (68% CL). Our limit on w is consistent with and is as tight as that from the distance-alone constraint from the CMB and H0. Finally, by combining the tSZ power spectrum and the CMB data we find, in the Λ Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model, the mass bias of B = 1.71 ± 0.17, i.e., 1 - b = 0.58 ± 0.06 (68% CL).
Spectrum of the seismic-electromagnetic and acoustic waves caused by seismic and volcano activity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Koshevaya
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Modeling of the spectrum of the seismo-electromagnetic and acoustic waves, caused by seismic and volcanic activity, has been done. This spectrum includes the Electromagnetic Emission (EME, due to fracturing piezoelectrics in rocks and the Acoustic Emission (AE, caused by the excitation and the nonlinear passage of acoustic waves through the Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and the ionosphere. The investigated mechanism of the EME uses the model of fracturing and the crack motion. For its analysis, we consider a piezoelectric crystal under mechanical stresses, which cause the uniform crack motion, and, consequently, in the vicinity of the moving crack also cause non-stationary polarization currents. A possible spectrum of EME has been estimated. The underground fractures produce Very Low (VLF and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF acoustic waves, while the acoustic waves at higher frequencies present high losses and, on the Earth's surface, they are quite small and are not registered. The VLF acoustic wave is subject to nonlinearity under passage through the lithosphere that leads to the generation of higher harmonics and also frequency down-conversion, namely, increasing the ELF acoustic component on the Earth's surface. In turn, a nonlinear propagation of ELF acoustic wave in the atmosphere and the ionosphere leads to emerging the ultra low frequency (ULF acousto-gravity waves in the ionosphere and possible local excitation of plasma waves.
Pulsed discharges produced by high-power surface waves
Böhle, A.; Ivanov, O.; Kolisko, A.; Kortshagen, U.; Schlüter, H.; Vikharev, A.
1996-02-01
The mechanisms of the ionization front advance in surface-wave-produced discharges are investigated using two experimental set-ups. The high-power surface waves are excited in a 3 cm wavelength band by a surfaguide and a novel type of launcher (an E-plane junction). The ionization front velocity of the surface wave is measured for a wide range of gas pressures, incident microwave power and initial pre-ionization. The experimental results are compared with theoretical ones based on three different models. The comparison between theory and experiment allows one to suggest a new interpretation of the ionization front's advance. The ionization front velocity is determined by a breakdown wave or an ionization wave in the electric field of a high-power surface wave in the zone near the ionization front.
Simulation of Irregular Waves and Wave Induced Loads on Wind Power Plants in Shallow Water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trumars, Jenny [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Water Environment Transport
2004-05-01
The essay gives a short introduction to waves and discusses the problem with non-linear waves in shallow water and how they effect an offshore wind energy converter. The focus is on the realisation of non-linear waves in the time domain from short-term statistics in the form of a variance density spectrum of the wave elevation. For this purpose the wave transformation from deep water to the near to shore site of a wind energy farm at Bockstigen has been calculated with the use of SWAN (Simulating Waves Near Shore). The result is a wave spectrum, which can be used as input to the realisation. The realisation of waves is done by perturbation theory to the first and second-order. The properties calculated are the wave elevation, water particle velocity and acceleration. The wave heights from the second order perturbation equations are higher than those from the first order perturbation equations. This is also the case for the water particle kinematics. The increase of variance is significant between the first order and the second order realisation. The calculated wave elevation exhibits non-linear features as the peaks become sharper and the troughs flatter. The resulting forces are calculated using Morison's equation. For second order force and base moment there is an increase in the maximum values. The force and base moment are largest approximately at the zero up and down crossing of the wave elevation. This indicates an inertia dominated wave load. So far the flexibility and the response of the structure have not been taken into account. They are, however, of vital importance. For verification of the wave model the results will later on be compared with measurements at Bockstigen off the coast of Gotland in the Baltic Sea.
Some lemma on spectrum of eigen value regarding power method
Jamali, A. R. M. Jalal Uddin; Alam, Md. Sah
2017-04-01
Eigen value problems arise in almost all science and engineering fields. There exist some smart methods in literature in which most of them are able to find only Eigen values but could not find corresponding Eigen vectors. There exist many engineering as well as scientific fields in which both largest as well as smallest Eigen pairs are required. Power method is very simple but a powerful tool for finding largest Eigen value and corresponding Eigen vector (Eigen-pair). Again Inverse Power method is applied to find out smallest Eigen-pair and/or desire Eigen-pairs. But it is known that Inverse Power method is computationally very costly. On the other hand by using shifting property, Power method can find further Eigen-pairs. But the position of this Eigen value in the set of spectrum of the Eigen values is not identified. In this regard we proposed four lemma associate with Modified Power method. Each Lemma is proved ornately. The Modified Power method is implemented and illustrates an example for the verification of the Lemma. By using lemma the modified power algorithm is able to find out both largest and smallest Eigen-pairs successfully and efficiently in some cases. Moreover by the help of the Lemma, algorithm is able to detect the nature (positive and negative) of the Eigen values.
Evidence for a continuous spectrum of equatorial waves in the Indian Ocean
Eriksen, Charles C.
1980-06-01
Seven-month records of current and temperature measurements from a moored array centered at 53°E on the equator in the Indian Ocean are consistent with a continuous spectrum of equatorially trapped internal inertial-gravity, mixed Rossby-gravity, and Kelvin waves. A model spectrum of free linear waves analogous to those for mid-latitude internal gravity waves is used to compute spectra of observed quantities at depths greater than about 2000 m. Model parameters are adjusted to fit general patterns in the observed spectra over periods from roughly 2 days to 1 month. Measurements at shallower depths presumably include forced motions which we have not attempted to model. This `straw-person' spectrum is consistent with the limited data available. The model spectru Ē (n, m, ω) = K · B(m) · C(n, ω), where Ē is an average local energy density in the equatorial wave guide which has amplitude K, wave number shape B(m) ∝ (1 + m/m*)-3, where m is vertical mode number and the bandwidth parameter m* is between 4 and 8, and frequency shape C(n, ω) ∝ [(2n + 1 + s2)½ · σ3]-1 where n is meridional mode number, and s and σ are dimensionless zonal wave number and frequency related by the usual dispersion relation. The scales are (β/cm)½ and (β · cm)½ for horizontal wave number and frequency, where cm is the Kelvin wave speed of the vertical mode m. At each frequency and vertical wave number, energy is partitioned equally among the available inertial gravity modes so that the field tends toward horizontal isotropy at high frequency. The transition between Kelvin and mixed Rossby-gravity motion at low frequency and inertial-gravity motion at high frequency occurs at a period of roughly 1 week. At periods in the range 1-3 weeks, the model spectrum which fits the observations suggests that mixed Rossby-gravity motion dominates; at shorter periods gravity motion dominates. The model results are consistent with the low vertical coherence lengths observed (roughly 80 m
Four-Wave Mixing of Gigawatt Power, Long-Wave Infrared Radiation in Gases and Semiconductors
Pigeon, Jeremy James
The nonlinear optics of gigawatt power, 10 microm, 3 and 200 ps long pulses propagating in gases and semiconductors has been studied experimentally and numerically. In this work, the development of a high-repetition rate, picosecond, CO2 laser system has enabled experiments using peak intensities in the range of 1-10 GW/cm2, approximately one thousand times greater than previous nonlinear optics experiments in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral region. The first measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of the atomic and molecular gases Kr, Xe, N2, O2 and the air at a wavelength near 10 microm were accomplished by studying the four-wave mixing (FWM) of dual-wavelength, 200 ps CO2 laser pulses. These measurements indicate that the nonlinearities of the diatomic molecules N2, O2 and the air are dominated by the molecular contribution to the nonlinear refractive index. Supercontinuum (SC) generation covering the infrared spectral range, from 2-20 microm, was realized by propagating 3 ps, 10 microm pulses in an approximately 7 cm long, Cr-doped GaAs crystal. Temporal measurements of the SC radiation show that pulse splitting accompanies the generation of such broadband light in GaAs. The propagation of 3 ps, 10 microm pulses in GaAs was studied numerically by solving the Generalized Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation (GNLSE). These simulations, combined with analytic estimates, were used to determine that stimulated Raman scattering combined with a modulational instability caused by the propagation of intense LWIR radiation in the negative group velocity dispersion region of GaAs are responsible for the SC generation process. The multiple FWM of a 106 GHz, 200 ps CO2 laser beat-wave propagating in GaAs was used to generate a broadband FWM spectrum that was compressed by the negative group velocity dispersion of GaAs and NaCl crystals to form trains of high-power, picosecond pulses at a wavelength near 10 microm. Experimental FWM spectra obtained using 165 and 882
Power spectrum model of visual masking: simulations and empirical data.
Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Sierra-Vázquez, Vicente; Derrington, Andrew M
2013-06-01
In the study of the spatial characteristics of the visual channels, the power spectrum model of visual masking is one of the most widely used. When the task is to detect a signal masked by visual noise, this classical model assumes that the signal and the noise are previously processed by a bank of linear channels and that the power of the signal at threshold is proportional to the power of the noise passing through the visual channel that mediates detection. The model also assumes that this visual channel will have the highest ratio of signal power to noise power at its output. According to this, there are masking conditions where the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) occurs in a channel centered in a spatial frequency different from the spatial frequency of the signal (off-frequency looking). Under these conditions the channel mediating detection could vary with the type of noise used in the masking experiment and this could affect the estimation of the shape and the bandwidth of the visual channels. It is generally believed that notched noise, white noise and double bandpass noise prevent off-frequency looking, and high-pass, low-pass and bandpass noises can promote it independently of the channel's shape. In this study, by means of a procedure that finds the channel that maximizes the SNR at its output, we performed numerical simulations using the power spectrum model to study the characteristics of masking caused by six types of one-dimensional noise (white, high-pass, low-pass, bandpass, notched, and double bandpass) for two types of channel's shape (symmetric and asymmetric). Our simulations confirm that (1) high-pass, low-pass, and bandpass noises do not prevent the off-frequency looking, (2) white noise satisfactorily prevents the off-frequency looking independently of the shape and bandwidth of the visual channel, and interestingly we proved for the first time that (3) notched and double bandpass noises prevent off-frequency looking only when the noise
Galactic densities, substructure and the initial power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bullock, J.S.; Zentner, A.R.
2003-01-01
Although the currently favored cold dark matter plus cosmological constant model for structure formation assumes an n = 1 scale-invariant initial power spectrum, most inflation models produce at least mild deviations from n = 1. Because the lever arm from the CMB normalization to galaxy scales is long, even a small 'tilt' can have important implications for galactic observations. Here we calculate the COBS-normalized power spectra for several well-motivated models of inflation and compute implications for the substructure content and central densities of galaxy halos. Using an analytic model, normalized against N-body simulations, we show that while halos in the standard (n = 1) model are overdense by a factor of ∼ 6 compared to observations, several of our example inflation+LCDM models predict halo densities well within the range of observations, which prefer models with n ∼ 0.85. We go on to use a semi-analytic model (also normalized against N-body simulations) to follow the merger histories of galaxy-sized halos and track the orbital decay, disruption, and evolution of the merging substructure. Models with n ∼ 0.85 predict a factor of ∼ 3 fewer subhalos at a fixed circular velocity than the standard n 1 case. Although this level of reduction does not resolve the 'dwarf satellite problem', it does imply that the level of feedback required to match the observed number of dwarfs is sensitive to the initial power spectrum. Finally, the fraction of galaxy-halo mass that is bound up in substructure is consistent with limits imposed by multiply imaged quasars for all models considered: f sat > 0.01 even for an effective tilt of n ∼ 0.8. We conclude that, at their current level, lensing constraints of this kind do not provide an interesting probe of the primordial power spectrum
Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.
2012-11-27
The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.
Alexander, LYSENKO; Iurii, VOLK
2018-03-01
We developed a cubic non-linear theory describing the dynamics of the multiharmonic space-charge wave (SCW), with harmonics frequencies smaller than the two-stream instability critical frequency, with different relativistic electron beam (REB) parameters. The self-consistent differential equation system for multiharmonic SCW harmonic amplitudes was elaborated in a cubic non-linear approximation. This system considers plural three-wave parametric resonant interactions between wave harmonics and the two-stream instability effect. Different REB parameters such as the input angle with respect to focusing magnetic field, the average relativistic factor value, difference of partial relativistic factors, and plasma frequency of partial beams were investigated regarding their influence on the frequency spectrum width and multiharmonic SCW saturation levels. We suggested ways in which the multiharmonic SCW frequency spectrum widths could be increased in order to use them in multiharmonic two-stream superheterodyne free-electron lasers, with the main purpose of forming a powerful multiharmonic electromagnetic wave.
The 17/5 spectrum of the Kelvin-wave cascade
Kozik, Evgeny; Svistunov, Boris
2010-01-01
Direct numeric simulation of the Biot-Savart equation readily resolves the 17/5 spectrum of the Kelvin-wave cascade from the 11/3 spectrum of the non-local (in the wavenumber space) cascade scenario by L'vov and Nazarenko. This result is a clear-cut visualisation of the unphysical nature of the 11/3 solution, which was established earlier on the grounds of symmetry.
Seasonal wave power distribution around the Indian coast
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.
different seasons viz. southwest monsoon, northeast monsoon and nonmonsoon period were computed for various regions in the form of 10 grids and are presented here. The study shows that average annual wave power potential per metre length of the wave crest...
Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S.; Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Scoccimarro, Roman
2016-01-01
Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc −1 and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc −1 . We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc −1 . In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h −1 Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M p =10 9 h −1 M ⊙ is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.
Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Reed, Darren S. [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Smith, Robert E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Scoccimarro, Roman, E-mail: aurel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teyssier@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: dpotter@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: stadel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: julian.onions@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: reed@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: r.e.smith@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: volker.springel@h-its.org, E-mail: Frazer.Pearce@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: rs123@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, NY 10003, New York (United States)
2016-04-01
Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day N -body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to the measurement of the final power spectrum. We directly compare three widely used N -body codes, Ramses, Pkdgrav3, and Gadget3 which represent three main discretisation techniques: the particle-mesh method, the tree method, and a hybrid combination of the two. For standard run parameters, the codes agree to within one percent at k ≤1 h Mpc{sup −1} and to within three percent at k ≤10 h Mpc{sup −1}. We also consider the bispectrum and show that the reduced bispectra agree at the sub-percent level for k ≤ 2 h Mpc{sup −1}. In a second step, we quantify potential errors due to initial conditions, box size, and resolution using an extended suite of simulations performed with our fastest code Pkdgrav3. We demonstrate that the simulation box size should not be smaller than L =0.5 h {sup −1}Gpc to avoid systematic finite-volume effects (while much larger boxes are required to beat down the statistical sample variance). Furthermore, a maximum particle mass of M {sub p}=10{sup 9} h {sup −1}M{sub ⊙} is required to conservatively obtain one percent precision of the matter power spectrum. As a consequence, numerical simulations covering large survey volumes of upcoming missions such as DES, LSST, and Euclid will need more than a trillion particles to reproduce clustering properties at the targeted accuracy.
Stabilized High Power Laser for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willke, B; Danzmann, K; Fallnich, C; Frede, M; Heurs, M; King, P; Kracht, D; Kwee, P; Savage, R; Seifert, F; Wilhelm, R
2006-01-01
Second generation gravitational wave detectors require high power lasers with several 100W of output power and with very low temporal and spatial fluctuations. In this paper we discuss possible setups to achieve high laser power and describe a 200W prestabilized laser system (PSL). The PSL noise requirements for advanced gravitational wave detectors will be discussed in general and the stabilization scheme proposed for the Advanced LIGO PSL will be described. Special emphasis will be given to the most demanding power stabilization requirements and new results (RIN ≤ 4x10 -9 /√Hz) will be presented
MILLIMETER WAVE SPECTRUM AND ASTRONOMICAL SEARCH FOR VINYL FORMATE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonso, E. R.; Kolesniková, L.; Cabezas, C.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Área de Química-Física, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Grupo de Astrofísica Molecular, ICMM-CSIC, C/Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain); Guillemin, J.-C. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, F-35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France)
2016-11-20
Previous detections of methyl and ethyl formate make other small substituted formates potential candidates for observation in the interstellar medium. Among them, vinyl formate is one of the simplest unsaturated carboxylic ester. The aim of this work is to provide direct experimental frequencies of the ground vibrational state of vinyl formate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl formate has been measured from 80 to 360 GHz and analyzed in terms of Watson’s semirigid rotor Hamiltonian. Two thousand six hundred transitions within J = 3–88 and K {sub a} = 0–28 were assigned to the most stable conformer of vinyl formate and a new set of spectroscopic constants was accurately determined. Spectral features of vinyl formate were then searched for in Orion KL, Sgr B2(N), B1-b, and TMC-1 molecular clouds. Upper limits to the column density of vinyl formate are provided.
Spectrum of harmonic emission by inhomogeneous plasma in intense electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.
1989-01-01
The spectrum and angular distribution of the harmonics of arbitrary index emitted by a cold, inhomogeneous electron plasma subjected to a p-polarized electromagnetic wave have been studied analytically. The results are shown in graphical form. The intensity of the wave was varied over a wide range. At energy flux densities of the electromagnetic wave at which the inverse effect of the higher harmonics on the lower harmonics becomes appreciable, it becomes possible to observe a decay of the absolute value of the complex amplitude of a harmonic with increasing harmonic index in vacuum which is substantially slower than that predicted by the theory for a weak nonlinearity
Testing for new physics: neutrinos and the primordial power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canac, Nicolas; Abazajian, Kevork N. [Department of Physics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Aslanyan, Grigor [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Easther, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Price, Layne C., E-mail: ncanac@uci.edu, E-mail: aslanyan@berkeley.edu, E-mail: kevork@uci.edu, E-mail: r.easther@auckland.ac.nz, E-mail: laynep@andrew.cmu.edu [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)
2016-09-01
We test the sensitivity of neutrino parameter constraints from combinations of CMB and LSS data sets to the assumed form of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) using Bayesian model selection. Significantly, none of the tested combinations, including recent high-precision local measurements of H{sub 0} and cluster abundances, indicate a signal for massive neutrinos or extra relativistic degrees of freedom. For PPS models with a large, but fixed number of degrees of freedom, neutrino parameter constraints do not change significantly if the location of any features in the PPS are allowed to vary, although neutrino constraints are more sensitive to PPS features if they are known a priori to exist at fixed intervals in log k . Although there is no support for a non-standard neutrino sector from constraints on both neutrino mass and relativistic energy density, we see surprisingly strong evidence for features in the PPS when it is constrained with data from Planck 2015, SZ cluster counts, and recent high-precision local measurements of H{sub 0}. Conversely combining Planck with matter power spectrum and BAO measurements yields a much weaker constraint. Given that this result is sensitive to the choice of data this tension between SZ cluster counts, Planck and H{sub 0} measurements is likely an indication of unmodeled systematic bias that mimics PPS features, rather than new physics in the PPS or neutrino sector.
Unbiased contaminant removal for 3D galaxy power spectrum measurements
Kalus, B.; Percival, W. J.; Bacon, D. J.; Samushia, L.
2016-11-01
We assess and develop techniques to remove contaminants when calculating the 3D galaxy power spectrum. We separate the process into three separate stages: (I) removing the contaminant signal, (II) estimating the uncontaminated cosmological power spectrum and (III) debiasing the resulting estimates. For (I), we show that removing the best-fitting contaminant (mode subtraction) and setting the contaminated components of the covariance to be infinite (mode deprojection) are mathematically equivalent. For (II), performing a quadratic maximum likelihood (QML) estimate after mode deprojection gives an optimal unbiased solution, although it requires the manipulation of large N_mode^2 matrices (Nmode being the total number of modes), which is unfeasible for recent 3D galaxy surveys. Measuring a binned average of the modes for (II) as proposed by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (FKP) is faster and simpler, but is sub-optimal and gives rise to a biased solution. We present a method to debias the resulting FKP measurements that does not require any large matrix calculations. We argue that the sub-optimality of the FKP estimator compared with the QML estimator, caused by contaminants, is less severe than that commonly ignored due to the survey window.
Integration of Wave Power in Hadai Gwaii
Boronowski, S.; Rowe, A.; Wild, Peter
2010-01-01
Remote communities, such as Haida Gwaii, Canada, often have high energy costs due to their dependence on diesel fuel for generation. Haida Gwaii's lengthy coastline, exposed to the northeast Pacific Ocean, provides opportunities for capturing wave energy to potentially reduce energy costs. A mixed
Spin wave spectrum and zero spin fluctuation of antiferromagnetic solid 3He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roger, M.; Delrieu, J.M.
1981-08-01
The spin wave spectrum and eigenvectors of the uudd antiferromagnetic phase of solid 3 He are calculated; an optical mode is predicted around 150 - 180 Mc and a zero point spin deviation of 0.74 is obtained in agreement with the antiferromagnetic resonance frequency measured by Osheroff
Improved calculation of the gravitational wave spectrum from kinks on infinite cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsui, Yuka; Horiguchi, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko, E-mail: matsui.yuka@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: horiguchi.kouichirou@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nitta.daisuke@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kuroyanagi.sachiko@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of physics and astrophysics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan)
2016-11-01
Gravitational wave observations provide unique opportunities to search for cosmic strings. One of the strongest sources of gravitational waves is discontinuities of cosmic strings, called kinks, which are generated at points of intersection. Kinks on infinite strings are known to generate a gravitational wave background over a wide range of frequencies. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of the gravitational wave background by numerically solving the evolution equation for the distribution function of the kink sharpness. We find that the number of kinks for small sharpness is larger than the analytical estimate used in a previous work, which makes a difference in the spectral shape. Our numerical approach enables us to make a more precise prediction on the spectral amplitude for future gravitational wave experiments.
Improved calculation of the gravitational wave spectrum from kinks on infinite cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsui, Yuka; Horiguchi, Koichiro; Nitta, Daisuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko
2016-01-01
Gravitational wave observations provide unique opportunities to search for cosmic strings. One of the strongest sources of gravitational waves is discontinuities of cosmic strings, called kinks, which are generated at points of intersection. Kinks on infinite strings are known to generate a gravitational wave background over a wide range of frequencies. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of the gravitational wave background by numerically solving the evolution equation for the distribution function of the kink sharpness. We find that the number of kinks for small sharpness is larger than the analytical estimate used in a previous work, which makes a difference in the spectral shape. Our numerical approach enables us to make a more precise prediction on the spectral amplitude for future gravitational wave experiments.
Just enough inflation. Power spectrum modifications at large scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean
2014-07-01
We show that models of 'just enough' inflation, where the slow-roll evolution lasted only 50-60 e-foldings, feature modifications of the CMB power spectrum at large angular scales. We perform a systematic and model-independent analysis of any possible non-slow-roll background evolution prior to the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We find a high degree of universality since most common backgrounds like fast-roll evolution, matter or radiation-dominance give rise to a power loss at large angular scales and a peak together with an oscillatory behaviour at scales around the value of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of slow-roll inflation. Depending on the value of the equation of state parameter, different pre-inflationary epochs lead instead to an enhancement of power at low-l, and so seem disfavoured by recent observational hints for a lack of CMB power at l< or similar 40. We also comment on the importance of initial conditions and the possibility to have multiple pre-inflationary stages.
Observational constraints on the primordial curvature power spectrum
Emami, Razieh; Smoot, George F.
2018-01-01
CMB temperature fluctuation observations provide a precise measurement of the primordial power spectrum on large scales, corresponding to wavenumbers 10‑3 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 0.1 Mpc‑1, [1-7, 11]. Luminous red galaxies and galaxy clusters probe the matter power spectrum on overlapping scales (0.02 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 0.7 Mpc‑1 [10, 12-20]), while the Lyman-alpha forest reaches slightly smaller scales (0.3 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 3 Mpc‑1 [22]). These observations indicate that the primordial power spectrum is nearly scale-invariant with an amplitude close to 2 × 10‑9, [5, 23-28]. These observations strongly support Inflation and motivate us to obtain observations and constraints reaching to smaller scales on the primordial curvature power spectrum and by implication on Inflation. We are able to obtain limits to much higher values of k lesssim 105 Mpc‑1 and with less sensitivity even higher k lesssim 1019‑ 1023 Mpc‑1 using limits from CMB spectral distortions and other limits on ultracompact minihalo objects (UCMHs) and Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs are one of the known candidates for the Dark Matter (DM). Due to their very early formation, they could give us valuable information about the primordial curvature perturbations. These are complementary to other cosmological bounds on the amplitude of the primordial fluctuations. In this paper, we revisit and collect all the published constraints on both PBHs and UCMHs. We show that unless one uses the CMB spectral distortion, PBHs give us a very relaxed bounds on the primordial curvature perturbations. UCMHs, on the other hand, are very informative over a reasonable k range (3 lesssim k lesssim 106 Mpc‑1) and lead to significant upper-bounds on the curvature spectrum. We review the conditions under which the tighter constraints on the UCMHs could imply extremely strong bounds on the fraction of DM that could be PBHs in reasonable models. Failure to satisfy these conditions would
Power-law modulation of the scalar power spectrum from a heavy field with a monomial potential
Huang, Qing-Guo; Pi, Shi
2018-04-01
The effects of heavy fields modulate the scalar power spectrum during inflation. We analytically calculate the modulations of the scalar power spectrum from a heavy field with a separable monomial potential, i.e. V(phi)~ phin. In general the modulation is characterized by a power-law oscillation which is reduced to the logarithmic oscillation in the case of n=2.
Variations of ULF wave power throughout the Halloween 2003 superstorm
Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Mann, I.
2013-09-01
Focused on the exceptional 2003 Halloween geospace magnetic storm, when Dst reached a minimum of -383 nT, we examine data from topside ionosphere and two magnetospheric missions (CHAMP, Cluster, and Geotail) for signatures of ULF waves. We present the overall ULF wave activity through the six-day interval from 27 October to 1 November 2003 as observed by the three spacecraft and by the Andenes ground magnetic station of the IMAGE magnetometerer array in terms of time variations of the ULF wave power. The ULF wave activity is divided upon Pc3 and Pc5 wave power. Thus, we provide different ULF wave activity indices according to the wave frequency (Pc3 and Pc5) and location of observation (Earth’s magnetosphere, topside ionosphere and surface). We also look at three specific intervals during different phases of the storm when at least two of the satellites are in good local time (LT) conjunction and examine separately Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF wave activity and its concurrence in the different regions of the magnetosphere and down to the topside ionosphere and on the ground. This work has received support from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project.
Experimental Study of a Multi Level Overtopping Wave Power Device
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kofoed, Jens Peter; Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter Bak
2002-01-01
Results of experimental investigations of a floating wave energy device called Power Pyramid is presented. The Power Pyramid utilizes reservoirs in multiple levels when capturing wave overtopping and converting it into electrical energy. The effect of capturing the overtopping in multiple levels,......, using 5 levels introduces practical problems, and is most probably not economically feasible. It is concluded that it is reasonable to use 2 levels (maybe 3), which can increase the efficiency by 25-40 % compared to using a single level.......Results of experimental investigations of a floating wave energy device called Power Pyramid is presented. The Power Pyramid utilizes reservoirs in multiple levels when capturing wave overtopping and converting it into electrical energy. The effect of capturing the overtopping in multiple levels......, compared to only one level, has been evaluated experimentally. From the experimental results, and the performed optimizations based on these, it has been found that the efficiency of a wave power device of the overtopping type can be increased by as much as 76 % by using 5 levels instead of 1. However...
Angular power spectrum in publically released ALICE events
Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Muñoz Martinez, Jose L.
2018-02-01
We study the particles emitted in the fireball following a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision with the traditional angular analysis employed in cosmology and earth sciences, producing Mollweide plots of the number and pt distribution of a few actual, publically released ALICE-collaboration events and calculating their angular power spectrum. We also examine the angular spectrum of a simple two-particle correlation. While this may not be the optimal way of analyzing heavy ion data, our intention is to provide a one to one comparison to analysis in cosmology. With the limited statistics at hand, we do not find evidence for acoustic peaks but a decrease of Cl that is reminiscent of viscous attenuation, but subject to a strong effect from the rapidity acceptance which probably dominates (so we also subtract the m = 0 component). As an exercise, we still extract a characteristic Silk damping length (proportional to the square root of the viscosity over entropy density ratio) to illustrate the method. The absence of acoustic-like peaks is also compatible with a crossover from the QGP to the hadron gas (because a surface tension at domain boundaries would effect a restoring force that could have driven acoustic oscillations). Presently we do not understand a depression of the l = 6 multipole strength; perhaps ALICE could reexamine it with full statistics.
CMB power spectrum at l=30-200 from QMASK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Yongzhong; Tegmark, Max; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica
2002-01-01
We measure the cosmic microwave background power spectrum on angular scales l∼30-200 (1 deg. -6 deg.) from the QMASK map, which combines the data from the QMAP and Saskatoon experiments. Since the accuracy of recent measurements leftward of the first acoustic peak is limited by sample variance, the large area of the QMASK map (648 square degrees) allows us to place among the sharpest constraints to date in this range, in good agreement with BOOMERanG and (on the largest scales) COBE-DMR. By band-pass filtering the QMAP and Saskatoon maps, we are able to spatially compare them scale by scale to check for beam- and pointing-related systematic errors
Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazanu, A.; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Shellard, E.P.S.
2015-01-01
We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined
Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazanu, A., E-mail: A.Lazanu@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Shellard, E.P.S., E-mail: E.P.S.Shellard@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2015-07-30
We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined.
Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Lazanu
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined.
Waves on fluid-loaded shells and their resonance frequency spectrum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bao, X.L.; Uberall, H.; Raju, P.K.
2005-01-01
, or axially propagating waves both in the shell material, and in the fluid loading. Previous results by Bao et al. (J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105 (1999) 2704) were obtained for the circumferential-wave dispersion curves on doubly loaded aluminum shells; the present study extends this to fluid-filled shells in air......Technical requirements for elastic (metal) cylindrical shells include the knowledge of their natural frequency spectrum. These shells may be empty and fluid-immersed, or fluid-filled in an ambient medium of air, or doubly fluid-loaded inside and out. They may support circumferential waves....... For practical applications, steel shells are most important and we have here obtained corresponding results for these. To find the natural frequencies of cylindrical shells, one may invoke the principle of phase matching where resonating standing waves are formed around the circumference, or in the axial...
Bound states embedded into continuous spectrum as 'gathered' (compactified) scattering waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakhar'ev, B.N.; Chabanov, V.M.
1995-01-01
It is shown that states of continuous spectrum (the half-line case) can be considered as bound states normalized by unity but distributed on the infinite interval with vanishing density. Then the algorithms of shifting the range of primary localization of a chosen bound state in potential well of finite width appear to be applicable to scattering functions. The potential perturbations of the same type (but now on half-axis) concentrate the scattering wave in near vicinity of the origin, which leads to creation of bound state embedded into continuous spectrum. (author). 8 refs., 7 figs
Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu
2016-04-01
Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric.
Wave power potential along the Indian coasts
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Das, V.K.; Ramesh, B A.; Varkey, M.J.
monlh a. lhe v;Ruolly ob.ervell wnve heighl. have been con.idered at equivalent to llle RigniliclUlt wave heigh!. Average of .11 period. repolted in thai DJ'Ca ia laken IIR T. The
Control of the long period grating spectrum through low frequency flexural acoustic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, Roberson A; Possetti, Gustavo R C; Kamikawachi, Ricardo C; Fabris, José L; Muller, Marcia; Pohl, Alexandre A P; Marques, Carlos A F; Nogueira, Rogério N; Neves, Paulo T Jr; Cook, Kevin; Canning, John; Bavastri, C
2011-01-01
We have shown experimental results of the excitation of long period fiber gratings by means of flexural acoustic waves with a wavelength larger than the grating period, validated by numerical simulations. The effect of the acoustic wave on the grating is modeled with the method of assumed modes, which delivers the strain field inside the grating, then used as the input to the transfer matrix method, needed for calculating the grating spectrum. The experimental and numerical results are found to be in good agreement, even though only the strain-optic effects are taken into account
Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping
2015-08-24
Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.
Implementation of 252Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Yong; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Li Jiansheng; Ye Cenming
2012-01-01
The principle of 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement method is introduced. A measurement system and platform is realized accordingly, which is a combination of hardware and software, for measuring nuclear parameters. The detection method of neutron pulses based on an ultra-high-speed data acquisition card (three channels, 1 GHz sampling rate, 1 ns synchronization) is described, and the data processing process and the power spectrum density algorithm on PC are designed. This 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system can effectively obtain the nuclear tag parameters of nuclear random processes, such as correlation function and power spectrum density. (authors)
REJUVENATING THE MATTER POWER SPECTRUM: RESTORING INFORMATION WITH A LOGARITHMIC DENSITY MAPPING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan
2009-01-01
We find that nonlinearities in the dark matter power spectrum are dramatically smaller if the density field first undergoes a logarithmic mapping. In the Millennium simulation, this procedure gives a power spectrum with a shape hardly departing from the linear power spectrum for k ∼ -1 at all redshifts. Also, this procedure unveils pristine Fisher information on a range of scales reaching a factor of 2-3 smaller than in the standard power spectrum, yielding 10 times more cumulative signal to noise at z = 0.
Angular power spectrum of galaxies in the 2MASS Redshift Survey
Ando, Shin'ichiro; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Komatsu, Eiichiro
2018-02-01
We present the measurement and interpretation of the angular power spectrum of nearby galaxies in the 2MASS Redshift Survey catalogue with spectroscopic redshifts up to z ≈ 0.1. We detect the angular power spectrum up to a multipole of ℓ ≈ 1000. We find that the measured power spectrum is dominated by galaxies living inside nearby galaxy clusters and groups. We use the halo occupation distribution (HOD) formalism to model the power spectrum, obtaining a fit with reasonable parameters. These HOD parameters are in agreement with the 2MASS galaxy distribution we measure towards the known nearby galaxy clusters, confirming validity of our analysis.
Wave function, spectrum and effective mass of holes in 2 D quantum antiferromagnet
Su, Zhao-bin; Ll, Yan-min; Lai, Wu-yan; Yu, Lu
1989-12-01
A new quantum Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdeG) formalism is developed to study the self-consistent motion of holes on an quantum antiferromagnetic (QAFM) background within the generalized t- J model. The local distortion of spin configurations and the renormalization of the hole motion due to virtual excitations of the distorted spin background are treated on an equal footing. The hole wave function and its spectrum, as well as the effective mass for a propagating hole are calculated explicitly.
A power filter for the detection of burst events based on time-frequency spectrum estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidi, G M; Cuoco, E; Vicere, A
2004-01-01
We propose as a statistic for the detection of bursts in a gravitational wave interferometer the 'energy' of the events estimated with a time-dependent calculation of the spectrum. This statistic has an asymptotic Gaussian distribution with known statistical moments, which makes it possible to perform a uniformly most powerful test (McDonough R N and Whalen A D 1995 Detection of Signals in Noise (New York: Academic)) on the energy mean. We estimate the receiver operating characteristic (ROC, from the same book) of this statistic for different levels of the signal-to-noise ratio in the specific case of a simulated noise having the spectral density expected for Virgo, using test signals taken from a library of possible waveforms emitted during the collapse of the core of type II supernovae
Experimental high power plasma-filled backward wave oscillator results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minami, K.; Lou, W.R.; Destler, W.W.; Kehs, R.A.; Granatstein, V.L.; Carmel, Y.
1988-01-01
Previous results have indicated that a background gas can be used to increase the output microwave power of relativistic backward wave oscillators (BWOs) two or three times the vacuum case. In their experiments, two methods of plasma production are investigated in detail: the use of the electron beam to ionize a background gas, and the use of a plasma gun to inject a background plasma into the slow-wave structure of a BWO. It is found in the first case that there was a resonant increase in microwave power at a particular pressure of the background gas by a factor of ten. In the second case, power also increased compared with power production in vacuum. Detailed results are presented and the relative merits of the two approaches is discussed and compared with theoretical expectations
Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact
2012-10-29
The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.
Power from the seas - Wave energy has a big future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schenler, W.
2008-01-01
This article takes a look at how the energy of the oceans' waves can become an important source of energy. The generation of the energy contained in waves as an indirect form of solar energy is described. The energy potential offered is quoted as being high in the Atlantic near England and Scotland. The article goes on the discuss the technical potential of this form of renewable energy and provides a map showing this. Financial aspects and economic potentials are discussed. Effects on the environment are also discussed. The on-shore and off-shore technologies that can be used to capture wave energy are described and discussed, as is the combination of power production from wind and waves
Selection of Design Power of Wave Energy Converters Based on Wave Basin Experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinelli, L.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2011-01-01
of the measured efficiency; description of the energy production by means of a function of the design capacity; application of a simple formula for cost benefit analysis. The analyses here proposed are based on the experimental results of 3D tests on two floating wave energy devices, named LEANCON and DEXA......Aim of this paper is to develop a method for selecting the optimal power generation capacity for which a wave energy converter (WEC) should be rated. This method is suitable for the earliest stages of development, when several studies are missing, including design of the Power Take Off (PTO) system...
Montiel, F.; Squire, V. A.
2013-12-01
A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through a realistic marginal ice zone (MIZ), where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by coherent conservative wave scattering effects. Field experiments conducted by Wadhams et al. (1986) in the Greenland Sea generated important data on wave attenuation in the MIZ and, particularly, on whether the wave spectrum spreads directionally or collimates with distance from the ice edge. The data suggest that angular isotropy, arising from multiple scattering by ice floes, occurs close to the edge and thenceforth dominates wave propagation throughout the MIZ. Although several attempts have been made to replicate this finding theoretically, including by the use of numerical models, none have confronted this problem in a 3D MIZ with fully randomised floe distribution properties. We construct such a model by subdividing the discontinuous ice cover into adjacent infinite slabs of finite width parallel to the ice edge. Each slab contains an arbitrary (but finite) number of circular ice floes with randomly distributed properties. Ice floes are modeled as thin elastic plates with uniform thickness and finite draught. We consider a directional wave spectrum with harmonic time dependence incident on the MIZ from the open ocean, defined as a continuous superposition of plane waves traveling at different angles. The scattering problem within each slab is then solved using Graf's interaction theory for an arbitrary incident directional plane wave spectrum. Using an appropriate integral representation of the Hankel function of the first kind (see Cincotti et al., 1993), we map the outgoing circular wave field from each floe on the slab boundaries into a directional spectrum of plane waves, which characterizes the slab reflected and transmitted fields. Discretizing the angular spectrum, we can obtain a scattering matrix for each slab. Standard recursive
An optimal FFT-based anisotropic power spectrum estimator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Li, Yin; Slepian, Zachary, E-mail: nhand@berkeley.edu, E-mail: yin.li@berkeley.edu, E-mail: zslepian@lbl.gov, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2017-07-01
Measurements of line-of-sight dependent clustering via the galaxy power spectrum's multipole moments constitute a powerful tool for testing theoretical models in large-scale structure. Recent work shows that this measurement, including a moving line-of-sight, can be accelerated using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) by decomposing the Legendre polynomials into products of Cartesian vectors. Here, we present a faster, optimal means of using FFTs for this measurement. We avoid redundancy present in the Cartesian decomposition by using a spherical harmonic decomposition of the Legendre polynomials. With this method, a given multipole of order ℓ requires only 2ℓ+1 FFTs rather than the (ℓ+1)(ℓ+2)/2 FFTs of the Cartesian approach. For the hexadecapole (ℓ = 4), this translates to 40% fewer FFTs, with increased savings for higher ℓ. The reduction in wall-clock time enables the calculation of finely-binned wedges in P ( k ,μ), obtained by computing multipoles up to a large ℓ{sub max} and combining them. This transformation has a number of advantages. We demonstrate that by using non-uniform bins in μ, we can isolate plane-of-sky (angular) systematics to a narrow bin at 0μ ≅ while eliminating the contamination from all other bins. We also show that the covariance matrix of clustering wedges binned uniformly in μ becomes ill-conditioned when combining multipoles up to large values of ℓ{sub max}, but that the problem can be avoided with non-uniform binning. As an example, we present results using ℓ{sub max}=16, for which our procedure requires a factor of 3.4 fewer FFTs than the Cartesian method, while removing the first μ bin leads only to a 7% increase in statistical error on f σ{sub 8}, as compared to a 54% increase with ℓ{sub max}=4.
An optimal FFT-based anisotropic power spectrum estimator
Hand, Nick; Li, Yin; Slepian, Zachary; Seljak, Uroš
2017-07-01
Measurements of line-of-sight dependent clustering via the galaxy power spectrum's multipole moments constitute a powerful tool for testing theoretical models in large-scale structure. Recent work shows that this measurement, including a moving line-of-sight, can be accelerated using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) by decomposing the Legendre polynomials into products of Cartesian vectors. Here, we present a faster, optimal means of using FFTs for this measurement. We avoid redundancy present in the Cartesian decomposition by using a spherical harmonic decomposition of the Legendre polynomials. With this method, a given multipole of order l requires only 2l+1 FFTs rather than the (l+1)(l+2)/2 FFTs of the Cartesian approach. For the hexadecapole (l = 4), this translates to 40% fewer FFTs, with increased savings for higher l. The reduction in wall-clock time enables the calculation of finely-binned wedges in P(k,μ), obtained by computing multipoles up to a large lmax and combining them. This transformation has a number of advantages. We demonstrate that by using non-uniform bins in μ, we can isolate plane-of-sky (angular) systematics to a narrow bin at 0μ simeq while eliminating the contamination from all other bins. We also show that the covariance matrix of clustering wedges binned uniformly in μ becomes ill-conditioned when combining multipoles up to large values of lmax, but that the problem can be avoided with non-uniform binning. As an example, we present results using lmax=16, for which our procedure requires a factor of 3.4 fewer FFTs than the Cartesian method, while removing the first μ bin leads only to a 7% increase in statistical error on f σ8, as compared to a 54% increase with lmax=4.
On minimally parametric primordial power spectrum reconstruction and the evidence for a red tilt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verde, Licia; Peiris, Hiranya
2008-01-01
The latest cosmological data seem to indicate a significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum when parameterized either by a power law or by a spectral index with non-zero 'running'. This deviation, by itself, serves as a powerful tool for discriminating among theories for the origin of cosmological structures such as inflationary models. Here, we use a minimally parametric smoothing spline technique to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum. This technique is well suited to searching for smooth features in the primordial power spectrum such as deviations from scale invariance or a running spectral index, although it would recover sharp features of high statistical significance. We use the WMAP three-year results in combination with data from a suite of higher resolution cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest ACBAR 2008 release), as well as large-scale structure data from SDSS and 2dFGRS. We employ cross-validation to assess, using the data themselves, the optimal amount of smoothness in the primordial power spectrum consistent with the data. This minimally parametric reconstruction supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt, but not for deviations from a power law power spectrum. Smooth variations in the primordial power spectrum are not significantly degenerate with the other cosmological parameters
The Mira-Titan Universe. II. Matter Power Spectrum Emulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawrence, Earl; Heitmann, Katrin; Kwan, Juliana; Upadhye, Amol; Bingham, Derek; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David; Pope, Adrian; Finkel, Hal; Frontiere, Nicholas
2017-09-20
We introduce a new cosmic emulator for the matter power spectrum covering eight cosmological parameters. Targeted at optical surveys, the emulator provides accurate predictions out to a wavenumber k similar to 5 Mpc(-1) and redshift z <= 2. In addition to covering the standard set of Lambda CDM parameters, massive neutrinos and a dynamical dark energy of state are included. The emulator is built on a sample set of 36 cosmological models, carefully chosen to provide accurate predictions over the wide and large parameter space. For each model, we have performed a high-resolution simulation, augmented with 16 medium-resolution simulations and TimeRG perturbation theory results to provide accurate coverage over a wide k-range; the data set generated as part of this project is more than 1.2Pbytes. With the current set of simulated models, we achieve an accuracy of approximately 4%. Because the sampling approach used here has established convergence and error-control properties, follow-up results with more than a hundred cosmological models will soon achieve similar to 1% accuracy. We compare our approach with other prediction schemes that are based on halo model ideas and remapping approaches.
Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Signal Power Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hadziabdic, Dzenan
Among the major limitations in high-speed communications and highresolution radars is the lack of efficient and powerful signal sources with low distortion. Microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal power is needed for signal transmission. Progress in signal generation stems largely from...... distortion and high PAE were observed. The estimated output power of 42.5 dBm and PAE of 31.3% are comparable to the state-of-the-art results reported for GaN HEMT amplifiers. Wireless communication systems planned in the near future will operate at E-band, around 71-86 GHz, and require mm-wave-PAs to boost...... the application of novel materials like galliumnitride (GaN) and silicon-carbide (SiC) and fabrication of indiumphosphide (InP) based transistors. One goal of this thesis is to assess GaN HEMT technology with respect to linear efficient signal power generation. While most reports on GaN HEMT high-power devices...
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the Primordial Power Spectrum
Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme; Appel, John William; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas;
2011-01-01
We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k approx. = 0.2 Mp/c. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from CMB measurements (which probe the power spectrum in thc linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances and weak lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurement.s of the matter power spectrum.
THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: A MEASUREMENT OF THE PRIMORDIAL POWER SPECTRUM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Appel, John William; Das, Sudeep; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Carvalho, C. Sofia [IPFN, IST, Av. RoviscoPais, 1049-001Lisboa, Portugal and RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efessiou 4, 11-527 Athens (Greece); Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Duenner, Rolando; Gallardo, Patricio [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hilton, Matt [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Irwin, Kent D. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); and others
2012-04-10
We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) in combination with measurements from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and a prior on the Hubble constant. The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k {approx_equal} 0.2 Mpc{sup -1}. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from cosmic microwave background measurements (which probe the power spectrum in the linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances, and weak-lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurements of the matter power spectrum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saikia, P.
1981-01-01
The spectrum of stimulated Brillouin scattering from an inhomogeneous moving laser plasma is analyzed. The damping of acoustic waves and scattered electromagnetic waves is taken into account. Spectra are derived for various scattering angles and for various radii of the laser beam. For all observation angles the center of the spectral line is at an unshifted frequency. As the observation angle increases, the width of the red wing in the spectrum increases. The intensity of the scattered light is very anisotropic
Kubo, N
1995-04-01
To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical "least squares filter" theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the "Butterworth" filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and "Wiener" filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99mTc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the "Butterworth" filter, "Wiener" filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, Naoki
1995-01-01
To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical 'least squares filter' theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the 'Butterworth' filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and 'Wiener' filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99m Tc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the 'Butterworth' filter, 'Wiener' filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images. (author)
Studying Electromechanical Wave Propagation and Transport Delays in Power Systems
Dasgupta, Kalyan; Kulkarni, A. M.; Soman, Shreevardhan
2013-05-01
Abstract: In this paper, we make an attempt to describe the phenomenon of wave propagation when a disturbance is introduced in an electromechanical system. The focus is mainly on generator trips in a power system. Ordering of the generators is first done using a sensitivity matrix. Thereafter, orthogonal decomposition of the ordered generators is done to group them based on their participation in different modes. Finally, we find the velocity of propagation of the wave and the transport delay associated with it using the ESPRIT method. The analysis done on generators from the eastern and western regions of India.1
Reconstruction of a direction-dependent primordial power spectrum from Planck CMB data
Durakovic, Amel; Hunt, Paul; Mukherjee, Suvodip; Sarkar, Subir; Souradeep, Tarun
2018-02-01
We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation is direction-dependent. To first order this is parameterised by a quadrupolar modulation of the power spectrum and results in statistical anisotropy of the CMB, which can be quantified using `bipolar spherical harmonics'. We compute these for the Planck DR2-2015 SMICA map and estimate the noise covariance from Planck Full Focal Plane 9 simulations. A constant quadrupolar modulation is detected with 2.2 σ significance, dropping to 2σ when the primordial power is assumed to scale with wave number k as a power law. Going beyond previous work we now allow the spectrum to have arbitrary scale-dependence. Our non-parametric reconstruction then suggests several spectral features, the most prominent at k ~ 0.006 Mpc‑1. When a constant quadrupolar modulation is fitted to data in the range 0.005 <= k/Mpc‑1 <= 0.008, its preferred directions are found to be related to the cosmic hemispherical asymmetry and the CMB dipole. To determine the significance we apply two test statistics to our reconstructions of the quadrupolar modulation from data, against reconstructions of realisations of noise only. With a test statistic sensitive only to the amplitude of the modulation, the reconstructions from the multipole range 30 <= l <= 1200 are unusual with 2.1σ significance. With the second test statistic, sensitive also to the direction, the significance rises to 6.9σ. Our approach is easily generalised to include other data sets such as polarisation, large-scale structure and forthcoming 21-cm line observations which will enable these anomalies to be investigated further.
The effect of blood acceleration on the ultrasound power Doppler spectrum
Matchenko, O. S.; Barannik, E. A.
2017-09-01
The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of blood acceleration and time window length on the power Doppler spectrum for Gaussian ultrasound beams. The work has been carried out on the basis of continuum model of the ultrasound scattering from inhomogeneities in fluid flow. Correlation function of fluctuations has been considered for uniformly accelerated scatterers, and the resulting power Doppler spectra have been calculated. It is shown that within the initial phase of systole uniformly accelerated slow blood flow in pulmonary artery and aorta tends to make the correlation function about 4.89 and 7.83 times wider, respectively, than the sensitivity function of typical probing system. Given peak flow velocities, the sensitivity function becomes, vice versa, about 4.34 and 3.84 times wider, respectively, then the correlation function. In these limiting cases, the resulting spectra can be considered as Gaussian. The optimal time window duration decreases with increasing acceleration of blood flow and equals to 11.62 and 7.54 ms for pulmonary artery and aorta, respectively. The width of the resulting power Doppler spectrum is shown to be defined mostly by the wave vector of the incident field, the duration of signal and the acceleration of scatterers in the case of low flow velocities. In the opposite case geometrical properties of probing field and the average velocity itself are more essential. In the sense of signal-noise ratio, the optimal duration of time window can be found. Abovementioned results may contribute to the improved techniques of Doppler ultrasound diagnostics of cardiovascular system.
Equations for collective modes spectrum in a mixed d-wave state of unconventional superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, C.Y.
2004-01-01
Direct observation of the collective modes in unconventional superconductors (USC) by microwave impedance technique experiments has made the very important study of the collective excitations in these systems. One of the problem is still the exact form of the order parameter of unconventional superconductors. Among the possibilities there are extended s-wave pairing, mixture of s- and d-states, as well as of different d-wave states. I consider the mixed (1-γ)d x 2 -y 2 +iγd xy state in high temperature superconductors (HTSC) and derive for the first time a full set of equations for collective modes spectrum in mixed d-wave state with arbitrary admixture of d xy state. Obtained results allow to calculate the whole collective mode spectrum, which could be used for interpretation of the sound attenuation and microwave absorption data as well as for identification of the type of pairing and order parameter in unconventional superconductors. In particular, they allow to estimate the extent of admixture of d xy state in a possible mixed state
[A quick algorithm of dynamic spectrum photoelectric pulse wave detection based on LabVIEW].
Lin, Ling; Li, Na; Li, Gang
2010-02-01
Dynamic spectrum (DS) detection is attractive among the numerous noninvasive blood component detection methods because of the elimination of the main interference of the individual discrepancy and measure conditions. DS is a kind of spectrum extracted from the photoelectric pulse wave and closely relative to the artery blood. It can be used in a noninvasive blood component concentration examination. The key issues in DS detection are high detection precision and high operation speed. The precision of measure can be advanced by making use of over-sampling and lock-in amplifying on the pick-up of photoelectric pulse wave in DS detection. In the present paper, the theory expression formula of the over-sampling and lock-in amplifying method was deduced firstly. Then in order to overcome the problems of great data and excessive operation brought on by this technology, a quick algorithm based on LabVIEW and a method of using external C code applied in the pick-up of photoelectric pulse wave were presented. Experimental verification was conducted in the environment of LabVIEW. The results show that by the method pres ented, the speed of operation was promoted rapidly and the data memory was reduced largely.
Power spectrum scale invariance identifies prefrontal dysregulation in paranoid schizophrenia.
Radulescu, Anca R; Rubin, Denis; Strey, Helmut H; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R
2012-07-01
Theory and experimental evidence suggest that complex living systems function close to the boundary of chaos, with erroneous organization to an improper dynamical range (too stiff or chaotic) underlying system-wide dysregulation and disease. We hypothesized that erroneous organization might therefore also characterize paranoid schizophrenia, via optimization abnormalities in the prefrontal-limbic circuit regulating emotion. To test this, we acquired fMRI scans from 35 subjects (N = 9 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and N = 26 healthy controls), while they viewed affect-valent stimuli. To quantify dynamic regulation, we analyzed the power spectrum scale invariance (PSSI) of fMRI time-courses and computed the geometry of time-delay (Poincaré) maps, a measure of variability. Patients and controls showed distinct PSSI in two clusters (k(1) : Z = 4.3215, P = 0.00002 and k(2) : Z = 3.9441, P = 0.00008), localized to the orbitofrontal/medial prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10), represented by β close to white noise in patients (β ≈ 0) and in the pink noise range in controls (β ≈ -1). Interpreting the meaning of PSSI differences, the Poincaré maps indicated less variability in patients than controls (Z = -1.9437, P = 0.05 for k(1) ; Z = -2.5099, P = 0.01 for k(2) ). That the dynamics identified Brodmann Area 10 is consistent with previous schizophrenia research, which implicates this area in deficits of working memory, executive functioning, emotional regulation and underlying biological abnormalities in synaptic (glutamatergic) transmission. Our results additionally cohere with a large body of work finding pink noise to be the normal range of central function at the synaptic, cellular, and small network levels, and suggest that patients show less supple responsivity of this region. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Fast wave power flow along SOL field lines in NSTX
Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.; Maingi, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Sabbagh, S.
2012-10-01
On NSTX, a major loss of high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power can occur along open field lines passing in front of the antenna over the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL). Up to 60% of the RF power can be lost and at least partially deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling [1,2]. The flow of HHFW power from the antenna region to the divertor is mostly aligned along the SOL magnetic field [3], which explains the pattern of heat deposition as measured with infrared (IR) cameras. By tracing field lines from the divertor back to the midplane, the IR data can be used to estimate the profile of HHFW power coupled to SOL field lines. We hypothesize that surface waves are being excited in the SOL, and these results should benchmark advanced simulations of the RF power deposition in the SOL (e.g., [4]). Minimizing this loss is critical optimal high-power long-pulse ICRF heating on ITER while guarding against excessive divertor erosion.[4pt] [1] J.C. Hosea et al., AIP Conf Proceedings 1187 (2009) 105. [0pt] [2] G. Taylor et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 (2010) 056114. [0pt] [3] R.J. Perkins et al., to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett. [0pt] [4] D.L. Green et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 145001.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skoblin, A.A.
1994-01-01
Free nonrelativistic electrons in both a static magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave are considered. A plane-polarized wave propagates along a magnetic field, its frequency is close to the electron rotation frequency in a magnetic field. Electron spin is taken into account. An electron quasi energy spectrum and steady states (quasi energy states) are constructed. 6 refs
The gravitational wave spectrum of non-axisymmetric, freely precessing neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broeck, Chris van den
2005-01-01
Evidence for free precession has been observed in the radio signature of several pulsars. Freely precessing pulsars radiate gravitationally at frequencies near the rotation rate and twice the rotation rate, which for rotation frequencies greater than ∼10 Hz is in the LIGO band. In older work, the gravitational wave spectrum of a precessing neutron star has been evaluated to first order in a small precession angle. Here, we calculate the contributions to second order in the wobble angle, and we find that a new spectral line emerges. We show that for reasonable wobble angles, the second-order line may well be observable with the proposed advanced LIGO detectors for precessing neutron stars as far away as the galactic centre. Observation of the full second-order spectrum permits a direct measurement of the star's wobble angle, oblateness and deviation from axisymmetry, with the potential to significantly increase our understanding of neutron star structure
Hydraulic power take-off for wave energy systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
2001-01-01
Investigation and laboratory experiments with a hydraulic power conversion system for converting forces from a 2.5m diamter float to extract energy from seawaves. The test rig consists of a hydraulic wave simulator and a hydraulic point absorber. The absorber converts the incomming forces to a co...... to a continous rotation of an electric generator. The experiments document efficiencies and losses for the conversion process. The experiments are used for verification and update of a computer model.......Investigation and laboratory experiments with a hydraulic power conversion system for converting forces from a 2.5m diamter float to extract energy from seawaves. The test rig consists of a hydraulic wave simulator and a hydraulic point absorber. The absorber converts the incomming forces...
Real-Time Leaky Lamb Wave Spectrum Measurement and Its Application to NDE of Composites
Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph
1999-01-01
Numerous analytical and theoretical studies of the behavior of leaky Lamb waves (LLW) in composite materials were documented in the literature. One of the key issues that are constraining the application of this method as a practical tool is the amount of data that needs to be acquired and the slow process that is involved with such experiments. Recently, a methodology that allows quasi real-time acquisition of LLW dispersion data was developed. At each angle of incidence the reflection spectrum is available in real time from the experimental setup and it can be used for rapid detection of the defects. This technique can be used to rapidly acquire the various plate wave modes along various angles of incidence for the characterization of the material elastic properties. The experimental method and data acquisition technique will be described in this paper. Experimental data was used to examine a series of flaws including porosity and delaminations and demonstrated the efficiency of the developed technique.
Similar Data Retrieval from Enormous Datasets on ELF/VLF Wave Spectrum Observed by Akebono
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y Kasahara
2010-02-01
Full Text Available As the total amount of data measured by scientific spacecraft is drastically increasing, it is necessary for researchers to develop new computation methods for efficient analysis of these enormous datasets. In the present study, we propose a new algorithm for similar data retrieval. We first discuss key descriptors that represent characteristics of the VLF/ELF waves observed by the Akebono spacecraft. Second, an algorithm for similar data retrieval is introduced. Finally, we demonstrate that the developed algorithm works well for the retrieval of the VLF spectrum with a small amount of CPU load.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Carolis, G.
2001-01-01
This paper concerns with the task of retrieving ocean wave spectra form imagery provided by space-borne SAR systems such as that on board ERS satellite. SAR imagery of surface wave fields travelling into open ocean and into thin sea ice covers composed of frazil and pancake icefields is considered. The major purpose is to gain insight on how the spectral changes can be related to sea ice properties of geophysical interest such as the thickness. Starting from SAR image cross spectra computed from Single Look Complex (SLC) SAR images, the ocean wave spectrum is retrieved using an inversion procedure based on the gradient descent algorithm. The capability of this method when applied to satellite SAR sensors is investigated. Interest in the SAR image cross spectrum exploitation is twofold: first, the directional properties of the ocean wave spectra are retained; second, external wave information needed to initialize the inversion procedure may be greatly reduced using only information included in the SAR image cross spectrum itself. The main drawback is that the wind waves spectrum could be partly lost and its spectral peak wave number underestimated. An ERS-SAR SLC image acquired on April 10, 1993 over the Greenland Sea was selected as test image. A pair of windows that include open-sea only and sea ice cover, respectively, were selected. The inversions were carried out using different guess wave spectra taken from SAR image cross spectra. Moreover, care was taken to properly handle negative values eventually occurring during the inversion runs. This results in a modification of the gradient descending the technique that is required if a non-negative solution of the wave spectrum is searched for. Results are discussed in view of the possibility of SAR data to detect ocean wave dispersion as a means for the retrieval of ice thickness
On The Implications of Atmospheric Gravity Waves on Wind Power
Norris, Luke
2011-01-01
In view of the rapidly rising cost of fossil fuels and concerns over climate change, there can be little doubt that renewable energy is to play a large role in the future of our economic development. The impact of Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) on wind power is, at best, unclear. In this research, AGWs are successfully modelled both in theoretical and real world environments using the WindSim software package which has revealed a potential 7.4% drop in annual power output as a direct ...
Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power
Garrido, Aitor J.; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier
2018-01-01
Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness. PMID:29439408
Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power.
Lekube, Jon; Garrido, Aitor J; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier
2018-02-10
Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness.
Predicting Output Power for Nearshore Wave Energy Harvesting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henock Mamo Deberneh
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Energy harvested from a Wave Energy Converter (WEC varies greatly with the location of its installation. Determining an optimal location that can result in maximum output power is therefore critical. In this paper, we present a novel approach to predicting the output power of a nearshore WEC by characterizing ocean waves using floating buoys. We monitored the movement of the buoys using an Arduino-based data collection module, including a gyro-accelerometer sensor and a wireless transceiver. The collected data were utilized to train and test prediction models. The models were developed using machine learning algorithms: SVM, RF and ANN. The results of the experiments showed that measurements from the data collection module can yield a reliable predictor of output power. Furthermore, we found that the predictors work better when the regressors are combined with a classifier. The accuracy of the proposed prediction model suggests that it could be extremely useful in both locating optimal placement for wave energy harvesting plants and designing the shape of the buoys used by them.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif
2016-01-01
The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum.......The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum....
Liang, B.; Iwnicki, S. D.; Zhao, Y.
2013-08-01
The power spectrum is defined as the square of the magnitude of the Fourier transform (FT) of a signal. The advantage of FT analysis is that it allows the decomposition of a signal into individual periodic frequency components and establishes the relative intensity of each component. It is the most commonly used signal processing technique today. If the same principle is applied for the detection of periodicity components in a Fourier spectrum, the process is called the cepstrum analysis. Cepstrum analysis is a very useful tool for detection families of harmonics with uniform spacing or the families of sidebands commonly found in gearbox, bearing and engine vibration fault spectra. Higher order spectra (HOS) (also known as polyspectra) consist of higher order moment of spectra which are able to detect non-linear interactions between frequency components. For HOS, the most commonly used is the bispectrum. The bispectrum is the third-order frequency domain measure, which contains information that standard power spectral analysis techniques cannot provide. It is well known that neural networks can represent complex non-linear relationships, and therefore they are extremely useful for fault identification and classification. This paper presents an application of power spectrum, cepstrum, bispectrum and neural network for fault pattern extraction of induction motors. The potential for using the power spectrum, cepstrum, bispectrum and neural network as a means for differentiating between healthy and faulty induction motor operation is examined. A series of experiments is done and the advantages and disadvantages between them are discussed. It has been found that a combination of power spectrum, cepstrum and bispectrum plus neural network analyses could be a very useful tool for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of induction motors.
A low-power wave union TDC implemented in FPGA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Jinyuan; Shi, Yanchen; Zhu, Douglas
2011-01-01
A low-power time-to-digital convertor (TDC) for an application inside a vacuum has been implemented based on the Wave Union TDC scheme in a low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Bench top tests have shown that a time measurement resolution better than 30 ps (standard deviation of time differences between two channels) is achieved. Special firmware design practices are taken to reduce power consumption. The measurements indicate that with 32 channels fitting in the FPGA device, the power consumption on the FPGA core voltage is approximately 9.3 mW/channel and the total power consumption including both core and I/O banks is less than 27 mW/channel.
Wind, Wave, and Tidal Energy Without Power Conditioning
Jones, Jack A.
2013-01-01
Most present wind, wave, and tidal energy systems require expensive power conditioning systems that reduce overall efficiency. This new design eliminates power conditioning all, or nearly all, of the time. Wind, wave, and tidal energy systems can transmit their energy to pumps that send high-pressure fluid to a central power production area. The central power production area can consist of a series of hydraulic generators. The hydraulic generators can be variable displacement generators such that the RPM, and thus the voltage, remains constant, eliminating the need for further power conditioning. A series of wind blades is attached to a series of radial piston pumps, which pump fluid to a series of axial piston motors attached to generators. As the wind is reduced, the amount of energy is reduced, and the number of active hydraulic generators can be reduced to maintain a nearly constant RPM. If the axial piston motors have variable displacement, an exact RPM can be maintained for all, or nearly all, wind speeds. Analyses have been performed that show over 20% performance improvements with this technique over conventional wind turbines
Power spectrum, correlation function, and tests for luminosity bias in the CfA redshift survey
Park, Changbom; Vogeley, Michael S.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.
1994-01-01
We describe and apply a method for directly computing the power spectrum for the galaxy distribution in the extension of the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey. Tests show that our technique accurately reproduces the true power spectrum for k greater than 0.03 h Mpc(exp -1). The dense sampling and large spatial coverage of this survey allow accurate measurement of the redshift-space power spectrum on scales from 5 to approximately 200 h(exp -1) Mpc. The power spectrum has slope n approximately equal -2.1 on small scales (lambda less than or equal 25 h(exp -1) Mpc) and n approximately -1.1 on scales 30 less than lambda less than 120 h(exp -1) Mpc. On larger scales the power spectrum flattens somewhat, but we do not detect a turnover. Comparison with N-body simulations of cosmological models shows that an unbiased, open universe CDM model (OMEGA h = 0.2) and a nonzero cosmological constant (CDM) model (OMEGA h = 0.24, lambda(sub zero) = 0.6, b = 1.3) match the CfA power spectrum over the wavelength range we explore. The standard biased CDM model (OMEGA h = 0.5, b = 1.5) fails (99% significance level) because it has insufficient power on scales lambda greater than 30 h(exp -1) Mpc. Biased CDM with a normalization that matches the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy (OMEGA h = 0.5, b = 1.4, sigma(sub 8) (mass) = 1) has too much power on small scales to match the observed galaxy power spectrum. This model with b = 1 matches both Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) and the small-scale power spect rum but has insufficient power on scales lambda approximately 100 h(exp -1) Mpc. We derive a formula for the effect of small-scale peculiar velocities on the power spectrum and combine this formula with the linear-regime amplification described by Kaiser to compute an estimate of the real-space power spectrum. Two tests reveal luminosity bias in the galaxy distribution: First, the amplitude of the pwer spectrum is approximately 40% larger for the brightest
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido
2012-01-01
In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates μ- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k ∼ 4 Mpc –1 . Here, we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of μ and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.
Classical and modern power spectrum estimation for tune measurement in CSNS RCS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xiaoyu; Xu Taoguang; Fu Shinian; Zeng Lei; Bian Xiaojuan
2013-01-01
Precise measurement of betatron tune is required for good operating condition of CSNS RCS. The fractional part of betatron tune is important and it can be measured by analyzing the signals of beam position from the appointed BPM. Usually these signals are contaminated during the acquisition process, therefore several power spectrum methods are used to improve the frequency resolution. In this article classical and modern power spectrum methods are used. In order to compare their performance, the results of simulation data and IQT data from J-PARC RCS are discussed. It is shown that modern power spectrum estimation has better performance than the classical ones, though the calculation is more complex. (authors)
Power output from Tage Basse's Wave Turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rossen, E.A.; Mikkelsen, R.
2000-10-01
Tage Basse's Wave Turbine is a floating, slack moored device, placed in deep water. Via a long vertical shaft a Wells turbine is connected to a circular horizontal plate, below the turbine. The plate is in still water, preventing the device from moving up and down in the waves. At the top end of the shaft there is a float containing the power take off. The efficiency was measured to 5.1 % as an average over the year. This is measured with a rigid suspension of the turbine. If the bottom plate, in the floating version, is designed properly the result is still applicable. One reason for the large increase in efficiency shown could be that when the vertical kinetic energy in the wave is tapped by the turbine, part of the potential energy in the wave is transformed into vertical kinetic energy and is then accessible to the turbine. Turbine efficiency might increase in a full-scale device due to more favorable Reynolds number. Reynolds number in the model tests is approx. 80,000. (EHS)
Yerrapragada, Karthik; Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin
2017-09-01
We propose utilization of the nonlinear coupling between the roll and pitch motions of wave energy harvesting vessels to increase their power generation by orders of magnitude. Unlike linear vessels that exhibit unidirectional motion, our vessel undergoes both pitch and roll motions in response to frontal waves. This significantly magnifies the motion of the vessel and thus improves the power production by several orders of magnitude. The ocean waves result in roll and pitch motions of the vessel, which in turn causes rotation of an onboard pendulum. The pendulum is connected to an electric generator to produce power. The coupled electro-mechanical system is modeled using energy methods. This paper investigates the power generation of the vessel when the ratio between pitch and roll natural frequencies is about 2 to 1. In that case, a nonlinear energy transfer occurs between the roll and pitch motions, causing the vessel to perform coupled pitch and roll motion even though it is only excited in the pitch direction. It is shown that co-existence of pitch and roll motions significantly enhances the pendulum rotation and power generation. A method for tuning the natural frequencies of the vessel is proposed to make the energy generator robust to variations of the frequency of the incident waves. It is shown that the proposed method enhances the power output of the floating wave power generators by multiple orders of magnitude. A small-scale prototype is developed for the proof of concept. The nonlinear energy transfer and the full rotation of the pendulum in the prototype are observed in the experimental tests.
A radioisotope-powered surface acoustic wave transponder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tin, S; Lal, A
2009-01-01
We demonstrate a 63 Ni radioisotope-powered pulse transponder that has a SAW (surface acoustic wave) device as the frequency transmission frequency selector. Because the frequency is determined by a SAW device, narrowband detection with an identical SAW device enables the possibility for a long-distance RF-link. The SAW transponders can be buried deep into structural constructs such as steel and concrete, where changing batteries or harvesting vibration or EM energy is not a reliable option. RF-released power to radioisotope- released power amplification is 10 8 , even when regulatory safe amounts of 63 Ni are used. Here we have achieved an 800 µW pulse (315 MHz, 10 µs pause) across a 50 Ω load every 3 min, using a 1.5 milli-Ci 63 Ni source
Efficiency Analysis of a Wave Power Generation System by Using Multibody Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Min Soo; Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Jung Hee; Sung, Yong Jun
2016-01-01
The energy absorption efficiency of a wave power generation system is calculated as the ratio of the wave power to the power of the system. Because absorption efficiency depends on the dynamic behavior of the wave power generation system, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system is required to estimate the energy absorption efficiency of the system. In this study, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system under wave loads is performed to estimate the energy absorption efficiency. RecurDyn is employed to carry out the dynamic analysis of the system, and the Morison equation is used for the wave load model. According to the results, the lower the wave height and the shorter the period, the higher is the absorption efficiency of the system
Efficiency Analysis of a Wave Power Generation System by Using Multibody Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Min Soo; Sohn, Jeong Hyun [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hee; Sung, Yong Jun [INGINE Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
The energy absorption efficiency of a wave power generation system is calculated as the ratio of the wave power to the power of the system. Because absorption efficiency depends on the dynamic behavior of the wave power generation system, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system is required to estimate the energy absorption efficiency of the system. In this study, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system under wave loads is performed to estimate the energy absorption efficiency. RecurDyn is employed to carry out the dynamic analysis of the system, and the Morison equation is used for the wave load model. According to the results, the lower the wave height and the shorter the period, the higher is the absorption efficiency of the system.
Study of clay behaviour around a heat source by frequency spectrum analysis of seismic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sloovere, P. de.
1993-01-01
Wave propagated into soft rock is not completely described by purely linear elastic theory. Through spectrum analysis of wave, one can see that several frequencies are selected by the ground. ME2i uses this method to check grouting, piles a.s.o. The Mol experiment (on Radioactive Waste Disposal) aims to prove that little changes into heated clay can be detected by 'frequential seismic'. A cross-hole investigation system has been installed and tests have been performed for two years with a shear-hammer named MARGOT built to work inside horizontal boreholes: - Before heating the tests show the same results every time: . main frequency at 330 hertz; . maximal frequency at 520 hertz; - During heating: . the rays at 330 and 520 hertz disappear; . The frequencies in the range 100 - 300 hertz are prevailing; - After heating spectra have again their original shape. These results show that the effect is clear around an heated zone. The next steps should be: - Interpretation with computer's codes treating of wave propagation into a viscoelastic body; - Experimentations: . at the opening of a new gallery; . on big samples; . on granites and salt. 9 refs., 4 appendices
van Diessen, Eric; Senders, Joeky; Jansen, Floor E.; Boersma, Maria; Bruining, Hilgo
2015-01-01
Experimental studies suggest that increased resting-state power of gamma oscillations is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To extend the clinical applicability of this finding, we retrospectively investigated routine electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of 19 patients with ASD and
Spatial correlation in 3D MIMO channels using fourier coefficients of power spectrums
Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain; Kammoun, Abla; Debbah, Mé rouane; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2015-01-01
for arbitrary angular distributions and antenna patterns. The resulting expression depends on the underlying angular distributions and antenna patterns through the Fourier Series (FS) coefficients of power azimuth and elevation spectrums. The novelty
Alinea, Allan L.; Kubota, Takahiro
2018-03-01
We perform adiabatic regularization of power spectrum in nonminimally coupled general single-field inflation with varying speed of sound. The subtraction is performed within the framework of earlier study by Urakawa and Starobinsky dealing with the canonical inflation. Inspired by Fakir and Unruh's model on nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation, we find upon imposing near scale-invariant condition, that the subtraction term exponentially decays with the number of e -folds. As in the result for the canonical inflation, the regularized power spectrum tends to the "bare" power spectrum as the Universe expands during (and even after) inflation. This work justifies the use of the "bare" power spectrum in standard calculation in the most general context of slow-roll single-field inflation involving nonminimal coupling and varying speed of sound.
Wind tunnel study of the power output spectrum in a micro wind farm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bossuyt, Juliaan; Meyers, Johan; Howland, Michael F.; Meneveau, Charles
2016-01-01
Instrumented small-scale porous disk models are used to study the spectrum of a surrogate for the power output in a micro wind farm with 100 models of wind turbines. The power spectra of individual porous disk models in the first row of the wind farm show the expected -5/3 power law at higher frequencies. Downstream models measure an increased variance due to wake effects. Conversely, the power spectrum of the sum of the power over the entire wind farm shows a peak at the turbine-to-turbine travel frequency between the model turbines, and a near -5/3 power law region at a much wider range of lower frequencies, confirming previous LES results. Comparison with the spectrum that would result when assuming that the signals are uncorrelated, highlights the strong effects of correlations and anti-correlations in the fluctuations at various frequencies. (paper)
Millimeter-Wave Wireless Power Transfer Technology for Space Applications
Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Mojarradi, Hadi; Bae, Sam Y.; Marzwell, Neville
2008-01-01
In this paper we present a new compact, scalable, and low cost technology for efficient receiving of power using RF waves at 94 GHz. This technology employs a highly innovative array of slot antennas that is integrated on substrate composed of gold (Au), silicon (Si), and silicon dioxide (SiO2) layers. The length of the slots and spacing between them are optimized for a highly efficient beam through a 3-D electromagnetic simulation process. Antenna simulation results shows a good beam profile with very low side lobe levels and better than 93% antenna efficiency.
On the fundamental performance of the floating offshore wave power device (FOWAD)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hotta, H.; Washio, Y.; Miyazaki, T.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on the wave power absorption, wave dissipation, mooring line tension and oscillation in regular and irregular (long created and short created) waves of the floating offshore wave power device (FOWAD) that were measured and analyzed by a scale model test in a wave tank. FOWAD is an oscillating water column type device equipped with air turbine generators, and air chambers facing the waves. Therefore, it belongs in the close of terminator type wave power devices. It has several projecting walls in front of each air chamber, several buoyancy compartments behind each chamber and stabilizer at the keel. The measured data indicates that, the performance and stability were improved in comparison with former terminator type devices, FOWAD absorbed about 30% of wave power and mooring line tension was within the limits of safety even in rough seas. Nevertheless the performance for dissipation of waves can be improved. This paper describes on the results of the model test and subsequent analysis
A Wave Power Device with Pendulum Based on Ocean Monitoring Buoy
Chai, Hui; Guan, Wanchun; Wan, Xiaozheng; Li, Xuanqun; Zhao, Qiang; Liu, Shixuan
2018-01-01
The ocean monitoring buoy usually exploits solar energy for power supply. In order to improve power supply capacity, this paper proposes a wave power device according to the structure and moving character of buoy. The wave power device composes of pendulum mechanism that converts wave energy into mechanical energy and energy storage mechanism where the mechanical energy is transferred quantitatively to generator. The hydrodynamic equation for the motion of buoy system with generator devise is established based on the potential flow theory, and then the characteristics of pendulum motion and energy conversion properties are analysed. The results of this research show that the proposed wave power devise is able to efficiently and periodically convert wave energy into power, and increasing the stiffness of energy storage spring is benefit for enhancing the power supply capacity of the buoy. This study provides a theory reference for the development of technology on wave power generator for ocean monitoring buoy.
The shape of the primordial power spectrum: A last stand before Planck data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia
2010-01-01
We present a minimally parametric reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum using the most recent cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure data sets. Our goal is to constrain the shape of the power spectrum while simultaneously avoiding strong theoretical priors and over-fitting of the data. We find no evidence for any departure from a power-law spectral index. We also find that an exact scale-invariant power spectrum is disfavored by the data, but this conclusion is weaker than the corresponding result assuming a theoretically-motivated power-law spectral index prior. The reconstruction shows that better data are crucial to justify the adoption of such a strong theoretical prior observationally. These results can be used to determine the robustness of our present knowledge when compared with forthcoming precision data from Planck.
Contribution of Strong Discontinuities to the Power Spectrum of the Solar Wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borovsky, Joseph E.
2010-01-01
Eight and a half years of magnetic field measurements (2 22 samples) from the ACE spacecraft in the solar wind at 1 A.U. are analyzed. Strong (large-rotation-angle) discontinuities in the solar wind are collected and measured. An artificial time series is created that preserves the timing and amplitudes of the discontinuities. The power spectral density of the discontinuity series is calculated and compared with the power spectral density of the solar-wind magnetic field. The strong discontinuities produce a power-law spectrum in the ''inertial subrange'' with a spectral index near the Kolmogorov -5/3 index. The discontinuity spectrum contains about half of the power of the full solar-wind magnetic field over this ''inertial subrange.'' Warnings are issued about the significant contribution of discontinuities to the spectrum of the solar wind, complicating interpretation of spectral power and spectral indices.
Principles underlying the Fourth Power Nature of Structured Shock Waves
Grady, Dennis
2017-06-01
Steady structured shock waves in materials including metals, glasses, compounds and solid mixtures, when represented through plots of Hugoniot stress against a measure of the strain rate through which the Hugoniot state is achieved, have consistently demonstrated a dependence to the fourth power. A perhaps deeper observation is that the product of the energy dissipated through the transition to the Hugoniot state and the time duration of the Hugoniot state event exhibits invariance independent of the Hugoniot amplitude. Invariance of the energy-time product and the fourth-power trend are to first order equivalent. Further, constancy of this energy-time product is observed in other dynamic critical state failure events including spall fracture, dynamic compaction and adiabatic shear failure. The presentation pursues the necessary background exposing the foregoing shock physics observations and explores possible statistical physics principals that may underlie the collective dynamic observations.
Distribution of deep water wave power around the Indian coast based on ship observations
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; RamaRaju, V.S.
distribution of wave power in different directions over a year for each grid is presented. The annual mean wave power along the Indian coast varies from 11.4 to 15.2 KW per metre length of wave crest with a maximum of 15.2 KW for the regions off south Kerala...
Spatial correlation in 3D MIMO channels using fourier coefficients of power spectrums
Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain
2015-03-01
In this paper, an exact closed-form expression for the Spatial Correlation Function (SCF) is derived for the standardized three-dimensional (3D) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel. This novel SCF is developed for a uniform linear array of antennas with non-isotropic antenna patterns. The proposed method resorts to the spherical harmonic expansion (SHE) of plane waves and the trigonometric expansion of Legendre and associated Legendre polynomials to obtain a closed-form expression for the SCF for arbitrary angular distributions and antenna patterns. The resulting expression depends on the underlying angular distributions and antenna patterns through the Fourier Series (FS) coefficients of power azimuth and elevation spectrums. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the SCF being valid for any 3D propagation environment. Numerical results validate the proposed analytical expression and study the impact of angular spreads on the correlation. The derived SCF will help evaluate the performance of correlated 3D MIMO channels in the future. © 2015 IEEE.
The millimeter-wave spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mollaaghababa, R.; Gottlieb, C.A.; Vrtilek, J.M.; Thaddeus, P.
1991-01-01
The millimeter-wave rotational spectra of SiO in high vibrational states (v = 0-40) in its electronic ground state were measured between 228 and 347 GHz in a laboratory discharge through SiH4 and CO. On ascending the vibrational ladder, populations decline precipitously for the first few levels, with a vibrational temperature of about 1000 K; at v of roughly 3, however, they markedly flatten out, and from there to v of roughly 40 the temperature is of the order of 10,000 K. With the Dunham coefficients determined here, the rotational spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO can now be calculated into the far-infrared to accuracies required for radioastronomy. Possible astronomical sources of highly vibrationally excited SiO are certain stellar atmospheres, ultracompact H II regions, very young supernova ejecta, and dense interstellar shocks. 16 refs
Relic gravitational wave spectrum, the trans-Planckian physics and Horava-Lifshitz gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koh, Seoktae
2010-01-01
We calculate the spectrum of the relic gravitational wave due to the trans-Planckian effect in which the standard linear dispersion relations may be modified. Of the modified dispersion relations suggested in the literature which has investigated the trans-Planckian effect, we especially use the Corley-Jacobson dispersion relations. The Corley-Jacobson-type modified dispersion relations can be obtained from Horava-Lifshitz gravity which is non-relativistic and UV complete. Although it is not clear how the transitions from Horava-Lifshitz gravity in the UV regime to Einstein gravity in the IR limit occur, we assume that the Horava-Lifshitz gravity regime is followed by the inflationary phase in Einstein gravity.
Change of spin-wave spectrum arising from interaction of magnons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prozorova, L.A.; Smirnov, A.I.
1978-01-01
Variation of the proper frequency of magnons with a definite wave number k=k 1 is observed in the antiferromagnetic crystal CsMnF 3 by exciting the magnons with k=k 2 . Magnon excitation is performed parametrically by microwave pumping. The density of the parametrically excited magnons is of the order of 10 17 cm -3 . The relative variation of the proper frequency (magnon spectrum shift) is approximately 10 -5 . The variation in the proper frequency is recorded and measured on observation of transition processes in a system of parametrically excited magnons. The frequencies of magnons are 10.5 and 17.5 GHz (k 1 approximately k 2 approximately 10 5 cm -1 ) and sample temperature T=1.6 K. The amplitude of four-magnon interaction inducing the spectral shift is determined and found to be T 12 /2π approximately -10 -12 Hzxcm 3
An automatic method to determine cutoff frequency based on image power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beis, J.S.; Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, British Columbia; Celler, A.; Barney, J.S.
1995-01-01
The authors present an algorithm for automatically choosing filter cutoff frequency (F c ) using the power spectrum of the projections. The method is based on the assumption that the expectation of the image power spectrum is the sum of the expectation of the blurred object power spectrum (dominant at low frequencies) plus a constant value due to Poisson noise. By considering the discrete components of the noise-dominated high-frequency spectrum as a Gaussian distribution N(μ,σ), the Student t-test determines F c as the highest frequency for which the image frequency components are unlikely to be drawn from N (μ,σ). The method is general and can be applied to any filter. In this work, the authors tested the approach using the Metz restoration filter on simulated, phantom, and patient data with good results. Quantitative performance of the technique was evaluated by plotting recovery coefficient (RC) versus NMSE of reconstructed images
Features in the primordial power spectrum of double D-term inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesgourgues, Julien
2000-01-01
Recently, there has been some interest for building supersymmetric models of double inflation. These models, realistic from a particle physics point of view, predict a broken-scale-invariant power spectrum of primordial cosmological perturbations, that may explain eventual nontrivial features in the present matter power spectrum. In previous works, the primordial spectrum was calculated using analytic slow-roll approximations. However, these models involve a fast second-order phase transition during inflation, with a stage of spinodal instability, and an interruption of slow-roll. For our previous model of double D-term inflation, we simulate numerically the evolution of quantum fluctuations, taking into account the spinodal modes, and we show that the semiclassical approximation can be employed even during the transition, due to the presence of a second inflaton field. The primordial power spectrum possesses a rich structure, and possibly, a non-Gaussian spike on observable scales
Siemens's spectrum of deliveries and services for nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2011-01-01
In 2001, Siemens and Framatome merged their nuclear activities in the present Areva NP joint venture. Siemens has since focused on the construction and further development of conventional power plants and on the so-called conventional island (CI), the non-nuclear part of a nuclear power plant, i.e. the steam turbine, generator, and plant I and C systems, and also on service for the conventional part of nuclear power plants. Its role as a minority shareholder in Areva NP constrained Siemens. For this reason, the company in January 2009 decided to terminate its interest in Areva NP effective January 30, 2012. By January 2012 at the latest, Siemens will transfer to the majority shareholder Areva, holding 66 percent of the shares, its interest in the joint venture. For the time being, the joint venture still entails certain limitations to Siemens's activities in the nuclear field. Its delivery of the conventional island for the Olkiluoto 3 (OL3) nuclear power plant in Finland confirms the company's know-how in power plant construction. When commissioned, its 1,720 MW power will make OL3 the world's largest nuclear generating unit. The turbo-generator of the CI comprises a double-flow HP turbine and a 6-flow LP turbine. The driven 4-pole generator with a power of up to 2,200 MVA consists of a water-cooled stator and a hydrogen-cooled rotor. (orig.)
Studying The Effect of Window type On Power Spectrum Based On MATLAB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soad T. Abed
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The representation that describes signal’s frequency behavior can be divided into two categories: linear representation such as the Fourier-transform and quadratic representation such as power spectrum. Power spectrum characterizes the signal’s energy distribution in the frequency domain, and can answer whether most of the power of the signal resides at low or high frequencies. By performing spectral analysis, some important features of signals can be discovered that are not obvious in the time waveform of the signal. One problem with spectrum analysis is that the duration of the signals is finite, although adjustable. Applying the FFT method to finite duration sequences can produce inadequate results because of “spectral leakage”, to reduce the spectral leakage FFT window function is applied. Power spectrum parameters are window size, window type, window over lap and number of FFT. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the effect of varying window type on the power spectrum using Mat Lab software. Five windows have been compared to study their effect on the spectrum of a typical data.
Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Haitao; Dong, Tao; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Hui; Li, Dequan
2018-02-01
In this paper, the cognitive multi-beam satellite system, i.e., two satellite networks coexist through underlay spectrum sharing, is studied, and the power and spectrum allocation method is employed for interference control and throughput maximization. Specifically, the multi-beam satellite with flexible payload reuses the authorized spectrum of the primary satellite, adjusting its transmission band as well as power for each beam to limit its interference on the primary satellite below the prescribed threshold and maximize its own achievable rate. This power and spectrum allocation problem is formulated as a mixed nonconvex programming. For effective solving, we first introduce the concept of signal to leakage plus noise ratio (SLNR) to decouple multiple transmit power variables in the both objective and constraint, and then propose a heuristic algorithm to assign spectrum sub-bands. After that, a stepwise plus slice-wise algorithm is proposed to implement the discrete power allocation. Finally, simulation results show that adopting cognitive technology can improve spectrum efficiency of the satellite communication.
A high-power two stage traveling-wave tube amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiffler, D.; Nation, J.A.; Schachter, L.; Ivers, J.D.; Kerslick, G.S.
1991-01-01
Results are presented on the development of a two stage high-efficiency, high-power 8.76-GHz traveling-wave tube amplifier. The work presented augments previously reported data on a single stage amplifier and presents new data on the operational characteristics of two identical amplifiers operated in series and separated from each other by a sever. Peak powers of 410 MW have been obtained over the complete pulse duration of the device, with a conversion efficiency from the electron beam to microwave energy of 45%. In all operating conditions the severed amplifier showed a ''sideband''-like structure in the frequency spectrum of the microwave radiation. A similar structure was apparent at output powers in excess of 70 MW in the single stage device. The frequencies of the ''sidebands'' are not symmetric with respect to the center frequency. The maximum, single frequency, average output power was 210 MW corresponding to an amplifier efficiency of 24%. Simulation data is also presented that indicates that the short amplifiers used in this work exhibit significant differences in behavior from conventional low-power amplifiers. These include finite length effects on the gain characteristics, which may account for the observed narrow bandwidth of the amplifiers and for the appearance of the sidebands. It is also found that the bunching length for the beam may be a significant fraction of the total amplifier length
The 'CETO' wave power generation devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Profitt, Michael
2007-07-01
Renewable Energy Holdings plc (REH) is an international company established to be an operator of, and undertake active investments in both proven and innovative renewable energy technologies. The CETO devices have been developed in Western Australia by Seapower Pacific PTY Ltd (SPPL), a subsidiary of Renewable Energy Holdings Plc (REH). This paper reports on the technology and also includes the findings from an independent technical appraisal undertaken by PB Power. The CETO device consists primarily of a novel pump anchored to the seabed and driven by a spherical buoyant actuator that collects wave energy and transmits it to the pump. High pressure seawater is delivered ashore where it can be used to drive a turbine to generate electricity or passed through a reverse osmosis desalination unit to produce fresh water. The competitive edge of CETO against other current wave and tidal generation devices: Electricity generated onshore (using well-proven hydro-power technology); Low cost mass produced device; Simplified infrastructure from pumping pressurised sea water ashore rather than electricity; Allows shore-based desalination; Modular design and self deployment; and, Transport in standard containers.
Adaptive discrete rate and power transmission for spectrum sharing systems
Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Salem, Ahmed H.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.
2012-01-01
channels available at the secondary transmitter. We consider the problem under the constraints of maximum average interference power levels at the primary receiver. We develop a sub-optimal computationally efficient iterative algorithm for finding
Power System Transient Diagnostics Based on Novel Traveling Wave Detection
Hamidi, Reza Jalilzadeh
Modern electrical power systems demand novel diagnostic approaches to enhancing the system resiliency by improving the state-of-the-art algorithms. The proliferation of high-voltage optical transducers and high time-resolution measurements provide opportunities to develop novel diagnostic methods of very fast transients in power systems. At the same time, emerging complex configuration, such as multi-terminal hybrid transmission systems, limits the applications of the traditional diagnostic methods, especially in fault location and health monitoring. The impedance-based fault-location methods are inefficient for cross-bounded cables, which are widely used for connection of offshore wind farms to the main grid. Thus, this dissertation first presents a novel traveling wave-based fault-location method for hybrid multi-terminal transmission systems. The proposed method utilizes time-synchronized high-sampling voltage measurements. The traveling wave arrival times (ATs) are detected by observation of the squares of wavelet transformation coefficients. Using the ATs, an over-determined set of linear equations are developed for noise reduction, and consequently, the faulty segment is determined based on the characteristics of the provided equation set. Then, the fault location is estimated. The accuracy and capabilities of the proposed fault location method are evaluated and also compared to the existing traveling-wave-based method for a wide range of fault parameters. In order to improve power systems stability, auto-reclosing (AR), single-phase auto-reclosing (SPAR), and adaptive single-phase auto-reclosing (ASPAR) methods have been developed with the final objectives of distinguishing between the transient and permanent faults to clear the transient faults without de-energization of the solid phases. However, the features of the electrical arcs (transient faults) are severely influenced by a number of random parameters, including the convection of the air and plasma
Deconvolving the wedge: maximum-likelihood power spectra via spherical-wave visibility modelling
Ghosh, A.; Mertens, F. G.; Koopmans, L. V. E.
2018-03-01
Direct detection of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) via the red-shifted 21-cm line will have unprecedented implications on the study of structure formation in the infant Universe. To fulfil this promise, current and future 21-cm experiments need to detect this weak EoR signal in the presence of foregrounds that are several orders of magnitude larger. This requires extreme noise control and improved wide-field high dynamic-range imaging techniques. We propose a new imaging method based on a maximum likelihood framework which solves for the interferometric equation directly on the sphere, or equivalently in the uvw-domain. The method uses the one-to-one relation between spherical waves and spherical harmonics (SpH). It consistently handles signals from the entire sky, and does not require a w-term correction. The SpH coefficients represent the sky-brightness distribution and the visibilities in the uvw-domain, and provide a direct estimate of the spatial power spectrum. Using these spectrally smooth SpH coefficients, bright foregrounds can be removed from the signal, including their side-lobe noise, which is one of the limiting factors in high dynamics-range wide-field imaging. Chromatic effects causing the so-called `wedge' are effectively eliminated (i.e. deconvolved) in the cylindrical (k⊥, k∥) power spectrum, compared to a power spectrum computed directly from the images of the foreground visibilities where the wedge is clearly present. We illustrate our method using simulated Low-Frequency Array observations, finding an excellent reconstruction of the input EoR signal with minimal bias.
Wave Equation for Operators with Discrete Spectrum and Irregular Propagation Speed
Ruzhansky, Michael; Tokmagambetov, Niyaz
2017-12-01
Given a Hilbert space H, we investigate the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem for the wave equation for operators with a discrete non-negative spectrum acting on H. We consider the cases when the time-dependent propagation speed is regular, Hölder, and distributional. We also consider cases when it is strictly positive (strictly hyperbolic case) and when it is non-negative (weakly hyperbolic case). When the propagation speed is a distribution, we introduce the notion of "very weak solutions" to the Cauchy problem. We show that the Cauchy problem for the wave equation with the distributional coefficient has a unique "very weak solution" in an appropriate sense, which coincides with classical or distributional solutions when the latter exist. Examples include the harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, the Landau Hamiltonian on {R^n}, uniformly elliptic operators of different orders on domains, Hörmander's sums of squares on compact Lie groups and compact manifolds, operators on manifolds with boundary, and many others.
Model independent foreground power spectrum estimation using WMAP 5-year data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Tuhin; Souradeep, Tarun; Saha, Rajib; Jain, Pankaj
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose and implement on WMAP 5 yr data a model independent approach of foreground power spectrum estimation for multifrequency observations of the CMB experiments. Recently, a model independent approach of CMB power spectrum estimation was proposed by Saha et al. 2006. This methodology demonstrates that the CMB power spectrum can be reliably estimated solely from WMAP data without assuming any template models for the foreground components. In the current paper, we extend this work to estimate the galactic foreground power spectrum using the WMAP 5 yr maps following a self-contained analysis. We apply the model independent method in harmonic basis to estimate the foreground power spectrum and frequency dependence of combined foregrounds. We also study the behavior of synchrotron spectral index variation over different regions of the sky. We use the full sky Haslam map as an external template to increase the degrees of freedom, while computing the synchrotron spectral index over the frequency range from 408 MHz to 94 GHz. We compare our results with those obtained from maximum entropy method foreground maps, which are formed in pixel space. We find that relative to our model independent estimates maximum entropy method maps overestimate the foreground power close to galactic plane and underestimates it at high latitudes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heitmann, Katrin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Higdon, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The power spectrum of density fluctuations is a foundational source of cosmological information. Precision cosmological probes targeted primarily at investigations of dark energy require accurate theoretical determinations of the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime. To exploit the observational power of future cosmological surveys, accuracy demands on the theory are at the one percent level or better. Numerical simulations are currently the only way to produce sufficiently error-controlled predictions for the power spectrum. The very high computational cost of (precision) N-body simulations is a major obstacle to obtaining predictions in the nonlinear regime, while scanning over cosmological parameters. Near-future observations, however, are likely to provide a meaningful constraint only on constant dark energy equation of state 'wCDM' cosmologies. In this paper we demonstrate that a limited set of only 37 cosmological models -- the 'Coyote Universe' suite -- can be used to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum at the required accuracy over a prior parameter range set by cosmic microwave background observations. This paper is the second in a series of three, with the final aim to provide a high-accuracy prediction scheme for the nonlinear matter power spectrum for wCDM cosmologies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Relano-Iborra, Helia; May, Tobias; Zaar, Johannes
A powerful tool to investigate speech perception is the use of speech intelligibility prediction models. Recently, a model was presented, termed correlation-based speechbased envelope power spectrum model (sEPSMcorr) [1], based on the auditory processing of the multi-resolution speech-based Envel...
Continuous wave power scaling in high power broad area quantum cascade lasers
Suttinger, M.; Leshin, J.; Go, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Shu, H.; Lyakh, A.
2018-02-01
Experimental and model results for high power broad area quantum cascade lasers are presented. Continuous wave power scaling from 1.62 W to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15 mm-long, high reflection-coated 5.6 μm quantum cascade lasers with 15 stage active region for active region width increased from 10 μm to 20 μm. A semi-empirical model for broad area devices operating in continuous wave mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sub-linearity of pulsed power vs current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm x 25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300Å, pulsed roll-over current density of 6 kA/cm2 , and InGaAs waveguide layers; optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to 4.5 W from 3.15 mm × 31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.
Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ravenni, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J., E-mail: andrea.ravenni@pd.infn.it, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2016-08-01
We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.
Spectrum Reorganization and Bundling for Power Efficient Mobile Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben; Scheck, Hans-Otto
2012-01-01
are still required for supporting legacy devices and providing wider network coverage. In order to facilitate and reduce the cost of rolling out a new network, mobile operators often reuse existing sites. Radio frequency modules in base station sites house power amplifiers, which are designed to operate...
Description of the Power Take-off System on board the Wave Dragon Prototype
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Knapp, Wilfried
2005-01-01
The paper describes the power take-off system of the overtopping based wave energy converter Wave Dragon (WD). Focus is put on the hydro turbine arrangement used for the extraction of the potential energy in the water obtained by wave overtopping of the ramp into the reservoir.......The paper describes the power take-off system of the overtopping based wave energy converter Wave Dragon (WD). Focus is put on the hydro turbine arrangement used for the extraction of the potential energy in the water obtained by wave overtopping of the ramp into the reservoir....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Descamps, P.; Wassenhove, G. van; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.M.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Lister, J.B.; Marmillod, P.
1990-01-01
The use of the discrete Alfven wave spectrum to determine the current density profile and the effective mass density of the plasma in the TEXTOR tokamak is studied; the measurement, the validity of which is discussed, confirms independently the central q(r=0)<1 already obtained by polarimetry. (orig.)
Preliminary design of high-power wave-guide/transmission system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... CW klystron followed by wave-guide ﬁlter, dual directional coupler, high-power circulator, three 3 dB magic TEE power dividers to split the main channel into four equal channels of 250 kW each. Each individual channel has dual directional couplers, ﬂexible wave-guide sections and high power ceramic vacuum window.
Adaptive discrete rate and power transmission for spectrum sharing systems
Abdallah, Mohamed M.
2012-04-01
In this paper we develop a framework for optimizing the performance of the secondary link in terms of the average spectral efficiency assuming quantized channel state information (CSI) of the secondary and the secondary-to-primary interference channels available at the secondary transmitter. We consider the problem under the constraints of maximum average interference power levels at the primary receiver. We develop a sub-optimal computationally efficient iterative algorithm for finding the optimal CSI quantizers as well as the discrete power and rate employed at the cognitive transmitter for each quantized CSI level so as to maximize the average spectral efficiency. We show via analysis and simulations that the proposed algorithm converges for Rayleigh fading channels. Our numerical results give the number of bits required to sufficiently represent the CSI to achieve almost the maximum average spectral efficiency attained using full knowledge of the CSI. © 2012 IEEE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venancio Filho, F.; DeCarvalho Santos, S.H.; Joia, L.A.
1987-01-01
A numerical methodology to obtain Power Spectral Density Functions (PSDF) of ground accelerations, compatible with a given design response spectrum is presented. The PSDF's are derived from the statistical analysis of the amplitudes of the frequency components in a set of artificially generated time-histories matching the given spectrum. A so obtained PSDF is then used in the stochastic analysis of a NPP Reactor Building. The main results of this analysis are compared with the ones obtained by deterministic methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venancio Filho, F.; Joia, L.A.
1987-01-01
A numerical methodology to obtain Power Spectral Density Functions (PSDF) of ground accelerations, compatible with a given design response spectrum is presented. The PSDF's are derived from the statistical analysis of the amplitudes of the frequency components in a set of artificially generated time-histories matching the given spectrum. A so obtained PSDF is then used in the stochastic analysis of a reactor building. The main results of this analysis are compared with the ones obtained by deterministic methods. (orig./HP)
Low power RF measurements of travelling wave type linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reddy, Sivananda; Wanmode, Yashwant; Bhisikar, A.; Shrivastava, Purushottam
2015-01-01
RRCAT is engaged in the development of travelling wave (TW) type linear accelerator for irradiation of industrial and agricultural products. TW accelerator designed for 2π/3 mode to operate at frequency of 2856 MHz. It consists of input coupler, buncher cells, regular cells and output coupler. Low power measurement of this structure includes measurement of resonant frequency of the cells for different resonant modes and quality factor, tuning of input-output coupler and measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Steele's non-resonant perturbation technique has been used for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Kyhl's method has been used for the tuning of input-output coupler. Computer based automated bead pull set-up has been developed for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field profile in the structure. All the codes are written in Python for interfacing of Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) , stepper motor with computer. These codes also automate the measurement process. This paper describes the test set- up for measurement and results of measurement of travelling wave type linear accelerating structure. (author)
Phased antenna arrays for fast wave power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bosia, G.; Jacquinot, J.
1991-01-01
A method for the generation of travelling waves in the Ion Cyclotron frequency range in JET is presented. The success of the method relies on the control of the array toroidal current, which in turn, is obtained by a coordinated vectorial control of the array power sources and tuning networks. This method has general application to present and future ICRF arrays. For uninterrupted, periodically fed and resonant toroidal arrays, phased operation requires only conventional tuning devices. For localised arrays, phased operation is inefficient at low plasma coupling. This inefficiency can be however removed with the addition of external coupling structures either at the antenna or at the generator ends. The performances of JET A1 antennae in phased operation is presented. The design philosophy for the JET A2 phased arrays is also discussed. These methods are applicable and extensible to Next Step Devices design
Measurement and analysis of noise power spectrum of computerized tomography in images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro Tejero, P.; Garayoa Roca, J.
2013-01-01
This paper examines the implementation of the spectrum of powers of the noise, NPS, as metric to characterize the noise, both in magnitude and in texture, for CT scans. The NPS found show that you for convolution filters that assume a greater softening in the reconstructed image, spectrum is concentrated in the low frequencies, while for filters sharp, the spectrum extends to high frequencies. In the analyzed cases, there is a low frequency component, largely due to the structure-borne noise, which can be a potential negative effect on the detectability of injuries. (Author)
Model Predictive Control of a Wave Energy Converter with Discrete Fluid Power Power Take-Off System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anders Hedegaard Hansen
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Wave power extraction algorithms for wave energy converters are normally designed without taking system losses into account leading to suboptimal power extraction. In the current work, a model predictive power extraction algorithm is designed for a discretized power take of system. It is shown how the quantized nature of a discrete fluid power system may be included in a new model predictive control algorithm leading to a significant increase in the harvested power. A detailed investigation of the influence of the prediction horizon and the time step is reported. Furthermore, it is shown how the inclusion of a loss model may increase the energy output. Based on the presented results it is concluded that power extraction algorithms based on model predictive control principles are both feasible and favorable for use in a discrete fluid power power take-off system for point absorber wave energy converters.
Spatial power spectrum of the geomagnetic field since 1945
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senanayake, W.E.
1987-04-01
The Geomagnetic field for the period 1945-1990 has been analyzed in terms of Spatial Power Spectra of the Main Field and its Secular Variation. It is observed that for the above interval, the magnetic energy density at the core-mantle boundary is almost conserved. This supports the idea that an exchange of energy between different spherical harmonic constituents could occur. The distinctive behaviour of the first two terms (Dipole and Quadrupole), as seen from the spectra of the main field and secular variation, probably indicates somewhat different feature associated with the field origin. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab
Dynamics of the spectrum of a self-modulated powerful laser pulse in an underdense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, N.E.; Kirsanov, V.I.; Sakharov, A.S.
1997-01-01
The evolution of the spectrum of a powerful laser pulse during its self-modulation in an underdense plasma is studied analytically and numerically. It is shown that, in the early stages of the self-modulation instability, the linear theory gives a qualitatively correct description of the dynamics of the pulse spectrum in most cases. Depending on the parameters of the laser pulse and of the plasma, this spectrum contains either Stocks satellites (downshifted from the fundamental frequency to a value equal to the plasma frequency), or both Stocks and anti-Stocks satellites of the fundamental frequency. When the three-dimensional mechanism for the instability is dominant and the pulse power is close to the critical power for relativistic self-focusing, the numerical calculations show that the intensity of the blue satellite exceeds the intensity of the red one. This specific feature of the spectrum, which does not arise when the instability is one-dimensional, cannot be explained in terms of the linear para-axial theory, and can be used to identify the three-dimensional mechanism for the instability in experiments on the self-modulation of powerful laser pulses. It is shown that the transition to the nonlinear stage of the instability is accompanied by the occurrence of cascades (at frequencies separated from the laser carrier frequency by intervals equal to an integer number of plasma frequencies) in the spectrum of the laser pulse
The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue
2015-01-01
The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z∼ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula
POWER SPECTRUM DENSITY (PSD ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE PEDAL-PAD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AHMED RITHAUDDEEN YUSOFF
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Vibration at the pedal-pad may contribute to discomfort of foot plantar fascia during driving. This is due to transmission of vibration to the mount, chassis, pedal, and then to the foot plantar fascia. This experimental study is conducted to determine the estimation of peak value using the power spectral density of the vertical vibration input at the foot. The power spectral density value is calculated based on the frequency range between 13 Hz to 18 Hz. This experiment was conducted using 12 subjects testing on three size of pedal-pads; small, medium and large. The result shows that peak value occurs at resonance frequency of 15 Hz. The PSD values at that resonance frequency are 0.251 (m/s2 2/Hz for small pedal-pad, followed by the medium pedal-pad is at 0.387 (m/s2 2/Hz and lastly for the large pedal-pad is at 0.483 (m/s22/Hz. The resultsindicate that during driving, the foot vibration when interact with the large pedal-pad contributed higher stimulus compared with the small and medium pedal-pad. The pedal-pad size plays an important role in the pedal element designs in terms of vibration-transfer from pedal-pads on the feet, particularly to provide comfort to the driver while driving.
Cole, Philippa S.; Byrnes, Christian T.
2018-02-01
Observational constraints on the abundance of primordial black holes (PBHs) constrain the allowed amplitude of the primordial power spectrum on both the smallest and the largest ranges of scales, covering over 20 decades from 1‑1020/ Mpc. Despite tight constraints on the allowed fraction of PBHs at their time of formation near horizon entry in the early Universe, the corresponding constraints on the primordial power spectrum are quite weak, typically Script PRlesssim 10‑2 assuming Gaussian perturbations. Motivated by recent claims that the evaporation of just one PBH would destabilise the Higgs vacuum and collapse the Universe, we calculate the constraints which follow from assuming there are zero PBHs within the observable Universe. Even if evaporating PBHs do not collapse the Universe, this scenario represents the ultimate limit of observational constraints. Constraints can be extended on to smaller scales right down to the horizon scale at the end of inflation, but where power spectrum constraints already exist they do not tighten significantly, even though the constraint on PBH abundance can decrease by up to 46 orders of magnitude. This shows that no future improvement in observational constraints can ever lead to a significant tightening in constraints on inflation (via the power spectrum amplitude). The power spectrum constraints are weak because an order unity perturbation is required in order to overcome pressure forces. We therefore consider an early matter dominated era, during which exponentially more PBHs form for the same initial conditions. We show this leads to far tighter constraints, which approach Script PRlesssim10‑9, albeit over a smaller range of scales and are very sensitive to when the early matter dominated era ends. Finally, we show that an extended early matter era is incompatible with the argument that an evaporating PBH would destroy the Universe, unless the power spectrum amplitude decreases by up to ten orders of magnitude.
Model Predictive Control of a Wave Energy Converter with Discrete Fluid Power Power Take-Off System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Asmussen, Magnus Færing; Bech, Michael Møller
2018-01-01
Wave power extraction algorithms for wave energy converters are normally designed without taking system losses into account leading to suboptimal power extraction. In the current work, a model predictive power extraction algorithm is designed for a discretized power take of system. It is shown how...... the quantized nature of a discrete fluid power system may be included in a new model predictive control algorithm leading to a significant increase in the harvested power. A detailed investigation of the influence of the prediction horizon and the time step is reported. Furthermore, it is shown how...
Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)
2013-01-15
Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jiatai
1994-01-01
From the theory of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) three wave interaction, a new method of detecting the electron temperature in laser-plasma is obtained. SRS spectrum obtained from Shenguang No. 12 Nd-laser experiments are analysed. Using the wave length of short wave cut off of SRS, the electron temperature in corona plasma region is calculated consistently. These results agree reasonable with X-ray spectrum experiments
Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Nolta, Michael R.; Addison, Graeme E.; Battisetti, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon;
2014-01-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ?CDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6s detection significance.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: temperature and gravitational lensing power spectrum measurements from three seasons of data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Nolta, Michael R.; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark; Battistelli, Elia S.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dünner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée; Hilton, Matt
2014-01-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ΛCDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6σ detection significance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Sudeep [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Nolta, Michael R.; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 Canada (Canada); Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 Canada (Canada); Battistelli, Elia S. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Dünner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Fowler, Joseph W. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO, 80305 (United States); Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hilton, Matt, E-mail: sudeepphys@gmail.com [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); and others
2014-04-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ΛCDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6σ detection significance.
A new method to cluster genomes based on cumulative Fourier power spectrum.
Dong, Rui; Zhu, Ziyue; Yin, Changchuan; He, Rong L; Yau, Stephen S-T
2018-06-20
Analyzing phylogenetic relationships using mathematical methods has always been of importance in bioinformatics. Quantitative research may interpret the raw biological data in a precise way. Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) is used frequently to analyze biological evolutions, but is very time-consuming. When the scale of data is large, alignment methods cannot finish calculation in reasonable time. Therefore, we present a new method using moments of cumulative Fourier power spectrum in clustering the DNA sequences. Each sequence is translated into a vector in Euclidean space. Distances between the vectors can reflect the relationships between sequences. The mapping between the spectra and moment vector is one-to-one, which means that no information is lost in the power spectra during the calculation. We cluster and classify several datasets including Influenza A, primates, and human rhinovirus (HRV) datasets to build up the phylogenetic trees. Results show that the new proposed cumulative Fourier power spectrum is much faster and more accurately than MSA and another alignment-free method known as k-mer. The research provides us new insights in the study of phylogeny, evolution, and efficient DNA comparison algorithms for large genomes. The computer programs of the cumulative Fourier power spectrum are available at GitHub (https://github.com/YaulabTsinghua/cumulative-Fourier-power-spectrum). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The gyrotron - a natural source of high-power orbital angular momentum millimeter-wave beams
Thumm, M.; Sawant, A.; Choe, M. S.; Choi, E. M.
2017-08-01
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of electromagnetic-wave beams provides further diversity to multiplexing in wireless communication. The present report shows that higher-order mode gyrotrons are natural sources of high-power OAM millimeter (mm) wave beams. The well-defined OAM of their rotating cavity modes operating at near cutoff frequency has been derived by photonic and electromagnetic wave approaches.
Power Production Experience from Wave Dragon Prototype Testing in Nissum Bredning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter
The first Wave Dragon prototype power production testing started May 2003 and ended temporarily primo 2005. In the mentioned period Wave Dragon was situated in a corner of Nissum Bredning with relative little amount of wave energy. Main purpose of the tests was demonstration of survivability...
THE FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS FOR MULTI-TERM MODIFIED POWER LAW WAVE EQUATIONS IN A FINITE DOMAIN
Jiang, H.; Liu, F.; Meerschaert, M. M.; McGough, R. J.
2013-01-01
Fractional partial differential equations with more than one fractional derivative term in time, such as the Szabo wave equation, or the power law wave equation, describe important physical phenomena. However, studies of these multi-term time-space or time fractional wave equations are still under development.
How to estimate the 3D power spectrum of the Lyman-α forest
Font-Ribera, Andreu; McDonald, Patrick; Slosar, Anže
2018-01-01
We derive and numerically implement an algorithm for estimating the 3D power spectrum of the Lyman-α (Lyα) forest flux fluctuations. The algorithm exploits the unique geometry of Lyα forest data to efficiently measure the cross-spectrum between lines of sight as a function of parallel wavenumber, transverse separation and redshift. We start by approximating the global covariance matrix as block-diagonal, where only pixels from the same spectrum are correlated. We then compute the eigenvectors of the derivative of the signal covariance with respect to cross-spectrum parameters, and project the inverse-covariance-weighted spectra onto them. This acts much like a radial Fourier transform over redshift windows. The resulting cross-spectrum inference is then converted into our final product, an approximation of the likelihood for the 3D power spectrum expressed as second order Taylor expansion around a fiducial model. We demonstrate the accuracy and scalability of the algorithm and comment on possible extensions. Our algorithm will allow efficient analysis of the upcoming Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument dataset.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grabovskij, E.V.; Smirnov, V.P.; Zakharov, S.V.; Vorob'ev, O.Yu.; Dyabilin, K.S.; Lebedev, M.E.; Fortov, V.E.; Frolov, A.A.
1996-01-01
Paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of processes occurring in Z-pinch plasma under conditions initiating a powerful pulse of soft X-radiation. The main attention is focused on double liner circuit designs. Estimations of power of radiation and spectrum are studied. The results are used to simulate processes occurring at generation of shock waves under the effect of soft X-radiation on the target. Experiments to generate shock waves with up to 3 Mbar amplitude pressure in lead under the effect of soft X-radiation were conducted using Angara-5 plant. 24 refs., 9 figs
A novel method for predicting the power outputs of wave energy converters
Wang, Yingguang
2018-03-01
This paper focuses on realistically predicting the power outputs of wave energy converters operating in shallow water nonlinear waves. A heaving two-body point absorber is utilized as a specific calculation example, and the generated power of the point absorber has been predicted by using a novel method (a nonlinear simulation method) that incorporates a second order random wave model into a nonlinear dynamic filter. It is demonstrated that the second order random wave model in this article can be utilized to generate irregular waves with realistic crest-trough asymmetries, and consequently, more accurate generated power can be predicted by subsequently solving the nonlinear dynamic filter equation with the nonlinearly simulated second order waves as inputs. The research findings demonstrate that the novel nonlinear simulation method in this article can be utilized as a robust tool for ocean engineers in their design, analysis and optimization of wave energy converters.
Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Hong, E-mail: hongli@mail.ihep.ac.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Xia Junqing [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Brandenberger, Robert [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)
2010-07-05
One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n{sub s}=1 to n{sub s}=3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-{alpha} forest power spectrum (Ly{alpha}) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.
Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Hong; Xia Junqing; Brandenberger, Robert; Zhang Xinmin
2010-01-01
One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n s =1 to n s =3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-α forest power spectrum (Lyα) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.
Traveling wave interferometry particularly for solar power satellites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, J.H.; Rice, J.S.
1983-01-01
A method and apparatus are described for use in scientific measurement analysis and control. Travelling interference fringes are generated by radiating at least two different periodic waves at two different frequencies, one from each of two different radiators. The waves are received, mixed and filtered to detect at least one beat signal from these waves which represents the travelling interference fringe. The phase of that beat signal is detected relative to a reference signal of the same frequency as the beat signal. The radiated waves may be received at a second antenna and the phase of the beat of the waves at the first antenna is compared to the phase of the beat as observed at the second antenna. A third wave may be radiated from the first antenna to provide a reference signal which is the beat generated by the third wave and the other wave from the same radiator
Distance Dependent Model for the Delay Power Spectrum of In-room Radio Channels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri
2013-01-01
A model based on experimental observations of the delay power spectrum in closed rooms is proposed. The model includes the distance between the transmitter and the receiver as a parameter which makes it suitable for range based radio localization. The experimental observations motivate the proposed...... model of the delay power spectrum with a primary (early) component and a reverberant component (tail). The primary component is modeled as a Dirac delta function weighted according to an inverse distance power law (d-n). The reverberant component is an exponentially decaying function with onset equal...... to the propagation time between transmitter and receiver. Its power decays exponentially with distance. The proposed model allows for the prediction of e.g. the path loss, mean delay, root mean squared (rms) delay spread, and kurtosis versus the distance. The model predictions are validated by measurements...
Eigenwave spectrum of surface acoustic waves on a rough self-affine fractal surface
Palasantzas, George
1994-01-01
The propagation of a sound wave along a statistically rough solid-vacuum interface is investigated for the case of self-affine fractals. The wave-number relation ω=ω(k) is examined for the transverse polarized surface wave. The range of existence of this wave is analyzed as a function of the degree
Wave-power potential along the coast of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lanfredi, N.W. (Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC), La Plata (Argentina) Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)); Pousa, J.L. (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina) Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)); Mazio, C.A.; Dragani, W.C. (Servicio de Hidrografia Naval, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. Oceanografia)
1992-11-01
The coast of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, has been studied to determine the wave-power potential. Using wave data (4 yr) from accelerometers, pressure sensors (1 yr) and a visual observation program (10 yr), the wave-power density was calculated at five locations. The annual average increases southwards, ranging between 2.3 kW/m at Mar de Ajo and 7.5 kW/m at Puerto Quequen. Annual averages of maximum wave power give 69 and 61.3 kW/m for Punta Medanos and Puerto Quequen, respectively. (Author).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Peng; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Shui, E-mail: gaoxl@mail.ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
2016-08-10
The preferential heating of heavy ions in the solar corona and solar wind has been a long-standing hot topic. In this paper we use a one-dimensional hybrid simulation model to investigate the heating of He{sup 2+} particles during the parametric instabilities of parallel propagating Alfvén waves with an incoherent spectrum. The evolution of the parametric instabilities has two stages and involves the heavy ion heating during the entire evolution. In the first stage, the density fluctuations are generated by the modulation of the pump Alfvén waves with a spectrum, which then results in rapid coupling with the pump Alfvén waves and the cascade of the magnetic fluctuations. In the second stage, each pump Alfvén wave decays into a forward density mode and a backward daughter Alfvén mode, which is similar to that of a monochromatic pump Alfvén wave. In both stages the perpendicular heating of He{sup 2+} particles occurs. This is caused by the cyclotron resonance between He{sup 2+} particles and the high-frequency magnetic fluctuations, whereas the Landau resonance between He{sup 2+} particles and the density fluctuations leads to the parallel heating of He{sup 2+} particles. The influence of the drift velocity between the protons and the He{sup 2+} particles on the heating of He{sup 2+} particles is also discussed in this paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tieliewuhan, E.; Ivannikov, A.; Zhumadilov, K.; Nalapko, M.; Tikunov, D.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V.; Toyoda, S.; Tanaka, K.; Endo, S.; Hoshi, M.
2006-01-01
Variation of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the human tooth enamel recorded at different microwave power is investigated. The analytical models describing the native and the radiation-induced signals in the enamel are proposed, which fit the experimental spectra in wide range of microwave power. These models are designed to use for processing the spectra of irradiated enamel at determination of the absorbed dose from the intensity of the radiation-induced signal
Strong Scattering of High Power Millimeter Waves in Tokamak Plasmas with Tearing Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westerhof, E.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Oosterbeek, J.W.
2009-01-01
In tokamak plasmas with a tearing mode, strong scattering of high power millimeter waves, as used for heating and noninductive current drive, is shown to occur. This new wave scattering phenomenon is shown to be related to the passage of the O point of a magnetic island through the high power...
Wave power potential at a few shallow-water locations around Indian coast
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
SanilKumar, V.; Dubhashi, K.K.; Nair, T.M.B.; Singh, J.
less with maximum value of 31.8 kW m sup(-1). The average wave power during the summer monsoon is high (15.5-19.3 kW m sup(-1)) along the west coast of India. The study shows that the annual average wave power (1.8-7.6 kW m sup(-1)) along the locations...
Design of mm-wave InP DHBT power amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Yan, Lei
2011-01-01
In this paper suitable topologies for mm-wave integrated power amplifiers using InP DHBT technology is investigated. Among the standard topologies for mm-wave power cells: common-emitter, common-base, and cascode configuration, the cascode configuration proves the most promising in terms of output...
Wave propagation downstream of a high power helicon in a dipolelike magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Roberson, B. Race; Ziemba, Timothy
2010-01-01
The wave propagating downstream of a high power helicon source in a diverging magnetic field was investigated experimentally. The magnetic field of the wave has been measured both axially and radially. The three-dimensional structure of the propagating wave is observed and its wavelength and phase velocity are determined. The measurements are compared to predictions from helicon theory and that of a freely propagating whistler wave. The implications of this work on the helicon as a thruster are also discussed.
Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk. Saiyad
2014-01-01
We present two estimators to quantify the angular power spectrum of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio interferometric observations. This is relevant for both the foregrounds and the cosmological 21-cm signal buried therein. The discussion here is restricted to the
Exponential decay rate of the power spectrum for solutions of the Navier--Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doering, C.R.; Titi, E.S.
1995-01-01
Using a method developed by Foias and Temam [J. Funct. Anal. 87, 359 (1989)], exponential decay of the spatial Fourier power spectrum for solutions of the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations is established and explicit rigorous lower bounds on a small length scale defined by the exponential decay rate are obtained
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Relaño-Iborra, Helia; May, Tobias; Zaar, Johannes
2016-01-01
A speech intelligibility prediction model is proposed that combines the auditory processing front end of the multi-resolution speech-based envelope power spectrum model [mr-sEPSM; Jørgensen, Ewert, and Dau (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(1), 436–446] with a correlation back end inspired by the sh...
The 3D Power Spectrum from Angular Clustering of Galaxies in Early SDSS Data
Dodelson, Scott; Tegmark, Max; Scranton, Ryan; Budavari, Tamas; Connolly, Andrew; Csabai, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Hui, Lam; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen M.; Loveday, Jon; Nichol, Robert C.; O'Connell, Liam; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Stebbins, Albert; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istvan; Vogeley, Michael S.; Zehavi, Idit; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brinkman, Jon; Doi, Mamoru; Fukugita, Masataka; Hennessy, Greg; Ivezic, Zeljko; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kunszt, Peter; Lamb, Don Q.; Lee, Brian C.; Lupton, Robert H.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Peoples, John; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Rockosi, Constance; Schlegel, David; Stoughton, Christopher; Tucker, Douglas L.; Yanny, Brian; York, Donald G.; Dodelson, Scott; Narayanan, Vijay K.; Tegmark, Max; Scranton, Ryan; Budavari, Tamas; Connolly, Andrew; Csabai, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Hui, Lam; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen; Loveday, Jon; Nichol, Robert C.; Connell, Liam O'; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.; Stebbins, Albert; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szapudi, Istv\\'an; Vogeley, Michael S.; Zehavi, Idit
2001-01-01
Early photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) contain angular positions for 1.5 million galaxies. In companion papers, the angular correlation function $w(\\theta)$ and 2D power spectrum $C_l$ of these galaxies are presented. Here we invert Limber's equation to extract the 3D power spectrum from the angular results. We accomplish this using an estimate of $dn/dz$, the redshift distribution of galaxies in four different magnitude slices in the SDSS photometric catalog. The resulting 3D power spectrum estimates from $w(\\theta)$ and $C_l$ agree with each other and with previous estimates over a range in wavenumbers $0.03 < k/{\\rm h Mpc}^{-1} < 1$. The galaxies in the faintest magnitude bin ($21 < \\rstar < 22$, which have median redshift $z_m=0.43$) are less clustered than the galaxies in the brightest magnitude bin ($18 < \\rstar < 19$ with $z_m=0.17$), especially on scales where nonlinearities are important. The derived power spectrum agrees with that of Szalay et al. (2001) wh...
The matter power spectrum from the Ly alpha forest : an optical depth estimate
Zaroubi, S; Nusser, A; Haehnelt, M; Kim, TS; Viel, M.
2006-01-01
We measure the matter power spectrum from 31 Ly alpha spectra spanning the redshift range of 1.6-3.6. The optical depth, tau, for Ly alpha absorption of the intergalactic medium is obtained from the flux using the inversion method of Nusser & Haehnelt. The optical depth is converted to density by
Low power wide spectrum optical transmitter using avalanche mode LEDs in SOI CMOS technology
Agarwal, V.; Dutta, S; Annema, AJ; Hueting, RJE; Steeneken, P.G.; Nauta, B
2017-01-01
This paper presents a low power monolithically integrated optical transmitter with avalanche mode light emitting diodes in a 140 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. Avalanche mode LEDs in silicon exhibit wide-spectrum electroluminescence (400 nm < λ < 850 nm), which has a significant
Planck 2013 results. XXI. All-sky Compton parameter power spectrum and high-order statistics
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. These maps show an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales ($\\ell 500$) the clustered Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We measure the tSZ power spectrum in angular scales, $0.17^{\\circ} \\lesssim \\theta \\lesssim 3.0^{\\circ}$, that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with additional clear evidence of signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. We use the tSZ power spectrum to ...
H-ATLAS: THE COSMIC ABUNDANCE OF DUST FROM THE FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thacker, Cameron; Cooray, Asantha; Smidt, Joseph; De Bernardis, Francesco; Mitchell-Wynne, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Amblard, A. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Auld, R.; Eales, S.; Pascale, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; Michalowski, M. J. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, KrijgslAAn 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A.; Hopwood, R. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Maddox, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Hoyos, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Ibar, E. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, The Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jarvis, M. [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others
2013-05-01
We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) anisotropies in one of the extragalactic fields of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m bands. Consistent with recent measurements of the CFIRB power spectrum in Herschel-SPIRE maps, we confirm the existence of a clear one-halo term of galaxy clustering on arcminute angular scales with large-scale two-halo term of clustering at 30 arcmin to angular scales of a few degrees. The power spectrum at the largest angular scales, especially at 250 {mu}m, is contaminated by the Galactic cirrus. The angular power spectrum is modeled using a conditional luminosity function approach to describe the spatial distribution of unresolved galaxies that make up the bulk of the CFIRB. Integrating over the dusty galaxy population responsible for the background anisotropies, we find that the cosmic abundance of dust, relative to the critical density, to be between {Omega}{sub dust} = 10{sup -6} and 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} in the redshift range z {approx} 0-3. This dust abundance is consistent with estimates of the dust content in the universe using quasar reddening and magnification measurements in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.
Dirty tricks: how the nuclear lobby stopped the development of wave power in Britain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeffery, J.
1990-01-01
It is claimed that by misrepresentation of the economic analysis of wave power generation of electricity the nuclear lobby in Britain has prevented development work to continue on wave power, in favour of nuclear power generation. The United Kingdom Department of Energy and the Central Electricity Generating Board, in favour of nuclear power, have not allowed the cost estimation of electricity from wave power generators, especially Salter's Ducks (a wave power generator generated by Professor Salter at Ednburgh University) to be known. Instead the cost (estimated at 4-12p/kWh) has been deliberately exaggerated. This has resulted in wind power becoming the favoured alternative renewable energy source of the future. (UK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivanio; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Bournaud, Frederic
2010-01-01
Power spectra of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) emission at 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope have a two-component power-law structure with a shallow slope of -1.6 at low wavenumber, k, and a steep slope of -2.9 at high k. The break occurs at k -1 ∼ 100-200 pc, which is interpreted as the line-of-sight thickness of the LMC disk. The slopes are slightly steeper for longer wavelengths, suggesting the cooler dust emission is smoother than the hot emission. The power spectrum (PS) covers ∼3.5 orders of magnitude, and the break in the slope is in the middle of this range on a logarithmic scale. Large-scale driving from galactic and extragalactic processes, including disk self-gravity, spiral waves, and bars, presumably causes the low-k structure in what is effectively a two-dimensional geometry. Small-scale driving from stellar processes and shocks causes the high-k structure in a three-dimensional geometry. This transition in dimensionality corresponds to the observed change in PS slope. A companion paper models the observed power law with a self-gravitating hydrodynamics simulation of a galaxy like the LMC.
Evaluation of wave power by integrating numerical models and measures at the Port of Civitavecchia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Marcelli, Marco; Danelli, Andrea; Peviani, Maximo Aurelio; Burgio, Calogero
2015-01-01
An assessment of the available wave power at regional and local scale was carried out. Two hot spots of higher wave power level were identified and characterized along the coastline of northern Latium Region, near the 'Torre Valdaliga' power plant and in proximity of Civitavecchia’s breakwater, where the presence of a harbour and an electric power plant allows wave energy exploitation. The evaluation process was implemented through measurements, and numerical model assessment and validation. The integration of wave gauges measurements with numerical simulations made it possible to estimate the wave power on the extended area near shore. A down scaling process allowed to proceed from regional to local scale providing increased resolution thanks to highly detailed bathymetry.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....
Zhang, Xian-tao; Yang, Jian-min; Xiao, Long-fei
2016-07-01
Floating oscillating bodies constitute a large class of wave energy converters, especially for offshore deployment. Usually the Power-Take-Off (PTO) system is a directly linear electric generator or a hydraulic motor that drives an electric generator. The PTO system is simplified as a linear spring and a linear damper. However the conversion is less powerful with wave periods off resonance. Thus, a nonlinear snap-through mechanism with two symmetrically oblique springs and a linear damper is applied in the PTO system. The nonlinear snap-through mechanism is characteristics of negative stiffness and double-well potential. An important nonlinear parameter γ is defined as the ratio of half of the horizontal distance between the two springs to the original length of both springs. Time domain method is applied to the dynamics of wave energy converter in regular waves. And the state space model is used to replace the convolution terms in the time domain equation. The results show that the energy harvested by the nonlinear PTO system is larger than that by linear system for low frequency input. While the power captured by nonlinear converters is slightly smaller than that by linear converters for high frequency input. The wave amplitude, damping coefficient of PTO systems and the nonlinear parameter γ affect power capture performance of nonlinear converters. The oscillation of nonlinear wave energy converters may be local or periodically inter well for certain values of the incident wave frequency and the nonlinear parameter γ, which is different from linear converters characteristics of sinusoidal response in regular waves.
Tedd, James; Knapp, Wilfried; Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2005-01-01
This paper presents the control strategy used on Wave Dragon overtopping wave energy converter. The nature of overtopping requires that for optimum performance the water level in the reservoir must be controlled by controlling the turbine outflows. A history of the simulations performed is included. The concept of including an element of prediction, based on wave records a short distance in front of the Wave Dragon, is introduced. Initial simulations indicate a possibility to increase product...
Local region power spectrum-based unfocused ship detection method in synthetic aperture radar images
Wei, Xiangfei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Chong, Jinsong
2018-01-01
Ships on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be severely defocused and their energy will disperse into numerous resolution cells under long SAR integration time. Therefore, the image intensity of ships is weak and sometimes even overwhelmed by sea clutter on SAR image. Consequently, it is hard to detect the ships from SAR intensity images. A ship detection method based on local region power spectrum of SAR complex image is proposed. Although the energies of the ships are dispersed on SAR intensity images, their spectral energies are rather concentrated or will cause the power spectra of local areas of SAR images to deviate from that of sea surface background. Therefore, the key idea of the proposed method is to detect ships via the power spectra distortion of local areas of SAR images. The local region power spectrum of a moving target on SAR image is analyzed and the way to obtain the detection threshold through the probability density function (pdf) of the power spectrum is illustrated. Numerical P- and L-band airborne SAR ocean data are utilized and the detection results are also illustrated. Results show that the proposed method can well detect the unfocused ships, with a detection rate of 93.6% and a false-alarm rate of 8.6%. Moreover, by comparing with some other algorithms, it indicates that the proposed method performs better under long SAR integration time. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method and the way of parameters selection are also discussed.
Power Spectrum of a Noisy System Close to a Heteroclinic Orbit
Giner-Baldó, Jordi; Thomas, Peter J.; Lindner, Benjamin
2017-07-01
We consider a two-dimensional dynamical system that possesses a heteroclinic orbit connecting four saddle points. This system is not able to show self-sustained oscillations on its own. If endowed with white Gaussian noise it displays stochastic oscillations, the frequency and quality factor of which are controlled by the noise intensity. This stochastic oscillation of a nonlinear system with noise is conveniently characterized by the power spectrum of suitable observables. In this paper we explore different analytical and semianalytical ways to compute such power spectra. Besides a number of explicit expressions for the power spectrum, we find scaling relations for the frequency, spectral width, and quality factor of the stochastic heteroclinic oscillator in the limit of weak noise. In particular, the quality factor shows a slow logarithmic increase with decreasing noise of the form Q˜ [ln (1/D)]^2. Our results are compared to numerical simulations of the respective Langevin equations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Ashdown, M.
2017-01-01
The six parameters of the standard ΛCDM model have best-fit values derived from the Planck temperature power spectrum that are shifted somewhat from the best-fit values derived from WMAP data. These shifts are driven by features in the Planck temperature power spectrum at angular scales that had ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zhuhong; Fan Diayuan
1993-01-01
The criterion for obtaining compressed chirp pulses with high signal-to-noise ratio is the shape of the power spectrum, a chirp pulse of Gaussian shaped power spectrum without modulation is needed in CPA system to get the clean compressed pulses. 4 refs., 2 figs
Comments on the Alfven wave spectrum as measured on the TCA tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puri, S.
1986-06-01
The heating in the TCA tokamak is ascribed to a combination of compressional Alfven wave heating (CAW) and discrete Alfven wave (DAW) heating. In this communication we invoke an alternative plasma heating mechanism by the direct excitation of torsional Alfven waves (TAW) to account for the observed features of the TCA experiment. (orig./GG)
Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images
Rong, Pingping; Yue, Jia; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.; Randall, Cora E.
2018-01-01
We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of ˜ 20-60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave) power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent = -3.2) and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of -2.9 and -2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.
Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler fabricated from two dissimilar waveguides is capable of isolating the power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT). In addition to accurate power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave frequencies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatterjee, I.; Gandhi, O.P.; Hagmann, M.J.; Riazi, A.
1980-01-01
The exposure of humans to electromagnetic near fields has not been sufficiently emphasized by researcher. We have used the plane-wave-spectrum approach to evaluate the electromagnetic field and determine the energy deposited in a lossy, homogeneous, semi-infinite slab placed in the near field of a source leaking radiation. Values of the fields and absorbed energy in the target are obtained by vector summation of the contributions of all the plane waves into which the prescribed field is decomposed. Use of a fast Fourier transform algorithm contributes to the high efficiency of the computations. The numerical results show that, for field distributions that are nearly constant over a physical extent of at least a free-space wavelength, the energy coupled into the target is approximately equal to the resulting from plane-wave exposed
A nanogenerator as a self-powered sensor for measuring the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane
Yu, Aifang; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong Lin
2013-02-01
A nanogenerator (NG) is a device that converts vibration energy into electricity. Here, a flexible, small size and lightweight NG is successfully demonstrated as an active sensor for detecting the vibration spectrum of a drum membrane without the use of an external power source. The output current/voltage signal of the NG is a direct measure of the strain of the local vibrating drum membrane that contains rich informational content, such as, notably, the vibration frequency, vibration speed and vibration amplitude. In comparison to the laser vibrometer, which is excessively complex and expensive, this kind of small and low cost sensor based on an NG is also capable of detecting the local vibration frequency of a drum membrane accurately. A spatial arrangement of the NGs on the membrane can provide position-dependent vibration information on the surface. The measured frequency spectrum can be understood on the basis of the theoretically calculated vibration modes. This work expands the application of NGs and reveals the potential for developing sound wave detection, environmental/infrastructure monitoring and many more applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-06-08
In this work, the net power delivered to the grid from a nonideal power take-off (PTO) is introduced followed by a review of the pseudo-spectral control theory. A power-to-load ratio, used to evaluate the pseudo-spectral controller performance, is discussed, and the results obtained from optimizing a multiterm objective function are compared against results obtained from maximizing the net output power to the grid. Simulation results are then presented for four different oscillating wave energy converter geometries to highlight the potential of combing both geometry and PTO control to maximize power while minimizing loads.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.; Lawson, Michael
2016-06-01
The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of the controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.
A power spectrum approach to tally convergence in Monte Carlo criticality calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueki, Taro
2017-01-01
In Monte Carlo criticality calculation, confidence interval estimation is based on the central limit theorem (CLT) for a series of tallies from generations in equilibrium. A fundamental assertion resulting from CLT is the convergence in distribution (CID) of the interpolated standardized time series (ISTS) of tallies. In this work, the spectral analysis of ISTS has been conducted in order to assess the convergence of tallies in terms of CID. Numerical results obtained indicate that the power spectrum of ISTS is equal to the theoretically predicted power spectrum of Brownian motion for tallies of effective neutron multiplication factor; on the other hand, the power spectrum of ISTS of a strongly correlated series of tallies from local powers fluctuates wildly while maintaining the spectral form of fractional Brownian motion. The latter result is the evidence of a case where a series of tallies are away from CID, while the spectral form supports normality assumption on the sample mean. It is also demonstrated that one can make the unbiased estimation of the standard deviation of sample mean well before CID occurs. (author)
Maximal compression of the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum
Gualdi, Davide; Manera, Marc; Joachimi, Benjamin; Lahav, Ofer
2018-05-01
We explore two methods of compressing the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum with respect to a chosen set of cosmological parameters. Both methods involve reducing the dimension of the original data vector (e.g. 1000 elements) to the number of cosmological parameters considered (e.g. seven ) using the Karhunen-Loève algorithm. In the first case, we run MCMC sampling on the compressed data vector in order to recover the 1D and 2D posterior distributions. The second option, approximately 2000 times faster, works by orthogonalizing the parameter space through diagonalization of the Fisher information matrix before the compression, obtaining the posterior distributions without the need of MCMC sampling. Using these methods for future spectroscopic redshift surveys like DESI, Euclid, and PFS would drastically reduce the number of simulations needed to compute accurate covariance matrices with minimal loss of constraining power. We consider a redshift bin of a DESI-like experiment. Using the power spectrum combined with the bispectrum as a data vector, both compression methods on average recover the 68 {per cent} credible regions to within 0.7 {per cent} and 2 {per cent} of those resulting from standard MCMC sampling, respectively. These confidence intervals are also smaller than the ones obtained using only the power spectrum by 81 per cent, 80 per cent, and 82 per cent respectively, for the bias parameter b1, the growth rate f, and the scalar amplitude parameter As.
Determination of the number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades based on power spectrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fedak Waldemar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Technology of wind exploitation has been applied widely all over the world and has already reached the level in which manufacturers want to maximize the yield with the minimum investment outlays. The main objective of this paper is the determination of the optimal number of blades in the Cup-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Optimizing the size of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine allows the reduction of costs. The maximum power of the rotor is selected as the performance target. The optimum number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades evaluation is based on analysis of a single blade simulation and its superposition for the whole rotor. The simulation of working blade was done in MatLab environment. Power spectrum graphs were prepared and compared throughout superposition of individual blades in the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The major result of this research is the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine power characteristic. On the basis of the analysis of the power spectra, optimum number of the blades was specified for the analysed rotor. Power spectrum analysis of wind turbine enabled the specification of the optimal number of blades, and can be used regarding investment outlays and power output of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.
Determination of the number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades based on power spectrum
Fedak, Waldemar; Anweiler, Stanisław; Gancarski, Wojciech; Ulbrich, Roman
2017-10-01
Technology of wind exploitation has been applied widely all over the world and has already reached the level in which manufacturers want to maximize the yield with the minimum investment outlays. The main objective of this paper is the determination of the optimal number of blades in the Cup-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Optimizing the size of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine allows the reduction of costs. The maximum power of the rotor is selected as the performance target. The optimum number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades evaluation is based on analysis of a single blade simulation and its superposition for the whole rotor. The simulation of working blade was done in MatLab environment. Power spectrum graphs were prepared and compared throughout superposition of individual blades in the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The major result of this research is the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine power characteristic. On the basis of the analysis of the power spectra, optimum number of the blades was specified for the analysed rotor. Power spectrum analysis of wind turbine enabled the specification of the optimal number of blades, and can be used regarding investment outlays and power output of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.
Performance of a direct drive hydro turbine for wave power generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Y-H; Kim, C-G [Division of Mechanical and Information Engineering, Korea Maritime University Dongsam-dong 1, Youngdo-ku, Busan, 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y-D; Kim, I-S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National University Muan-ro 560, Chunggye-myun, Jeonnam, 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y-C, E-mail: lyh@hhu.ac.k [R and D Institute, Shinhan Precision Co. Ltd. Gomo-ri 313, Jinle-myun, Kimhae, 621-881 (Korea, Republic of)
2010-08-15
Clean and renewable energy technologies using ocean energy give us non-polluting alternatives to fossil-fueled power plants as a countermeasure against the global warming and growing demand for electrical energy. Among the ocean energy resources, wave power takes a growing interest because of its enormous amount of potential energy in the world. Therefore, various types of wave power system to capture the energy of ocean waves have been developed. However, suitable turbine type is not normalized yet because of relatively low efficiency of the turbine systems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of a newly developed direct drive hydro turbine (DDT), which will be built in a caisson for wave power plant. Experiment and CFD analysis are conducted to clarify the turbine performance and internal flow characteristics. The results show that the DDT obtains fairly good turbine efficiency in both cases of with wave and no wave conditions. As the turbine performance is influenced considerably by the wave condition, designed point of the turbine should be determined according to the wave condition at an expected installation site. Most of the output power generates at the runner passage of the Stage 2.
Power maximization of a point absorber wave energy converter using improved model predictive control
Milani, Farideh; Moghaddam, Reihaneh Kardehi
2017-08-01
This paper considers controlling and maximizing the absorbed power of wave energy converters for irregular waves. With respect to physical constraints of the system, a model predictive control is applied. Irregular waves' behavior is predicted by Kalman filter method. Owing to the great influence of controller parameters on the absorbed power, these parameters are optimized by imperialist competitive algorithm. The results illustrate the method's efficiency in maximizing the extracted power in the presence of unknown excitation force which should be predicted by Kalman filter.
A 35 GHz wireless millimeter-wave power sensor based on GaAs micromachining technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, De-bo; Liao, Xiao-ping
2012-01-01
A novel MEMS wireless millimeter-wave power sensor based on GaAs MMIC technology is presented in this paper. The principle of this wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is explained. It is designed and fabricated using MEMS technology and the GaAs MMIC process. With the millimeter-wave power range from 0.1 to 80 mW, the sensitivity of the wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is about 0.246 mV mW −1 at 35 GHz. In order to verify the power detection capability, this wireless power sensor is mounted on a PCB which influences the microwave performance of the CPW-fed antenna including the return loss and the radiation pattern. The frequency-dependent characteristic and the degree-dependent characteristic of this wireless power sensor are researched. Furthermore, in addition to the combination of the advantages of CPW-fed antenna with the advantages of the thermoelectric power sensor, another significant advantage of this wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is that it can be integrated with MMICs and other planar connecting circuit structures with zero dc power consumption. These features make it suitable for various applications ranging from the environment or space radiation detection systems to radar receiver and transmitter systems. (paper)
A perturbative approach to the redshift space power spectrum: beyond the Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: benjamin.bose@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
2016-08-01
We develop a code to produce the power spectrum in redshift space based on standard perturbation theory (SPT) at 1-loop order. The code can be applied to a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models using a recently proposed numerical method by A.Taruya to find the SPT kernels. This includes Horndeski's theory with a general potential, which accommodates both chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms and provides a non-linear extension of the effective theory of dark energy up to the third order. Focus is on a recent non-linear model of the redshift space power spectrum which has been shown to model the anisotropy very well at relevant scales for the SPT framework, as well as capturing relevant non-linear effects typical of modified gravity theories. We provide consistency checks of the code against established results and elucidate its application within the light of upcoming high precision RSD data.
EFFECTS OF THE NEUTRINO MASS SPLITTING ON THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul
2012-01-01
We have performed cosmological N-body simulations which include the effect of the masses of the individual neutrino species. The simulations were aimed at studying the effect of different neutrino hierarchies on the matter power spectrum. Compared to the linear theory predictions, we find that nonlinearities enhance the effect of hierarchy on the matter power spectrum at mildly nonlinear scales. The maximum difference between the different hierarchies is about 0.5% for a sum of neutrino masses of 0.1 eV. Albeit this is a small effect, it is potentially measurable from upcoming surveys. In combination with neutrinoless double-β decay experiments, this opens up the possibility of using the sky to determine if neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions.
Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography detector system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan
2009-01-01
Full text: A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through de trending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (author)
arXiv Neutrino masses and cosmology with Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum
Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Baur, Julien; Magneville, Christophe; Rossi, Graziano; Lesgourgues, Julien; Borde, Arnaud; Burtin, Etienne; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, James; Viel, Matteo; Weinberg, David
2015-11-06
We present constraints on neutrino masses, the primordial fluctuation spectrum from inflation, and other parameters of the $\\Lambda$CDM model, using the one-dimensional Ly$\\alpha$-forest power spectrum measured by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2013) from SDSS-III/BOSS, complemented by Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and other cosmological probes. This paper improves on the previous analysis by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2015) by using a more powerful set of calibrating hydrodynamical simulations that reduces uncertainties associated with resolution and box size, by adopting a more flexible set of nuisance parameters for describing the evolution of the intergalactic medium, by including additional freedom to account for systematic uncertainties, and by using Planck 2015 constraints in place of Planck 2013. Fitting Ly$\\alpha$ data alone leads to cosmological parameters in excellent agreement with the values derived independently from CMB data, except for a weak tension on the scalar index ...
Das, Sudeep; Sherwin, Blake D; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John W; Bond, J Richard; Carvalho, C Sofia; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lupton, Robert H; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Visnjic, Katerina; Wollack, Ed
2011-07-08
We report the first detection of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background through a measurement of the four-point correlation function in the temperature maps made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. We verify our detection by calculating the levels of potential contaminants and performing a number of null tests. The resulting convergence power spectrum at 2° angular scales measures the amplitude of matter density fluctuations on comoving length scales of around 100 Mpc at redshifts around 0.5 to 3. The measured amplitude of the signal agrees with Lambda cold dark matter cosmology predictions. Since the amplitude of the convergence power spectrum scales as the square of the amplitude of the density fluctuations, the 4σ detection of the lensing signal measures the amplitude of density fluctuations to 12%.
On the Soft Limit of the Large Scale Structure Power Spectrum: UV Dependence
Garny, Mathias; Porto, Rafael A; Sagunski, Laura
2015-01-01
We derive a non-perturbative equation for the large scale structure power spectrum of long-wavelength modes. Thereby, we use an operator product expansion together with relations between the three-point function and power spectrum in the soft limit. The resulting equation encodes the coupling to ultraviolet (UV) modes in two time-dependent coefficients, which may be obtained from response functions to (anisotropic) parameters, such as spatial curvature, in a modified cosmology. We argue that both depend weakly on fluctuations deep in the UV. As a byproduct, this implies that the renormalized leading order coefficient(s) in the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structures receive most of their contribution from modes close to the non-linear scale. Consequently, the UV dependence found in explicit computations within standard perturbation theory stems mostly from counter-term(s). We confront a simplified version of our non-perturbative equation against existent numerical simulations, and find good agr...
Spin-wave propagation spectrum in magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Zhi-xiong; Wang, Meng-ning; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Xia, Qing-lin [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)
2016-09-15
Spin-wave propagation in periodic magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires is studied by micromagnetic simulation. Spin wave scattering at the interface of two magnetization segments causes a spin-wave band structure, which can be effectively tuned by changing either the magnetization modulation level or the period of the cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal. The bandgap width is oscillating with either the period or magnetization modulation due to the oscillating variation of the spin wave transmission coefficient through the interface of the two magnetization segments. Analytical calculation based on band theory is used to account for the micromagnetic simulation results. - Highlights: • A magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal is proposed. • Propagating characteristics of spin waves in such magnonic crystal are studied. • Spin-wave spectra can be manipulated by changing modulation level and period.
Slope wavenumber spectrum models of capillary and capillary-gravity waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贾永君; 张杰; 王岩峰
2010-01-01
Capillary and capillary-gravity waves possess a random character, and the slope wavenumber spectra of them can be used to represent mean distributions of wave energy with respect to spatial scale of variability. But simple and practical models of the slope wavenumber spectra have not been put forward so far. In this article, we address the accurate definition of the slope wavenumber spectra of water surface capillary and capillary-gravity waves. By combining the existing slope wavenumber models and using th...
On the effect of renormalization group improvement on the cosmological power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moti, R. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojai, A. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Foundations of Physics Group, School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2018-01-15
Asymptotically safe quantum gravity predicts running gravitational and cosmological constants, while it remains a meaningful quantum field theory because of the existence of a finite number of non-Gaussian ultraviolet fixed points. We have investigated the effect of such running couplings on the cosmological perturbations. We have obtained the improved Mukhanov-Sassaki equation and solved it for two models. The effect of such running of the coupling constants on the cosmological power spectrum is also studied. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cui Weiguang; Zhang Pengjie; Yang Xiaohu
2010-01-01
A large fraction of cosmological information on dark energy and gravity is encoded in the nonlinear regime. Precision cosmology thus requires precision modeling of nonlinearities in general dark energy and modified gravity models. We modify the Gadget-2 code and run a series of N-body simulations on modified gravity cosmology to study the nonlinearities. The modified gravity model that we investigate in the present paper is characterized by a single parameter ζ, which determines the enhancement of particle acceleration with respect to general relativity (GR), given the identical mass distribution (ζ=1 in GR). The first nonlinear statistics we investigate is the nonlinear matter power spectrum at k < or approx. 3h/Mpc, which is the relevant range for robust weak lensing power spectrum modeling at l < or approx. 2000. In this study, we focus on the relative difference in the nonlinear power spectra at corresponding redshifts where different gravity models have the same linear power spectra. This particular statistics highlights the imprint of modified gravity in the nonlinear regime and the importance of including the nonlinear regime in testing GR. By design, it is less susceptible to the sample variance and numerical artifacts. We adopt a mass assignment method based on wavelet to improve the power spectrum measurement. We run a series of tests to determine the suitable simulation specifications (particle number, box size, and initial redshift). We find that, the nonlinear power spectra can differ by ∼30% for 10% deviation from GR (|ζ-1|=0.1) where the rms density fluctuations reach 10. This large difference, on one hand, shows the richness of information on gravity in the corresponding scales, and on the other hand, invalidates simple extrapolations of some existing fitting formulae to modified gravity cosmology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krupnov, A.F.; Tretyakov, M.Yu.; Leforestier, C.
2009-01-01
Attempts of experimental observations of the water dimer spectrum at equilibrium conditions have lasted for more than 40 years since the dimeric hypothesis for extra absorption, but have not yielded any positive confirmed result. In the present paper a new approach is considered: using a high-resolution millimeter-wave spectrum of the water dimer at equilibrium, calculated by a rigorous fully quantum method, we show the potential existence of discernible spectral series of discrete features of the water dimer, which correspond to J+1 1 symmetry, already observed in cold molecular beam experiments and having, therefore, well-defined positions. The intensity of spectral series and contrast to the remaining continuum-like spectrum of the dimer are calculated and compared with the monomer absorption. The suitability of two types of microwave spectrometers for observing these series is considered. The collisional line-width of millimeter lines of the dimer at equilibrium is estimated and the width of IR dimer bands is discussed. It is pointed out that the large width of IR dimer bands may pose difficulties for their reliable observation and conclusive separation from the rest of absorption in water vapor. This situation contrasts with the suggested approach of dimer detection in millimeter-waves.
Nonlinear evolution of the matter power spectrum in modified theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyama, Kazuya; Taruya, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi
2009-01-01
We present a formalism to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum in modified gravity models that explain the late-time acceleration of the Universe without dark energy. Any successful modified gravity models should contain a mechanism to recover general relativity (GR) on small scales in order to avoid the stringent constrains on deviations from GR at solar system scales. Based on our formalism, the quasi-nonlinear power spectrum in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti braneworld models and f(R) gravity models are derived by taking into account the mechanism to recover GR properly. We also extrapolate our predictions to fully nonlinear scales using the parametrized post-Friedmann framework. In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti and f(R) gravity models, the predicted nonlinear power spectrum is shown to reproduce N-body results. We find that the mechanism to recover GR suppresses the difference between the modified gravity models and dark energy models with the same expansion history, but the difference remains large at the weakly nonlinear regime in these models. Our formalism is applicable to a wide variety of modified gravity models and it is ready to use once consistent models for modified gravity are developed.
Turbulent Cloud Structure and Power Spectrum from 23 years of HST Observations
Cosentino, Richard; Simon, Amy; Morales-Juberias, Raul
2018-01-01
Images of Jupiter’s clouds show that turbulence is a ubiquitous phenomenon over many orders of scale size. According to Kolmogorov’s theory for turbulence, the frequency/distribution of clouds at various scales can be used to produce an energy power spectrum of a passive tracer. Kolmogorov theory predicts the spectral slopes for “shallow” and “deep” fluids in motion by following how energy is injected and dissipated in the fluid. We are quantifying the turbulent nature of Jupiter’s clouds over 23 years of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations using an algorithm first presented in Choi and Showman (2011, Icarus 216). We applied the power spectrum fitting algorithm to a variety of filters from available HST data and tested its sensitivity to free parameters and compare our results to Choi and Showman (2011). We will comment on the evidence for a 2D turbulent regime In Jupiter’s clouds and will report on empirical values found in the spectra and their physical interpretations, such as the Rhines scale. We also will report on the behavior of the passive tracer power spectrum and trends that exist over time for different latitudinal regions, primarily the belts and zones and the north and south equatorial belts.
Measurement of Gamma Spectrum at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Semiconductor Detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kon, Kang Seo; Yoon, Kang Hwa; Lee, Byoung Il; Kim, Jeong In [KHNP, Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
In this study we monitored gamma spectrum for young S/G to see difference of the detected nuclides between old and young S/G. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement points. There is not comparison of quantity among the nuclides. The program which analyzes gamma spectrum to calculate activity and dose rate is under developing. We expect it will be done by end of this year. In this study we could see the difference of detected nuclides between old and new S/G for the first time whereas last measurement has significant meaning in that the measurement was taken for the first time all over country. Monitoring sources terms at Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) is important to aggressive ALARA activities and evaluation of exposure of workers. EDF (Electricite de France) and AEP (American Electric Power) conduct monitoring source terms using by CZT semiconductor detector. CZT is different from HPGe in that it does not need any cooling system at room temperature, it has good energy resolution and it can be made portable type easily. For these reason CZT is used in various fields commercially to measure gamma ray and therefore KHNP(Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD) RHRI(Radiation Health Research Institute) has been measuring gamma spectrum at domestic NPP last spring. We had have presented the first result through the last Transactions of the Korean Nuclear Society Spring Meeting for old S/G(Steam Generator)
Energy Flux in the Cochlea: Evidence Against Power Amplification of the Traveling Wave.
van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P C
2015-10-01
Traveling waves in the inner ear exhibit an amplitude peak that shifts with frequency. The peaking is commonly believed to rely on motile processes that amplify the wave by inserting energy. We recorded the vibrations at adjacent positions on the basilar membrane in sensitive gerbil cochleae and tested the putative power amplification in two ways. First, we determined the energy flux of the traveling wave at its peak and compared it to the acoustic power entering the ear, thereby obtaining the net cochlear power gain. For soft sounds, the energy flux at the peak was 1 ± 0.6 dB less than the middle ear input power. For more intense sounds, increasingly smaller fractions of the acoustic power actually reached the peak region. Thus, we found no net power amplification of soft sounds and a strong net attenuation of intense sounds. Second, we analyzed local wave propagation on the basilar membrane. We found that the waves slowed down abruptly when approaching their peak, causing an energy densification that quantitatively matched the amplitude peaking, similar to the growth of sea waves approaching the beach. Thus, we found no local power amplification of soft sounds and strong local attenuation of intense sounds. The most parsimonious interpretation of these findings is that cochlear sensitivity is not realized by amplifying acoustic energy, but by spatially focusing it, and that dynamic compression is realized by adjusting the amount of dissipation to sound intensity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tedd, James; Knapp, Wilfried; Frigaard, Peter
2005-01-01
This paper presents the control strategy used on Wave Dragon overtopping wave energy converter. The nature of overtopping requires that for optimum performance the water level in the reservoir must be controlled by controlling the turbine outflows. A history of the simulations performed is included...
Design of full scale wave simulator for testing Power Take Off systems for wave energy converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, H. C.; Hansen, R. H.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard
2016-01-01
is therefore on the design and commissioning of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The challenge is to be able to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system – especially when considering discrete type PTO...
Harnessing the Ocean's Power : Energy from Waves and Currents (Part I)
Yukihisa, Washio; Japan Marine Science and Technology Center
1985-01-01
The oceans are a potential source of renewable and pollution-free energy of particular importance to Japan. In this Issue we look at current development work to harness wave energy for power generation.
Introduction Of Wavestar Wave Energy Converters At The Danish Offshore Wind Power Plant Horns Rev 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marquis, L.; Kramer, Morten; Kringelum, J.
is to be connected to a wind turbine at the DONG Energy owned wind power plant Horns Rev 2 placed off the western coast of Denmark. The plant delivers its energy production to a transformer station owned by Energinet.dk. Energinet.dk has the obligation to ensure that power is transmitted to the Danish consumers...... with this combination. This can increase the value of the produced power from future wind/wave plants. Further potential synergies of combining wind and wave energy in the same area include increased energy production from the available area and sharing of infrastructure costs as well as O&M facilities. In a future....... If Executed the project will be the first one in the world where wind and wave power are combined at full scale. The goal of the project is to evaluate the opportunities of combining wind and wave energy production on a commercial scale and to demonstrate the reduction of energy fluctuations...
Modelling the economic impacts of 500 MW of wave power in Ireland
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deane, J.P.; Dalton, G.; Ó Gallachóir, B.P.
2012-01-01
This paper investigates the impacts of including 500 MW of wave power into Ireland’s electricity generation portfolio in the year 2020. One year of detailed market simulations are undertaken to determine the impact on wholesale electricity prices, system operation costs and CO 2 emissions with and without this installed wave power under a number carbon prices assumptions. In both scenarios (with and without wave energy), Ireland’s installed renewable capacity is fixed such that 40% of Ireland’s electricity in 2020 is from renewable source. The likely revenue a wave energy device would earn in the market is also investigated and compared with what is required to achieve 500 MW installed capacity. It is shown that in general the inclusion of wave energy has a negligible effect on wholesale electricity prices, reduces total system cost in Ireland and can increase CO 2 emissions on the island of Ireland under certain carbon price assumptions. It is also shown the current REFIT for wave energy is adequate. - Highlights: ► We modelled the Irish Electricity Market in 2020 with and without 500 MW of wave energy. ► The inclusion of wave energy did not have a significant impact on system marginal prices. ► The inclusion of wave energy reduced total costs in the system relative to a wind only scenario. ► REFIT tariff remains an essential financial support for the nascent wave energy industry.
Cesario, Roberto; Cardinali, Alessandro; Castaldo, Carmine; Amicucci, Luca; Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Galli, Alessandro; Napoli, Francesco; Panaccione, Luigi; Santini, Franco; Schettini, Giuseppe; Tuccillo, Angelo Antonio
2017-10-01
The main research on the energy from thermonuclear fusion uses deuterium plasmas magnetically trapped in toroidal devices. To suppress the turbulent eddies that impair thermal insulation and pressure tight of the plasma, current drive (CD) is necessary, but tools envisaged so far are unable accomplishing this task while efficiently and flexibly matching the natural current profiles self-generated at large radii of the plasma column [1-5]. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) [6] can satisfy this important need of a reactor [1], but the LHCD system has been unexpectedly mothballed on JET. The problematic extrapolation of the LHCD tool at reactor graded high values of, respectively, density and temperatures of plasma has been now solved. The high density problem is solved by the FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) method [7], and solution of the high temperature one is presented here. Model results based on quasi-linear (QL) theory evidence the capability, w.r.t linear theory, of suitable operating parameters of reducing the wave damping in hot reactor plasmas. Namely, using higher RF power densities [8], or a narrower antenna power spectrum in refractive index [9,10], the obstacle for LHCD represented by too high temperature of reactor plasmas should be overcome. The former method cannot be used for routinely, safe antenna operations, Thus, only the latter key is really exploitable in a reactor. The proposed solutions are ultimately necessary for viability of an economic reactor.
Achievable rate of spectrum sharing cognitive radio systems over fading channels at low-power regime
Sboui, Lokman
2014-11-01
We study the achievable rate of cognitive radio (CR) spectrum sharing systems at the low-power regime for general fading channels and then for Nakagami fading. We formally define the low-power regime and present the corresponding closed-form expressions of the achievable rate lower bound under various types of interference and/or power constraints, depending on the available channel state information of the cross link (CL) between the secondary-user transmitter and the primary-user receiver. We explicitly characterize two regimes where either the interference constraint or the power constraint dictates the optimal power profile. Our framework also highlights the effects of different fading parameters on the secondary link (SL) ergodic achievable rate. We also study more realistic scenarios when there is either 1-bit quantized channel feedback from the CL alone or 2-bit feedback from both the CL and the SL and propose simple power control schemes and show that these schemes achieve the previously achieved rate at the low-power regime. Interestingly, we show that the low-power regime analysis provides a specific insight into the maximum achievable rate behavior of CR that has not been reported by previous studies.
Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data
Lee, Frank M.; Paoletti, M. S.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.
2014-01-01
We present a method to determine, using only velocity field data, the time-averaged energy flux $\\left$ and total radiated power $P$ for two-dimensional internal gravity waves. Both $\\left$ and $P$ are determined from expressions involving only a scalar function, the stream function $\\psi$. We test the method using data from a direct numerical simulation for tidal flow of a stratified fluid past a knife edge. The results for the radiated internal wave power given by the stream function method...
Holograms for power-efficient excitation of optical surface waves
Ignatov, Anton I.; Merzlikin, Alexander M.
2018-02-01
A method for effective excitation of optical surface waves based on holography principles has been proposed. For a particular example of excitation of a plasmonic wave in a dielectric layer on metal the efficiency of proposed volume holograms in the dielectric layer has been analyzed in comparison with optimized periodic gratings in the dielectric layer. Conditions when the holograms are considerably more efficient than the gratings have been found out. In addition, holograms recorded in two iterations have been proposed and studied. Such holograms are substantially more efficient than the optimized periodic gratings for all incidence angles of an exciting Gaussian beam. The proposed method is universal: it can be extended for efficient excitation of different types of optical surface waves and optical waveguide modes.
Millimeter wave spectrum of bromomethyl radical, CH.sub.2./sub.Br
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bailleux, S.; Dréan, P.; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Civiš, Svatopluk; Ozeki, H.; Saito, S.
2005-01-01
Roč. 122, č. 13 (2005), 134302-1-6 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010110; GA MŠk OC 723.001; GA AV ČR 1ET400400410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : matrix infrared-spectrum * diode-laser spectroscopy * microwave spectrum * kinetics * ionization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.138, year: 2005
Spectrum resolving power of hearing: measurements, baselines, and influence of maskers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Ya. Supin
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Contemporary methods of measurement of frequency tuning in the auditory system are reviewed. Most of them are based on the frequency-selective masking paradigm and require multi-point measurements (a number of masked thresholds should be measured to obtain a single frequency-tuning estimate. Therefore, they are rarely used for practical needs. As an alternative approach, frequency-selective properties of the auditory system may be investigated using probes with complex frequency spectrum patterns, in particular, rippled noise that is characterized by a spectrum with periodically alternating maxima and minima. The maximal ripple density discriminated by the auditory system is a convenient measure of the spectrum resolving power (SRP. To find the highest resolvable ripple density, a phase-reversal test has been suggested. Using this technique, normal SRP, its dependence on probe center frequency, spectrum contrast, and probe level were measured. The results were not entirely predictable by frequency-tuning data obtained by masking methods. SRP is influenced by maskers, with on- and off-frequency maskers influencing SRP very differently. Dichotic separation of the probe and masker results in almost complete release of SRP from influence of maskers.
Benkhelifa, Fatma
2016-07-26
In this paper, we consider the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for the spectrum sharing (SS) in cognitive radio (CR) systems with a multi-antenna energy harvesting (EH) primary receiver (PR). The PR uses the antenna switching (AS) technique that assigns a subset of the PR\\'s antennas to harvest the energy from the radio frequency (RF) signals sent by the secondary transmitter (ST), and assigns the rest of the PR\\'s antennas to decode the information data. In this context, the primary network allows the secondary network to use the spectrum as long as the interference induced by the secondary transmitter (ST)\\'s signals is beneficial for the energy harvesting process at the PR side. The objective of this work is to show that the spectrum sharing is beneficial for both the SR and PR sides and leads to a win-win situation. To illustrate the incentive of the spectrum sharing cognitive system, we evaluate the mutual outage probability (MOP) introduced in [1] which declares an outage event if the PR or the secondary receiver (SR) is in an outage. Through the simulation results, we show that the performance of our system in terms of the MOP is always better than the performance of the system in the absence of ST and improves as the ST-PR interference increases. © 2016 IEEE.
Evaluation of plasma-wave spectral density from cross-power spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilic, D.B.; Harker, K.J.
1975-01-01
The plasma-wave spectral density is evaluated by performing a spatial Fourier transform on experimental cross-power spectra of ion acoustic waves. The cross-power spectra are recorded on analog magnetic tape, converted to digital form, transferred to digital magnetic tape, and Fourier transformed on a digital computer. The important effects of sampling, finite data strings, and data smoothing on the end results are discussed and illustrated. The results indicate the usefulness of the spectral density method for the study of nonlinear wave phenomena. (auth)
Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...... or a mixture of gases (500) flow in contact with said solid object (100) is thinned or destructed for at least a part of said surface (314). In this way, the plasma can more efficiently access and influence the surface of the solid object to be treated by the plasma, which speeds the process time up...
Millimeter‐wave INP DHBT power amplifier based on power‐optimized cascode configuration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Tom K.; Yan, Lei; Dupuy, Jean‐Yves
2013-01-01
This letter describes the use of a power‐optimized cascode configuration for obtaining maximum output power at millimeter‐wave (mm‐wave) frequencies for a two‐way combined power amplifier (PA). The PA has been fabricated in a high‐speed InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology and ...... configuration at mm‐wave frequencies are confirmed by both simulations and experimental results. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 55:1178–1182, 2013; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.27477...
Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir
2014-01-01
Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale struc......Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large...... content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that `Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant...... advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's Cp method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from...
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmological Parameters from the 2008 Power Spectrum
Dunkley, J.; Hlozek, R.; Sievers, J.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Battistelli, E. S.;
2011-01-01
We present cosmological parameters derived from the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz and 218 GHz over 296 deg(exp 2) with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) during its 2008 season. ACT measures fluctuations at scales 500 cosmological parameters from the less contaminated 148 GHz spectrum, marginalizing over SZ and source power. The ACDM cosmological model is a good fit to the data (chi square/dof = 29/46), and ACDM parameters estimated from ACT+Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) are consistent with the seven-year WMAP limits, with scale invariant n(sub s) = 1 excluded at 99.7% confidence level (CL) (3 sigma). A model with no CMB lensing is disfavored at 2.8 sigma. By measuring the third to seventh acoustic peaks, and probing the Silk damping regime, the ACT data improve limits on cosmological parameters that affect the small-scale CMB power. The ACT data combined with WMAP give a 6 sigma detection of primordial helium, with Y(sub p) = 0.313 +/- 0.044, and a 4 sigma detection of relativistic species, assumed to be neutrinos, with N(sub eff) = 5.3 +/- 1.3 (4.6 +/- 0.8 with BAO+H(sub 0) data). From the CMB alone the running of the spectral index is constrained to be d(sub s) / d ln k = -0,034 +/- 0,018, the limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r < 0,25 (95% CL), and the possible contribution of Nambu cosmic strings to the power spectrum is constrained to string tension G(sub mu) < 1.6 x 10(exp -7) (95% CL),
The matter power spectrum in redshift space using effective field theory
Fonseca de la Bella, Lucía; Regan, Donough; Seery, David; Hotchkiss, Shaun
2017-11-01
The use of Eulerian 'standard perturbation theory' to describe mass assembly in the early universe has traditionally been limited to modes with k lesssim 0.1 h/Mpc at z=0. At larger k the SPT power spectrum deviates from measurements made using N-body simulations. Recently, there has been progress in extending the reach of perturbation theory to larger k using ideas borrowed from effective field theory. We revisit the computation of the redshift-space matter power spectrum within this framework, including for the first time the full one-loop time dependence. We use a resummation scheme proposed by Vlah et al. to account for damping of baryonic acoustic oscillations due to large-scale random motions and show that this has a significant effect on the multipole power spectra. We renormalize by comparison to a suite of custom N-body simulations matching the MultiDark MDR1 cosmology. At z=0 and for scales k lesssim 0.4 h/Mpc we find that the EFT furnishes a description of the real-space power spectrum up to ~ 2%, for the l = 0 mode up to ~ 5%, and for the l = 2, 4 modes up to ~ 25%. We argue that, in the MDR1 cosmology, positivity of the l=0 mode gives a firm upper limit of k ≈ 0.74 h/Mpc for the validity of the one-loop EFT prediction in redshift space using only the lowest-order counterterm. We show that replacing the one-loop growth factors by their Einstein-de Sitter counterparts is a good approximation for the l=0 mode, but can induce deviations as large as 2% for the l=2, 4 modes. An accompanying software bundle, distributed under open source licenses, includes Mathematica notebooks describing the calculation, together with parallel pipelines capable of computing both the necessary one-loop SPT integrals and the effective field theory counterterms.
THE FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS FOR MULTI-TERM MODIFIED POWER LAW WAVE EQUATIONS IN A FINITE DOMAIN.
Jiang, H; Liu, F; Meerschaert, M M; McGough, R J
2013-01-01
Fractional partial differential equations with more than one fractional derivative term in time, such as the Szabo wave equation, or the power law wave equation, describe important physical phenomena. However, studies of these multi-term time-space or time fractional wave equations are still under development. In this paper, multi-term modified power law wave equations in a finite domain are considered. The multi-term time fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals (1, 2], [2, 3), [2, 4) or (0, n ) ( n > 2), respectively. Analytical solutions of the multi-term modified power law wave equations are derived. These new techniques are based on Luchko's Theorem, a spectral representation of the Laplacian operator, a method of separating variables and fractional derivative techniques. Then these general methods are applied to the special cases of the Szabo wave equation and the power law wave equation. These methods and techniques can also be extended to other kinds of the multi-term time-space fractional models including fractional Laplacian.
Study of the directional spectrum of ocean waves using array, buoy and radar measurements
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Fernandes, A.A.
Phase/time/path difference (PTPD) methods of Esteva [1977] and Borgman [1974] with two modifications, viz., true phase and coherence proposed in this thesis, have for the first time been successfully used for computing wave direction as a function...
Directional spectrum of ocean waves from array measurements using phase/time/path difference methods
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Fernandes, A.A.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Menon, H.B.
Wave direction has for the first time been consistently, accurately and unambiguously evaluated from array measurements using the phase/time/path difference (PTPD) methods of Esteva in case of polygonal arrays and Borgman in case of linear arrays...
Wave power balance in resonant dissipative media with spatial and temporal dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokman, M.D.; Gavrilova, M.A.; Westerhof, E. . www.rijnh.nl
2003-01-01
A power balance for waves in resonant dissipative media is formulated, which generalizes well-known expressions for dielectric wave energy density, wave energy flux, and dissipated power density. The identification of the different terms with wave energy density and flux remains only phenomenological. The result is better viewed as an equation for the evolution of wave intensity. In that form, its consequences are discussed in particular in relation to anomalous dispersion. A discrimination is made between boundary and initial value problems. For boundary value problems, anomalous dispersion is shown not to lead to unphysical results. In contrast, for initial value problems the solution for the evolution of wave intensity is shown to be at fault in the case of anomalous dispersion. Further illustration is provided by consideration of wave dispersion in a medium of charged harmonic oscillators and of ordinary-mode dispersion in plasma. Both are characterized by anomalous dispersion and show marked differences in the solutions of the dispersion relation solved either for complex wave vector at real frequency, k(ω) (applicable to boundary value problems), or for complex frequency at real wave vector ω(k) (applicable to initial value problems). (author)
Netterfield, C. B.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Bernardis, P. de;
2001-01-01
This paper presents a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background from l = 75 to l = 1025 (10' to 5 degrees) from a combined analysis of four 150 GHz channels in the BOOMERANG experiment. The spectrum contains multiple peaks and minima, as predicted by standard adiabatic-inflationary models in which the primordial plasma undergoes acoustic oscillations.
Bayesian Analysis of the Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background
Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.
2005-01-01
There is a wealth of cosmological information encoded in the spatial power spectrum of temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The sky, when viewed in the microwave, is very uniform, with a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum at 2.7 degrees. Very small amplitude brightness fluctuations (to one part in a million!!) trace small density perturbations in the early universe (roughly 300,000 years after the Big Bang), which later grow through gravitational instability to the large-scale structure seen in redshift surveys... In this talk, I will discuss a Bayesian formulation of this problem; discuss a Gibbs sampling approach to numerically sampling from the Bayesian posterior, and the application of this approach to the first-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. I will also comment on recent algorithmic developments for this approach to be tractable for the even more massive data set to be returned from the Planck satellite.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiltse, J.C.; Coleman, J.T.
1987-01-01
The present conference on mm-wave technology and radio-frequency power sources discusses topics in the fields of vacuum devices, mm-wave antennas and transmission lines, mm-wave systems and subsystems, and mm-wave techniques and components. Attention is given to recent experiments with planar orotrons, a high peak power X-band gyroklystron for linear supercolliders, cathode-driven crossed-field amplifiers, multi-MW quasi-optical gyrotrons, the radiation coupling of interinjection-locked oscillators, air-to-air mm-wave communications, mm-wave active and passive sensors for terrain mapping, and mm-wave components for electronically controllable antennas
Wireless system controlling of electromagnetic wave distribution in nuclear power plant use
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuroda, Hidehiko; Kume, Naoto; Oshima, Tomomi; Takakura, Kei; Oda, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Odanaka, Shigeru
2017-01-01
Recently, wireless technologies have rapidly spread by cellular phones, smartphones and tablet devices. Wireless systems in the nuclear power plant are expected to bring various advantages such as shortening of the inspection time, online monitoring, remote control and cable reduction, etc. However, wireless systems have hardly applied to the nuclear power plant, from the point of security and electromagnetic interference (EMI). We propose a new wireless system controlling automatically electromagnetic wave distribution. In our wireless system, the transmitter / receiver modules automatically measure the wave strength and adjust the power and directivity of the wave, resulting in wireless communication only in target zones, i.e. non-influence to safety-related instruments and non-leakage of information. We will present the algorithm of the electromagnetic wave controlling and experimental results about the proposed system. (author)
Variability of ULF wave power at the magnetopause: a study at low latitude with Cluster data
Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Grison, B.; Belmont, G.; Rezeau, L.; Chanteur, G.; Robert, P.; Canu, P.
2012-04-01
Strong ULF wave activity has been observed at magnetopause crossings since a long time. Those turbulent-like waves are possible contributors to particle penetration from the Solar Wind to the Magnetosphere through the magnetopause. Statistical studies have been performed to understand under which conditions the ULF wave power is the most intense and thus the waves can be the most efficient for particle transport from one region to the other. Clearly the solar wind pressure organizes the data, the stronger the pressure, the higher the ULF power (Attié et al 2008). Double STAR-Cluster comparison has shown that ULF wave power is stronger at low latitude than at high latitude (Cornilleau-Wehrlin et al, 2008). The different studies performed have not, up to now, shown a stronger power in the vicinity of local noon. Nevertheless under identical activity conditions, the variability of this power, even at a given location in latitude and local time is very high. The present work intends at understanding this variability by means of the multi spacecraft mission Cluster. The data used are from spring 2008, while Cluster was crossing the magnetopause at low latitude, in particularly quite Solar Wind conditions. The first region of interest of this study is the sub-solar point vicinity where the long wavelength surface wave effects are most unlikely.
Statistical Analysis of Power Production from OWC Type Wave Energy Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinelli, L.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2009-01-01
Oscillating Water Column based wave energy plants built so far have experienced a low efficiency in the conversion of the bidirectional oscillating flow. A new concept is considered here, the LeanCon Wave Energy Converter (WEC), that unifies the flow direction by use of non-return valves...... (wave period, wave height). Average performance and stochastic variability is thus obtained for any sea state and therefore also for the annual wave climate of interest. An example application of a LeanCon unit is carried out for a location off-shore Cagliari (Italy). Conclusions provide economic......, into a unidirectional flow, making the use of more efficient air turbines possible. Hereby, a more steady flow is also obtained. The general objective of this note is to examine, the power take off (PTO) efficiency under irregular wave conditions, for WECs with flow redirection. Final practical aim is to identify...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Putter, Roland de; Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Mena, Olga; Percival, Will J.
2012-01-01
Accurate power spectrum (or correlation function) covariance matrices are a crucial requirement for cosmological parameter estimation from large scale structure surveys. In order to minimize reliance on computationally expensive mock catalogs, it is important to have a solid analytic understanding of the different components that make up a covariance matrix. Considering the matter power spectrum covariance matrix, it has recently been found that there is a potentially dominant effect on mildly non-linear scales due to power in modes of size equal to and larger than the survey volume. This beat coupling effect has been derived analytically in perturbation theory and while it has been tested with simulations, some questions remain unanswered. Moreover, there is an additional effect of these large modes, which has so far not been included in analytic studies, namely the effect on the estimated average density which enters the power spectrum estimate. In this article, we work out analytic, perturbation theory based expressions including both the beat coupling and this local average effect and we show that while, when isolated, beat coupling indeed causes large excess covariance in agreement with the literature, in a realistic scenario this is compensated almost entirely by the local average effect, leaving only ∼ 10% of the excess. We test our analytic expressions by comparison to a suite of large N-body simulations, using both full simulation boxes and subboxes thereof to study cases without beat coupling, with beat coupling and with both beat coupling and the local average effect. For the variances, we find excellent agreement with the analytic expressions for k −1 at z = 0.5, while the correlation coefficients agree to beyond k = 0.4 hMpc −1 . As expected, the range of agreement increases towards higher redshift and decreases slightly towards z = 0. We finish by including the large-mode effects in a full covariance matrix description for arbitrary survey
Using the CMB angular power spectrum to study Dark Matter-photon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilkinson, Ryan J.; Boehm, Céline; Lesgourgues, Julien
2014-01-01
In this paper, we explore the impact of Dark Matter-photon interactions on the CMB angular power spectrum. Using the one-year data release of the Planck satellite, we derive an upper bound on the Dark Matter-photon elastic scattering cross section of σ DM−γ ≤ 8 × 10 −31 (m DM /GeV) cm 2 (68% CL) if the cross section is constant and a present-day value of σ DM−γ ≤ 6 × 10 −40 (m DM /GeV) cm 2 (68% CL) if it scales as the temperature squared. For such a limiting cross section, both the B-modes and the TT angular power spectrum are suppressed with respect to ΛCDM predictions for ℓ∼>500 and ℓ∼>3000 respectively, indicating that forthcoming data from CMB polarisation experiments and Planck could help to constrain and characterise the physics of the dark sector. This essentially initiates a new type of dark matter search that is independent of whether dark matter is annihilating, decaying or asymmetric. Thus, any CMB experiment with the ability to measure the temperature and/or polarisation power spectra at high ℓ should be able to investigate the potential interactions of dark matter and contribute to our fundamental understanding of its nature
Thermal-wave balancing flow sensor with low-drift power feedback
Dijkstra, Marcel; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Pjetri, O.; de Boer, Meint J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt
2014-01-01
A control system using a low-drift power-feedback signal was implemented applying thermal waves, giving a sensor output independent of resistance drift and thermo-electric offset voltages on interface wires. Kelvin-contact sensing and power control is used on heater resistors, thereby inhibiting the
Optimisation of Working Areas in Discrete Hydraulic Power Take off-system for Wave Energy Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Pedersen, Henrik C.
2012-01-01
Fluid power is the leading technology in Power Take Off(PTO) systems in Wave Energy Converters(WEC’s), due to the capability of generating high force at low velocity. However, as hydraulic force controlling system may suffer from large energy losses the efficiency of the hydraulic PTO systems may...
Modelling redshift space distortion in the post-reionization H I 21-cm power spectrum
Sarkar, Debanjan; Bharadwaj, Somnath
2018-05-01
The post-reionization H I 21-cm signal is an excellent candidate for precision cosmology, this however requires accurate modelling of the expected signal. Sarkar et al. have simulated the real space H I 21-cm signal and have modelled the H I power spectrum as P_{{H I}}(k)=b^2 P(k), where P(k) is the dark matter power spectrum and b(k) is a (possibly complex) scale-dependent bias for which fitting formulas have been provided. This paper extends these simulations to incorporate redshift space distortion and predicts the expected redshift space H I 21-cm power spectrum P^s_{{H I}}(k_{\\perp },k_{allel }) using two different prescriptions for the H I distributions and peculiar velocities. We model P^s_{{H I}}(k_{\\perp },k_{allel }), assuming that it is the product of P_{{H I}}(k)=b^2 P(k) with a Kaiser enhancement term and a Finger of God (FoG) damping which has σp the pair velocity dispersion as a free parameter. Considering several possibilities for the bias and the damping profile, we find that the models with a scale-dependent bias and a Lorentzian damping profile best fit the simulated P^s_{{H I}}(k_{\\perp },k_{allel }) over the entire range 1 ≤ z ≤ 6. The best-fitting value of σp falls approximately as (1 + z)-m with m = 2 and 1.2, respectively, for the two different prescriptions. The model predictions are consistent with the simulations for k models underpredict P^s_2(k) at large k, and the fit is restricted to k < 0.15 Mpc-1.
Design and modeling of InP DHBT power amplifiers at millimeter-wave frequencies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yan, Lei; Johansen, Tom K.
2012-01-01
In this paper, the design and modeling of InP DHBT based millimeter-wave(mm-wave) power amplifiers is described. This includes the modeling of InP DHBT devices and layout parasitics. An EM-circuit co-simulation approach is described to allow all parasitics to be modeled for accurate circuit...... demonstrates a power gain of 4.5dB with a saturated output power of 14.2dBm at 69.2GHz. © 2012 European Microwave Assoc....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeffrey, D C; Richmond, D J.E.; Salter, S H; Taylor, J R.M.
1976-09-01
This report is concerned mainly with the measurement of backbone forces on a string of floating duck converters. The results from experiments on single models in a narrow wave tank are presented showing surge and leave forces on cylinders and ducks of various dimensions.
Computation of the power spectrum in chaotic ¼λφ4 inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rojas, Clara; Villalba, Víctor M.
2012-01-01
The phase-integral approximation devised by Fröman and Fröman, is used for computing cosmological perturbations in the quartic chaotic inflationary model. The phase-integral formulas for the scalar power spectrum are explicitly obtained up to fifth order of the phase-integral approximation. As in previous reports (Rojas 2007b, 2007c and 2009), we point out that the accuracy of the phase-integral approximation compares favorably with the numerical results and those obtained using the slow-roll and uniform approximation methods
Computation of the power spectrum in chaotic ¼λφ{sup 4} inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rojas, Clara [Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios de la Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Villalba, Víctor M., E-mail: clararoj@gmail.com, E-mail: Victor.Villalba@monash.edu [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)
2012-01-01
The phase-integral approximation devised by Fröman and Fröman, is used for computing cosmological perturbations in the quartic chaotic inflationary model. The phase-integral formulas for the scalar power spectrum are explicitly obtained up to fifth order of the phase-integral approximation. As in previous reports (Rojas 2007b, 2007c and 2009), we point out that the accuracy of the phase-integral approximation compares favorably with the numerical results and those obtained using the slow-roll and uniform approximation methods.
Cosmological leverage from the matter power spectrum in the presence of baryon and nonlinear effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bielefeld, Jannis; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.
2015-01-01
We investigate how the use of higher wavenumbers (smaller scales) in the galaxy clustering power spectrum influences cosmological constraints. We take into account uncertainties from nonlinear density fluctuations, (scale dependent) galaxy bias, and baryonic effects. Allowing for substantially model independent uncertainties through separate fit parameters in each wavenumber bin that also allow for the redshift evolution, we quantify strong gains in dark energy and neutrino mass leverage with increasing maximum wavenumber, despite marginalizing over numerous (up to 125) extra fit parameters. The leverage is due to not only an increased number of modes but, more significantly, breaking of degeneracies beyond the linear regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, X [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); You, J Q; Nori, F [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan); Zheng, H, E-mail: xfcao@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2011-07-15
We investigate the spontaneous emission (SE) spectrum of a qubit in a lossy resonant cavity. We use neither the rotating-wave approximation nor the Markov approximation. For the weak-coupling case, the SE spectrum of the qubit is a single peak, with its location depending on the spectral density of the qubit environment. Then, the asymmetry (of the location and heights of the two peaks) of the two SE peaks (which are related to the vacuum Rabi splitting) changes as the qubit-cavity coupling increases. Explicitly, for a qubit in a low-frequency intrinsic bath, the height asymmetry of the splitting peaks is enhanced as the qubit-cavity coupling strength increases. However, for a qubit in an Ohmic bath, the height asymmetry of the spectral peaks is inverted compared to the low-frequency bath case. With further increasing the qubit-cavity coupling to the ultra-strong regime, the height asymmetry of the left and right peaks is slightly inverted, which is consistent with the corresponding case of a low-frequency bath. This inversion of the asymmetry arises from the competition between the Ohmic bath and the cavity bath. Therefore, after considering the anti-rotating terms, our results explicitly show how the height asymmetry in the SE spectrum peaks depends on the qubit-cavity coupling and the type of intrinsic noise experienced by the qubit.
Analysis of Floating Buoy of a Wave Power Generating Jack-Up Platform Haiyuan 1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Date Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the performance of floating buoys of a wave power generating jack-up platform called Haiyuan 1, in order to work out the optimum designed draft and hydraulic pressure. The performance of the buoy, especially its delivered power, is an important issue in designing oscillating buoy wave energy converter. In this case, major factors affect the performance including incident wave, designed draft, and hydraulic pressure on the buoy. To find out the relationship among design draft, hydraulic pressure, and delivered power, the key point is to precisely estimate wave induced motion of the buoy. Three-dimensional theory and time domain method based on potential theory were adopted in the paper. Unlike ship and other floating structures, motion of wave energy converter (WEC buoy in wave will be weakened because of energy take-off, which will cause significant draft changing with time. Thus, draft changing should be taken into consideration as well. In addition, green water problem occurs more frequently than that in ship and other floating structures and also might the reduce delivered power. Therefore, green water problem will also be taken into account when choosing the optimum designed draft and hydraulic pressure. The calculation indicates that the optimum designed draft is 0.935 m, while the optimum designed hydraulic pressure is 30 kN.
One-dimensional power spectrum and neutrino mass in the spectra of BOSS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borde, Arnaud
2014-01-01
The framework of the studies presented in this thesis is the one-dimensional power spectrum of the transmitted flux in the Lyman-alpha forests. The Lyman-alpha forest is an absorption pattern seen in the spectra of high redshift quasars corresponding to the absorption of the quasar light by the hydrogen clouds along the line of sight. It is a powerful cosmological tool as it probes relatively small scales, of the order of a few Mpc. It is also sensible to small non-linear effects such as the one induced by massive neutrinos. First, we have developed two independent methods to measure the one-dimensional power spectrum of the transmitted flux in the Lyman-alpha forest. The first method is based on a Fourier transform, and the second on a maximum likelihood estimator. The two methods are independent and have different systematic uncertainties. The determination of the noise level in the data spectra was subject to a novel treatment, because of its significant impact on the derived power spectrum. We applied the two methods to 13,821 quasar spectra from SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 selected from a larger sample of over 60,000 spectra on the basis of their high quality, large signal-to-noise ratio, and good spectral resolution. The power spectra measured using either approach are in good agreement over all twelve redshift bins from =2.2 to =4.4, and scales from 0.001 (km/s)"-"1 to 0.02 (km/s)"-"1. We carefully determined the methodological and instrumental systematic uncertainties of our measurements. Then, we present a suite of cosmological N-body simulations with cold dark matter, baryons and neutrinos aiming at modeling the low-density regions of the IGM as probed by the Lyman-alpha forests at high redshift. The simulations are designed to match the requirements imposed by the quality of BOSS and eBOSS data. They are made using either 768"3 or 192"3 particles of each type, spanning volumes ranging from (25 Mpc/h)"3 for high-resolution simulations to (100 Mpc/h)"3 for large
Kunitsyn, V.; Andreeva, E.; Padokhin, A. M.; Nazarenko, M.; Frolov, V.; Komrakov, G.; Bolotin, I.
2012-12-01
We present the results of the experiments carried out in 2009-2012 on the Sura heating facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod, Russia) on modification of the midlatitude ionosphere by powerful HF radiowaves. The experiments were conducted using O-mode radiowaves at frequencies lower than critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer both in daytime and nighttime ionosphere. Various schemes of the radiation of the heating wave were used including square wave modulation of the effective radiated power (ERP) at various frequencies and power stepping. Radio transmissions of the low- (Parus/Tsikada) and high-orbital (GPS/GLONASS) navigational satellites received at the mobile network of receiving sites were used for the remote sensing of the heated area of the ionosphere. The variations in the slant total electron content (TEC), which are proportional to the reduced phase of navigational signals, were studied for the satellite passes for which ionospheric penetration points crossed the disturbed area during HF heating. The variations in TEC caused by HF heating are identified in a number of examples. It is shown that the GNSS TEC spectra contain frequency components corresponding to the modulation periods of the ERP of the heating wave. The manifestations of the heating-induced variations in TEC are most prominent in the area of magnetic zenith of the pumping wave. Different behavior of TEC variations was observed during nighttime and daytime heating experiments. In daytime conditions the pump wave switched ON causes the increase of TEC while in the nighttime it causes a decrease in TEC. This can be explained by the different contribution of the processes responsible for the increase and decrease of TEC in daytime in nighttime conditions. In this work we also present the first time radiotomographic reconstructions of the spatial structure of the wave-like disturbances, generated in the ionosphere by high-power radio waves radiated by the Sura heater
Instantaneous response spectrum in seismic testing of nuclear power plant equipment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrone, A.
1977-01-01
This paper presents the concept of instantaneous response spectrum (IRS) as the response of single degree of freedom oscillators at a particular time. It demonstrates that a shake table random motion whose standard TRS envelops the RRS does not necessarily satisfy the enveloping requirement instantaneously. That is, any one (or more) instantaneous required response spectrum (IRRS) is not enveloped by any instantaneous test response spectrum (ITRS). Response spectra from different time histories, including single frequency sine beat motion used in resonance testing, are compared for enveloping with maximum response and with the actual response at particular times. These comparisons are given for the enveloping of RRS and IRRS derived with a time history response calculated at a particular building elevation of a nuclear power plant. For the test motion, several of the most severe ITRS derived with a modified EL Centro motion and with a sine beat motion with ten cycles per beat were used. It is shown that although the TRS with the modified EL Centro motion enveloped the given RRS, the selected modified EL Centro ITRS did not envelop the corresponding IRRS. With the sine beat motion, even though the TRS did not fully envelop the given RRS, the resulting sine beat ITRS did not require a larger factor for full IRRS enveloping than those of the modified EL Centro motion
Developmental trajectories of resting EEG power: an endophenotype of autism spectrum disorder.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrienne L Tierney
Full Text Available Current research suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by asynchronous neural oscillations. However, it is unclear whether changes in neural oscillations represent an index of the disorder or are shared more broadly among both affected and unaffected family members. Additionally, it remains unclear how early these differences emerge in development and whether they remain constant or change over time. In this study we examined developmental trajectories in spectral power in infants at high- or low-risk for ASD. Spectral power was extracted from resting EEG recorded over frontal regions of the scalp when infants were 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. We used multilevel modeling to assess change over time between risk groups in the delta, theta, low alpha, high alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results indicated that across all bands, spectral power was lower in high-risk infants as compared to low-risk infants at 6-months of age. Furthermore high-risk infants showed different trajectories of change in spectral power in the subsequent developmental window indicating that not only are the patterns of change different, but that group differences are dynamic within the first two years of life. These findings remained the same after removing data from a subset of participants who displayed ASD related behaviors at 24 or 36 months. These differences in the nature of the trajectories of EEG power represent important endophenotypes of ASD.
KiDS-450: the tomographic weak lensing power spectrum and constraints on cosmological parameters
Köhlinger, F.; Viola, M.; Joachimi, B.; Hoekstra, H.; van Uitert, E.; Hildebrandt, H.; Choi, A.; Erben, T.; Heymans, C.; Joudaki, S.; Klaes, D.; Kuijken, K.; Merten, J.; Miller, L.; Schneider, P.; Valentijn, E. A.
2017-11-01
We present measurements of the weak gravitational lensing shear power spectrum based on 450 ° ^2 of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey. We employ a quadratic estimator in two and three redshift bins and extract band powers of redshift autocorrelation and cross-correlation spectra in the multipole range 76 ≤ ℓ ≤ 1310. The cosmological interpretation of the measured shear power spectra is performed in a Bayesian framework assuming a ΛCDM model with spatially flat geometry, while accounting for small residual uncertainties in the shear calibration and redshift distributions as well as marginalizing over intrinsic alignments, baryon feedback and an excess-noise power model. Moreover, massive neutrinos are included in the modelling. The cosmological main result is expressed in terms of the parameter combination S_8 ≡ σ _8 √{Ω_m/0.3} yielding S8 = 0.651 ± 0.058 (three z-bins), confirming the recently reported tension in this parameter with constraints from Planck at 3.2σ (three z-bins). We cross-check the results of the three z-bin analysis with the weaker constraints from the two z-bin analysis and find them to be consistent. The high-level data products of this analysis, such as the band power measurements, covariance matrices, redshift distributions and likelihood evaluation chains are available at http://kids.strw.leidenuniv.nl.
Design of a Millimeter-Wave Concentrator for Beam Reception in High-Power Wireless Power Transfer
Fukunari, Masafumi; Wongsuryrat, Nat; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Yusuke; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki
2017-02-01
This study examined the performance of a developed taper-tube concentrator for 94-GHz millimeter-wave beam reception during wireless power transfer. The received energy is converted into kinetic energy of a working gas in the tube to drive an engine or thruster. The concentrator, which is assumed to have mirror reflection of millimeter waves in it, is designed to be shorter than conventional tapered waveguides of millimeter waves. A dimensionless design law of a concentrator is proposed based on geometric optics theory. Because the applicability of geometric optics theory is unclear, the ratio of its bore diameter to its wavelength was set as small compared to those in other possible applications. Then, the discrepancy between the designed and measured power reception was examined. Results show that the maximum discrepancy was as low as 7 % for the bore-to-wavelength ratio of 20 at the narrow end of the concentrator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Zou
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an effective low-speed oscillating wave power generator and its energy storage system have been proposed. A vertical flux-switching permanent magnet (PM machine is designed as the generator while supercapacitors and batteries are used to store the energy. First, the overall power generation system is established and principles of the machine are introduced. Second, three modes are proposed for the energy storage system and sliding mode control (SMC is employed to regulate the voltage of the direct current (DC bus, observe the mechanical input, and feedback the status of the storage system. Finally, experiments with load and sinusoidal mechanical inputs are carried out to validate the effectiveness and stability of power generation for wave energy. The results show that the proposed power generation system can be employed in low-speed environment around 1 m/s to absorb random wave power, achieving over 60% power efficiency. The power generation approach can be used to capture wave energy in the future.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom, Nathan M.; Madhi, Farshad; Yeung, Ronald W.
2016-07-01
The aim of this paper is to maximize the power-to-load ratio of the Berkeley Wedge: a one-degree-of-freedom, asymmetrical, energy-capturing, floating breakwater of high performance that is relatively free of viscosity effects. Linear hydrodynamic theory was used to calculate bounds on the expected time-averaged power (TAP) and corresponding surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and power take-off (PTO) control force when assuming that the heave motion of the wave energy converter remains sinusoidal. This particular device was documented to be an almost-perfect absorber if one-degree-of-freedom motion is maintained. The success of such or similar future wave energy converter technologies would require the development of control strategies that can adapt device performance to maximize energy generation in operational conditions while mitigating hydrodynamic loads in extreme waves to reduce the structural mass and overall cost. This paper formulates the optimal control problem to incorporate metrics that provide a measure of the surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and PTO control force. The optimizer must now handle an objective function with competing terms in an attempt to maximize power capture while minimizing structural and actuator loads. A penalty weight is placed on the surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and PTO actuation force, thereby allowing the control focus to be placed either on power absorption or load mitigation. Thus, in achieving these goals, a per-unit gain in TAP would not lead to a greater per-unit demand in structural strength, hence yielding a favorable benefit-to-cost ratio. Demonstrative results in the form of TAP, reactive TAP, and the amplitudes of the surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and PTO control force are shown for the Berkeley Wedge example.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-09-28
This work attempts to balance power absorption against structural loading for a novel variable geometry wave energy converter. The variable geometry consists of four identical flaps that will be opened in ascending order starting with the flap closest to the seafloor and moving to the free surface. The influence of a pitch motion constraint on power absorption when utilizing a nonideal power take-off (PTO) is examined and found to reduce the losses associated with bidirectional energy flow. The power-to-load ratio is evaluated using pseudo-spectral control to determine the optimum PTO torque based on a multiterm objective function. The pseudo-spectral optimal control problem is extended to include load metrics in the objective function, which may now consist of competing terms. Separate penalty weights are attached to the surge-foundation force and PTO control torque to tune the optimizer performance to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. PTO efficiency is not included in the objective function, but the penalty weights are utilized to limit the force and torque amplitudes, thereby reducing losses associated with bidirectional energy flow. Results from pseudo-spectral control demonstrate that shedding a portion of the available wave energy can provide greater reductions in structural loads and reactive power.
Constraints on neutrino masses from Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum with BOSS and XQ-100
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yèche, Christophe; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Baur, Julien; Bourboux, Hélion du Mas des, E-mail: christophe.yeche@cea.fr, E-mail: nathalie.palanque-delabrouille@cea.fr, E-mail: julien.baur@cea.fr, E-mail: helion.du-mas-des-bourboux@cea.fr [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2017-06-01
We present constraints on masses of active and sterile neutrinos in the context of the ΛCDMν and ΛWDM models, respectively. We use the one-dimensional Lyα-forest power spectrum from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) measured by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. [1], and from the VLT/XSHOOTER legacy survey (XQ-100). In this paper, we present our own measurement of the publicly released XQ-100 quasar spectra, focusing in particular on an improved determination of the spectrograph resolution that allows us to push to smaller scales than the public release and reach k -modes of 0.070 s km{sup −1}. We compare the obtained 1D Lyα flux power spectrum to the one measured by Irsic et al. [2] to k -modes of 0.057 s km{sup −1}. Fitting Lyα data alone leads to cosmological parameters in excellent agreement with the values derived independently from Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data. Combining BOSS and XQ-100 Lyα power spectra, we constrain the sum of neutrino masses to ∑ m {sub ν} < 0.8 eV (95% C.L.) including all identified sources of systematic uncertainties. With the addition of CMB data, this bound is tightened to ∑ m {sub ν} < 0.14 eV (95% C.L.). With their sensitivity to small scales, Lyα data are ideal to constrain ΛWDM models. Using XQ-100 alone, we issue lower bounds on pure dark matter particles: m {sub X} ∼> 2.08 : keV (95% C.L.) for early decoupled thermal relics, and m {sub s} ∼> 10.2 : keV (95% C.L.) for non-resonantly produced right-handed neutrinos. Combining the 1D Lyα-forest power spectrum measured by BOSS and XQ-100, we improve the two bounds to m {sub X} ∼> 4.17 : keV and m {sub s} ∼> 25.0 : keV (95% C.L.), slightly more constraining than what was achieved in Baur et al. 2015 [3] with BOSS data alone. The 3 σ bound shows a more significant improvement, increasing from m {sub X} ∼> 2.74 : keV for BOSS alone to m {sub X} ∼> 3.10 : keV for the combined BOSS
Elementary Theoretical Forms for the Spatial Power Spectrum of Earth's Crustal Magnetic Field
Voorhies, C.
1998-01-01
The magnetic field produced by magnetization in Earth's crust and lithosphere can be distinguished from the field produced by electric currents in Earth's core because the spatial magnetic power spectrum of the crustal field differs from that of the core field. Theoretical forms for the spectrum of the crustal field are derived by treating each magnetic domain in the crust as the point source of a dipole field. The geologic null-hypothesis that such moments are uncorrelated is used to obtain the magnetic spectrum expected from a randomly magnetized, or unstructured, spherical crust of negligible thickness. This simplest spectral form is modified to allow for uniform crustal thickness, ellipsoidality, and the polarization of domains by an periodically reversing, geocentric axial dipole field from Earth's core. Such spectra are intended to describe the background crustal field. Magnetic anomalies due to correlated magnetization within coherent geologic structures may well be superimposed upon this background; yet representing each such anomaly with a single point dipole may lead to similar spectral forms. Results from attempts to fit these forms to observational spectra, determined via spherical harmonic analysis of MAGSAT data, are summarized in terms of amplitude, source depth, and misfit. Each theoretical spectrum reduces to a source factor multiplied by the usual exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n due to geometric attenuation with attitude above the source layer. The source factors always vary with n and are approximately proportional to n(exp 3) for degrees 12 through 120. The theoretical spectra are therefore not directly proportional to an exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n. There is no radius at which these spectra are flat, level, or otherwise independent of n.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baryshev, Yu.V.; Morozov, V.N.
1988-01-01
It is shown that MHD turbulence can be generated by collisionless shock waves due to anisotropy of the pressure behind the front of the reverse sock at the hot spot of a powerful radio galaxy. The energy density of the MHD turbulence generated behind the shock front is estimated. Analysis of the theoretical studies and experimental data on collisionless shock waves in the solar wind indicates that an important part is played by streams of ions reflected by the shock fronts, the streams generating plasma and MHD turbulence in the region ahead of the front. The extension of these ideas to shock waves in powerful radio galaxies must be made with care because of the great difference between the parameters of the shock waves in the two cases
Anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum in the f(ϕ)F2 mechanism
Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo
2013-01-01
A suitable coupling of the inflaton φ to a vector kinetic term F2 gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations. We compute the cosmological perturbations ζ that result from such coupling by taking into account the classical vector field that unavoidably gets generated at large scales during inflation. This generically results in a too-anisotropic power spectrum of ζ. Specifically, the anisotropy exceeds the 1% level (10% level) if inflation lasts ˜5 e-folds (˜50 e-folds) more than the minimal amount required to produce the cosmic microwave background modes. This conclusion applies, among others, to the application of this mechanism for magnetogenesis, for anisotropic inflation, and for the generation of anisotropic perturbations at the end of inflation through a waterfall field coupled to the vector (in this case, the unavoidable contribution that we obtain is effective all throughout inflation, and it is independent of the waterfall field). For a tuned duration of inflation, a 1% (10%) anisotropy in the power spectrum corresponds to an anisotropic bispectrum which is enhanced like the local one in the squeezed limit, and with an effective local fNL˜3(˜30). More in general, a significant anisotropy of the perturbations may be a natural outcome of all models that sustain higher than 0 spin fields during inflation.
Karagiannis, Dionysios; Lazanu, Andrei; Liguori, Michele; Raccanelli, Alvise; Bartolo, Nicola; Verde, Licia
2018-07-01
We forecast constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) and bias parameters from measurements of galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum in future radio continuum and optical surveys. In the galaxy bispectrum, we consider a comprehensive list of effects, including the bias expansion for non-Gaussian initial conditions up to second order, redshift space distortions, redshift uncertainties and theoretical errors. These effects are all combined in a single PNG forecast for the first time. Moreover, we improve the bispectrum modelling over previous forecasts, by accounting for trispectrum contributions. All effects have an impact on final predicted bounds, which varies with the type of survey. We find that the bispectrum can lead to improvements up to a factor ˜5 over bounds based on the power spectrum alone, leading to significantly better constraints for local-type PNG, with respect to current limits from Planck. Future radio and photometric surveys could obtain a measurement error of σ (f_{NL}^{loc}) ≈ 0.2. In the case of equilateral PNG, galaxy bispectrum can improve upon present bounds only if significant improvements in the redshift determinations of future, large volume, photometric or radio surveys could be achieved. For orthogonal non-Gaussianity, expected constraints are generally comparable to current ones.
On the soft limit of the large scale structure power spectrum. UV dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garny, Mathias
2015-08-01
We derive a non-perturbative equation for the large scale structure power spectrum of long-wavelength modes. Thereby, we use an operator product expansion together with relations between the three-point function and power spectrum in the soft limit. The resulting equation encodes the coupling to ultraviolet (UV) modes in two time-dependent coefficients, which may be obtained from response functions to (anisotropic) parameters, such as spatial curvature, in a modified cosmology. We argue that both depend weakly on fluctuations deep in the UV. As a byproduct, this implies that the renormalized leading order coefficient(s) in the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structures receive most of their contribution from modes close to the non-linear scale. Consequently, the UV dependence found in explicit computations within standard perturbation theory stems mostly from counter-term(s). We confront a simplified version of our non-perturbative equation against existent numerical simulations, and find good agreement within the expected uncertainties. Our approach can in principle be used to precisely infer the relevance of the leading order EFT coefficient(s) using small volume simulations in an 'anisotropic separate universe' framework. Our results suggest that the importance of these coefficient(s) is a ∝ 10% effect, and plausibly smaller.
Balance of excitation and inhibition determines 1/f power spectrum in neuronal networks.
Lombardi, F; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L
2017-04-01
The 1/f-like decay observed in the power spectrum of electro-physiological signals, along with scale-free statistics of the so-called neuronal avalanches, constitutes evidence of criticality in neuronal systems. Recent in vitro studies have shown that avalanche dynamics at criticality corresponds to some specific balance of excitation and inhibition, thus suggesting that this is a basic feature of the critical state of neuronal networks. In particular, a lack of inhibition significantly alters the temporal structure of the spontaneous avalanche activity and leads to an anomalous abundance of large avalanches. Here, we study the relationship between network inhibition and the scaling exponent β of the power spectral density (PSD) of avalanche activity in a neuronal network model inspired in Self-Organized Criticality. We find that this scaling exponent depends on the percentage of inhibitory synapses and tends to the value β = 1 for a percentage of about 30%. More specifically, β is close to 2, namely, Brownian noise, for purely excitatory networks and decreases towards values in the interval [1, 1.4] as the percentage of inhibitory synapses ranges between 20% and 30%, in agreement with experimental findings. These results indicate that the level of inhibition affects the frequency spectrum of resting brain activity and suggest the analysis of the PSD scaling behavior as a possible tool to study pathological conditions.
Power spectrum analysis of polarized emission from the Canadian galactic plane survey
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stutz, R. A.; Rosolowsky, E. W. [University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L. [National Research Council Canada, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Box 248, Penticton, BC, V2A 6J9 (Canada)
2014-05-20
Angular power spectra are calculated and presented for the entirety of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey polarization data set at 1.4 GHz covering an area of 1060 deg{sup 2}. The data analyzed are a combination of data from the 100 m Effelsberg Telescope, the 26 m Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, and the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, allowing all scales to be sampled down to arcminute resolution. The resulting power spectra cover multipoles from ℓ ≈ 60 to ℓ ≈ 10{sup 4} and display both a power-law component at low multipoles and a flattening at high multipoles from point sources. We fit the power spectrum with a model that accounts for these components and instrumental effects. The resulting power-law indices are found to have a mode of 2.3, similar to previous results. However, there are significant regional variations in the index, defying attempts to characterize the emission with a single value. The power-law index is found to increase away from the Galactic plane. A transition from small-scale to large-scale structure is evident at b = 9°, associated with the disk-halo transition in a 15° region around l = 108°. Localized variations in the index are found toward H II regions and supernova remnants, but the interpretation of these variations is inconclusive. The power in the polarized emission is anticorrelated with bright thermal emission (traced by Hα emission) indicating that the thermal emission depolarizes background synchrotron emission.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James; Friis-Madsen, E.
2007-01-01
This paper reports on the real sea performance of the buoyancy control system of Wave Dragon, a floating wave energy converter using the overtopping principle. The device operates with the full independent control system which has been tested during three years of operation. The impact of the buo...... of the buoyancy control system performance on the power production is noted. This provides motivation and a target for improved control algorithms....
Microwave power coupling in a surface wave excited plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Satyananda Kar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In recent decades, different types of plasma sources have been used for various types of plasma processing, such as, etching and thin film deposition. The critical parameter for effective plasma processing is high plasma density. One type of high density plasma source is Microwave sheath-Voltage combination Plasma (MVP. In the present investigation, a better design of MVP source is reported, in which over-dense plasma is generated for low input microwave powers. The results indicate that the length of plasma column increases significantly with increase in input microwave power.
High-current Standing Wave Linac With Gyrocon Power Source
Karliner, M M; Makarov, I G; Nezhevenko, O A; Ostreiko, G N; Persov, B Z; Serdobintsev, G V
2004-01-01
A gyrocon together with high-voltage 1.5 MeV accelerator ELIT-3A represents a power generator at 430 MHz serving for linear electron accelerator pulse driving. The facility description and results of calorimetric measurements of ELIT-3A electron beam power and accelerated beam at the end of accelerator are presented in the paper. 2.2 amps of pulsed current have been obtained at electron energy of 20 MeV. The achieved energy conversion efficiency is about 55%.
NATURE OF WAVE PROCESSES AND THEIR INTERACTION WITH Tidal power PLANTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alekseeva Ol'ga Aleksandrovna
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The author examines the nature of wave processes and their impact on the operation of tidal power plants. The article also has an overview of both operating and prospective tidal power plants in Russia and worldwide. Patterns of tidal fluctuations and the intensity of their driving forces are also considered in the article. The author discloses the origin of tides in terms of elementary physics and hydraulics. The author covers various aspects of formation of different types of inequality of tides caused by alterations in the mutual positions of the Sun and the Moon in relation to the Earth, variable declination of tide-generating luminaries (the Sun and the Moon in relation to the plane of the Earth equator, and variable distance between the luminaries and the Earth. The author analyzes wave-related phenomena, including refraction, diffraction and interference, their origin and influence onto the properties of waves. The author also covers the origin of advancing and standing waves, or waves of mixed origin, and the impact of the wind onto the characteristics of wave fluctuations. The author provides suggestions regarding potential methods of their control that can affect the essential concept of construction of tidal power plants.
Nonlinear and linear wave equations for propagation in media with frequency power law losses
Szabo, Thomas L.
2003-10-01
The Burgers, KZK, and Westervelt wave equations used for simulating wave propagation in nonlinear media are based on absorption that has a quadratic dependence on frequency. Unfortunately, most lossy media, such as tissue, follow a more general frequency power law. The authors first research involved measurements of loss and dispersion associated with a modification to Blackstock's solution to the linear thermoviscous wave equation [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 1312 (1967)]. A second paper by Blackstock [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 77, 2050 (1985)] showed the loss term in the Burgers equation for plane waves could be modified for other known instances of loss. The authors' work eventually led to comprehensive time-domain convolutional operators that accounted for both dispersion and general frequency power law absorption [Szabo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 491 (1994)]. Versions of appropriate loss terms were developed to extend the standard three nonlinear wave equations to these more general losses. Extensive experimental data has verified the predicted phase velocity dispersion for different power exponents for the linear case. Other groups are now working on methods suitable for solving wave equations numerically for these types of loss directly in the time domain for both linear and nonlinear media.
Solar Flash Sub-Millimeter Wave Range Spectrum Part Radiation Modeling
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V. Yu. Shustikov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Currently, solar flares are under observation on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU. This telescope operates in a little-studied range of the spectrum, at wavelengths of 3.2 and 2.2 mm (93 and 140 GHz, thereby providing unique information about parameters of the chromosphere plasma and zone of the temperature minimum. Observations on various instruments provided relatively small amount of data on the radio emission flare at frequencies close to 93 GHz, and at frequency of 140 GHz such observations were not carried out. For these reasons, data collected from the RT-7.5 radio telescope are of high value (Shustikov et al., 2012.This work describes modeling and gives interpretation of the reason for raising flux density spectrum of sub-millimeter radio frequency emission using as an example the GOES flare of class M 5.3 occurred on 04.07.2012 in the active region 11515. This flare was observed on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU and was described by Shustikov et al. (2012 and by Smirnova et al. (2013, where it has been suggested that the reason for raising radio frequency emission is a bremsstrahlung of the thermal electrons in the hot plasma of the solar chromosphere. Rough estimates of the plasma temperature at the flare source were obtained.This paper proposes model calculations of the flux density spectrum of the sub-millimeter radio emission based on the gyrosynchrotron Fleischman-Kuznetsov code (Fleishman & Kuznetsov, 2010. Section 1 briefly describes observational data, tools and processing methods used in the work. Section 2 shows results of modeling the flare radio emission. Section 3 discusses results and conclusions.Numerical modeling the sub-millimeter part of the spectrum of the radio flux density for the GOES flare of class M5.3 has been carried out. This flare occurred in the active region 11515 on 04.07.2012. Modeling was based on the observations on the BMSTU’s RT-7.5 radio telescope.The paper draws conclusion based on the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. B. Mukhtubayev
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We have investigated the back reflections influence on the spectrum for optical radiation source of superluminescent diode type and have provided optimal operating conditions of the radiation source. The feature of the research method is the usage of a fiber polarization controller and an optical mirror coated on the end of an optical fiber. The studies were conducted with two sources of optical radiation: ThorLabs superluminescent diode series S5FC1005SXL and LED module ELED-1550-1-E-9-SM1-FA-CW. It was revealed that at the value of back reflections equal to -13 dB relative to the output power source, a negative impact on power and spectral characteristics of the source with an optical power of 2.3 µW is beginning to appear. It was also confirmed that at the increase of the radiation power by increasing the source pumping current, back reflection influence is exhibiting at a lower level of back reflections. The results obtained need to be considered when designing fiber optic sensors in order to eliminate the effect of back reflections on the sources of optical radiation having been studied in this paper.
Reconstruction of real-space linear matter power spectrum from multipoles of BOSS DR12 results
Lee, Seokcheon
2018-02-01
Recently, the power spectrum (PS) multipoles using the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 (DR12) sample are analyzed [1]. The based model for the analysis is the so-called TNS quasi-linear model and the analysis provides the multipoles up to the hexadecapole [2]. Thus, one might be able to recover the real-space linear matter PS by using the combinations of multipoles to investigate the cosmology [3]. We provide the analytic form of the ratio of quadrupole (hexadecapole) to monopole moments of the quasi-linear PS including the Fingers-of-God (FoG) effect to recover the real-space PS in the linear regime. One expects that observed values of the ratios of multipoles should be consistent with those of the linear theory at large scales. Thus, we compare the ratios of multipoles of the linear theory, including the FoG effect with the measured values. From these, we recover the linear matter power spectra in real-space. These recovered power spectra are consistent with the linear matter power spectra.
Power noise spectrum classification in the problem of the IBR-2 reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bargel, M.; Kitowski, J.; Pepelyshev, Yu.N.
1988-01-01
The classification spectrum results of random fluctuations in the IBR-2 energy pulse are presented. The work is performed for the application of the obtained results to the reactor diagnostics and the study of its noise uncontrolled states. For classification of the spectra the method of pattern recognition based upon the ISODATA heuristic algorithm is used. It is shown that a set of noise uncontrolled reactor states, registered during the reactor operation period at power of 0.4-2 MVt with the first variant of moving reflector (1983-1986) is formed into 4(5) most typical states. Each of the states corresponds to the general conditions of the reactor core cooling and provides the normal work of the moving reflector. However, these states differ in coolant flow, power level and peculiarities of the moving reflector rotation regime. One type of anomal power noise, connected with some disorder in the moving reflctor work, is isolated. This work also presents the possibility of control over the state of moving reflectors according to the change in the amplitude of power oscillations at some frequences. The reactor noise classification results can be used as the data bank for the IBR-2 reactor diagnostic system
Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori
2014-12-01
A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode a(k) and its companion mode a(-k) is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.
Gallium Nitride MMICs for mm-Wave Power Operation
Quay, R.; Maroldt, S.; Haupt, C.; Heijningen, M. van; Tessmann, A.
2009-01-01
In this paper a Gallium Nitride MMIC technology for high-power amplifiers between 27 GHz and 101 GHz based on 150 nm- and 100 nm-gate technologies is presented. The GaN HEMT MMICs are designed using coplanar waveguide transmission-line-technology on 3-inch semi-insulating SiC substrates. The
Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia–gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum
Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver
2014-01-01
Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth’s rotation and the atmosphere’s stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia–gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia–gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia–gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km. PMID:25404349
Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia-gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum.
Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver
2014-12-02
Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth's rotation and the atmosphere's stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia-gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia-gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia-gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km.
Chen, Lin; Abbey, Craig K.; Boone, John M.
2013-03-01
Previous research has demonstrated that a parameter extracted from a power function fit to the anatomical noise power spectrum, β, may be predictive of breast mass lesion detectability in x-ray based medical images of the breast. In this investigation, the value of β was compared with a number of other more widely used parameters, in order to determine the relationship between β and these other parameters. This study made use of breast CT data sets, acquired on two breast CT systems developed in our laboratory. A total of 185 breast data sets in 183 women were used, and only the unaffected breast was used (where no lesion was suspected). The anatomical noise power spectrum computed from two-dimensional region of interests (ROIs), was fit to a power function (NPS(f) = α f-β), and the exponent parameter (β) was determined using log/log linear regression. Breast density for each of the volume data sets was characterized in previous work. The breast CT data sets analyzed in this study were part of a previous study which evaluated the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve performance using simulated spherical lesions and a pre-whitened matched filter computer observer. This ROC information was used to compute the detectability index as well as the sensitivity at 95% specificity. The fractal dimension was computed from the same ROIs which were used for the assessment of β. The value of β was compared to breast density, detectability index, sensitivity, and fractal dimension, and the slope of these relationships was investigated to assess statistical significance from zero slope. A statistically significant non-zero slope was considered to be a positive association in this investigation. All comparisons between β and breast density, detectability index, sensitivity at 95% specificity, and fractal dimension demonstrated statistically significant association with p performance. Specifically, lower values of β were associated with lower breast density
Tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser based on tapered amplifier at 668 nm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chi, Mingjun; Erbert, G.; Sumpf, B.
2010-01-01
A 668 nm tunable high-power narrow-spectrum diode laser system based on a tapered semiconductor optical amplifier in external cavity is demonstrated. The laser system is tunable from 659 to 675 nm. As high as 1.38 W output power is obtained at 668.35 nm. The emission spectral bandwidth is less than...
Wang, Ting; Sheng, Meiping; Ding, Xiaodong; Yan, Xiaowei
2018-03-01
This paper presents analysis on wave propagation and power flow in an acoustic metamaterial plate with lateral local resonance. The metamaterial is designed to have lateral local resonance systems attached to a homogeneous plate. Relevant theoretical analysis, numerical modelling and application prospect are presented. Results show that the metamaterial has two complete band gaps for flexural wave absorption and vibration attenuation. Damping can smooth and lower the metamaterial’s frequency responses in high frequency ranges at the expense of the band gap effect, and as an important factor to calculate the power flow is thoroughly investigated. Moreover, the effective mass density becomes negative and unbounded at specific frequencies. Simultaneously, power flow within band gaps are dramatically blocked from the power flow contour and power flow maps. Results from finite element modelling and power flow analysis reveal the working mechanism of the flexural wave attenuation and power flow blocked within the band gaps, where part of the flexural vibration is absorbed by the vertical resonator and the rest is transformed through four-link-mechanisms to the lateral resonators that oscillate and generate inertial forces indirectly to counterbalance the shear forces induced by the vibrational plate. The power flow is stored in the vertical and lateral local resonance, as well as in the connected plate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Tong
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Photoacoustic Doppler (PAD power spectra showing an evident Doppler shift represent the major characteristics of the continuous wave-excited or burst wave-excited versions of PAD flow measurements. In this paper, the flow angle dependences of the PAD power spectra are investigated using an experiment setup that was established based on intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation. The setup has an overall configuration that is similar to a previously reported configuration, but is more sophisticated in that it accurately aligns the laser illumination with the ultrasound detection process, and in that it picks up the correct sample position. In the analysis of the power spectra data, we find that the background power spectra can be extracted by combining the output signals from the two channels of the lock-in amplifier, which is very useful for identification of the PAD power spectra. The power spectra are presented and analyzed in opposite flow directions, at different flow speeds, and at different flow angles. The power spectra at a 90° flow angle show the unique properties of symmetrical shapes due to PAD broadening. For the other flow angles, the smoothed power spectra clearly show a flow angle cosine relationship.
Correspondence between the ULF wave power spatial distribution and auroral oval boundaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kozyreva O.V.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The world-wide spatial distribution of the wave power in the Pc5 band during magnetic storms has been compared with auroral oval boundaries. The poleward and equatorward auroral oval boundaries are estimated using either the British Antarctic Survey database containing IMAGE satellite UV observations of the aurora or the OVATION model based on the DMSP particle data. The “epicenter” of the spectral power of broadband Pc5 fluctuations during the storm growth phase is mapped inside the auroral oval. During the storm recovery phase, the spectral power of narrowband Pc5 waves, both in the dawn and dusk sectors, is mapped inside the auroral oval or around its equatorward boundary. This observational result confirms previously reported effects: the spatial/temporal variations of the Pc5 wave power in the morning/pre-noon sector are closely related to the dynamics of the auroral electrojet and magnetospheric field-aligned currents. At the same time, narrowband Pc5 waves demonstrate typical resonant features in the amplitude-phase latitudinal structure. Thus, the location of the auroral oval or its equatorward boundary is the preferred latitude for magnetospheric field-line Alfven resonator excitation. This effect is not taken into account by modern theories of ULF Pc5 waves, but it could be significant for the development of more adequate models.
The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pokhotelov, D.; Rae, I.J.; Mann, I.R.
2015-01-01
Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) oscillations in the Pc 4-5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind-IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996-2004) of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature), plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.
The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Pokhotelov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF oscillations in the Pc 4–5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind–IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996–2004 of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature, plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind–magnetosphere coupling.
Discrete Displacement Hydraulic Power Take-Off System for the Wavestar Wave Energy Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrique Vidal
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The Wavestar Wave Energy Converter (WEC is a multiple absorber concept, consisting of 20 hemisphere shaped floats attached to a single platform. The heart of the Wavestar WEC is the Power Take-Off (PTO system, converting the wave induced motion of the floats into a steady power output to the grid. In the present work, a PTO based on a novel discrete displacement fluid power technology is explored for the Wavestar WEC. Absorption of power from the floats is performed by hydraulic cylinders, supplying power to a common fixed pressure system with accumulators for energy smoothing. The stored pressure energy is converted into electricity at a steady pace by hydraulic motors and generators. The storage, thereby, decouples the complicated process of wave power absorption from power generation. The core for enabling this PTO technology is implementing a near loss-free force control of the energy absorbing cylinders. This is achieved by using special multi-chambered cylinders, where the different chambers may be connected to the available system pressures using fast on/off valves. Resultantly, a Discrete Displacement Cylinder (DDC is created, allowing near loss free discrete force control. This paper presents a complete PTO system for a 20 float Wavestar based on the DDC. The WEC and PTO is rigorously modeled from incident waves to the electric output to the grid. The resulting model of +600 states is simulated in different irregular seas, showing that power conversion efficiencies above 70% from input power to electrical power is achievable for all relevant sea conditions.
THE POWER SPECTRUM OF THE MILKY WAY: VELOCITY FLUCTUATIONS IN THE GALACTIC DISK
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Bird, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Pérez, Ana E. García; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 (United States); Zasowski, Gail, E-mail: bovy@ias.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2015-02-20
We investigate the kinematics of stars in the mid-plane of the Milky Way (MW) on scales between 25 pc and 10 kpc with data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), and the Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS). Using red-clump (RC) stars in APOGEE, we determine the large-scale line-of-sight velocity field out to 5 kpc from the Sun in (0.75 kpc){sup 2} bins. The solar motion V{sub ☉} {sub –} {sub c} with respect to the circular velocity V{sub c} is the largest contribution to the power on large scales after subtracting an axisymmetric rotation field; we determine the solar motion by minimizing the large-scale power to be V{sub ☉} {sub –} {sub c} = 24 ± 1 (ran.) ± 2 (syst. [V{sub c} ]) ± 5 (syst.[large-scale]) km s{sup –1}, where the systematic uncertainty is due to (1) a conservative 20 km s{sup –1} uncertainty in V{sub c} and (2) the estimated power on unobserved larger scales. Combining the APOGEE peculiar-velocity field with RC stars in RAVE out to 2 kpc from the Sun and with local GCS stars, we determine the power spectrum of residual velocity fluctuations in the MW's disk on scales between 0.2 kpc{sup –1} ≤ k ≤ 40 kpc{sup –1}. Most of the power is contained in a broad peak between 0.2 kpc{sup –1} < k < 0.9 kpc{sup –1}. We investigate the expected power spectrum for various non-axisymmetric perturbations and demonstrate that the central bar with commonly used parameters but of relatively high mass can explain the bulk of velocity fluctuations in the plane of the Galactic disk near the Sun. Streaming motions ≈10 km s{sup –1} on ≳ 3 kpc scales in the MW are in good agreement with observations of external galaxies and directly explain why local determinations of the solar motion are inconsistent with global measurements.
Wave power integration with a renewable hydrogen energy system. Paper no. IGEC-1-085
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
St. Germain, L.; Wild, P.; Rowe, A.
2005-01-01
In British Columbia, approximately 90% of the electricity generated comes from hydroelectric facilities while another abundant and renewable resource, ocean wave energy, is not being utilized at all. Technologies exist that can capture and convert wave energy but there are few studies examining systemic integration of wave energy devices. This work examines the potential to use wave energy as an input into a hydrogen-based renewable energy system. A model of an oscillating water column (OWC) was developed as a module within TRNSYS where it can be coupled to other existing hydrogen-specific components such as an electrolyser, storage device, and fuel cell. The OWC model accounts for device geometry, dynamics, and generator efficiency. For this particular study, wave profiles generated from hourly average data for a location on the west coast of Vancouver Island are used as a resource input. An analysis of the potential to utilise wave energy is carried out with an emphasis on overall system efficiency and resulting device scaling. The results of the integration of wave energy with other renewable energy inputs into a hydrogen-based system are used to make recommendations regarding technical feasibility of wave power projects on Vancouver Island. (author)
Wave power plant at Horns Rev. Screening[Denmark]; Boelgekraftanlaeg ved Horns Rev. Screening
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soerensen, Hans C.; Nielsen, Kim; Steenstrup, P.R.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Wigant, L.
2005-12-15
The objective for the analysis has been to establish data for the sea at Horns Rev wind farm in the North Sea in order to assess the opportunity for using the site as test site for demonstration of wave energy devices exemplified by three different devices under development in Denmark. For comparison alternative sites like Hanstholm, Samsoe and Nissum Bredning are also assessed as well as the test centre EMEC at the Orkney Islands and the proposed test site Wave Hub at the north coast of Cornwall. The analysis shows that it is possible without major technical problems to connect 2-4 MW power generated by 3 different wave energy devices (AquaBuOY, Wave Star Energy and Wave Dragon) to the wind farm at Horns Rev (www.hornsrev.dk). The expenses for connection and regulation within the wind farm is about 200,000 DKK (30,00 EURO). On top of this comes the cost for individual sub sea cable connection to the wave devices, pull in of the sub sea cable through the existing J-tube in turbine T04 and the necessary regulation/control system in the individual wave devices to avoid damaging the power system in case of too high production. The analysis of the co-production of wind and wave power is dealt with in a separate report which shows that over a time period of half to one hour the time variation for wind generated electricity is 3 times as large as for wave energy generated power based on the actual measurement at Horns Rev. Further on the analysis shows that the wave generated power is more predictable than wind energy generated power as the power from the waves first is present about 2 hours after the wind is acting and last for 3 to 6 hours after the wind dies out; 6 to 12 hours with wind from west. The time is off course strongly depending of the direction of the wind i.e. the fetch. As this special report has a more general scope than the analysis as such it is reported in English (Annex Report II). The analysis shows that it is up to the individual device developer
Some observations on stray magnetic fields and power outputs from short-wave diathermy equipment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lau, R.W.M.; Dunscombe, P.B.
1984-04-01
Recent years have seen increasing interest in the possible hazards arising from the use of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Relatively large and potentially hazardous fields are to be found in the vicinity of short-wave and microwave equipment used in physiotherapy departments to produce therapeutic temperature rises. This note reports the results of measurements of the stray magnetic field and power output of a conventional short-wave diathermy unit when applied to tissue-equivalent phantoms. The dependence of these quantities on the variables, i.e. power setting of the unit, capacitor plate size, phantom size and phantom-capacitor plate separation, are discussed.
Behrens, Jan; Langelier, Sean; Rezk, Amgad R; Lindner, Gerhard; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R
2015-01-07
We present a versatile and very low-power traveling SAW microfluidic sorting device able to displace and separate particles of different diameter in aqueous suspension; the travelling wave propagates through the fluid bulk and diffuses via a Schröder diffuser, adapted from its typical use in concert hall acoustics to be the smallest such diffuser to be suitable for microfluidics. The effective operating power range is two to three orders of magnitude less than current SAW devices, uniquely eliminating the need for amplifiers, and by using traveling waves to impart forces directly upon suspended microparticles, they can be separated by size.
Model based design of efficient power take-off systems for wave energy converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.
2011-01-01
The Power Take-Off (PTO) is the core of a Wave Energy Converter (WECs), being the technology converting wave induced oscillations from mechanical energy to electricity. The induced oscillations are characterized by being slow with varying frequency and amplitude. Resultantly, fluid power is often...... an essential part of the PTO, being the only technology having the required force densities. The focus of this paper is to show the achievable efficiency of a PTO system based on a conventional hydro-static transmission topology. The design is performed using a model based approach. Generic component models...
Roadmaps for the Development of Technologies Related to Danish Wave Power Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim; Krogh, Jan; Brodersen, H. J.
2015-01-01
seconded by offshore industry, and research institutions. The Danish Partnership for Wave Power has further been consolidated through the follow-on Roadmap project described in this paper. The roadmap project has in detail investigated how the four most common technology areas for wave power developers can...... of coordinating and focus the research, development and test activities. The aim is that the resources (financial and know-how) are used appropriately and with the greatest possible progress. Within each of the 4 areas, the starting point is based on the state of the art technology, and the roadmaps outline what...
Gravitational wave generation by interaction of high power lasers with matter using shock waves
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kadlecová, Hedvika; Klimo, Ondřej; Weber, Stefan A.; Korn, Georg
2017-01-01
Roč. 71, č. 4 (2017), 1-10, č. článku 89. ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma physics * gravitational wave generation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.288, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carballo, R.; Iglesias, G.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We develop a method to accurately compute the power output of a WEC at a site. ► The analysis of the wave resource is integrated seamlessly with the WEC efficiency. ► The intra-annual variability of the resource is considered. ► The method is illustrated with a case study: a WEC projected to be built in Spain. - Abstract: The assessment of the power performance of a wave energy converter (WEC) at a given site involves two tasks: (i) the characterisation of the wave resource at the site in question, and (ii) the computation of its power performance. These tasks are generally seen as disconnected, and tackled as such; they are, however, deeply interrelated – so much so that they should be treated as two phases of the same procedure. Indeed, beyond the characterisation of the wave resource of a certain area lies a crucial question: how much power would a WEC installed in that area output to the network? This work has two main objectives. First, to develop a methodology that integrates both tasks seamlessly and guarantees the accurate computation of the power performance of a WEC installed at a site of interest; it involves a large dataset of deepwater records and the implementation of a high-resolution, nested spectral model, which is used to propagate 95% of the total offshore wave energy to the WEC site. The second objective is to illustrate this methodology with a case study: an Oscillating Water Column (OWC) projected to be constructed at the breakwater of A Guarda (NW Spain). It is found that the approach presented allows to accurately determine the power that the WEC will output to the network, and that this power exhibits a significant monthly variability, so an estimate of the energy production based on mean annual values may be misleading.
Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bliznakova, Kristina; Fei, Baowei
2013-10-01
To analyze the frequency domain characteristics of the signal in mammography images and breast tomosynthesis projections with patient tissue texture due to detected scattered x-rays. Acquisitions of x-ray projection images of 19 different patient breasts were simulated using previously acquired volumetric patient images. Acquisition of these images was performed with a dedicated breast CT prototype system, and the images were classified into voxels representing skin, adipose, and glandular tissue with a previously validated automated algorithm. The classified three dimensional images then underwent simulated mechanical compression representing that which is performed during acquisition of mammography and breast tomosynthesis images. The acquisition of projection images of each patient breast was simulated using Monte Carlo methods with each simulation resulting in two images: one of the primary (non-scattered) signal and one of the scatter signal. To analyze the scatter signal for both mammography and breast tomosynthesis, two projections images of each patient breast were simulated, one with the x-ray source positioned at 0° (mammography and central tomosynthesis projection) and at 30° (wide tomosynthesis projection). The noise power spectra (NPS) for both the scatter signal alone and the total signal (primary + scatter) for all images were obtained and the combined results of all patients analyzed. The total NPS was fit to the expected power-law relationship NPS(f) = k/f β and the results were compared with those previously published on the power spectrum characteristics of mammographic texture. The scatter signal alone was analyzed qualitatively and a power-law fit was also performed. The mammography and tomosynthesis projections of three patient breasts were too small to analyze, so a total of 16 patient breasts were analyzed. The values of β for the total signal of the 0° projections agreed well with previously published results. As expected, the scatter
A maximum power point tracking algorithm for buoy-rope-drum wave energy converters
Wang, J. Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Zhou, Y.; Cui, Z. C.; Zhu, L. S.
2016-08-01
The maximum power point tracking control is the key link to improve the energy conversion efficiency of wave energy converters (WEC). This paper presents a novel variable step size Perturb and Observe maximum power point tracking algorithm with a power classification standard for control of a buoy-rope-drum WEC. The algorithm and simulation model of the buoy-rope-drum WEC are presented in details, as well as simulation experiment results. The results show that the algorithm tracks the maximum power point of the WEC fast and accurately.
Suppressing RF breakdown of powerful backward wave oscillator by field redistribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Song
2012-03-01
Full Text Available An over mode method for suppressing the RF breakdown on metal surface of resonant reflector cavity in powerful backward wave oscillator is investigated. It is found that the electric field is redistributed and electron emission is restrained with an over longitudinal mode cavity. Compared with the general device, a frequency band of about 5 times wider and a power capacity of at least 1.7 times greater are obtained. The results were verified in an X-band high power microwave generation experiment with the output power near 4 gigawatt.
Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Bermúdez, C.; Alonso, E. R.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Guillemin, J.-C.
2016-01-01
Aims The recent discovery of methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO) in Sgr B2(N) and Orion KL makes methyl cyanate (CH3OCN) a potential molecule in the interstellar medium. The aim of this work is to fulfill the first requirement for its unequivocal identification in space, i.e. the availability of transition frequencies with high accuracy. Methods The room-temperature rotational spectrum of methyl cyanate was recorded in the millimeter wave domain from 130 to 350 GHz. All rotational transitions revealed A-E splitting owing to methyl internal rotation and were globally analyzed using the ERHAM program. Results The data set for the ground torsional state of methyl cyanate exceeds 700 transitions within J″ = 10 – 35 and Ka″=0−13 and newly derived spectroscopic constants reproduce the spectrum close to the experimental uncertainty. Spectral features of methyl cyanate were then searched for in Orion KL, Sgr B2(N), B1-b, and TMC-1 molecular clouds. Upper limits to the column density of methyl cyanate are provided. PMID:27721514
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Yinzhe; Efstathiou, George; Challinor, Anthony
2011-01-01
Statistical isotropy is often assumed in cosmology and should be tested rigorously against observational data. We construct simple quadratic estimators to reconstruct asymmetry in the primordial power spectrum from CMB temperature and polarization data and verify their accuracy using simulations with quadrupole power asymmetry. We show that the Planck mission, with its millions of signal-dominated modes of the temperature anisotropy, should be able to constrain the amplitude of any spherical multipole of a scale-invariant quadrupole asymmetry at the 0.01 level (2σ). Almost independent constraints can be obtained from polarization at the 0.03 level after four full-sky surveys, providing an important consistency test. If the amplitude of the asymmetry is large enough, constraining its scale dependence should become possible. In scale-free quadrupole models with 1% asymmetry, consistent with the current limits from WMAP temperature data (after correction for beam asymmetries), Planck should constrain the spectral index q of power-law departures from asymmetry to Δq=0.3. Finally, we show how to constrain models with axisymmetry in the same framework. For scale-free quadrupole models, Planck should constrain the direction of the asymmetry to a 1σ accuracy of about 2 degrees using one year of temperature data.
Delay analysis of a point-to-multipoint spectrum sharing network with CSI based power allocation
Khan, Fahd Ahmed
2012-10-01
In this paper, we analyse the delay performance of a point-to-multipoint cognitive radio network which is sharing the spectrum with a point-to-multipoint primary network. The channel is assumed to be independent but not identically distributed and has Nakagami-m fading. A constraint on the peak transmit power of the secondary user transmitter (SU-Tx) is also considered in addition to the peak interference power constraint. Based on the constraints, a power allocation scheme which requires knowledge of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of the interference links is derived. The SU-Tx is assumed to be equipped with a buffer and is modelled using the M/G/1 queueing model. Closed form expressions for the probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the packet transmission time is derived. Using the PDF, the expressions for the moments of transmission time are obtained. In addition, using the moments, the expressions for the performance measures such as the total average waiting time of packets and the average number of packets waiting in the buffer of the SU-Tx are also obtained. Numerical simulations corroborate the theoretical results. © 2012 IEEE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woo, R.; Armstrong, J.W.
1979-01-01
Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2--215 R/sub S/, and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances > or approx. =20 R/sub S/ the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrym V/sub n/e is well modeled by a single power law (f/sup -alpha/) in the frequency range 10 -4 -5 x 10 -2 Hz. The mean spectral index α is 1.65, very close to the Kolmogorov value of 5/3. Under the assumption of constant solar wind speed, V/sub n/e varies as R/sup -3.45/, where R is heliocentric distance. Within 20 R/sub S/, V/sub n/e can still be modeled by a single power law over the frequency range 10 -3 -10 1 Hz, but the spectral index becomes smaller, αapprox.1.1. The flattening of the density spectrum with 20 R/sub S/ is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurt James Werner
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The magnitude of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT of a discrete-time signal has a limited frequency definition. Quadratic interpolation over the three DFT samples surrounding magnitude peaks improves the estimation of parameters (frequency and amplitude of resolved sinusoids beyond that limit. Interpolating on a rescaled magnitude spectrum using a logarithmic scale has been shown to improve those estimates. In this article, we show how to heuristically tune a power scaling parameter to outperform linear and logarithmic scaling at an equivalent computational cost. Although this power scaling factor is computed heuristically rather than analytically, it is shown to depend in a structured way on window parameters. Invariance properties of this family of estimators are studied and the existence of a bias due to noise is shown. Comparing to two state-of-the-art estimators, we show that an optimized power scaling has a lower systematic bias and lower mean-squared-error in noisy conditions for ten out of twelve common windowing functions.
Shock Mechanism Analysis and Simulation of High-Power Hydraulic Shock Wave Simulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqiu Xu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The simulation of regular shock wave (e.g., half-sine can be achieved by the traditional rubber shock simulator, but the practical high-power shock wave characterized by steep prepeak and gentle postpeak is hard to be realized by the same. To tackle this disadvantage, a novel high-power hydraulic shock wave simulator based on the live firing muzzle shock principle was proposed in the current work. The influence of the typical shock characteristic parameters on the shock force wave was investigated via both theoretical deduction and software simulation. According to the obtained data compared with the results, in fact, it can be concluded that the developed hydraulic shock wave simulator can be applied to simulate the real condition of the shocking system. Further, the similarity evaluation of shock wave simulation was achieved based on the curvature distance, and the results stated that the simulation method was reasonable and the structural optimization based on software simulation is also beneficial to the increase of efficiency. Finally, the combination of theoretical analysis and simulation for the development of artillery recoil tester is a comprehensive approach in the design and structure optimization of the recoil system.
Wave-actuated power take-off device for electricity generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chertok, Allan
2013-01-31
Since 2008, Resolute Marine Energy, Inc. (RME) has been engaged in the development of a rigidly moored shallow-water point absorber wave energy converter, the "3D-WEC". RME anticipated that the 3D-WEC configuration with a fully buoyant point absorber buoy coupled to three power take off (PTO) units by a tripod array of tethers would achieve higher power capture than a more conventional 1-D configuration with a single tether and PTO. The investigation conducted under this program and documented herein addressed the following principal research question regarding RME's power take off (PTO) concept for its 3D-WEC: Is RME's winch-driven generator PTO concept, previously implemented at sub-scale and tested at the Ohmsett wave tank facility, scalable in a cost-effective manner to significant power levels e.g., 10 to 100kW?
Zheng, Jianyu; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jianbin; Wei, Li; Pan, Shilong; Wang, Lixian; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua
2014-03-10
A fiber-distributed Ultra-wideband (UWB) noise radar was achieved, which consists of a chaotic UWB noise source based on optoelectronic oscillator (OEO), a fiber-distributed transmission link, a colorless base station (BS), and a cross-correlation processing module. Due to a polarization modulation based microwave photonic filter and an electrical UWB pass-band filter embedded in the feedback loop of the OEO, the power spectrum of chaotic UWB signal could be shaped and notch-filtered to avoid the spectrum-overlay-induced interference to the narrow band signals. Meanwhile, the wavelength-reusing could be implemented in the BS by means of the distributed polarization modulation-to-intensity modulation conversion. The experimental comparison for range finding was carried out as the chaotic UWB signal was notch-filtered at 5.2 GHz and 7.8 GHz or not. Measured results indicate that space resolution with cm-level could be realized after 3-km fiber transmission thanks to the excellent self-correlation property of the UWB noise signal provided by the OEO. The performance deterioration of the radar raised by the energy loss of the notch-filtered noise signal was negligible.
High-power TM01 millimeter wave pulse sensor in circular waveguide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Guang-Qiang; Zhu Xiang-Qin; Chen Zai-Gao; Wang Xue-Feng; Zhang Li-Jun
2015-01-01
By investigating the interaction of an n-type silicon sample with the TM 01 mode millimeter wave in a circular waveguide, a viable high-power TM 01 millimeter wave sensor is proposed. Based on the hot electron effect, the silicon sample serving as a sensing element (SE) and appropriately mounted on the inner wall of the circular waveguide is devoted to the on-line measurement of a high-power millimeter wave pulse. A three-dimensional parallel finite-difference time-domain method is applied to simulate the wave propagation within the measuring structure. The transverse electric field distribution, the dependences of the frequency response of the voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) in the circular waveguide, and the average electric field amplitude within the SE on the electrophysical parameters of the SE are calculated and analyzed in the frequency range of 300–400 GHz. As a result, the optimal dimensions and specific resistance of the SE are obtained, which provide a VSWR of no more than 2.0, a relative sensitivity around 0.0046 kW −1 fluctuating within ± 17.3%, and a maximum enduring power of about 4.3 MW. (paper)
Price, Layne C.
2015-11-01
We consider a phenomenological model of inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field Φ . Planck-suppressed operators of O (f5/Mpl) modify the geometry of the vev ⟨Φ ⟩ at first order in the decay constant f , which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton ϕ . This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the potential V ˜θp. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum ⟨Φ ⟩ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale k and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating effective field theory motivated inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.
Constraining models of f(R) gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data
Dossett, Jason; Hu, Bin; Parkinson, David
2014-03-01
In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking ``dark'' physics, we consider f(R) modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterizing the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter B0, we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on B0 by an order of magnitude, giving log10(B0) explanation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten
2011-01-01
conditions by comparing predictions to measured data from [Kjems et al. (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126 (3), 1415-1426] where speech is mixed with four different interferers, including speech-shaped noise, bottle noise, car noise, and cafe noise. The model accounts well for the differences in intelligibility......The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) [Jørgensen and Dau (2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 130 (3), 1475–1487] estimates the envelope signal-to-noise ratio (SNRenv) of distorted speech and accurately describes the speech recognition thresholds (SRT) for normal-hearing listeners...... observed for the different interferers. None of the standardized models successfully describe these data....
Statistical measurement of power spectrum density of large aperture optical component
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Jiancheng; Xu Qiao; Chai Liqun
2010-01-01
According to the requirement of ICF, a method based on statistical theory has been proposed to measure the power spectrum density (PSD) of large aperture optical components. The method breaks the large-aperture wavefront into small regions, and obtains the PSD of the large-aperture wavefront by weighted averaging of the PSDs of the regions, where the weight factor is each region's area. Simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. They also show that, the obtained PSDs of the large-aperture wavefront by statistical method and sub-aperture stitching method fit well, when the number of small regions is no less than 8 x 8. The statistical method is not sensitive to translation stage's errors and environment instabilities, thus it is appropriate for PSD measurement during the process of optical fabrication. (authors)
Possible dark energy imprints in the gravitational wave spectrum of mixed neutron-dark-energy stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, James Bourchier Blvd. 5, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Doneva, Daniela D., E-mail: yazad@phys.uni-sofia.bg, E-mail: daniela.doneva@uni-tuebingen.de [Theoretical Astrophysics, IAAT, Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)
2012-03-01
In the present paper we study the oscillation spectrum of neutron stars containing both ordinary matter and dark energy in different proportions. Within the model we consider, the equilibrium configurations are numerically constructed and the results show that the properties of the mixed neuron-dark-energy star can differ significantly when the amount of dark energy in the stars is varied. The oscillations of the mixed neuron-dark-energy stars are studied in the Cowling approximation. As a result we find that the frequencies of the fundamental mode and the higher overtones are strongly affected by the dark energy content. This can be used in the future to detect the presence of dark energy in the neutron stars and to constrain the dark-energy models.
High power millimeter-wave free electron laser based on recirculating electrostatic accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Sun-Kook; Jeong, Young-Uk; Cho, Sung-Oh; Lee, Jongmin
1995-01-01
Progress in the development of a high power, millimeter-wave free electron laser driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator is reported. The energy and the current of electron beam are 430 keV and 2 A, respectively. The expected average output power is above 10 kW at the wavelength of 3-10 mm. Minimizing of the beam loss is a key issue for CW operation of the FEL with high efficiency. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Jinghe; Li Jinhai; Li Chunguang
2014-01-01
Disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure (TWS), which is widely used in scientific research and industry, is a vital accelerating structure in electron linear accelerator. The power efficiency is an important parameter for designing TWS, which greatly effects the expenses for the fabrication and commercial running. The key parameters related with power efficiency were studied for TWS optimization. The result was proved by experiment result, and it shows some help for accelerator engineering. (authors)
Imprint of DESI fiber assignment on the anisotropic power spectrum of emission line galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinol, Lucas [Département de Physique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris (France); Cahn, Robert N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Hand, Nick [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States); Seljak, Uroš; White, Martin, E-mail: lucas.pinol@ens.fr, E-mail: rncahn@lbl.gov, E-mail: nhand@berkeley.edu, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu, E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States)
2017-04-01
The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), a multiplexed fiber-fed spectrograph, is a Stage-IV ground-based dark energy experiment aiming to measure redshifts for 29 million Emission-Line Galaxies (ELG), 4 million Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG), and 2 million Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO). The survey design includes a pattern of tiling on the sky, the locations of the fiber positioners in the focal plane of the telescope, and an observation strategy determined by a fiber assignment algorithm that optimizes the allocation of fibers to targets. This strategy allows a given region to be covered on average five times for a five-year survey, with a typical variation of about 1.5 about the mean, which imprints a spatially-dependent pattern on the galaxy clustering. We investigate the systematic effects of the fiber assignment coverage on the anisotropic galaxy clustering of ELGs and show that, in the absence of any corrections, it leads to discrepancies of order ten percent on large scales for the power spectrum multipoles. We introduce a method where objects in a random catalog are assigned a coverage, and the mean density is separately computed for each coverage factor. We show that this method reduces, but does not eliminate the effect. We next investigate the angular dependence of the contaminated signal, arguing that it is mostly localized to purely transverse modes. We demonstrate that the cleanest way to remove the contaminating signal is to perform an analysis of the anisotropic power spectrum P ( k ,μ) and remove the lowest μ bin, leaving μ > 0 modes accurate at the few-percent level. Here, μ is the cosine of the angle between the line-of-sight and the direction of k-vector . We also investigate two alternative definitions of the random catalog and show that they are comparable but less effective than the coverage randoms method.
Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation
Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.
2015-11-01
We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.
Four-body correlation embedded in antisymmetrized geminal power wave function.
Kawasaki, Airi; Sugino, Osamu
2016-12-28
We extend the Coleman's antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) to develop a wave function theory that can incorporate up to four-body correlation in a region of strong correlation. To facilitate the variational determination of the wave function, the total energy is rewritten in terms of the traces of geminals. This novel trace formula is applied to a simple model system consisting of one dimensional Hubbard ring with a site of strong correlation. Our scheme significantly improves the result obtained by the AGP-configuration interaction scheme of Uemura et al. and also achieves more efficient compression of the degrees of freedom of the wave function. We regard the result as a step toward a first-principles wave function theory for a strongly correlated point defect or adsorbate embedded in an AGP-based mean-field medium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fredericks, R.W.; Coroniti, F.V.
1976-01-01
The problem of interpretation of power spectrums computed by Fourier analysis of data time series taken in frames moving with respect to the medium containing the fluctuations is examined. It is found that no unique connection exists between the rest frame power spectrum as a function of scale length and the derived power spectrum as a function 'frequency' computed from the time series data taken in the moving frame. This caused by a complex Doppler-shifting phenomenon that leads to a basically aliased frequency spectrum in the moving frame. Examples of nonuniqueness are given for various types of rest frame density or wave turbulence that lead to the same frequency dependence of the power spectrum computed in the moving frame. This has implications for the past interpretations of power spectrums of density or magnetic field fluctuations from satellites or interplanetary probes
Korean Wave sebagai Instrumen Soft Power untuk Memperoleh Keuntungan Ekonomi Korea Selatan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ni Putu Elvina Suryani
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Korean wave is a term used to illustrate the product of South Korean pop culture that has been successfully exported to foreign countries in Asia, Europe, and America. By using the concept of 'soft power', this article argues that, while this phenomenon merely seems like an entertainment phenomenon, Korean wave has actually become a vital instrument that brings positive impacts towards the economic development of South Korea. The strategy to develop the Korean wave as a soft power instrument is actually something that Indonesia must be able follow. This might be useful as an alternative strategy to optimize the role of Indonesian local culture as an effort to drive the national economy in order to face the current global challenges.
Noise power spectrum of the fixed pattern noise in digital radiography detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dong Sik, E-mail: dskim@hufs.ac.kr [Department of Electronics Engineering, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Gyeonggi-do 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun [R& D Center, DRTECH Co., Gyeonggi-do 13558 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
Purpose: The fixed pattern noise in radiography image detectors is caused by various sources. Multiple readout circuits with gate drivers and charge amplifiers are used to efficiently acquire the pixel voltage signals. However, the multiple circuits are not identical and thus yield nonuniform system gains. Nonuniform sensitivities are also produced from local variations in the charge collection elements. Furthermore, in phosphor-based detectors, the optical scattering at the top surface of the columnar CsI growth, the grain boundaries, and the disorder structure causes spatial sensitivity variations. These nonuniform gains or sensitivities cause fixed pattern noise and degrade the detector performance, even though the noise problem can be partially alleviated by using gain correction techniques. Hence, in order to develop good detectors, comparative analysis of the energy spectrum of the fixed pattern noise is important. Methods: In order to observe the energy spectrum of the fixed pattern noise, a normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) of the fixed pattern noise is considered in this paper. Since the fixed pattern noise is mainly caused by the nonuniform gains, we call the spectrum the gain NNPS. We first asymptotically observe the gain NNPS and then formulate two relationships to calculate the gain NNPS based on a nonuniform-gain model. Since the gain NNPS values are quite low compared to the usual NNPS, measuring such a low NNPS value is difficult. By using the average of the uniform exposure images, a robust measuring method for the gain NNPS is proposed in this paper. Results: By using the proposed measuring method, the gain NNPS curves of several prototypes of general radiography and mammography detectors were measured to analyze their fixed pattern noise properties. We notice that a direct detector, which is based on the a-Se photoconductor, showed lower gain NNPS than the indirect-detector case, which is based on the CsI scintillator. By comparing the gain
Assessment methodology of counter-personnel high power electromagnetic millimeter wave effects
Valente, F.; Horst, M.J. van der; Paulissen, J.J.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Toet, A.
2013-01-01
The group of NLW that arguably offers the largest amount of useful applications are based on high power electromagnetic millimetre wave technology. This group is often referred to as ‘Active Denial Systems’ (ADS), since they are primarily aimed at deterring and dispersing people out of an area. The
Design procedure for millimeter-wave InP DHBT stacked power amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Squartecchia, Michele; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Midili, Virginio
2015-01-01
The stacked-transistor concept for power amplifiers (PA) has been investigated in this work. Specifically, this architecture has been applied in the design of millimeter-wave monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) using indium phosphide (InP) double heterojunction bipolar transistors...
Stability analysis of the Gyroscopic Power Take-Off wave energy point absorber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Zhang, Zili; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede
2015-01-01
The Gyroscopic Power Take-Off (GyroPTO) wave energy point absorber consists of a float rigidly connected to a lever. The operational principle is somewhat similar to that of the so-called gyroscopic hand wrist exercisers, where the rotation of the float is brought forward by the rotational particle...
The Power Spectrum of the Milky Way: Velocity Fluctuations in the Galactic Disk
Bovy, Jo; Bird, Jonathan C.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail
2015-02-01
We investigate the kinematics of stars in the mid-plane of the Milky Way (MW) on scales between 25 pc and 10 kpc with data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), and the Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS). Using red-clump (RC) stars in APOGEE, we determine the large-scale line-of-sight velocity field out to 5 kpc from the Sun in (0.75 kpc)2 bins. The solar motion V ⊙ - c with respect to the circular velocity Vc is the largest contribution to the power on large scales after subtracting an axisymmetric rotation field; we determine the solar motion by minimizing the large-scale power to be V ⊙ - c = 24 ± 1 (ran.) ± 2 (syst. [Vc ]) ± 5 (syst.[large-scale]) km s-1, where the systematic uncertainty is due to (1) a conservative 20 km s-1 uncertainty in Vc and (2) the estimated power on unobserved larger scales. Combining the APOGEE peculiar-velocity field with RC stars in RAVE out to 2 kpc from the Sun and with local GCS stars, we determine the power spectrum of residual velocity fluctuations in the MW's disk on scales between 0.2 kpc-1 plane of the Galactic disk near the Sun. Streaming motions ≈10 km s-1 on >~ 3 kpc scales in the MW are in good agreement with observations of external galaxies and directly explain why local determinations of the solar motion are inconsistent with global measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyler, G.L.; Vesecky, J.F.; Plume, M.A.; Howard, H.T.; Barnes, A.
1981-01-01
Solar conjunction of Mars on 1976 November 25 occurred very near the beginning of solar cycle 21, about 4 months after the first Viking spacecraft arrived at the planet. Radio wave scattering data were collected at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths, using the radio link between the Viking orbiters and the Earth. These data allow measurements of solar wind properties over a range of heliocentric radial distance from approx.6 to 44 R/sub sun/ with solar latitudes ranging from -17 0 to +7 0 . Observations with Mariner 10 during a period of moderate solar activity in 1974 cover from 6 to 24 R/sub sun/ and from approx.20 0 to near 90 0 . We have found that the temporal frequency variance spectrum of amplitude fluctuations is useful for characterizing the bulk motion of the plasma. This spectrum has an approximately constant low frequency plateau and a power-law high frequency asymptote; the plateau-asymptote intersection frequency provides a measure of the solar wind velocity V. We also obtain the spectral index p of electron density turbulence, Phi/sub N/approx.kappa/sup -p/, where kappa is spatial wavenumber. These results apply to a cylindrical region oriented with its axis along the radio ray path and its center at the point of closest approach to the Sun. The measurements of V and p cover some 78/sup d/ for Viking and 49 2 for Mariner 10 and show the combined effects of changing heliocentric distance rho, solar latitude theta, and solar longitude Psi, as well as solar activity. The Viking results can be regarded as a function primary of rho and Psi since the observations are concentrated in the equatorial regions when solar activity was near minimum. For Mariner 10, rho, theta, and Psi variations were important. The Viking results show an abrupt change in V(rho) and the turbulence spectral index at approx.15 R/sub sun/
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zahid Suleman
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This research paper describes design and analysis of power extracting unit of an onshore OWC (Oscillating Water Column based wave energy power plant of capacity about 100 kilowatts. The OWC is modeled as solid piston of a reciprocating pump. The power extracting unit is designed analytically by using the theory of reciprocating pumps and principles of fluid mechanics. Pro-E and ANSYS workbench softwares are used to verify the analytical design. The analytical results of the flow velocity in the turbine duct are compared with the simulation results. The results are found to be in good agreement with each other. The results achieved by this research would finally assist in the overall design of the power plant which is the ultimate goal of this research work.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langhamer, Olivia [Dept. of Animal Ecology, UU, Norbyvaegen 18D, S-75236 Uppsala (Sweden); Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division for Electricity, Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Haikonen, Kalle; Sundberg, Jan [Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division for Electricity, Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)
2010-05-15
Generating electricity from waves is predicted to be a new source of renewable energy conversion expanding significantly, with a global potential in the range of wind and hydropower. Several wave power techniques are on the merge of commercialisation, and thus evoke questions of environmental concern. Conservation matters are to some extent valid independent of technique but we mainly focus on point absorbing linear generators. By giving examples from the Lysekil project, run by Uppsala University and situated on the Swedish west coast, we demonstrate ongoing and future environmental studies to be performed along with technical research and development. We describe general environmental aspects generated by wave power projects; issues also likely to appear in Environmental Impact Assessment studies. Colonisation patterns and biofouling are discussed with particular reference to changes of the seabed and alterations due to new substrates. A purposeful artificial reef design to specially cater for economically important or threatened species is also discussed. Questions related to fish, fishery and marine mammals are other examples of topics where, e.g. no-take zones, marine bioacoustics and electromagnetic fields are important areas. In this review we point out areas in which studies likely will be needed, as ventures out in the oceans also will give ample opportunities for marine environmental research in general and in areas not previously studied. Marine environmental and ecological aspects appear to be unavoidable for application processes and in post-deployment studies concerning renewable energy extraction. Still, all large-scale renewable energy conversion will cause some impact mainly by being area demanding. An early incorporation of multidisciplinary and high quality research might be a key for new ocean-based techniques. (author)
New 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits From PAPER II: Constraints on IGM Properties at z = 7.7
Pober, Jonathan; Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Paper Team
2015-01-01
Using a simulation-based framework, we interpret the power spectrum measurements from PAPER of Ali et al. in the context of IGM physics at z = 7.7. A cold IGM will result in strong 21 cm absorption relative to the CMB and leads to a 21 cm fluctuation power spectrum that can exceed 3000 mK^2. The new PAPER measurements allow us to rule out extreme cold IGM models, placing a lower limit on the physical temperature of the IGM. We also compare this limit with a calculation for the predicted heating from the currently observed galaxy population at z = 8.
Third-Order Density Perturbation and One-Loop Power Spectrum in Dark-Energy-Dominated Universe
Takahashi, Ryuichi
2008-01-01
We investigate the third-order density perturbation and the one-loop correction to the linear power spectrum in the dark-energy cosmological model. Our main interest is to understand the dark-energy effect on baryon acoustic oscillations in a quasi-nonlinear regime ($k \\approx 0.1h$/Mpc). Analytical solutions and simple fitting formulae are presented for the dark-energy model with the general time-varying equation of state $w(a)$. It turns out that the power spectrum coincides with the approx...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Timmons, Nicholas; Cooray, Asantha; Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)
2017-11-01
We measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) skewness power spectrum in Planck , using frequency maps of the HFI instrument and the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) component map. The two-to-one skewness power spectrum measures the cross-correlation between CMB lensing and the thermal SZ effect. We also directly measure the same cross-correlation using the Planck CMB lensing map and the SZ map and compare it to the cross-correlation derived from the skewness power spectrum. We model fit the SZ power spectrum and CMB lensing–SZ cross-power spectrum via the skewness power spectrum to constrain the gas pressure profile of dark matter halos. The gas pressure profile is compared to existing measurements in the literature including a direct estimate based on the stacking of SZ clusters in Planck .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frigaard, P.; Lykke Andersen, T.
2009-04-15
The Wave Star test machine in Nissum Bredning was put in continuous operation on 24 July 2006. Over the past 2 1/2 years the produced power was measured continuously and with only minor interruptions. The measurements cover operation for all seasons in a very changeable climate. There is thus gaining operational experience under different wave conditions. In the period the machine has been running with a simple form of control and Power Take Off system (PTO), which form the background for effect measurements with the existing control strategy. Calculations have shown that the use of more advanced forms of control can increase the efficiency of Wave Star significantly. New control systems are therefore still under development with the primary objective to increase performance from the wave energy plant. To test and develop the methods, a new mini-hydraulic station with associated second generation PTO was developed and constructed for testing in Nissum Bredning. The mini-hydraulic station is coupled to a single float, while the other machine's 39 floats are still connected to the existing PTO system. As the existing PTO system can be applied to the 39 floats simultaneously with the new PTO used on 1 float, effect can be measured on the two systems simultaneously. The first tentative experiments with the new second generation PTO seem very promising. During the first measurements made in March 2009 the new system achieved an average yield of 3.1 times the average output from a float on the existing machine. In the coming period more experiments will be performed with the mini-hydraulic station to test the new PTO in various sea conditions. Since the mini-hydraulic station can simulate various forms of control, they also will be tested under real wave conditions in Nissum Bredning. The effect optimization should continue to be subject to a greater targeted effort, as improvements in this area can increase energy production and thus reduce the kWh cost of energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koo, Dae Seo; Cheong, Yong Moo; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Park, Chi Seung; Park, Jae Suck; Choi, H. R.; Jung, S. S.
2006-07-01
In order to apply the guided ultrasonic techniques to the pipes in nuclear power plants, the cases of defective pipes of nuclear power plants, were investigated. It was confirmed that geometric factors of pipes, such as location, shape, and allowable space were impertinent for the application of guided ultrasonic techniques to pipes of nuclear power plants. The quality of pipes, supports, signals analysis of weldment/defects, acquisition of accurate defects signals also make difficult to apply the guided ultrasonic techniques to pipes of nuclear power plants. Thus, a piping mock-up representing the pipes in the nuclear power plants were designed and fabricated. The artificial flaws will be fabricated on the piping mock-up. The signals of guided ultrasonic waves from the artificial flaws will be analyzed. The guided ultrasonic techniques will be applied to the inspection of pipes of nuclear power plants according to the basis of signals analysis of artificial flaws in the piping mock-up
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baudais Jean-Yves
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Bit-loading techniques based on orthogonal frequency division mutiplexing (OFDM are frequently used over wireline channels. In the power line context, channel state information can reasonably be obtained at both transmitter and receiver sides, and adaptive loading can advantageously be carried out. In this paper, we propose to apply loading principles to an spread spectrum OFDM (SS-OFDM waveform which is a multicarrier system using 2D spreading in the time and frequency domains. The presented algorithm handles the subcarriers, spreading codes, bits and energies assignment in order to maximize the data rate and the range of the communication system. The optimization is realized at a target symbol error rate and under spectral mask constraint as usually imposed. The analytical study shows that the merging principle realized by the spreading code improves the rate and the range of the discrete multitone (DMT system in single and multiuser contexts. Simulations have been run over measured power line communication (PLC channel responses and highlight that the proposed system is all the more interesting than the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is low.
Baudais, Jean-Yves; Crussière, Matthieu
2007-12-01
Bit-loading techniques based on orthogonal frequency division mutiplexing (OFDM) are frequently used over wireline channels. In the power line context, channel state information can reasonably be obtained at both transmitter and receiver sides, and adaptive loading can advantageously be carried out. In this paper, we propose to apply loading principles to an spread spectrum OFDM (SS-OFDM) waveform which is a multicarrier system using 2D spreading in the time and frequency domains. The presented algorithm handles the subcarriers, spreading codes, bits and energies assignment in order to maximize the data rate and the range of the communication system. The optimization is realized at a target symbol error rate and under spectral mask constraint as usually imposed. The analytical study shows that the merging principle realized by the spreading code improves the rate and the range of the discrete multitone (DMT) system in single and multiuser contexts. Simulations have been run over measured power line communication (PLC) channel responses and highlight that the proposed system is all the more interesting than the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low.
Statistical Analysis of Solar PV Power Frequency Spectrum for Optimal Employment of Building Loads
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Sharma, Isha [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL
2017-01-01
In this paper, a statistical analysis of the frequency spectrum of solar photovoltaic (PV) power output is conducted. This analysis quantifies the frequency content that can be used for purposes such as developing optimal employment of building loads and distributed energy resources. One year of solar PV power output data was collected and analyzed using one-second resolution to find ideal bounds and levels for the different frequency components. The annual, seasonal, and monthly statistics of the PV frequency content are computed and illustrated in boxplot format. To examine the compatibility of building loads for PV consumption, a spectral analysis of building loads such as Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) units and water heaters was performed. This defined the bandwidth over which these devices can operate. Results show that nearly all of the PV output (about 98%) is contained within frequencies lower than 1 mHz (equivalent to ~15 min), which is compatible for consumption with local building loads such as HVAC units and water heaters. Medium frequencies in the range of ~15 min to ~1 min are likely to be suitable for consumption by fan equipment of variable air volume HVAC systems that have time constants in the range of few seconds to few minutes. This study indicates that most of the PV generation can be consumed by building loads with the help of proper control strategies, thereby reducing impact on the grid and the size of storage systems.
Galaxy power-spectrum responses and redshift-space super-sample effect
Li, Yin; Schmittfull, Marcel; Seljak, Uroš
2018-02-01
As a major source of cosmological information, galaxy clustering is susceptible to long-wavelength density and tidal fluctuations. These long modes modulate the growth and expansion rate of local structures, shifting them in both amplitude and scale. These effects are often named the growth and dilation effects, respectively. In particular the dilation shifts the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak and breaks the assumption of the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test. This cannot be removed with reconstruction techniques because the effect originates from long modes outside the survey. In redshift space, the long modes generate a large-scale radial peculiar velocity that affects the redshift-space distortion (RSD) signal. We compute the redshift-space response functions of the galaxy power spectrum to long density and tidal modes at leading order in perturbation theory, including both the growth and dilation terms. We validate these response functions against measurements from simulated galaxy mock catalogs. As one application, long density and tidal modes beyond the scale of a survey correlate various observables leading to an excess error known as the super-sample covariance, and thus weaken their constraining power. We quantify the super-sample effect on BAO, AP, and RSD measurements, and study its impact on current and future surveys.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booker, H.G.
1984-01-01
The book aims to present current knowledge concerning the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous magnetoplasma for which temperature effects are unimportant. It places roughly equal emphasis on the radio and the hydromagnetic parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The dispersion properties of a magnetoplasma are treated as a function both of wave frequency (assumed real) and of ionization density. The effect of collisions is included only in so far as this can be done with simplicity. The book describes how pulses are radiated from both small and large antennas embedded in a homogeneous magnetoplasma. The power density radiated from a type of dipole antenna is studied as a function of direction of radiation in all bands of wave frequency. Input reactance is not treated, but the dependence of radiation resistance on wave frequency is described for the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Also described is the relation between beaming and guidance for Alfven waves. (Auth.)
Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain
2015-05-07
Previous studies have confirmed the adverse impact of fading correlation on the mutual information (MI) of two-dimensional (2D) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. More recently, the trend is to enhance the system performance by exploiting the channel’s degrees of freedom in the elevation, which necessitates the derivation and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) channels in the presence of spatial correlation. In this paper, an exact closed-form expression for the Spatial Correlation Function (SCF) is derived for 3D MIMO channels. This novel SCF is developed for a uniform linear array of antennas with nonisotropic antenna patterns. The proposed method resorts to the spherical harmonic expansion (SHE) of plane waves and the trigonometric expansion of Legendre and associated Legendre polynomials. The resulting expression depends on the underlying arbitrary angular distributions and antenna patterns through the Fourier Series (FS) coefficients of power azimuth and elevation spectrums. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the SCF being valid for any 3D propagation environment. The developed SCF determines the covariance matrices at the transmitter and the receiver that form the Kronecker channel model. In order to quantify the effects of correlation on the system performance, the information-theoretic deterministic equivalents of the MI for the Kronecker model are utilized in both mono-user and multi-user cases. Numerical results validate the proposed analytical expressions and elucidate the dependence of the system performance on azimuth and elevation angular spreads and antenna patterns. Some useful insights into the behaviour of MI as a function of downtilt angles are provided. The derived model will help evaluate the performance of correlated 3D MIMO channels in the future.
Measurement of wave number spectrums; Mesure des spectres de nombres d'onde
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perceval, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-03-01
To measure wave lengths in an ionized medium, the cross-correlation product of the signal collected by a fixed probe and that collected by a movable one exploring the medium, is carried out by an interferometer. In order to determine the various modes, we have made a device which computes the Fourier transform of the signal. The influence of the phase at the origin, of the damping of the signal and of the finite explored length has been studied in order to make a numerical calculation of the Fourier transform. (author) [French] Pour mesurer des longueurs d'onde dans un milieu ionise, nous effectuons a l'aide d'un interferometre un produit d'intercorrelation entre le signal collecte par une sonde fixe et celui d'une sonde mobile explorant le milieu. Afin de pouvoir determiner les differents modes constituant ces signaux, nous avons realise un dispositif qui effectue l'analyse de Fourier de tels enregistrements. L'influence de la phase a l'origine, de l'amortissement du signal et de la longueur finie d'exploration, a ete etudiee en vue du calcul numerique de la transformee de Fourier. (auteur)
Tansella, Vittorio; Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Ghosh, Basundhara; Sellentin, Elena
2018-03-01
We derive an exact expression for the correlation function in redshift shells including all the relativistic contributions. This expression, which does not rely on the distant-observer or flat-sky approximation, is valid at all scales and includes both local relativistic corrections and integrated contributions, like gravitational lensing. We present two methods to calculate this correlation function, one which makes use of the angular power spectrum Cl(z1,z2) and a second method which evades the costly calculations of the angular power spectra. The correlation function is then used to define the power spectrum as its Fourier transform. In this work theoretical aspects of this procedure are presented, together with quantitative examples. In particular, we show that gravitational lensing modifies the multipoles of the correlation function and of the power spectrum by a few percent at redshift z=1 and by up to 30% and more at z=2. We also point out that large-scale relativistic effects and wide-angle corrections generate contributions of the same order of magnitude and have consequently to be treated in conjunction. These corrections are particularly important at small redshift, z=0.1, where they can reach 10%. This means in particular that a flat-sky treatment of relativistic effects, using for example the power spectrum, is not consistent.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gimara Rajapakse
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Despite the predictability and availability at large scale, wave energy conversion (WEC has still not become a mainstream renewable energy technology. One of the main reasons is the large variations in the extracted power which could lead to instabilities in the power grid. In addition, maintaining the speed of the turbine within optimal range under changing wave conditions is another control challenge, especially in oscillating water column (OWC type WEC systems. As a solution to the first issue, this paper proposes the direct connection of a battery bank into the dc-link of the back-to-back power converter system, thereby smoothening the power delivered to the grid. For the second issue, model predictive controllers (MPCs are developed for the rectifier and the inverter of the back-to-back converter system aiming to maintain the turbine speed within its optimum range. In addition, MPC controllers are designed to control the battery current as well, in both charging and discharging conditions. Operations of the proposed battery direct integration scheme and control solutions are verified through computer simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed integrated energy storage and control solutions are capable of delivering smooth power to the grid while maintaining the turbine speed within its optimum range under varying wave conditions.
Effects of high power ion Bernstein waves on a tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bell, R.
1987-04-01
Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) has been investigated on PLT with up to 650 kW of rf power coupled to the plasma, exceeding the ohmic power of 550 kW. Plasma antenna loading of 2 Ω has been observed, resulting in 80 to 90% of the rf power being coupled to the plasma. An ion heating efficiency of ΔT/sub i/(0)n/sub e//P/sub rf/ = 6 x 10 13 eV cm -3 /kW, without high energy tail ions, has been observed up to the maximum rf power. The deuterium particle confinement during high power IBWH increases significantly (as much as 300%). Associated with it, a longer injected impurity confinement time, reduced drift wave turbulence activity, frequency shifts of drfit wave turbulence, and development of a large negative edge potential were observed. The energy confinement time, however, shows some degradation from the ohmic value, which can be attributed to the enhanced radiation loss observed during IBWH. The ion heating and energy confinement time are relatively independent of plasma current
The fusion-FEM: 0,75 MW of mm-wave power
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smeets, P.H.M.; Bongers, W.A.; Brons, S.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Lingier, K.L.; Manintveld, P.; Plomp, J.; Pluygers, J.; Poelman, A.J.; Sterk, A.B.; Verhoeven, A.G.A.; Urbanus, W.H. [FOM Inst. voor Plasmafysica ' Rijnhuizen' , Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bratman, V.L.; Denisov, G.G.; Savilov, A.V. [Inst. of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Varfolomeev, A.A. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Inst.' , Moscow (Russian Federation)
1998-07-01
The free-electron maser for fusion applications (Fusion-FEM) is the prototype for a high power, rapid tunable mm-wave source. The basic parameters such as frequency range (130 - 260 GHz) and output power (1 MW) are dedicated to Electron Cyclotron Resonance applications on future plasma fusion research devices, such as ITER. In October 1996 the electron beam was successfully accelerated and transported through the undulator and the mm-wave cavity. Loss currents are below 0.05 %. In October 1997 first lasing was achieved. The mm-wave output power has been measured at various frequencies and for various electron beam currents and energies. The highest output power reached so far is 730 kW at 205 GHz, for an electron beam of 7.2 A and 1.77 MeV. Both output power and start-up time correspond well with simulation results. The output beam has a Gaussian mode content of more than 99.8 % for all operating frequencies. So far, the pulse length was limited to 12{mu}s, because the electron beam recovery system was not yet installed. This system, an electron decelerator and a 3-stage depressed collector, is presently under construction. It serves to recover the charge and energy of the spend electron beam. In this paper we will address some aspects of the design of the collector. (author)
The fusion-FEM: 0,75 MW of mm-wave power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smeets, P.H.M.; Bongers, W.A.; Brons, S.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Lingier, K.L.; Manintveld, P.; Plomp, J.; Pluygers, J.; Poelman, A.J.; Sterk, A.B.; Verhoeven, A.G.A.; Urbanus, W.H.; Bratman, V.L.; Denisov, G.G.; Savilov, A.V.; Caplan, M.; Varfolomeev, A.A.
1998-01-01
The free-electron maser for fusion applications (Fusion-FEM) is the prototype for a high power, rapid tunable mm-wave source. The basic parameters such as frequency range (130 - 260 GHz) and output power (1 MW) are dedicated to Electron Cyclotron Resonance applications on future plasma fusion research devices, such as ITER. In October 1996 the electron beam was successfully accelerated and transported through the undulator and the mm-wave cavity. Loss currents are below 0.05 %. In October 1997 first lasing was achieved. The mm-wave output power has been measured at various frequencies and for various electron beam currents and energies. The highest output power reached so far is 730 kW at 205 GHz, for an electron beam of 7.2 A and 1.77 MeV. Both output power and start-up time correspond well with simulation results. The output beam has a Gaussian mode content of more than 99.8 % for all operating frequencies. So far, the pulse length was limited to 12μs, because the electron beam recovery system was not yet installed. This system, an electron decelerator and a 3-stage depressed collector, is presently under construction. It serves to recover the charge and energy of the spend electron beam. In this paper we will address some aspects of the design of the collector. (author)
Self-bending elastic waves and obstacle circumventing in wireless power transfer
Tol, S.; Xia, Y.; Ruzzene, M.; Erturk, A.
2017-04-01
We demonstrate self-bending of elastic waves along convex trajectories by means of geometric and phased arrays. Potential applications include ultrasonic imaging and manipulation, wave focusing, and wireless power transfer around obstacles. The basic concept is illustrated through a geometric array, which is designed to implement a phase delay profile among the array elements that leads to self-bending along a specified circular trajectory. Experimental validation is conducted for the lowest asymmetric Lamb wave mode in a thin plate over a range of frequencies to investigate the bandwidth of the approach. Experiments also illustrate the functionality of the array as a transmitter to deliver elastic wave energy to a receiver/harvester located behind a large obstacle for electrical power extraction. It is shown that the trajectory is not distorted by the presence of the obstacle and circumventing is achieved. A linear phased array counterpart of the geometric array is then constructed to illustrate the concept by imposing proper time delays to the array elements, which allows the generation of different trajectories using the same line source. This capability is demonstrated by tailoring the path diameter in the phased array setting, which offers the flexibility and versatility to induce a variety of convex trajectories for self-bending elastic waves.
Optimization of power take-off equipment for an oscillating water column wave energy plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gato, L.M.C.; Falcao, Antonio de F.O. [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica do IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Paulo Alexandre Justino [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)
2005-07-01
The paper reports the optimization study of the electro-mechanical power take-off equipment for the OWC plant whose structure is a caisson forming the head of the new Douro breakwater. The stochastic approach is employed to model the wave-to-wire energy conversion. The optimization includes rotational speed (for each sea state), turbine geometry and size, and generator rated power. The procedure is implemented into a fully integrated computer code, that yields numerical results for the multi-variable optimization process and for the electrical power output (annual average and for different sea states) with modest computing time (much less than if a time-domain model were used instead). Although focused into a particular real case, the paper is intended to outline a design method that can be applied to a wider class of wave energy converters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Nian-qing; TANG Yi-qun; TANG He-ping
2005-01-01
Tidal fluctuations of Hangzhou Bay produce progressive pressure waves in adjacent field fractured aquifers, as the pressure waves propagate, groundwater levels and hydraulic gradients continuously fluctuate. The effect of tidal fluctuations on groundwater flow can be determined using the mean hydraulic gradient that can be calculated by comparing mean ground and surface water elevations. Tidal fluctuation is shown to affect the piezometer readings taken in a nearshore fractured aquifer around the nuclear power engineering field. Continuous monitoring of a network of seven piezometers provided relations between the tidal cycle and the piezometer readings. The relations can be expressed in times of a time and amplitude scaling factor. The time lag and the tidal effi ciency factor and wavelength are calculated using these parameters. It provides significant scientific basis to prevent tide and groundwater for the nuclear power engineering construction and safety run of nuclear power station in the future.
Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Aldrich, Naomi J; Rhodes, Samhita
2017-08-30
The purposes of this exploratory project were: (1) to evaluate the impact of power mobility training with a child who has multiple, severe impairments and (2) to determine if the child's spectrum of electroencephalography (EEG) activity changed during power mobility training. A single-subject A-B-A-B research design was conducted with a four-week duration for each phase. Two target behaviours were explored: (1) mastery motivation assessed via the dimensions of mastery questionnaire (DMQ) and (2) EEG data collected under various conditions. Power mobility skills were also assessed. The participant was a three-year, two-month-old girl with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, gross motor function classification system level V. Each target behaviour was measured weekly. During intervention phases, power mobility training was provided. Improvements were noted in subscale scores of the DMQ. Short-term and long-term EEG changes were also noted. Improvements were noted in power mobility skills. The participant in this exploratory project demonstrated improvements in power mobility skill and function. EEG data collection procedures and variability in an individual's EEG activity make it difficult to determine if the participant's spectrum of EEG activity actually changed in response to power mobility training. Additional studies are needed to investigate the impact of power mobility training on the spectrum of EEG activity in children who have multiple, severe impairments. Implications for Rehabilitation Power mobility training appeared to be beneficial for a child with multiple, severe impairments though the child may never become an independent, community-based power wheelchair user. Electroencephalography may be a valuable addition to the study of power mobility use in children with multiple, severe impairments. Power mobility training appeared to impact mastery motivation (the internal drive to solve complex problems and master new skills) in a child who has multiple
Measurements of the millimeter-wave spectrum of interstellar dust emission
Fischer, M. L.; Clapp, A.; Devlin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Lange, A. E.; Lubin, P. M.; Meinhold, P. R.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.
1995-01-01
We report measurements of the differential brightness of interstellar dust emission near the Galactic plane and at high Galactic latitudes. The data were obtained as part of a program to measure anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The measurements were made with a 0.5 deg beam size and a 1.3 deg sinusoidal chop, in broad bands (Delta nu/nu approximately 0.3) centered near frequencies of 6, 9, and 12 cm(exp -1). A measurement made toward the Galactic plane, at longitude 1 = 23.7 deg, is compared with the contrast observed in the 100 micrometers IRAS data. Assuming the dust emission has a brightness I(sub nu) proportional to nu(sup n)B(sub nu)(T(sub d)), where B(sub nu) is the Planck function, a best fit yields n = 1.6 +/- 0.4, T(sub d) = 24 +/- 5 K. In a region near the star mu Pegasi (mu PEG l = 91 deg, b = -31 deg), the comparison of our data with the 100 micrometers IRAS data yields n = 1.4 +/- 0.4, and T(sub d) = 18 +/- 3 K. In a second region near the star gamma Ursa Minoris (GUM l = 108 deg, b = 41 deg), an upper limit is placed on contrast in dust emission. This upper limit is consistent with spectrum measured at mu PEG and the IRAS 100 micrometer emission contrast at GUM, which is approximately 8 times lower than mu PEG.
Power spectrum of electrical discharges seen on Earth and at Saturn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warwick, J.W.
1989-01-01
The author presents a method for deriving the radio spectrum of electrical discharges from the properties of the time series of charges crossing the discharge gap. This result is applied to the observed spectra of both terrestrial lightning and Saturn electrical discharge(s) (SED). SED occurrence and power density are shown to have subtle, yet important, differences from these observables as they have been described in the last 5 years. It is demonstrated that throughout the episode of Voyager 1's (V1) closest approach to Saturn, SED probably occurred continuously in frequency upward at least from the upper limit of Saturn kilometric radiation at about 800 kHz. This is so despite the fact that in the dynamic spectra a strip in time and frequency in which SED do not occur extends in frequency from 1.3 MHz up to the oft-discussed lower limit of SED in the leading edge of the episode of closest approach. The greater power in SED that occurred after V1 closest approach is emphasized: it is shown to be consistent with the lower frequency of the maximum in their power spectra. The variable gap length factor is also invoked to explain the variable frequency cutoff in the range 5-15 MHz of the episodes before closest approach. The SED source moved along a single arc defining both preencounter and postencounter events. The discharge gap lengths were a continuous function of position along this arc, with the shortest gaps lying about 5 degree west (as seen from the spacecraft) of the noon meridian of Saturn and the longest gaps lying on the nightside of the planet
Menzel, Claudia; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U; Langner, Oliver; Wiese, Holger; Redies, Christoph
2015-01-01
We investigated whether low-level processed image properties that are shared by natural scenes and artworks - but not veridical face photographs - affect the perception of facial attractiveness and age. Specifically, we considered the slope of the radially averaged Fourier power spectrum in a log-log plot. This slope is a measure of the distribution of special frequency power in an image. Images of natural scenes and artworks possess - compared to face images - a relatively shallow slope (i.e., increased high spatial frequency power). Since aesthetic perception might be based on the efficient processing of images with natural scene statistics, we assumed that the perception of facial attractiveness might also be affected by these properties. We calculated Fourier slope and other beauty-associated measurements in face images and correlated them with ratings of attractiveness and age of the depicted persons (Study 1). We found that Fourier slope - in contrast to the other tested image properties - did not predict attractiveness ratings when we controlled for age. In Study 2A, we overlaid face images with random-phase patterns with different statistics. Patterns with a slope similar to those in natural scenes and artworks resulted in lower attractiveness and higher age ratings. In Studies 2B and 2C, we directly manipulated the Fourier slope of face images and found that images with shallower slopes were rated as more attractive. Additionally, attractiveness of unaltered faces was affected by the Fourier slope of a random-phase background (Study 3). Faces in front of backgrounds with statistics similar to natural scenes and faces were rated as more attractive. We conclude that facial attractiveness ratings are affected by specific image properties. An explanation might be the efficient coding hypothesis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Cruz-Bastida, Juan Pablo [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Budde, Adam; Hsieh, Jiang [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and GE Healthcare, 3000 N Grandview Boulevard, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States)
2016-08-15
Purpose: Noise characteristics of clinical multidetector CT (MDCT) systems can be quantified by the noise power spectrum (NPS). Although the NPS of CT has been extensively studied in the past few decades, the joint impact of the bowtie filter and object position on the NPS has not been systematically investigated. This work studies the interplay of these two factors on the two dimensional (2D) local NPS of a clinical CT system that uses the filtered backprojection algorithm for image reconstruction. Methods: A generalized NPS model was developed to account for the impact of the bowtie filter and image object location in the scan field-of-view (SFOV). For a given bowtie filter, image object, and its location in the SFOV, the shape and rotational symmetries of the 2D local NPS were directly computed from the NPS model without going through the image reconstruction process. The obtained NPS was then compared with the measured NPSs from the reconstructed noise-only CT images in both numerical phantom simulation studies and experimental phantom studies using a clinical MDCT scanner. The shape and the associated symmetry of the 2D NPS were classified by borrowing the well-known atomic spectral symbols s, p, and d, which correspond to circular, dumbbell, and cloverleaf symmetries, respectively, of the wave function of electrons in an atom. Finally, simulated bar patterns were embedded into experimentally acquired noise backgrounds to demonstrate the impact of different NPS symmetries on the visual perception of the object. Results: (1) For a central region in a centered cylindrical object, an s-wave symmetry was always present in the NPS, no matter whether the bowtie filter was present or not. In contrast, for a peripheral region in a centered object, the symmetry of its NPS was highly dependent on the bowtie filter, and both p-wave symmetry and d-wave symmetry were observed in the NPS. (2) For a centered region-ofinterest (ROI) in an off-centered object, the symmetry of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Cruz-Bastida, Juan Pablo; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong; Budde, Adam; Hsieh, Jiang
2016-01-01
Purpose: Noise characteristics of clinical multidetector CT (MDCT) systems can be quantified by the noise power spectrum (NPS). Although the NPS of CT has been extensively studied in the past few decades, the joint impact of the bowtie filter and object position on the NPS has not been systematically investigated. This work studies the interplay of these two factors on the two dimensional (2D) local NPS of a clinical CT system that uses the filtered backprojection algorithm for image reconstruction. Methods: A generalized NPS model was developed to account for the impact of the bowtie filter and image object location in the scan field-of-view (SFOV). For a given bowtie filter, image object, and its location in the SFOV, the shape and rotational symmetries of the 2D local NPS were directly computed from the NPS model without going through the image reconstruction process. The obtained NPS was then compared with the measured NPSs from the reconstructed noise-only CT images in both numerical phantom simulation studies and experimental phantom studies using a clinical MDCT scanner. The shape and the associated symmetry of the 2D NPS were classified by borrowing the well-known atomic spectral symbols s, p, and d, which correspond to circular, dumbbell, and cloverleaf symmetries, respectively, of the wave function of electrons in an atom. Finally, simulated bar patterns were embedded into experimentally acquired noise backgrounds to demonstrate the impact of different NPS symmetries on the visual perception of the object. Results: (1) For a central region in a centered cylindrical object, an s-wave symmetry was always present in the NPS, no matter whether the bowtie filter was present or not. In contrast, for a peripheral region in a centered object, the symmetry of its NPS was highly dependent on the bowtie filter, and both p-wave symmetry and d-wave symmetry were observed in the NPS. (2) For a centered region-ofinterest (ROI) in an off-centered object, the symmetry of
Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides.
Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C
2012-04-15
We demonstrate wavelength conversion through nonlinear parametric processes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with maximum conversion efficiency of -13 dB at telecommunication data rates (10 GHz) using only 15 mW of pump peak power. Conversion bandwidths as large as 150 nm (20 THz) are measured in continuous-wave regime at telecommunication wavelengths. The nonlinear refractive index of the material is determined by four-wave mixing (FWM) to be n(2)=7.43×10(-13) cm(2)/W, approximately an order of magnitude larger than that of single crystal silicon. © 2012 Optical Society of America
Plasma generation using high-power millimeter-wave beam and its application for thrust generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Yasuhisa; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi
2006-01-01
Propagation of an ionization front in the beam channel was observed after plasma was generated using a 170 GHz millimeter-wave beam in the atmosphere. The propagation velocity of the ionization front was found to be supersonic when the millimeter-wave power density was greater than 75 kW cm -2 . The momentum coupling coefficient C m , a ratio of the propulsive impulse to the input energy, was measured using conical and cylindrical thruster models. A C m value greater than 350 N MW -1 was recorded when the ionization front propagated with supersonic velocity
Grid Connection of Wave Power Farm Using an N-Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rickard Ekström
2013-01-01
Full Text Available An N-level cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter is proposed for grid connection of large wave power farms. The point-absorber wave energy converters are individually rectified and used as isolated DC-sources. The variable power characteristics of the wave energy converters are discussed, and a method of mitigating this issue is demonstrated. The complete power control system is given in detail and has been experimentally verified for a single-phase setup of the 9-level inverter. Theoretical expressions of the power sharing between multilevel cells are derived and show good correspondence with the experimental results.
Peters, Aaron; Brown, Michael L.; Kay, Scott T.; Barnes, David J.
2018-03-01
We use a combination of full hydrodynamic and dark matter only simulations to investigate the effect that supercluster environments and baryonic physics have on the matter power spectrum, by re-simulating a sample of supercluster sub-volumes. On large scales we find that the matter power spectrum measured from our supercluster sample has at least twice as much power as that measured from our random sample. Our investigation of the effect of baryonic physics on the matter power spectrum is found to be in agreement with previous studies and is weaker than the selection effect over the majority of scales. In addition, we investigate the effect of targeting a cosmologically non-representative, supercluster region of the sky on the weak lensing shear power spectrum. We do this by generating shear and convergence maps using a line-of-sight integration technique, which intercepts our random and supercluster sub-volumes. We find the convergence power spectrum measured from our supercluster sample has a larger amplitude than that measured from the random sample at all scales. We frame our results within the context of the Super-CLuster Assisted Shear Survey (Super-CLASS), which aims to measure the cosmic shear signal in the radio band by targeting a region of the sky that contains five Abell clusters. Assuming the Super-CLASS survey will have a source density of 1.5 galaxies arcmin-2, we forecast a detection significance of 2.7^{+1.5}_{-1.2}, which indicates that in the absence of systematics the Super-CLASS project could make a cosmic shear detection with radio data alone.
Correlation between peak energy and Fourier power density spectrum slope in gamma-ray bursts
Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Margutti, R.
2016-05-01
Context. The origin of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission still defies explanation, in spite of recent progress made, for example, on the occasional presence of a thermal component in the spectrum along with the ubiquitous non-thermal component that is modelled with a Band function. The combination of finite duration and aperiodic modulations make GRBs hard to characterise temporally. Although correlations between GRB luminosity and spectral hardness on one side and time variability on the other side have long been known, the loose and often arbitrary definition of the latter makes the interpretation uncertain. Aims: We characterise the temporal variability in an objective way and search for a connection with rest-frame spectral properties for a number of well-observed GRBs. Methods: We studied the individual power density spectra (PDS) of 123 long GRBs with measured redshift, rest-frame peak energy Ep,I of the time-averaged ν Fν spectrum, and well-constrained PDS slope α detected with Swift, Fermi and past spacecraft. The PDS were modelled with a power law either with or without a break adopting a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Results: We find a highly significant Ep,I-α anti-correlation. The null hypothesis probability is ~10-9. Conclusions: In the framework of the internal shock synchrotron model, the Ep,I-α anti-correlation can hardly be reconciled with the predicted Ep,I ∝ Γ-2, unless either variable microphysical parameters of the shocks or continual electron acceleration are assumed. Alternatively, in the context of models based on magnetic reconnection, the PDS slope and Ep,I are linked to the ejecta magnetisation at the dissipation site, so that more magnetised outflows would produce more variable GRB light curves at short timescales (≲1 s), shallower PDS, and higher values of Ep,I. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc
Estimating local noise power spectrum from a few FBP-reconstructed CT scans
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng, Rongping, E-mail: rongping.zeng@fda.hhs.gov; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Li, Qin; Myers, Kyle J. [Division of Imaging, Diagnostics, and Software Reliability, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, CDRH, FDA, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)
2016-01-15
Purpose: Traditional ways to estimate 2D CT noise power spectrum (NPS) involve an ensemble average of the power spectrums of many noisy scans. When only a few scans are available, regions of interest are often extracted from different locations to obtain sufficient samples to estimate the NPS. Using image samples from different locations ignores the nonstationarity of CT noise and thus cannot accurately characterize its local properties. The purpose of this work is to develop a method to estimate local NPS using only a few fan-beam CT scans. Methods: As a result of FBP reconstruction, the CT NPS has the same radial profile shape for all projection angles, with the magnitude varying with the noise level in the raw data measurement. This allows a 2D CT NPS to be factored into products of a 1D angular and a 1D radial function in polar coordinates. The polar separability of CT NPS greatly reduces the data requirement for estimating the NPS. The authors use this property and derive a radial NPS estimation method: in brief, the radial profile shape is estimated from a traditional NPS based on image samples extracted at multiple locations. The amplitudes are estimated by fitting the traditional local NPS to the estimated radial profile shape. The estimated radial profile shape and amplitudes are then combined to form a final estimate of the local NPS. We evaluate the accuracy of the radial NPS method and compared it to traditional NPS methods in terms of normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and signal detectability index. Results: For both simulated and real CT data sets, the local NPS estimated with no more than six scans using the radial NPS method was very close to the reference NPS, according to the metrics of NMSE and detectability index. Even with only two scans, the radial NPS method was able to achieve a fairly good accuracy. Compared to those estimated using traditional NPS methods, the accuracy improvement was substantial when a few scans were available
Wiersma, R. P. C.; Ciardi, B.; Thomas, R. M.; Harker, G. J. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Bernardi, G.; Brentjens, M.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Daiboo, S.; Jelic, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Labropoulos, P.; Martinez, O.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Veligatla, V.; Vedantham, H.; Yatawatta, S.; Mellema, G.
2013-01-01
Using a combination of N-body simulations, semi-analytic models and radiative transfer calculations, we have estimated the theoretical cross-power spectrum between galaxies and the 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization. In accordance with previous studies, we find
Yang, Yuli; Aï ssa, Sonia
2012-01-01
used, provides an interference-tolerable zone. Based on this gap, a secondary user (SU) has an increased opportunity to access the licensed spectrum and to determine the transmit power it should use to keep the PU's quality-of-service (QoS) unaffected
Correlation of Pc5 wave power inside and outside themagnetosphere during high speed streams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. L. Kessel
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We show a clear correlation between the ULF wave power (Pc5 range inside and outside the Earth's magnetosphere during high speed streams in 1995. We trace fluctuations beginning 200R_{E} upstream using Wind data, to fluctuations just upstream from Earth's bow shock and in the magnetosheath using Geotail data and compare to pulsations on the ground at the Kilpisjarvi ground station. With our 5-month data set we draw the following conclusions. ULF fluctuations in the Pc5 range are found in high speed streams; they are non-Alfvénic at the leading edge and Alfvénic in the central region. Compressional and Alfvénic fluctuations are modulated at the bow shock, some features of the waveforms are preserved in the magnetosheath, but overall turbulence and wave power is enhanced by about a factor of 10. Parallel (compressional and perpendicular (transverse power are at comparable levels in the solar wind and magnetosheath, both in the compression region and in the central region of high speed streams. Both the total parallel and perpendicular Pc5 power in the solar wind (and to a lesser extent in the magnetosheath correlate well with the total Pc5 power of the ground-based H-component magnetic field. ULF fluctuations in the magnetosheath during high speed streams are common at frequencies from 1–4mHz and can coincide with the cavity eigenfrequencies of 1.3, 1.9, 2.6, and 3.4mHz, though other discrete frequencies are also often seen.
Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (solar wind-magnetosphere interactions; MHD waves and instabilities
Lower hybrid wave edge power loss quantification on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak
Faust, I. C.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Parker, R. R.; Terry, J. L.; Whyte, D. G.; Baek, S. G.; Edlund, E.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Kuang, A. Q.; Reinke, M. L.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Walk, J. R.
2016-05-01
For the first time, the power deposition of lower hybrid RF waves into the edge plasma of a diverted tokamak has been systematically quantified. Edge deposition represents a parasitic loss of power that can greatly impact the use and efficiency of Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) at reactor-relevant densities. Through the use of a unique set of fast time resolution edge diagnostics, including innovative fast-thermocouples, an extensive set of Langmuir probes, and a Lyα ionization camera, the toroidal, poloidal, and radial structure of the power deposition has been simultaneously determined. Power modulation was used to directly isolate the RF effects due to the prompt ( t Radiofrequency (LHRF) power. LHRF power was found to absorb more strongly in the edge at higher densities. It is found that a majority of this edge-deposited power is promptly conducted to the divertor. This correlates with the loss of current drive efficiency at high density previously observed on Alcator C-Mod, and displaying characteristics that contrast with the local RF edge absorption seen on other tokamaks. Measurements of ionization in the active divertor show dramatic changes due to LHRF power, implying that divertor region can be a key for the LHRF edge power deposition physics. These observations support the existence of a loss mechanism near the edge for LHRF at high density ( n e > 1.0 × 10 20 (m-3)). Results will be shown addressing the distribution of power within the SOL, including the toroidal symmetry and radial distribution. These characteristics are important for deducing the cause of the reduced LHCD efficiency at high density and motivate the tailoring of wave propagation to minimize SOL interaction, for example, through the use of high-field-side launch.
Wintucky, Edwin G.
2000-01-01
A low-cost, low-mass, electrically efficient, modular cathode/electron gun assembly has been developed by FDE Inc. of Beaverton, Oregon, under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This new assembly offers significant improvements in the design and manufacture of microwave and millimeter wave traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) used for radar and communications. It incorporates a novel, low-heater-power, reduced size and mass, high-performance barium dispenser type thermionic cathode and provides for easy integration of the cathode into a large variety of conventional TWT circuits. Among the applications are TWT's for Earth-orbiting communication satellites and for deep space communications, where future missions will require smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (a hybrid microwave/millimeter wave amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid-state driver, a small TWT, and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package), where electrical efficiency and thermal loading are critical factors and lower cost is needed for successful commercialization. The design and fabrication are based on practices used in producing cathode ray tubes (CRT's), which is one of the most competitive and efficient manufacturing operations in the world today. The approach used in the design and manufacture of thermionic cathodes and electron guns for CRT's has been optimized for fully automated production, standardization of parts, and minimization of costs. It is applicable to the production of similar components for microwave tubes, with the additional benefits of low mass and significantly lower cathode heater power (less than half that of dispenser cathodes presently used in TWT s). Modular cathode/electron gun assembly. The modular
POWER SCALING IN CONTINUOUS-WAVE YB:YAG MICROCHIP LASER FOR MEASURING APPLICATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Ivashko
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Characteristics optimization of lasers used in different measuring systems is of great interest up to now. Diode-pumped microchip lasers is one of the most perspective ways for development of solid-state light sources with minimal size and weight together with low energy power consumption. Increasing of output power with good beam quality is rather difficult task for such type of lasers due to thermal effects in the gain crystal under high pump power.The investigation results of continuous-wave longitudinally diode-pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser are presented. In the presented laser radiation from multiple pump laser diodes were focused into the separate zone in one gain crystal that provides simultaneous generation of multiple laser beams. The energy and spatial laser beam characteristics were investigated.Influence of neighboring pumped regions on energy and spatial laser beams parameters both for separate and for sum laser output was observed. The dependences of laser output power from distance between neighboring pumped regions and their number were determined. Decreasing of laser output power was demonstrated with corresponding distance shortening between pumped regions and increasing their quantity with simultaneous improvement of laser beam quality.Demonstrated mutual influence of neighboring pumped regions in the longitudinally diode pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser allow as to generate diffraction limited Gaussian beam with 2W of continuous-wave output power that 30 % higher than in case of one pumped zone.
Neural Spike-Train Analyses of the Speech-Based Envelope Power Spectrum Model
Rallapalli, Varsha H.
2016-01-01
Diagnosing and treating hearing impairment is challenging because people with similar degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often have different speech-recognition abilities. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) has demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRENV) from a modulation filter bank provides a robust speech-intelligibility measure across a wider range of degraded conditions than many long-standing models. In the sEPSM, noise (N) is assumed to: (a) reduce S + N envelope power by filling in dips within clean speech (S) and (b) introduce an envelope noise floor from intrinsic fluctuations in the noise itself. While the promise of SNRENV has been demonstrated for normal-hearing listeners, it has not been thoroughly extended to hearing-impaired listeners because of limited physiological knowledge of how SNHL affects speech-in-noise envelope coding relative to noise alone. Here, envelope coding to speech-in-noise stimuli was quantified from auditory-nerve model spike trains using shuffled correlograms, which were analyzed in the modulation-frequency domain to compute modulation-band estimates of neural SNRENV. Preliminary spike-train analyses show strong similarities to the sEPSM, demonstrating feasibility of neural SNRENV computations. Results suggest that individual differences can occur based on differential degrees of outer- and inner-hair-cell dysfunction in listeners currently diagnosed into the single audiological SNHL category. The predicted acoustic-SNR dependence in individual differences suggests that the SNR-dependent rate of susceptibility could be an important metric in diagnosing individual differences. Future measurements of the neural SNRENV in animal studies with various forms of SNHL will provide valuable insight for understanding individual differences in speech-in-noise intelligibility.
Gas density fluctuations in the Perseus Cluster: clumping factor and velocity power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Arevalo, P.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Allen, S. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Forman, W. R.; Sanders, J. S.; Simionescu, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Werner, N.
2015-05-20
X-ray surface brightness fluctuations in the core of the Perseus Cluster are analysed, using deep observations with the Chandra observatory. The amplitude of gas density fluctuations on different scales is measured in a set of radial annuli. It varies from 7 to 12 per cent on scales of ~10–30 kpc within radii of 30–220 kpc from the cluster centre. Using a statistical linear relation between the observed amplitude of density fluctuations and predicted velocity, the characteristic velocity of gas motions on each scale is calculated. The typical amplitudes of the velocity outside the central 30 kpc region are 90–140 km s^{-1} on ~20–30 kpc scales and 70–100 km s^{-1} on smaller scales ~7–10 kpc. The velocity power spectrum (PS) is consistent with cascade of turbulence and its slope is in a broad agreement with the slope for canonical Kolmogorov turbulence. The gas clumping factor estimated from the PS of the density fluctuations is lower than 7–8 per cent for radii ~30–220 kpc from the centre, leading to a density bias of less than 3–4 per cent in the cluster core. Uncertainties of the analysis are examined and discussed. Future measurements of the gas velocities with the Astro-H, Athena and Smart-X observatories will directly measure the gas density–velocity perturbation relation and further reduce systematic uncertainties in this analysis.
FOREGROUND CONTAMINATION IN INTERFEROMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF THE REDSHIFTED 21 cm POWER SPECTRUM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowman, Judd D.; Morales, Miguel F.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.
2009-01-01
Subtraction of astrophysical foreground contamination from 'dirty' sky maps produced by simulated measurements of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) has been performed by fitting a third-order polynomial along the spectral dimension of each pixel in the data cubes. The simulations are the first to include the unavoidable instrumental effects of the frequency-dependent primary antenna beams and synthesized array beams. They recover the one-dimensional spherically binned input redshifted 21 cm power spectrum within ∼1% over the scales probed most sensitively by the MWA (0.01 ∼ -1 ) and demonstrate that realistic instrumental effects will not mask the epoch of reionization signal. We find that the weighting function used to produce the dirty sky maps from the gridded visibility measurements is important to the success of the technique. Uniform weighting of the visibility measurements produces the best results, whereas natural weighting significantly worsens the foreground subtraction by coupling structure in the density of the visibility measurements to spectral structure in the dirty sky map data cube. The extremely dense uv-coverage of the MWA was found to be advantageous for this technique and produced very good results on scales corresponding to |u| ∼< 500λ in the uv-plane without any selective editing of the uv-coverage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-Wei Fei
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To improve the diagnosis capacity of rotor vibration fault in stochastic process, an effective fault diagnosis method (named Process Power Spectrum Entropy (PPSE and Support Vector Machine (SVM (PPSE-SVM, for short method was proposed. The fault diagnosis model of PPSE-SVM was established by fusing PPSE method and SVM theory. Based on the simulation experiment of rotor vibration fault, process data for four typical vibration faults (rotor imbalance, shaft misalignment, rotor-stator rubbing, and pedestal looseness were collected under multipoint (multiple channels and multispeed. By using PPSE method, the PPSE values of these data were extracted as fault feature vectors to establish the SVM model of rotor vibration fault diagnosis. From rotor vibration fault diagnosis, the results demonstrate that the proposed method possesses high precision, good learning ability, good generalization ability, and strong fault-tolerant ability (robustness in four aspects of distinguishing fault types, fault severity, fault location, and noise immunity of rotor stochastic vibration. This paper presents a novel method (PPSE-SVM for rotor vibration fault diagnosis and real-time vibration monitoring. The presented effort is promising to improve the fault diagnosis precision of rotating machinery like gas turbine.
The noise power spectrum in CT with direct fan beam reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, Jongduk; Pelc, Norbert J.
2010-01-01
The noise power spectrum (NPS) is a useful metric for understanding the noise content in images. To examine some unique properties of the NPS of fan beam CT, the authors derived an analytical expression for the NPS of fan beam CT and validated it with computer simulations. The nonstationary noise behavior of fan beam CT was examined by analyzing local regions and the entire field-of-view (FOV). This was performed for cases with uniform as well as nonuniform noise across the detector cells and across views. The simulated NPS from the entire FOV and local regions showed good agreement with the analytically derived NPS. The analysis shows that whereas the NPS of a large FOV in parallel beam CT (using a ramp filter) is proportional to frequency, the NPS with direct fan beam FBP reconstruction shows a high frequency roll off. Even in small regions, the fan beam NPS can show a sharp transition (discontinuity) at high frequencies. These effects are due to the variable magnification and therefore are more pronounced as the fan angle increases. For cases with nonuniform noise, the NPS can show the directional dependence and additional effects.
Power spectrum constraints from spectral distortions in the cosmic microwave background
Hu, Wayne; Scott, Douglas; Silk, Joseph
1994-01-01
Using recent experimental limits on chemical potential distortions from Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Far Infrared Astronomy Satellite (FIRAS), and the large lever-arm spanning the damping of sub-Jeans scale fluctuations to the COBE DMR fluctuations, we set a constraint on the slope of the primordial power spectrum n. It is possible to analytically calculate the contribution over the full range of scales and redshifts, correctly taking into account fluctuation growth and damping as well as thermalization processes. Assuming conservatively that mu is less than 1.76 x 10(exp -4), we find that the 95% upper limit on n is only weakly dependent on other cosmological parameters, e.g., n is less than 1.60 (h=0.5) and n is less than 1.63 (h=1.0) for Omega(sub 0) = 1, with marginally weaker constraints for Omega(sub 0) is less than 1 in a flat model with a cosmological constant.
Nonlinear power spectrum from resummed perturbation theory: a leap beyond the BAO scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmi, Stefano; Pietroni, Massimo
2012-01-01
A new computational scheme for the nonlinear cosmological matter power spectrum (PS) is presented. Our method is based on evolution equations in time, which can be cast in a form extremely convenient for fast numerical evaluations. A nonlinear PS is obtained in a time comparable to that needed for a simple 1-loop computation, and the numerical implementation is very simple. Our results agree with N-body simulations at the percent level in the BAO range of scales, and at the few-percent level up to k ≅ 1 h/Mpc at z∼>0.5, thereby opening the possibility of applying this tool to scales interesting for weak lensing. We clarify the approximations inherent to this approach as well as its relations to previous ones, such as the Time Renormalization Group, and the multi-point propagator expansion. We discuss possible lines of improvements of the method and its intrinsic limitations by multi streaming at small scales and low redshifts
Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Sigurdson, Kris
2011-01-01
The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M + at z≅100, compared to a fraction of ∼10 -10 in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.
Power spectrum tomography of dark matter annihilation with local galaxy distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ando, Shin' ichiro, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl [GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2014-10-01
Cross-correlating the gamma-ray background with local galaxy catalogs potentially gives stringent constraints on dark matter annihilation. We provide updated theoretical estimates of sensitivities to the annihilation cross section from gamma-ray data with Fermi telescope and 2MASS galaxy catalogs, by elaborating the galaxy power spectrum and astrophysical backgrounds, and adopting the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we show that taking tomographic approach by dividing the galaxy catalogs into more than one redshift slice will improve the sensitivity by a factor of a few to several. If dark matter halos contain lots of bright substructures, yielding a large annihilation boost (e.g., a factor of ∼100 for galaxy-size halos), then one may be able to probe the canonical annihilation cross section for thermal production mechanism up to masses of ∼700 GeV. Even with modest substructure boost (e.g., a factor of ∼10 for galaxy-size halos), on the other hand, the sensitivities could still reach a factor of three larger than the canonical cross section for dark matter masses of tens to a few hundreds of GeV.
On the performance of the noise power spectrum from the gain-corrected radiography images.
Kim, Dong Sik; Lee, Eunae
2018-01-01
Fixed pattern noise due to nonuniform amplifier gains and scintillator sensitivity should be alleviated in radiography imaging to acquire low-noise x-ray images from detectors. Here, the noise property of the detector is usually evaluated observing the noise power spectrum (NPS). A gain-correction scheme, in which uniformly illuminated images are averaged to design a gain map, can be applied to alleviate the fixed pattern noise problem. The normalized NPS (NNPS) of the gain-corrected image decreases as the number of images for the average increases and converges to an infimum, which can be achieved if the fixed pattern noise is completely removed. If we know the NNPS infimum of the detector, then we can determine the performance of the gain-corrected images compared with the achievable lower bound. We first construct an image-formation model considering the nonuniform gain and then consider two measurement methods based on subtraction and division to estimate the NNPS infimum of the detector. In order to obtain a high-precision NNPS infimum estimate, we consider a time-averaging method. For several flat-panel radiography detectors, we constructed the NNPS infimum measurements and compared them with NNPS values of the gain-corrected images. We observed that the NNPS values of the gain-corrected images approached the NNPS infimum as the number of images for the average increased.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengze Zhu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by combining pavement surface power spectrum and complex modulus of tread rubber through Persson’s friction theory. Finite element model of tire-fluid-pavement was established in ABAQUS, which was composed of a 225-40-R18 radial tire and three types of asphalt pavement covered with water film. Mechanical responses and physical behaviors of tire-pavement interaction were observed and compared with NASA equation to validate the applicability and accuracy of this model. Then contact force at tire-pavement interface and critical hydroplaning speed influenced by tire inflation pressure, water film thickness, and pavement types were investigated. The results show higher tire inflation pressure, thinner water film, and more abundant macrotexture enhancing hydroplaning speed. The results could be applied to predict hydroplaning speed on different asphalt pavement and improve pavement skid resistance design.
Constraining models of f(R) gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dossett, Jason; Parkinson, David; Hu, Bin
2014-01-01
In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking ''dark'' physics, we consider f(R) modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterizing the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter B 0 , we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on B 0 by an order of magnitude, giving log 10 (B 0 ) < −4.07 at 95% confidence limit. Finally, we test whether the effect of adding the lensing amplitude A Lens and the sum of the neutrino mass ∑m ν is able to reconcile current tensions present in these parameters, but find f(R) gravity an inadequate explanation
On Bit Error Probability and Power Optimization in Multihop Millimeter Wave Relay Systems
Chelli, Ali
2018-01-15
5G networks are expected to provide gigabit data rate to users via millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication technology. One of the major problem faced by mmWaves is that they cannot penetrate buildings. In this paper, we utilize multihop relaying to overcome the signal blockage problem in mmWave band. The multihop relay network comprises a source device, several relay devices and a destination device and uses device-todevice communication. Relay devices redirect the source signal to avoid the obstacles existing in the propagation environment. Each device amplifies and forwards the signal to the next device, such that a multihop link ensures the connectivity between the source device and the destination device. We consider that the relay devices and the destination device are affected by external interference and investigate the bit error probability (BEP) of this multihop mmWave system. Note that the study of the BEP allows quantifying the quality of communication and identifying the impact of different parameters on the system reliability. In this way, the system parameters, such as the powers allocated to different devices, can be tuned to maximize the link reliability. We derive exact expressions for the BEP of M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) and M-ary phase-shift keying (M-PSK) in terms of multivariate Meijer’s G-function. Due to the complicated expression of the exact BEP, a tight lower-bound expression for the BEP is derived using a novel Mellin-approach. Moreover, an asymptotic expression for the BEP at high SIR regime is derived and used to determine the diversity and the coding gain of the system. Additionally, we optimize the power allocation at different devices subject to a sum power constraint such that the BEP is minimized. Our analysis reveals that optimal power allocation allows achieving more than 3 dB gain compared to the equal power allocation.This research work can serve as a framework for designing and optimizing mmWave multihop
Variations of wave energy power in shoaling zone of Benin coastal zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathias A. Houekpoheha
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Today, we observe at the population level, that the improvement in comfort is accompanied by an increase in the electrical energy required. The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources maintains some speculation. Their unequal geographical distribution justifies the energy dependence of Benin overlooked from outside. So it is urgent to explore the various sources of renewable energy available to Benin. In this work, using measurements made by the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA-Benin as part of the extension of the port of Cotonou, with Boussinesq equations (Peregrine and Stokes waves dispersion relation, we characterized the variations of various swell parameters (height, wavelength, velocities in the shoaling zone on the study site and proceeded to estimate variations in wave energy power from deep waters to the bathymetric breaking point. Finally, the zone with high energy power (where the conversion of this energy into electrical energy would be profitable of these waves is highlighted on the site, the local water depth at the point of breaking waves is evaluated and results obtained allowed to justify the very energetic character take by these swells on this coast when they are close to the beach.
Partial Stator Overlap in a Linear Generator for Wave Power: An Experimental Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna E. Frost
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study on how the power absorption and damping in a linear generator for wave energy conversion are affected by partial overlap between stator and translator. The theoretical study shows that the electrical power as well as the damping coefficient change quadratically with partial stator overlap, if inductance, friction and iron losses are assumed independent of partial stator overlap or can be neglected. Results from onshore experiments on a linear generator for wave energy conversion cannot reject the quadratic relationship. Measurements were done on the inductance of the linear generator and no dependence on partial stator overlap could be found. Simulations of the wave energy converter’s operation in high waves show that entirely neglecting partial stator overlap will overestimate the energy yield and underestimate the peak forces in the line between the buoy and the generator. The difference between assuming a linear relationship instead of a quadratic relationship is visible but small in the energy yield in the simulation. Since the theoretical deduction suggests a quadratic relationship, this is advisable to use during modeling. However, a linear assumption could be seen as an acceptable simplification when modeling since other relationships can be computationally costly.
Gardner, F.; Polinder, H.; Pinkster, J.A.; Mols, B.
2005-01-01
All over the world hundreds of thousands of initiatives are being developed to generate sustainable energy. The great majority of these are aimed at solar and wind energy, if only because they are available all over the world. Whats more, the initial investments required are relatively low and are
Probing α-particle wave functions by (d,α) tensor analyzing powers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crosson, E.R.; Das, R.K.; Lemieux, S.K.; Ludwig, E.J.; Thompson, W.J.; Bisenberger, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hofer, D.; Kader, H.; Schiemenz, P.; Graw, G.; Eiro, A.M.; Santos, F.D.
1992-01-01
Components of α-particle wave functions corresponding to d-d configurations are used to predict analyzing powers in the (d,α) reaction. Tensor analyzing powers, especially A xx , are shown to clearly distinguish between wave functions generated by different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. Data for the 58 Ni(d,α) 56 Co reaction to the 7 + stretched-nucleon-orbital state at 2.283-MeV excitation in 56 Co, measured with 22-MeV deuterons, are compared to predictions from the Argonne and Urbana interactions. Similar comparisons are made to data for the lowest J π =7 + state in 48 Sc populated by the 50 Ti(d,α) 48 Sc reaction at 16 MeV
Traveling wave linear accelerator with RF power flow outside of accelerating cavities
Dolgashev, Valery A.
2016-06-28
A high power RF traveling wave accelerator structure includes a symmetric RF feed, an input matching cell coupled to the symmetric RF feed, a sequence of regular accelerating cavities coupled to the input matching cell at an input beam pipe end of the sequence, one or more waveguides parallel to and coupled to the sequence of regular accelerating cavities, an output matching cell coupled to the sequence of regular accelerating cavities at an output beam pipe end of the sequence, and output waveguide circuit or RF loads coupled to the output matching cell. Each of the regular accelerating cavities has a nose cone that cuts off field propagating into the beam pipe and therefore all power flows in a traveling wave along the structure in the waveguide.
The power flow angle of acoustic waves in thin piezoelectric plates.
Kuznetsova, Iren E; Zaitsev, Boris D; Teplykh, Andrei A; Joshi, Shrinivas G; Kuznetsova, Anastasia S
2008-09-01
The curves of slowness and power flow angle (PFA) of quasi-antisymmetric (A(0)) and quasi-symmetric (S(0)) Lamb waves as well as quasi-shear-horizontal (SH(0)) acoustic waves in thin plates of lithium niobate and potassium niobate of X-,Y-, and Z-cuts for various propagation directions and the influence of electrical shorting of one plate surface on these curves and PFA have been theoretically investigated. It has been found that the group velocity of such waves does not coincide with the phase velocity for the most directions of propagation. It has been also shown that S(0) and SH(0) wave are characterized by record high values of PFA and its change due to electrical shorting of the plate surface in comparison with surface and bulk acoustic waves in the same material. The most interesting results have been verified by experiment. As a whole, the results obtained may be useful for development of various devices for signal processing, for example, electrically controlled acoustic switchers.
Technical and economic feasibility study of a Frond type wave power generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
This report describes the first stage of the development of a Frond type wave generator by the Engineering Business (EB) in collaboration with the University of Lancaster Engineering Department. The EB Frond concept is a sea-bed reacting, surging machine consisting of a near-surface collector mounted on an arm pivoted near the seabed. The study had six main elements (investigation, physical and mathematical modelling, site characterisation, design review and cost study). The investigation phase involved a study of wave properties and behaviour, while physical models were tested in a wave tank. A mathematical model was developed and used to assess the design's power output. The characteristics of a suitable site for EB Frond generators were determined and the process of identifying possible sites for a demonstrator machine was begun. The mechanical and system arrangement of the design were evaluated and modified. The effects of varying the installation's input parameters (e.g. wave environment factors) were examined using an energy cost model whose output is energy production and cost. It was concluded that the Frond principle was technically viable though there were some remaining engineering and other application problems. Cost modelling suggested that the EB Frond system had potential for long-term commercial prospects. The report recommends the construction and testing of an intermediate scale model with more realistic wave conditions.
Shcherbakov, Alexandre S; Arellanes, Adan Omar
2017-12-01
During subsequent development of the recently proposed multi-frequency parallel spectrometer for precise spectrum analysis of wideband radio-wave signals, we study potentials of new acousto-optical cells exploiting selected crystalline materials at the limits of their capabilities. Characterizing these wide-aperture cells is non-trivial due to new features inherent in the chosen regime of an advanced non-collinear one-phonon anomalous light scattering by elastic waves with significantly elevated acoustic losses. These features can be observed simpler in uniaxial, tetragonal, and trigonal crystals possessing linear acoustic attenuation. We demonstrate that formerly studied additional degree of freedom, revealed initially for multi-phonon regimes of acousto-optical interaction, can be identified within the one-phonon geometry as well and exploited for designing new cells. We clarify the role of varying the central acoustic frequency and acoustic attenuation using the identified degree of freedom. Therewith, we are strongly restricted by a linear regime of acousto-optical interaction to avoid the origin of multi-phonon processes within carrying out a multi-frequency parallel spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals. Proof-of-principle experiments confirm the developed approaches and illustrate their applicability to innovative technique for an advanced spectrum analysis of wideband radio-wave signals with the improved resolution in an extended frequency range.
The Effect of Electromagnetic Waves on the General Health of Zahedan Gas Power Plant Personnel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fereydoon Laal
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: With ever improving technology and increasing the use of high voltage power in industrial environments, concerns about the destructive effects of electromagnetic waves on human health have increased. Thus the present study aims to evaluate the effects of electromagnetic waves on the general health of Zahedan gas power plant personnel. Materials & Method: The present case-control study investigated the health of people at one point of time and their amount of exposure to electromagnetic waves at the same time. The data collection tool in this study was 28-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-28. After measuring the electromagnetic waves at distances of 1, 1.5 and 3 meters at high voltage power substations and data extraction, the data were entered to SPSS software and analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-square. Results: In this study, the age and experience variables were not significantly different in two groups (p> 0.05. The highest magnetic fields in high voltage power substations was at a distance of 1 meter in the substation 607 (28/1 mG and in precision tool work units (7.03 mG. The results showed that the depressive and general health symptoms were significantly different between the exposed and unexposed groups (p = 0.04, however the difference was not significant in terms of physical performance, anxiety and social performance (p> 0.05. Conclusion: although the level of exposure was lower than standard level determined in Iran, the significant difference of the general health and depression between the two groups, explains the necessity of conducting more studies in this regard. Also by reducing the exposure time and increasing people’s awareness it is possible to take important steps to reduce exposure and complications.
Wang, Ximei; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Liu, Huicong; Li, Yihong
2009-03-01
Anodic films have been prepared on the AZ91D magnesium alloys in 1 mol/L Na 2SiO 3 with 10 vol.% silica sol addition under the constant voltage of 60 V at room temperature by half-wave and full-wave power sources. The weight of the anodic films has been scaled by analytical balance, and the thickness has been measured by eddy current instrument. The surface morphologies, chemical composition and structure of the anodic films have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the thickness and weight of the anodic films formed by the two power sources both increase with the anodizing time, and the films anodized by full-wave power source grow faster than that by half-wave one. Furthermore, we have fitted polynomial to the scattered data of the weight and thickness in a least-squares sense with MATLAB, which could express the growth process of the anodic films sufficiently. The full-wave power source is inclined to accelerate the growth of the anodic films, and the half-wave one is mainly contributed to the uniformity and fineness of the films. The anodic film consists of crystalline Mg 2SiO 4 and amorphous SiO 2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Ximei [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)], E-mail: wangximei126@126.com; Zhu Liqun; Li Weiping; Liu Huicong; Li Yihong [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)
2009-03-15
Anodic films have been prepared on the AZ91D magnesium alloys in 1 mol/L Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} with 10 vol.% silica sol addition under the constant voltage of 60 V at room temperature by half-wave and full-wave power sources. The weight of the anodic films has been scaled by analytical balance, and the thickness has been measured by eddy current instrument. The surface morphologies, chemical composition and structure of the anodic films have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the thickness and weight of the anodic films formed by the two power sources both increase with the anodizing time, and the films anodized by full-wave power source grow faster than that by half-wave one. Furthermore, we have fitted polynomial to the scattered data of the weight and thickness in a least-squares sense with MATLAB, which could express the growth process of the anodic films sufficiently. The full-wave power source is inclined to accelerate the growth of the anodic films, and the half-wave one is mainly contributed to the uniformity and fineness of the films. The anodic film consists of crystalline Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and amorphous SiO{sub 2}.
Discrete Displacement Hydraulic Power Take-Off System for the Wavestar Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Kramer, Morten; Vidal, Enrique
2013-01-01
. This is achieved by using special multi-chambered cylinders, where the different chambers may be connected to the available system pressures using fast on/off valves. Resultantly, a Discrete Displacement Cylinder (DDC) is created, allowing near loss free discrete force control. This paper presents a complete PTO...... system for a 20 float Wavestar based on the DDC. The WEC and PTO is rigorously modeled from incident waves to the electric output to the grid. The resulting model of +600 states is simulated in different irregular seas, showing that power conversion efficiencies above 70% from input power to electrical...
High-resolution multiphoton microscopy with a low-power continuous wave laser pump.
Chen, Xiang-Dong; Li, Shen; Du, Bo; Dong, Yang; Wang, Ze-Hao; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen
2018-02-15
Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been widely used for three-dimensional biological imaging. Here, based on the photon-induced charge state conversion process, we demonstrated a low-power high-resolution MPM with a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Continuous wave green and orange lasers were used to pump and detect the two-photon charge state conversion, respectively. The power of the laser for multiphoton excitation was 40 μW. Both the axial and lateral resolutions were improved approximately 1.5 times compared with confocal microscopy. The results can be used to improve the resolution of the NV center-based quantum sensing and biological imaging.
Dust-acoustic waves and stability in the permeating dusty plasma. II. Power-law distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong Jingyu; Du Jiulin; Liu Zhipeng
2012-01-01
The dust-acoustic waves and the stability theory for the permeating dusty plasma with power-law distributions are studied by using nonextensive q-statistics. In two limiting physical cases, when the thermal velocity of the flowing dusty plasma is much larger than, and much smaller than the phase velocity of the waves, we derived the dust-acoustic wave frequency, the instability growth rate, and the instability critical flowing velocity. As compared with the formulae obtained in part I [Gong et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 043704 (2012)], all formulae of the present cases and the resulting plasma characteristics are q-dependent, and the power-law distribution of each plasma component of the permeating dusty plasma has a different q-parameter and thus has a different nonextensive effect. Further, we make numerical analyses of an example that a cometary plasma tail is passing through the interplanetary space dusty plasma and we show that these power-law distributions have significant effects on the plasma characteristics of this kind of plasma environment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volodymyr V. Kulish
2017-09-01
Conclusions. The obtained expressions for the spectrum of the values of the investigated spin waves’ wavenumbers can be used for a wider range of cases than the ones obtained in the previous papers dedicated to the investigated configurations of nanosystems. For a nanotube of the circular cross-section with small (compared to the inverse characteristic size of the nanotube cross-section values of the longitudinal wave number, the dependence of the latter on the transverse wave number is weak, as well as for the big longitudinal to transverse wavenumber component ratio. The obtained dependence is also represented graphically.