WorldWideScience

Sample records for wave physics group

  1. Shock wave physics group (M-6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental facilities and activities of the shock wave physics group at LASL are described. The facilities include a compressed gas gun, two-stage gas gun, high explosive facilities, and a pulsed megagauss field facility

  2. Physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, William C

    1985-01-01

    Because of the increasing demands and complexity of undergraduate physics courses (atomic, quantum, solid state, nuclear, etc.), it is often impossible to devote separate courses to the classic wave phenomena of optics, acoustics, and electromagnetic radiation. This brief comprehensive text helps alleviate the problem with a unique overview of classical wave theory in one volume.By examining a sequence of concrete and specific examples (emphasizing the physics of wave motion), the authors unify the study of waves, developing abstract and general features common to all wave motion. The fundam

  3. Wave Physics Oscillations - Solitons - Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Nettel, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This textbook is intended for those second year undergraduates in science and engineering who will later need an understanding of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The classical physics of oscillations and waves is developed at a more advanced level than has been customary for the second year, providing a basis for the quantum mechanics that follows. In this new edition the Green's function is explained, reinforcing the integration of quantum mechanics with classical physics. The text may also form the basis of an "introduction to theoretical physics" for physics majors. The concluding chapters give special attention to topics in current wave physics: nonlinear waves, solitons, and chaotic behavior.

  4. Group Velocity for Leaky Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeznik, Andrew; Chumakova, Lyubov; Rosales, Rodolfo

    2017-11-01

    In many linear dispersive/conservative wave problems one considers solutions in an infinite medium which is uniform everywhere except for a bounded region. In general, localized inhomogeneities of the medium cause partial internal reflection, and some waves leak out of the domain. Often one only desires the solution in the inhomogeneous region, with the exterior accounted for by radiation boundary conditions. Formulating such conditions requires definition of the direction of energy propagation for leaky waves in multiple dimensions. In uniform media such waves have the form exp (d . x + st) where d and s are complex and related by a dispersion relation. A complex s is required since these waves decay via radiation to infinity, even though the medium is conservative. We present a modified form of Whitham's Averaged Lagrangian Theory along with modulation theory to extend the classical idea of group velocity to leaky waves. This allows for solving on the bounded region by representing the waves as a linear combination of leaky modes, each exponentially decaying in time. This presentation is part of a joint project, and applications of these results to example GFD problems will be presented by L. Chumakova in the talk ``Leaky GFD Problems''. This work is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-1614043, DMS-1719637, and 1122374, and by the Hertz Foundation.

  5. Group theory in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cornwell, J F

    1989-01-01

    Recent devopments, particularly in high-energy physics, have projected group theory and symmetry consideration into a central position in theoretical physics. These developments have taken physicists increasingly deeper into the fascinating world of pure mathematics. This work presents important mathematical developments of the last fifteen years in a form that is easy to comprehend and appreciate.

  6. Physically detached 'compact groups'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A small fraction of galaxies appear to reside in dense compact groups, whose inferred crossing times are much shorter than a Hubble time. These short crossing times have led to considerable disagreement among researchers attempting to deduce the dynamical state of these systems. In this paper, we suggest that many of the observed groups are not physically bound but are chance projections of galaxies well separated along the line of sight. Unlike earlier similar proposals, ours does not require that the galaxies in the compact group be members of a more diffuse, but physically bound entity. The probability of physically separated galaxies projecting into an apparent compact group is nonnegligible if most galaxies are distributed in thin filaments. We illustrate this general point with a specific example: a simulation of a cold dark matter universe, in which hydrodynamic effects are included to identify galaxies. The simulated galaxy distribution is filamentary and end-on views of these filaments produce apparent galaxy associations that have sizes and velocity dispersions similar to those of observed compact groups. The frequency of such projections is sufficient, in principle, to explain the observed space density of groups in the Hickson catalog. We discuss the implications of our proposal for the formation and evolution of groups and elliptical galaxies. The proposal can be tested by using redshift-independent distance estimators to measure the line-of-sight spatial extent of nearby compact groups.

  7. Wave Generation in Physical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    The present book describes the most important aspects of wave generation techniques in physical models. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave generation software AwaSys 6, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald and Michael...

  8. Infragravity Waves Produced by Wave Groups on Beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志利; 常梅

    2003-01-01

    The generation of low frequency waves by a single or double wave groups incident upon two plane beaches with the slope of 1/40 and 1/100 is investigated experimentally and numerically. A new type of wave maker signal is used to generate the groups, allowing the bound long wave (set-down) to be included in the group. The experiments show that the low frequency wave is generated during breaking and propagation to the shoreline of the wave group. This process of generation and propagation of low frequency waves is simulated numerically by solving the short-wave averaged mass and momentum conservation equations. The computed and measured results are in good agreement. The mechanism of generation of low frequency waves in the surf zone is examined and discussed.

  9. Group theoretical methods in Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmo, M.A. del; Santander, M.; Mateos Guilarte, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The meeting had 102 papers. These was distributed in following areas: -Quantum groups,-Integrable systems,-Physical Applications of Group Theory,-Mathematical Results,-Geometry, Topology and Quantum Field Theory,-Super physics,-Super mathematics,-Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Nuclear and Particle Physics,-Symmetry and Foundations of classical and Quantum mechanics

  10. Nuclear physics group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    A brief description is given of the operation and maintenance of the cyclotron. The computors and data collection system are also briefly described, as is the nuclear instrumentation at the cyclotron laboratory. A number of experiments in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure which are in progress or soon to be reported are presented. Projects in theoretical nuclear physics and radiation physics are also described. Lists of seminars, lectures, visitors, conferences and publications are given. (RF)

  11. Nuclear physics group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is given of the new cyclotron tested and inaugurated during the period under review, and its main specifications are presented. Preliminary beam measurements are reported. The computers and data collection system are also briefly described, as is the nuclear instrumentation at the cyclotron laboratory. A number of experiments in nuclear structure and nuclear reactions which are in progress, or soon to be reported are presented. Projects in theoretical nuclear physics are also described. Lists of seminars and lectures and of publications are given. (JIW)

  12. Waves in microstructured solids and negative group velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, T.; Kartofelev, D.; Tamm, K.; Engelbrecht, J.

    2013-07-01

    Waves with negative group velocity (NGV) were discovered in optics by Sommerfeld and Brillouin, and experimentally verified in many cases, for example in left-handed media. For waves in solids, such an effect is described mostly in layered media. In this paper, it is demonstrated that in microstructured solids, waves with NGV may also exist leading to backwards pulse propagation. Two physical cases are analysed: a Mindlin-type hierarchical (a scale within a scale) material and a felt-type (made of fibres) material. For both cases, the dispersion analysis of one-dimensional waves shows that there exists certain ranges of physical parameters which lead to NGV. The results can be used in dispersion engineering for designing materials with certain properties.

  13. Renormalization group in modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1988-01-01

    Renormalization groups used in diverse fields of theoretical physics are considered. The discussion is based upon functional formulation of group transformations. This attitude enables development of a general method by using the notion of functional self-similarity which generalizes the usual self-similarity connected with power similarity laws. From this point of view the authors present a simple derivation of the renorm-group (RG) in QFT liberated from ultra-violet divergences philosophy, discuss the RG approach in other fields of physics and compare different RG's

  14. Physics of the Lorentz Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başkal, Sibel

    2015-11-01

    This book explains the Lorentz mathematical group in a language familiar to physicists. While the three-dimensional rotation group is one of the standard mathematical tools in physics, the Lorentz group of the four-dimensional Minkowski space is still very strange to most present-day physicists. It plays an essential role in understanding particles moving at close to light speed and is becoming the essential language for quantum optics, classical optics, and information science. The book is based on papers and books published by the authors on the representations of the Lorentz group based on harmonic oscillators and their applications to high-energy physics and to Wigner functions applicable to quantum optics. It also covers the two-by-two representations of the Lorentz group applicable to ray optics, including cavity, multilayer and lens optics, as well as representations of the Lorentz group applicable to Stokes parameters and the Poincaré sphere on polarization optics.

  15. Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyaprakash B. S.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers, and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

  16. Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyaprakash, B S; Schutz, Bernard F

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

  17. Project Physics Programmed Instruction, Waves 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This is the second of two programmed instruction booklets on the topic of waves, developed by Harvard Project Physics. It covers the relationships among the frequency, period, wavelength, and speed of a periodic wave. For the first booklet in this series, see SE 015 552. (DT)

  18. Working group report: Collider Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11KEK, Tsukuba, Japan. 12Cornell University ... This is summary of the activities of the working group on collider physics in the IXth ... In view of the requirements of the hour and the available skills and interests, it was decided to .... The actual computation, which is long and somewhat tedious, is currently under way and is ...

  19. Working group report: Neutrino physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    olation. PACS No. 14.6.q. 1. Introduction. It was decided to cover a myriad of topics for discussion and work in the neu- trino physics working group, rather than restrict ourselves to any one focal theme. 269 ..... [8] Super-Kamiokande Collaboration: K Abe et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 171801 (2006), hep-ex/0607059.

  20. Finite groups and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornyak, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive “finite” point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution—only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers—a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories—in particular, within the Standard Model.

  1. Nonaccelerator physics working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.S.; Beier, E.W.; Cherry, M.L.; Marciano, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Nonaccelerator Physics Working Group set itself the task of predicting the contributions of nonaccelerator experiments to particle physics during the 1990s, in order to assess the needs for new experimental facilities. The main topics studied by the subgroups were: (1) the possibility of doing particle physics experiments with high energy cosmic rays from astrophysical sources; (2) the prospects for experiments which seek to measure the masses of neutrinos and the mixing of neutrino flavors; (3) an examination of the implications for proton decay of recent theoretical developments in grand unified and string theories. Other topics included a survey of magnetic monopole searches, an assessment of future prospects for double-beta-decay and nucleon-decay experiments, and a review of recent progress on neutrino and dark-matter detectors based on quasiparticles in superconductors and phonons in crystals

  2. Millimetre waves and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: This talk is a review of the plasma-related presentations at the 23rd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves held at the University of Essex, Colchester, UK 7-11 September 1998. Of most relevance to fusion is the development of high-power sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. The requirements for ITER are a total of 50 MW at 170 GHz. The state of the art is illustrated by (a) high-power gyrotrons that deliver 1 MW for 1 s at 170 GHz, and (b) a free-electron maser that has generated millimetre waves for the first time, 730 kW at 200 GHz. A number of papers describe new technologies that allow high powers to be achieved; internal mode converters to convert the whispering-gallery mode generated in the gyrotron cavity into a gaussian beam, depressed collectors to raise the efficiency from 1/3 to better than 1/2, CVD diamond output windows and coaxial gyrotrons with improved mode purity. Other papers describe transmission lines and steerable mirrors. Several papers deal with millimetre-wave plasma diagnostics for fusion such as electron cyclotron emission measurements and reflectometry. (author)

  3. Nuclear Physics Group progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1985-02-01

    This report summarises the work of the Nuclear Physics Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period January-December 1983. Commissioning of the EN-tandem electrostatic accelerator continued, with the first proton beam produced in June. Many improvements were made to the vacuum pumping and control systems. Applications of the nuclear microprobe on the 3MV accelerator continued at a good pace, with applications in archaeometry, dental research, studies of glass and metallurgy

  4. Nuclear Physics Group progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarises the work of the Nuclear Physics Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period January-December 1984. Commissioning of the EN-tandem accelerator was completed. The first applications included the production of 13 N from a water target and the measurement of hydrogen depth profiles with a 19 F beam. Further equipment was built for tandem accelerator mass spectrometry but the full facility will not be ready until 1985. The nuclear microprobe on the 3 MV accelerator was used for many studies in archaeometry, metallurgy, biology and materials analysis

  5. The physics of orographic gravity wave drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A C Teixeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drag and momentum fluxes produced by gravity waves generated in flow over orography are reviewed, focusing on adiabatic conditions without phase transitions or radiation effects, and steady mean incoming flow. The orographic gravity wave drag is first introduced in its simplest possible form, for inviscid, linearized, non-rotating flow with the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations, and constant wind and static stability. Subsequently, the contributions made by previous authors (primarily using theory and numerical simulations to elucidate how the drag is affected by additional physical processes are surveyed. These include the effect of orography anisotropy, vertical wind shear, total and partial critical levels, vertical wave reflection and resonance, non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves, rotation and nonlinearity. Frictional and boundary layer effects are also briefly mentioned. A better understanding of all of these aspects is important for guiding the improvement of drag parametrization schemes.

  6. The Ignition Physics Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the US magnetic fusion program there have been relatively few standing committees of experts, with the mandate to review a particular sub-area on a continuing basis. Generally, ad hoc committees of experts have been assembled to advise on a particular issue. There has been a lack of broad, systematic and continuing review and analysis, combining the wisdom of experts in the field, in support of decision making. The Ignition Physics Study Group (IPSG) provides one forum for the systematic discussion of fusion science, complementing the other exchanges of information, and providing a most important continuity in this critical area. In a similar manner to the European program, this continuity of discussion and the focus provided by a national effort, Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), and international effort, Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), are helping to lower those barriers which previously were an impediment to rational debate

  7. Nuclear physics group annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The experimental activities of the nuclear physics group at the University of Oslo have in 1983 as in the previous years mainly been centered around the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. The cyclotron has been in extensive use during the year for low-energy nuclear physics experiments. In addition it has been used for production of radionuclides for nuclear medicine, for experiments in nuclear chemistry and for corrosion and wear studies. After four years of operation, the cyclotron is still the newest nuclear accelerator in Scandinavia. The available beam energies (protons and alpha-particles up to 35 MeV and *sp3*He-particles up to 48 MeV, makes it a good tool for studies of highly excited low-spin states. The well developed on-line computer system has added to its usefulness. Most of the nuclear experiments during the year have been connected with the study of nuclear structure at high temperature. Experimens with the *sp3*He beam have given very interesting results. Theoretical studies have continued in the same field, and there has been a fruitful cooperation between experimental and theoretical physicists. Most of the experiments are performd as joint projects where physicists from two or three Nordic universities take part. (RF)

  8. Working group report: Cosmology and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the report of the cosmology and astroparticle physics working group at ... discussions carried out during the workshop on selected topics in the above fields. ... Theoretical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, ...

  9. Understanding "Human" Waves: Exploiting the Physics in a Viral Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Roca, Chantal

    2018-01-01

    Waves are a relevant part of physics that students find difficult to grasp, even in those cases in which wave propagation kinematics can be visualized. This may hinder a proper understanding of sound, light or quantum physics phenomena that are explained using a wave model. So-called "human" waves, choreographed by people, have proved to…

  10. Nuclear physics group annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The experimental activities have in 1985 as in the previous years mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. Most of the nuclear physics experiments have been related to the study of nuclear structure at high temperature. Experiments with the 3 He-beam up to a particle energy of 45 MeV have continued, and valuable information regarding the cooling process in highly excited nuclei has been obtained. Theoretical studies of highly excited nuclei have continued, and there has been a fruitful cooperation between experimental and theoretical physicists

  11. Testing fundamental physics with gravitational waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The landmark detection of gravitational waves (GWs) has opened a new era in physics, giving access to the hitherto unexplored strong-gravity regime, where spacetime curvature is extreme and the relevant speed is close to the speed of light. In parallel to its countless astrophysical applications, this discovery can have also important implications for fundamental physics. In this context, I will discuss some outstanding, cross-cutting problems that can be finally investigated in the GW era: the nature of black holes and of spacetime singularities, the limits of classical gravity, the existence of extra light fields, and the effects of dark matter near compact objects. Future GW measurements will provide unparalleled tests of quantum-gravity effects at the horizon scale, exotic compact objects, ultralight dark matter, and of general relativity in the strong-field regime.

  12. Nuclear physics group annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The experimental activities have in 1984 as in previous years mainly been centered around the cyclotron laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. The available beam energies (protons and alpha-particles to 35 MeV and 3 He-particles up to 48 MeV) make it an excellent tool for studies of highly excited low-spin states, and also for other experiments with light ions in an intermediate energy range. During the year the accelerator has been in extensive use for low-energy nuclear physics experiments. Most of the experiments have been related to the study of nuclear structure at high temperature. Experiments with the 3 He-beam up to a particle energy of 45 MeV, have given some interesting results, which, it is hoped, will contribute to a better understanding of the cooling process in highly excited nuclei

  13. Working group report: Cosmology and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the report of the cosmology and astroparticle physics working group ... origin of the accelerating Universe: Dark energy and particle cosmology by Y-Y Keum, .... Neutrino oscillations with two and three mass varying supernova neutrinos ...

  14. and collider physics: Working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theory Group, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 ... One such is anomaly mediation, wherein there is no tree level coupling ..... The role of the spectator quarks effect in the inclusive beauty decays were studied.

  15. Group Counseling for People with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Wilson, Lisa M.; Pullo, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Group counseling has been used with a wide range of people who have physical disorders including psychosomatic conditions, sensory (visual and auditory) disabilities, neuromuscular and orthopedic impairments, and life-threatening diseases. The needs and concerns of these people can be generally delineated as physical, psychological, social,…

  16. Symmetry and group theory throughout physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villain J.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As noticed in 1884 by Pierre Curie [1], physical properties of matter are tightly related to the kind of symmetry of the medium. Group theory is a systematic tool, though not always easy to handle, to exploit symmetry properties, for instance to find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of an operator. Certain properties (optical activity, piezoelectricity are forbidden in molecules or crystals of high symmetry. A few theorems (Noether, Goldstone establish general relations between physical properties and symmetry. Applications of group theory to condensed matter physics, elementary particle physics, quantum mechanics, electromagnetism are reviewed. Group theory is not only a tool, but also a beautiful construction which casts insight into natural phenomena.

  17. INMM Physical Protection Technical Working Group Workshops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) established the Physical Protection Technical Working Group to be a focal point for INMM activities related to the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. The Technical Working Group has sponsored workshops with major emphasis on intrusion detection systems, entry control systems, and security personnel training. The format for these workshops has consisted of a series of small informal group discussions on specific subject matter which allows direct participation by the attendees and the exchange of ideas, experiences, and insights. This paper will introduce the reader to the activities of the Physical Protection Technical Working Group, to identify the workshops which have been held, and to serve as an introduction to the following three papers of this session

  18. Working group report: heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Jan-E; Chattopadhyay, S.; Assamagan, K.; Gavai, R.; Gupta, Sourendra; Mukherjee, S.; Ray, R.; Layek, B.; Srivastava, A.; Roy, Pradip K.

    2004-01-01

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India during January 5-16, 2004. One of the four working groups, group III was dedicated to QCD and heavy ion physics (HIC). The present manuscript gives a summary of the activities of group III during the workshop. The activities of group III were focused to understand the collective behaviours of the system formed after the collisions of two nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies from the interactions of the elementary degrees of freedom, i.e. quarks and gluons, governed by non-Abelian gauge theory, i.e. QCD. This was initiated by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and lattice QCD and several working group talks and discussions. (author)

  19. Summary of the Physics Opportunities Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin; McDonald, K.T.

    1992-12-01

    The Physics Opportunities Working Group was convened with the rather general mandate to explore physic opportunities that may arise as new accelerator technologies and facilities come into play. Five topics were considered during the workshop: QED at critical field strength, novel positron sources, crystal accelerators, suppression of beamstrahlung, and muon colliders. Of particular interest was the sense that a high energy muon collider might be technically feasible and certainly deserves serious study

  20. Physics of interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Caltech-MIT joint LIGO project is operating three long-baseline interferometers (one of 2 km and two of 4 km) in order to unambiguously measure the infinitesimal displacements of isolated test masses which convey the signature of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. An interferometric gravitational wave ...

  1. The Measurement and Interpretation of Surface Wave Group Arrival Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, G.; Kane, D.; Morrow, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have recently developed an efficient technique for measuring the relative group arrival times of surface waves by using cross-correlation and cluster analysis of waveform envelope functions. Applying the analysis to minor arc Love and Rayleigh waves in the frequency band 7 to 35 mHz for all events over magnitude 5.5 results in a dataset of over 200,000 measurements at each frequency for long period Rayleigh waves (frequency less than 25 mHz) and about 100,000 measurements at the shorter periods. Analysis of transverse components results in about half as many Love wave measurements. Simple ray theory inversions of the relative arrival times for apparent group velocity produce maps which are accurate representations of the data (often over 90% variance reduction of the relative arrival times) and which show features strongly correlated with tectonics and crustal thickness. The apparent group velocity variations can be extremely large: 30% velocity variations for 20 mHz Rayleigh waves and 40% variations for 30 mHz Rayleigh waves and can have abrupt lateral changes. This raises the concern that non-ray theory effects could be important. Indeed, a recent analysis by Dahlen and Zhou (personal communication) suggests that the group arrival times should be a functions of both the group velocity AND the phase velocity. The simplest way to test the interpretation of the measurements is to perform the analysis on synthetic seismograms computed for a realistic model of the Earth. Here, we use the SEM with a model which incorporates realistic crust and mantle structure. We are currently computing synthetics for a suite of roughly 1000 events recorded globally that extend to a period of 18 seconds. We shall present the results of applying both ray-based and finite frequency inversions to the synthetic data as well as evaluating the effects of off path propagation at short periods using surface wave ray tracing.

  2. Waves and particles two essays on fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Roger G

    2014-01-01

    The book consists of two separate parts, the first part is on waves and the second part on particles. In part 1, after describing the awesome power of tsunami and the history of their occurrences, the book turns to the history of explaining phenomena by means of mathematical equations. Then it describes other wave phenomena and the laws governing them: the vibration of strings and drums in musical instruments, the sound waves making them audible, ultrasound and its uses, sonar, and shock waves; electromagnetic waves: light waves, refraction, diffraction, why the sky is blue, the rainbow, and the glory; microwaves and radio waves: radar, radio astronomy, the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, microwave ovens and how a radio works, lasers and masers; waves in modern physics: the Schrödinger wave function and gravitational waves in general relativity; water waves in the ocean, tides and tidal waves, and the quite different solitary waves, solitons discovered in canals. Finally we return to ...

  3. Group Theory with Applications in Chemical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Patrick

    2005-10-01

    Group Theory is an indispensable mathematical tool in many branches of chemistry and physics. This book provides a self-contained and rigorous account on the fundamentals and applications of the subject to chemical physics, assuming no prior knowledge of group theory. The first half of the book focuses on elementary topics, such as molecular and crystal symmetry, whilst the latter half is more advanced in nature. Discussions on more complex material such as space groups, projective representations, magnetic crystals and spinor bases, often omitted from introductory texts, are expertly dealt with. With the inclusion of numerous exercises and worked examples, this book will appeal to advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students studying physical sciences and is an ideal text for use on a two-semester course. An introductory and advanced text that comprehensively covers fundamentals and applications of group theory in detail Suitable for a two-semester course with numerous worked examples and problems Includes several topics often omitted from introductory texts, such as rotation group, space groups and spinor bases

  4. Particle physics-astrophysics working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.W.; Kolb, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    The working group met each afternoon and listened to mini-symposia on a broad range of subjects covering all aspects of particle physics---astrophysics both theoretical and experimental. This paper reports that as a result, a number of papers which follow were commissioned to reflect the present status and future prospects of the field

  5. Physics of interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Caltech-MIT joint LIGO project is operating three long-baseline inter- ... gravitational waves for LIGO are: (i) binary coalescing neutron star systems, (ii) ..... The fundamental mode of this basis is a purely Gaussian function which means.

  6. Blast effects physical properties of shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book compiles a variety of experimental data on blast waves. The book begins with an introductory chapter and proceeds to the topic of blast wave phenomenology, with a discussion Rankine-Hugoniot equations and the Friedlander equation, used to describe the pressure-time history of a blast wave. Additional topics include arrival time measurement, the initiation of detonation by exploding wires, a discussion of TNT equivalency, and small scale experiments. Gaseous and high explosive detonations are covered as well. The topics and experiments covered were chosen based on the comparison of used scale sizes, from small to large. Each characteristic parameter of blast waves is analyzed and expressed versus scaled distance in terms of energy and mass. Finally, the appendix compiles a number of polynomial laws that will prove indispensable for engineers and researchers.

  7. Wave propagation model of heat conduction and group speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Zhang, Xiaomin; Peng, Song

    2018-03-01

    In view of the finite relaxation model of non-Fourier's law, the Cattaneo and Vernotte (CV) model and Fourier's law are presented in this work for comparing wave propagation modes. Independent variable translation is applied to solve the partial differential equation. Results show that the general form of the time spatial distribution of temperature for the three media comprises two solutions: those corresponding to the positive and negative logarithmic heating rates. The former shows that a group of heat waves whose spatial distribution follows the exponential function law propagates at a group speed; the speed of propagation is related to the logarithmic heating rate. The total speed of all the possible heat waves can be combined to form the group speed of the wave propagation. The latter indicates that the spatial distribution of temperature, which follows the exponential function law, decays with time. These features show that propagation accelerates when heated and decelerates when cooled. For the model media that follow Fourier's law and correspond to the positive heat rate of heat conduction, the propagation mode is also considered the propagation of a group of heat waves because the group speed has no upper bound. For the finite relaxation model with non-Fourier media, the interval of group speed is bounded and the maximum speed can be obtained when the logarithmic heating rate is exactly the reciprocal of relaxation time. And for the CV model with a non-Fourier medium, the interval of group speed is also bounded and the maximum value can be obtained when the logarithmic heating rate is infinite.

  8. Can plane wave modes be physical modes in soliton models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldabe, F.

    1995-08-01

    I show that plane waves may not be used as asymptotic states in soliton models because they describe unphysical states. When asymptotic states are taken to the physical there is not T-matrix of O(1). (author). 9 refs

  9. Symmetries and groups in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book consists of a didactic introduction to the group-theoretical considerations and methods, which have led to an ever deeper understanding of the interactions of the elementary particles. The first three chapters deal primarily with the foundations of the representation theory of primarily finite groups, whereby many results are also transferable to compact Lie groups. In the third chapter we discuss the concept of Lie groups and their connection with Lie algebras. In the remaining chapter it is mainly about the application of group theory in physics. Chapter 4 deals with the groups SO(3) and SU(2), which occur in connection with the description of the angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We discuss the Wigner-Eckar theorem together with some applications. In chapter 5 we are employed to the composition properties of strongly interacting systems, so called hadrons, and discuss extensively the transformation properties of quarks with relation to the special unitary groups. The Noether theorem is generally treated in connection to the conservation laws belonging to the Galilei group and the Poincare group. We confine us in chapter 6 to internal symmetries, but explain for that extensively the application to quantum field theory. Especially an outlook on the effect of symmetries in form of so called Ward identities is granted. In chapter 7 we turn towards the gauge principle and discuss first the construction of quantum electrodynamics. In the following we generalize the gauge principle to non-Abelian groups (Yang-Mills theories) and formulate the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Especially we take a view of ''random'' global symmetries of QCD, especially the chiral symmetry. In chapter 8 we illuminate the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking both for global and for local symmetries. In the final chapter we work out the group-theoretical structure of the Standard Model. Finally by means of the group SU(5) we take a view to

  10. Applied group theory selected readings in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    1968-01-01

    Selected Readings in Physics: Applied Group Theory provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of applied group theory. This book discusses the properties of symmetry of a system in quantum mechanics.Organized into two parts encompassing nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the problem of elastic vibrations of a symmetric structure. This text then examines the numbers, degeneracies, and symmetries of the normal modes of vibration. Other chapters consider the conditions under which a polyatomic molecule can have a stable equilibrium configuration when its electronic

  11. Bicovariant differential calculus on quantum groups and wave mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Watamura, S.; Hebecker, A.; Schlieker, M.; Weich, W.

    1992-01-01

    The bicovariant differential calculus on quantum groups defined by Woronowicz and later worked out explicitly by Carow-Watamura et al. and Jurco for the real quantum groups SU q (N) and SO q (N) through a systematic construction of the bicovariant bimodules of these quantum groups, is reviewed for SU q (2) and SO q (N). The resulting vector fields build representations of the quantized universal enveloping algebras acting as covariant differential operators on the quantum groups and their associated quantum spaces. As an application, a free particle stationary wave equation on quantum space is formulated and solved in terms of a complete set of energy eigenfunctions. (author) 15 refs

  12. Focus group discussion in mathematical physics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellianawati; Rudiana, D.; Sabandar, J.; Subali, B.

    2018-03-01

    The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) activity in Mathematical Physics learning has helped students perform the stages of problem solving reflectively. The FGD implementation was conducted to explore the problems and find the right strategy to improve the students' ability to solve the problem accurately which is one of reflective thinking component that has been difficult to improve. The research method used is descriptive qualitative by using single subject response in Physics student. During the FGD process, one student was observed of her reflective thinking development in solving the physics problem. The strategy chosen in the discussion activity was the Cognitive Apprenticeship-Instruction (CA-I) syntax. Based on the results of this study, it is obtained the information that after going through a series of stages of discussion, the students' reflective thinking skills is increased significantly. The scaffolding stage in the CA-I model plays an important role in the process of solving physics problems accurately. Students are able to recognize and formulate problems by describing problem sketches, identifying the variables involved, applying mathematical equations that accord to physics concepts, executing accurately, and applying evaluation by explaining the solution to various contexts.

  13. The physical basis for estimating wave-energy spectra with the radar ocean-wave spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Frederick C.

    1987-01-01

    The derivation of the reflectivity modulation spectrum of the sea surface for near-nadir-viewing microwave radars using geometrical optics is described. The equations required for the derivation are presented. The derived reflectivity modulation spectrum provides data on the physical basis of the radar ocean-wave spectrometer measurements of ocean-wave directional spectra.

  14. Rays, waves, and scattering topics in classical mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, John A

    2017-01-01

    This one-of-a-kind book presents many of the mathematical concepts, structures, and techniques used in the study of rays, waves, and scattering. Panoramic in scope, it includes discussions of how ocean waves are refracted around islands and underwater ridges, how seismic waves are refracted in the earth's interior, how atmospheric waves are scattered by mountains and ridges, how the scattering of light waves produces the blue sky, and meteorological phenomena such as rainbows and coronas. Rays, Waves, and Scattering is a valuable resource for practitioners, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates in applied mathematics, theoretical physics, and engineering. Bridging the gap between advanced treatments of the subject written for specialists and less mathematical books aimed at beginners, this unique mathematical compendium features problems and exercises throughout that are geared to various levels of sophistication, covering everything from Ptolemy's theorem to Airy integrals (as well as more technica...

  15. Low Frequency Waves Detected in a Large Wave Flume under Irregular Waves with Different Grouping Factor and Combination of Regular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigia Riefolo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a set of experiments undertaken at Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya in the large wave flume of the Maritime Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of this study is to highlight the effects of wave grouping and long-wave short-wave combinations regimes on low frequency generations. An eigen-value decomposition has been performed to discriminate low frequencies. In particular, measured eigen modes, determined through the spectral analysis, have been compared with calculated modes by means of eigen analysis. The low frequencies detection appears to confirm the dependence on groupiness of the modal amplitudes generated in the wave flume. Some evidence of the influence of low frequency waves on runup and transport patterns are shown. In particular, the generation and evolution of secondary bedforms are consistent with energy transferred between the standing wave modes.

  16. Characteristics of phase-averaged equations for modulated wave groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopman, G.; Petit, H.A.H.; Battjes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The project concerns the influence of long waves on coastal morphology. The modelling of the combined motion of the long waves and short waves in the horizontal plane is done by phase-averaging over the short wave motion and using intra-wave modelling for the long waves, see e.g. Roelvink (1993).

  17. Nonlinear physics of shear Alfvén waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Shear Alfvén waves (SAW) play fundamental roles in thermonuclear plasmas of fusion interest, since they are readily excited by energetic particles in the MeV range as well as by the thermal plasma components. Thus, understanding fluctuation induced transport in burning plasmas requires understanding nonlinear SAW physics. There exist two possible routes to nonlinear SAW physics: (i) wave-wave interactions and the resultant spectral energy transfer; (ii) nonlinear wave-particle interactions of SAW instabilities with energetic particles. Within the first route, it is advantageous to understand and describe nonlinear processes in term of proximity of the system to the Alfvénic state, where wave-wave interactions are minimized due to the cancellation of Reynolds and Maxwell stresses. Here, various wave-wave nonlinear dynamics are elucidated in terms of how they break the Alfvénic state. In particular, we discuss the qualitative and quantitative modification of the SAW parametric decay process due to finite ion compressibility and finite ion Larmor radius. We also show that toroidal geometry plays a crucial role in the nonlinear excitation of zonal structures by Alfvén eigenmodes. Within the second route, the coherent nonlinear dynamics of structures in the energetic particle phase space, by which secular resonant particle transport can occur on meso- and macro-scales, must be addressed and understood. These 'nonlinear equilibria' or 'phase-space zonal structures' dynamically evolve on characteristic (fluctuation induced) turbulent transport time scales, which are generally of the same order of the nonlinear time scale of the underlying fluctuations. In this work, we introduce the general structure of nonlinear Schrödinger equations with complex integro-differential nonlinear terms, which govern these physical processes. To elucidate all these aspects, theoretical analyses are presented together with numerical simulation results

  18. Nonlinear physics of shear Alfvén waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2014-02-01

    Shear Alfvén waves (SAW) play fundamental roles in thermonuclear plasmas of fusion interest, since they are readily excited by energetic particles in the MeV range as well as by the thermal plasma components. Thus, understanding fluctuation induced transport in burning plasmas requires understanding nonlinear SAW physics. There exist two possible routes to nonlinear SAW physics: (i) wave-wave interactions and the resultant spectral energy transfer; (ii) nonlinear wave-particle interactions of SAW instabilities with energetic particles. Within the first route, it is advantageous to understand and describe nonlinear processes in term of proximity of the system to the Alfvénic state, where wave-wave interactions are minimized due to the cancellation of Reynolds and Maxwell stresses. Here, various wave-wave nonlinear dynamics are elucidated in terms of how they break the Alfvénic state. In particular, we discuss the qualitative and quantitative modification of the SAW parametric decay process due to finite ion compressibility and finite ion Larmor radius. We also show that toroidal geometry plays a crucial role in the nonlinear excitation of zonal structures by Alfvén eigenmodes. Within the second route, the coherent nonlinear dynamics of structures in the energetic particle phase space, by which secular resonant particle transport can occur on meso- and macro-scales, must be addressed and understood. These "nonlinear equilibria" or "phase-space zonal structures" dynamically evolve on characteristic (fluctuation induced) turbulent transport time scales, which are generally of the same order of the nonlinear time scale of the underlying fluctuations. In this work, we introduce the general structure of nonlinear Schrödinger equations with complex integro-differential nonlinear terms, which govern these physical processes. To elucidate all these aspects, theoretical analyses are presented together with numerical simulation results.

  19. Teaching Electromagnetic Waves in College Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Y.; Leng, L.

    2006-12-01

    One of the important educational advantages of the simultaneous study of the electromagnetic waves and light is to show that light and the electromagnetic radiation have the same properties so that the students can visualize the properties of the electromagnetic radiation through observation of light propagation. In our approach we are suggest to study the properties of a microwave radiation and light in parallel. The following experiments can be easily designed and they provide a methodical introduction to electromagnetic theory using the microwave radiation and light: the study of the inverse square law of the dependence of the intensity of radiation (microwave and light) on the distance, the law of reflection and refraction, investigation of the phenomenon of polarization and how a polarizer can be used to alter the polarization of microwave radiation and light, measuring the Brewster's angle, studying interference by performing double-slit experiment for microwave radiation and light. Finally students measure the wavelength of the laser light and microwave radiation using the corresponding versions the Michelson’s interferometer, and recognize that these two radiations only differ by the wavelength or frequency.

  20. The Renormalization Group in Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnstahl, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern techniques of the renormalization group (RG) combined with effective field theory (EFT) methods are revolutionizing nuclear many-body physics. In these lectures we will explore the motivation for RG in low-energy nuclear systems and its implementation in systems ranging from the deuteron to neutron stars, both formally and in practice. Flow equation approaches applied to Hamiltonians both in free space and in the medium will be emphasized. This is a conceptually simple technique to transform interactions to more perturbative and universal forms. An unavoidable complication for nuclear systems from both the EFT and flow equation perspective is the need to treat many-body forces and operators, so we will consider these aspects in some detail. We'll finish with a survey of current developments and open problems in nuclear RG.

  1. Disciplinary Knots and Learning Problems in Waves Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzone, Simone; Frati, Serena; Montalbano, Vera

    An investigation on student understanding of waves is performed during an optional laboratory realized in informal extracurricular way with few, interested and talented pupils. The background and smart intuitions of students rendered the learning path very dynamic and ambitious. The activities started by investigating the basic properties of waves by means of a Shive wave machine. In order to make quantitative observed phenomena, the students used a camcorder and series of measures were obtained from the captured images. By checking the resulting data, it arose some learning difficulties especially in activities related to the laboratory. This experience was the starting point for a further analysis on disciplinary knots and learning problems in the physics of waves in order to elaborate a teaching-learning proposal on this topic.

  2. Renormalization group approach to a p-wave superconducting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continentino, Mucio A.; Deus, Fernanda; Caldas, Heron

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work an exact renormalization group (RG) treatment of a one-dimensional p-wave superconductor. The model proposed by Kitaev consists of a chain of spinless fermions with a p-wave gap. It is a paradigmatic model of great actual interest since it presents a weak pairing superconducting phase that has Majorana fermions at the ends of the chain. Those are predicted to be useful for quantum computation. The RG allows to obtain the phase diagram of the model and to study the quantum phase transition from the weak to the strong pairing phase. It yields the attractors of these phases and the critical exponents of the weak to strong pairing transition. We show that the weak pairing phase of the model is governed by a chaotic attractor being non-trivial from both its topological and RG properties. In the strong pairing phase the RG flow is towards a conventional strong coupling fixed point. Finally, we propose an alternative way for obtaining p-wave superconductivity in a one-dimensional system without spin–orbit interaction.

  3. Understanding the Physical Nature of Coronal "EIT Waves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D M; Bloomfield, D S; Chen, P F; Downs, C; Gallagher, P T; Kwon, R-Y; Vanninathan, K; Veronig, A M; Vourlidas, A; Vršnak, B; Warmuth, A; Žic, T

    2017-01-01

    For almost 20 years the physical nature of globally propagating waves in the solar corona (commonly called "EIT waves") has been controversial and subject to debate. Additional theories have been proposed over the years to explain observations that did not agree with the originally proposed fast-mode wave interpretation. However, the incompatibility of observations made using the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory with the fast-mode wave interpretation was challenged by differing viewpoints from the twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft and data with higher spatial and temporal resolution from the Solar Dynamics Observatory . In this article, we reexamine the theories proposed to explain EIT waves to identify measurable properties and behaviours that can be compared to current and future observations. Most of us conclude that the so-called EIT waves are best described as fast-mode large-amplitude waves or shocks that are initially driven by the impulsive expansion of an erupting coronal mass ejection in the low corona.

  4. Travelling wave solutions to nonlinear physical models by means

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the first integral method to carry out the integration of nonlinear partial differential equations in terms of travelling wave solutions. For illustration, three important equations of mathematical physics are analytically investigated. Through the established first integrals, exact solutions are successfully ...

  5. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are

  6. Mathematical analogies in physics. Thin-layer wave theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Carcione

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field theory applies to elastodynamics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, gravitation and other similar fields of physics, where the basic equations describing the phenomenon are based on constitutive relations and balance equations. For instance, in elastodynamics, these are the stress-strain relations and the equations of momentum conservation (Euler-Newton law. In these cases, the same mathematical theory can be used, by establishing appropriate mathematical equivalences (or analogies between material properties and field variables. For instance, the wave equation and the related mathematical developments can be used to describe anelastic and electromagnetic wave propagation, and are extensively used in quantum mechanics. In this work, we obtain the mathematical analogy for the reflection/refraction (transmission problem of a thin layer embedded between dissimilar media, considering the presence of anisotropy and attenuation/viscosity in the viscoelastic case, conductivity in the electromagnetic case and a potential barrier in quantum physics (the tunnel effect. The analogy is mainly illustrated with geophysical examples of propagation of S (shear, P (compressional, TM (transverse-magnetic and TE (transverse-electric waves. The tunnel effect is obtained as a special case of viscoelastic waves at normal incidence.

  7. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was ... by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and ... charge. At low temperature and density the quarks and gluons are confined within.

  8. Working group report: Neutrino and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8. We present the discussions carried out during the workshop on selected topics in the above fields and also indicate progress made subsequently. The neutrino physics subgroup studied the possibilities of constraining neutrino masses, ...

  9. Physics Structure Analysis of Parallel Waves Concept of Physics Teacher Candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwi, S; Linuwih, S; Supardi, K I

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find a parallel structure concept of wave physics and the factors that influence on the formation of parallel conceptions of physics teacher candidates. The method used qualitative research which types of cross-sectional design. These subjects were five of the third semester of basic physics and six of the fifth semester of wave course students. Data collection techniques used think aloud and written tests. Quantitative data were analysed with descriptive technique-percentage. The data analysis technique for belief and be aware of answers uses an explanatory analysis. Results of the research include: 1) the structure of the concept can be displayed through the illustration of a map containing the theoretical core, supplements the theory and phenomena that occur daily; 2) the trend of parallel conception of wave physics have been identified on the stationary waves, resonance of the sound and the propagation of transverse electromagnetic waves; 3) the influence on the parallel conception that reading textbooks less comprehensive and knowledge is partial understanding as forming the structure of the theory. (paper)

  10. Working group report: Collider and B physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The activities of the working group including some of the seminars are summarized. The written ... The search for supersymmetry at future colliders also received a lot of attention. It is believed that ..... Then the kinematic regions can be divided.

  11. Working group report: Flavor physics and model building

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. ... This is the report of flavor physics and model building working group at ... those in model building have been primarily devoted to neutrino physics. ..... [12] Andrei Gritsan, ICHEP 2004, Beijing, China.

  12. Applied nuclear physics group - activities report. 1977-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    1998-06-01

    This report presents the activities conducted by the Applied Nuclear Physics group of the Londrina State University - Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory - Brazil, from the activities beginning (1977) up to the end of the year 1997

  13. Control of complex physically simulated robot groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, David C.

    2001-10-01

    Actuated systems such as robots take many forms and sizes but each requires solving the difficult task of utilizing available control inputs to accomplish desired system performance. Coordinated groups of robots provide the opportunity to accomplish more complex tasks, to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and to survive individual failures. Similarly, groups of simulated robots, represented as graphical characters, can test the design of experimental scenarios and provide autonomous interactive counterparts for video games. The complexity of writing control algorithms for these groups currently hinders their use. A combination of biologically inspired heuristics, search strategies, and optimization techniques serve to reduce the complexity of controlling these real and simulated characters and to provide computationally feasible solutions.

  14. Atomic physics effects on dissipative toroidal drift wave stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, M.A.; Hahm, T.S.

    1992-02-01

    The effects of atomic physics processes such as ionization, charge exchange, and radiation on the linear stability of dissipative drift waves are investigated in toroidal geometry both numerically and analytically. For typical TFTR and TEXT edge parameters, overall linear stability is determined by the competition between the destabilizing influence of ionization and the stabilizing effect due to the electron temperature gradient. An analytical expression for the linear marginal stability condition, η e crit , is derived. The instability is most likely to occur at the extreme edge of tokamaks with a significant ionization source and a steep electron density gradient

  15. Summary of the particle physics and technology working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan Lammel et al. email = crathbun@fnal.gov

    2002-01-01

    Progress in particle physics has been tightly related to technological advances during the past half century. Progress in technologies has been driven in many cases by the needs of particle physics. Often, these advances have benefited fields beyond particle physics: other scientific fields, medicine, industrial development, and even found commercial applications. The particle physics and technology working group of Snowmass 2001 reviewed leading-edge technologies recently developed or in the need of development for particle physics. The group has identified key areas where technological advances are vital for progress in the field, areas of opportunities where particle physics may play a principle role in fostering progress, and areas where advances in other fields may directly benefit particle physics. The group has also surveyed the technologies specifically developed or enhanced by research in particle physics that benefit other fields and/or society at large

  16. Annual report of nuclear physics group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    The experimental programme on weak interaction phenomena continued. A great deal of effort was expended in attempting to understand a discrepancy of 7 kev between determinations of the 42 Ca - 42 Sc mass difference using the (p,n) and ( 3 He,t) reactions. Great care was taken to reduce the background in the measurement of the apparent (p,n) threshold. This however did not reduce the discrepancy. It is possible that the effective threshold does not accurately reflect the 42 Ca - 42 Sc mass difference, nevertheless the Q-value as determined by the ( 3 He,t) reaction should be remeasured as well. The activities of the Polarized Ion Source group were concentrated on measurements of the proton polarization in the 3 He(d,p) 4 He reaction, an analysis of data previously obtained using the polarized ion source and on a modest upgrading of the polarized ion source facility. In nuclear spectroscopy the only experimental work undertaken was aimed at elucidating some problems encountered in the analysis of Doppler shift data previously obtained for the nuclei 41 Ar and 41 K. Analysis of this data and of data on 46 Sc, 44 Ti, 54 Mn and 51 Cr was undertaken through the year

  17. Illustrations and supporting texts for sound standing waves of air columns in pipes in introductory physics textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zeng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In our pilot studies, we found that many introductory physics textbook illustrations with supporting text for sound standing waves of air columns in open-open, open-closed, and closed-closed pipes inhibit student understanding of sound standing wave phenomena due to student misunderstanding of how air molecules move within these pipes. Based on the construct of meaningful learning from cognitive psychology and semiotics, a quasiexperimental study was conducted to investigate the comparative effectiveness of two alternative approaches to student understanding: a traditional textbook illustration approach versus a newly designed air molecule motion illustration approach. Thirty volunteer students from introductory physics classes were randomly assigned to two groups of 15 each. Both groups were administered a presurvey. Then, group A read the air molecule motion illustration handout, and group B read a traditional textbook illustration handout; both groups were administered postsurveys. Subsequently, the procedure was reversed: group B read the air molecule motion illustration handout and group A read the traditional textbook illustration handout. This was followed by a second postsurvey along with an exit research questionnaire. The study found that the majority of students experienced meaningful learning and stated that they understood sound standing wave phenomena significantly better using the air molecule motion illustration approach. This finding provides a method for physics education researchers to design illustrations for abstract sound standing wave concepts, for publishers to improve their illustrations with supporting text, and for instructors to facilitate deeper learning in their students on sound standing waves.

  18. Report of the Quark Flavor Physics Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J N; Ritchie, J L; Cirigliano, V; Kettell, S; Briere, R; Petrov, A A; Schwartz, A; Skwarnicki, T; Zupan, J; Christ, N; Sharpe, S R; Van de Water, R S; Altmannshofer, W; Arkani-Hamed, N; Artuso, M; Asner, D M; Bernard, C; Bevan, A J; Blanke, M; Bonvicini, G; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Campana, P; Cenci, R; Cline, D; Comfort, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; El-Khadra, A X; Fast, J E; Forty, R; Flood, K T; Gershon, T; Grossman, Y; Hamilton, B; Hill, C T; Hill, R J; Hitlin, D G; Jaffe, D E; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Kagan, A L; Kaplan, D M; Kohl, M; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Lee, K; Littenberg, L S; MacFarlane, D B; Mackenzie, P B; Meadows, B T; Olsen, J; Papucci, M; Parsa, Z; Paz, G; Perez, G; Piilonen, L E; Pitts, K; Purohit, M V; Quinn, B; Ratcliff, B N; Roberts, D A; Rosner, J L; Rubin, P; Seeman, J; Seth, K K; Schmidt, B; Schopper, A; Sokoloff, M D; Soni, A; Stenson, K; Stone, S; Sundrum, R; Tschirhart, R; Vainshtein, A; Wah, Y W; Wilkinson, G; Wise, M B; Worcester, E; Xu, J; Yamanaka, T

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Quark Flavor Physics Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of quark flavor physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of strange, charm, and bottom quarks. The ability of these studies to reveal the effects of new physics at high mass scales make them an essential ingredient in a well-balanced experimental particle physics program.

  19. Physical Processes Involved In Yellow Sea Solitary Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warn-Varnas, A.; Chin-Bing, S.; King, D.; Lamb, K.; Hawkins, J.; Teixeira, M.

    The study area is located south of the Shandong peninsula. In this area, soliton gener- ation and propagation studies are per formed with the Lamb(1994) model. The model is nonhydrostatic and is formulated in 2 1/2 dimensions for terrain following c oordi- nates. In the area, 20 to 30 m topographic variations over distances of 10 to 20 km are found to occur in the digit al atlas of Choi (1999). The area is shallow with maximum depths ranging from 40 m to 70 m. Along the southern boundary of the region the semi-diurnal tidal strength magnitude varies from .6 m/sec to 1.2 m/sec, Fang(1994). We show that, for sum mer conditions, the existing physical processes associated with the semi-diurnal tidal flow over the topographic variations , in the shelfbreak region, lead to the formation of internal bores in the model simulations. Through acting phys- ical proce sses, the internal bores propagate on and off the shelf. A disintegration process of internal bores into solitary waves occ urs through frequency and ampli- tude dispersion. SAR observations of the area show images containing six events con- sisting of internal bores and solitary waves that travel in a well-defined direction for two and a half days. The origin of the trains appeared to be at a point along a steep topo graphic drop. The SAR observations are used for guiding and tuning the model simulations, by comparing spectra of observed and modeled wavelengths. The tuned model yields wavelengths that are within a factor of 2 of the SAR data. The modeled amp litudes are within a factor of 2 of amplitudes obtained with a two-layer model and the SAR data The signature on the acoustical field of ongoing physical processes through the interaction of the resultant oceanic struct ure with the acoustical field is pursued. Internal bore and solitary wave structures interact with the acoustic field. A re distribution of acoustical energy to higher acoustical modes occurs at some fre- quencies. Mode decomposition of the

  20. Generation and Active Absorption of 2- and 3-Dimensional Linear Water Waves in Physical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    in the wave channel in front of the wave generator. The results of physical model tests performed with an absorbing wave maker based on this principle show that the problem of rereflection is reduced significantly when active absorption is performed. Finally, an absorbing directional wave generator for 3-D...... generator is capable of of reducing the problem of rereflection in multidirectional, irregular wave fields significantly....

  1. Physical Model Study of Wave Action in New Thomsen Harbor, Sitka, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    approached from the southwest. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes...Wave height and period for irregular wave conditions refer to Hm0 and Tp, respectively. For mono- chromatic waves, wave height is the actual height...sec, respectively. Plotted along with the Group 12 results are corresponding tests from Group 13 that used mono- chromatic waves. Looking only at

  2. Renormalization Group in different fields of theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1992-02-01

    A very simple and general approach to the symmetry that is widely known as a Renormalization Group symmetry is presented. It essentially uses a functional formulation of group transformations that can be considered as a generalization of self-similarity transformations well known in mathematical physics since last century. This generalized Functional Self-Similarity symmetry and corresponding group transformations are discussed first for a number of simple physical problems taken from diverse fields of classical physics as well as for QED. Then we formulate the Renorm-Group Method as a regular procedure that essentially improves the approximate solutions near the singularity. After that we discuss relations between different formulations of Renormalization Group as they appear in various parts of a modern theoretical physics. Finally we present several topics of RGM application in modern QFT. (author)

  3. Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: qualitative features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at 0T > 16 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future generations of GHz-range detectors

  4. Infinite dimensional groups and algebras in quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottesen, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of infite-dimensional groups and algebras in quantum physics. Especially considered are the spin representation of the infinite-dimensional orthogonal group, the metaplectic representation of the infinite-dimensional symplectic groups, and Loop and Virasoro algebras. (HSI)

  5. Renormalization group in statistical physics - momentum and real spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    Two variants of the renormalization group approach in statistical physics are considered, the renormalization group in the momentum and the renormalization group in the real spaces. Common properties of these methods and their differences are cleared up. A simple model for investigating the crossover between different universality classes is suggested. 27 refs

  6. New exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear physical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir, Ahmet; Cevikel, Adem C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we established abundant travelling wave solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations. This method was used to construct travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The travelling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions. The ((G ' )/G )-expansion method presents a wider applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations.

  7. What Is Light?. Students' Reflections on the Wave-Particle Duality of Light and the Nature of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ellen Karoline; Angell, Carl; Vistnes, Arnt Inge; Bungum, Berit

    2018-03-01

    Quantum physics describes light as having both particle and wave properties; however, there is no consensus about how to interpret this duality on an ontological level. This article explores how pre-university physics students, while working with learning material focusing on historical-philosophical aspects of quantum physics, interpreted the wave-particle duality of light and which views they expressed on the nature of physics. A thematic analysis was performed on 133 written responses about the nature of light, given in the beginning of the teaching sequence, and 55 audio-recorded small-group discussions addressing the wave-particle duality, given later in the sequence. Most students initially expressed a wave and particle view of light, but some of these gave an "uncritical duality description", accepting without question the two ontologically different descriptions of light. In the small-group discussions, students expressed more nuanced views. Many tried to reconcile the two descriptions using semi-classical reasoning; others entered into philosophical discussions about the status of the current scientific description of light and expected science to come up with a better model. Some found the wave description of light particularly challenging and lacked a conception of "what is waving". Many seemed to implicitly take a realist view on the description of physical phenomena, contrary with the Copenhagen interpretation which is prevalent in textbooks. Results are discussed in light of different interpretations of quantum physics, and we conclude by arguing for a historical-philosophical perspective as an entry point for upper secondary physics students to explore the development and interpretation of quantum physical concepts.

  8. Physical symmetry groups and associated bundles in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crumeyrolle, A.

    1986-01-01

    A previous paper, ''Some geometrical consequences of physical symmetries'' describes in some detail invariant submanifolds of the linear representation space C /sup 4m/ for the physical symmetry group : SU(2,2)xSU(m) and its subgroup PxSU(m). In this paper the author intends to give a geometric version using homogeneous spaces and a spinorial approach. Some concrete orbits by means of spinor structures considered in the modern scope and some plausible physical consequences are discussed

  9. A typical wave wake from high-speed vessels: its group structure and run-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Didenkulova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-amplitude water waves induced by high-speed vessels are regularly observed in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea, causing intense beach erosion and disturbing marine habitants in the coastal zone. Such a strong impact on the coast may be a result of a certain group structure of the wave wake. In order to understand it, here we present an experimental study of the group structure of these wakes at Pikakari beach, Tallinn Bay. The most energetic vessel waves at this location (100 m from the coast at the water depth 2.7 m have amplitudes of about 1 m and periods of 8–10 s and cause maximum run-up heights on a beach up to 1.4 m. These waves represent frequency modulated packets where the largest and longest waves propagate ahead of other smaller amplitude and period waves. Sometimes the groups of different heights and periods can be separated even within one wave wake event. The wave heights within a wake are well described by the Weibull distribution, which has different parameters for wakes from different vessels. Wave run-up heights can also be described by Weibull distribution and its parameters can be connected to the parameters of the distribution of wave heights 100 m from the coast. Finally, the run-up of individual waves within a packet is studied. It is shown that the specific structure of frequency modulated wave packets, induced by high-speed vessels, leads to a sequence of high wave run-ups at the coast, even when the original wave heights are rather moderate. This feature can be a key to understanding the significant impact on coasts caused by fast vessels.

  10. Group theory, the new language of modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.M.W.

    1990-09-01

    This paper is a brief history of the applications of the methods of group theory to physics during 1830 to 1964 and is based mostly on the author's correspondence with Professor E.P. Wigner. 26 refs, 6 figs

  11. Application of Maximum Entropy Distribution to the Statistical Properties of Wave Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The new distributions of the statistics of wave groups based on the maximum entropy principle are presented. The maximum entropy distributions appear to be superior to conventional distributions when applied to a limited amount of information. Its applications to the wave group properties show the effectiveness of the maximum entropy distribution. FFT filtering method is employed to obtain the wave envelope fast and efficiently. Comparisons of both the maximum entropy distribution and the distribution of Longuet-Higgins (1984) with the laboratory wind-wave data show that the former gives a better fit.

  12. Some recent advances of shock wave physics research at the Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research

    CERN Document Server

    Jing Fu Qian

    2002-01-01

    Progress made in recent years on three topics that have been investigated at the Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research are presented in this report. (1) A new equation of state (EOS) has been derived which can be used from a standard state to predict state variable change along an isobaric path. Good agreements between calculations for some representative metals using this new EOS and experiments have been found, covering a wide range from hundreds of MPa to hundreds of GPa and from ambient temperature to tens of thousands of GPa. (2) An empirical relation of Y/G = constant (Y is yield strength, G is shear modulus) at HT-HP has been reinvestigated and confirmed by shock wave experiment. 93W alloy was chosen as a model material. The advantage of this relation is that it is beneficial to formulate a kind of simplified constitutive equation for metallic solids under shock loading, and thus to faithfully describe the behaviours of shocked solids through hydrodynamic simulations. (3) An attempt...

  13. The Effect of Wave Grouping on On-Shore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1979-01-01

    generated solely in accordance with an energy spectrum obtained from field data can be used. To investigate the importance of the succession of waves to the impact on coastal structures, run-up/down on permeable and impermeable slopes and stability of dolos armour were investigated in model tests by using......-up/down and to the stability of dolos armour is shown. A proposal to establish a set of universal graphs for the stability of dolos blocks (or any other “interlocking” blocks) is made....

  14. Kinetic Alfven waves and electron physics. II. Oblique slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Winske, D.; Daughton, W.

    2007-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC; kinetic ions and electrons) and hybrid (kinetic ions; adiabatic and massless fluid electrons) simulations of highly oblique slow shocks (θ Bn =84 deg. and β=0.1) [Yin et al., J. Geophys. Res., 110, A09217 (2005)] have shown that the dissipation from the ions is too weak to form a shock and that kinetic electron physics is required. The PIC simulations also showed that the downstream electron temperature becomes anisotropic (T e parallel )>T e perpendicular ), as observed in slow shocks in space. The electron anisotropy results, in part, from the electron acceleration/heating by parallel electric fields of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) excited by ion-ion streaming, which cannot be modeled accurately in hybrid simulations. In the shock ramp, spiky structures occur in density and electron parallel temperature, where the ion parallel temperature decreases due to the reduction of the ion backstreaming speed. In this paper, KAW and electron physics in oblique slow shocks are further examined under lower electron beta conditions. It is found that as the electron beta is reduced, the resonant interaction between electrons and the wave parallel electric fields shifts to the tail of the electron velocity distribution, providing more efficient parallel heating. As a consequence, for β e =0.02, the electron physics is shown to influence the formation of a θ Bn =75 deg. shock. Electron effects are further enhanced at a more oblique shock angle (θ Bn =84 deg.) when both the growth rate and the range of unstable modes on the KAW branch increase. Small-scale electron and ion phase-space vortices in the shock ramp formed by electron-KAW interactions and the reduction of the ion backstreaming speed, respectively, are observed in the simulations and confirmed in homogeneous geometries in one and two spatial dimensions in the accompanying paper [Yin et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 062104 (2007)]. Results from this study

  15. Rayleigh wave group velocity and shear wave velocity structure in the San Francisco Bay region from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Thurber, Clifford

    2018-06-01

    We derive new Rayleigh wave group velocity models and a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the upper crust in the San Francisco Bay region using an adaptive grid ambient noise tomography algorithm and 6 months of continuous seismic data from 174 seismic stations from multiple networks. The resolution of the group velocity models is 0.1°-0.2° for short periods (˜3 s) and 0.3°-0.4° for long periods (˜10 s). The new shear wave velocity model of the upper crust reveals a number of important structures. We find distinct velocity contrasts at the Golden Gate segment of the San Andreas Fault, the West Napa Fault, central part of the Hayward Fault and southern part of the Calaveras Fault. Low shear wave velocities are mainly located in Tertiary and Quaternary basins, for instance, La Honda Basin, Livermore Valley and the western and eastern edges of Santa Clara Valley. Low shear wave velocities are also observed at the Sonoma volcanic field. Areas of high shear wave velocity include the Santa Lucia Range, the Gabilan Range and Ben Lomond Plutons, and the Diablo Range, where Franciscan Complex or Silinian rocks are exposed.

  16. Nonlinear Whistler Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Wave particle interactions between electrons and whistler waves are a dominant mechanism for controlling the dynamics of energetic electrons in the radiation belts. They are responsible for loss, via pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the loss cone, and energization to millions of electron volts. It has previously been theorized that large amplitude waves on the whistler branch may scatter their wave-vector nonlinearly via nonlinear Landau damping leading to important consequences for the global distribution of whistler wave energy density and hence the energetic electrons. It can dramatically reduce the lifetime of energetic electrons in the radiation belts by increasing the pitch angle scattering rate. The fundamental building block of this theory has now been confirmed through laboratory experiments. Here we report on in situ observations of wave electro-magnetic fields from the EMFISIS instrument on board NASA's Van Allen Probes that show the signatures of nonlinear scattering of whistler waves in the inner radiation belts. In the outer radiation belts, whistler mode chorus is believed to be responsible for the energization of electrons from 10s of Kev to MeV energies. Chorus is characterized by bursty large amplitude whistler mode waves with frequencies that change as a function of time on timescales corresponding to their growth. Theories explaining the chirping have been developed for decades based on electron trapping dynamics in a coherent wave. New high time resolution wave data from the Van Allen probes and advanced spectral techniques are revealing that the wave dynamics is highly structured, with sub-elements consisting of multiple chirping waves with discrete frequency hops between sub-elements. Laboratory experiments with energetic electron beams are currently reproducing the complex frequency vs time dynamics of whistler waves and in addition revealing signatures of wave-wave and beat-wave nonlinear wave-particle interactions. These new data

  17. Nonlinear VLF Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Mithaiwala, M.; Rudakov, L.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic VLF waves, such as whistler mode waves, both control the lifetime of trapped electrons in the radiation belts by pitch-angle scattering and are responsible for the energization of electrons during storms. Traditional approaches to understanding the influence of waves on trapped electrons have assumed that the wave characteristics (frequency spectrum, wave-normal angle distribution, etc.) were both stationary in time and amplitude independent from event to event. In situ data from modern satellite missions, such as the Van Allen probes, are showing that this assumption may not be justified. In addition, recent theoretical results [Crabtree et al. 2012] show that the threshold for nonlinear wave scattering can often be met by naturally occurring VLF waves in the magnetosphere, with wave magnetic fields of the order of 50-100 pT inside the plasmapause. Nonlinear wave scattering (Nonlinear Landau Damping) is an amplitude dependent mechanism that can strongly alter VLF wave propagation [Ganguli et al. 2010], primarily by altering the direction of propagation. Laboratory results have confirmed the dramatic change in propagation direction when the pump wave has sufficient amplitude to exceed the nonlinear threshold [Tejero et al. 2014]. Nonlinear scattering can alter the macroscopic dynamics of waves in the radiation belts leading to the formation of a long-lasting wave-cavity [Crabtree et al. 2012] and, when amplification is present, a multi-pass amplifier [Ganguli et al., 2012]. Such nonlinear wave effects can dramatically reduce electron lifetimes. Nonlinear wave dynamics such as these occur when there are more than one wave present, such a condition necessarily violates the assumption of traditional wave-normal analysis [Santolik et al., 2003] which rely on the plane wave assumption. To investigate nonlinear wave dynamics using modern in situ data we apply the maximum entropy method [Skilling and Bryan, 1984] to solve for the wave distribution function

  18. Ability Group Configuration for the High School Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnik, Scott

    This research project looks to investigate the effectiveness of different ability grouping arrangements for the high school physics classroom. Students were first organized based on their academic aptitude in physics into three general groups of high, medium, and low achieving students. They were then divided into both groups of four and dyads that were constructed in one of four arrangements, namely: random, homogeneous, heterogeneous, or student choice. Data was collected based on their academic performance as well as survey responses regarding the group and dyad performance. Students worked in a rotation of these groups and dyads for a unit to measure student preference and introduce collaborative work formally to the classes. At this point it was evident that students preferred the student choice arrangement based on survey responses, yet the student choice survey responses also resulted in the lowest level of reliability when compared to all other grouping methods. For the next unit students were kept in either the random, homogeneous, or heterogeneous grouping arrangement for the entirety of the unit. At the conclusion of the second unit student achievement as well as survey responses were analyzed. As a result of this research there appears to be a slight student preference as well as academic benefit to homogeneous group and dyad arrangements for each of the three ability groups of students in the high school physics classroom when compared to random and heterogeneous grouping methods of academic group arrangement.

  19. Physics. Examples and problems. Mechanics, heat, electricity and magnetism, oscillations and waves, atomic and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppe, Heribert; Streitenberger, Peter; Specht, Eckard; Zeitler, Juergen; Langer, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    The present book is the unification of the proved problem collections for the basic physical training of studyings of especially engineering courses at technical colleges and universities. The book contains - didactically prepared and structured in the style of a textbook as well as with increasing difficulty - a total of 960 exemplary and additional tasks from the fields mechanics, heat, electricity and magnetism, oscillations and waves, as well as atomic and nuclear physics. For the exemplary problems the whole solution path and the complete calculation process with explanation of the relevant physical laws are extensively presented, for the additional problems for the self-control only the solutions and, if necessary, intermediate calculations are given. The examples and problems with mostly practice-oriented content are selected in such a way that they largely cover the matter treated in courses and exercises and make by their didactical preparation an effective repetition and optimal examination-preparation possible.

  20. DISCRETE DEFORMATION WAVE DYNAMICS IN SHEAR ZONES: PHYSICAL MODELLING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bornyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of earthquake migration along active fault zones [Richter, 1958; Mogi, 1968] and related theoretical concepts [Elsasser, 1969] have laid the foundation for studying the problem of slow deformation waves in the lithosphere. Despite the fact that this problem has been under study for several decades and discussed in numerous publications, convincing evidence for the existence of deformation waves is still lacking. One of the causes is that comprehensive field studies to register such waves by special tools and equipment, which require sufficient organizational and technical resources, have not been conducted yet.The authors attempted at finding a solution to this problem by physical simulation of a major shear zone in an elastic-viscous-plastic model of the lithosphere. The experiment setup is shown in Figure 1 (A. The model material and boundary conditions were specified in accordance with the similarity criteria (described in detail in [Sherman, 1984; Sherman et al., 1991; Bornyakov et al., 2014]. The montmorillonite clay-and-water paste was placed evenly on two stamps of the installation and subject to deformation as the active stamp (1 moved relative to the passive stamp (2 at a constant speed. The upper model surface was covered with fine sand in order to get high-contrast photos. Photos of an emerging shear zone were taken every second by a Basler acA2000-50gm digital camera. Figure 1 (B shows an optical image of a fragment of the shear zone. The photos were processed by the digital image correlation method described in [Sutton et al., 2009]. This method estimates the distribution of components of displacement vectors and strain tensors on the model surface and their evolution over time [Panteleev et al., 2014, 2015].Strain fields and displacements recorded in the optical images of the model surface were estimated in a rectangular box (220.00×72.17 mm shown by a dot-and-dash line in Fig. 1, A. To ensure a sufficient level of

  1. Physical Meaning of Wick Rotation and Advanced Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Rodney

    2018-01-01

    Abstract - "When we solve (19th-century Scottish physicist James Clerk) Maxwell's equations for light, we find not one but two solutions: a 'retarded' wave, which represents the standard motion of light from one point to another; but also an 'advanced' wave, where the light beam goes backward in time. Engineers have simply dismissed the advanced wave as a mathematical curiosity since the retarded waves so accurately predicted the behavior of radio, microwaves, TV, radar, and X-rays. But fo...

  2. Physics of ultrasonic wave propagation in bone and heart characterized using Bayesian parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian Carl

    This Dissertation explores the physics underlying the propagation of ultrasonic waves in bone and in heart tissue through the use of Bayesian probability theory. Quantitative ultrasound is a noninvasive modality used for clinical detection, characterization, and evaluation of bone quality and cardiovascular disease. Approaches that extend the state of knowledge of the physics underpinning the interaction of ultrasound with inherently inhomogeneous and isotropic tissue have the potential to enhance its clinical utility. Simulations of fast and slow compressional wave propagation in cancellous bone were carried out to demonstrate the plausibility of a proposed explanation for the widely reported anomalous negative dispersion in cancellous bone. The results showed that negative dispersion could arise from analysis that proceeded under the assumption that the data consist of only a single ultrasonic wave, when in fact two overlapping and interfering waves are present. The confounding effect of overlapping fast and slow waves was addressed by applying Bayesian parameter estimation to simulated data, to experimental data acquired on bone-mimicking phantoms, and to data acquired in vitro on cancellous bone. The Bayesian approach successfully estimated the properties of the individual fast and slow waves even when they strongly overlapped in the acquired data. The Bayesian parameter estimation technique was further applied to an investigation of the anisotropy of ultrasonic properties in cancellous bone. The degree to which fast and slow waves overlap is partially determined by the angle of insonation of ultrasound relative to the predominant direction of trabecular orientation. In the past, studies of anisotropy have been limited by interference between fast and slow waves over a portion of the range of insonation angles. Bayesian analysis estimated attenuation, velocity, and amplitude parameters over the entire range of insonation angles, allowing a more complete

  3. Transfer and dissipation of energy during wave group propagation on a gentle beach slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Enrique M.; Alsina, José M.

    2017-08-01

    The propagation of bichromatic wave groups over a constant 1:100 beach slope and the influence of the group modulation is presented. The modulation is controlled by varying the group frequency, fg, which is shown to remarkably affect the energy transfer to high and low frequency components. The growth of the high frequency (hf) wave skewness increases when fg decreases. This is explained by nonlinear coupling between the primary frequencies, which results in a larger growth of hf components as fg decreases, causing the hf waves to break earlier. Due to high spatial resolution, wave tracking has provided an accurate measurement of the varying breakpoint. These breaking locations are very well described (R2>0.91) by the wave-height to effective-depth ratio (γ). However, for any given Iribarren number, this γ is shown to increase with fg. Therefore, a modified Iribarren number is proposed to include the grouping structure, leading to a considerable improvement in reproducing the measured γ-values. Within the surf zone, the behavior of the Incident Long Wave also depends on the group modulation. For low fg conditions, the lf wave decays only slightly by transferring energy back to the hf wave components. However, for high fg wave conditions, strong dissipation of low frequency (lf) components occurs close to the shoreline associated with lf wave breaking. This mechanism is explained by the growth of the lf wave height, induced partly by the self-self interaction of fg, and partly by the nonlinear coupling between the primary frequencies and fg.

  4. The Physics of Alfvén Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, Neil F

    2011-01-01

    Low-frequency wave modes of magnetized inhomogeneous plasmas have been subject to intense study in the last decade because they play important roles in the transport of energy in the plasmas. The "Alfvén wave heating" scheme has been investigated as a supplementary heating scheme for fusion plasma devices, and it has been invoked as a model of the heating of the solar and stellar coronae.This book covers the latest research into the properties and applications of low-frequency wave modes in magnetized plasmas, the Alfvén waves and magneto-acoustic waves, in the context of laborat

  5. Between tide and wave marks: a unifying model of physical zonation on littoral shores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Bird

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tides on littoral marine habitats are so ubiquitous that shorelines are commonly described as ‘intertidal’, whereas waves are considered a secondary factor that simply modifies the intertidal habitat. However mean significant wave height exceeds tidal range at many locations worldwide. Here we construct a simple sinusoidal model of coastal water level based on both tidal range and wave height. From the patterns of emergence and submergence predicted by the model, we derive four vertical shoreline benchmarks which bracket up to three novel, spatially distinct, and physically defined zones. The (1 emergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven emergence in air; the (2 wave zone is characterized by constant (not periodic wave wash; and the (3 submergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven submergence. The decoupling of tidally driven emergence and submergence made possible by wave action is a critical prediction of the model. On wave-dominated shores (wave height ≫ tidal range, all three zones are predicted to exist separately, but on tide-dominated shores (tidal range ≫ wave height the wave zone is absent and the emergent and submergent tidal zones overlap substantially, forming the traditional “intertidal zone”. We conclude by incorporating time and space in the model to illustrate variability in the physical conditions and zonation on littoral shores. The wave:tide physical zonation model is a unifying framework that can facilitate our understanding of physical conditions on littoral shores whether tropical or temperate, marine or lentic.

  6. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Brighenti-Zogg

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max. In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day. VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12, 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in physical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%, when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group.

  7. The black hole symphony: probing new physics using gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jonathan R

    2008-12-13

    The next decade will very likely see the birth of a new field of astronomy as we become able to directly detect gravitational waves (GWs) for the first time. The existence of GWs is one of the key predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity, but they have eluded direct detection for the last century. This will change thanks to a new generation of laser interferometers that are already in operation or which are planned for the near future. GW observations will allow us to probe some of the most exotic and energetic events in the Universe, the mergers of black holes. We will obtain information about the systems to a precision unprecedented in astronomy, and this will revolutionize our understanding of compact astrophysical systems. Moreover, if any of the assumptions of relativity theory are incorrect, this will lead to subtle, but potentially detectable, differences in the emitted GWs. Our observations will thus provide very precise verifications of the theory in an as yet untested regime. In this paper, I will discuss what GW observations could tell us about known and (potentially) unknown physics.

  8. A deterministic combination of numerical and physical models for coastal waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Haiwen

    2006-01-01

    of numerical and physical modelling hence provides an attractive alternative to the use of either tool on it's own. The goal of this project has been to develop a deterministically combined numerical/physical model where the physical wave tank is enclosed in a much larger computational domain, and the two......Numerical and physical modelling are the two main tools available for predicting the influence of water waves on coastlines and structures placed in the near-shore environment. Numerical models can cover large areas at the correct scale, but are limited in their ability to capture strong...... nonlinearities, wave breaking, splash, mixing, and other such complicated physics. Physical models naturally include the real physics (at the model scale), but are limited by the physical size of the facility and must contend with the fact that different physical effects scale differently. An integrated use...

  9. Cleaners' experiences with group-based workplace physical training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Lasse; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how work-site health promotion intervention, by involving group-based physical coordination training, may increase participants’ social awareness of new ways to use the body. Purpose: We investigated cleaners’ experiences with a one-year health promotion intervention...... involving group-based physical coordination training (PCT) during working hours. Design: We conducted a qualitative evaluation using method triangulation; continuous unfocused participant observation during the whole intervention, semi-structured focus group interview, and individual written evaluations one...... for implementation seem to be important for sustained effects of health-promotion interventions in the workplace. Originality: The social character of the physical training facilitated a community of practice, which potentially supported the learning of new competencies, and how to improve the organization...

  10. Correlations between personality traits and specific groups of alpha waves in the human EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Johannisson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Different individuals have alpha waves with different wavelengths. The distribution of the wavelengths is assumed to be bell-shaped and smooth. Although this view is generally accepted, it is still just an assumption and has never been critically tested. When exploring the relationship between alpha waves and personality traits, it makes a huge difference if the distribution of the alpha waves is smooth or if specific groups of alpha waves can be demonstrated. Previous studies have not considered the possibility that specific groups of alpha waves may exist. Methods. Computerized EEGs have become standard, but wavelength measurements are problematic when based on averaging procedures using the Fourier transformation because such procedures cause a large systematic error. If the actual wavelength is of interest, it is necessary to go back to basic physiology and use raw EEG signals. In the present study, measurements were made directly from sequences of alpha waves where every wave could be identified. Personality dimensions were measured using an inventory derived from the International Personality Item Pool. Results. Recordings from 200 healthy individuals revealed that there are three main groups of alpha waves. These groups had frequencies around 8, 10, and 12 waves per second. The middle group had a bimodal distribution, and a subdivision gave a total of four alpha groups. In the center of each group, the degree of extraversion was high and the degree of neuroticism was low. Many small differences in personality traits were found when the centers were compared with one another. This gave four personality profiles that resemble the four classical temperaments. When people in the surrounding zones were compared with those in the centers, relatively large differences in personality traits were found. Conclusions. Specific groups of alpha waves exist, and these groups have to be taken into account when correlations are made to

  11. Spin-Wave Wave Function for Quantum Spin Models : Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Franjo, FRANJIC; Sandro, SORELLA; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia International School for Advance Studies; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia International School for Advance Studies

    1997-01-01

    We present a new approach to determine an accurate variational wave function for general quantum spin models, completely defined by a consistency requirement with the simple and well-known linear spin-wave expansion. With this wave function, it is also possible to obtain the correct behavior of the long distance correlation functions for the 1D S=1/2 antiferromagnet. In 2D the proposed spin-wave wave function represents an excellent approximation to the exact ground state of the S=1.2 XY mode...

  12. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti-Zogg, Stefanie; Mundwiler, Jonas; Schüpbach, Ulla; Dieterle, Thomas; Wolfer, David Paul; Leuppi, Jörg Daniel; Miedinger, David

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max). In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories) according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day). VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12), 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (pphysical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%), when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group. PMID:27136206

  13. Second-order coupling of numerical and physical wave tanks for 2D irregular waves. Part I: Formulation, implementation and numerical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    In this series of two papers, we report on the irregular wave extension of the second-order coupling theory of numerical and physical wave model described in [Z. Yang, S. Liu, H.B. Bingham and J. Li. Second-order theory for coupling numerical and physical wave tanks: Derivation, evaluation...

  14. Group behaviour in physical, chemical and biological systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... [Saçlıoğlu C, Pekcan Ö and Nanjundiah V 2014 Group behaviour in physical, .... properties is no longer a feasible exercise (as with the molecules of gas ..... sate which flows as an electrical current without resistance in.

  15. Nuclear Physics Group progress report January - December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1983-08-01

    The work of the Nuclear Physics Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period July-December 1981 is described. Installation of the EN-tandem electrostatic accelerator proceeded to the voltage test stage. Highlights of the research programme included nuclear microprobe studies of bone and teeth, and depth profiling of sodium in hydrated obsidian

  16. Working group report: Low energy and flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is a report of the low energy and flavour physics working group at ... that calculates the non-leptonic decay amplitudes including the long-distance con- tributions. There were three lectures that lasted for over seven hours, and were.

  17. The case for biophysics super-groups in physics departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Bart W; Leake, Mark

    2018-06-04

    Increasing numbers of physicists engage in research activities that address biological questions from physics perspectives or strive to develop physics insights from active biological processes. The on-going development and success of such activities morph our ways of thinking about what it is to 'do biophysics' and add to our understanding of the physics of life. Many scientists in this research and teaching landscape are homed in physics departments. A challenge for a hosting department is how to group, name and structure such biophysicists to best add value to their emerging research and teaching but also to the portfolio of the whole department. Here we discuss these issues and speculate on strategies. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  18. Group-theoretical approach to relativistic eikonal physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, J; Quiros, M [Instituto de Enstructura de la Materia, C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Matematica, Universidad Complutense, Campus de Alcala (Spain)); Ramirez Mittelbrunn, J [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain)

    1977-09-01

    A contraction of the Poincare group is performed leading to the eikonal approximation. Invariants, one-particle states, spinning particles and some interaction problems are studied with the following results: momenta of ultrarelativistic particles behave as lightlike, the little group being E/sub 2/, spin behaves as that of zero-mass particles, helicity being conserved in the presence of interactions. The full eikonal results are rederived for Green's functions, wave functions, etc. The way for computing corrections due to transverse momenta and spin-dependent interactions is outlined. A parallel analysis is made for the infinite-momentum frame, the similarities and differences between this formalism and the eikonal approach being disclosed.

  19. For information: Geneva University - The search for gravitational waves. Physical motivations and experimental perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet - 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél : (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 11 May PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium The search for gravitational waves. Physical motivations and experimental perspectives by Prof. Michele Maggiore / DPT-UniGe I will give an overview of gravitational-wave physics, addressing two main questions: What are the physical motivations for gravitational-wave research, both from the point of view of astrophysics and of high-energy physics. Present status and future perspectives of gravitational-wave experiments. Information: http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer: A. Cervera Villanueva

  20. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end

  1. Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Satara, Goran; Cvetkovic, Milan; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zvekic-Svorcan, Jelena; Obradovic, Borislav

    2018-03-30

    Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health.

  2. Phase and group velocities for Lamb waves in DOP-26 iridium alloy sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.A.; McGuire, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    The relatively coarse grain structure of iridium weldments limits the ultrasonic inspection of these structures to frequencies in the low megahertz range. As the material thickness is nominally 0.635 mm for clad vent set capsules, the low frequencies involved necessarily entail the generation of Lamb waves m the specimen. These waves are, of course, dispersive and detailed knowledge of both the phase and group velocities is required in order to determine accurately the location of flaws detected using Lamb waves. Purpose of this study is to elucidate the behavior of Lamb waves propagating in the capsule alloy and to quantify the velocities so that accurate flaw location is ensured. We describe a numerical technique for computing the phase velocities of Lamb waves (or of any other type of guided wave) and derive the group velocities from this information. A frequency-domain method is described for measuring group velocity when multiple Lamb modes are present and mutually interfering in the time domain, and experimental confirmation of the group velocity is presented for the capsule material

  3. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1981-08-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. A synopsis of research carried out last year is given. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research

  4. (Almost) All You Need to Know About Gravitational Wave Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    General Relativity, some of which have been taken for granted without observations: are gravitons massless? Are black holes the simplest possible macroscopic objects? do event horizons and black holes really exist, or is their formation halted by some as-yet unknown mechanism? In these lectures, we will describe the anatomy of a GW event, with particular emphasis on how to compute gravitational-waves from black hole systems and what kind of information such waves carry.

  5. Physical simulation technique on the behaviour of oil spills in grease ice under wave actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Light or medium oil spilled on ice tends to rise and remain the surface in unconsolidated frazil or grease ice. This study looked for a new system for studying the oil emulsion in grease ice under experimental conditions. A physical simulation technique was designed to test the effect of wave energy on the spilled oil grease ice emulsion. The newly developed test system has the ability to perform simulation tests in wave, wave-ice, wave-oil and wave-ice-oil. This paper presented the design concept of the developed test system and introduced the experimental certifications of its capability in terms of temperature control, wave-making and grease ice-making. The key feature of the technique is a mini wave flume which derives its wave making power from an oscillator in a chemical laboratory. Video cameras record the wave action in the flume in order to obtain wave parameters. The wave making capability tests in this study were used to determine the relation of wave height, length and frequency with oscillator power transfer, oscillator frequency and the depth of the water flume. 16 refs., 10 figs

  6. Understanding ‘human’ waves: exploiting the physics in a viral video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Roca, Chantal

    2018-01-01

    Waves are a relevant part of physics that students find difficult to grasp, even in those cases in which wave propagation kinematics can be visualized. This may hinder a proper understanding of sound, light or quantum physics phenomena that are explained using a wave model. So-called ‘human’ waves, choreographed by people, have proved to be an advisable way to understand basic wave concepts. Videos are widely used as a teaching resource and can be of considerable help in order to watch and discuss ‘human’ waves provided their quality is reasonably good. In this paper we propose and analyse a video that went viral online and has been revealed to be a useful teaching resource for introductory physics students. It shows a unique and very complete series of wave propagations, including pulses with different polarizations and periodic waves that can hardly be found elsewhere. After a proposal on how to discuss the video qualitatively, a quantitative analysis is carried out (no video-tracker needed), including a determination of the main wave magnitudes such as period, wavelength and propagation speed.

  7. PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION WORKING GROUP: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari R. A.; Whitlock, J.; Therios, I.U.; Peterson, P.F.

    2012-11-14

    We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

  8. Proliferation resistance and physical protection working group: methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, Robert A.; Whitlock, Jeremy J.; Therios, Ike U.; Peterson, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

  9. Les Houches 2015: Physics at TeV colliders - new physics working group report

    CERN Document Server

    Brooijmans, G.; Delgado, A.; Englert, C.; Falkowski, A.; Fuks, B.; Nikitenko, S.; Sekmen, S.; Barducci, D.; Bernon, J.; Bharucha, A.; Brehmer, J.; Brivio, I.; Buckley, A.; Burns, D.; Cacciapaglia, G.; Cai, H.; Carmona, A.; Carvalho, A.; Chalons, G.; Chen, Y.; Chivukula, R.S.; Conte, E.; Deandrea, A.; De Filippis, N.; Desai, N.; Flacke, T.; Frigerio, M.; Garcia-Pepin, M.; Gleyzer, S.; Goudelis, A.; Goertz, F.; Gras, P.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hewett, J.L.; Ittisamai, P.; Katz, A.; Kopp, J.; Kraml, S.; Krauss, M.E.; Kulkarni, S.; Laa, U.; Lacroix, S.; Lane, K.; Majumder, D.; Martin, A.; Mawatari, K.; Mohan, K.; Morse, D.M.; Mimasu, K.; Mühlleitner, M.; Nardecchia, M.; No, J.M.; Orlando, R.D.; Pani, P.; Papucci, M.; Polesello, G.; Pollard, C.; Porod, W.; Prosper, H.B.; Quirós, M.; Rizzo, T.; Sakurai, K.; Santiago, J.; Sanz, V.; Schmidt, T.; Schmeier, D.; Sengupta, D.; Shao, H.-S.; Simmons, E.H.; Sonneveld, J.; Spieker, T.; Spira, M.; Tattersall, J.; Unel, G.; Vega-Morales, R.; Waltenberger, W.; Weiler, A.; You, T.; Zapata, O.A.; Zerwas, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the activities of the 'New Physics' working group for the 'Physics at TeV Colliders' workshop (Les Houches, France, 1-19 June, 2015). Our report includes new physics studies connected with the Higgs boson and its properties, direct search strategies, reinterpretation of the LHC results in the building of viable models and new computational tool developments. Important signatures for searches for natural new physics at the LHC and new assessments of the interplay between direct dark matter searches and the LHC are also considered.

  10. Application of the group-theoretical method to physical problems

    OpenAIRE

    Abd-el-malek, Mina B.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of the theory of continuous groups of transformations has attracted the attention of applied mathematicians and engineers to solve many physical problems in the engineering sciences. Three applications are presented in this paper. The first one is the problem of time-dependent vertical temperature distribution in a stagnant lake. Two cases have been considered for the forms of the water parameters, namely water density and thermal conductivity. The second application is the unstea...

  11. The Bogolyubov renormalization group in theoretical and mathematical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    This text follows the line of a talk on Ringberg symposium dedicated to Wolfhart Zimmermann 70th birthday. The historical overview (Part I) partially overlaps with corresponding text of my previous commemorative paper - see Ref. [6] in the list. At the same time the second part includes some fresh results in QFT (Sect. 2.1.) and summarizes (Sect. 2.4) an impressive recent progress of the 'QFT renormalization group' application in mathematical physics

  12. Physical measurements of breaking wave impact on a floating wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Martyn R.; Greaves, Deborah M.; Raby, Alison

    2013-04-01

    Marine energy converter must both efficiently extract energy in small to moderate seas and also successfully survive storms and potential collisions. Extreme loads on devices are therefore an important consideration in their design process. X-MED is a SuperGen UKCMER project and is a collaboration between the Universities of Manchester, Edinburgh and Plymouth and the Scottish Association for Marine Sciences. Its objective is to extend the knowledge of extreme loads due to waves, currents, flotsam and mammal impacts. Plymouth Universities contribution to the X-MED project involves measuring the loading and response of a taut moored floating body due to steep and breaking wave impacts, in both long crested and directional sea states. These measurements are then to be reproduced in STAR-CCM+, a commercial volume of fluid CFD solver, so as to develop techniques to predict the wave loading on wave energy converters. The measurements presented here were conducted in Plymouth Universities newly opened COAST laboratories 35m long, 15.5m wide and 3m deep ocean basin. A 0.5m diameter taut moored hemispherical buoy was used to represent a floating wave energy device or support structure. The changes in the buoys 6 degree of freedom motion and mooring loads are presented due to focused breaking wave impacts, with the breaking point of the wave changed relative to the buoy.

  13. Shock waves: a new physical principle in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, W

    1986-01-01

    Shock wave therapy of kidney- and gallstones, i.e. extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), is a new, noninvasive technique to destroy concrements in the kidney, the gallbladder and in the ductus choledochus. This method was developed by the Dornier Company, Friedrichshafen, FRG, and tested in animal experiments at the Institute for Surgical Research of the University of Munich. In the meantime, kidney lithotripsy has gained world-wide acceptance. More than 60,000 patients suffering from urolithiasis have been treated successfully, what made surgical removal of their kidney stones obsolete. Gallstone lithotripsy is, however, still at the very beginning of clinical trial. Lithotripsy of gallbladder stones will have to be applied in combination with urso- or chenodesoxycholic acid in order to obtain complete dissolution of the fragments. Potential hazards to living tissues are briefly mentioned. Since the lung is particularly susceptible, shock waves must enter the body at an angle which ensures that lung tissue is not affected.

  14. Spring meeting of the DPG Working Group 'Solid state physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting of the Solid State Physics Section with the topics dielectric solids, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, semiconductor physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics, vacuum physics and engineering, chemical physics. (MM)

  15. Developing a physics expert identity in a biophysics research group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of practice-based identity constructs of competencies characterize student expert membership. A microanalysis of speech, sound, tones, and gestures in video data characterize students' social competencies in the physics community of practice. Results provide evidence that students at different stages of their individual projects have opportunities to develop social competencies such as mutual engagement, negotiability of the repertoire, and accountability to the enterprises as they interact with group members. The biophysics research group purposefully designed a learning trajectory including conducting research and writing it for publication in the larger community of practice as a pathway to expertise. The students of the research group learn to become socially competent as specific experts of their project topic and methodology, ensuring acceptance, agency, and membership in their community of practice. This work expands research on physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and has implications for how to design graduate learning experiences to promote expert identity development.

  16. Nuclear Physics Group progress report January - June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    In a very short time a proton microprobe and its associated beam scanning systems have been developed. Further improvements are necessary but a very useful facility should be available in the coming year. A research contract on 'depth profiling employing nuclear techniques' has been awarded to a group in the Physics Department of Victoria University of Wellington. This should strengthen the links between the nuclear physics groups at the University and the Institute. Discussions with anthropologists from Auckland and Otago Universities have revealed two areas where the Group could provide useful assistance - firstly in the development of cheap transportable X-ray fluoresence apparatus, and secondly the determination of hydration layers for obsidian dating. Work associated with both projects has been initiated. The accelerator has been used principally for the production of 11 C and 13 N. Interest is being shown by a number of groups in the 10 minute half-life nitrogen-13 isotope. Work on the nuclear magnetic relaxation times of various organs and the blood of mice at various stages during the development of cancer has been concluded and measurements have commenced on human blood samples, both normal and pathological

  17. Modeling Hydrodynamics on the Wave Group Scale in Topographically Complex Reef Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyns, J.; Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Roelvink, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    The knowledge of the characteristics of waves and the associated wave-driven currents is important for sediment transport and morphodynamics, nutrient dynamics and larval dispersion within coral reef ecosystems. Reef-lined coasts differ from sandy beaches in that they have a steep offshore slope, that the non-sandy bottom topography is very rough, and that the distance between the point of maximum short wave dissipation and the actual coastline is usually large. At this short wave breakpoint, long waves are released, and these infragravity (IG) scale motions account for the bulk of the water level variance on the reef flat, the lagoon and eventually, the sandy beaches fronting the coast through run-up. These IG energy dominated water level motions are reinforced during extreme events such as cyclones or swells through larger incident band wave heights and low frequency wave resonance on the reef. Recently, a number of hydro(-morpho)dynamic models that have the capability to model these IG waves have successfully been applied to morphologically differing reef environments. One of these models is the XBeach model, which is curvilinear in nature. This poses serious problems when trying to model an entire atoll for example, as it is extremely difficult to build curvilinear grids that are optimal for the simulation of hydrodynamic processes, while maintaining the topology in the grid. One solution to remediate this problem of grid connectivity is the use of unstructured grids. We present an implementation of the wave action balance on the wave group scale with feedback to the flow momentum balance, which is the foundation of XBeach, within the framework of the unstructured Delft3D Flexible Mesh model. The model can be run in stationary as well as in instationary mode, and it can be forced by regular waves, time series or wave spectra. We show how the code is capable of modeling the wave generated flow at a number of topographically complex reef sites and for a number of

  18. Loss of hyperbolicity changes the number of wave groups in Riemann problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vítor Matos; Julio D. Silva; Dan Marchesin

    2016-01-01

    Themain goal of ourwork is to showthat there exists a class of 2×2 Riemann problems for which the solution comprises a singlewave group for an open set of initial conditions. This wave group comprises a 1-rarefaction joined to a 2-rarefaction, not by an intermediate state, but by a doubly characteristic shock, 1-left and 2-right characteristic. In order to ensure that perturbations of initial conditions do not destroy the adjacency of the waves, local transversality between a composite curve ...

  19. 31st International Colloquium in Group Theoretical Methods in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gazeau, Jean-Pierre; Faci, Sofiane; Micklitz, Tobias; Scherer, Ricardo; Toppan, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    This proceedings records the 31st International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (“Group 31”). Plenary-invited articles propose new approaches to the moduli spaces in gauge theories (V. Pestun, 2016 Weyl Prize Awardee), the phenomenology of neutrinos in non-commutative space-time, the use of Hardy spaces in quantum physics, contradictions in the use of statistical methods on complex systems, and alternative models of supersymmetry. This volume’s survey articles broaden the colloquia’s scope out into Majorana neutrino behavior, the dynamics of radiating charges, statistical pattern recognition of amino acids, and a variety of applications of gauge theory, among others. This year’s proceedings further honors Bertram Kostant (2016 Wigner Medalist), as well as S.T. Ali and L. Boyle, for their life-long contributions to the math and physics communities. The aim of the ICGTMP is to provide a forum for physicists, mathematicians, and scientists of related disciplines who develop or apply ...

  20. Physical forces shape group identity of swimming Pseudomonas putida cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodriguez-Espeso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The often striking macroscopic patterns developed by motile bacterial populations on agar plates are a consequence of the environmental conditions where the cells grow and spread. Parameters such as medium stiffness and nutrient concentration have been reported to alter cell swimming behavior, while mutual interactions among populations shape collective patterns. One commonly observed occurrence is the mutual inhibition of clonal bacteria when moving towards each other, which results in a distinct halt at a finite distance on the agar matrix before having direct contact. The dynamics behind this phenomenon (i.e. intolerance to mix in time and space with otherwise identical others has been traditionally explained in terms of cell-to-cell competition/cooperation regarding nutrient availability. In this work, the same scenario has been revisited from an alternative perspective: the effect of the physical mechanics that frame the process, in particular the consequences of collisions between moving bacteria and the semi-solid matrix of the swimming medium. To this end we set up a simple experimental system in which the swimming patterns of Pseudomonas putida were tested with different geometries and agar concentrations. A computational analysis framework that highlights cell-to-medium interactions was developed to fit experimental observations. Simulated outputs suggested that the medium is compressed in the direction of the bacterial front motion. This phenomenon generates what was termed a compression wave that goes through the medium preceding the swimming population and that determines the visible high-level pattern. Taken together, the data suggested that the mechanical effects of the bacteria moving through the medium created a factual barrier that impedes to merge with neighboring cells swimming from a different site. The resulting divide between otherwise clonal bacteria is thus brought about by physical forces –not genetic or metabolic

  1. Applications of nanosecond, kilojoule lasers to the basic physics of waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas can sustain many normal modes of oscillation (waves), including both electromagnetic and electrostatic modes. These waves can interact by a wide variety of linear and nonlinear mechanisms, including mode coupling, mixing, and instabilities. Furthermore, such mechanisms compete, so that a given wave might be absorbed, might mode convert, or might decay by one of several instabilities, depending upon the specific circumstances in which it is produced. Moreover, such waves are important in many applications, including for example laser fusion, x-ray lasers, plasma accelerators, and ionospheric heating. Laser-produced plasmas can provide an effective medium for the studies of such waves and the related mechanisms. New opportunities will be made possible by the advent of comparatively inexpensive nanosecond, kilojoule lasers. One can now contemplate affordable experiments, not limited by programmatic constraints, that could study such the basic physics of the waves in such plasmas with unprecedented precision and in unprecedented detail

  2. Bogolyubov renormalization group and symmetry of solution in mathematical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.; Kovalev, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    Evolution of the concept known in the theoretical physics as the Renormalization Group (RG) is presented. The corresponding symmetry, that has been first introduced in QFT in mid-fifties, is a continuous symmetry of a solution with respect to transformation involving parameters (e.g., of boundary condition) specifying some particular solution. After short detour into Wilson's discrete semi-group, we follow the expansion of QFT RG and argue that the underlying transformation, being considered as a reparametrization one, is closely related to the self-similarity property. It can be treated as its generalization, the Functional Self-similarity (FS). Then, we review the essential progress during the last decade of the FS concept in application to boundary value problem formulated in terms of differential equations. A summary of a regular approach recently devised for discovering the RG = FS symmetries with the help of the modern Lie group analysis and some of its applications are given. As a main physical illustration, we give application of a new approach to solution for a problem of self-focusing laser beam in a nonlinear medium

  3. Les Houches 2011: Physics at TeV Colliders New Physics Working Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooijmans, G.; et al.

    2012-03-01

    We present the activities of the 'New Physics' working group for the 'Physics at TeV Colliders' workshop (Les Houches, France, 30 May-17 June, 2011). Our report includes new agreements on formats for interfaces between computational tools, new tool developments, important signatures for searches at the LHC, recommendations for presentation of LHC search results, as well as additional phenomenological studies.

  4. Some health physics implications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is a relatively new, noninvasive technique for the destruction of renal calculi (kidney stones) in vivo. X-ray localizing techniques are used to position the stone for shock wave destruction. The combination of radiographic and fluoroscopic exposure contributes significantly to patient dose. This presentation considers alternative techniques for measuring patient exposure during ESWL and details many of the problems attendant to those measurements. Factors that contribute to patient dose are described. Comparisons are made to previous interventions for renal calculi involving radiological considerations. Operator exposures are negligible for this procedure, but skin entrance exposures for patients have been found on the order of 10 R to 17 R. Attempts to quantify gonadal doses during ESWL treatment at the University of Virginia are described. A rationale for continued studies in this area is offered

  5. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  6. Transient Stress Waves in Study of Coconut Physical Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Dvořáková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2010), s. 19-25 ISSN 0732-8818 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA201990701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : stress waves * double-pulse holography * coconut * exploding wires Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.505, year: 2010 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121567342/PDFSTART

  7. ULF wave index and its possible applications in space physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, N.; Pilipenko, V.; Khabarova, O.; Crosby, N.

    2007-01-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere interaction has a turbulent character, which is not accounted for by commonly used geomagnetic indices and OMNI parameters. To quantify the level of low-frequency turbulence/variability of the geomagnetic field, IMP, and solar wind plasma, we have introduced ULP wave power indices. These simple hourly indices are based on the integrated spectral power in the band 2-7 mHz or wavelet power with time scales∼10-100 min. The ground wave index has been produced from the data of global magnetometer arrays in the Northern Hemisphere. The interplanetary and geostationary wave indices have been calculated using magnetometer and plasma data from interplanetary and geosynchronous satellites. These indices have turned out to be useful for statistical analysis of various space weather problems. These indices enable one to examine easily the statistical correspondence between the ULP activity and interplanetary conditions. For example, the enhancements of relativistic electrons at the geosynchronous orbit were not directly related to the intensity of magnetic storms, but they correlated well with intervals of elevated ground ULP wave index. This fact confirmed the importance of magnetospheric ULP turbulence in energising electrons up to relativistic energies. The interplanetary index has revealed statistically the role of the interplanetary turbulence in driving the magnetosphere by the IMP/solar wind. The application of this index to the analysis of conditions in the solar wind before magnetic storm onsets has shown that a weak irregular increase of the solar wind density is observed on average 2 days prior to storm commencement. The ULP index database for the period since 1991 is freely available via anonymous FTP for all interested researchers for further validation and statistical studies. (authors)

  8. Twelfth meeting of the ITER physics expert group on diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costley, A.E.; Donne, A.J.H.

    2000-01-01

    The main technical objectives of the meeting were to review the present status of ITER and to determine any required changes in the specifications for plasma measurements; to review the progress and develop plans for meeting the goals of the voluntary R and D tasks approved by the ITER Physics Committee within the Parties; to review and plan the work of the five specialists electronic working groups, and to hear reports of ITER relevant diagnostic developments in the Party Laboratories and assess their possible application to ITER

  9. Poincare group and relativistic wave equations in 2+1 dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, Dmitri M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Shelepin, A.L. [Moscow Institute of Radio Engenering, Electronics and Automation, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-07

    Using the generalized regular representation, an explicit construction of the unitary irreducible representations of the (2+1)-Poincare group is presented. A detailed description of the angular momentum and spin in 2+1 dimensions is given. On this base the relativistic wave equations for all spins (including fractional) are constructed. (author)

  10. Determination of group velocity of propagation of Lamb waves in aluminium plate using piezoelectric transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lašová Z.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A prior knowledge of group velocities of Lamb wave modes is a key for analysis of time signals in guidedwave based structural health monitoring. The identification of multiple wave modes may be complicated due to dependency of group velocity on frequency (dispersion. These dependencies for infinite plate of constant thickness can be calculated by a numerical solution of analytic equation. Two alternative approaches to determine group velocities of zero-order Lamb wave modes in aluminum plate were used in this work: Two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D-FFT and methods of time-frequency processing. 2D-FFT requires a high number of time signals in equidistant points, therefore it was applied on data from finite element analysis of wave propagation in the plate. Group velocities for chosen frequencies were also determined using wavelet transform (WT of signals as differencies of times of arrival measured by a pair of piezoelectric transducers. The results from 2D-FFT and wavelet transform were compared to the analytic solution.

  11. Transversality of Electromagnetic Waves in the Calculus-Based Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2008-01-01

    Introductory calculus-based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by…

  12. New Experiments on Wave Physics with a Simply Modified Ripple Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The ripple tank is one of the physics education devices most appreciated by teachers and students. It allows one to visualize various phenomena related to wave physics in an effective and enthralling way. Usually this apparatus consists of a tank with a transparent bottom that is filled with a thin layer of water. A source of light illuminates the…

  13. Group theory Application to the physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhauss, M S; Jorio, A

    2007-01-01

    Every process in physics is governed by selection rules that are the consequence of symmetry requirements. The beauty and strength of group theory resides in the transformation of many complex symmetry operations into a very simple linear algebra. This concise and class-tested book has been pedagogically tailored over 30 years MIT and 2 years at the University Federal of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil. The approach centers on the conviction that teaching group theory in close connection with applications helps students to learn, understand and use it for their own needs. For this reason, the theoretical background is confined to the first 4 introductory chapters (6-8 classroom hours). From there, each chapter develops new theory while introducing applications so that the students can best retain new concepts, build on concepts learned the previous week, and see interrelations between topics as presented. Essential problem sets between the chapters also aid the retention of the new material and for the consolid...

  14. Transversality of Electromagnetic Waves in the Calculus--Based Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2009-05-01

    Introductory calculus--based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by instructors of such courses. Here, we discuss two physical arguments (based on polarization experiments and on lack of monopole electromagnetic radiation), and the full argument for the transversality of (plane) electromagnetic waves based on the integral Maxwell equations. We also show, at a level appropriate for the introductory course, why the electric and magnetic fields in a wave are in phase and the relation of their magnitudes. We have successfully integrated this approach in the calculus--based introductory physics course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville.

  15. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of 3 H and 3 He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, π ± , and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4π acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us

  16. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence.

  17. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: A four-wave longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eKrahé

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval about both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence.

  18. Angular beam width of a slit-diffracted wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, Edwin H

    2012-01-01

    Taking magnetostatic surface wave diffraction as an example, this paper theoretically investigates the 2D diffraction pattern arising in the far-field region of a ferrite slab in the case of a plane wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities incident on a wide, arbitrarily oriented slit in an opaque screen. A universal analytical formula for the angular width of a diffracted beam is derived, which is valid for magnetostatic and other types of waves in anisotropic media and structures (including metamaterials) in 2D geometries. It is shown that the angular width of a diffracted beam in an anisotropic medium can not only take values greater or less than λ 0 /D (where λ 0 is the incident wavelength, and D is the slit width), but can also be zero under certain conditions. (methodological notes)

  19. PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris

    2015-04-01

    The XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP), also known as the Group30 conference, took place in Ghent (Belgium) from Monday 14 to Friday 18 July 2014. The conference was organised by Ghent University (Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, and Department of Mathematical Analysis). The website http://www.group30.ugent.be is still available. The ICGTMP is one of the traditional conference series covering the most important topics of symmetry which are relevant to the interplay of present-day mathematics and physics. More than 40 years ago a group of enthusiasts, headed by H. Bacry of Marseille and A. Janner of Nijmegen, initiated a series of annual meetings with the aim to provide a common forum for scientists interested in group theoretical methods. At that time most of the participants belonged to two important communities: on the one hand solid state specialists, elementary particle theorists and phenomenologists, and on the other mathematicians eager to apply newly-discovered group and algebraic structures. The conference series has become a meeting point for scientists working at modelling physical phenomena through mathematical and numerical methods based on geometry and symmetry. It is considered as the oldest one among the conference series devoted to geometry and physics. It has been further broadened and diversified due to the successful applications of geometric and algebraic methods in life sciences and other areas. The first four meetings took place alternatively in Marseille and Nijmegen. Soon after, the conference acquired an international standing, especially following the 1975 colloquium in Nijmegen and the 1976 colloquium in Montreal. Since then it has been organized in many places around the world. It has become a bi-annual colloquium since 1990, the year it was organized in Moscow. This was the first time the colloquium took place in Belgium. There were 246 registered

  20. New Physics at the LHC: A Les Houches Report. Physics at Tev Colliders 2007 - New Physics Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooijmans, Gustaaf H.; /Columbia U.; Delgado, A.; /Notre Dame U.; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Grojean, C.; /CERN /Saclay, SPhT; Narain, Meenakshi; /Brown U.; Alwall, Johan; /SLAC; Azuelos, Georges; /Montreal U. /TRIUMF; Black, K.; /Harvard U.; Boos, E.; /SINP, Moscow; Bose, Tulika; /Brown U.; Bunichev, V.; /SINP, Moscow; Chivukula, R.S.; /Michigan State U.; Contino, R.; /CERN; Djouadi, A.; /Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I /Orsay, LAL; Dudko, Lev V.; /Durham U.; Ferland, J.; /Montreal U.; Gershtein, Yuri S.; /Florida State U.; Gigg, M.; /Durham U.; Gonzalez de la Hoz, S.; /Valencia U., IFIC; Herquet, M.; /Louvain U.; Hirn, J.; /Yale U. /Brown U. /Boston U. /Annecy, LAPTH /INFN, Turin /Valencia U., IFIC /Yale U. /Arizona U. /Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I /Orsay, LAL /KEK, Tsukuba /Moscow State U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /CERN /Durham U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Sao Paulo, IFT /Fermilab /Zurich, ETH /Boston U. /DESY /CERN /Saclay, SPhT /Durham U. /Cambridge U. /Michigan State U. /Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I /Orsay, LAL /Annecy, LAPTH /Fermilab /CERN /Arizona U. /Northwestern U. /Argonne /Kyoto U. /Valencia U., IFIC /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-12-05

    We present a collection of signatures for physics beyond the standard model that need to be explored at the LHC. The signatures are organized according to the experimental objects that appear in the final state, and in particular the number of high p{sub T} leptons. Our report, which includes brief experimental and theoretical reviews as well as original results, summarizes the activities of the 'New Physics' working group for the 'Physics at TeV Colliders' workshop (Les Houches, France, 11-29 June, 2007).

  1. Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy an introduction to theory, experiment and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Creighton, Jolien D E

    2011-01-01

    This most up-to-date, one-stop reference combines coverage of both theory and observational techniques, with introductory sections to bring all readers up to the same level. Written by outstanding researchers directly involved with the scientific program of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the book begins with a brief review of general relativity before going on to describe the physics of gravitational waves and the astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation. Further sections cover gravitational wave detectors, data analysis, and the outlook of gravitation

  2. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  3. Physical activity assessment and counseling in Quebec family medicine groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Aurélie; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Paré, Alex; Poder, Thomas G; Brown, Christine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2018-05-01

    To determine how often primary health care providers (PHCPs) in family medicine groups (FMGs) assess physical activity (PA) levels, provide PA counseling (PAC), and refer patients to exercise professionals; to describe patients' PA levels, physical fitness, and satisfaction regarding their PA management in FMGs; to describe available PA materials in FMGs and PHCPs' PAC self-efficacy and PA knowledge; and to identify characteristics of patients and PHCPs that determine the assessment of PA and PAC provided by PHCPs. Cross-sectional study using questionnaires and a medical chart audit. Ten FMGs within the Integrated University Health Network of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke in Quebec. Forty FPs, 24 nurses, and 439 patients. Assessment of PA level and PAC provided by PHCPs. Overall, 51.9% of the patients had had their PA level assessed during the past 18 months, but only 21.6% received PAC from at least 1 of the PHCPs. Similar percentages were found among the inactive (n = 244) and more active (n = 195) patients. The median PAC self-efficacy score of PHCPs was 70.2% (interquartile range 52.0% to 84.7%) and the median PA knowledge score was 45.8% (interquartile range 41.7% to 54.2%), with no significant differences between nurses and FPs. In multivariate analysis, 34% of the variance in PAC provided was explained by assessment of PA level, overweight or obese status, type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, less FP experience, lower patient annual family income, more nurse encounters, and a higher patient physical component summary of quality of life. The rates of assessment of PA and provision of PAC in Quebec FMGs were low, even though most of the patients were inactive. Initiatives to support PHCPs and more resources to assess PA levels and provide PAC should be implemented. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  4. Travelling wave solutions to nonlinear physical models by means of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the first integral method to carry out the integration of nonlinear ... NPDEs is an important and attractive research area. Not all ... cial types of analytic solutions to understand biological, physical and chemical phenomena ... Thus, based on the qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations.

  5. Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    1986-01-01

    The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub­ lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov­ ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...

  6. Transversality of electromagnetic waves in the calculus-based introductory physics course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burko, Lior M

    2008-01-01

    Introductory calculus-based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by instructors of such courses. Here, we discuss two physical arguments (based on polarization experiments and on lack of monopole electromagnetic radiation) and the full argument for the transversality of (plane) electromagnetic waves based on the integral Maxwell equations. We also show, at a level appropriate for the introductory course, why the electric and magnetic fields in a wave are in phase and the relation of their magnitudes

  7. Transversality of electromagnetic waves in the calculus-based introductory physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2008-11-01

    Introductory calculus-based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by instructors of such courses. Here, we discuss two physical arguments (based on polarization experiments and on lack of monopole electromagnetic radiation) and the full argument for the transversality of (plane) electromagnetic waves based on the integral Maxwell equations. We also show, at a level appropriate for the introductory course, why the electric and magnetic fields in a wave are in phase and the relation of their magnitudes.

  8. Sexuality and physical contact in National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project Wave 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Adena M; McClintock, Martha K; Waite, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) includes new measures of sexual interest and behavior, as well as new measures of the context of sexual experience and the frequency and appeal of physical contact. This is the first time many of these constructs have been measured in a nationally representative sample. We describe the new measures and compare the distributions of each across gender and age groups, in some cases by partnership status. Two components of sexuality decrease with age among both men and women: frequency of finding an unknown person sexually attractive and receptivity to a partner's sexual overtures. In contrast, the inclination to make one's self sexually attractive to others was a more complicated function of partner status, gender, and age: partnered women and unpartnered men made the most effort, with the more effortful gender's effort decreasing with age. Both men and women find nonsexual physical contact appealing but sexual physical contact is more appealing to men than women. Finally, two fifths of men and women report dissatisfaction with their partner's frequency of caring behaviors that make later sexual interactions pleasurable, and a fifth of women and a quarter of men who had vaginal sex in the past year report dissatisfaction with amount of foreplay. These data offer the opportunity to characterize sexual motivation in older adulthood more precisely and richly and to examine how the context of sexual experience and the nonsexual aspects of physical intimacy correlate with sexual behavior, enjoyment, and problems. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Group velocity measurement from the propagation of the ionization front in a surface-wave-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrino, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Lao, C.

    1989-01-01

    During the first instant, previous to steady-state in a surface-wave-produced plasma, an ionization front advance front the launcher to the plasma column end. The velocity of the ionization front is much slower than the group velocity of the surface wave, this give a reflection of the incident signal on the moving ionization front. In this paper, the authors use this effect to calculate the surface wave group velocity

  10. Renormalization-group decimation technique for spectra, wave-functions and density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecko, C.; Roman, E.

    1983-09-01

    The Renormalization Group decimation technique is very useful for problems described by 1-d nearest neighbour tight-binding model with or without translational invariance. We show how spectra, wave-functions and density of states can be calculated with little numerical work from the renormalized coefficients upon iteration. The results of this new procedure are verified using the model of Soukoulis and Economou. (author)

  11. High resolution Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography in North-China from ambient seismic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Lihua; Wu Jianping; Ding Zhifeng; Panza, G.F.

    2009-03-01

    This study presents the results of the Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography in North-China performed using ambient seismic noise observed at 190 broadband and 10 very broadband stations of the North-China Seismic Array. All available vertical component time-series for the 14 months span between January, 2007 and February, 2008 are cross-correlated to obtain empirical Rayleigh wave Green functions that are subsequently processed, with the multiple filter method, to isolate the group velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave. Tomographic maps, with a grid spacing of 0.25 deg. x 0.25 deg., are computed at the periods of 4.5s, 12s, 20s, 28s. The maps at short periods reveal an evident lateral heterogeneity in the crust of North-China, quite well in agreement with known geological and tectonic features. The North China Basin is imaged as a broad low velocity area, while the Taihangshan and Yanshan uplifts and Ordos block are imaged as high velocity zones, and the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity anomalies. The group velocity contours at 4.5s, 12s and 20s are consistent with the Bouguer gravity anomalies measured in the area of the Taihangshan fault, that cuts through the lower crust at least. Most of the historical strong earthquakes (M≥6.0) are located where the tomographic maps show zones with moderate velocity gradient. (author)

  12. High Energy Physics Group. Annual progress report, fiscal year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Perhaps the most significant progress during the past twelve months of the Hawaii experimental program, aside from publication of results of earlier work, has been the favorable outcome of several important proposals in which a substantial fraction of our group is involved: the Mark II detector as first-up at the SLC, and DUMAND's Stage I approval, both by DOE review panels. When added to Fermilab approval of two neutrino bubble-chamber experiments at the Tevatron, E632 and E646, the major part of the Hawaii experimental program for the next few years is now well determined. Noteworthy in the SLAC/SLC/Mark II effort is the progress made in developing silicon microstrip detectors with microchip readout. Results from the IMB(H) proton decay experiment at the Morton Salt Mine, although not detecting proton decay, set the best lower limit on the proton's lifetime. Similarly the Very High Energy Gamma Ray project is closely linked with DUMAND, at least in principle, since these gammas are expected to arise from pi-zero decay, while the neutrinos come from charged meson decay. Some signal has been seen from Cygnus X-3, and other candidates are being explored. Preparations for upgrading the Fermilab 15' Bubble Chamber have made substantial progress. Sections of the Progress Report are devoted to VAX computer system improvements, other hardware and software improvements, travel in support of physics experiments, publications and other public reports, and last analysis of data still being gleaned from experimental data taken in years past (PEP-14 and E546, E388). High energy physics theoretical research is briefly described

  13. Progress in Computational Physics (PiCP) Volume 1 Wave Propagation in Periodic Media

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Progress in Computational Physics is a new e-book series devoted to recent research trends in computational physics. It contains chapters contributed by outstanding experts of modeling of physical problems. The series focuses on interdisciplinary computational perspectives of current physical challenges, new numerical techniques for the solution of mathematical wave equations and describes certain real-world applications. With the help of powerful computers and sophisticated methods of numerical mathematics it is possible to simulate many ultramodern devices, e.g. photonic crystals structures,

  14. Theoretical Studies of Alfven Waves and Energetic Particle Physics in Fusion Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liu [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-12-20

    This report summarizes major theoretical findings in the linear as well as nonlinear physics of Alfvén waves and energetic particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. On the linear physics, a variational formulation, based on the separation of singular and regular spatial scales, for drift-Alfvén instabilities excited by energetic particles is established. This variational formulation is then applied to derive the general fishbone-like dispersion relations corresponding to the various Alfvén eigenmodes and energetic-particle modes. It is further employed to explore in depth the low-frequency Alfvén eigenmodes and demonstrate the non-perturbative nature of the energetic particles. On the nonlinear physics, new novel findings are obtained on both the nonlinear wave-wave interactions and nonlinear wave-energetic particle interactions. It is demonstrated that both the energetic particles and the fine radial mode structures could qualitatively affect the nonlinear evolution of Alfvén eigenmodes. Meanwhile, a theoretical approach based on the Dyson equation is developed to treat self-consistently the nonlinear interactions between Alfvén waves and energetic particles, and is then applied to explain simulation results of energetic-particle modes. Relevant list of journal publications on the above findings is also included.

  15. Towards High Resolution Numerical Algorithms for Wave Dominated Physical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-30

    Modelling and Numerical Analysis, 40(5):815-841, 2006. [31] Michael Dumbser, Martin Kaser, and Eleuterio F. Toro. An arbitrary high-order Discontinuous...proximation of PML, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 41 (2003), pp. 287-305. [60] E. BECACHE, S. FAUQUEUX, AND P. JOLY , Stability of perfectly matched layers, group...time-domain performance analysis, IEEE Trans, on Magnetics, 38 (2002), pp. 657- 660. [64] J. DIAZ AND P. JOLY , An analysis of higher-order boundary

  16. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  17. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Helioseismic measurements in the solar envelope using group velocities of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, S. V.; Baturin, V. A.; Ayukov, S. V.; Gryaznov, V. K.

    2014-07-01

    At intermediate- and high-degree l, solar p and f modes can be considered as surface waves. Using variational principle, we derive an integral expression for the group velocities of the surface waves in terms of adiabatic eigenfunctions of normal modes, and address the benefits of using group-velocity measurements as a supplementary diagnostic tool in solar seismology. The principal advantage of using group velocities, when compared with direct analysis of the oscillation frequencies, comes from their smaller sensitivity to the uncertainties in the near-photospheric layers. We address some numerical examples where group velocities are used to reveal inconsistencies between the solar models and the seismic data. Further, we implement the group-velocity measurements to the calibration of the specific entropy, helium abundance Y, and heavy-element abundance Z in the adiabatically stratified part of the solar convective envelope, using different recent versions of the equation of state. The results are in close agreement with our earlier measurements based on more sophisticated analysis of the solar oscillation frequencies. These results bring further support to the downward revision of the solar heavy-element abundances in recent spectroscopic measurements.

  19. An observation-constrained multi-physics WRF ensemble for simulating European mega heat waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, A.I.; Vautard, R.; Ciais, P.; Teuling, A.J.; Gonzalez Miralles, D.; Wild, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many climate models have difficulties in properly reproducing climate extremes, such as heat wave conditions. Here we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model with a large combination of different atmospheric physics schemes, in combination with the NOAH land-surface

  20. An observation-constrained multi-physics WRF ensemble for simulating European mega heat waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, A.I.; Vautard, R.; Ciais, P.; Teuling, A.J.; Miralles, D.G.; Wild, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many climate models have difficulties in properly reproducing climate extremes, such as heat wave conditions. Here we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model with a large combination of different atmospheric physics schemes, in combination with the NOAH land-surface

  1. Sexuality and Physical Contact in National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project Wave 2

    OpenAIRE

    Adena M. Galinsky; Martha K. McClintock; Linda J. Waite

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) includes new measures of sexual interest and behavior, as well as new measures of the context of sexual experience and the frequency and appeal of physical contact. This is the first time many of these constructs have been measured in a nationally representative sample.

  2. Using High Speed Smartphone Cameras and Video Analysis Techniques to Teach Mechanical Wave Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Jacopo; Gratton, Luigi M.; Onorato, Pasquale; Oss, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of smartphone-based slow-motion video analysis techniques as a valuable tool for investigating physics concepts ruling mechanical wave propagation. The simple experimental activities presented here, suitable for both high school and undergraduate students, allows one to measure, in a simple yet rigorous way, the speed of pulses…

  3. Physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW travelling wave electron linac

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW S-band (2856 MHz) electron linear accelerator (linac), which has been recently built and successfully operated at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. The accelerating structure is a 2 π / 3 mode constant impedance travelling wave structure, which ...

  4. Control of Wave Propagation and Effect of Kerr Nonlinearity on Group Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazrat, Ali; Iftikhar, Ahmed; Ziauddin

    2013-01-01

    We use four-level atomic system and control the wave propagation via forbidden decay rate. The Raman gain process becomes dominant on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium by increasing the forbidden decay rate via increasing the number of atoms [G.S. Agarwal and T.N. Dey, Phys. Rev. A 74 (2006) 043805 and K. Harada, T. Kanbashi, and M. Mitsunaga, Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 013803]. The behavior of wave propagation is dramatically changed from normal (subluminal) to anomalous (superluminal) dispersion by increasing the forbidden decay rate. The system can also give a control over the group velocity of the light propagating through the medium via Kerr field. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  5. New Physics at the LHC. A Les Houches Report Physics at TeV Colliders 2009 - New Physics Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Brooijmans, G; Kribs, G D; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C; Agashe, K; Basso, L; Belanger, G; Belyaev, A; Black, K; Bose, T; Brunelière, R; Cacciapaglia, G; Carrera, E; Das, S P; Deandrea, A; De Curtis, S; Etienvre, A -I; Espinosa, J R; Fichet, S; Gauthier, L; Gopalakrishna, S; Gray, H; Gripaios, B; Guchait, M; Harper, S J; Henderson, C; Jackson, J; Karagöz, M; Kraml, S; Lane, K; Lari, T; Lee, S J; Lessard, J R; Maravin, Y; Martin, A; McElrath, B; Moreau, G; Moretti, S; Morrissey, D E; Mühlleitner, M; Poland, D; Pruna, G M; Pukhov, A; Raklev, A R; Robens, T; Rosenfeld, R; Rzehak, H; Salam, G P; Sekmen, S; Servant, G; Singh, R K; Smith, B C; Spira, M; Strassler, M J; Tomalin, I; Tytgat, M; Vos, M; Wacker, J G; Weitershausen, P v; Zurek, K M

    2010-01-01

    We present a collection of signatures for physics beyond the standard model that need to be explored at the LHC. First, are presented various tools developed to measure new particle masses in scenarios where all decays include an unobservable particle. Second, various aspects of supersymmetric models are discussed. Third, some signatures of models of strong electroweak symmetry are discussed. In the fourth part, a special attention is devoted to high mass resonances, as the ones appearing in models with warped extra dimensions. Finally, prospects for models with a hidden sector/valley are presented. Our report, which includes brief experimental and theoretical reviews as well as original results, summarizes the activities of the "New Physics" working group for the "Physics at TeV Colliders" workshop (Les Houches, France, 8-26 June, 2009).

  6. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members : The group attractiveness effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Y.M.J.; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H. J.; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of

  7. Nuclear and atomic spectroscopy group. Dosimetry in medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, M.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of radiation physics on the sector of atomic spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence analysis in the Faculty of Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics (University of Cordoba, Argentina),are presented, including dosimetric studies in radiodiagnostic: dosimetric determination using Monte Carlo method; distortion effect study on PET image and lasers in medicine. (C.G.C.)

  8. On the Quantum Mechanical Wave Function as a Link Between Cognition and the Physical World A Role for Psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, D

    2002-01-01

    A straightforward explanation of fundamental tenets of quantum mechanics concerning the wave function results in the thesis that the quantum mechanical wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world. The reticence on the part of physicists to adopt this thesis is discussed. A comparison is made to the behaviorists' consideration of mind, and the historical roots of how the problem concerning the quantum mechanical wave function arose are discussed. The basis for an empirical demonstration that the wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world is provided through developing an experiment using methodology from psychology and physics. Based on research in psychology and physics that relied on this methodology, it is likely that Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's theoretical result that mutually exclusive wave functions can simultaneously apply to the same concrete physical circumstances can be implemented on an empirical level.

  9. Traveling waves and the renormalization group improvedBalitsky-Kovchegov equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enberg, Rikard

    2006-12-01

    I study the incorporation of renormalization group (RG)improved BFKL kernels in the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation whichdescribes parton saturation. The RG improvement takes into accountimportant parts of the next-to-leading and higher order logarithmiccorrections to the kernel. The traveling wave front method for analyzingthe BK equation is generalized to deal with RG-resummed kernels,restricting to the interesting case of fixed QCD coupling. The resultsshow that the higher order corrections suppress the rapid increase of thesaturation scale with increasing rapidity. I also perform a "diffusive"differential equation approximation, which illustrates that someimportant qualitative properties of the kernel change when including RGcorrections.

  10. Cloud physics laboratory project science and applications working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The conditions of the expansion chamber under zero gravity environment were simulated. The following three branches of fluid mechanics simulation under low gravity environment were accomplished: (1) oscillation of the water droplet which characterizes the nuclear oscillation in nuclear physics, bubble oscillation of two phase flow in chemical engineering, and water drop oscillation in meteorology; (2) rotation of the droplet which characterizes nuclear fission in nuclear physics, formation of binary stars and rotating stars in astrophysics, and breakup of the water droplet in meteorology; and (3) collision and coalescence of the water droplets which characterizes nuclear fusion in nuclear physics and processes of rain formation in meteorology.

  11. High-order-harmonic generation from solids: The contributions of the Bloch wave packets moving at the group and phase velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tao-Yuan; Huang, Xiao-Huan; Bian, Xue-Bin

    2018-01-01

    We study numerically the Bloch electron wave-packet dynamics in periodic potentials to simulate laser-solid interactions. We introduce an alternative perspective in the coordinate space combined with the motion of the Bloch electron wave packets moving at group and phase velocities under the laser fields. This model interprets the origins of the two contributions (intra- and interband transitions) in the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) processes by investigating the local and global behaviours of the wave packets. It also elucidates the underlying physical picture of the HHG intensity enhancement by means of carrier-envelope phase, chirp, and inhomogeneous fields. It provides a deep insight into the emission of high-order harmonics from solids. This model is instructive for experimental measurements and provides an alternative avenue to distinguish mechanisms of the HHG from solids in different laser fields.

  12. Whistlers, helicons, and lower hybrid waves: The physics of radio frequency wave propagation and absorption for current drive via Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsker, R. I.

    2015-01-01

    This introductory-level tutorial article describes the application of plasma waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF) for current drive in tokamaks. Wave damping mechanisms in a nearly collisionless hot magnetized plasma are briefly described, and the connections between the properties of the damping mechanisms and the optimal choices of wave properties (mode, frequency, wavelength) are explored. The two wave modes available for current drive in the LHRF are described and compared. The terms applied to these waves in different applications of plasma physics are elucidated. The character of the ray paths of these waves in the LHRF is illustrated in slab and toroidal geometries. Applications of these ideas to experiments in the DIII-D tokamak are discussed

  13. Wave motion as inquiry the physics and applications of light and sound

    CERN Document Server

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook on the physics of wave motion in optics and acoustics avoids presenting the topic abstractly in order to emphasize real-world examples. While providing the needed scientific context, Dr. Espinoza also relies on students' own experience to guide their learning. The book's exercises and labs strongly emphasize this inquiry-based approach. A strength of inquiry-based courses is that the students maintain a higher level of engagement when they are studying a topic that they have an internal motivation to know, rather than solely following the directives of a professor. "Wave Motion" takes those threads of engagement and interest and weaves them into a coherent picture of wave phenomena. It demystifies key components of life around us--in music, in technology, and indeed in everything we perceive--even for those without a strong math background, who might otherwise have trouble approaching the subject matter.

  14. Sensory illusions: Common mistakes in physics regarding sound, light and radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briles, T. M.; Tabor-Morris, A. E.

    2013-03-01

    Optical illusions are well known as effects that we see that are not representative of reality. Sensory illusions are similar but can involve other senses than sight, such as hearing or touch. One mistake commonly noted among instructors is that students often mis-identify radio signals as sound waves and not as part of the electromagnetic spectrum. A survey of physics students from multiple high schools highlights the frequency of this common misconception, as well as other nuances on this misunderstanding. Many students appear to conclude that, since they experience radio broadcasts as sound, then sound waves are the actual transmission of radio signals and not, as is actually true, a representation of those waves as produced by the translator box, the radio. Steps to help students identify and correct sensory illusion misconceptions are discussed. School of Education

  15. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members: the group attractiveness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Yvette; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H J; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-04-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of physical attractiveness are more positive than the average ratings of the group members. A meta-analysis on 33 comparisons reveals that the effect is medium to large (Cohen's d = 0.60) and moderated by group size. We explored two explanations for the GA-effect: (a) selective attention to attractive group members, and (b) the Gestalt principle of similarity. The results of our studies are in favor of the selective attention account: People selectively attend to the most attractive members of a group and their attractiveness has a greater influence on the evaluation of the group. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Breaking phase focused wave group loads on offshore wind turbine monopiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Dixen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current method for calculating extreme wave loads on offshore wind turbine structures is based on engineering models for non-breaking regular waves. The present article has the aim of validating previously developed models at DTU, namely the OceanWave3D potential flow wave model and a coupled...

  17. Gravitational waves as cosmological probes for new physics between the electroweak and the grand-unification scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagunski, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Relic gravitational waves, generated by strongly first-order phase transitions in the early Universe, can serve as cosmological probes for new physics beyond the Standard Model. We investigate phase transitions at temperatures between the electroweak and the GUT scale in two extensions of the Standard Model for their possibility to provide detectable gravitational radiation. First, we study the Z 2 symmetry breaking phase transition in the Standard model extended by a real gauge singlet. The analysis yields that the gravitational wave amplitude of the first-order phase transition with a thermally induced barrier is several orders too small for being detectable. The second model we discuss is a left-right symmetric model based on the gauge group SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L generating a first-order phase transition already due to the emergence of a barrier in the tree-level potential. We derive an upper bound on the peak amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum of the order h o 2 Ω GW ≅ 3 . 10 -11 . Hence, for very strong phase transitions a detection with the spaceborne interferometer LISA will be possible, whereas the sensitivity of the (cross-correlated) BBO detector will even allow to observe the gravitational wave spectrum within the whole parameter range of the model. By using the correlation between the characteristic parameters α and β of the gravitational wave spectrum, we finally compute the lower bounds on α(T * ) in dependence of the tunneling temperature T * which are necessary for a detection of the model spectrum by the specific detectors.

  18. Gravitational waves as cosmological probes for new physics between the electroweak and the grand-unification scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagunski, Laura

    2013-04-15

    Relic gravitational waves, generated by strongly first-order phase transitions in the early Universe, can serve as cosmological probes for new physics beyond the Standard Model. We investigate phase transitions at temperatures between the electroweak and the GUT scale in two extensions of the Standard Model for their possibility to provide detectable gravitational radiation. First, we study the Z{sub 2} symmetry breaking phase transition in the Standard model extended by a real gauge singlet. The analysis yields that the gravitational wave amplitude of the first-order phase transition with a thermally induced barrier is several orders too small for being detectable. The second model we discuss is a left-right symmetric model based on the gauge group SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x U(1){sub B-L} generating a first-order phase transition already due to the emergence of a barrier in the tree-level potential. We derive an upper bound on the peak amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum of the order h{sub o}{sup 2}{Omega}{sub GW} {approx_equal} 3 . 10{sup -11}. Hence, for very strong phase transitions a detection with the spaceborne interferometer LISA will be possible, whereas the sensitivity of the (cross-correlated) BBO detector will even allow to observe the gravitational wave spectrum within the whole parameter range of the model. By using the correlation between the characteristic parameters {alpha} and {beta} of the gravitational wave spectrum, we finally compute the lower bounds on {alpha}(T{sub *}) in dependence of the tunneling temperature T{sub *} which are necessary for a detection of the model spectrum by the specific detectors.

  19. Working group report: Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cally viable physics issues at two hadron colliders currently under operation, the p¯p collider ... corrections to different SM processes are very important. ... Keeping all these in mind and the available skills and interests of the ... relation involving the masses of the Standard Model particles as well as the masses of any.

  20. Nuclear physics group report - January 1 to December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to lists of staff, visitors, meetings and publications, the Oslo cyclotron programme is discussed and the computer and data collection system briefly described. Nuclear instrumentation is also briefly presented. Short reports on experiments and theoret- ical projects are given and are included separately in INIS as short communications. Other fields covered are radionuclide production, radiation physics and solar energy research. (JIW)

  1. Sports in elementary school: : physical education specialists vs. group teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Wouter; Moolenaar, Ben; Mombarg, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In elementary school, children have to learn fundamental motor skills to ensure a lifetime participation in sports. An essential part of this learning process is organized in physical education lessons and other sport activities during or after school time. The quality and quantity of

  2. B Physics: WHEPP-XI working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theoretical and experimental review of B Physics .... in B → (KSπ0)K∗ γ [20,21], and new scalar interactions that can affect the decay rate of. Bs → μ+μ .... tion fL, may allow to design a decision tree to discriminate between different types of NP.

  3. The Parkinson's experience of group physical activity: Understanding social support, social comparison, physical self-perceptions, and posttraumatic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehy, Tammy L

    2014-01-01

    Group physical activity programs for clinical populations can provide opportunities for adaptive social interactions, improving perceptions of competence, and may facilitate posttraumatic growth (positive psychological changes resulting from traumatic life experiences). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how people with Parkinson's experience social interactions and physical challenges in a group physical activity program, and to investigate what role they think those experie...

  4. A Challenging Job: Physical and Sexual Violence towards Group Workers in Youth Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…

  5. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng

    2018-05-15

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  6. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, Paul Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  7. Rayleigh Wave Group Velocity Tomography from Microseisms in the Acambay Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama Membrillo, S.; Aguirre, J.; Zuñiga-Davila, R.; Iglesias, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Acambay graben is one of the most outstanding structures of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The Acambay graben has a length of 80km and 15 to 18 km wide and reaches a maximum height of 400 m in its central part. We obtained the group velocity seismic tomography for the Acamaby graben for three different frequencies (f = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Hz). The graben was divided into 6x6 km cells for the tomography and covered a total area of 1008 km2. Seismic noise data from 10 broadband seismic stations near the Acambay graben were used to extract the surface wave arrival-times between all station pairs. The Green's function was recovered in each stations pair by cross-correlation technique. This technique was applied to seismic recordings collected on the vertical component of 10 broadband stations for a continuous recording period of 5 months. Data processing consisted of removing instrumental response, mean, and trend. After that, we applied time domain normalization, a spectral whitening and applied band-pas filtering of 0.1 to 1 Hz. There are shallow studies of the Acambay graben. But little is known of the distribution of deep graben structures. This study estimated the surface wave velocity deep structure. The structures at the frequency 0.3 Hz indicate a lower depth than the remaining frequencies. The result for this frequency show consistencies with previous studies of gravimetry and resistivity, also defines the fault system of Temascalcingo.

  8. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    ) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. METHODS/DESIGN: A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work......BACKGROUND: A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job...... groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers...

  9. The physics of wave-particle interactions with applications to astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimabadi, H.

    1988-01-01

    The physics of electromagnetic wave-particle interactions in the limit of a strong static magnetic field is investigated using Hamiltonian and multiple time-scale techniques. For sufficiently small wave amplitude, the system is integrable and the motion in phase space is regular. For amplitudes exceeding a threshold value, the system become nonintegrable and the particle motion in phase space becomes stochastic. The stochasticity is caused by the overlapping of the adjacent resonances. The particle dynamics in various limits is discussed using a novel graphical technique for analyzing the particle motion. It is found that for ncosα > 1, the constant Hamiltonian surfaces are topologically closed and the maximum attainable particle energy is severely limited (n is the index of refraction and α is the wave propagation angle). For ncosα ≤ 1, however, the constant Hamiltonian surfaces are open due to relativistic correlations and the particles can gain large energies. A diffusion equation analogous to the Fokker-Planck equation is derived and used to examine the effect of the wave on an ensemble of particles. The model is applied to two different space applications. (i) It is shown that electrons can be accelerated by interacting with fundamental or second harmonic of an obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high energy electrons in solar type III bursts. (ii). The Kennel and Coroniti (1984) model of the Crab nebula is reexamined including the wave effects. A new model for the Crab nebula which accounts for the presence of radio electrons is proposed and its predictions compared to observations

  10. Integrating Unified Gravity Wave Physics into the NOAA Next Generation Global Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.; Yudin, V.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Akmaev, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Unified Gravity Wave Physics (UGWP) project for the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) is a NOAA collaborative effort between the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), Environemntal Modeling Center (EMC) and the University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CU-CIRES) to support upgrades and improvements of GW dynamics (resolved scales) and physics (sub-grid scales) in the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS)†. As envisioned the global climate, weather and space weather models of NEMS will substantially improve their predictions and forecasts with the resolution-sensitive (scale-aware) formulations planned under the UGWP framework for both orographic and non-stationary waves. In particular, the planned improvements for the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of NEMS are: calibration of model physics for higher vertical and horizontal resolution and an extended vertical range of simulations, upgrades to GW schemes, including the turbulent heating and eddy mixing due to wave dissipation and breaking, and representation of the internally-generated QBO. The main priority of the UGWP project is unified parameterization of orographic and non-orographic GW effects including momentum deposition in the middle atmosphere and turbulent heating and eddies due to wave dissipation and breaking. The latter effects are not currently represented in NOAA atmosphere models. The team has tested and evaluated four candidate GW solvers integrating the selected GW schemes into the NGGPS model. Our current work and planned activity is to implement the UGWP schemes in the first available GFS/FV3 (open FV3) configuration including adapted GFDL modification for sub-grid orography in GFS. Initial global model results will be shown for the operational and research GFS configuration for spectral and FV3 dynamical cores. †http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/index.php?branch=NEMS

  11. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  12. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, H.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries

  13. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.; Heinz, R.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Indiana University Task C group is participating in the experiments GEM at the SSC and MACRO at the Gran Sasso. After an introduction to GEM in paragraph II, a detailed report is presented on the work done during the current contract period on the design of the outer region of the GEM Central Tracker. The Central Tracker Monte Carlo, which was the other significant GEM activity by the group, is included. In paragraph III is introduced MACRO and a brief status report is given. Muon Astronomy analysis done using MACRO data is also presented

  14. Accuracy of inference on the physics of binary evolution from gravitational-wave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jim W.; Gaebel, Sebastian M.; Neijssel, Coenraad J.; Vigna-Gómez, Alejandro; Stevenson, Simon; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Farr, Will M.; Mandel, Ilya

    2018-04-01

    The properties of the population of merging binary black holes encode some of the uncertain physics underlying the evolution of massive stars in binaries. The binary black hole merger rate and chirp-mass distribution are being measured by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider isolated binary evolution, and explore how accurately the physical model can be constrained with such observations by applying the Fisher information matrix to the merging black hole population simulated with the rapid binary-population synthesis code COMPAS. We investigate variations in four COMPAS parameters: common-envelope efficiency, kick-velocity dispersion, and mass-loss rates during the luminous blue variable and Wolf-Rayet stellar-evolutionary phases. We find that ˜1000 observations would constrain these model parameters to a fractional accuracy of a few per cent. Given the empirically determined binary black hole merger rate, we can expect gravitational-wave observations alone to place strong constraints on the physics of stellar and binary evolution within a few years. Our approach can be extended to use other observational data sets; combining observations at different evolutionary stages will lead to a better understanding of stellar and binary physics.

  15. Nonlinear waves in Bose–Einstein condensates: physical relevance and mathematical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero-González, R; Frantzeskakis, D J; Kevrekidis, P G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to some of the physical notions and the mathematical methods that are relevant to the study of nonlinear waves in Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Upon introducing the general framework, we discuss the prototypical models that are relevant to this setting for different dimensions and different potentials confining the atoms. We analyse some of the model properties and explore their typical wave solutions (plane wave solutions, bright, dark, gap solitons as well as vortices). We then offer a collection of mathematical methods that can be used to understand the existence, stability and dynamics of nonlinear waves in such BECs, either directly or starting from different types of limits (e.g. the linear or the nonlinear limit or the discrete limit of the corresponding equation). Finally, we consider some special topics involving more recent developments, and experimental setups in which there is still considerable need for developing mathematical as well as computational tools. (invited article)

  16. Les Houches Summer School of Theoretical Physics : Session 72, Coherent Atomic Matter Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Westbrook, C; David, F; Coherent Atomic Matter Waves

    2001-01-01

    Progress in atomic physics has been so vigorous during the past decade that one is hard pressed to follow all the new developments. In the early 1990s the first atom interferometers opened a new field in which we have been able to use the wave nature of atoms to probe fundamental quantum me chanics questions as well as to make precision measurements. Coming fast on the heels of this development was the demonstration of Bose Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapors which intensified research interest in studying the wave nature of matter, especially in a domain in which "macro scopic" quantum effects (vortices, stimulated scattering of atomic beams) are visible. At the same time there has been much progress in our understanding of the behavior of waves (notably electromagnetic) in complex media, both periodic and disordered. An obvious topic of speculation and probably of future research is whether any new insight or applications will develop if one examines the behavior of de Broglie waves in ana...

  17. Stochastic displacement group and its application in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namsraj, Kh.; Tsehrehn, D.; Sehrdamba, L.

    1978-01-01

    Within the stochastic displacement the equation of the brownian motion and the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations are obtained. It is noted that the existance of a new equation describing four states with certain energy is possible. The notion of stochastic groups and its representations with illustrations in concrete examples and applications are given. The diffusion equation is obtained on the basis of the notion of stochastic rotation

  18. The symmetric group and its relevance to fermion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, M.

    1981-04-01

    Notes are given of a series of lectures presented at TRIUMF (Vancouver) during the week of October 17-24, 1980. The lectures, and accompanying notes were designed to give the student a working knowledge of the classification and construction of sets of n-particle states transforming according to a definite irreducible representation of the symmetric group Ssub(n). Applications are given for the classification of quark states of baryons and multibaryons

  19. Impact of physical activity in group versus individual physical activity on fatigue in patients with breast cancer: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, Christine; Filion, Myriam; Brien, Marie-Chantale; Hogue, Jean-Charles; Laflamme, Christian; Lemieux, Julie

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity improves the quality of life of cancer survivors, but whether there is a difference between individual vs. group physical activity is unknown. To compare fatigue at 12 weeks in breast cancer survivors after participation in a program of group vs. individual video-assisted physical activity. This was a randomized phase II pilot study carried out in breast cancer survivors at a tertiary breast cancer center. Eligible patients were randomized to individual or group 12-week physical activity program. The primary outcome was fatigue (FACT-F). Aerobic capacity (6-min walk test), muscular strength, and quality-of-life (FACT-G and FACT-B) were assessed. Because of poor accrual, 200 consecutive breast cancer patients were surveyed about their physical activity habits to assess reasons for low recruitment. For all participants (n = 26; n = 12 for group vs. n = 14 for individual), there were some improvement in FACT-F, FACT-G, FACT-B, physical activity level, aerobic capacity, and shoulder strength. Among the 200 patients surveyed, 58% were interested to increase their physical activity level, 15% declared that they were already exercising enough, 9% declared being unable to, 3% declared having no time, and 2% declared having no interest, and other reasons (13%). Among the 200 patients surveyed, 25% preferred in group, 57% preferred alone, and 18% had no preference. Low recruitment precluded conclusions about the efficacy of physical activity practiced in group vs. individually, but both groups derived a benefit. Low willingness to change exercising habits could be the biggest barrier to physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  1. Research in theoretical nuclear physics, Nuclear Theory Group. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Jackson, A.D.; Kuo, T.T.S.

    1984-01-01

    Primary emphasis is placed on understanding the nature of nucleon-nucleon and meson-nucleon interactions and on determining the consequences of such microscopic interactions in nuclear systems. We have constructed models of baryons which smoothly interpolate between currently popular bag and Skyrme models of hadrons and provide a vehicle for introducing the notions of quantum chromodynamics to low energy nuclear physics without violating the constraints of chiral invariance. Such models have been used to study the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the spectrum of baryons, and the important question of the radius of the quark bag. We have used many-body techniques to consider a variety of problems in finite nuclei and infinite many-body systems. New light has been shed on the nuclear coexistence of spherical and deformed states in the A = 18 region as well as the role of genuine three-body forces in this region. Phenomenological studies of infinite systems have led to a number of predictions particularly regarding the spin-polarized quantum liquids of current experimental interest. Microscopic many-body theories, based on the parquet diagrams, have been improved to a fully quantitative level for the ground state properties of infinite many-body systems. Finite temperature theories of nuclear matter, important in the study of heavy ion reactions, have been constructed. An expanded program in heavy ion theory has led to major advances in the multi-dimensional barrier penetration problem. Activities in nuclear astrophysics have provided a far more reliable description of the role of electron capture processes in stellar collapse. As a consequence, we have been able to perform legitimate calculations of the unshocked mass in Type II supernovae

  2. Special issue on electron cyclotron wave physics, technology, and applications - Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, Nermin A.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Fusion Science and Technology (FS and T) contains a compendium of full-length, peer-reviewed papers on electron cyclotron (EC) wave physics, technology, and applications on magnetically confined plasmas. The interest in this special issue started with a simple question from a single individual who asked if he could submit for publication in FS and T his paper ''ITER ECH Front Steering Upper Launcher,'' parts of which he was planning to present at the 14th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating, Santorini Island, Greece, May 2006. Such interest quickly grew, and the decision was made to offer the same opportunity to other workshop participants as well as to other interested researchers from around the world to contribute to a special FS and T issue on EC wave physics, technology, and applications. The person who started this ''wave'' of interest is no other than Dr. Mark Henderson, who was later drafted and kindly agreed to serve as the guest editor for this issue. The worldwide research program on EC wave physics, technology, and applications has shown impressive progress over the past couple of years, and much of this progress is reflected in the fifty or so papers that are included in this two-part special issue - part 1 in August 2007 and part 2 in January 2008. To complement the contributed papers, several informative reviews, which will be valuable for years to come, were also invited and are included. These review papers provide an objective summary of the current state of the art in EC emission research, theory of EC waves, EC heating and current drive experiments, gyrotron development, launcher development, and transmission systems. In preparation for ITER, this special issue is timely and should be of interest to those already working in the field and to the new generation of scientists and engineers who will be the ones to design, build, and carry out experiments on ITER. We extend our

  3. Group theoretical methods in physics. [Tuebingen, July 18-22, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, P; Rieckers, A

    1978-01-01

    This volume comprises the proceedings of the 6th International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, held at Tuebingen in July 1977. Invited papers were presented on the following topics: supersymmetry and graded Lie algebras; concepts of order and disorder arising from molecular physics; symplectic structures and many-body physics; symmetry breaking in statistical mechanics and field theory; automata and systems as examples of applied (semi-) group theory; renormalization group; and gauge theories. Summaries are given of the contributed papers, which can be grouped as follows: supersymmetry, symmetry in particles and relativistic physics; symmetry in molecular and solid state physics; broken symmetry and phase transitions; structure of groups and dynamical systems; representations of groups and Lie algebras; and general symmetries, quantization. Those individual papers in scope for the TIC data base are being entered from ATOMINDEX tapes. (RWR)

  4. Programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics using Very Low Frequency Radio Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sasmal, Sudipta; Pal, Sujay; Kanta Maji, Surya; Ray, Suman

    Indian Centre for Space Physics conducted two major VLF campaigns all over Indian Sub-continent to study the propagation effects of VLF radio waves. It made multi-receiver observations during solar eclipse. ICSP not only recorded multitudes of solar flares, it also reproduced VLF observation from ab initio calculation. ICSP extended its study to the field of earthquake predictions using signal anomalies and using case by case studies as well as statistical analysis, showed that anomalies are real and more studies are required to understand them. Using earth as a gigantic detector, it detected ionospheric perturbations due to soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts.

  5. Physical modeling and analysis of P-wave attenuation anisotropy in transversely isotropic media

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zhu, Y.; Tsvankin, I.; Dewangan, P.; Van Wijk, K.

    here H20849Figures 1 and 2aH20850 was to verify the accuracy of the parameter-esti- mation results obtained by Dewangan et al. H208492006H20850. The P-wave source H20849a flat-faced, cylindrical, piezoelectric-contact transducerH20850 was fixed... are assumed to be constant. Receivers 10.8 cm 60 cm Source 70? symmetry axis Figure 1. Physical model of a TI layer with the symmetry axis tilted at 70? H20849from Dewangan et al., 2006H20850. The transmitted wavefield is excited by an ultrasonic contact...

  6. A challenging job: Physical and sexual violence towards group workers in youth residential care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, L.R.A.; Euser, S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about sexual harassment in addition to physical victimization of social workers in youth residential or group care. Objective: We investigated the

  7. An ethnographic study: Becoming a physics expert in a biophysics research group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis

    Expertise in physics has been traditionally studied in cognitive science, where physics expertise is understood through the difference between novice and expert problem solving skills. The cognitive perspective of physics experts only create a partial model of physics expertise and does not take into account the development of physics experts in the natural context of research. This dissertation takes a social and cultural perspective of learning through apprenticeship to model the development of physics expertise of physics graduate students in a research group. I use a qualitative methodological approach of an ethnographic case study to observe and video record the common practices of graduate students in their biophysics weekly research group meetings. I recorded notes on observations and conduct interviews with all participants of the biophysics research group for a period of eight months. I apply the theoretical framework of Communities of Practice to distinguish the cultural norms of the group that cultivate physics expert practices. Results indicate that physics expertise is specific to a topic or subfield and it is established through effectively publishing research in the larger biophysics research community. The participant biophysics research group follows a learning trajectory for its students to contribute to research and learn to communicate their research in the larger biophysics community. In this learning trajectory students develop expert member competencies to learn to communicate their research and to learn the standards and trends of research in the larger research community. Findings from this dissertation expand the model of physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and add the social and cultural nature of physics expertise development. This research also addresses ways to increase physics graduate student success towards their PhD. and decrease the 48% attrition rate of physics graduate students. Cultivating effective research

  8. Quantum physics of entangled systems: wave-particle duality and atom-photon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of quantum physics is the wave nature of matter. It explains experimentally observed effects like interference and diffraction, occurring when an object moves from one place to another along several indistinguishable ways simultaneously. The wave nature disappears when the individual ways are distinguishable. In this case, the particle nature of the object becomes visible. To determine the particle nature quantitatively, the way of the object has to be measured. Here, large progress has been made recently with new techniques, enabling one to investigate single moving atoms in a controlled manner. Two examples are discussed in the following two sections. The first experiment describes an atom interferometer, where the way of the atom is entangled with its internal state. This allows one to explore the origin of wave-particle duality and perform a quantitative test of this fundamental principle. The second experiment reports on the observation of an atom-photon molecule, a bound state between an atom and a single photon. A fascinating aspect of this system is that it makes possible to monitor the motion of a single neutral atom in real time. (orig.)

  9. Rayleigh wave group-velocity across the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.; Polanco Rivera, E.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern North America-Caribbean (NA-CAR) plate boundary near the islands of Hispaniola (which is comprised of the Dominican Republic and Haiti) and Puerto Rico is a complex transition zone in which strain is accommodated by two transform fault systems and oblique subduction. In 2013, scientists from Baylor University, the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, and the Puerto Rico Seismic Network deployed 16 broadband stations on the Dominican Republic to expand the local permanent network. The goal of the Greater Antilles Seismic Program (GrASP) is to combine its data with that from permanent networks in Puerto Rico, Haiti, Cuba, the Cayman Islands, and Jamaica to develop a better understanding of the crust and upper mantle structure in the Northeastern Caribbean (Greater Antilles). One important goal of GrASP is to develop robust velocity models that can be used to improve earthquake location and seismic hazard efforts. In this study, we focus on obtaining Rayleigh wave group velocity maps from ambient noise tomography. By cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at 53 stations between 2010 to present, we obtain Green's functions between 1165 pairs of stations. From these, we obtain dispersion curves by the application of FTAN methods with phase-matched filtering. Selection criteria depend on the signal-to-noise ratio and seasonal variability, with further filtering done by rejecting velocities incompatible with maps produced from overdamped tomographic inversions. Preliminary dispersion maps show strong correlations with large-scale geological and tectonic features for periods between 5 - 20 s, such as the Cordillera Central in both the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the Mona Passage, and the NA-CAR subduction zone. Ongoing efforts focus on including shorter periods in Puerto Rico as its denser station distribution could allow us to retrieve higher resolution group velocity maps.

  10. Corrosion and erosion monitoring in plates and pipes using constant group velocity Lamb wave inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter B; Simonetti, Francesco; Instanes, Geir

    2014-09-01

    Recent improvements in tomographic reconstruction techniques generated a renewed interest in short-range ultrasonic guided wave inspection for real-time monitoring of internal corrosion and erosion in pipes and other plate-like structures. Emerging evidence suggests that in most cases the fundamental asymmetric A0 mode holds a distinct advantage over the earlier market leader fundamental symmetric S0 mode. Most existing A0 mode inspections operate at relatively low inspection frequencies where the mode is highly dispersive therefore very sensitive to variations in wall thickness. This paper examines the potential advantages of increasing the inspection frequency to the so-called constant group velocity (CGV) point where the group velocity remains essentially constant over a wide range of wall thickness variation, but the phase velocity is still dispersive enough to allow accurate wall thickness assessment from phase angle measurements. This paper shows that in the CGV region the crucial issue of temperature correction becomes especially simple, which is particularly beneficial when higher-order helical modes are also exploited for tomography. One disadvantage of working at such relatively high inspection frequency is that, as the slower A0 mode becomes faster and less dispersive, the competing faster S0 mode becomes slower and more dispersive. At higher inspection frequencies these modes cannot be separated any longer based on their vibration polarization only, which is mostly tangential for the S0 mode while mostly normal for the A0 at low frequencies, as the two modes become more similar as the frequency increases. Therefore, we propose a novel method for suppressing the unwanted S0 mode based on the Poisson effect of the material by optimizing the angle of inclination of the equivalent transduction force of the Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) used for generation and detection purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Adaptive Physics-Based Method for the Solution of One-Dimensional Wave Motion Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Shafiei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive physics-based method is developed for solving wave motion problems in one dimension (i.e., wave propagation in strings, rods and beams. The solution of the problem includes two main parts. In the first part, after discretization of the domain, a physics-based method is developed considering the conservation of mass and the balance of momentum. In the second part, adaptive points are determined using the wavelet theory. This part is done employing the Deslauries-Dubuc (D-D wavelets. By solving the problem in the first step, the domain of the problem is discretized by the same cells taking into consideration the load and characteristics of the structure. After the first trial solution, the D-D interpolation shows the lack and redundancy of points in the domain. These points will be added or eliminated for the next solution. This process may be repeated for obtaining an adaptive mesh for each step. Also, the smoothing spline fit is used to eliminate the noisy portion of the solution. Finally, the results of the proposed method are compared with the results available in the literature. The comparison shows excellent agreement between the obtained results and those already reported.

  12. The doping concentration and physical properties measurement of silicon water using tera hertz wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hyeon; Oh, Gyung Hwan; Kim, Hak Sung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a tera hertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technique was used to measure doping concentration and physical properties (such as refractive index and permittivity) of the doped silicon (Si) wafers. The transmission and reflection modes with an incidence angle of 30° were employed to determine the physical properties of the doped Si wafers. The doping concentrations of the prepared Si wafers were varied from 10"1"4 to 10"1"8 in both N-type and P-type cases. Finally, the correlation between the doping concentration and the power of the THz wave was determined by measuring the powers of the transmitted and reflected THz waves of the doped Si wafers. Additionally, the doped thickness, the refractive index, and permittivity of each doped Si wafer were calculated using the THz time domain waveform. The results indicate that the THz-TDS imaging technique is potentially a promising technique to measure the doping concentration as well as other optical properties (such as the refractive index and permittivity) of the doped Si wafer

  13. The doping concentration and physical properties measurement of silicon water using tera hertz wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Hyeon; Oh, Gyung Hwan; Kim, Hak Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In this study, a tera hertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technique was used to measure doping concentration and physical properties (such as refractive index and permittivity) of the doped silicon (Si) wafers. The transmission and reflection modes with an incidence angle of 30° were employed to determine the physical properties of the doped Si wafers. The doping concentrations of the prepared Si wafers were varied from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 18} in both N-type and P-type cases. Finally, the correlation between the doping concentration and the power of the THz wave was determined by measuring the powers of the transmitted and reflected THz waves of the doped Si wafers. Additionally, the doped thickness, the refractive index, and permittivity of each doped Si wafer were calculated using the THz time domain waveform. The results indicate that the THz-TDS imaging technique is potentially a promising technique to measure the doping concentration as well as other optical properties (such as the refractive index and permittivity) of the doped Si wafer.

  14. The Use of Microsoft Excel to Illustrate Wave Motion and Fraunhofer Diffraction in First Year Physics Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Robinson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an Excel package that can be used to demonstrate physical phenomena in which variables may be automatically adjusted in real-time. This is accomplished by interrogating the system clock through the use of an appropriate macro, and using the clock reading to update the relevant variable. The package has been used for a number of years in first year physics courses to illustrate two phenomena: i waves, including travelling waves, standing waves, the addition of waves and the interference of waves in general, and also Lissajous figures, and ii Fraunhofer diffraction and the effects of varying such quantities as the wavelength of the incoming light, the number of slits, the slit width and the slit separation. A number of illustrative examples, generated by the package and taken from a fist year physics course, are presented graphically. The package, which is available for downloading from the web, may be used interactively by the student and is easily modified by them. The use of Excel has the advantage that it is accessible to a much wider audience than if it were written in, say, Matlab. We envisage that it may be useful for first year university courses in wave motion and optics, and may also be useful in physics courses in the last year of secondary school. The package has been tested under Excel 2003, 2007 and 2010, and runs satisfactorily in all three versions.

  15. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  16. Comparison of magnetosonic wave and water group ion energy densities at Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, K.; Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Forster, P. M. De F.; Hynds, R. J.; Yates, T. S.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the Comet Giacobini-Zinner (GZ) are presented to determine to what extent wave-particle scattering redistributed the initial pick-up energy of the ion population. Also examined is the difference between the ion thermal energy and the energy in the magnetic fields of the waves. In spite of uncertainty of about a factor of 2 noted in the pick-up and mass-loaded regions, it is shown that less than approximately 50 percent of the pick-up energy is converted into wave magnetic energy in the inbound pick-up region.

  17. Technology of forming a positive attitude to physical training students of special medical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamediarov N.N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Defined effective technology stages of forming a positive attitude towards physical education of students in special medical groups, stimulate motivation, epistemologically, informative, content-procedural, analytical and adjustment. For each stage technology offered special tools: lectures, seminars, analysis articles, mini conference on improving technique, racing games, mini-competitions, diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, analysis of log data on attendance. Selected criteria forming positive attitudes towards physical education: theoretical and practical, formed groups for research: experimental and control, analyzed results introduction of technology, efficiency of the proposed technology and means forming a positive attitude towards physical education students in special medical groups.

  18. Propagation of SH waves in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate: Effects of interfacial imperfection couplings and the related physical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hong-Xing [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Yong-Dong, E-mail: LYDbeijing@163.com [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Xiong, Tao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Guan, Yong [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2016-09-07

    The problem of dispersive SH wave in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate that contains an imperfect interface is considered in the present work. An imperfection coupling model is adopted to describe the magnetic, electric and mechanical imperfections on the interface. A transcendental dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved to get the phase velocity. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified in a degenerated case. The effects of the coupled interfacial imperfections on the dispersion behavior of SH waves are discussed in detail and the related underlying physical mechanisms are explained. - Highlights: • SH-wave is investigated in a multiferroic plate with coupled interfacial imperfections. • SH-wave is affected by both interfacial imperfections and their inter-couplings. • Physical mechanisms of the effects are explained via energy transformations.

  19. Propagation of SH waves in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate: Effects of interfacial imperfection couplings and the related physical mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hong-Xing; Li, Yong-Dong; Xiong, Tao; Guan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The problem of dispersive SH wave in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate that contains an imperfect interface is considered in the present work. An imperfection coupling model is adopted to describe the magnetic, electric and mechanical imperfections on the interface. A transcendental dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved to get the phase velocity. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified in a degenerated case. The effects of the coupled interfacial imperfections on the dispersion behavior of SH waves are discussed in detail and the related underlying physical mechanisms are explained. - Highlights: • SH-wave is investigated in a multiferroic plate with coupled interfacial imperfections. • SH-wave is affected by both interfacial imperfections and their inter-couplings. • Physical mechanisms of the effects are explained via energy transformations.

  20. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  1. Estimates of Lagrangian particle transport by wave groups: forward transport by Stokes drift and backward transport by the return flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bremer, Ton S.; Taylor, Paul H.

    2014-11-01

    Although the literature has examined Stokes drift, the net Lagrangian transport by particles due to of surface gravity waves, in great detail, the motion of fluid particles transported by surface gravity wave groups has received considerably less attention. In practice nevertheless, the wave field on the open sea often has a group-like structure. The motion of particles is different, as particles at sufficient depth are transported backwards by the Eulerian return current that was first described by Longuet-Higgins & Stewart (1962) and forms an inseparable counterpart of Stokes drift for wave groups ensuring the (irrotational) mass balance holds. We use WKB theory to study the variation of the Lagrangian transport by the return current with depth distinguishing two-dimensional seas, three-dimensional seas, infinite depth and finite depth. We then provide dimensional estimates of the net horizontal Lagrangian transport by the Stokes drift on the one hand and the return flow on the other hand for realistic sea states in all four cases. Finally we propose a simple scaling relationship for the transition depth: the depth above which Lagrangian particles are transported forwards by the Stokes drift and below which such particles are transported backwards by the return current.

  2. Psychiatric Disorders Differently Correlate with Physical Self-Rated Health across Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we compared 10 ethnic groups for associations between psychiatric disorders and physical self-rated health (SRH) in the United States. Data came from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001–2003. The study included 7587 non-Latino White, 4746 African American, 1442 Mexican, 1106 other Hispanic, 656 other Asian, 600 Chinese, 577 Cuban, 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, and 495 Puerto Rican individuals. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and binge eating disorders. A single-item measure was used to estimate physical SRH. Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were also measured. Unadjusted and adjusted correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were calculated. Major ethnic variations were found in the correlation between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH; as well as the role of demographic and socioeconomic status (SES) factors in explaining these associations. non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans showed more correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH than other ethnic groups. In non-Hispanic Whites, the associations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were explained by demographic factors. In African Americans, the link between psychiatric disorders and poor physical SRH were explained by SES indicators. In conclusion, although single-item physical SRH measures are traditionally assumed to reflect the physical health needs of populations, they may also indicate psychiatric disorders in some ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans. Demographic and socioeconomic factors also have differential roles in explaining the link between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH. Physical

  3. Psychiatric Disorders Differently Correlate with Physical Self-Rated Health across Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-11-13

    In this study, we compared 10 ethnic groups for associations between psychiatric disorders and physical self-rated health (SRH) in the United States. Data came from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003. The study included 7587 non-Latino White, 4746 African American, 1442 Mexican, 1106 other Hispanic, 656 other Asian, 600 Chinese, 577 Cuban, 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, and 495 Puerto Rican individuals. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and binge eating disorders. A single-item measure was used to estimate physical SRH. Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were also measured. Unadjusted and adjusted correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were calculated. Major ethnic variations were found in the correlation between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH; as well as the role of demographic and socioeconomic status (SES) factors in explaining these associations. non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans showed more correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH than other ethnic groups. In non-Hispanic Whites, the associations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were explained by demographic factors. In African Americans, the link between psychiatric disorders and poor physical SRH were explained by SES indicators. In conclusion , although single-item physical SRH measures are traditionally assumed to reflect the physical health needs of populations, they may also indicate psychiatric disorders in some ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans. Demographic and socioeconomic factors also have differential roles in explaining the link between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH. Physical

  4. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Ros, Wynand J. G.; May, Anne M.

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list

  5. Continuum kinetic methods for analyzing wave physics and distribution function dynamics in the turbulence dissipation challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juno, J.; Hakim, A.; TenBarge, J.; Dorland, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present for the first time results for the turbulence dissipation challenge, with specific focus on the linear wave portion of the challenge, using a variety of continuum kinetic models: hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell, gyrokinetic, and full Vlasov-Maxwell. As one of the goals of the wave problem as it is outlined is to identify how well various models capture linear physics, we compare our results to linear Vlasov and gyrokinetic theory. Preliminary gyrokinetic results match linear theory extremely well due to the geometry of the problem, which eliminates the dominant nonlinearity. With the non-reduced models, we explore how the subdominant nonlinearities manifest and affect the evolution of the turbulence and the energy budget. We also take advantage of employing continuum methods to study the dynamics of the distribution function, with particular emphasis on the full Vlasov results where a basic collision operator has been implemented. As the community prepares for the next stage of the turbulence dissipation challenge, where we hope to do large 3D simulations to inform the next generation of observational missions such as THOR (Turbulence Heating ObserveR), we argue for the consideration of hybrid Vlasov and full Vlasov as candidate models for these critical simulations. With the use of modern numerical algorithms, we demonstrate the competitiveness of our code with traditional particle-in-cell algorithms, with a clear plan for continued improvements and optimizations to further strengthen the code's viability as an option for the next stage of the challenge.

  6. Analogical scaffolding and the learning of abstract ideas in physics: An example from electromagnetic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D. Finkelstein

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model of analogy, analogical scaffolding, which explains present and prior results of student learning with analogies. We build on prior models of representation, blending, and layering of ideas. Extending this model’s explanatory power, we propose ways in which the model can be applied to design a curriculum directed at teaching abstract ideas in physics using multiple, layered analogies. We report on a recent empirical study that motivates this model. Students taught about electromagnetic waves in a curriculum that builds on the model of analogical scaffolding posted substantially greater gains pre- to postinstruction than students taught using a more traditional (non-analogy-based tutorial (21% vs 7%.

  7. Physical design of 9 MeV travelling wave electron linac accelerating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huaibi; Ding Xiaodong; Lin Yuzheng

    2000-01-01

    An accelerating tube is described. It is a part of an accelerator used for inspection of vehicle cargoes in rail cars, trucks, shipping containers, or airplanes in customs. A klystron with power of 4 MW and frequency of 2856 MHz will be applied to supply microwave power. The electrons can be accelerated by a travelling wave in the accelerating tube about 220 cm long, with a buncher whose capture efficiency is more than 80%. Energy of electrons after travelling through the tube can reach 9 MeV (pulse current intensity 170 mA) or 6 MeV (pulse current intensity 300 mA). Physical design of the accelerating tube, including the calculations of longitudinal particle dynamics, structure parameter and working character is carried out

  8. ASYMPTOTICAL CALCULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES SCATTERED FROM A DIELECTRIC COATED CYLINDRICAL SURFACE WITH PHYSICAL OPTICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur YALÇIN

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quasi-optical scattering of finite source electromagnetic waves from a dielectric coated cylindrical surface is analysed with Physical Optics (PO approach. A linear electrical current source is chosen as the finite source. Reflection coefficient of the cylindrical surface is derived by using Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. Then, with the help of this coefficient, fields scattered from the surface are obtained. These field expressions are used in PO approach and surface scattering integral is determined. Evaluating this integral asymptotically, fields reflected from the surface and surface divergence coefficient are calculated. Finally, results obtained in this study are evaluated numerically and effects of the surface impedance to scattered fields are analysed. The time factor is taken as j te? in this study.

  9. The role of micro size computing clusters for small physics groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevel, A Y

    2014-01-01

    A small physics group (3-15 persons) might use a number of computing facilities for the analysis/simulation, developing/testing, teaching. It is discussed different types of computing facilities: collaboration computing facilities, group local computing cluster (including colocation), cloud computing. The author discuss the growing variety of different computing options for small groups and does emphasize the role of the group owned computing cluster of micro size.

  10. Electrocardiographic reference values and configuration of electrocardiogram waves recorded in Black Bengal goats of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Ranjeeta Rashmee; Mahapatra, Ambika Prasad Khadanga; Mohapatra, Swagat; Jyotiranjan, Tushar; Kundu, Akshaya Kumar

    2017-09-01

    A study on age-related electrocardiographic (ECG) changes was conducted on 20 apparently healthy Black Bengal goats with no history of cardiac disorders during 2015-2016. The goats selected for the study belonged to four different age groups; Group 1: Goats up to 6 months of age, Group 2: Above 6 months and below 1 year of age, Group 3: Above 1 year and below 2 years of age, and Group 4: Above 2 years of age. The ECG was recorded with the animals in standing position using a 12-lead standard ECG recorder (Model-Cardiart-108 MK VII, manufactured by BPL, India). The paper speed was set to 25 mm/s with the sensitivity of the machine was adjusted at 1 (1 cm=mV). The ECG parameters were compared within different age groups, and the data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 taking a significant level of 95% (page groups. In bipolar limb lead-II, the amplitude of T-wave, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate was a significant difference among some age groups. Lead-III presented significant difference among age groups in different parameters such as QRS complex duration, T-wave duration, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate. The study concluded that there is a significant variation in the ECG parameters both in terms of values and configuration of ECG waves when age is taken into consideration. The results of the study might be used as a reference value for field veterinarians.

  11. Generalized statistical criterion for distinguishing random optical groupings from physical multiple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anosova, Z.P.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical criterion is proposed for distinguishing between random and physical groupings of stars and galaxies. The criterion is applied to nearby wide multiple stars, triplets of galaxies in the list of Karachentsev, Karachentseva, and Shcherbanovskii, and double galaxies in the list of Dahari, in which the principal components are Seyfert galaxies. Systems that are almost certainly physical, probably physical, probably optical, and almost certainly optical are identified. The limiting difference between the radial velocities of the components of physical multiple galaxies is estimated

  12. Work group I: Measures of the food and physical activity environment: instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.

  13. On physical complementarity of Galileo and Lorentz groups in the electrodynamics of isotropic inertial moving media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barykin, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    A physical interpretation of the early detected ambiguity of the electrodynamic material equations of isotropic, inertially moving media which mathematically manifests itself through complementarity of the equations invariant under the Galileo group in some cases and in other ones - under the Lorentz group that can be experimentally discovered in the aberration phenomenon and Doppler effect

  14. Renormalization group improved Yennie-Frautschi-Suura theory for Z0 physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, B.F.L.

    1987-06-01

    Described is a recently developed renormalization group improved version of the program of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura for the exponentiation of infrared divergences in Abelian gauge theories. Particular attention is paid to the relevance of this renormalization group improved exponentiation to Z 0 physics at the SLC and LEP

  15. Influence of Sport Education on Group Cohesion in University Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jayne M.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2011-01-01

    The Sport Education ("SE") curricular model incorporated within university physical education Basic Instruction Program (BIP) may increase group cohesion. This study's purpose was to identify student perceptions of a BIP course taught within "SE," and investigate group cohesion in differing activity content. Participants…

  16. Physics Colloquium: Theory of the spin wave Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Lundi 28 février 2011 17h00 - École de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg Theory of the spin wave Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators Prof. Gerrit Bauer Delft University of Technology The subfield of spin caloritronics addresses the coupling of heat, charge and spin currents in nanostructures. In the center of interest is here the spin Seebeck effect, which was discovered in an iron-nickel alloy. Uchida et al. recently observed the effect also in an electrically insulating Yttrium Iron Garnett (YIG) thin magnetic film. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a Seebeck effect generated by an insulator, implying that the physics is fundamentally different from the conventional Seebeck effect in metals. We explain the experiments by the pumping of a spin current into the detecting contacts by the thermally excited magnetization dynamics. In this talk I will give a brief overview over the state o...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF COORDINATION ABILITIES OF SPECIAL MEDICAL GROUPS STUDENTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Dotsenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the problem of motor abilities development and health of students of special medical group in the process of physical education in technical universities. Determine the major factors, characteristics, and the relationship of physical development, physical fitness and coordination abilities of female students in special medical group. Establish regularities in precise movements mastering of different coordination structure and develop model characteristics of the relationship of coordination abilities and motor characteristics of students in special medical group. To substantiate and verify efficiency of coordination abilities development method of female students with regard to their functional status in the course of physical education in higher school. Methodology. Theoretical and methodological argument, characteristic of the experimental program in physical education teaching process of students in special medical group was shown. Findings. Research is to develop the training content in special medical groups with the use of coordinating elements and exercises to enhance the motor abilities of female students. Their influence on the level of physical development, functional training, as well as regularities in mastering and movement control of different coordinating structure at the female students of special medical group was studied. The comparative characteristic of female students athletic ability in the dynamics of the educational process, differentiated into groups according to nosology was presented. The criterion of spare capacities upgrade of the motor system in controlling the movements of different coordination structure was determined. Originality. The method of coordination abilities development of female students in special medical group, that aims on the formation and correction of motor control system of different coordination structure, a sense of body position and its individual parts in space, improving

  18. Head waves in ultrasonic testing. Physical principle and application to welded joint testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustenberg, H.; Erhard, A.

    1984-01-01

    A head wave sensor is developed from distinct emitter and receiver sensors using longitudinal waves under a 70 0 incidence. These heat wave sensors present a high sensitivity for underlying cracks and are not influenced by surface accidents like liquid drops or welding projection. They are multi mode sensors emitting simultaneously longitudinal head waves, a main longitudinal lobe and a transverse wave with a maximum at about 38 0 . This wave combination can be used for automatic testing of welded joints even with austenitic materials for defect detection near internal or external surfaces. This process can substitute or complete liquid penetrant inspection or magnetic inspection for testing pipes (13 references are given) [fr

  19. Second-order theory for coupling 2D numerical and physical wave tanks: Derivation, evaluation and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    , 171–186] is extended to include the second-order dispersive correction. The new formulation is presented in a unified form that includes both progressive and evanescent modes and covers wavemaker configurations of the piston- and flap-type. The second order paddle stroke correction allows for improved...... nonlinear wave generation in the physical wave tank based on target numerical solutions. The performance and efficiency of the new model is first evaluated theoretically based on second order Stokes waves. Due to the complexity of the problem, the proposed method has been truncated at 2D and the treatment...... that the new second-order coupling theory provides an improvement in the quality of nonlinear wave generation when compared to existing techniques....

  20. Modeling guided wave excitation in plates with surface mounted piezoelectric elements: coupled physics and normal mode expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2018-04-01

    Guided waves have been extensively studied and widely used for structural health monitoring because of their large volumetric coverage and good sensitivity to defects. Effectively and preferentially exciting a desired wave mode having good sensitivity to a certain defect is of great practical importance. Piezoelectric discs and plates are the most common types of surface-mounted transducers for guided wave excitation and reception. Their geometry strongly influences the proportioning between excited modes as well as the total power of the excited modes. It is highly desirable to predominantly excite the selected mode while the total transduction power is maximized. In this work, a fully coupled multi-physics finite element analysis, which incorporates the driving circuit, the piezoelectric element and the wave guide, is combined with the normal mode expansion method to study both the mode tuning and total wave power. The excitation of circular crested waves in an aluminum plate with circular piezoelectric discs is numerically studied for different disc and adhesive thicknesses. Additionally, the excitation of plane waves in an aluminum plate, using a stripe piezoelectric element is studied both numerically and experimentally. It is difficult to achieve predominant single mode excitation as well as maximum power transmission simultaneously, especially for higher order modes. However, guidelines for designing the geometry of piezoelectric elements for optimal mode excitation are recommended.

  1. The Difference of Food Pattern and Physical Acti vity between Obese and Non Obese Teenage Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Suryaputra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in teenage is a syndrome that happened because of fat accumulation in the body. Obesity occured because of complex interaction between parental fatness, food pattern, and physical activity. In Indonesia, prevalence of teenage obesity is gradually increasing. The aim of this research was to analyze about the difference of foodpattern and physical activity between obesity and non obesity teenage group. This study was an analytical observational research with cross sectional design. The samples were 40 teenage from Santa Agnes seniorhigh school Surabaya (age 15-17 that was taken by simple random sampling, that divers to 20 obese and 20 non obese teenage group. The data were analysed by Mann Whitney test for nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fast food’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, consumption level of energy, carbohydrat, protein, and fat, physical activity and parental fatness. The result of the statistic test showed that variables significant difference are nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fastfood’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, energy consumption level, carbohydrate consumption level, protein consumption level, fat consumption level, physical activity and parental fatness between obese and non obese teenage group. The conlusion is that significant differences are food pattern and physical activity between obese and non obese teenage group. Recommendation is necessary to provide information and education to teenage about healthy food and adequate physical activity to prevent obesity

  2. The impact of anticipated stigma on psychological and physical health problems in the unemployed group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling T. O'Donnell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the unemployed suffer increased psychological and physical health problems compared to their employed counterparts. Further, unemployment leads to an unwanted new social identity that is stigmatizing, and stigma is known to be a stressor causing psychological and physical health problems. However, it is not yet known whether being stigmatized as an unemployed group member is associated with psychological and physical health in this group. The current study tested the impact of anticipated stigma on psychological distress and physical health problems, operationalized as somatic symptoms, in a volunteer sample of unemployed people. Results revealed that anticipated stigma had a direct effect on both psychological distress and somatic symptoms, such that greater anticipated stigma significantly predicted higher levels of both. Moreover, the direct effect on somatic symptoms became non-significant when psychological distress was taken into account. Thus, to the extent that unemployed participants anticipated experiencing greater stigma, they also reported increased psychological distress, and this psychological distress predicted increased somatic symptoms. Our findings complement and extend the existing literature on the relationships between stigmatized identities, psychological distress and physical health problems, particularly in relation to the unemployed group. This group is important to consider both theoretically, given the unwanted and transient nature of the identity compared to other stigmatized identities, but also practically, as the findings indicate a need to orient to the perceived valence of the unemployed identity and its effects on psychological and physical health.

  3. International workshop of the Confinement Database and Modelling Expert Group in collaboration with the Edge and Pedestal Physics Expert Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordey, J.; Kardaun, O.

    2001-01-01

    A Workshop of the Confinement Database and Modelling Expert Group (EG) was held on 2-6 April at the Plasma Physics Research Center of Lausanne (CRPP), Switzerland. Presentations were held on the present status of the plasma pedestal (temperature and energy) scalings from an empirical and theoretical perspective. An integrated approach to modelling tokamaks incorporating core transport, edge pedestal and SOL, together with a model for ELMs was presented by JCT. New experimental data on on global H-mode confinement were discussed and presentations on L-H threshold power were made

  4. Physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW travelling wave electron linac for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-11

    Oct 11, 2016 ... We present the physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW S-band (2856 MHz) electron linear ... linac (in contrast with standing wave linac) is that it accepts the RF power over a band of frequencies. Three- ... structures are preferred for relatively higher energy ... klystron in a TW linac, which results in cost reduction.

  5. Using a Disciplinary Discourse Lens to Explore How Representations Afford Meaning Making in a Typical Wave Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enghag, Margareta; Forsman, Jonas; Linder, Cedric; MacKinnon, Allan; Moons, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We carried out a case study in a wave physics course at a Swedish university in order to investigate the relations between the representations used in the lessons and the experience of meaning making in interview-discussions. The grounding of these interview-discussions also included obtaining a rich description of the lesson environment in terms…

  6. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  7. Estimation of Physical Properties of Amino Acids by Group-Contribution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jhamb, Spardha Virendra; Liang, Xiaodong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present group-contribution (GC) based property models for estimation of physical properties of amino acids using their molecular structural information. The physical properties modelled in this work are normal melting point (Tm), aqueous solubility (Ws), and octanol....../water partition coefficient (Kow) of amino acids. The developed GC-models are based on the published GC-method by Marrero and Gani (J. Marrero, R. Gani, Fluid Phase Equilib. 2001, 183-184, 183-208) with inclusion of new structural parameters (groups and molecular weight of compounds). The main objective...... of introducing these new structural parameters in the GC-model is to provide additional structural information for amino acids having large and complex structures and thereby improve predictions of physical properties of amino acids. The group-contribution values were calculated by regression analysis using...

  8. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to prioritize the children´s perceived barriers. This was verified...... barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the children´s perceptions of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly for those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have...

  9. Social Determinants of Physical Self-Rated Health among Asian Americans; Comparison of Six Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing literature has revealed ethnic group differences in determinants and meanings of their self-rated health (SRH. Aim: To explore ethnic variations in the effects of socioeconomic determinants on poor physical SRH of Asians in the United States. Methods: Data came from the National Asian American Survey (NAAS, 2008, with 4977 non-U.S. born Asian Americans, including Asian Indian (n = 1150, Chinese (n = 1350, Filipino (n = 603, Japanese (n = 541, Korean (n = 614, and Vietnamese (n = 719 Americans. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; education, employment, income, and marital status, and physical SRH were measured. Ethnic-specific logistic regressions were applied for data analysis where physical SRH was the outcome and demographic and social determinants were predictors. Results: According to logistic regressions, no social determinant was consistently associated with physical SRH across all ethnic groups. Being married was associated with better physical SRH in Asian Indians and worse SRH in the Filipino group. Education was associated with better SRH in Asian Indian, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans. High income was associated with better SRH in Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese Americans. Employment was associated with better SRH in Filipino Americans. Conclusion: Social determinants of physical SRH vary across ethnic groups of Asian Americans. Different ethnic groups are differently vulnerable to various social determinants of health. Application of single item SRH measures may be a source of bias in studies of health with ethnically diverse populations. Policy makers should be aware that the same change in social determinants may not result in similar change in the health of ethnic groups.

  10. Phase and group velocity tracing analysis of projected wave packet motion along oblique radar beams – qualitative analysis of QP echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Kuo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The wave packets of atmospheric gravity waves were numerically generated, with a given characteristic wave period, horizontal wave length and projection mean wind along the horizontal wave vector. Their projection phase and group velocities along the oblique radar beam (vpr and vgr, with different zenith angle θ and azimuth angle φ, were analyzed by the method of phase- and group-velocity tracing. The results were consistent with the theoretical calculations derived by the dispersion relation, reconfirming the accuracy of the method of analysis. The RTI plot of the numerical wave packets were similar to the striation patterns of the QP echoes from the FAI irregularity region. We propose that the striation range rate of the QP echo is equal to the radial phase velocity vpr, and the slope of the energy line across the neighboring striations is equal to the radial group velocity vgr of the wave packet; the horizontal distance between two neighboring striations is equal to the characteristic wave period τ. Then, one can inversely calculate all the properties of the gravity wave responsible for the appearance of the QP echoes. We found that the possibility of some QP echoes being generated by the gravity waves originated from lower altitudes cannot be ruled out.

  11. General developments in the Los Alamos Nuclear Physics group (T-16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear physics activities in support of nuclear data development by the newly formed ''Nuclear Physics'' group (T-16) at Los Alamos are summarized. Activities such as the development of a new Hauser-Feshbach/preequilibrium reaction theory code, improvements to and reissue of the existing GNASH reaction theory code, nuclear cross section evaluation in the context of ENDF/B-VI, development of a new medium-energy optical model potential, new fission neutron spectrum calculations with the Los Alamos model, and development of new 6-group delayed neutron constants for ENDF/B-VI are described. (author)

  12. [Physical activity and electronic media use in children and adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS wave 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, K; Schlack, R; Poethko-Müller, C; Mensink, G; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity during childhood and adolescence has numerous health benefits, while sedentary behavior, especially electronic media use, is associated with the development of overweight. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity during childhood and adolescence is an integral part of national public health efforts. The aim of this article is to describe the physical activity behavior of German children and adolescents based on the nationwide data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS wave 1). Furthermore, the association between physical activity and sports participation and use of screen-based media in youth aged 11 to 17 years was analyzed. The analyses included data from 10,426 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years collected by telephone interviews. Children older than 11 years answered the questions by themselves, whereas a parent was interviewed for younger children. The descriptive analyses were performed under consideration of social and demographic factors. According to the results of KiGGS wave 1 a total of 77.5% (95% Cl 76.0-78.9 %) of the children and adolescents participated in sports activities, and 59.7% (58.1-61.3 %) were members of a sports club. The recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) to be physically active at least 60 min per day was achieved by 27.5% (26.0-28.9 %). Children and adolescents with a low socioeconomic status (SES) participated less in sports activities than children of higher SES groups. Excessive use of screen-based media was more likely to be associated with lack of sports participation than with a lack of physical activity. In the future, preventive measures should promote the daily physical activity of children and adolescents and additionally encourage children and adolescents with low SES to participate in sports activities.

  13. Capillary-Physics Mechanism of Elastic-Wave Mobilization of Residual Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, I. A.; Pennington, W. D.; Turpening, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Much attention has been given to the possibility of vibratory mobilization of residual oil as a method of enhanced recovery. The common features of the relevant applications have nonetheless been inconsistency in the results of field tests and the lack of understanding of a physical mechanism that would explain variable experiences. Such a mechanism can be found in the physics of capillary trapping of oil ganglia, driven through the pore channels by an external pressure gradient. Entrapping of ganglia occurs due to the capillary pressure building on the downstream meniscus entering a narrow pore throat. The resulting internal-pressure imbalance acts against the external gradient, which needs to exceed a certain threshold to carry the ganglion through. The ganglion flow thus exhibits the properties of the Bingham (yield-stress) flow, not the Darcy flow. The application of vibrations is equivalent to the addition of an oscillatory forcing to the constant gradient. When this extra forcing acts along the gradient, an instant "unplugging" occurs, while, when the vibration reverses direction, the flow is plugged. This asymmetry results in an average non-zero flow over one period of vibration, which explains the mobilization effect. The minimum-amplitude and maximum-frequency thresholds apply for the mobilization to occur. When the vibration amplitude exceeds a certain "saturation" level, the flow returns to the Darcy regime. The criterion of the mobilization of a particular ganglion involves the parameters of both the medium (pore geometry, interfacial and wetting properties, fluid viscosity) and the oscillatory field (amplitude and frequency). The medium parameters vary widely under natural conditions. It follows that an elastic wave with a given amplitude and frequency will always produce a certain mobilization effect, mobilizing some ganglia and leaving others intact. The exact macroscopic effect is hard to predict, as it will represent a response of the populations

  14. Interventions to improve physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craike, Melinda; Wiesner, Glen; Hilland, Toni A; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia

    2018-05-15

    People from socioeconomically disadvantaged population groups are less likely to be physically active and more likely to experience adverse health outcomes than those who are less disadvantaged. In this umbrella review we examined across all age groups, (1) the effectiveness of interventions to improve physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, (2) the characteristics of effective interventions, and (3) directions for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus were searched up to May 2017 to identify systematic reviews reporting physical activity interventions in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations or sub-groups. Two authors independently conducted study screening and selection, data extraction (one author, with data checked by two others) and assessment of methodological quality using the 'Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews' scale. Results were synthesized narratively. Seventeen reviews met our inclusion criteria, with only 5 (30%) reviews being assessed as high quality. Seven (41%) reviews focused on obesity prevention and an additional four focused on multiple behavioural outcomes. For pre school children, parent-focused, group-based interventions were effective in improving physical activity. For children, school-based interventions and policies were effective; few studies focused on adolescents and those that did were generally not effective; for adults, there was mixed evidence of effectiveness but characteristics such as group-based interventions and those that focused on physical activity only were associated with effectiveness. Few studies focused on older adults. Across all ages, interventions that were more intensive tended to be more effective. Most studies reported short-term, rather than longer-term, outcomes and common methodological limitations included high probability of selection bias, low response rates, and high attrition. Interventions can be successful at improving physical activity among children from

  15. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-06-23

    Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls' requests for more "hanging-out" facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment.

  16. A physical model for laser metal vapour interactions and laser supported detonation waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenghai; Pei Wenbing; Yan Jun; Fan Furu

    1990-05-01

    A physical model for laser metal-vapour interactions has been developed in this paper. The model developed by authors has been used to study numerically the Laser Supported Detonation Waves (LSDWs) in vapour in front of metal targets, and some good results about LSDWs, such as ignition mechanism, threshold, propagation law and so on, have been obtained numerically with the model. In the model developed, a assumption for non-equilibrium between electrons and ions has been taken, and the target vapour has been discribed with two-temperature hydrodynamic equations of electrons and ions in the Euler space. The ionization-equilibrium assumption has been taken, and the Saha equations have been solved. The laser energy is absorbed due to inverse bremsstrahlung. Energy exchange between electrons and ions is by Coulomb scattering, and energy exchange between electrons and neutral particles is by way of electron-neutral elastic scattering. Electron and ion (including neutral particle) thermal conductions are taken respectively. The LSDWs threshold obtained is in agreement with experement reasonably, and a power law between LSDWs threshold and laser pulse duration, I th ∞τ p -1/2 , has been obtained. Some useful results about the LSDWs shield effects have also been obtained. In the developping phase of LSDWs, the optical thickness of front of LSDWs may reach 5 ∼ 10 in order of magnitude. It is shown that the LSDWs are able to play a very strong shield role

  17. Millimeter-wave imaging of magnetic fusion plasmas: technology innovations advancing physics understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Tobias, B.; Chang, Y.-T.; Yu, J.-H.; Li, M.; Hu, F.; Chen, M.; Mamidanna, M.; Phan, T.; Pham, A.-V.; Gu, J.; Liu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Domier, C. W.; Shi, L.; Valeo, E.; Kramer, G. J.; Kuwahara, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Mase, A.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    2017-07-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging is a passive radiometric technique that measures electron temperature fluctuations; and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) is an active radar imaging technique that measures electron density fluctuations. Microwave imaging diagnostic instruments employing these techniques have made important contributions to fusion science and have been adopted at major fusion facilities worldwide including DIII-D, EAST, ASDEX Upgrade, HL-2A, KSTAR, LHD, and J-TEXT. In this paper, we describe the development status of three major technological advancements: custom mm-wave integrated circuits (ICs), digital beamforming (DBF), and synthetic diagnostic modeling (SDM). These have the potential to greatly advance microwave fusion plasma imaging, enabling compact and low-noise transceiver systems with real-time, fast tracking ability to address critical fusion physics issues, including ELM suppression and disruptions in the ITER baseline scenario, naturally ELM-free states such as QH-mode, and energetic particle confinement (i.e. Alfvén eigenmode stability) in high-performance regimes that include steady-state and advanced tokamak scenarios. Furthermore, these systems are fully compatible with today’s most challenging non-inductive heating and current drive systems and capable of operating in harsh environments, making them the ideal approach for diagnosing long-pulse and steady-state tokamaks.

  18. Physical rehabilitation of sportsmen after fractures of foot joint with the help of power-waved therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydorchenko K.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The complex program of improvement of quality and acceleration of renewal of sportsmen are developed after the breaks of talocrural joint. In experiment took part 40 sportsmen-footballers in age of 20-25 years. The program plugged in itself: morning sanitary gymnastics, medical physical culture, massage, hydrokinesitherapy, hydromassage, employments on trainers, physiotherapy, power-waved therapy. It is well-proven that the use of power-waved therapy accelerates the processes of renewal on the average on 2-3 months.

  19. Physical-psychiatric comorbidity: patterns and explanations for ethnic group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erving, Christy L

    2018-08-01

    This paper examines ethnic differences in the co-occurrence of physical and psychiatric health problems (physical-psychiatric comorbidity) for women and men. The following ethnic groups are included: Non-Latino Whites, African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, Spanish Caribbean Blacks, Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Other Latinos, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, and Other Asian Americans. In addition, the study assesses the extent to which social factors (socioeconomic status, stress exposure, social support) account for ethnic differences in physical-psychiatric comorbidity (PPC). This study uses data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) (N = 12,787). Weighted prevalence rates of physical-psychiatric comorbidity (PPC) - the co-occurrence of physical and psychiatric health problems - are included to examine ethnic group differences among women and men. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine group differences in PPC before and after adjusting for social factors. Puerto Rican men have significantly higher risk of PPC in comparison to Non-Latino White men. Among women, Blacks and Cubans were more likely than Non-Latino Whites to experience PPC as opposed to 'Psychiatric Only' health problems. Social factors account for the Puerto Rican/Non-Latino White difference in comorbid health among men, but have little explanatory power for understanding ethnic differences in comorbidity among women. These findings have implications for medical care and can guide intervention programs in targeting a specific constellation of co-occurring physical and psychiatric health problems for diverse ethnic groups in the United States. As comorbidity rates increase, it is crucial to identify the myriad factors that give rise to ethnic group differences therein.

  20. College students’ perceptions of a caring climate in group physical activity classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newland Aubrey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Research suggests that physical activity rates decline sharply after high school. The pattern of activity or inactivity during college tends to persist into adulthood. A critical need exists for examination of strategies to engage college-age students in physical activity habits. One way to do this is through physical activity courses offered in colleges. This study examines the relationship between perceptions of a caring psychological climate and group connectedness, enjoyment, and attitudes toward classmates and the instructor in group physical activity courses. Material and methods: Participants were 174 students (107 males and 67 females; Mage = 21.71 enrolled in exercise, martial arts, and sports courses at a large university in the Mountain West. Results: Perceptions of a caring climate were significantly related to enhanced feelings of group connectedness, heightened enjoyment, and more positive attitudes toward classmates and instructor. Discussion: These findings suggest that a strategy to foster engagement in physical activity courses on campus is to train instructors to value, support, and welcome students.

  1. Subjective evaluation of physical and mental workload interactions across different muscle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both physical and mental demands, and their interactions, have been shown to increase biomechanical loading and physiological reactivity as well as impair task performance. Because these interactions have shown to be muscle-dependent, the aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the NASA Task Load Index (NASA TLX) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) to evaluate physical and mental workload during muscle-specific tasks. Twenty-four participants performed upper extremity and low back exertions at three physical workload levels in the absence and presence of a mental stressor. Outcome measures included RPE and NASA TLX (six sub-scales) ratings. The findings indicate that while both RPEs and NASA TLX ratings were sensitive to muscle-specific changes in physical demand, only an additional mental stressor and its interaction with either physical demand or muscle groups influenced the effort sub-scale and overall workload scores of the NASA TLX. While additional investigations in actual work settings are warranted, the NASA TLX shows promise in evaluating perceived workload that is sensitive not only to physical and mental demands but also sensitive in determining workload for tasks that employ different muscle groups.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL GROUP INVESTIGATION AND MOTIVATION TOWARD PHYSICS LEARNING RESULTS MAN TANJUNGBALAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Febri Aristi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine: (1 Is there a difference in student's learning outcomes with the application of learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction teaching model. (2 Is there a difference in students' motivation with the application of learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction teaching model, (3 Is there an interaction between learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction to improve students' motivation in learning outcomes Physics. This research is a quasi experimental. The study population was a student of class XII Tanjung Balai MAN. Random sample selection is done by randomizing the class. The instrument used consisted of: (1 achievement test (2 students' motivation questionnaire. The tests are used to obtain the data is shaped essay. The data in this study were analyzed using ANOVA analysis of two paths. The results showed that: (1 there were differences in learning outcomes between students who used the physics model of Group Investigation learning compared with students who used the Direct Instruction teaching model. (2 There was a difference in student's learning outcomes that had a low learning motivation and high motivation to learn both in the classroom and in the classroom Investigation Group Direct Instruction. (3 There was interaction between learning models Instruction Direct Group Investigation and motivation to learn in improving learning outcomes Physics.

  3. University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. Final performance report, June 1, 1989--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy Contracts for 1989 covered the initial year of the University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. The first proposal was submitted in the fall of 1988 and the first allocation of funding was received in June 1989. This first contract which covered the time period June 1, 1989--January 31, 1990 was in the amount of $186,000 and covered UVa HEP group operations and equipment during that period. At that point, a regular contract year was established and two subsequent contracts were issued for February 1, 1990--January 31, 1991 and February 1, 1991--January 31, 992 with awards of $280,000 and $580,000, respectively. The funding between June, 1989 and January, 1992 covered the activities of both the UVa Theory Group (Task A) and the UVa HEP Experimental Group (Task B). Expenditures of all above funds was completed by January 31, 1994. In this time period, certain initial things were accomplished using the operating funds provided by DOE and the seed funds ($2.2 million over the period). There were three main areas of activities, the building of the University of Virginia HEP infrastructure (construction of lab space, computer facilities, electronic shop, machine shop and office space), the hiring of personnel (faculty, post docs, and students) and the physics activities of the group. Much of the physics program of the experimental group revolved around the study of production and decay of heavy flavor. A list of technical papers generated by their work is provided.

  4. University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. Final performance report, June 1, 1989 - January 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Contracts for 1989 covered the initial year of the University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. The first proposal was submitted in the fall of 1988 and the first allocation of funding was received in June 1989. This first contract which covered the time period June 1, 1989--January 31, 1990 was in the amount of $186,000 and covered UVa HEP group operations and equipment during that period. At that point, a regular contract year was established and two subsequent contracts were issued for February 1, 1990--January 31, 1991 and February 1, 1991--January 31, 992 with awards of $280,000 and $580,000, respectively. The funding between June, 1989 and January, 1992 covered the activities of both the UVa Theory Group (Task A) and the UVa HEP Experimental Group (Task B). Expenditures of all above funds was completed by January 31, 1994. In this time period, certain initial things were accomplished using the operating funds provided by DOE and the seed funds ($2.2 million over the period). There were three main areas of activities, the building of the University of Virginia HEP infrastructure (construction of lab space, computer facilities, electronic shop, machine shop and office space), the hiring of personnel (faculty, post docs, and students) and the physics activities of the group. Much of the physics program of the experimental group revolved around the study of production and decay of heavy flavor. A list of technical papers generated by their work is provided

  5. Pedagogical Conditions of Shaping Motor Competence in Physical Education of Students of Special Medical Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Корягін

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Study objective. To define the pedagogical conditions of shaping motor competence in students of special medical groups during physical education at higher educational institutions. Study methods: theoretical analysis, systematization, comparison of different views on the issue under study, methodological and special literature collation, general scientific methods of theoretical level: analogy, analysis, synthesis, abstraction, induction. Study results. The study addresses the issues of indicating the pedagogical conditions necessary for the effective shaping of the motor competence in students of special medical groups during their physical education at higher educational institutions. The data analysis and collation of the data collected from the scientific, methodological and special literature helped outline and organize their index, which is a pre-requisite for ensuring the process effectiveness. We recommend using the study results as a major foundation for re-organization of the scientific and methodological aspects of physical education of students with health problems to ensure their motor competence effectively shaped.

  6. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  7. Characterising Learning Interactions: A Study of University Students Solving Physics Problems in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Maria; Danielsson, Anna T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore how a group of four university physics students addressed mechanics problems, in terms of student direction of attention, problem solving strategies and their establishment of and ways of interacting. Adapted from positioning theory, the concepts "positioning" and "storyline" are used to describe and to…

  8. Inertial confinement physics and technology group progress report (1994-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione, Frascati

    1998-05-01

    The technical activities performed during the period 1994-1995 in the framework of the Inertial Fusion Physics and Technology Group, are reported. The theoretical and numerical work, as well as experiments performed with the Frascati ABC facility are described [it

  9. Phase Grouping of Larmor Electrons by a Synchronous Wave in Controlled Magnetrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2018-04-01

    A simplified analytical model based on the charge drift approximation has been developed. It considers the resonant interaction of the synchronous wave with the flow of Larmor electrons in a magnetron. The model predicts stable coherent generation of the tube above and below the threshold of self-excitation. This occurs if the magnetron is driven by a sufficient resonant injected signal (up to -10 dB). The model substantiates precise stability, high efficiency and low noise at the range of the magnetron power control over 10 dB by variation of the magnetron current. The model and the verifying experiments with 2.45 GHz, 1 kW magnetrons are discussed.

  10. Moms in motion: a group-mediated cognitive-behavioral physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brawley Lawrence R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and psychological outcomes, however few physical activity interventions have been theory-driven and tailored to post natal exercise initiates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention based upon social-cognitive theory and group dynamics (GMCB to a standard care postnatal exercise program (SE. Method A randomized, two-arm intervention design was used. Fifty-seven post natal women were randomized to one of two conditions: (1 a standard exercise treatment (SE and (2 a standard exercise treatment plus group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention (GMCB. Participants in both conditions participated in a four-week intensive phase where participants received standard exercise training. In addition, GMCB participants received self-regulatory behavioral skills training via six group-mediated counseling sessions. Following the intensive phase, participants engaged in a four-week home-based phase of self-structured exercise. Measures of physical activity, barrier efficacy, and proximal outcome expectations were administered and data were analyzed using ANCOVA procedures. Results and discussion ANCOVA of change scores for frequency, minutes, and volume of physical activity revealed significant treatment effects over the intensive and home-based phases (p's Conclusion While both exercise programs resulted in improvements to exercise participation, the GMCB intervention produced greater improvement in overall physical activity, barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations.

  11. The correlation of childhood physical abuse history and later abuse in a group of Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caykoylu, Ali; Ibiloglu, Aslihan O; Taner, Yasemen; Potas, Nihan; Taner, Ender

    2011-11-01

    Domestic violence is passed from one generation to the next, and it affects not only the victim but also the psychological states of the witnesses, and especially the psychosocial development of children. Studies have reported that those who have been the victim of or witnessing violence during their childhood will use violence to a greater extent as adults in their own families. This research examines the relationships between a history of childhood physical abuse, likelihood of psychiatric diagnoses, and potential for being a perpetrator of childhood physical abuse in adulthood among women who received psychiatric treatment and in the healthy population from Turkey. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood physical abuse vary depending on definition and setting. The frequency of witnessing and undergoing physical abuse within the family during childhood is much higher in the psychiatrically disordered group than the healthy controls. Childhood physical abuse history is one of the major risk factors for being an abuser in adulthood. The best indicator of physically abusing one's own children was found to be as physical abuse during the childhood period rather than psychiatric diagnosis. There is a large body of research indicating that adults who have been abused as children are more likely to abuse their own children than adults without this history. This is an important study from the point of view that consequences of violence can span generations. Further studies with different risk factor and populations will help to identify different dimensions of the problem.

  12. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E

    2009-07-06

    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations

  13. Age group analysis of psychological, physical and functional deterioration in patients hospitalized for pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Salvador, Adelina; Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Sáez-Roca, Germán; López-Torres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Hospital admissions due to pneumonia range from 1.1 to 4 per 1,000 patients and this figure increases with age. Hospitalization causes a decline in functional status. Physical impairment impedes recovery and constitutes a higher risk of disability and mortality in elderly people. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of hospital stay in patients with pneumonia related with age. A total of 116 patients with pneumonia were included in this study, and divided into two age groups:psychological and emotional profile were evaluated. Pneumonia severity, nutritional status, independence and comorbidities were also assessed. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between both age groups in pneumonia severity and comorbidities. Significant improvements between admission and discharge were found in lung function in both groups (pgroup. Hospitalization leads to a significant physical impairment in patients admitted for pneumonia. This deterioration increases with age. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  15. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardaya, P. D., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Noh, K. A. B. M., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Yusoff, W. I. B. W., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my [Petroleum Geosciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Ridha, S. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Nurhandoko, B. E. B. [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Dept. of Physics, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia and Rock Fluid Imaging Lab, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic

  16. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardaya, P. D.; Noh, K. A. B. M.; Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave

  17. The regulatory framework of special medical group students' physical education: identifying the problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Valerij Anatol'evich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of regulatory framework for special medical group students' physical education, and their physical condition in particular is elaborated. It is found that in the current program the identified question is missing, although the assessment of individual performance standards for the physical condition of the students was envisaged in the programs of 1977 and 1982. The need for such an assessment is indicated by the large number of Ukrainian and foreign pediatricians and specialists in therapeutic physical culture. At the same time the standards for assessing these indicators are not developed. It complicates the formation of positive motivation of students to regular classes, and does not promote their self-confidence, capabilities and effectiveness of monitoring the effectiveness of exercise in various forms. The findings suggest the need to define the optimal composition of the bulk of tests and functional tests to assess the physical condition of special medical group students with various diseases and to develop appropriate indicators for their evaluation standards.

  18. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high......A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high...... physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence....

  19. Physics of the ion acoustic wave driven by the stimulated Brillouin scattering instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ion acoustic wave excited in the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) instability is probed via collective ruby-laser Thomson scattering in order to understand the low saturation level observed in the instability. Many of the features observed in the Brillouin backscattered CO 2 laser light from the underdense gas-target plasma are also observed in the Thomson scattered ruby light - from which it is learned that the ion acoustic wave grows exponentially and then saturates as the CO 2 pump power is increased. The primary advantage of the ruby Thomson scattering diagnostic is in its capability of providing simultaneous space and time resolved measurements of the ion wave amplitude. From these first such detailed measurements, it was found that the ion wave grows exponentially in space at a rate that agrees with the linear convective SBS theory. However, at higher pump powers, the ion wave saturates at an inferred amplitude of anti-n/n 0 approx. = 5 to 10%. Further increases in the pump power appear to result in an increase in the length over which the ion wave is saturated. A nearly constant SBS reflectivity in this saturated regime, however, suggests that the saturated ion wave does not contribute as much to the scattered power as would be expected from Bragg scattering theory. This apparent contradiction can be resolved if ion trapping is responsible for the saturation of the ion wave

  20. Feasibility analysis of real-time physical modeling using WaveCore processor technology on FPGA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraelen, Martinus Johannes Wilhelmina; Pfeifle, Florian; Bader, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    WaveCore is a scalable many-core processor technology. This technology is specifically developed and optimized for real-time acoustical modeling applications. The programmable WaveCore soft-core processor is silicon-technology independent and hence can be targeted to ASIC or FPGA technologies. The

  1. Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Maria

    2005-10-01

    Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

  2. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Two focus-group discussions were conducted...... of objective findings were perceived as an additional burden to the sickness absence itself. Factors that could counteract further marginalization were a supportive social network, positive coping strategies such as keeping to the daily schedule and physical activity, and positive attention and confidence from...

  3. An Overview of the Computational Physics and Methods Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Randal Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-22

    CCS Division was formed to strengthen the visibility and impact of computer science and computational physics research on strategic directions for the Laboratory. Both computer science and computational science are now central to scientific discovery and innovation. They have become indispensable tools for all other scientific missions at the Laboratory. CCS Division forms a bridge between external partners and Laboratory programs, bringing new ideas and technologies to bear on today’s important problems and attracting high-quality technical staff members to the Laboratory. The Computational Physics and Methods Group CCS-2 conducts methods research and develops scientific software aimed at the latest and emerging HPC systems.

  4. Lithospheric structure of the Arabian Shield and Platform from complete regional waveform modelling and surface wave group velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Arthur J.; Walter, William R.; Mellors, Robert J.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M. S.; Zhang, Yu-Shen

    1999-09-01

    Regional seismic waveforms reveal significant differences in the structure of the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform. We estimate lithospheric velocity structure by modelling regional waveforms recorded by the 1995-1997 Saudi Arabian Temporary Broadband Deployment using a grid search scheme. We employ a new method whereby we narrow the waveform modelling grid search by first fitting the fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh wave group velocities. The group velocities constrain the average crustal thickness and velocities as well as the crustal velocity gradients. Because the group velocity fitting is computationally much faster than the synthetic seismogram calculation this method allows us to determine good average starting models quickly. Waveform fits of the Pn and Sn body wave arrivals constrain the mantle velocities. The resulting lithospheric structures indicate that the Arabian Platform has an average crustal thickness of 40 km, with relatively low crustal velocities (average crustal P- and S-wave velocities of 6.07 and 3.50 km s^-1 , respectively) without a strong velocity gradient. The Moho is shallower (36 km) and crustal velocities are 6 per cent higher (with a velocity increase with depth) for the Arabian Shield. Fast crustal velocities of the Arabian Shield result from a predominantly mafic composition in the lower crust. Lower velocities in the Arabian Platform crust indicate a bulk felsic composition, consistent with orogenesis of this former active margin. P- and S-wave velocities immediately below the Moho are slower in the Arabian Shield than in the Arabian Platform (7.9 and 4.30 km s^-1 , and 8.10 and 4.55 km s^-1 , respectively). This indicates that the Poisson's ratios for the uppermost mantle of the Arabian Shield and Platform are 0.29 and 0.27, respectively. The lower mantle velocities and higher Poisson's ratio beneath the Arabian Shield probably arise from a partially molten mantle associated with Red Sea spreading and continental

  5. Tomographic Rayleigh wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California, centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of freshwater for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental mode, Rayleigh wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations was stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 s. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which are dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4°. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large crosscutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5 s, the model's western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries of the low

  6. Tomographic Rayleigh-wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of fresh water for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental-mode, Rayleigh-wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations were stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 seconds. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which is dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4 degrees. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large cross cutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5s, the model’s western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries

  7. PREFACE: Second Meeting of the APS Topical Group on Hadronic Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, David; de Jager, Kees; Roberts, Craig; Sheldon, Paul; Swanson, Eric

    2007-06-01

    The Second Meeting of the APS Topical Group on Hadronic Physics was held on 22-24 October 2006 at the Opryland Resort in Nashville, Tennessee. Keeping with tradition, the meeting was held in conjunction with the Fall meeting of the APS Division of Nuclear Physics. Approximately 90 physicists participated in the meeting, presenting 25 talks in seven plenary sessions and 48 talks in 11 parallel sessions. These sessions covered a wide range of topics related to strongly interacting matter. Among these were charm spectroscopy, gluonic exotics, nucleon resonance physics, RHIC physics, electroweak and spin physics, lattice QCD initiatives, and new facilities. Brad Tippens and Brad Keister provided perspective from the funding agencies. The organisers are extremely grateful to the following institutions for financial and logistical support: the American Physical Society, Jefferson Lab, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Vanderbilt University. We thank the following persons for assisting in organising the parallel sessions: Ted Barnes, Jian-Ping Chen, Ed Kinney, Krishna Kumar, Harry Lee, Mike Leitch, Kam Seth, and Dennis Weygand. We also thank Gerald Ragghianti for designing the conference poster, Will Johns for managing the audio-visual equipment and for placing the talks on the web, Sandy Childress for administrative expertise, and Vanderbilt graduate students Eduardo Luiggi and Jesus Escamillad for their assistance. David Ernst, Kees de Jager, Craig Roberts (Chair), Paul Sheldon and Eric Swanson Editors

  8. Leadership in physical activity groups for older adults: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, Paul A; Munroe, Krista J; Fox, Elizabeth H; Gyurcsik, Nancy C; Hill, Jennie L; Lyon, Robert; Rosenkranz, Sara; Shannon, Vanessa R

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a theory-based framework could be used to deductively identify and understand the characteristics of motivational leaders of physical activity groups for older adults. Participants were 23 older adults (mean age = 78.5 +/- 8.0 years, 65% women). An interview-guide approach was employed to elicit older adults' thoughts on important characteristics of physical activity group leaders. The data suggested that effective leaders are those whom the participants feel are properly qualified, are able to develop a personal bond with participants, and can use their knowledge and the group to demonstrate collective accomplishments. It was concluded that the findings could be used to extend the leadership activities beyond the traditional technical performance and individual feedback to include activities of social integration. Furthermore, the conceptual framework identified can serve as a valuable tool in guiding future researchers in their examination of leadership in physical activity groups for older adults. Copyright 2004 Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.

  9. Fast and local non-linear evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-linear simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum

  10. Childhood physical maltreatment, perceived social isolation, and internalizing symptoms: a longitudinal, three-wave, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    A number of cross-sectional studies have consistently shown a correlation between childhood physical maltreatment, perceived social isolation and internalizing symptoms. Using a longitudinal, three-wave design, this study sought to assess the mediating role of perceived social isolation in adulthood in the association between childhood physical maltreatment and internalizing symptoms in adulthood. The study has a three-wave design. We used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Perceived social isolation was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and internalizing symptoms were measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. The difference-in-coefficients method was used to assess the indirect effects and the proportion (%) of mediated effects. Childhood physical maltreatment was associated with an up to 68% [relative risk (RR) = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-2.13] higher risk of perceived social isolation in adulthood. Childhood physical maltreatment and perceived social isolation in adulthood were associated with greater levels of internalizing symptoms in adulthood (p social isolation in adulthood mediated up to 14.89% (p social isolation into account when considering the impact of childhood physical maltreatment on internalizing symptoms.

  11. Continuous control of light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with a standing-wave coupling field in a Rb vapor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, In-Ho; Moon, Han Seb

    2011-01-01

    We present the continuous control of the light group velocity from subluminal to superluminal propagation with an on-resonant standing-wave coupling field in the 5S 1/2 -5P 1/2 transition of the Λ-type system of 87 Rb atoms. When a coupling field was changed from a traveling-wave to a standing-wave field by adjusting the power of a counterpropagating coupling field, the probe pulse propagation continuously transformed from subluminal propagation, due to electromagnetically induced transparency with the traveling-wave coupling field, to superluminal propagation, due to narrow enhanced absorption with the standing-wave coupling field. The group velocity of the probe pulse was measured to be approximately 0.004c to -0.002c as a function of the disparity between the powers of the copropagating and the counterpropagating coupling fields.

  12. Meeting of the ITPA Topic Group on SOL and Divertor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipschultz, B.; Asakura, N.

    2003-01-01

    The most recent meeting of the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) and Divertor Physics Group of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) was held in Lausanne, Switzerland, on October 21-23, 2002 at the CRPP/EFL laboratory. The meeting was hosted by Dr. R. Pitts of that laboratory, with the help of other laboratory staff. There were 23 participants. The meeting format was slightly changed from that of the previous meeting (February 25-27, 2002) in so far that more time was allowed for discussions, thus making the meeting more productive. There were 28 detailed presentations over two and a half days falling into three primary areas: the physics of ELMs and their effects; radial transport and wall recycling; materials issues (T codeposition, use of W for tiles, etc.)

  13. Applied nuclear physics group - activities report. 1977-1997; Grupo de fisica nuclear aplicada - relatorio de atividades. 1977-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    1998-06-01

    This report presents the activities conducted by the Applied Nuclear Physics group of the Londrina State University - Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory - Brazil, from the activities beginning (1977) up to the end of the year 1997.

  14. Indiana University high-energy physics group. Technical progress report, December 1, 1982-October 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabson, B.B.; Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Heinz, R.M.; Martin, H.J.; Ogren, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    The Indiana University High-Energy Physics Group has been actively involved in a variety of research programs during the current contract period. These programs are associated with major experiments conducted by our group at SLAC, Fermilab, Brookhaven and CERN. The physics areas under investigation include studies of psi meson production in hadron interactions (CERN WA-11), a study of low-p/sub t/ and high-p/sub t/ collisions utilizing the Multiparticle Spectrometer at Fermilab (E110/557/672), a glueball search (Brookhaven E771), and a high resolution study of e + e - interactions at high energy at SLAC (PEP HRS experiment). The status of the various efforts are discussed

  15. Barriers related to physical activity practice in adolescents. A focus-group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romélio Rodriguez Añez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to identify barriers to physical activity in adolescents. Focus group interviews were conducted with subjects aged 15 to 18 years (n=59, 50.8% girls and divided according to gender. Content analysis was used to classify the reports into specific dimensions. Descriptive statistics employing relative and absolute frequencies of similar reports was performed using the SPSS 11.0 software. The most frequent barriers among adolescents were those associated with “psychological, cognitive and emotional” and “cultural and social” dimensions. For boys, the most frequently reported barriers were “feeling lazy”, “lack of company” and “lack of time”. For girls, “feeling lazy”, “lack of com-pany” and “occupation” were the most common barriers. In conclusion, the perception of barriers by adolescents varies according to gender, a fact requiring specific actions for the promotion of physical activity in this group.

  16. Seating Arrangement, Group Composition and Competition-driven Interaction: Effects on Students' Performance in Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxas, R. M.; Monterola, C.; Carreon-Monterola, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    We probe the effect of seating arrangement, group composition and group-based competition on students' performance in Physics using a teaching technique adopted from Mazur's peer instruction method. Ninety eight lectures, involving 2339 students, were conducted across nine learning institutions from February 2006 to June 2009. All the lectures were interspersed with student interaction opportunities (SIO), in which students work in groups to discuss and answer concept tests. Two individual assessments were administered before and after the SIO. The ratio of the post-assessment score to the pre-assessment score and the Hake factor were calculated to establish the improvement in student performance. Using actual assessment results and neural network (NN) modeling, an optimal seating arrangement for a class was determined based on student seating location. The NN model also provided a quantifiable method for sectioning students. Lastly, the study revealed that competition-driven interactions increase within-group cooperation and lead to higher improvement on the students' performance.

  17. Symmetries and groups in particle physics; Symmetrien und Gruppen in der Teilchenphysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Stefan [Mainz Univ. (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this book consists of a didactic introduction to the group-theoretical considerations and methods, which have led to an ever deeper understanding of the interactions of the elementary particles. The first three chapters deal primarily with the foundations of the representation theory of primarily finite groups, whereby many results are also transferable to compact Lie groups. In the third chapter we discuss the concept of Lie groups and their connection with Lie algebras. In the remaining chapter it is mainly about the application of group theory in physics. Chapter 4 deals with the groups SO(3) and SU(2), which occur in connection with the description of the angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We discuss the Wigner-Eckar theorem together with some applications. In chapter 5 we are employed to the composition properties of strongly interacting systems, so called hadrons, and discuss extensively the transformation properties of quarks with relation to the special unitary groups. The Noether theorem is generally treated in connection to the conservation laws belonging to the Galilei group and the Poincare group. We confine us in chapter 6 to internal symmetries, but explain for that extensively the application to quantum field theory. Especially an outlook on the effect of symmetries in form of so called Ward identities is granted. In chapter 7 we turn towards the gauge principle and discuss first the construction of quantum electrodynamics. In the following we generalize the gauge principle to non-Abelian groups (Yang-Mills theories) and formulate the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Especially we take a view of ''random'' global symmetries of QCD, especially the chiral symmetry. In chapter 8 we illuminate the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking both for global and for local symmetries. In the final chapter we work out the group-theoretical structure of the Standard Model. Finally by means of the group SU(5) we take a view to

  18. Seventh meeting of the ITER physics expert group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1999-01-01

    The seventh meeting of the ITER Physics Group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operation was held at CEN/Cadarache from 14 to 18 September 1999. This was the first meeting following the redefinition of the Expert Group structure and it was also the first meeting without participation of US physicists. The main topics covered were: 1. Energetic Particles, 2. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating, 3. Lower Hybrid Current Drive, 4. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive, 5. Neutral Beam Injection, 6. Steady-State Aspects

  19. Development of a future teachers’ group in a Teaching Practice course of Physics and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the development of a future teachers’ group in a Teaching Practice course of Physics and Biology. During the course the students should propose a collective and interdisciplinary planning for a set of classes to be taught in basic teaching of a public school. We will try to show the evolution of the group and the teachers’ contributions, interpreting them from the point of view of Bion (1970, Kaës (1997 and Winnicott’s (1975. We will conclude with some considerations on teachers' initial formation.

  20. The fundamental principles of the physical protection, the group of six point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claeys, M.; Carnas, L.; Robeyns, G.; Rommevaux, G.; Venot, R.; Hagemann, A.; Fontaneda Gonzalez, A.; Gimenez Gonzalez, S.; Isaksson, S.G.; Wager, K.; Price, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the joint experience of the Group of Six in the field of physical protection against the theft or unauthorized removal of nuclear material and against the sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, which emerged from the joint discussion. Several fundamental principles stem from this experience. Of course the particular terms and conditions of the implementation of these principles are specific to each country. (authors)

  1. Renormalization group treatment for spin waves in the randomly disordered Heisenberg chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, C.M.; Koiller, B.

    1983-03-01

    Local densities of states in the randomly disordered binary quantum Heisenberg chain using a generalization of a recently developed approach based on renormalization group ideas are calculated. It envolves decimating alternate apins along the chain in such a way as to obtain recursion relations to describe the renormalized set of Green's function equations of motion. The densities of states are richly structured, indicating that the method takes into account compositional fluctuations of arbitrary range. (Author) [pt

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  3. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  4. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  5. Introduction to the physics properties of the waves trough the sound and acoustic didactics

    OpenAIRE

    Bernad Martínez, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    The project makes a journey through sound and acoustics to introduce abstract concepts related with the properties of waves, its processing and acquisition, digitization and compression. Develop a portfolio of basic theory adapted to students, which provides support for practices in order to consolidate and assimilate concepts related to the world of waves and communication. The project aims to link the content with situations or activities related to daily experiences of young students. Curr...

  6. Effect of physical training on urinary incontinence: a randomized parallel group trial in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinsnes AG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Anne G Vinsnes1, Jorunn L Helbostad2, Signe Nyrønning3, Gene E Harkless1,4, Randi Granbo5, Arnfinn Seim61Faculty of Nursing, Sør-Trøndelag University College, 2Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 3Søbstad Community Hospital and Teaching Nursing Home, Trondheim, Norway; 4University of New Hampshire, College of Health and Social Services, Nursing Faculty, Durham, New Hampshire, USA; 5Department of Physiotherapy, Sør-Trøndelag University College, 6Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Residents in nursing homes (NHs are often frail older persons who have impaired physical activity. Urinary incontinence (UI is a common complaint for residents in NHs. Reduced functional ability and residence in NHs are documented to be risk factors for UI.Objective: To investigate if an individualized training program designed to improve activity of daily living (ADL and physical capacity among residents in nursing homes has any impact on UI.Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was a substudy of a Nordic multicenter study. Participants had to be >65 years, have stayed in the NH for more than 3 months and in need of assistance in at least one ADL. A total of 98 residents were randomly allocated to either a training group (n = 48 or a control group (n = 50 after baseline registrations. The training program lasted for 3 months and included accommodated physical activity and ADL training. Personal treatment goals were elicited for each subject. The control group received their usual care. The main outcome measure was UI as measured by a 24-hour pad-weighing test. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups on this measure at baseline (P = 0.15. Changes were calculated from baseline to 3 months after the end of the intervention.Results: Altogether, 68 participants were included in the analysis

  7. Somali women's view of physical activity--a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Gerthi; Mahmud, Amina Jama; Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Strandberg, Eva Lena

    2014-10-23

    Physical inactivity presents a major public health challenge and is estimated to cause six to ten percent of the major non-communicable diseases. Studies show that immigrants, especially women, have an increased risk of non-communicable diseases compared to ethnic Swedes. Somali immigrant women have increased rates of overweight and obesity, low fitness levels and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness compared to non-immigrant women. These findings suggest that Somali women are at increased risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases. Few studies explore determinants of physical activity among Somali women. The aim of this study was to explore Somali women's views and experiences of physical activity after migration to Sweden. A qualitative focused ethnographic approach was used in this study. Four focus groups were conducted with twenty-six Somali women ranging from 17 to 67 years of age. Focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in four main themes and ten categories: Life in Somalia and Life in Sweden, Understanding and enhancing health and Facilitators and barriers to physical activity. Great differences were seen between living in Somalia and in Sweden but also similarities such as finding time to manage housework, the family and the health of the woman. The extended family is non-existent in Sweden, making life more difficult. Health was considered a gift from God but living a healthy life was perceived as the responsibility of the individual. Misconceptions about enhancing health occurred depending on the woman's previous life experience and traditions. There was an awareness of the importance of physical activity among the participants but lack of knowledge of how to enhance activity on an individual basis. Enhancing factors to an active lifestyle were identified as being a safe and comfortable environment. Some barriers, such as climate, lack of motivation and time

  8. Individual and Group-Based Engagement in an Online Physical Activity Monitoring Program in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Durrett, Nicholas K; Bowie, Maria; Berg, Alison; McCullick, Bryan A; LoPilato, Alexander C; Murray, Deborah

    2018-06-07

    Given the rising prevalence of obesity in the United States, innovative methods are needed to increase physical activity (PA) in community settings. Evidence suggests that individuals are more likely to engage in PA if they are given a choice of activities and have support from others (for encouragement, motivation, and accountability). The objective of this study was to describe the use of the online Walk Georgia PA tracking platform according to whether the user was an individual user or group user. Walk Georgia is a free, interactive online tracking platform that enables users to log PA by duration, activity, and perceived difficulty, and then converts these data into points based on metabolic equivalents. Users join individually or in groups and are encouraged to set weekly PA goals. Data were examined for 6,639 users (65.8% were group users) over 28 months. We used independent sample t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests to compare means between individual and group users. Two linear regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with activity logging. Users logged 218,766 activities (15,119,249 minutes of PA spanning 592,714 miles [41,858,446 points]). On average, group users had created accounts more recently than individual users (P < .001); however, group users logged more activities (P < .001). On average, group users logged more minutes of PA (P < .001) and earned more points (P < .001). Being in a group was associated with a larger proportion of weeks in which 150 minutes or more of weekly PA was logged (B = 20.47, P < .001). Use of Walk Georgia was significantly higher among group users than among individual users. To expand use and dissemination of online tracking of PA, programs should target naturally occurring groups (eg, workplaces, schools, faith-based groups).

  9. Structure of the crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokam, Alain-Pierre K.; Tabod, Charles T.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Julià, Jordi; Wiens, Douglas A.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2010-11-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) consists of a linear chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline, volcanoes that do not exhibit an age progression. Here we study crustal structure beneath the CVL and adjacent regions in Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broad-band seismic stations deployed between 2005 January and 2007 February. We find that (1) crustal thickness (35-39km) and velocity structure is similar beneath the CVL and the Pan African Oubanguides Belt to the south of the CVL, (2) crust is thicker (43-48km) under the northern margin of the Congo Craton and is characterized by shear wave velocities >=4.0kms-1 in its lower part and (3) crust is thinner (26-31km) under the Garoua rift and the coastal plain. In addition, a fast velocity layer (Vs of 3.6-3.8kms-1) in the upper crust is found beneath many of the seismic stations. Crustal structure beneath the CVL and the Oubanguides Belt is very similar to Pan African crustal structure in the Mozambique Belt, and therefore it appears not to have been modified significantly by the magmatic activity associated with the CVL. The crust beneath the coastal plain was probably thinned during the opening of the southern Atlantic Ocean, while the crust beneath the Garoua rift was likely thinned during the formation of the Benue Trough in the early Cretaceous. We suggest that the thickened crust and the thick mafic lower crustal layer beneath the northern margin of the Congo Craton may be relict features from a continent-continent collision along this margin during the formation of Gondwana.

  10. Structure of the Crust Beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokam, Alain-Pierre K.; Tabod, Charles T.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Jordi Julia; Wiens, Douglas A.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2009-09-01

    The joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions was carried out to investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle structures beneath Cameroon. This was achieved using data from 32 broadband seismic stations installed for 2 years across Cameroon. The Moho depth estimates reveal that the Precambrian crust is variable across the country and shows some significant differences compared to other similar geologic units in East and South Africa. These differences suggest that the setting of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the eastward extension of the Benue Trough have modified the crust of the Panafrican mobile belt in Cameroon by thinning beneath the Rift area and CVL. The velocity models obtained from the joint inversion show at most stations, a layer with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s, indicating the presence of a mafic component in the lower crust, predominant beneath the Congo Craton. The lack of this layer at stations within the Panafrican mobile belt may partly explain the crustal thinning observed beneath the CVL and rift area. The significant presence of this layer beneath the Craton, results from the 2100 Ma magmatic events at the origin of the emplacement of swarms of mafic dykes in the region. The CVL stations are underlain by a crust of 35 km on average except near Mt-Cameroon where it is about 25 km. The crustal thinning observed beneath Mt. Cameroon supported by the observed positive gravity anomalies here, suggests the presence of dense astenospheric material within the lithosphere. Shear wave velocities are found to be slower in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the CVL than the nearby tectonic terrains, suggesting that the origin of the line may be an entirely mantle process through the edge-flow convection process. (author)

  11. The physical environment of positive places: Exploring differences between age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Tiina E; Broberg, Anna; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-02-01

    Features of the physical environment have an impact on the human behaviour. Thus, planners and policymakers around the world should aim at providing environments that are perceived as being of good quality, in which the residents enjoy spending time and moving around in. It is widely acknowledged that urban environmental quality associates with well-being, but there is currently very little research examining which features of urban environments people of different ages perceive as appealing in their living environments. Individuals experience different age-related developmental environments throughout their life course. Thus, the usage and perceptions of different spaces can also differ between various age groups. Public Participation GIS datasets collected in 2009 and 2011 in Helsinki Metropolitan Area were used to study places perceived as being positive by adults (n=3119) and children (n=672). Participants marked points on a map that were overlaid with GIS data to study whether the physical environment of positive places of different age groups differed. The results demonstrated that the physical environment differs significantly in the positive places of different age groups. The places of adult age groups were characterized by green, blue and commercial spaces, whereas sports, residential and commercial spaces characterize children's and adolescents' places. Older adults' places were found to be closest to home, while adolescents' places were the most distant. Providing appealing environments for all age groups in one setting remains problematic but should nevertheless be strived for, especially in the urban context where a constant competition over different usages of space occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Group of South African School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh, Rebecca Meiring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03, while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p 0.05 whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001, White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001 and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001. The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05, and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0.05. Additionally, Black children had the highest proportion of overweight participants (30%, and Indian children the most number of underweight children (13%. Regardless of ethnicity, children who

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  14. Educational analysis of a first year engineering physics experiment on standing waves: based on the ACELL approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir; Sharma, Manjula D; Mendez, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an educational analysis of a first year physics experiment on standing waves for engineering students. The educational analysis is based on the ACELL (Advancing Chemistry by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory) approach which includes a statement of educational objectives and an analysis of student learning experiences. The experiment is likely to be found in many physics departments, hence is appropriate to illustrate the ACELL approach in physics. The concepts associated with standing waves are difficult; however, they are underpinned by mathematical formulation which lend themselves to be visualized in experiments. The challenge is to strike a balance between these two for the particular student cohort. In this study, this balance is achieved by using simple equipment and providing appropriate scaffolds for students to associate abstract concepts with concrete visuals. In essence the experiment is designed to adequately manage cognitive resources. Students work in pairs and are questioned and assisted by demonstrators and academic staff during a 2 h practical class. Students were surveyed using the ACELL instrument. Analysis of the data showed that by completing the practical students felt that their understanding of physics had increased. Furthermore, students could see the relevance of this experiment to their engineering studies and that it provided them with an opportunity to take responsibility for their own learning. Overall they had a positive learning experience. In short there is a lot of dividend from a small outlay of resources.

  15. Number of Heat Wave Deaths by Diagnosis, Sex, Age Groups, and Area, in Slovenia, 2015 vs. 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perčič, Simona; Kukec, Andreja; Cegnar, Tanja; Hojs, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Background: Number of deaths increases during periods of elevated heat. Objectives: To examine whether differences in heat-related deaths between 2003 and 2015 occurred in Slovenia. Materials and Methods: We estimated relative risks for deaths for the observed diagnoses, sex, age, and area, as well as 95% confidence intervals and excess deaths associated with heat waves occurring in 2015 and 2003. For comparison between 2015 and 2003, we calculated relative risks ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Statistically significant in 2015 were the following: age group 75+, all causes of deaths (RR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.00–1.22); all population, circulatory system diseases (RR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.30) and age group 75+, diseases of circulatory system (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.01–1.34). Statistically significant in 2003 were the following: female, age group 5–74, circulatory system diseases (RR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.08–2.62). Discussion: Comparison between 2015 and 2003, all, circulatory system diseases (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.55); male, circulatory system diseases (RRR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.41–2.43); all, age group 75+ circulatory system diseases (RRR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.07–1.69); male, age group 75+, circulatory system diseases (RRR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.03–2.25) and female, age group 75+, circulatory system diseases (RRR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.08–1.89). Conclusions: Public health efforts are urgent and should address circulatory system causes and old age groups. PMID:29361792

  16. Coupled Hydrodynamic and Wave Propagation Modeling for the Source Physics Experiment: Study of Rg Wave Sources for SPE and DAG series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmat, C. S.; Delorey, A.; Rougier, E.; Knight, E. E.; Steedman, D. W.; Bradley, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation reports numerical modeling efforts to improve knowledge of the processes that affect seismic wave generation and propagation from underground explosions, with a focus on Rg waves. The numerical model is based on the coupling of hydrodynamic simulation codes (Abaqus, CASH and HOSS), with a 3D full waveform propagation code, SPECFEM3D. Validation datasets are provided by the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) which is a series of highly instrumented chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site with yields from 100kg to 5000kg. A first series of explosions in a granite emplacement has just been completed and a second series in alluvium emplacement is planned for 2018. The long-term goal of this research is to review and improve current existing seismic sources models (e.g. Mueller & Murphy, 1971; Denny & Johnson, 1991) by providing first principles calculations provided by the coupled codes capability. The hydrodynamic codes, Abaqus, CASH and HOSS, model the shocked, hydrodynamic region via equations of state for the explosive, borehole stemming and jointed/weathered granite. A new material model for unconsolidated alluvium materials has been developed and validated with past nuclear explosions, including the 10 kT 1965 Merlin event (Perret, 1971) ; Perret and Bass, 1975). We use the efficient Spectral Element Method code, SPECFEM3D (e.g. Komatitsch, 1998; 2002), and Geologic Framework Models to model the evolution of wavefield as it propagates across 3D complex structures. The coupling interface is a series of grid points of the SEM mesh situated at the edge of the hydrodynamic code domain. We will present validation tests and waveforms modeled for several SPE tests which provide evidence that the damage processes happening in the vicinity of the explosions create secondary seismic sources. These sources interfere with the original explosion moment and reduces the apparent seismic moment at the origin of Rg waves up to 20%.

  17. Numerical investigation of freak waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikov, D.

    2009-04-01

    Paper describes the results of more than 4,000 long-term (up to thousands of peak-wave periods) numerical simulations of nonlinear gravity surface waves performed for investigation of properties and estimation of statistics of extreme (‘freak') waves. The method of solution of 2-D potential wave's equations based on conformal mapping is applied to the simulation of wave behavior assigned by different initial conditions, defined by JONSWAP and Pierson-Moskowitz spectra. It is shown that nonlinear wave evolution sometimes results in appearance of very big waves. The shape of freak waves varies within a wide range: some of them are sharp-crested, others are asymmetric, with a strong forward inclination. Some of them can be very big, but not steep enough to create dangerous conditions for vessels (but not for fixed objects). Initial generation of extreme waves can occur merely as a result of group effects, but in some cases the largest wave suddenly starts to grow. The growth is followed sometimes by strong concentration of wave energy around a peak vertical. It is taking place in the course of a few peak wave periods. The process starts with an individual wave in a physical space without significant exchange of energy with surrounding waves. Sometimes, a crest-to-trough wave height can be as large as nearly three significant wave heights. On the average, only one third of all freak waves come to breaking, creating extreme conditions, however, if a wave height approaches the value of three significant wave heights, all of the freak waves break. The most surprising result was discovery that probability of non-dimensional freak waves (normalized by significant wave height) is actually independent of density of wave energy. It does not mean that statistics of extreme waves does not depend on wave energy. It just proves that normalization of wave heights by significant wave height is so effective, that statistics of non-dimensional extreme waves tends to be independent

  18. A physical model study of the travel times and reflection points of SH-waves reflected from transversely isotropic media with tilted symmetry axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Chung; Chang, Young-Fo; Chang, Chih-Hsiung; Chung, Chia-Lung

    2012-05-01

    In reflection seismology, detailed knowledge of how seismic waves propagate in anisotropic media is important for locating reservoirs accurately. The SH-wave possesses a pure mode polarization which does not convert to P- and SV-waves when reflecting from a horizontal interface, and vice versa. The simplicity of the SH-wave thus provides an easy way to view the details of SH-wave propagation in anisotropic media. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical reflection moveouts of SH-waves reflected from transversely isotropic (TI) layers with tilted symmetry axes and to verify the reflection point, which could be shifted away from the common midpoint (CMP), by numerical calculations and physical modelling. In travel time-offset analyses, the moveout curves of SH-waves reflected from horizontal TI media (TIM) with different tilted angles of symmetry axes are computed by the TI modified hyperbolic equation and Fermat's principle, respectively. It turns out that both the computed moveout curves are similar and fit well to the observed physical data. The reflection points of SH-waves for a CMP gather computed by Fermat's principle show that they are close to the CMP for TIM with the vertical and horizontal symmetry axes, but they shift away from the CMP for the other tilted angles of symmetry axes. The shifts of the reflection points of the SH-waves from the CMP were verified by physical modelling.

  19. [Physical and mechanical properties of the thermosetting resin for crown and bridge cured by micro-wave heating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K

    1989-09-01

    A heating method using micro-waves was utilized to obtain strong thermosetting resin for crown and bridge. The physical and mechanical properties of the thermosetting resin were examined. The resin was cured in a shorter time by the micro-waves heating method than by the conventional heat curing method and the working time was reduced markedly. The base resins of the thermosetting resin for crown and bridge for the micro-waves heating method were 2 PA and diluent 3 G. A compounding volume of 30 wt% for diluent 3 G was considered good the results of compressive strength, bending strength and diametral tensile strength. Grams of 200-230 of the filler compounded to the base resins of 2 PA-3 G system provided optimal compressive strength, bending strength and diametral tensile strength. A filler gram of 230 provided optimal hardness and curing shrinkage rate, the coefficient of thermal expansion became smaller with the increase of the compounding volume of the filler. The trial thermosetting resin for crown and bridge formed by the micro-waves heating method was not inferior to the conventional resin by the heat curing method or the light curing method.

  20. Physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW travelling wave electron linac for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Nita S.; Dhingra, Rinky; Kumar, Vinit

    2016-01-01

    We present the physics design of a 10 MeV, 6 kW S-band (2856 MHz) electron linear accelerator (linac), which has been recently built and successfully operated at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. The accelerating structure is a 2π/3 mode constant impedance travelling wave structure, which comprises travelling wave buncher cells, followed by regular accelerating cells. The structure is designed to accelerate 50 keV electron beam from the electron gun to 10 MeV. This paper describes the details of electromagnetic design simulations to fix the mechanical dimensions and tolerances, as well as heat loss calculations in the structure. Results of design simulations have been compared with those obtained using approximate analytical formulae. The beam dynamics simulation with space charge is performed and the required magnetic field profile for keeping the beam focussed in the linac has been evaluated and discussed. An important feature of a travelling wave linac (in contrast with standing wave linac) is that it accepts the RF power over a band of frequencies. Three dimensional transient simulations of the accelerating structure along with the input and output couplers have been performed using the software CST-MWS to explicitly demonstrate this feature. (author)

  1. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  3. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  4. Causal wave propagation for relativistic massive particles: physical asymptotics in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M V

    2012-01-01

    Wavepackets representing relativistic quantum particles injected into a half-space, from a source that is switched on at a definite time, are represented by superpositions of plane waves that must include negative frequencies. Propagation is causal: it is a consequence of analyticity that at time t no part of the wave has travelled farther than ct, corresponding to the front of the signal. Nevertheless, interference fringes behind the front travel superluminally. For Klein-Gordon and Dirac wavepackets, the spatially integrated density increases because current is injected at the boundary. Even in the simplest causal model, understanding the shape of the wave after long times is an instructive exercise in the asymptotics of integrals, illustrating several techniques at a level suitable for graduate students; different spatial features involve contributions from a pole and from two saddle points, the uniform asymptotics for the pole close to a saddle, and the coalescence of two saddles into the Sommerfeld precursor immediately behind the front. (paper)

  5. The MHD intermediate shock interaction with an intermediate wave: Are intermediate shocks physical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the authors have recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear steepening from a continuous wave. In this paper, he clarifies the differences between the conventional view and the results by studying the interaction of an MHD intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The study reaffirms his results. In addition, the study shows that there exists a larger class of shocklike solutions in the time-dependent dissiaptive MHD equations than are given by the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot relations. it also suggests a mechanism for forming rotational discontinuities through the interaction of an intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The results are of importance not only to the MHD shock theory but also to studies such as magnetic field reconnection models

  6. Implementation of the AAPM Task Group 21 protocol by the Radiological Physics Center and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastorf, R.J.; Hanson, W.F.; Shalek, R.J.; Berkley, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine appointed Task Group 21 to write a new protocol for the calibration of high-energy photon and electron therapy beams. This protocol updates the physical parameters used in the calculations and is intended to account for differences in ionization chamber design and some differences between phantom materials that were not considered in previous protocols. This paper discusses how the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) intends to implement the new protocol, the changes required in the RPC calibration techniques, and the magnitude of the change in the RPC calculations of absorbed dose resulting from the implementation of the new protocol. Although the change in the RPC absorbed-dose calculations will be only 0%-2% over the range of photon and electron energies of interest, some institutions using specific dosimetry systems may find their absorbed-dose calculations changing by 4% or more

  7. The ways of teaching process optimization in physical education of the students’ special medical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.A. Bukov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to identify the effectiveness of the use of innovative approaches in physical education teaching process of special medical group students. The study involved 15 boys aged 13-14 years. The lesson include exercises consisting of the elements of Pilates, yoga and static body-oriented therapy. The proposed program of physical exercises performed by students in the main part of the lesson and took the volume to 80% of the time. Set to increase the functionality of the skeletal muscles, the adaptive capacity of cardio-respiratory system, the health and strength of the nervous system, optimization of anthropometric indices, improved spinal mobility. A high degree of efficiency in the learning process of innovation of general preventive and therapeutic intervention is identified. Proposed to use in the educational process modern methods of prevention and correction

  8. The matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna (MIGA: New perspectives for fundamental physics and geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are building a hybrid detector of new concept that couples laser and matter-wave interferometry to study sub Hertz variations of the strain tensor of space-time and gravitation. Using a set of atomic interferometers simultaneously manipulated by the resonant optical field of a 200 m cavity, the MIGA instrument will allow the monitoring of the evolution of the gravitational field at unprecedented sensitivity, which will be exploited both for geophysical studies and for Gravitational Waves (GWs detection. This new infrastructure will be embedded into the LSBB underground laboratory, ideally located away from major anthropogenic disturbances and benefitting from very low background noise.

  9. The physical basis for estimating wave energy spectra from SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzenga, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Ocean surface waves are imaged by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) through a combination of the effects of changes in the surface slope, surface roughness, and surface motion. Over a limited range of conditions, each of these effects can be described in terms of a linear modulation-transfer function. In such cases, the wave-height spectrum can be estimated in a straightforward manner from the SAR image-intensity spectrum. The range of conditions over which this assumption of linearity is valid is investigated using a numerical simulation model, and the implications of various departures from linearity are discussed.

  10. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit on gravitational-wave physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Marka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H; Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  11. Closeout Report: Experimental High Energy Physics Group at the University of South Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Charles M; Godang, Romulus

    2013-06-25

    The High Energy Physics group at the University of South Alabama has been supported by this research grant (DE-FG02-96ER40970) since 1996. One researcher, Dr. Merrill Jenkins, has been supported on this grant during this time worked on fixed target experiments at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, west of Chicago, Illinois. These experiments have been E-705, E-771, E-871 (HyperCP) and E-921 (CKM) before it was canceled for budgetary reasons. After the cancellation of CKM, Dr. Jenkins joined the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment as an associate member via the High Energy Physics Group at the Florida State University. A second, recently tenured faculty member, Dr. Romulus Godang joined the group in 2009 and has been supported by this grant since then. Dr. Godang is working on the BaBaR experiment at SLAC and has joined the Belle-II experiment located in Japan at KEK. According to the instructions sent to us by our grant monitor, we are to concentrate on the activities over the last three years in this closeout report.

  12. Whistler wave propagation in the antenna near and far fields in the Naval Research Laboratory Space Physics Simulation Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, David D.; Walker, David N.; Amatucci, William E.

    2010-01-01

    In previous papers, early whistler propagation measurements were presented [W. E. Amatucci et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 637 (2005)] as well as antenna impedance measurements [D. D. Blackwell et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 092106 (2007)] performed in the Naval Research Laboratory Space Physics Simulation Chamber (SPSC). Since that time there have been major upgrades in the experimental capabilities of the laboratory in the form of improvement of both the plasma source and antennas. This has allowed access to plasma parameter space that was previously unattainable, and has resulted in measurements that provide a significantly clearer picture of whistler propagation in the laboratory environment. This paper presents some of the first whistler experimental results from the upgraded SPSC. Whereas previously measurements were limited to measuring the cyclotron resonance cutoff and elliptical polarization indicative of the whistler mode, now it is possible to experimentally plot the dispersion relation itself. The waves are driven and detected using balanced dipole and loop antennas connected to a network analyzer, which measures the amplitude and phase of the wave in two dimensions (r and z). In addition the frequency of the signals is also swept over a range of several hundreds of megahertz, providing a comprehensive picture of the near and far field antenna radiation patterns over a variety of plasma conditions. The magnetic field is varied from a few gauss to 200 G, with the density variable over at least 3 decades from 10 7 to 10 10 cm -3 . The waves are shown to lie on the dispersion surface for whistler waves, with observation of resonance cones in agreement with theoretical predictions. The waves are also observed to propagate without loss of amplitude at higher power, a result in agreement with previous experiments and the notion of ducted whistlers.

  13. The geometry and physics of Abelian gauge groups in F-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keitel, Jan

    2015-07-14

    In this thesis we study the geometry and the low-energy effective physics associated with Abelian gauge groups in F-theory compactifications. To construct suitable torus-fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds, we employ the framework of toric geometry. By identifying appropriate building blocks of Calabi-Yau manifolds that can be studied independently, we devise a method to engineer large numbers of manifolds that give rise to a specified gauge group and achieve a partial classification of toric gauge groups. Extending our analysis from gauge groups to matter spectra, we prove that the matter content of the most commonly studied F-theory set-ups is rather constrained. To circumvent such limitations, we introduce an algorithm to analyze torus-fibrations defined as complete intersections and present several novel kinds of F-theory compactifications. Finally, we show how torus-fibrations without section are linked to fibrations with multiple sections through a network of successive geometric transitions. In order to investigate the low-energy effective physics resulting from our compactifications, we apply M- to F-theory duality. After determining the effective action of F-theory with Abelian gauge groups in six dimensions, we compare the loop-corrected Chern-Simons terms to topological quantities of the compactification manifold to read off the massless matter content. Under certain assumptions, we show that all gravitational and mixed anomalies are automatically canceled in F-theory. Furthermore, we compute the low-energy effective action of F-theory compactifications without section and suggest that the absence of a section signals the presence of an additional massive Abelian gauge field. Adjusting our analysis to four dimensions, we show that remnants of this massive gauge field survive as discrete symmetries that impose selection rules on the Yukawa couplings of the effective theory.

  14. The geometry and physics of Abelian gauge groups in F-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keitel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we study the geometry and the low-energy effective physics associated with Abelian gauge groups in F-theory compactifications. To construct suitable torus-fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds, we employ the framework of toric geometry. By identifying appropriate building blocks of Calabi-Yau manifolds that can be studied independently, we devise a method to engineer large numbers of manifolds that give rise to a specified gauge group and achieve a partial classification of toric gauge groups. Extending our analysis from gauge groups to matter spectra, we prove that the matter content of the most commonly studied F-theory set-ups is rather constrained. To circumvent such limitations, we introduce an algorithm to analyze torus-fibrations defined as complete intersections and present several novel kinds of F-theory compactifications. Finally, we show how torus-fibrations without section are linked to fibrations with multiple sections through a network of successive geometric transitions. In order to investigate the low-energy effective physics resulting from our compactifications, we apply M- to F-theory duality. After determining the effective action of F-theory with Abelian gauge groups in six dimensions, we compare the loop-corrected Chern-Simons terms to topological quantities of the compactification manifold to read off the massless matter content. Under certain assumptions, we show that all gravitational and mixed anomalies are automatically canceled in F-theory. Furthermore, we compute the low-energy effective action of F-theory compactifications without section and suggest that the absence of a section signals the presence of an additional massive Abelian gauge field. Adjusting our analysis to four dimensions, we show that remnants of this massive gauge field survive as discrete symmetries that impose selection rules on the Yukawa couplings of the effective theory.

  15. Engaging families in physical activity research: a family-based focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Schiff, Annie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-11-25

    Family-based interventions present a much-needed opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, little is known about how best to engage parents and their children in physical activity research. This study aimed to engage with the whole family to understand how best to recruit for, and retain participation in, physical activity research. Families (including a 'target' child aged between 8 and 11 years, their parents, siblings, and others) were recruited through schools and community groups. Focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured approach (informed by a pilot session). Families were asked to order cards listing the possible benefits of, and the barriers to, being involved in physical activity research and other health promotion activities, highlighting the items they consider most relevant, and suggesting additional items. Duplicate content analysis was used to identify transcript themes and develop a coding frame. Eighty-two participants from 17 families participated, including 17 'target' children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% female), 32 other children and 33 adults (including parents, grandparents, and older siblings). Social, health and educational benefits were cited as being key incentives for involvement in physical activity research, with emphasis on children experiencing new things, developing character, and increasing social contact (particularly for shy children). Children's enjoyment was also given priority. The provision of child care or financial reward was not considered sufficiently appealing. Increased time commitment or scheduling difficulties were quoted as the most pertinent barriers to involvement (especially for families with several children), but parents commented these could be overcome if the potential value for children was clear. Lessons learned from this work may contribute to the development of effective recruitment and retention strategies for children and their families. Making the wide

  16. Promoting physical activity among adolescent girls: the Girls in Sport group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cotton, Wayne; Peralta, Louisa; Miller, Judith; Batterham, Marijka; Janssen, Xanne

    2017-06-21

    Slowing the decline in participation in physical activity among adolescent girls is a public health priority. This study reports the outcomes from a multi-component school-based intervention (Girls in Sport), focused on promoting physical activity among adolescent girls. Group randomized controlled trial in 24 secondary schools (12 intervention and 12 control). Assessments were conducted at baseline (2009) and at 18 months post-baseline (2010). The setting was secondary schools in urban, regional and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. All girls in Grade 8 in 2009 who attended these schools were invited to participate in the study (N = 1769). Using a Health Promoting Schools and Action Learning Frameworks, each school formed a committee and developed an action plan for promoting physical activity among Grade 8 girls. The action plan incorporated strategies in three main areas - i) the formal curriculum, ii) school environment, and iii) home/school/community links - based on the results of formative data from target girls and staff and on individual needs of the school. A member of the research team supported each school throughout the intervention. The main outcome measure was accelerometer-derived total physical activity (TPA) spent in physical activity. Data were analyzed from December 2011 to March 2012. 1518 girls (mean age 13.6y ±0.02) were assessed at baseline. There was a significant decline in TPA from baseline to 18-month follow-up with no differences between girls in the intervention and control schools. Only one-third of schools (4/12) implemented the intervention as per their action plan. Per-protocol analyses on these schools revealed a smaller decline in percentage of time spent in MVPA among girls in the intervention group (adjusted difference 0.5%, 95% CI = -0.01, 0.99, P = 0.05). The Girls in Sport intervention was not effective in reducing the decline in physical activity among adolescent girls. Lack of implementation by most

  17. Kleinian groups in E(∞) and their connection to particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes that the geometry and topology of quantum spacetime is shadowed closely by quasi-Fuschian and Kleinian groups and that is the cause behind the phenomena of high energy particle physics. In addition, on the large scale measurement of, for instance, microwave background temperature, the universality of the Merger sponge provides an excellent limit set model for the Charlier-Zeldovich proposal of the fracticality of the universe and the accurate estimate T c =(ln20/ln3)=2.726 K. Finally the golden mean and KAM ensure global stability against Arnold-like diffusion

  18. Comparing the Effects of Group and Home-based Physical Activity on Mental Health in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyede Salehe; Shati, Mohsen; Ardebili, Hassan Eftekhar; Mohammad, Kazem; Beni, Reza Dorali; Keshteli, A H

    2013-11-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the effects of home-based (HB) and group-based (GB) physical activity on mental health in a sample of older adults in Shahr-e-kord. In this quasi-experimental study, a twice-weekly physical activity program for 2 months was provided either individually at home or in a group format for 181 people who were divided into two groups (HB and GB). The outcome, mental health, was measured with the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Mental health status improved after participation in the physical activity program. The decrease in GHQ-28 total score in GB group, 3 months after intervention, was 3.61 ± 2.28 (P effects of GB physical activity on mental health compared with HB physical activity, adjusted for related baseline variables, were significant. These findings reveal the probable effects of GB rather than HB physical activity on mental health among the elderly.

  19. Qualitative Evaluation of a Physical Activity Health Promotion Programme for People with Intellectual Disabilities in a Group Home Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Ibarra, A.; Driver, S.; Nery-Hurwit, M.; VanVolkenburg, H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of health promotion programming designed to change the physical activity environment of the group home setting. The Menu-Choice programme assists staff in creating physical activity goals alongside residents with intellectual disabilities and provides strategies to incorporate activity into the group home schedule. The…

  20. Physics, Nonlinear Time Series Analysis, Data Assimilation and Hyperfast Modeling of Nonlinear Ocean Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Hyperfast Modeling of Nonlinear Ocean Waves A. R. Osborne Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Università di Torino Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Universit?i Torino,Dipartimento di Fisica Generale,Via Pietro Giuria 1,10125 Torino, Italy, 8. PERFORMING

  1. PS-wave moveout inversion for tilted TI media: A physical modeling study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Tsvankin, I.; Batzle, M.; Van Wijk, K.; Haney, M.

    -waves can be inverted for the parameters of a horizontal TI layer with a tilted symmetry axis. The 2D multicomponent reflection data are acquired over a phenolic sample manufactured to simulate the effective medium formed by steeply dipping fracture sets...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  3. Modular groups in Cantorian E(∞) high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes that the geometry and topology of quantum spacetime is shadowed closely by the Moebius geometry of quasi-Fuschian and Kleinian groups and that is the cause behind the phenomena of high-energy particle physics. In addition, on the large scale measurement of, for instance, the microwave background temperature, the universality of the Merger sponge provides an excellent limit set model for the Charlier-Zeldovich proposal of the fracticality of the universe today and the rather accurate estimate T c =(ln20/ln3)=2.726k. In particular the paper shows the link between the fix points of the modular groups of the vacuum and the golden mean phi=(1/(1+phi))=(Radical radicand 5 -1)/2 of E (∞) spacetime by analytical continuation of a Moebius transformation

  4. Physics Implications of Flat Directions in Free Fermionic Superstring Models; 2, Renormalization Group Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cleaver, G.; Espinosa, J.R.; Everett, L.L.; Langacker, P.; Wang, J.

    1999-01-01

    We continue the investigation of the physics implications of a class of flat directions for a prototype quasi-realistic free fermionic string model (CHL5), building upon the results of the previous paper in which the complete mass spectrum and effective trilinear couplings of the observable sector were calculated to all orders in the superpotential. We introduce soft supersymmetry breaking mass parameters into the model, and investigate the gauge symmetry breaking patterns and the renormalization group analysis for two representative flat directions, which leave an additional $U(1)'$ as well as the SM gauge group unbroken at the string scale. We study symmetry breaking patterns that lead to a phenomenologically acceptable $Z-Z'$ hierarchy, $M_{Z^{'}} \\sim {\\cal O}(1~{\\rm TeV})$ and $ 10^{12}~{\\rm GeV}$ for electroweak and intermediate scale $U(1)^{'}$ symmetry breaking, respectively, and the associated mass spectra after electroweak symmetry breaking. The fermion mass spectrum exhibits unrealistic features, i...

  5. Antenatal physical activity: a qualitative study exploring women's experiences and the acceptability of antenatal walking groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Sinéad; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; McInnes, Rhona J

    2016-07-22

    Regular physical activity (PA) can be beneficial to pregnant women, however, many women do not adhere to current PA guidelines during the antenatal period. Patient and public involvement is essential when designing antenatal PA interventions in order to uncover the reasons for non-adherence and non-engagement with the behaviour, as well as determining what type of intervention would be acceptable. The aim of this research was to explore women's experiences of PA during a recent pregnancy, understand the barriers and determinants of antenatal PA and explore the acceptability of antenatal walking groups for further development. Seven focus groups were undertaken with women who had given birth within the past five years. Focus groups were transcribed and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Relevant and related behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which could be applied to future interventions, were identified using the BCT taxonomy. Women's opinions and experiences of PA during pregnancy were categorised into biological/physical (including tiredness and morning sickness), psychological (fear of harm to baby and self-confidence) and social/environmental issues (including access to facilities). Although antenatal walking groups did not appear popular, women identified some factors which could encourage attendance (e.g. childcare provision) and some which could discourage attendance (e.g. walking being boring). It was clear that the personality of the walk leader would be extremely important in encouraging women to join a walking group and keep attending. Behaviour change technique categories identified as potential intervention components included social support and comparison of outcomes (e.g. considering pros and cons of behaviour). Women's experiences and views provided a range of considerations for future intervention development, including provision of childcare, involvement of a fun and engaging leader and a range of activities rather than just walking

  6. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    . The programme made purposeful togetherness possible while allowing the patients an opportunity to let their illness fade into the background. Questionnaire data showed significant improvements in mental health, social and emotional functioning. This study identified a conceptualization of group cohesion......A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study...

  7. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broadband seismic stations. From the 1-D shear wave velocity models, we obtain new insights into the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle across Cameroon. After briefly reviewing the geological framework of Cameroon, we describe the data and the joint inversion method, and then interpret variations in crustal structure found beneath Cameroon in terms of the tectonic history of the region.

  8. Physical education Teachers' and public health Nurses' perception of Norwegian high school Students' participation in physical education - a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildsnes, Eirik; Stea, Tonje H; Berntsen, Sveinung; Omfjord, Christina S; Rohde, Gudrun

    2015-12-24

    High quality physical education programs in high schools may facilitate adoption of sustainable healthy living among adolescents. Public health nurses often meet students who avoid taking part in physical education programs. We aimed to explore physical education teachers' and public health nurses' perceptions of high school students' attitudes towards physical education, and to explore physical education teachers' thoughts about how to facilitate and promote students' participation in class. Prior to an initiative from physical education teachers, introducing a new physical education model in two high schools in the South of Norway, we conducted focus groups with 6 physical education teachers and 8 public health nurses. After implementation of the new model, we conducted two additional focus group interviews with 10 physical education teachers. In analyses we used Systematic Text Condensation and an editing analysis style. In general, the students were experienced as engaged and appreciating physical education lessons. Those who seldom attended often strived with other subjects in school as well, had mental health problems, or were characterized as outsiders in several arenas. Some students were reported to be reluctant to expose their bodies in showers after class, and students who seldom attended physical education class frequently visited the school health services. Although the majority of students were engaged in class, several of the students lacked knowledge about physical fitness and motoric skills to be able to master daily activities. The participants related the students' competence and attitude towards participation in physical education class to previous experiences in junior high school, to the competence of physical education teachers, and to possibility for students to influence the content of physical education programs. The participants suggested that high school students' attitudes towards participation in physical education is heterogeneous

  9. Crust and uppermost-mantle structure of Greenland and the Northwest Atlantic from Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Joyal, Guillaume

    2018-03-01

    The Greenland landmass preserves ˜4 billion years of tectonic history, but much of the continent is inaccessible to geological study due to the extensive inland ice cap. We map out, for the first time, the 3-D crustal structure of Greenland and the NW Atlantic ocean, using Rayleigh wave anisotropic group velocity tomography, in the period range 10-80 s, from regional earthquakes and the ongoing GLATIS/GLISN seismograph networks. 1-D inversion gives a pseudo-3-D model of shear wave velocity structure to depths of ˜100 km with a horizontal resolution of ˜200 km. Crustal thickness across mainland Greenland ranges from ˜25 km to over 50 km, and the velocity structure shows considerable heterogeneity. The large sedimentary basins on the continental shelf are clearly visible as low velocities in the upper ˜5-15 km. Within the upper continental basement, velocities are systematically lower in northern Greenland than in the south, and exhibit a broadly NW-SE trend. The thinning of the crust at the continental margins is also clearly imaged. Upper-mantle velocities show a clear distinction between typical fast cratonic lithosphere (Vs ≥4.6 km s-1) beneath Greenland and its NE margin and anomalously slow oceanic mantle (Vs ˜4.3-4.4 km s-1) beneath the NW Atlantic. We do not observe any sign of pervasive lithospheric modification across Greenland in the regions associated with the presumed Iceland hotspot track, though the average crustal velocity in this region is higher than that of areas to the north and south. Crustal anisotropy beneath Greenland is strong and complex, likely reflecting numerous episodes of tectonic deformation. Beneath the North Atlantic and Baffin Bay, the dominant anisotropy directions are perpendicular to the active and extinct spreading centres. Anisotropy in the subcontinental lithosphere is weaker than that of the crust, but still significant, consistent with cratonic lithosphere worldwide.

  10. Physics implications of flat directions in free fermionic superstring models. II. Renormalization group analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, G.; Cvetic, M.; Everett, L.; Langacker, P.; Wang, J.; Espinosa, J.R.; Everett, L.

    1999-01-01

    We continue the investigation of the physics implications of a class of flat directions for a prototype quasi-realistic free fermionic string model (CHL5), building upon the results of a previous paper in which the complete mass spectrum and effective trilinear couplings of the observable sector were calculated to all orders in the superpotential. We introduce soft supersymmetry breaking mass parameters into the model, and investigate the gauge symmetry breaking patterns and the renormalization group analysis for two representative flat directions, which leave an additional U(1) ' as well as the SM gauge group unbroken at the string scale. We study symmetry breaking patterns that lead to a phenomenologically acceptable Z-Z ' hierarchy, M Z ' ∼O(1 TeV) and 10 12 GeV for electroweak and intermediate scale U(1) ' symmetry breaking, respectively, and the associated mass spectra after electroweak symmetry breaking. The fermion mass spectrum exhibits unrealistic features, including massless exotic fermions, but has an interesting d-quark hierarchy and associated CKM matrix in one case. There are (some) non-canonical effective μ terms, which lead to a non-minimal Higgs sector with more than two Higgs doublets involved in the symmetry breaking, and a rich structure of Higgs particles, charginos, and neutralinos, some of which, however, are massless or ultralight. In the electroweak scale cases the scale of supersymmetry breaking is set by the Z ' mass, with the sparticle masses in the several TeV range. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. Recent Developments in High-Harmonic Fast Wave Physics in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Bell, R.E.; Bonoli, P.; Harvey, R.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hosea, J.C.; Kaye, S.M.; Liu, D.; Maingi, R.; Medley, S.S.; Ono, M.; Podesta, M.; Phillips, C.K.; Ryan, P.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) fast waves and the fast-ions created by neutral beam injection (NBI) is critical for future devices such as ITER, which rely on a combination ICRF and NBI. Experiments in NSTX which use 30 MHz High-Harmonic Fast-Wave (HHFW) ICRF and NBI heating show a competition between electron heating via Landau damping and transit-time magnetic pumping, and radio-frequency wave acceleration of NBI generated fast ions. Understanding and mitigating some of the power loss mechanisms outside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) has resulted in improved HHFW heating inside the LCFS. Nevertheless a significant fraction of the HHFW power is diverted away from the enclosed plasma. Part of this power is observed locally on the divertor. Experimental observations point toward the radio-frequency (RF) excitation of surface waves, which disperse wave power outside the LCFS, as a leading loss mechanism. Lithium coatings lower the density at the antenna, thereby moving the critical density for perpendicular fast-wave propagation away from the antenna and surrounding material surfaces. Visible and infrared imaging reveal flows of RF power along open field lines into the divertor region. In L-mode -- low average NBI power -- conditions, the fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic measures a near doubling and broadening of the density profile of the upper energetic level of the fast ions concurrent with the presence of HHFW power launched with k// = -8m-1. We are able to heat NBI-induced H-mode plasmas with HHFW. The captured power is expected to be split between absorption by the electrons and absorption by the fast ions, based on TORIC calculation. In the case discussed here the Te increases over the whole profile when ∼2MW of HHFW power with antenna k// = 13m-1 is applied after the H-mode transition. But somewhat unexpectedly fast-ion diagnostics do not observe a change between the HHFW heated NBI discharge and the

  12. Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approach for Ranking Work Stations Based on Physical Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Salmanzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Fuzzy Group Decision Making approach for ranking work stations based on physical pressure. Fuzzy group decision making approach allows experts to evaluate different ergonomic factors using linguistic terms such as very high, high, medium, low, very low, rather than precise numerical values. In this way, there is no need to measure parameters and evaluation can be easily made in a group. According to ergonomics much work contents and situations, accompanied with multiple parameters and uncertainties, fuzzy group decision making is the best way to evaluate such a chameleon of concept. A case study was down to utilize the approach and illustrate its application in ergonomic assessment and ranking the work stations based on work pressure and found that this approach provides flexibility, practicality, efficiency in making decision around ergonomics areas. The normalized defuzzification numbers which are resulted from this method are compared with result of quantitative assessment of Automotive Assembly Work Sheet auto, it’s demonstrated that the proposed method result is 10% less than Automotive Assembly Work Sheet, approximately.

  13. Evaluation of an advanced physical diagnosis course using consumer preferences methods: the nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Joshua; Castiglioni, Analia; Kraemer, Ryan R; Massie, F Stanford; Morris, Jason L; Rodriguez, Martin; Russell, Stephen W; Shaneyfelt, Terrance; Willett, Lisa L; Estrada, Carlos A

    2014-03-01

    Current evaluation tools of medical school courses are limited by the scope of questions asked and may not fully engage the student to think on areas to improve. The authors sought to explore whether a technique to study consumer preferences would elicit specific and prioritized information for course evaluation from medical students. Using the nominal group technique (4 sessions), 12 senior medical students prioritized and weighed expectations and topics learned in a 100-hour advanced physical diagnosis course (4-week course; February 2012). Students weighted their top 3 responses (top = 3, middle = 2 and bottom = 1). Before the course, 12 students identified 23 topics they expected to learn; the top 3 were review sensitivity/specificity and high-yield techniques (percentage of total weight, 18.5%), improving diagnosis (13.8%) and reinforce usual and less well-known techniques (13.8%). After the course, students generated 22 topics learned; the top 3 were practice and reinforce advanced maneuvers (25.4%), gaining confidence (22.5%) and learn the evidence (16.9%). The authors observed no differences in the priority of responses before and after the course (P = 0.07). In a physical diagnosis course, medical students elicited specific and prioritized information using the nominal group technique. The course met student expectations regarding education of the evidence-based physical examination, building skills and confidence on the proper techniques and maneuvers and experiential learning. The novel use for curriculum evaluation may be used to evaluate other courses-especially comprehensive and multicomponent courses.

  14. Increasing Physical Activity in Mothers Using Video Exercise Groups and Exercise Mobile Apps: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maya Nina; Chan, June Maylin; Vittinghoff, Eric; Van Blarigan, Erin Lynn; Hecht, Frederick

    2018-05-18

    Women significantly decrease their activity levels in the transition to motherhood. Digital health technologies are low cost, scalable, and can provide an effective delivery mechanism for behavior change. This is the first study that examines the use of videoconferencing and mobile apps to create exercise groups for mothers. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an individually adaptive and socially supportive physical activity intervention incorporating videoconferencing and mobile apps for mothers. The Moms Online Video Exercise Study was an 8-week, 2-armed, Web-based randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of a group exercise intervention with a waitlist control. Healthy mothers with at least 1 child under the age of 12 years were recruited through Facebook and email listservs. Intervention participants joined exercise groups using videoconferencing (Google Hangouts) every morning on weekdays and exercised together in real time, guided by exercise mobile apps (eg, Nike+, Sworkit) of their choice. Waitlist control participants had access to recommended mobile apps and an invitation to join an exercise group after the 8-week study period. Main outcomes assessed included changes in self-reported moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes per week in aggregate and stratified by whether women met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for sufficient aerobic activity at baseline. Outcomes were measured through self-assessed Web-based questionnaires at baseline and 8 weeks. The intervention was effective at increasing exercise for inactive women and proved to be feasible and acceptable to all participants. A total of 64 women were randomized, 30 to intervention and 34 to control. Women attended 2.8 sessions per week. There was a strong, but not statistically significant, trend toward increasing moderate, vigorous, and MVPA minutes for all women. As hypothesized, in

  15. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an

  16. Effectiveness of group-mediated lifestyle physical activity (glpa) program for health benefit in physical activity among elderly people at rural thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethisan, P.; Chapman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Elderly population is considered as a vulnerable group and prone to develop multiple medical problems. This aging population is rapidly increasing in developing countries especially in Thailand. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly people by using validated and reliable Global Physical Activity Questionnaire-GPAQv2. The study was conducted in Phranakhonsiayutthaya district, Ayutthaya province due to its population being the second highest elderly in the Central Region of Thailand. A total of 102 persons of age 60 and over who could read and write Thai language were selected purposively. However, 52 elderly were enrolled in the intervention group and 50 were enrolled for the control group. General Linear Model repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity (GLPA) program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly. Results: Overall health benefit at baseline were similar between intervention and control group and found statistically non-significant with p-value 0.638 (>0.05). However, the mean score of health benefit was 23.21 ± 29.23 in intervention group and 20.74 ± 23.18 in control group. One third of participants of intervention group had not found health benefit due to physical activity while in control group this number was more than half. After elderly received Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program intervention for 6 month found significant statistical differences as compared with mean score at baseline (health benefit 6 month, intervention group =40.7 ± 34.28 and control group =4.56 ± 8.79). Conclusion: The effect of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program change intervention was statistically significant in health benefit after intervention program between intervention and control group. Our study

  17. Who is the competent physics student? A study of students' positions and social interaction in small-group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Karin

    2014-06-01

    This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students. The analysis was based on gender theory viewing gender both as a process and a discourse. Specifically discursive psychology analysis was used to examine how students position themselves and their peers within discourses of physics and gender. The results of the study reveal how images of physics and of "skilled physics student" were constructed in the context of the interviews. These discourses were reconstructed in the students' discussions and their social interactions within groups. Traditional gendered positions were reconstructed, for example with boys positioned as more competent in physics than girls. These positions were however also resisted and challenged.

  18. A template bank to search for gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: I. Physical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries are searched for using the matched filtering technique. As the model waveform depends on a number of parameters, it is necessary to filter the data through a template bank covering the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. The choice of templates is defined by the maximum allowed drop in signal-to-noise ratio due to the discreteness of the template bank. In this paper we describe the template-bank algorithm that was used in the analysis of data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and GEO 600 detectors to search for signals from binaries consisting of non-spinning compact objects. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the efficiency of the bank and show that its performance is satisfactory for the design sensitivity curves of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors GEO 600, initial LIGO, advanced LIGO and Virgo. The bank is efficient in searching for various compact binaries such as binary primordial black holes, binary neutron stars, binary black holes, as well as a mixed binary consisting of a non-spinning black hole and a neutron star

  19. Determination of the physical properties of room temperature ionic liquids using a Love wave device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouali, F Fouzia; Doy, Nicola; McHale, Glen; Hardacre, Christopher; Ge, Rile; Allen, Ray W K; MacInnes, Jordan M; Newton, Michael I

    2011-09-01

    In this work, we have shown that a 100 MHz Love wave device can be used to determine whether room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are Newtonian fluids and have developed a technique that allows the determination of the density-viscosity product, ρη, of a Newtonian RTIL. In addition, a test for a Newtonian response was established by relating the phase change to insertion loss change. Five concentrations of a water-miscible RTIL and seven pure RTILs were measured. The changes in phase and insertion loss were found to vary linearly with the square root of the density-viscosity product for values up to (ρη)(1/2) ~ 10 kg m(-2) s(-1/2). The square root of the density-viscosity product was deduced from the changes in either phase or insertion loss using glycerol as a calibration liquid. In both cases, the deduced values of ρη agree well with those measured using viscosity and density meters. Miniaturization of the device, beyond that achievable with the lower-frequency quartz crystal microbalance approach, to measure smaller volumes is possible. The ability to fabricate Love wave and other surface acoustic wave sensors using planar metallization technologies gives potential for future integration into lab-on-a-chip analytical systems for characterizing ionic liquids.

  20. Principles of developing a well-rounded program of physical rehabilitation for female students in the special medical group with consideration of physical activity impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Golod

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to highlight the main provisions of a comprehensive physical rehabilitation program for students of special medical group based on violations of the motor capacity. Material : testing 24 students of special medical group and the same number of their healthy peers on standardized tests of physical qualities. To reflect the movement disorders applied functional movement screen. Results : a program of rehabilitation of the students included: lifestyle modification; morning hygienic gymnastics; kinesitherapy (using yoga fitness, functional training; aerobic exercise (swimming, Nordic Walking, jogging, aerobics wellness; massage. First presented a unified approach to working with students of special medical groups - selection based on load capacity motor disorders according to the results of tests of functional movement screen. The complexity of the impact of the program involves the impact on the physical, social and mental health components. Conclusions : the author's program of physical rehabilitation of students of special medical group is complex.

  1. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…

  2. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  3. Individual and group-based parenting programmes for the treatment of physical child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J; Johnston, I; Kendrick, D; Polnay, L; Stewart-Brown, S

    2006-07-19

    Child physical abuse and neglect are important public health problems and recent estimates of their prevalence suggest that they are considerably more common than had hitherto been realised. Many of the risk factors for child abuse and neglect are not amenable to change in the short term. Intervening to change parenting practices may, however, be important in its treatment. Parenting programmes are focused, short-term interventions aimed at improving parenting practices in addition to other outcomes (many of which are risk factors for child abuse e.g. parental psychopathology, and parenting attitudes and practices), and may therefore be useful in the treatment of physically abusive or neglectful parents. To assess the efficacy of group-based or one-to-one parenting programmes in addressing child physical abuse or neglect. A range of biomedical and social science databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Sociofile, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, the Cochrane Library, Campbell Library (including SPECTR and CENTRAL), National Research Register (NRR) and ERIC, from inception to May 2005. Only randomised controlled trials or randomised studies that compared two treatments were included. Studies had to include at least one standardised instrument measuring some aspect of abusive or neglectful parenting. In the absence of studies using objective assessments of child abuse, studies reporting proxy measures of abusive parenting were included. Only studies evaluating the effectiveness of standardised group-based or one-to-one parenting programmes aimed at the treatment of physical child abuse or neglect were included. Studies were also only eligible for inclusion if they had targeted parents of children aged 0-19 years who had been investigated for physical abuse or neglect. The treatment effect for each outcome in each study was standardised by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores for the intervention and treatment

  4. Modeling and simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Taylor, Paul Allen

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

  5. Energy Cost Expression for a Youth Compendium of Physical Activities: Rationale for Using Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Karin A; Watson, Kathleen B; McMurray, Robert G; Bassett, David R; Butte, Nancy F; Crouter, Scott E; Herrmann, Stephen D; Trost, Stewart G; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Fulton, Janet E; Berrigan, David

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the accuracy of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) prediction using 2 methods of accounting for age dependency versus 1 standard (single) value across all ages. PAEE estimates were derived by pooling data from 5 studies. Participants, 6-18 years (n = 929), engaged in 14 activities while in a room calorimeter or wearing a portable metabolic analyzer. Linear regression was used to estimate the measurement error in PAEE (expressed as youth metabolic equivalent) associated with using age groups (6-9, 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 y) and age-in-years [each year of chronological age (eg, 12 = 12.0-12.99 y)] versus the standard (a single value across all ages). Age groups and age-in-years showed similar error, and both showed less error than the standard method for cycling, skilled, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activities. For sedentary and light activities, the standard had similar error to the other 2 methods. Mean values for root mean square error ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 youth metabolic equivalent across all activities. Error reduction ranged from -0.2% to 21.7% for age groups and -0.23% to 18.2% for age-in-years compared with the standard. Accounting for age showed lower errors than a standard (single) value; using an age-dependent model in the Youth Compendium is recommended.

  6. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: Background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. Methods/Design A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr. Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and

  7. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi; Christensen, Jeanette R; Faber, Anne; Overgaard, Kristian; Ektor-Andersen, John; Mortensen, Ole S; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-03-09

    A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr). Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and cognitive and behavioral skills) and physical work demands

  8. Costs and benefits of bullying in the context of the peer group: a three wave longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; van de Schoot, Rens; Aleva, Liesbeth; van der Meulen, Matty

    2013-11-01

    Whereas previous research has shown that bullying in youth is predictive of a range of negative outcomes later in life, the more proximal consequences of bullying in the context of the peer group at school are not as clear. The present three-wave longitudinal study followed children (N = 394; 53 % girls; M(age) = 10.3 at Time 1) from late childhood into early adolescence. Joint trajectory analyses were used to examine the dynamic prospective relations between bullying on the one hand, and indices tapping perceived popularity, peer-reported social acceptance, self-perceived social competence, and internalizing symptoms on the other. Results show that although young bullies may be on a developmental path that in the long run becomes problematic, from the bullies' perspective in the shorter term personal advantages outweigh disadvantages. High bullying is highly positively related to high social status as indexed by perceived popularity. Although bullies are not very high in peer-rated social acceptance, most are not very low either. Moreover, bullies do not demonstrate elevated internalizing symptoms, or problems in the social domain as indexed by self-perceived social competence. As bullying yields clear personal benefits for the bullies without strong costs, the findings underscore the need for interventions targeting mechanisms that reward bullying (198 words).

  9. Hierarchy of kissing numbers for exceptional Lie symmetry groups in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    We are constructing a hierarchy of kissing numbers representing singular contact points of hyper-spheres in exceptional Lie symmetry groups lattice arrangement embedded in the 26 dimensional bosonic strings spacetime. That way we find a total number of points and dimensions equal to 548. This is 52 more than the order of E 8 E 8 of heterotic string theory and leads to the prediction of 69 elementary particles at an energy scale under 1 T. In other words, our mathematical model predicts nine more particles than what is currently experimentally known to exist in the standard model of high energy physics namely only 60. The result is thus in full agreement with all our previous theoretical findings

  10. [Danish experience with physical and occupational rehabilitation after heart transplantation. The heart transplantation group at Rigshospitalet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldershvile, J; Boesgaard, S; Kirchoff, G; Arendrup, H; Høyer, S

    1993-01-11

    Heart transplantations have been carried out for one year (1.9.1990-1.9.1991) in Denmark. Twenty-three out of 27 patients survived at the end of this period. Prior to transplantation, all of the patients were in NYHA groups III or IV. On discharge, all of the patients could manage a 45-60 minutes training programme followed by a stair test (two to six floors up). Prior to transplantation, 17 patients received financial aid in one form or another and one child received special schooling. On an average 165 days (1.9.1991) after transplantation, nine patients were in full or part-time employment, two were students, seven received financial aid and five were still in hospital. A correlation between the duration of financial aid before transplantation and return to work after transplantation was found. In addition, age was found to be of significance. It is concluded that physical status and return to work are satisfactory.

  11. Portfolio and group work: an ECTS experience in physical education teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipriano Romero Cerezo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the new methodologies proposed within the European Higher Education Area (EHEA, we have used portfolios and group work as methodological strategies to develop constructivism and autonomy among students. A questionnaire on expectations and another one on assessment were administered to would-be Physical Education teachers in their first year at university. These questionnaires shed light on students’ beliefs regarding the use of these strategies for the improvement of their learning. To accomplish this, we used basic descriptive analysis, mean comparison, and effect size. The factorial analysis allowed us to establish shared ideas in relation to methodological strategies. In the discussion we draw the implications from this research.

  12. The XPS study of physical and chemical forms of neptunium group on the surface of minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Anton Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption behavior and the physical and chemical forms of neptunium on the surface of minerals of the two chlorate samples, biotite and kaolin, with different contents of Fe(II was studied. The liquid-liquid extraction and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to identify the valence forms of neptunium. On the basis of the obtained data the quantitative elemental composition of the surface of the studied minerals, as well as the ionic composition of the formed neptunium complexes was determined. It was shown that the Np(IV and Np(VI containing compounds did not form, while the complexes Np(VO+ -hydroxyl did form on the surface. The oxygen ions bonded with iron and oxygen belonging to water and/or of carboxyl were suggested to be present in the equatorial plane of the neptunyl group NpO+.

  13. [Mental and physical equilibrium for better quality of care: experience of the Ravenna CNAI group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrai, Francesco; Suprani, Riccarda

    2010-01-01

    The current orientation of health services is a progressive reduction of resources and a constant increase of efficiency and efficacy: this implies a greater demand on health personnel with the risk of stress and demotivation. In this context , well-balanced mental and physical conditions are essential and health workers should be given all the support they need to obtain and maintain such conditions, also to avoid repercussions on patients. For this purpose a satellite group of the CNAI nursing association organized two formative events based on guided imagery and mindfulness , to increase self-awareness, aimed not only at nurses but also rehabilitation and other health care workers. Results were evaluated using a questionnaire and demonstrated better awareness , less psychosomatic stress-related problems , improved quality of life and well-being.

  14. Sickness absence, marginality, and medically unexplained physical symptoms: a focus-group study of patients' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamland, Aase; Werner, Erik L; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-06-01

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. Two focus-group discussions were conducted with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically unexplained. Systematic text condensation was applied for analysis. Inspired by theories of marginalization and coping, the authors searched for knowledge of how patients' positive resources can be mobilized to counteract processes of marginality. Analysis revealed how invisible symptoms and lack of objective findings were perceived as an additional burden to the sickness absence itself. Factors that could counteract further marginalization were a supportive social network, positive coping strategies such as keeping to the daily schedule and physical activity, and positive attention and confidence from professionals. Confidence from both personal and professional contacts is crucial. GPs have an important and appreciated role in this aspect.

  15. Proceedings of the ILC Physics Working Group Meeting at KEK in the period from May 2007 to June 2009

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080137; Ono, Hiroaki; Kanemura, Shinya; Suehara, Taikan; Takubo, Yosuke; Tanabe, Tomohiko; Fujii, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    The ILC physics working group is a mixture of experimentalists and theorists mainly working in Japan. It has its origin in the previous LC physics study group and has been reformed with the initiative of a JSPS Creative Scientific Research project: "Research and Development of a Novel Detector System for the International Linear Collider". The working group is, however, formally independent of the JSPS project and is open to everybody who is interested in ILC physics. The primary task of the working group is to reexamine the ILC physics in the context of the expected LHC outcome and to further strengthen the physics case for the ILC project. The topics covered in the working group activities range from key measurements such as those of the Higgs self-coupling and the top Yukawa coupling to uncover the secrets of the electroweak symmetry breaking to various new physics scenarios like supersymmetry, large extra dimensions, and other models of terascale physics. The working group has held ten General Meetings in...

  16. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiryaee, Nasrin; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Taleban, Roya

    2015-10-01

    Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1) goal-setting strategy and 2) group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.

  17. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jiryaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Materials and Methods: Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1 goal-setting strategy and 2 group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Results: Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P < 0.05. BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and well-being score were significantly different in the goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study presented the effects of using the goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.

  18. Aspects of electron acoustic wave physics in laser backscatter from plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircombe, N J; Arber, T D; Dendy, R O

    2006-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the Trident laser confirm the importance of kinetic effects in determining laser reflectivities at high intensities. Examples observed include scattering from low frequency electron acoustic waves (EAWs) and the first few stages of a cascade towards turbulence through the Langmuir decay instability. Interpretive and predictive computational capability in this area is assisted by the development of Vlasov codes, which offer high velocity space resolution in high energy regions of particle phase space and do not require analytical pre-processing of the fundamental equations. A direct Vlasov solver, capable of resolving these kinetic processes, is used here to address fundamental aspects of the existence and stability of the electron acoustic wave, together with its collective scattering properties. These simulations are extended to realistic laser and plasma parameters characteristic of single hot-spot experiments. Results are in qualitative agreement with experiments displaying both stimulated Raman and stimulated electron acoustic scattering. The amplitude of simulated EAWs is greater than that observed experimentally and is accompanied by a higher phase velocity. These minor differences can be attributed to the limitations of a one-dimensional collisionless model

  19. The impact of self-transcendence on physical health status promotion in multiple sclerosis patients attending peer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JadidMilani, Maryam; Ashktorab, Tahereh; AbedSaeedi, Zhila; AlaviMajd, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-transcendence on the physical health of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients attending peer support groups. This study was a quasi-experimental before-and-after design including 33 MS patients in three groups: 10 men in the men-only group, 11 women in the women-only group, and 12 men and women in the mixed group. Participants were required to attend eight weekly sessions of 2 h each. Instruments included the physical health section of the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory and Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale. Peer support group attendance was found to have a significant positive effect on the physical health and self-transcendence of MS patients when comparing average scores before and after attendance. Regression analysis showed that improvement in self-transcendence predicted improvement in physical health. Results show the positive effects of peer support groups on self-transcendence and physical health in MS patients, and suggest that improvement in well-being can be gained by promoting self-transcendence and physical health. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtgaard, J; Rorth, M; Stelter, R; Adamsen, L

    2006-03-01

    A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study investigated group cohesion and changes in QOL in 55 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in a 9 h weekly group exercise programme for 6 weeks. The study used a method triangulation component design. Seven qualitative group interviews were conducted post-intervention. QOL (SF-36; EORTC QLQ-C30) was assessed at baseline and after Week 6. The interviews revealed that group cohesion was an interim goal aimed to maximize peak performance potential by patients. Group cohesion was characterized by a special 'esprit de corps' and enabled the group members to feel like sport teams. The programme made purposeful togetherness possible while allowing the patients an opportunity to let their illness fade into the background. Questionnaire data showed significant improvements in mental health, social and emotional functioning. This study identified a conceptualization of group cohesion that forms a valuable basis for a larger randomized controlled trial to conclude whether the observed changes are a result of this specific intervention.

  1. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group housed, growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  2. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  3. Predictors of willingness to pay for physical activity of socially vulnerable groups in community-based programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Wagemakers, M.A.E.; Koelen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) is used to assess individuals’ value attribution to health-related quality of life interventions. Little is known about predictors of WTP for sport and physical activity in socially vulnerable groups in communitybased physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. This study addresses

  4. Requirements on a community-based intervention for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people: a focus group study amongst experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krops, Leonie A; Hols, Doortje H J; Folkertsma, Nienke; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-06-14

    To explore ideas experts, working in the field of physical activity for people with a disability, pose on a stimulating movement intervention for physically disabled people longer than one year post rehabilitation or not familiar with rehabilitation. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted with experts (n = 28). Transcripts were analysed following thematic analysis, using the integrated physical activity for people with a disability and intervention mapping model. Experts expressed no need for a new intervention, but, instead, a need for adapting an existing intervention, and increased collaboration between organisations. Such an adapted intervention should aim to change participants and environmental attitude towards physical activity, and to increase visibility of potential activities. Several methods were mentioned, for instance individual coaching. Potential participants should be personally approached via various intermediates. The intervention owner and government are responsible for stimulating physical activity and should finance an intervention together with health insurances and the user. According to experts adapting an existing intervention, together with increased collaboration between organisations, will be effective in stimulating physical activity in the target population. This study provides requirements on an intervention to stimulate physical activity, and suggestions for the approach of the target population, finance, and responsibility. Implications for Rehabilitation There is no need for designing a new intervention, but need for adaptation of an existing intervention for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people. An intervention to stimulate physical activity in physically disabled people should aim to change participants and environmental attitude towards physical activity, and to increase the visibility of potential activities. Methods for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people could be

  5. 'Physical activity at home (PAAH)', evaluation of a group versus home based physical activity program in community dwelling middle aged adults: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freene, Nicole; Waddington, Gordon; Chesworth, Wendy; Davey, Rachel; Goss, John

    2011-11-24

    It is well recognised that the adoption and longer term adherence to physical activity by adults to reduce the risk of chronic disease is a challenge. Interventions, such as group and home based physical activity programs, have been widely reported upon. However few studies have directly compared these interventions over the longer term to determine their adherence and effectiveness. Participant preference for home based or group interventions is important. Some evidence suggests that home based physical activity programs are preferred by middle aged adults and provide better long term physical activity adherence. Physiotherapists may also be useful in increasing physical activity adherence, with limited research on their impact. 'Physical Activity at Home' is a 2 year pragmatic randomised control trial, with a non-randomised comparison to group exercise. Middle-aged adults not interested in, or unable to attend, a group exercise program will be targeted. Sedentary community dwelling 50-65 year olds with no serious medical conditions or functional impairments will be recruited via two mail outs using the Australian federal electoral roll. The first mail out will invite participants to a 6 month community group exercise program. The second mail out will be sent to those not interested in the group exercise program inviting them to take part in a home based intervention. Eligible home based participants will be randomised into a 6 month physiotherapy-led home based physical activity program or usual care. Outcome measures will be taken at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The primary outcome is physical activity adherence via exercise diaries. Secondary outcomes include the Active Australia Survey, accelerometry, aerobic capacity (step test), quality of life (SF-12v2), blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index. Costs will be recorded prospectively and qualitative data will be collected. The planned 18 month follow-up post

  6. Wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)

  7. Investigations of Low and Moderate Harmonic Fast Wave Physics on CDX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaleta, J.; Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Dumont, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Zakharov, L.

    2003-01-01

    Third harmonic hydrogen cyclotron fast wave heating studies are planned in the near term on CDX-U to investigate the potential for bulk ion heating. In preparation for these studies, the available radio-frequency power in CDX-U has been increased to 0.5 MW. The operating frequency of the CDX-U radio-frequency transmitter was lowered to operate in the range of 8-10 MHz, providing access to the ion harmonic range 2* ∼ 4* in hydrogen. A similar regime is accessible for the 30 MHz radio-frequency system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), at 0.6 Tesla in hydrogen. Preliminary computational studies over the plasma regimes of interest for NSTX and CDX-U indicate the possibility of strong localized absorption on bulk ion species

  8. Relic gravitational wave spectrum, the trans-Planckian physics and Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Seoktae

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum of the relic gravitational wave due to the trans-Planckian effect in which the standard linear dispersion relations may be modified. Of the modified dispersion relations suggested in the literature which has investigated the trans-Planckian effect, we especially use the Corley-Jacobson dispersion relations. The Corley-Jacobson-type modified dispersion relations can be obtained from Horava-Lifshitz gravity which is non-relativistic and UV complete. Although it is not clear how the transitions from Horava-Lifshitz gravity in the UV regime to Einstein gravity in the IR limit occur, we assume that the Horava-Lifshitz gravity regime is followed by the inflationary phase in Einstein gravity.

  9. Gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: Hexagonal template placement and its efficiency in detecting physical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokelaer, T.

    2007-01-01

    Matched filtering is used to search for gravitational waves emitted by inspiralling compact binaries in data from the ground-based interferometers. One of the key aspects of the detection process is the design of a template bank that covers the astrophysically pertinent parameter space. In an earlier paper, we described a template bank that is based on a square lattice. Although robust, we showed that the square placement is overefficient, with the implication that it is computationally more demanding than required. In this paper, we present a template bank based on an hexagonal lattice, which size is reduced by 40% with respect to the proposed square placement. We describe the practical aspects of the hexagonal template bank implementation, its size, and computational cost. We have also performed exhaustive simulations to characterize its efficiency and safeness. We show that the bank is adequate to search for a wide variety of binary systems (primordial black holes, neutron stars, and stellar-mass black holes) and in data from both current detectors (initial LIGO, Virgo and GEO600) as well as future detectors (advanced LIGO and EGO). Remarkably, although our template bank placement uses a metric arising from a particular template family, namely, stationary phase approximation, we show that it can be used successfully with other template families (e.g., Pade resummation and effective one-body approximation). This quality of being effective for different template families makes the proposed bank suitable for a search that would use several of them in parallel (e.g., in a binary black hole search). The hexagonal template bank described in this paper is currently used to search for nonspinning inspiralling compact binaries in data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)

  10. The use of laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy (LISPS) for examining physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur, E-mail: syahrun-madjid@yahoo.com; Lahna, Kurnia, E-mail: kurnialahna@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia); Desiyana, Lydia Septa, E-mail: lydia-septa@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.

  11. The use of laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy (LISPS) for examining physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lahna, Kurnia; Desiyana, Lydia Septa

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.

  12. The effects on mental health of group coaching following a physical activity intervention for women undergoing menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Andersen, Vinnie; Stelter, Reinhard

    2018-01-01

    ). In both cases the participants were randomized into a group coaching group or a waiting control group. Effects of the intervention were tested with repeated measures mixed MANOVA. No effect on exercise continuation was observed. However the results of this study showed that group coaching (GC) over...... and participants experience relapse. The aim of this study was to investigate a group coaching interventions effects, as a standalone intervention and as an add-on to a physical activity intervention, on exercise maintenance, stress, anxiety and depression. Stress and recovery questionnaire, hospital anxiety...... depression scale and exercise participation was administered before, after a 3 months group coaching intervention as well as at 3 months follow-up. The participants were menopausal women coming from a physical activity intervention (n=56), and a group recruited via an advertisement in a newspaper (n=44...

  13. Phase and group refractive index curves for electromagnet waves moving in an ionised medium (1962); Courbes des indices de phase et de groupe d'ondes electromagnetiques se propageant dans un milieu ionise (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The family of curves presented in this table give the phase and group refractive indexes of plane electromagnetic waves propagating along and across a static magnetic field in a plasma. (author) [French] Les courbes presentees sous formes de reseaux donnent les indices de phase et de groupe d'ondes electromagnetiques planes se propageant longitudinalement ou transversalement dans un plasma en presence d'un champ magnetique statique. (auteur)

  14. Effects of online group exercises for older adults on physical, psychological and social wellbeing: a randomized pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Baez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Intervention programs to promote physical activity in older adults, either in group or home settings, have shown equivalent health outcomes but different results when considering adherence. Group-based interventions seem to achieve higher participation in the long-term. However, there are many factors that can make of group exercises a challenging setting for older adults. A major one, due to the heterogeneity of this particular population, is the difference in the level of skills. In this paper we report on the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes of a technology-based intervention that enable online group exercises in older adults with different levels of skills. Methods A total of 37 older adults between 65 and 87 years old followed a personalized exercise program based on the OTAGO program for fall prevention, for a period of eight weeks. Participants could join online group exercises using a tablet-based application. Participants were assigned either to the Control group, representing the traditional individual home-based training program, or the Social group, representing the online group exercising. Pre- and post- measurements were taken to analyze the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes. Results After the eight-weeks training program there were improvements in both the Social and Control groups in terms of physical outcomes, given the high level of adherence of both groups. Considering the baseline measures, however, the results suggest that while in the Control group fitter individuals tended to adhere more to the training, this was not the case for the Social group, where the initial level had no effect on adherence. For psychological outcomes there were improvements on both groups, regardless of the application used. There was no significant difference between groups in social wellbeing outcomes, both groups seeing a decrease in loneliness despite the presence of social features in the

  15. Effects of online group exercises for older adults on physical, psychological and social wellbeing: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Marcos; Khaghani Far, Iman; Ibarra, Francisco; Ferron, Michela; Didino, Daniele; Casati, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Intervention programs to promote physical activity in older adults, either in group or home settings, have shown equivalent health outcomes but different results when considering adherence. Group-based interventions seem to achieve higher participation in the long-term. However, there are many factors that can make of group exercises a challenging setting for older adults. A major one, due to the heterogeneity of this particular population, is the difference in the level of skills. In this paper we report on the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes of a technology-based intervention that enable online group exercises in older adults with different levels of skills. A total of 37 older adults between 65 and 87 years old followed a personalized exercise program based on the OTAGO program for fall prevention, for a period of eight weeks. Participants could join online group exercises using a tablet-based application. Participants were assigned either to the Control group, representing the traditional individual home-based training program, or the Social group, representing the online group exercising. Pre- and post- measurements were taken to analyze the physical, psychological and social wellbeing outcomes. After the eight-weeks training program there were improvements in both the Social and Control groups in terms of physical outcomes, given the high level of adherence of both groups. Considering the baseline measures, however, the results suggest that while in the Control group fitter individuals tended to adhere more to the training, this was not the case for the Social group, where the initial level had no effect on adherence. For psychological outcomes there were improvements on both groups, regardless of the application used. There was no significant difference between groups in social wellbeing outcomes, both groups seeing a decrease in loneliness despite the presence of social features in the Social group. However, online social interactions

  16. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants. PMID:24875239

  17. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1 the experience of psychological well-being, (2 the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3 the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants.

  18. The comparative effectiveness of a team-based versus group-based physical activity intervention for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Cindy L; Onicescu, Georgiana; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Sterba, Katherine R; Tomsic, James; Alberg, Anthony J

    2012-08-01

    Physical activity benefits cancer survivors, but the comparative effectiveness of a team-based delivery approach remains unexplored. The hypothesis tested was that a team-based physical activity intervention delivery approach has added physical and psychological benefits compared to a group-based approach. A team-based sport accessible to survivors is dragon boating, which requires no previous experience and allows for diverse skill levels. In a non-randomized trial, cancer survivors chose between two similarly structured 8-week programs, a dragon boat paddling team (n = 68) or group-based walking program (n = 52). Three separate intervention rounds were carried out in 2007-2008. Pre-post testing measured physical and psychosocial outcomes. Compared to walkers, paddlers had significantly greater (all p team cohesion, program adherence/attendance, and increased upper-body strength. For quality-of-life outcomes, both interventions were associated with pre-post improvements, but with no clear-cut pattern of between-intervention differences. These hypothesis-generating findings suggest that a short-term, team-based physical activity program (dragon boat paddling) was associated with increased cohesion and adherence/attendance. Improvements in physical fitness and psychosocial benefits were comparable to a traditional, group-based walking program. Compared to a group-based intervention delivery format, the team-based intervention delivery format holds promise for promoting physical activity program adherence/attendance in cancer survivors.

  19. Modernist physics waves, particles, and relativities in the writings of Virginia Woolf and D. H. Lawrence

    CERN Document Server

    Crossland, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Modernist Physics takes as its focus the ideas associated with three scientific papers published by Albert Einstein in 1905, considering the dissemination of those ideas both within and beyond the scientific field, and exploring the manifestation of similar ideas in the literary works of Virginia Woolf and D. H. Lawrence. Drawing on Gillian Beer's suggestion that literature and science 'share the moment's discourse', Modernist Physics seeks both to combine and to distinguish between the two standard approaches within the field of literature and science: direct influence and the zeitgeist. The book is divided into three parts, each of which focuses on the ideas associated with one of Einstein's papers. Part I considers Woolf in relation to Einstein's paper on light quanta, arguing that questions of duality and complementarity had a wider cultural significance in the early twentieth century than has yet been acknowledged, and suggesting that Woolf can usefully be considered a complementary, rather than a duali...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  2. Identifying group-sensitive physical activities: a differential item functioning analysis of NHANES data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong; Zhu, Weimo

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroup-sensitive physical activities (PA) using differential item functioning (DIF) analysis. A sub-unweighted sample of 1857 (men=923 and women=934) from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey PA questionnaire data was used for the analyses. Using the Mantel-Haenszel, the simultaneous item bias test, and the ANOVA DIF methods, 33 specific leisure-time moderate and/or vigorous PA (MVPA) items were analyzed for DIF across race/ethnicity, gender, education, income, and age groups. Many leisure-time MVPA items were identified as large DIF items. When participating in the same amount of leisure-time MVPA, non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to participate in basketball and dance activities than non-Hispanic whites (NHW); NHW were more likely to participated in golf and hiking than non-Hispanic blacks; Hispanics were more likely to participate in dancing, hiking, and soccer than NHW, whereas NHW were more likely to engage in bicycling, golf, swimming, and walking than Hispanics; women were more likely to participate in aerobics, dancing, stretching, and walking than men, whereas men were more likely to engage in basketball, fishing, golf, running, soccer, weightlifting, and hunting than women; educated persons were more likely to participate in jogging and treadmill exercise than less educated persons; persons with higher incomes were more likely to engage in golf than those with lower incomes; and adults (20-59 yr) were more likely to participate in basketball, dancing, jogging, running, and weightlifting than older adults (60+ yr), whereas older adults were more likely to participate in walking and golf than younger adults. DIF methods are able to identify subgroup-sensitive PA and thus provide useful information to help design group-sensitive, targeted interventions for disadvantaged PA subgroups. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  3. Report of the B-factory Group: 1, Physics and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.J.; Cassel, D.G.; Siemann, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The study of B meson decay appears to offer a unique opportunity to measure basic parameters of the Standard Model, probe for interactions mediated by higher mass particles, and investigate the origin of CP violation. These opportunities have been enhanced by the results of two measurements. The first is the measurement of a long B meson lifetime. In addition to allowing a simpler identification of B mesons and a measurement of the time of their decay, this observation implies that normal decays are suppressed, making rare decays more prevalent. The second measurement is that neutral B mesons are strongly mixed. This enhances the possibilities for studying CP violation in the B system. The CESR storage ring is likely to dominate the study of B physics in e + e/sup /minus// annihilations for about the next five years. First, CESR has already reached a luminosity of 10 32 cm/sup /minus/1/ sec/sup /minus/1/ and has plans for improvements which may increase the luminosity by a factor of about five. Second, a second-generation detector, CLEO II, will start running in 1989. Given this background, the main focus of this working group was to ask what is needed for the mid- to late-1990 s. Many laboratories are thinking about new facilities involving a variety of techniques. To help clarify the choices, we focused on one example of CP violation and estimated the luminosity required to measure it using different techniques. We will briefly describe the requirements for detectors matched to these techniques. In particular, we will give a conceptual design of a possible detector for asymmetric collisions at the Υ(4S) resonance, one of the attractive techniques which will emerge from this study. A discussion of accelerator technology issues for using these techniques forms the second half of the B-factory Group report, and it follows in these proceedings. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Neocortical dynamics at multiple scales: EEG standing waves, statistical mechanics, and physical analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Lester; Nunez, Paul L

    2011-02-01

    The dynamic behavior of scalp potentials (EEG) is apparently due to some combination of global and local processes with important top-down and bottom-up interactions across spatial scales. In treating global mechanisms, we stress the importance of myelinated axon propagation delays and periodic boundary conditions in the cortical-white matter system, which is topologically close to a spherical shell. By contrast, the proposed local mechanisms are multiscale interactions between cortical columns via short-ranged non-myelinated fibers. A mechanical model consisting of a stretched string with attached nonlinear springs demonstrates the general idea. The string produces standing waves analogous to large-scale coherent EEG observed in some brain states. The attached springs are analogous to the smaller (mesoscopic) scale columnar dynamics. Generally, we expect string displacement and EEG at all scales to result from both global and local phenomena. A statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) calculates oscillatory behavior consistent with typical EEG, within columns, between neighboring columns via short-ranged non-myelinated fibers, across cortical regions via myelinated fibers, and also derives a string equation consistent with the global EEG model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Problem-Solving Process in Physics as Observed When Engineering Students at University Level Work in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit…

  6. Recognition of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms by family physicians: results of a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeft, M. den; Huisman, D.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Numans, M.E.; Horst, H.E. van der; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.; Olde Hartman, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a heterogeneous group and frequently attend their family physician (FP). Little is known about how FPs recognize MUPS in their patients. We conducted a focus group study to explore how FPs recognize MUPS and whether they

  7. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  8. [Physical, chemical and morphological urine examination guidelines for the Analytical Phase from the Intersociety Urinalysis Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoni, Fabio; Gessoni, Gianluca; Fogazzi, Giovanni Battista; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Caleffi, Alberta; Gambaro, Giovanni; Epifani, Maria Grazia; Pieretti, Barbara; Perego, Angelo; Ottomano, Cosimo; Saccani, Graziella; Valverde, Sara; Secchiero, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    With these guidelines the Intersociety Urinalysis Group (GIAU) aims to stimulate the following aspects: Improvement and standardization of the analytical approach to physical, chemical and morphological urine examination (ECMU). Improvement of the chemical analysis of urine with particular regard to the reconsideration of the diagnostic significance of the parameters that are traditionally evaluated in dipstick analysis together with an increasing awareness of the limits of sensitivity and specificity of this analytical method. Increase the awareness of the importance of professional skills in the field of urinary morphology and the relationship with the clinicians. Implement a policy of evaluation of the analytical quality by using, in addition to traditional internal and external controls, a program for the evaluation of morphological competence. Stimulate the diagnostics industry to focus research efforts and development methodology and instrumental catering on the needs of clinical diagnosis. The hope is to revalue the enormous diagnostic potential of 'ECMU, implementing a urinalysis on personalized diagnostic needs for each patient. Emphasize the value added to ECMU by automated analyzers for the study of the morphology of the corpuscular fraction urine. The hope is to revalue the enormous potential diagnostic of 'ECMU, implementing a urinalysis on personalized diagnostic needs that each patient brings with it.

  9. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pruner Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP. The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1. The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  10. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Larissa Pruner; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-22

    The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP). The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1). The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  12. Comparative analysis of the physical readiness athletes of different qualifying groups specializing in run orienteering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himenes K. R.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Confirmed the leading role of physical preparation in the structure of the training process of athletes who specialize in run orienteering. It is shown that more skilled orienteriers (I discharge and CMS had much more significant correlations between indexes of physical preparedness (eight than less-skilled (III-II discharges athletes (three. This suggests that the growth of sportsmanship is associated not only with increasing level of physical preparedness, but also its structure.

  13. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF) technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. Lastly, we review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  14. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Reece

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. We review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  15. Peer group self-identification as a predictor of relational and physical aggression among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steven; Black, David; Sun, Ping

    2010-05-01

    Adolescent peer group self-identification refers to adolescents' affiliation with reputation-based peer groups such as "Goths" or "Jocks." These groups tend to vary on normative characteristics, including the group members' attitudes and behaviors. This article examined whether adolescents' baseline peer group self-identification predicted their self-reported relational and physical aggression 1 year later. Self-report data were collected from 1614 students from 9 regular and 9 continuation (alternative) high schools in Southern California, at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Subjects' mean baseline age was 15.21 years (SD = 1.18) and 51.6% of the subjects were female. Findings indicated that compared with self-identified "Regular" or "Normal" students, adolescents who identified with high-risk peer groups (eg, "Druggies,"Goths") tended to report higher relational and physical aggression 1 year later, controlling for baseline aggression and demographic variables. In addition, adolescents' self-identification with high-status peer groups (eg, "Jocks,"Populars") was predictive of higher relational aggression 1 year later. Gender and school type (ie, regular vs continuation) were not found to moderate these effects. It appears that peer group self-identification is a salient predictor of physical and relational aggression across gender and school type. Adolescents who identify with high-risk peer groups tend to report higher levels of physical as well as relational aggression in the future. In addition, adolescents who affiliate with elite groups tend to become more relationally aggressive over time. School-based prevention programs targeting aggression may benefit from addressing the impacts of peer group self-identification on adolescents' aggressive behavior.

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  18. From condensed matter to Higgs physics. Solving functional renormalization group equations globally in field space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchardt, Julia

    2017-02-07

    By means of the functional renormalization group (FRG), systems can be described in a nonperturbative way. The derived flow equations are solved via pseudo-spectral methods. As they allow to resolve the full field dependence of the effective potential and provide highly accurate results, these numerical methods are very powerful but have hardly been used in the FRG context. We show their benefits using several examples. Moreover, we apply the pseudo-spectral methods to explore the phase diagram of a bosonic model with two coupled order parameters and to clarify the nature of a possible metastability of the Higgs-Yukawa potential.In the phase diagram of systems with two competing order parameters, fixed points govern multicritical behavior. Such systems are often discussed in the context of condensed matter. Considering the phase diagram of the bosonic model between two and three dimensions, we discover additional fixed points besides the well-known ones from studies in three dimensions. Interestingly, our findings suggest that in certain regions of the phase diagram, two universality classes coexist. To our knowledge, this is the first bosonic model where coexisting (multi-)criticalities are found. Also, the absence of nontrivial fixed points can have a physical meaning, such as in the electroweak sector of the standard model which suffers from the triviality problem. The electroweak transition giving rise to the Higgs mechanism is dominated by the Gaussian fixed point. Due to the low Higgs mass, perturbative calculations suggest a metastable potential. However, the existence of the lower Higgs-mass bound eventually is interrelated with the maximal ultraviolet extension of the standard model. A relaxation of the lower bound would mean that the standard model may be still valid to even higher scales. Within a simple Higgs-Yukawa model, we discuss the origin of metastabilities and mechanisms, which relax the Higgs-mass bound, including higher field operators.

  19. Physical interpretation of Monte Carlo wave-function and stochastic Schroedinger equation methods for cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, Tarso B.L.; Orszag, M.; Davidovich, L.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamics of open system is frequently modeled in terms of a small system S coupled to a reservoir R, the last having an infinitely larger number of degree of freedom than S. Usually the dynamics of the S variables may be of interest, which can be studied using either Langevin equations, or master equations, or yet the path integral formulation. Useful alternatives for the master equation method are the Monte Carlo Wave-function method (MCWF), and Stochastic Schroedinger Equations (SSE's). The methods MCWF and SSE's recently experienced a fast development both in their theoretical background and applications to the study of the dissipative quantum systems dynamics in quantum optics. Even though these alternatives can be shown to be formally equivalent to the master equation approach, they are often regarded as mathematical tricks, with no relation to a concrete physical evolution of the system. The advantage of using them is that one has to deal with state vectors, instead of density matrices, thus reducing the total amount of matrix elements to be calculated. In this work, we consider the possibility of giving a physical interpretation to these methods, in terms of continuous measurements made on the evolving system. We show that physical realizations of the two methods are indeed possible, for a mode of the electromagnetic field in a cavity interacting with a continuum of modes corresponding to the field outside the cavity. Two schemes are proposed, consisting of a mode of the electromagnetic field interacting with a beam of Rydberg two-level atoms. In these schemes, the field mode plays the role of a small system and the atomic beam plays the role of a reservoir (infinitely larger number of degrees of freedom at finite temperature, the interaction between them being given by the Jaynes-Cummings model

  20. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  1. With a Little Help from my Friends : the role of peer groups in a physics engineering programme

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the importance of informal study groups for the academic achievement and social and emotional wellbeing of physics engineering students at one university in Sweden. It is based on interviews with 26 physics engineering students in different phases of their education and 9 staff members - teachers and study advisors. While the programme structure and pedagogy assumes individual study, many students in fact cope with the demanding programme by using peer learning and peer s...

  2. Characterization of sleep need dissipation using EEG based slow-wave activity analysis in two age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Molina, G.; Baehr, K.; Steele, B.; Tsoneva, T.K.; Pfundtner, S.; Mahadevan, A.; Papas, N.; Riedner, B.; Tononi, G.; White, D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the two-process model of sleep regulation, slow-wave activity (SWA, EEG power in the 0.5–4 Hz band) is a direct indicator of sleep need. SWA builds up during NREM sleep, declines before the onset of REM sleep, remains low during REM and the level of increase in successive NREM

  3. The Use of Numerical Modeling in the Planning of Physical Model Tests in a Multidirectional Wave Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carci, Enric; Rivero, Francisco J.; Burcharth, Hans Falk

    2003-01-01

    For the development of a new port of the A Coruña Port Authority, an extensive and careful analysis of wave propagation had to be done to determine design wave characteristics along the main breakwater, placed behind an irregular shoal. Preliminary numerical simulations showed that wave focusing...

  4. Rogue events in the group velocity horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Ayhan; Amiranashvili, Shalva; Brée, Carsten; Mahnke, Christoph; Mitschke, Fedor; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2012-01-01

    The concept of rogue waves arises from a mysterious and potentially calamitous phenomenon of oceanic surfaces. There is mounting evidence that they are actually commonplace in a variety of different physical settings. A set of defining criteria has been advanced; this set is of great generality and therefore applicable to a wide class of systems. The question arises naturally whether there are generic mechanisms responsible for extreme events in different systems. Here we argue that under suitable circumstances nonlinear interaction between weak and strong waves results in intermittent giant waves with all the signatures of rogue waves. To obtain these circumstances only a few basic conditions must be met. Then reflection of waves at the so-called group-velocity horizon occurs. The connection between rogue waves and event horizons, seemingly unrelated physical phenomena, is identified as a feature common in many different physical systems.

  5. Generating matrix elements of the hamiltonian of the algebraic version of resonating group method on intrinsic wave functions with various oscillator lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalov, S.A.; Filippov, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    The receipts to calculate the generating matrix elements of the algebraic version of resonating group method (RGM) are given for two- and three-cluster nucleon systems, the center of mass motion being separeted exactly. For the Hamiltonian with Gaussian nucleon-nucleon potential dependence the generating matrix elements of the RGM algebraic version can be written down explictly if matrix elements of the corresponding system on wave functions of the Brink cluster model are known

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  8. Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure derived from local earthquakes at the Katmai group of volcanoes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, A.D.; Moran, S.C.; McNutt, S.R.; Stone, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    The three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure beneath the Katmai group of volcanoes is determined by inversion of more than 10,000 rays from over 1000 earthquakes recorded on a local 18 station short-period network between September 1996 and May 2001. The inversion is well constrained from sea level to about 6??km below sea level and encompasses all of the Katmai volcanoes; Martin, Mageik, Trident, Griggs, Novarupta, Snowy, and Katmai caldera. The inversion reduced the average RMS travel-time error from 0.22??s for locations from the standard one-dimensional model to 0.13??s for the best three-dimensional model. The final model, from the 6th inversion step, reveals a prominent low velocity zone (3.6-5.0??km/s) centered at Katmai Pass and extending from Mageik to Trident volcanoes. The anomaly has values about 20-25% slower than velocities outboard of the region (5.0-6.5??km/s). Moderately low velocities (4.5-6.0??km/s) are observed along the volcanic axis between Martin and Katmai Caldera. Griggs volcano, located about 10??km behind (northwest of) the volcanic axis, has unremarkable velocities (5.0-5.7??km/s) compared to non-volcanic regions. The highest velocities are observed between Snowy and Griggs volcanoes (5.5-6.5??km/s). Relocated hypocenters for the best 3-D model are shifted significantly relative to the standard model with clusters of seismicity at Martin volcano shifting systematically deeper by about 1??km to depths of 0 to 4??km below sea level. Hypocenters for the Katmai Caldera are more tightly clustered, relocating beneath the 1912 scarp walls. The relocated hypocenters allow us to compare spatial frequency-size distributions (b-values) using one-dimensional and three-dimensional models. We find that the distribution of b is significantly changed for Martin volcano, which was characterized by variable values (0.8 < b < 2.0) with standard locations and more uniform values (0.8 < b < 1.2) after relocation. Other seismic clusters at Mageik (1.2 < b

  9. EVALUATION OF WORK PLACE GROUP AND INTERNET BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH EXERCISE BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  10. A physical-topological characterization of group response to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.; McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario

    1980-01-01

    A physical-topological model of societal response to the introduction of a technology such as nuclear power is proposed. The formation is based on a conceptual-geometric construct familiar in physics and mathematics. An interesting feature of the model is that it provides for the intrinsic inclusion of such intra-societal conflict manifestations as opinion reversals, opinion polarizations and apparent inconsistencies. The general applicability of this characterization to other societal conflict domains is suggested. (author)

  11. A study on the fusion reactor - A study on wave physics of fast wave heating and the current drive in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Won; Yeom, Hyun Ju [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sang Hee; Chung, Mo Se [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    A full 3-dimensional code for fast wave heating and the current drive has been developed ant its results are compared with those of FASTWA for Phaedrus-T tokamak. The finite Larmour radius expansion and the order reduction method have been used to derive the wave equation in the toroidal coordinate from the Maxwell-Vlasov equations. By expanding the fields in poloidal Fourier series, the wave equations are reduced to the system of ordinary differential equations in the radial axis, which are then numerically integrated via the shooting method. In addition, the convergence of the solutions and energy conservation are discussed. Finally, and example calculation of the current drive is presented for the advanced superconducting tokamak which is in its conceptual design phase. 17 refs., 10 tabs., 31 figs. (author)

  12. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. METHODS: Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. RESULTS: Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". CONCLUSIONS: Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  13. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y; Wong, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  14. Understanding Neighborhood Environment Related to Hong Kong Children’s Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study Using Nominal Group Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y.; Wong, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Methods Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10–11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question “What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?” Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children’s physical activity. Results Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children’s physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included “Sufficient lighting”, “Bridge or tunnel”, “Few cars on roads”, “Convenient transportation”, “Subway station”, “Recreation grounds”, “Shopping malls with air conditioning”, “Fresh air”, “Interesting animals”, and “Perfume shop”. Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included “People who make me feel unsafe”, “Crimes nearby”, “Afraid of being taken or hurt at night”, “Hard to find toilet in shopping mall”, “Too much noise”, and “Too many people in recreation grounds”. Conclusions Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities. PMID:25187960

  15. Application of the graphical unitary group approach to the energy second derivative for CI wave functions via the coupled perturbed CI equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, D.J.

    1983-10-01

    Analytic derivatives of the potential energy for Self-Consistent-Field (SCF) wave functions have been developed in recent years and found to be useful tools. The first derivative for configuration interaction (CI) wave functions is also available. This work details the extension of analytic methods to energy second derivatives for CI wave functions. The principal extension required for second derivatives is evaluation of the first order change in the CI wave function with respect to a nuclear perturbation. The shape driven graphical unitary group approach (SDGUGA) direct CI program was adapted to evaluate this term via the coupled-perturbed CI equations. Several iterative schemes are compared for use in solving these equations. The pilot program makes no use of molecular symmetry but the timing results show that utilization of molecular symmetry is desirable. The principles for defining and solving a set of symmetry adapted equations are discussed. Evaluation of the second derivative also requires the solution of the second order coupled-perturbed Hartree-Fock equations to obtain the correction to the molecular orbitals due to the nuclear perturbation. This process takes a consistently higher percentage of the computation time than for the first order equations alone and a strategy for its reduction is discussed

  16. Lie group analysis, numerical and non-traveling wave solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional diffusion—advection equation with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Gupta, R. K.; Jiwari, Ram

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the variable-coefficient diffusion—advection (DA) equation, which arises in modeling various physical phenomena, is studied by the Lie symmetry approach. The similarity reductions are derived by determining the complete sets of point symmetries of this equation, and then exact and numerical solutions are reported for the reduced second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Further, an extended (G'/G)-expansion method is applied to the DA equation to construct some new non-traveling wave solutions

  17. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF CLOSE DOUBLE WHITE DWARFS AS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SOURCES: EVOLUTIONARY CHANNELS, BIRTH RATES, AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinzhong; Han Zhanwen; Zhang Fenghui; Zhang Yu

    2010-01-01

    Close double white dwarfs (CDWDs) are believed to dominate the Galactic gravitational wave (GW) radiation in the frequency range 10 -4 to 0.1 Hz, which will be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) detector. The aim of this detector is to detect GW radiation from astrophysical sources in the universe and to help improve our understanding of the origin of the sources and their physical properties (masses and orbital periods). In this paper, we study the probable candidate sources in the Galaxy for the LISA detector: CDWDs. We use the binary population synthesis approach of CDWDs together with the latest findings of the synthesis models from Han, who proposed three evolutionary channels: (1) stable Roche lobe overflow plus common envelope (RLOF+CE), (2) CE+CE, and (3) exposed core plus CE. As a result, we systematically investigate the detailed physical properties (the distributions of masses, orbital periods, and chirp masses) of the CDWD sources for the LISA detector, examine the importance of the three evolutionary channels for the formation of CDWDs, and carry out Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that RLOF+CE and CE+CE are the main evolutionary scenarios leading to the formation of CDWDs. For the LISA detectable sources, we also explore and discuss the importance of these three evolutionary channels. Using the calculated birth rate, we compare our results to the LISA sensitivity curve and the foreground noise floor of CDWDs. We find that our estimate for the number of CDWD sources that can be detected by the LISA detector is greater than 10,000. We also find that the detectable CDWDs are produced via the CE+CE channel and we analyze the fraction of the detectable CDWDs that are double helium (He+He), or carbon-oxygen plus helium (CO+He) WD binary systems.

  18. A physical model study of the travel times and conversion point locations of P-SV converted waves in vertical transversely isotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration seismology, subsurface medium commonly exhibits anisotropy, characterized by a vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) model. Due to the need of exploring small reservoirs in complex structures, the seismic exploration is extended to deal with anisotropic media. The P-S converted wave seismic exploration is a relatively inexpensive, broadly applicable, and effective way to obtain the S-wave information of the medium. In anisotropic traveltime analysis, the moveout curve of horizontal P-SV event can help to determine the ratio of the P- and SV-wave vertical velocities, the normal moveout (NMO) velocity of SV-waves, and the anisotropy parameters. The P-SV conversion point (CP) location is of great importance to P-SV data binning, NMO corrections and common conversion point (CCP) stacking, and the anisotropy has a more significant effect on the conversion point location than on the moveout. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical non-hyperbolic moveout and CP equations for the P-SV waves reflected from a VTI layer by numerical calculations and physical modeling. We are also interested in visualizing the variations of the conversion point locations from a designed VTI medium. In traveltime analysis, the theoretical moveout curve is accurate up to offsets about one and a half times the reflector depth (x/z=1.5). However, the moveout curve computed by Fermat's principle fits well to the physical data. The CP locations of P-SV waves are similar to those calculated by Fermat's principle and theoretical CP equation, which are verified by the physical modeling.

  19. Promote the equality and fairness for everyone in physical education activity-the case of mixed group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA PETRACOVSCHI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSince the classes are mixed in Romania but the lessons of physical education are still practicing by usingseparated groups for male and female, especially for team sports (e.g. football, handball, etc where boys areplaying against boys and girls against girls, the purpose of this study is to identify and combat gender stereotypesby using games and plays for mixed group in physical education activity. Also, using the mix group in thephysical activity during all the school period will be a main method of learning civic rules, the respect ofdifference and will encourage the process of socialization between boys and girls.MethodsThe experiment was conducted between 15October 2009 to 15 May 2010 by a group of 20 students (13 girls and7 boys at the age of 13 (VII grade in Romanian system using the sociometrical method.Results and discussionIf the initial testing shows that the choice of partner is primarily based on gender, the results made after finaltesting (after 7 months of work carried out by groups combined reveals that the partner’s choice is madeaccording to sporting skills and physical development.ConclusionsThe conclusions highlight the importance of early work on mixed groups from the age of 9. The idea is tocombat the stereotypes in so called "masculine" or "feminine" sports and to emphasize the respect for equalityand fairness between students according to individual possibilities

  20. Effect of physical activity on pulse wave velocity in elderly subjects with normal glucose, prediabetes or Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsämarttila, Erja; Rodilla, Enrique; Jokelainen, Jari; Herrala, Sauli; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2018-05-23

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ((cf)PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness, predicting cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the amount of physical activity (PA) is correlated with reduced arterial stiffness in Type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. 570 subjects from the 1945 Oulu birth cohort were included in the analysis. (cf)PWV was determined by a non-invasive applanation tonometry. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and LDL and HDL cholesterol analyzed. PA was registered daily with a wrist-worn acceleration meter for two weeks. (cf)PWV values in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and T2D were higher than in normal glycemic subjects (P < 0.001). PA, fasting and 2 h glucose and HbA1c correlated significantly with (cf)PWV, but HDL or LDL cholesterol did not. The 2 h glucose, heart rate and alcohol consumption in T2D subjects had independent effects on (cf)PWV in multiple regression analysis. T2D and IGM were significantly associated to (cf)PWV. Interestingly, lipids did not have an additional effect on (cf)PWV. Subjects walking more than 10 000 steps/day had 0.2 m/s lower (cf)PWV than those walking less than 6000 steps/day. Presence of T2D, elevated heart rate and alcohol consumption in males were associated with increased aortic stiffening in elderly subjects.

  1. Continuity and completeness in physical theory: Schroedinger's return to the wave interpretation of quantum mechanics in the 1950's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, S.

    1992-01-01

    In the 50s, Schroedinger proposed a new conception of a continuous theory of Quantum Mechanics, which remarkably modified his 1926 ideas on ondulatory mechanics. The lack of individuality of the atomic particles presented in the new statistics, and in Heisenberg's Indeterminacy Relations, was by him considered as an aspect of a more general crisis in the anthology itself of classical atomism. Unlike his 1926 ideas, he proposed now to represent the wave equation in an n-dimensional space and he considered second-quantization technique as the proper mathematical tool for his new physical conception. Although he accepted that space-time discontinuities and casual gaps may appear here and there on the observational level (e.g. in the Indeterminacy Relations), he was convinced that they could be made compatible with a continuous pure theory, provided one accepted a suitable conception of the theory's epistemiological status. For him, only a continuous theory satisfied the conditions for a complete theory. On these matters, he thought he was somehow orthodox to the ideas of Hertz and Boltzmann, which were also reflected in the teaching of Exner. (author). 69 refs

  2. Financial Rogue Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2010-01-01

    We analytically give the financial rogue waves in the nonlinear option pricing model due to Ivancevic, which is nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes model. These rogue wave solutions may he used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for rogue wave phenomenon in financial markets and related fields.

  3. Explosion Generated Seismic Waves and P/S Methods of Discrimination from Earthquakes with Insights from the Nevada Source Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pitarka, A.; Pyle, M. L.; Pasyanos, M.; Mellors, R. J.; Dodge, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The relative amplitudes of seismic P-waves to S-waves are effective at identifying underground explosions among a background of natural earthquakes. These P/S methods appear to work best at frequencies above 2 Hz and at regional distances ( >200 km). We illustrate this with a variety of historic nuclear explosion data as well as with the recent DPRK nuclear tests. However, the physical basis for the generation of explosion S-waves, and therefore the predictability of this P/S technique as a function of path, frequency and event properties such as size, depth, and geology, remains incompletely understood. A goal of current research, such as the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is to improve our physical understanding of the mechanisms of explosion S-wave generation and advance our ability to numerically model and predict them. The SPE conducted six chemical explosions between 2011 and 2016 in the same borehole in granite in southern Nevada. The explosions were at a variety of depths and sizes, ranging from 0.1 to 5 tons TNT equivalent yield. The largest were observed at near regional distances, with P/S ratios comparable to much larger historic nuclear tests. If we control for material property effects, the explosions have very similar P/S ratios independent of yield or magnitude. These results are consistent with explosion S-waves coming mainly from conversion of P- and surface waves, and are inconsistent with source-size based models. A dense sensor deployment for the largest SPE explosion allowed this conversion to be mapped in detail. This is good news for P/S explosion identification, which can work well for very small explosions and may be ultimately limited by S-wave detection thresholds. The SPE also showed explosion P-wave source models need to be updated for small and/or deeply buried cases. We are developing new P- and S-wave explosion models that better match all the empirical data. Historic nuclear explosion seismic data shows that the media in which

  4. SOCIAL RESPONSES IN HYPOTHETICAL SITUATIONS OF INTERPERSONAL TENSION, OF A GROUP OF CHILDREN INSTITUTIONALIZED FOR PHYSICAL ABUSE, AND A GROUP OF NON-ABUSED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR REY

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation had two objectives: a to compare the number of punitive and not punitive socialresponses reported toward three hypothetical situations of interpersonal tension, by a group of 39institutionalized for physical abuse children and girls, with that informed by a group of 34 not abusedchildren and girls inscribed to an educational institution, and b to compare the number of punitive andnot punitive responses that the physically abused children and girls referred in this situations. All thechildren had between eight and twelve age-years, among second and quarter educational degree and lowsocioeconomic levels. The three hypothetical situations of interpersonal tension were presented verballywith the support of six sheets (three for each sex and their responses were gathered in a quantitative waythrough the content analysis. The application of the test U of Mann Whitney didn’t throw significantdifferences among the two groups. Nevertheless, it was found a significant difference at intra-grouplevel, in accordance with the test of Wicolxon.

  5. Cross national study of leisure-time physical activity in Dutch and English populations with ethnic group comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, Jeroen S. L.; Agyemang, Charles; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Nazroo, James; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    Variations between countries in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) can be used to test the convergence thesis, which expects that ethnic minority groups change towards the LTPA levels of the native population of host countries. The aim of this study was to test whether similar differences in LTPA

  6. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Parents and Children At-Risk for Physical Abuse: An Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Melissa K.; Deblinger, Esther; Steer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the relative efficacy of two types of group cognitive-behavioral therapy for treating the traumatized child and at-risk or offending parent in cases of child physical abuse (CPA), 24 parents and their children were treated with Combined Parent-Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT) and 20 parents were treated with Parent-Only CBT.…

  7. Characteristics and health conditions of a group of nursing home patients with mental-physical multimorbidity - the MAPPING study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Anne M. A.; Gerritsen, Debby L.; de Valk, Miranda M. H.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    Background: Long-term care facilities have partly taken over the traditional asylum function of psychiatric hospitals and house an increasing group of patients with mental-physical multimorbidity (MPM). Little is known about the characteristics, behavior, and care dependency of these patients. This

  8. Fair Play Game: A Group Contingency Strategy to Increase Students' Active Behaviours in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Lee, Chang-Hung; Azevedo, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    A dependent group contingency strategy called Fair Play Game was applied to promote increase in number of steps during physical education classes for sixth-grade students. Results from a multiple baseline design across three classes showed that the mean number of steps for baseline vs. intervention were: Class 1: 43 vs. 64 steps/minute; Class 2:…

  9. Comparing the Math Anxiety of Secondary School Female Students in Groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Khatoon; Pourrazavy, Zinat alsadat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is comparing math anxiety of secondary school female students in groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools, district 2, city of Sari. The purpose of the research is applied research, it is a development branch, and in terms of the nature and method, it is a causal-comparative research. The statistical…

  10. Unspoken Playground Rules Discourage Adolescent Physical Activity in School: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Catherine M; Davies, Emma L; Dawes, Helen

    2018-03-01

    The health benefits of exercise in school are recognized, yet physical activity continues to decline during early adolescence despite numerous interventions. In this study, we investigated whether the prototype willingness model, an account of adolescent decision making that includes both reasoned behavioral choices and unplanned responses to social environments, might improve understanding of physical activity in school. We conducted focus groups with British pupils aged 12 to 13 years and used deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the model. Participants described reasoned decisions about physical activity outside school and unplanned choices to be inactive during break, in response to social contexts described as more "judgmental" than in primary school. Social contexts appeared characterized by anxiety about competence, negative peer evaluation, and inactive playground norms. The prototype willingness model might more fully explain physical activity in school than reasoned behavioral models alone, indicating potential for interventions targeting anxieties about playground social environments.

  11. Does functional capacity, fall risk awareness and physical activity level predict falls in older adults in different age groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Rodacki, Andre Luiz Felix; Pereira, Gléber; Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce

    2018-04-11

    The aims of this study were to examine whether: i) functional capacity and physical activity level differ between fallers and non-fallers older adults, by controlling for fall risk awareness; ii) functional capacity, fall risk awareness and physical activity differ between fallers and non-fallers older adults, by controlling for age; iii) variables and which may predict falls in different age groups. 1826 older adults performed a series of functional tests and reported their fall episodes, fall risk awareness and physical activity level. The overall incidence of falls was high (40.2%), and falls risk awareness scores reduced with age. The older adults with greater falls risk awareness and non-fallers presented better scores in all functional tests and physical activity level (P age groups and differed between fallers and non-fallers, irrespective of age group (P age groups (odds ranging: 1.05-1.09). Handgrip strength and balance scores predicted falls until 79 years (OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01-1.06). The physical activity level predicted falls up to 70 years (OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.06-1.12). Functional mobility was able to predict falls up to 80 years (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.01-1.08). Therefore, according to age, functional capacity, physical activity level and falls risk awareness can be a predictor of falls in older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Human waves in stadiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, I.; Helbing, D.; Vicsek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Mexican wave first widely broadcasted during the 1986 World Cup held in Mexico, is a human wave moving along the stands of stadiums as one section of spectators stands up, arms lifting, then sits down as the next section does the same. Here we use variants of models originally developed for the description of excitable media to demonstrate that this collective human behaviour can be quantitatively interpreted by methods of statistical physics. Adequate modelling of reactions to triggering attempts provides a deeper insight into the mechanisms by which a crowd can be stimulated to execute a particular pattern of behaviour and represents a possible tool of control during events involving excited groups of people. Interactive simulations, video recordings and further images are available at the webpage dedicated to this work: http://angel.elte.hu/wave.

  13. Challenges in Teaching Space Physics to Different Target Groups From Space Weather Forecasters to Heavy-weight Theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plasma physics as the backbone of space physics is difficult and thus the space physics students need to have strong foundations in general physics, in particular in classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, and master the basic mathematical tools for physicists. In many universities the number of students specializing in space physics at Master's and Doctoral levels is rather small and the students may have quite different preferences ranging from experimental approach to hard-core space plasma theory. This poses challenges in building up a study program that has both the variety and depth needed to motivate the best students to choose this field. At the University of Helsinki we require all beginning space physics students, regardless whether they enter the field as Master's or Doctoral degree students, to take a one-semester package consisting of plasma physics and its space applications. However, some compromises are necessary. For example, it is not at all clear, how thoroughly Landau damping should be taught at the first run or how deeply should the intricacies of collisionless reconnection be discussed. In both cases we have left the details to an optional course in advanced space physics, even with the risk that the student's appreciation of, e.g., reconnection may remain at the level of a magic wand. For learning experimental work, data analysis or computer simulations we have actively pursued arrangements for the Master's degree students to get a summer employments in active research groups, which usually lead to the Master's theses. All doctoral students are members of research groups and participate in experimental work, data analysis, simulation studies or theory development, or any combination of these. We emphasize strongly "learning by doing" all the way from the weekly home exercises during the lecture courses to the PhD theses which in Finland consist typically of 4-6 peer-reviewed articles with a comprehensive introductory part.

  14. Impact on the Quality of Erections after Completing a Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment Cycle on a Group of 710 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Corredor Ayala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the response to low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy in a group of patients with organic vascular erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods. This is an observational retrospective study. The researchers reviewed 710 patients with a clinical diagnosis of organic vascular erectile dysfunction (ED of more than 3-month duration from male sexual health clinics of the Boston Medical Group from 12 cities in Spain and 4 in Mexico. Patients received 5 outpatient shock wave therapy sessions. They were evaluated with the erection hardness score (EHS before the first session (n = 710, at the end of the last session (n = 710, and one month after the last session (n = 412. Results. In the first examination, the EHS improved in 43.1% (306/710 of subjects compared to the baseline measurement and ability to penetrate increased from 26.8% to 44% (p<0.0001. In the second examination, the ability to penetrate was 37.9%, lower than in the first (p=0.042 but higher than the baseline (p=0.0001. Conclusions. The results suggest that the shock wave therapy with or without concomitant treatments improved the quality of erections in patients with erectile dysfunction treated in specialised male sexual health clinics. This trial is registered with NCT03237143.

  15. Physical activity in culturally and linguistically diverse migrant groups to Western society: a review of barriers, enablers and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Kolt, Gregory S; Mummery, W Kerry

    2009-01-01

    A close examination of epidemiological data reveals burdens of disease particular to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrants, as these individuals adjust to both culture and modernization gaps. Despite the increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight/obesity and cardiovascular disease, individuals from CALD groups are less likely to be proactive in accessing healthcare or undertaking preventative measures to ensure optimal health outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review literature that outlines the barriers, challenges and enablers of physical activity in CALD groups who have recently migrated to Western society, and to identify key strategies to increase physical activity participation for these individuals. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 57 publications that met the inclusion criteria. Findings from the review indicate that migration to Western societies has a detrimental effect on the health status and health behaviours of CALD groups as they assimilate to their new surroundings, explore different cultures and customs, and embrace a new way of life. In particular, there is evidence that physical inactivity is common in migrant CALD groups, and is a key contributing risk factor to chronic disease for these individuals. Challenges and barriers that limit physical activity participation in CALD groups include: cultural and religious beliefs, issues with social relationships, socioeconomic challenges, environmental barriers, and perceptions of health and injury. Strategies that may assist with overcoming these challenges and barriers consist of the need for cultural sensitivity, the provision of education sessions addressing health behaviours, encouraging participation of individuals from the same culture, exploration of employment situational variables, and the implementation of 'Health Action Zones' in CALD communities. This information will inform and support the development of culturally

  16. Promoting group empowerment and self-reliance through participatory research: a case study of people with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R; Bhagwanjee, A

    1999-07-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the empowerment construct among social scientists, relatively few empowerment studies involving groupwork with people with physical disabilities exist. This article accordingly describes and analyses the organic development of the empowerment process within a spinal cord injury self-help group, set against the backdrop of policy imperatives for disability in post-apartheid South Africa. The treatise on the group empowerment process is located within the context of a group evaluation conducted within a participatory research framework. Key variables informing the research approach included: quality of participation, control over resources and decision-making, shift in critical consciousness and understanding, malleability of roles within the group and role of the health professional. Group members assumed ownership of group management and decision-making and shifted from a professionally-led to a peer-led self-help group. Group objectives changed from providing mutual support to community education and outreach activities. The role of the health professional shifted from group facilitator to invited consultant. This case study demonstrates how group participation, promoted by a critically informed therapeutic and research praxis, can unlock the inherent potential for self-reliance and empowerment of socially marginalized collectives. It offers important insights with regard to group process, participatory research and the role of the health professional in creating opportunities for empowerment and self-reliance of people with disability.

  17. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Beams: Working Group C Summary on Applications to FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2003-01-01

    This is the summary of the activities in working group C, ''Application to FELs,'' which was based in the Bithia room at the Joint ICFA Advanced Accelerator and Beam Dynamics Workshop on July 1-6, 2002 in Chia Laguna, Sardinia, Italy. Working group C was small in relation to the other working groups at that workshop. Attendees include Enrica Chiadroni, University of Rome ape with an identical pulse length. ''La Sapienza'', Luca Giannessi, ENEA, Steve Lidia, LBNL, Vladimir Litvinenko, Duke University, Patrick Muggli, UCLA, Alex Murokh, UCLA, Heinz-Dieter Nuhn, SLAC, Sven Reiche, UCLA, Jamie Rosenzweig, UCLA, Claudio Pellegrini, UCLA, Susan Smith, Daresbury Laboratory, Matthew Thompson, UCLA, Alexander Varfolomeev, Russian Research Center, plus a small number of occasional visitors. The working group addressed a total of nine topics. Each topic was introduced by a presentation, which initiated a discussion of the topic during and after the presentation. The speaker of the introductory presentation facilitated the discussion. There were six topics that were treated in stand-alone sessions of working group C. In addition, there were two joint sessions, one with working group B, which included one topic, and one with working group C, which included two topics. The presentations that were given in the joint sessions are summarized in the working group summary reports for groups B and D, respectively. This summary will only discuss the topics that were addressed in the stand-alone sessions, including Start-To-End Simulations, SASE Experiment, PERSEO, ''Optics Free'' FEL Oscillators, and VISA II

  18. Photo-physical and interactional behavior of two members of group B vitamins in different solvent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Zare Haghighi, L.; Seyed Ahmadian, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, absorption and fluorescence spectra of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) were recorded in solvents with different polarity, at room temperature. These vitamins' photo-physical behavior depends strongly on the solvent's nature along with different attached groups in their structures. In order to investigate the solvent-solute interactions and environmental effect on spectral variations, linear solvation energy relationships concept, suggested by Kamlet and Taft was used. Solvatochromic method was also used for measuring the ground and excited state dipole moments of these vitamins. According to our experimental results, dipole moment of these groups of vitamins in excited state is larger than ground state. Furthermore, obtained photo-physical and interactional properties of used vitamins can give important information on how this group of vitamins behaves in biological systems.

  19. Inferences on the Physical Nature of Earth's Inner Core Boundary Region from Observations of Antipodal PKIKP and PKIIKP Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, V. F.; Attanayake, J.; Thomas, C.; Koper, K. D.; Miller, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's Inner Core Boundary (ICB) is considered a uniform and sharp liquid-to-solid transition in standard Earth models such as PREM and AK135-F. By analysing seismic wave reflections emanating from the ICB, this hypothesis of a simple ICB can be tested. Observed absolute and relative amplitudes and coda of the PKiKP phase that is reflected on the topside of the ICB suggest that the ICB is neither uniform nor has a simple structure. Similarly, waves that are reflected from the underside of the ICB - PKIIKP phase - can be used to determine the physical nature of the region immediately below the ICB. Using high-frequency synthetic waveform experiments, we confirm that antipodal PKIIKP amplitudes can discriminate the state of the uppermost 10 km of the inner core: A standard liquid-to-solid ICB (high shear velocity/shear modulus discontinuity) produces a maximum PKIIKP amplitude equal to only a factor of 0.14 of the PKIKP amplitude, whereas a non-standard liquid-to-near liquid ICB (low shear velocity/shear modulus discontinuity) can produce PKIIKP amplitudes comparable to PKIKP. We searched for PKIIKP in individual and stacked array waveforms in the 170° - 180° distance range for the 2000 to 2016 time period globally to compare with our synthetic results. We attribute a lack of PKIIKP detection in the stacked array recordings due to (1) ranges closer to 170° and not 180°, where the PKIIKP signal-to-noise ratio is very poor; (2) scattered coda following PKIKP masking the PKIIKP phase; and (3) large azimuthal variations of array recordings closer to 180° preventing the formation of an accurate beam. Envelopes of individual recordings in the 178° - 180° distance range, however, clearly show energy peaks correlating with the travel time of PKIIKP phase. Our global set of PKIIKP/PKIKP energy ratio measurements vary between 0.1 and 1.1, indicating significant structural complexity immediately below the ICB. While a complex inner core anisotropy structure and ICB

  20. Annual report of the Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, and the Biophysics Group, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Research on photoemission and photoluminescence in quantum wells; photoemission assisted by electric fields; the electrochemistry of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; transport properties of MESFET's; fractal physics; amorphous silicon; superionic and mixed conductors; solids chemistry and NMR; internal motion of nucleic acids; cardiophysiology; imaging of microscopic internal motions; and Ap4A metabolism is presented [fr

  1. Intercommunications of indexes of general physical training of fencer on swords different qualifying groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohla A.I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work - to find out the presence of cross-correlation intercommunications between the indexes of general physical preparedness and dependence of their structure from the level of sporting qualification of sportsmen. 66 sportsmen took part in research. From them 35 are sportsmen of I-II of digits, 31 are highly skilled sportsmen. Sportsmen executed 14 tests which characterize the level of general physical preparedness. For the sportsmen of spark-gaps found out 15 reliable cross-correlation intercommunications of direct (10 and reverse (5 character. For skilled sportsmen - 18: (9 direct and (9 reverse character. For the sportsmen of spark-gaps the most of reliable intercommunications is set between spray force (6 and explosive force of feet (5. At skilled - between figure (7 and spray (6 force and other indexes. The presence of direct cross-correlation intercommunications between physical qualities testifies about expedience of their complex development in one training employment. Reverse - about the necessity of the differentiated development of such physical qualities.

  2. Analysis and Evaluation of Social Contagion of Physical Activity in a Group of Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes de Mello Araujo, E.; Tran, A.V.T.T.; Mollee, J.S.; Klein, M.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that opinions, attitudes and emotions spread through social networks. Several of these cognitions influence behavioral choices. Therefore, it is assumed that the level of physical activity of a person is influenced by the activity levels of the people in its social network. We have

  3. Annual report of the Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, and the Biophysics Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Research on photoemission and photoluminescence in quantum wells; photoemission assisted by electric fields; the electrochemistry of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; MESFET's; fractal physics; amorphous silicon; superionic and mixed conductors; solids chemistry and NMR; internal motion of nucleic acids; cardiophysiology; imaging of microscopic internal motions; and Ap4A metabolism is presented [fr

  4. Physical activity locations in Georgia: frequency of use by socio-demographic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J. M. Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Active outdoor recreation helps to mitigate health consequences associated with sedentary behavior. Enhanced understanding of socio-demographic differences in physical activity (PA) location preferences could therefore contribute to health promotion.This study examined frequency o fuse fo rvarious PA locations in Georgia,a state with historically high levels of...

  5. Mediating effects of group cohesion on physical activity and diet in women of color: health is power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; O'Connor, Daniel P; Smith-Ray, Renae; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Brosnan, Marcella; Cubbin, Catherine; McMillan, Tracy; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects and mediating factors of a physical activity (PA) or vegetable and fruit (VF) group cohesion intervention. Longitudinal design. Harris County and Travis County, Texas. Community-dwelling African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Three hundred ten women were randomized to a PA (n  =  204) or VF (n  =  106) intervention group. Women met in groups six times over the course of 6 months and were exposed to a group cohesion intervention to promote walking or to increase VF consumption. Women completed the International PA Questionnaire, National Cancer Institute VF and fat screeners, PA Group Environment Questionnaire, and 7-day accelerometer protocol at baseline and post-intervention. The direct and mediated effects of the intervention on outcomes were evaluated using a mediational chain model, controlling for baseline values and covariates using path analysis. Women were middle aged (mean  =  44.4 years) and overweight or obese (mean body mass index  =  34.0 kg/m(2)). PA increased and fat consumption decreased for both groups, whereas VF consumption increased for women in VF group only (all p psychological and physical health benefits for African-American and Hispanic or Latina women, but refinement of measures and intervention delivery is needed to determine whether hypothesized mediational pathways are valid.

  6. The influence of friendship groups and media on eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof Rinie Geenen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of overweight and obesity results from individual factors and from meso- and macro environmental factors. Adolescents are especially vulnerable to unhealthy changes in life style. One major influence on health behavior in this age group is represented by friends in peer groups.

  7. Lie groups and differential equations: symmetries, conservation laws and exact solutions of mathematical models in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheftel', M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The basics of modern group analysis of different equations are presented. The group analysis produces in a natural way the variables, which are most suitable for a problem of question, and also the associated differential-geometric structures, such as pseudo Riemann geometry, connections, Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formalism

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  9. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, J W; Bakker, G C

    1999-12-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14 pigs were fed one of four diets in a 2x2 factorial arrangement. Factors included 1) gastrointestinal fermentation and 2) dietary bulkiness. Contrasts in fermentation were created by exchanging gelatinized maize starch with raw potato starch on a volume basis. Bulkiness was altered by adding 15% milled wheat straw to the diets. Apart from these differences, amounts of other dietary ingredients fed to the pigs were similar. Pigs were housed in groups. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per cluster during a 14-d period. Dietary bulkiness did not affect ME intake, heat production, or energy retention. Metabolizability decreased when maize starch was replaced with raw potato starch (P< .01), resulting in a lower energy retention on the potato starch diets (P<.01). However, the lower ME intake on the potato diets was partially compensated by a reduced energy expenditure on physical activity (P< .01), which was 17.6% lower than that of pigs fed the maize starch diets. Dietary bulkiness did not affect physical activity. The effect of fiber-rich diets (nonstarch polysaccharides) on activity in growing group-housed pigs seems to be related to fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract, and not to bulkiness (volume).

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  13. The method of chains of groups and its application to physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichon, Pierre.

    1975-01-01

    The group representation theory is studied in the sub-group chain formalism. The associated Racah algebra is described with this special aspect in mind and the hypotheses are discussed. Several advantages are shown: it makes the evaluation of the geometrical coefficients arising from Racah's method easier and the matrix elements are readily evaluated with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. It applies to any group of the chain so that one takes advantage of the Racah algebra of the best-known group (for instance SU(2)). Moreover the multiplicity problems are removed when the first group of the chain is multiplicity-free. Algebraic problems are shown to be easily solved using a graphical method. The proposed one is available in a non-standard basis and for any compact group. The chain method is applied to a chain of groups of molecular interest. An extensive tabulation of the coefficients which are necessary in the practice has been performed and results are given in an addendum to this work [fr

  14. What do New Yorkers Think about Impacts and Adaptation to Heat Waves? An Evaluation Tool to Incorporate Perception of Low-Income Groups into Heat Wave Adaptation Scenarios in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Matmir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-income residents are among the most vulnerable groups to climate change in urban areas, particularly regarding heat stress. However, their perceptions about heat and the impacts they face go often undocumented, and are seldom considered in decision-making processes delivering adaptation. This paper presents a robust tool to allow the integration of perception, concerns and impacts of different income groups in urban adaptation planning and governance, using the City of New York as a case study. Employing online interviews—a solid method to reach poorer households—and Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping, we compare impacts and adaptation perception to heat and simulate adaptation scenarios. Results reveal that lower income groups are more concerned about impacts of heat waves than middle- and high-income populations. All income groups see citizens more in charge of adaptation, although more people from the lower income groups regard it necessary to do much more to protect themselves, proportionately more people from the higher income groups think they are doing the right amount. The scenario analysis shows that, compared to investments in the water/electricity and health system, improvements in the transit system would yield the largest decrease in negative impacts during heat, benefitting all income groups jointly.

  15. Physical and sexual violence, mental health indicators, and treatment seeking among street-based population groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio Navarro, Javier; Cohen, Julien; Rocillo Arechaga, Eva; Zuniga, Edgardo

    2012-05-01

    To establish the prevalence of exposure to physical and sexual violence, mental health symptoms, and medical treatment-seeking behavior among three street-based subpopulation groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and to assess the association between sociodemographic group, mental health indicators, and exposure to violence. An anonymous, cross-sectional survey among randomly selected street-based adolescents, adults, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) was undertaken at the end of 2010 in Tegucigalpa. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) mapped places where the study population gathers. Stratified probability samples were drawn for all groups, using two-stage random sampling. Trained MSF staff administered on-site standardized face-to-face questionnaires. Self-reported exposure to severe physical violence in the previous year was 20.9% among street-based adolescents, 28.8% among adults, and 30.6% among CSWs. For the physical violence event self-defined as most severe, 50.0% of the adolescents, 81.4% of the adults, and 70.6% of the CSWs sought medical treatment. Their exposure to severe sexual violence was 8.6%, 28.8%, and 59.2%, respectively. After exposure to the self-defined most severe sexual violence event, 14.3% of adolescents, 31.9% of adults, and 29.1% of CSWs sought treatment. Common mental health and substance abuse symptoms were highly prevalent and strongly associated with exposure to physical (odds ratio 4.5, P < 0.0001) and sexual (odds ratio 3.7, P = 0.0001) violence. Exposure to physical and sexual violence reached extreme levels among street-based subpopulations. Treatment-seeking behavior, particularly after severe sexual violence, was limited. The association of mental health and substance abuse symptoms with exposure to violence could lead to further victimization. Medical and psychological treatments targeting these groups are needed and could help decrease their vulnerability.

  16. Electronics, trigger, data acquisition, and computing working group on future B physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.

    1993-01-01

    Electronics, trigger, data acquisition, and computing: this is a very broad list of topics. Nevertheless in a modern particle physics experiment one thinks in terms of a data pipeline in which the front end electronics, the trigger and data acquisition, and the offline reconstruction are linked together. In designing any piece of this pipeline it is necessary to understand the bigger picture of the data flow, data rates and volume, and the input rate, output rate, and latencies for each part of the pipeline. All of this needs to be developed with a clear understanding of the requirements imposed by the physics goals of the experiment; the signal efficiencies, background rates, and the amount of recorded information that needs to be propagated through the pipeline to select and analyse the events of interest. The technology needed to meet the demanding high data volume needs of the next round of B physics experiments appears to be available, now or within a couple of years. This seems to be the case for both fixed target and collider B physics experiments. Although there are many differences between the various data pipelines that are being proposed, there are also striking similarities. All experiments have a multi-level trigger scheme (most have levels 1, 2, and 3) where the final level consists of a computing farm that can run offline-type code and reduce the data volume by a factor of a few. Finally, the ability to reconstruct large data volumes offline in a reasonably short time, and making large data volumes available to many physicists for analysis, imposes severe constraints on the foreseen data pipelines, and a significant uncertainty in evaluating the various approaches proposed

  17. Applying personality theory to a group of police bodyguards : a physically risky prosocial prototype?

    OpenAIRE

    Gomà Freixanet, Montserrat

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold. First, to present evidence in favour of the application of the dispositional model to police applicants and second to present evidence that police bodyguard manifest a personality profile similar to that of subjects engaged in activities that imply a high level of physical risk of a prosocial kind. The sample consisted of 20 subjects, the complete Bodyguard Unit from the Autonomous Government of Catalunya. Subjects were administered the Eysenck Persona...

  18. Sport participation among individuals with acquired physical disabilities: group differences on demographic, disability, and Health Action Process Approach constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Marie-Josée; Shirazipour, Celina H; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    Despite numerous physical, social, and mental health benefits of engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities (e.g., sport), few individuals with acquired physical disabilities currently participate in adapted sport. Theory-based sport promotion interventions are one possible way to increase the amount of individuals who engage in sport. The primary objective of this study was to examine the profiles of three different sport participation groups with respect to demographic, injury, and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) constructs. ANOVAs and Chi-square tests were used to determine group differences on demographic and disability-related constructs. A MANCOVA was conducted to determine differences between three sport participation groups (non-intenders, intenders, and actors) with age, years post-injury, mode of mobility, and sex included as covariates. A cohort of 201 individuals was recruited; 56 (27.9%) were non-intenders, 21 (10.4%) were intenders, and 124 (61.7%) were actors. The MANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the HAPA constructs, F(22,370) = 9.02, p sport intentions. These results provide an important framework that adapted sport organizations can use to tailor their sport promotion programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50-64; 65-79; 80 and older). Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old-old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Determinants of Practising Selected Forms of Physical Activity in a Group of Administrative and Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In recent years, a decline in the level of physical activity has been observed all over the world. The number of professions where work is performed in a sitting position has increased. This has had many consequences for our health, the society, and the economy. The aim of this work was to determine which forms of physical activity are the most popular in administrative and office workers, depending on the motives which encourage them to be active. Material and methods. In 2014, a diagnostic survey was carried out among 937 persons in administrative and office positions using a questionnaire form designed by the authors. The study involved persons aged 18 to 65 years, and most of the respondents were female (n = 669. A qualitative analysis of the data was carried out using logistic regression, and the findings were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. Results. Changing the shape of one’s body was found to be the main determinant of using the gym among the respondents. Persons who jogged regularly, on the other hand, did so in order to increase physical fitness, and those who practised Nordic walking were motivated by the need to care for their health. As far as swimming is concerned, persons who had friends that engaged in this form of activity undertook it almost ten times more often than those who did not have such support from their family and friends (OR = 9.58. Respondents who desired to meet new people were over five times more likely to choose team games as an active form of spending their leisure time (OR = 5.21 than other respondents. Finally, those who engaged in physical activity in order to strengthen family bonds preferred playing and playing games with children in the open air. Conclusions. The predominant forms of physical activity which were regularly performed by the respondents were walking, cycling, and doing gymnastic exercise at home. The respondents were mainly motivated to pursue these