A test-bed modeling study for wave resource assessment
Yang, Z.; Neary, V. S.; Wang, T.; Gunawan, B.; Dallman, A.
2016-02-01
Hindcasts from phase-averaged wave models are commonly used to estimate standard statistics used in wave energy resource assessments. However, the research community and wave energy converter industry is lacking a well-documented and consistent modeling approach for conducting these resource assessments at different phases of WEC project development, and at different spatial scales, e.g., from small-scale pilot study to large-scale commercial deployment. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate current wave model codes, as well as limitations and knowledge gaps for predicting sea states, in order to establish best wave modeling practices, and to identify future research needs to improve wave prediction for resource assessment. This paper presents the first phase of an on-going modeling study to address these concerns. The modeling study is being conducted at a test-bed site off the Central Oregon Coast using two of the most widely-used third-generation wave models - WaveWatchIII and SWAN. A nested-grid modeling approach, with domain dimension ranging from global to regional scales, was used to provide wave spectral boundary condition to a local scale model domain, which has a spatial dimension around 60km by 60km and a grid resolution of 250m - 300m. Model results simulated by WaveWatchIII and SWAN in a structured-grid framework are compared to NOAA wave buoy data for the six wave parameters, including omnidirectional wave power, significant wave height, energy period, spectral width, direction of maximum directionally resolved wave power, and directionality coefficient. Model performance and computational efficiency are evaluated, and the best practices for wave resource assessments are discussed, based on a set of standard error statistics and model run times.
A wave model test bed study for wave energy resource characterization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Zhaoqing; Neary, Vincent S.; Wang, Taiping; Gunawan, Budi; Dallman, Annie R.; Wu, Wei-Cheng
2017-12-01
This paper presents a test bed study conducted to evaluate best practices in wave modeling to characterize energy resources. The model test bed off the central Oregon Coast was selected because of the high wave energy and available measured data at the site. Two third-generation spectral wave models, SWAN and WWIII, were evaluated. A four-level nested-grid approach—from global to test bed scale—was employed. Model skills were assessed using a set of model performance metrics based on comparing six simulated wave resource parameters to observations from a wave buoy inside the test bed. Both WWIII and SWAN performed well at the test bed site and exhibited similar modeling skills. The ST4 package with WWIII, which represents better physics for wave growth and dissipation, out-performed ST2 physics and improved wave power density and significant wave height predictions. However, ST4 physics tended to overpredict the wave energy period. The newly developed ST6 physics did not improve the overall model skill for predicting the six wave resource parameters. Sensitivity analysis using different wave frequencies and direction resolutions indicated the model results were not sensitive to spectral resolutions at the test bed site, likely due to the absence of complex bathymetric and geometric features.
Computational study of nonlinear plasma waves. I. Simulation model and monochromatic wave propagtion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matda, Y.; Crawford, F.W.
1974-12-01
An economical low noise plasma simulation model is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation, to establish the low noise features and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 0.000,001 of the plasma thermal energy. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories. The additional phenomena of sideband instability and satellite growth, stimulated by large amplitude wave propagation and the resulting particle trapping, are described. (auth)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Y.; Crawford, F.W.
1975-01-01
An economical low-noise plasma simulation model originated by Denavit is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation. These tests serve to establish the low-noise features of the model, and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 10 -6 of the plasma thermal energy: Better quantitative results are obtained, for comparable computing time, than can be obtained by conventional particle simulation models, or direct solution of the Vlasov equation. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, Jesse D.; Grace Chang; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones
2014-08-01
A n indust ry standard wave modeling tool was utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters and wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deploym ent scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that b oth wave height and near - bottom orbital velocity we re subject to the largest pote ntial variations, each decreas ed in sensitivity as transmission coefficient increase d , as number and spacing of WEC devices decrease d , and as the deployment location move d offshore. Wave direction wa s affected consistently for all parameters and wave perio d was not affected (or negligibly affected) by varying model parameters or WEC configuration .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Emmanouil
2007-03-01
Full Text Available An operational assimilation system incorporating significant wave height observations in high resolution numerical wave models is studied and evaluated. In particular, altimeter satellite data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA-ENVISAT are assimilated in the wave model WAM which operates in two different wave climate areas: the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. The first is a wind-sea dominated area while in the second, swell is the principal part of the sea state, a fact that seriously affects the performance of the assimilation scheme. A detailed study of the different impact is presented and the resulting forecasts are evaluated against available buoy and satellite observations. The corresponding results show a considerable improvement in wave forecasting for the Indian Ocean while in the Mediterranean Sea the assimilation impact is restricted to isolated areas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watanabe, T; Sassa, K [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Uesaka, S [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-10-01
The effect of initial models on full-wave inversion (FWI) analysis based on acoustic wave-equation was studied for elastic wave tomography of underground structures. At present, travel time inversion using initial motion travel time is generally used, and inverse analysis is conducted using the concept `ray,` assuming very high wave frequency. Although this method can derive stable solutions relatively unaffected by initial model, it uses only the data of initial motion travel time. FWI calculates theoretical waveform at each receiver using all of observed waveforms as data by wave equation modeling where 2-D underground structure is calculated by difference calculus under the assumption that wave propagation is described by wave equation of P wave. Although it is a weak point that FWI is easily affected by noises in an initial model and data, it is featured by high resolution of solutions. This method offers very excellent convergence as a proper initial model is used, resulting in sufficient performance, however, it is strongly affected by initial model. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Attenuation of surface waves due to monsoon rains: A model study for the north Indian Ocean
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Vethamony, P.; Kumar, B.P.; Sarma, Y.V.B.
The dynamic interaction of intense rain with waves based on momentum exchange is applied to a second generation wave model to predict wave attenuation during monsoon. The scheme takes into account the characteristics of rain and wave parameters...
Model Study of Wave Overtopping of Marine Structure for a Wide Range of Geometric Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kofoed, Jens Peter
2000-01-01
The objective of the study described in this paper is to enable estimation of wave overtopping rates for slopes/ramps given by a wide range of geometric parameters when subjected to varying wave conditions. To achieve this a great number of model tests are carried out in a wave tank using irregul...... 2-D waves. On the basis of the first part of these tests an exponential overtopping expression for a linear slope, including the effect of limited draught and varying slope angle, is presented. The plans for further tests with other slope geometries are described....
Nonlinear wave propagation studies, dispersion modeling, and signal parameters correction
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Převorovský, Zdeněk
..: ..., 2004, 00. [European Workshop on FP6-AERONEWS /1./. Naples (IT), 13.09.2004-16.09.2004] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 502927 - AERO-NEWS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : nodestructive testing * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Model based feasibility study on bidirectional check valves in wave energy converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole
2014-01-01
Discrete fluid power force systems have been proposed as the primary stage for Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) when converting ocean waves into electricity, this to improve the overall efficiency of wave energy devices. This paper presents a model based feasibility study of using bidirectional check....../Off and bidirectional check valves. Based on the analysis it is found that the energy production may be slightly improved by using bidirectional check valves as compared to on/off valves, due to a decrease in switching losses. Furthermore a reduction in high flow peaks are realised. The downside being increased...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul
The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...
Instantaneous wave emission model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruer, W.L.
1970-12-01
A useful treatment of electrostatic wave emission by fast particles in a plasma is given. First, the potential due to a fast particle is expressed as a simple integration over the particle orbit; several interesting results readily follow. The potential in the wake of an accelerating particle is shown to be essentially that produced through local excitation of the plasma by the particle free-streaming about its instantaneous orbit. Application is made to one dimension, and it is shown that the wave emission and adsorption synchronize to the instantaneous velocity distribution function. Guided by these calculations, we then formulate a test particle model for computing the instantaneous wave emission by fast particles in a Vlasov plasma. This model lends itself to physical interpretation and provides a direct approach to many problems. By adopting a Fokker-Planck description for the particle dynamics, we calculate the broadening of the wave-particle resonance due to velocity diffusion and drag
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benoit, M.; Marcos, F.; Teisson, Ch.
1999-01-01
Nuclear power stations located on the coast take the water they use to cool their circuits from the sea. The water intake and discharge devices must be able to operate in all weathers, notably during extreme storms, with waves 10 m high and over. To predict the impact of the waves on the equipment, they are modeled digitally from the moment they form in the middle of the ocean right up to the moment they break on the shore. (authors)
Wu, Dong L.; Zhang, Fuqing
2004-01-01
Satellite microwave data are used to study gravity wave properties and variabilities over the northeastern United States and the North Atlantic in the December-January periods. The gravity waves in this region, found in many winters, can reach the stratopause with growing amplitude. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) observations show that the wave occurrences are correlated well with the intensity and location of the tropospheric baroclinic jet front systems. To further investigate the cause(s) and properties of the North Atlantic gravity waves, we focus on a series of wave events during 19-21 January 2003 and compare AMSU-A observations to simulations from a mesoscale model (MM5). The simulated gravity waves compare qualitatively well with the satellite observations in terms of wave structures, timing, and overall morphology. Excitation mechanisms of these large-amplitude waves in the troposphere are complex and subject to further investigations.
Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies
Ofman, L.
2010-01-01
Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.
Application of the Analog Method to Modelling Heat Waves: A Case Study with Power Transformers
2017-04-21
UNCLASSIFIED Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory APPLICATION OF THE ANALOG METHOD TO MODELLING HEAT WAVES: A CASE STUDY WITH...18 2 Calibration and validation statistics with the use of five atmospheric vari- ables to construct analogue diagnostics for JJA of transformer T2...electrical grid as a series of nodes (transformers) and edges (transmission lines) so that basic mathematical anal- ysis can be performed. The mathematics
Experimental Study on the WavePiston Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Angelelli, E.
This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power performance of the WavePiston wave energy converter. It focuses mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device and the effect of the following issues: Scaling ratios PTO loading Wave height and wave period...... dependency Oblique incoming waves Distance between plates During the study, the model supplied by the client, WavePiston, has been rigorously tested as all the anticipated tests have been done thoroughly and during all tests, good quality data has been obtained from all the sensors....
Kashchenko, Serguey
2015-01-01
This monograph examines in detail models of neural systems described by delay-differential equations. Each element of the medium (neuron) is an oscillator that generates, in standalone mode, short impulses also known as spikes. The book discusses models of synaptic interaction between neurons, which lead to complex oscillatory modes in the system. In addition, it presents a solution to the problem of choosing the parameters of interaction in order to obtain attractors with predetermined structure. These attractors are represented as images encoded in the form of autowaves (wave memory). The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but it will also be beneficial for graduate students.
Macroscopic balance model for wave rotors
Welch, Gerard E.
1996-01-01
A mathematical model for multi-port wave rotors is described. The wave processes that effect energy exchange within the rotor passage are modeled using one-dimensional gas dynamics. Macroscopic mass and energy balances relate volume-averaged thermodynamic properties in the rotor passage control volume to the mass, momentum, and energy fluxes at the ports. Loss models account for entropy production in boundary layers and in separating flows caused by blade-blockage, incidence, and gradual opening and closing of rotor passages. The mathematical model provides a basis for predicting design-point wave rotor performance, port timing, and machine size. Model predictions are evaluated through comparisons with CFD calculations and three-port wave rotor experimental data. A four-port wave rotor design example is provided to demonstrate model applicability. The modeling approach is amenable to wave rotor optimization studies and rapid assessment of the trade-offs associated with integrating wave rotors into gas turbine engine systems.
Stem breakage of salt marsh vegetation under wave forcing: A field and model study
Vuik, Vincent; Suh Heo, Hannah Y.; Zhu, Zhenchang; Borsje, Bas W.; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.
2018-01-01
One of the services provided by coastal ecosystems is wave attenuation by vegetation, and subsequent reduction of wave loads on flood defense structures. Therefore, stability of vegetation under wave forcing is an important factor to consider. This paper presents a model which determines the wave load that plant stems can withstand before they break or fold. This occurs when wave-induced bending stresses exceed the flexural strength of stems. Flexural strength was determined by means of three-point-bending tests, which were carried out for two common salt marsh species: Spartina anglica (common cord-grass) and Scirpus maritimus (sea club-rush), at different stages in the seasonal cycle. Plant stability is expressed in terms of a critical orbital velocity, which combines factors that contribute to stability: high flexural strength, large stem diameter, low vegetation height, high flexibility and a low drag coefficient. In order to include stem breakage in the computation of wave attenuation by vegetation, the stem breakage model was implemented in a wave energy balance. A model parameter was calibrated so that the predicted stem breakage corresponded with the wave-induced loss of biomass that occurred in the field. The stability of Spartina is significantly higher than that of Scirpus, because of its higher strength, shorter stems, and greater flexibility. The model is validated by applying wave flume tests of Elymus athericus (sea couch), which produced reasonable results with regards to the threshold of folding and overall stem breakage percentage, despite the high flexibility of this species. Application of the stem breakage model will lead to a more realistic assessment of the role of vegetation for coastal protection.
Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia; López-Venegas, Alberto; Sánchez-Escobar, Rónald; Luque-Vergara, Néstor
2018-04-01
Historical records have shown that tsunami have affected the Caribbean region in the past. However infrequent, recent studies have demonstrated that they pose a latent hazard for countries within this basin. The Hazard Assessment Working Group of the ICG/CARIBE-EWS (Intergovernmental Coordination Group of the Early Warning System for Tsunamis and Other Coastal Threats for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions) of IOC/UNESCO has a modeling subgroup, which seeks to develop a modeling platform to assess the effects of possible tsunami sources within the basin. The CaribeWave tsunami exercise is carried out annually in the Caribbean region to increase awareness and test tsunami preparedness of countries within the basin. In this study we present results of tsunami inundation using the CaribeWave15 exercise scenario for four selected locations within the Caribbean basin (Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá and Puerto Rico), performed by tsunami modeling researchers from those selected countries. The purpose of this study was to provide the states with additional results for the exercise. The results obtained here were compared to co-seismic deformation and tsunami heights within the basin (energy plots) provided for the exercise to assess the performance of the decision support tools distributed by PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Center), the tsunami service provider for the Caribbean basin. However, comparison of coastal tsunami heights was not possible, due to inconsistencies between the provided fault parameters and the modeling results within the provided exercise products. Still, the modeling performed here allowed to analyze tsunami characteristics at the mentioned states from sources within the North Panamá Deformed Belt. The occurrence of a tsunami in the Caribbean may affect several countries because a great variety of them share coastal zones in this basin. Therefore, collaborative efforts similar to the one presented in this study, particularly between neighboring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Space Weather; Henan Normal Univ., Xinxiang (China). College of Mathematics and Information Science; Xu, J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Space Weather; Yue, J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). High Altitude Observatory; Hampton Univ., VA (United States). Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences; Vadas, S.L. [North West Research Associates, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)
2013-03-01
We study the momentum deposition in the thermosphere from the dissipation of small amplitude gravity waves (GWs) within a wave packet using a fully nonlinear two-dimensional compressible numerical model. The model solves the nonlinear propagation and dissipation of a GW packet from the stratosphere into the thermosphere with realistic molecular viscosity and thermal diffusivity for various Prandtl numbers. The numerical simulations are performed for GW packets with initial vertical wavelengths ({lambda}{sub z}) ranging from 5 to 50 km. We show that {lambda}{sub z} decreases in time as a GW packet dissipates in the thermosphere, in agreement with the ray trace results of Vadas and Fritts (2005) (VF05). We also find good agreement for the peak height of the momentum flux (z{sub diss}) between our simulations and VF05 for GWs with initial {lambda}{sub z} {<=} 2{pi}H in an isothermal, windless background, where H is the density scale height.We also confirm that z{sub diss} increases with increasing Prandtl number. We include eddy diffusion in the model, and find that the momentum deposition occurs at lower altitudes and has two separate peaks for GW packets with small initial {lambda}{sub z}. We also simulate GW packets in a non-isothermal atmosphere. The net {lambda}{sub z} profile is a competition between its decrease from viscosity and its increase from the increasing background temperature. We find that the wave packet disperses more in the non-isothermal atmosphere, and causes changes to the momentum flux and {lambda}{sub z} spectra at both early and late times for GW packets with initial {lambda}{sub z} {>=} 10 km. These effects are caused by the increase in T in the thermosphere, and the decrease in T near the mesopause. (orig.)
A comparative study of two fast nonlinear free-surface water wave models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter
2012-01-01
simply directly solves the three-dimensional problem. Both models have been well validated on standard test cases and shown to exhibit attractive convergence properties and an optimal scaling of the computational effort with increasing problem size. These two models are compared for solution of a typical...... used in OceanWave3D, the closer the results come to the HOS model....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uesaka, S [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, T; Sassa, K [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)
1997-05-27
Algorithm is constructed and a program developed for a full-wave inversion (FWI) method utilizing the elastic wave equation in seismic exploration. The FWI method is a method for obtaining a physical property distribution using the whole observed waveforms as the data. It is capable of high resolution which is several times smaller than the wavelength since it can handle such phenomena as wave reflection and dispersion. The method for determining the P-wave velocity structure by use of the acoustic wave equation does not provide information about the S-wave velocity since it does not consider S-waves or converted waves. In an analysis using the elastic wave equation, on the other hand, not only P-wave data but also S-wave data can be utilized. In this report, under such circumstances, an inverse analysis algorithm is constructed on the basis of the elastic wave equation, and a basic program is developed. On the basis of the methods of Mora and of Luo and Schuster, the correction factors for P-wave and S-wave velocities are formulated directly from the elastic wave equation. Computations are performed and the effects of the hypocenter frequency and vibration transmission direction are examined. 6 refs., 8 figs.
Wave model downscaling for coastal applications
Valchev, Nikolay; Davidan, Georgi; Trifonova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Nataliya
2010-05-01
Downscaling is a suitable technique for obtaining high-resolution estimates from relatively coarse-resolution global models. Dynamical and statistical downscaling has been applied to the multidecadal simulations of ocean waves. Even as large-scale variability might be plausibly estimated from these simulations, their value for the small scale applications such as design of coastal protection structures and coastal risk assessment is limited due to their relatively coarse spatial and temporal resolutions. Another advantage of the high resolution wave modeling is that it accounts for shallow water effects. Therefore, it can be used for both wave forecasting at specific coastal locations and engineering applications that require knowledge about extreme wave statistics at or near the coastal facilities. In the present study downscaling is applied to both ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis of atmospheric pressure over the Black Sea with 2.5 degrees spatial resolution. A simplified regional atmospheric model is employed for calculation of the surface wind field at 0.5 degrees resolution that serves as forcing for the wave models. Further, a high-resolution nested WAM/SWAN wave model suite of nested wave models is applied for spatial downscaling. It aims at resolving the wave conditions in a limited area at the close proximity to the shore. The pilot site is located in the northern part the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. The system involves the WAM wave model adapted for basin scale simulation at 0.5 degrees spatial resolution. The WAM output for significant wave height, mean wave period and mean angle of wave approach is used in terms of external boundary conditions for the SWAN wave model, which is set up for the western Black Sea shelf at 4km resolution. The same model set up on about 400m resolution is nested to the first SWAN run. In this case the SWAN 2D spectral output provides boundary conditions for the high-resolution model run. The models are implemented for a
Porous models for wave-seabed interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeng, Dong-Sheng [Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., SH (China)
2013-02-01
Detailed discussion about the phenomenon of wave-seabed interactions. Novel models for wave-induced seabed response. Intensive theoretical derivations for wave-seabed interactions. Practical examples for engineering applications. ''Porous Models for Wave-seabed Interactions'' discusses the Phenomenon of wave-seabed interactions, which is a vital issue for coastal and geotechnical engineers involved in the design of foundations for marine structures such as pipelines, breakwaters, platforms, etc. The most important sections of this book will be the fully detailed theoretical models of wave-seabed interaction problem, which are particularly useful for postgraduate students and junior researchers entering the discipline of marine geotechnics and offshore engineering. This book also converts the research outcomes of theoretical studies to engineering applications that will provide front-line engineers with practical and effective tools in the assessment of seabed instability in engineering design.
Validation study of a drift-wave turbulence model for CSDX linear plasma device
Vaezi, P.; Holland, C.; Thakur, S. C.; Tynan, G. R.
2017-09-01
A validation study of self-regulating drift-wave turbulence/zonal flow dynamics in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment linear plasma device using Langmuir probe synthetic diagnostics is presented in this paper. We use a set of nonlocal 3D equations, which evolve density, vorticity, and electron temperature fluctuations, and include proper sheath boundary conditions. Nonlinear simulations of these equations are carried out using BOUndary Turbulence (BOUT++) framework. To identify the dominant parametric dependencies of the model, a linear growth rate sensitivity analysis is performed using input parameter uncertainties, which are taken from the experimental measurements. For the direct comparison of nonlinear simulation results to experiment, we use synthetic Langmuir probe diagnostics to generate a set of synthetic ion saturation current and floating potential fluctuations. In addition, comparisons of azimuthal velocities determined via time-delay estimation, and nonlinear energy transfer are shown. We observe a significant improvement of model-experiment agreement relative to the previous 2D simulations. An essential component of this improved agreement is found to be the effect of electron temperature fluctuations on floating potential measurements, which introduces clear amplitude and phase shifts relative to the plasma potential fluctuations in synthetically measured quantities, where the simulations capture the experimental measurements in the core of plasma. However, the simulations overpredict the fluctuation levels at larger radii. Moreover, systematic simulation scans show that the self-generated E × B zonal flows profile is very sensitive to the steepening of density equilibrium profile. This suggests that evolving both fluctuations and equilibrium profiles, along with the inclusion of modest axial variation of radial profiles in the model are needed for further improvement of simulation results against the experimental measurements.
Wave Generation in Physical Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter
The present book describes the most important aspects of wave generation techniques in physical models. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave generation software AwaSys 6, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald and Michael...
Kasimov, Aslan R.; Faria, Luiz; Rosales, Rodolfo R.
2013-01-01
: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation
Modeling ionization by helicon waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degeling, A.W.; Boswell, R.W.
1997-01-01
The response of the electron distribution function in one dimension to a traveling wave electric field is modeled for parameters relevant to a low-pressure helicon wave plasma source, and the resulting change in the ionization rate calculated. This is done by calculating the trajectories of individual electrons in a given wave field and assuming no collisions to build up the distribution function as the distance from the antenna is increased. The ionization rate is calculated for argon by considering the ionization cross section and electron flux at a specified position and time relative to the left-hand boundary, where the distribution function is assumed to be Maxwellian and the wave travels to the right. The simulation shows pulses in the ionization rate that move away from the antenna at the phase velocity of the wave, demonstrating the effect of resonant electrons trapped in the wave close-quote s frame of reference. It is found that the ionization rate is highest when the phase velocity of the wave is between 2 and 3x10 6 m/s, where the electrons interacting strongly with the wave (i.e., electrons with velocities inside the wave close-quote s open-quotes trapping widthclose quotes) have initial energies just below the ionization threshold. Results from the model are compared with experimental data and show reasonable qualitative agreement. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hosein Ghaffarzadeh
Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the numerical modeling of the flexural wave propagation in Euler-Bernoulli beams using the Hermite-type radial point interpolation method (HRPIM under the damage quantification approach. HRPIM employs radial basis functions (RBFs and their derivatives for shape function construction as a meshfree technique. The performance of Multiquadric(MQ RBF to the assessment of the reflection ratio was evaluated. HRPIM signals were compared with the theoretical and finite element responses. Results represent that MQ is a suitable RBF for HRPIM and wave propagation. However, the range of the proper shape parameters is notable. The number of field nodes is the main parameter for accurate wave propagation modeling using HRPIM. The size of support domain should be less thanan upper bound in order to prevent high error. With regard to the number of quadrature points, providing the minimum numbers of points are adequate for the stable solution, but the existence of more points in damage region does not leads to necessarily the accurate responses. It is concluded that the pure HRPIM, without any polynomial terms, is acceptable but considering a few terms will improve the accuracy; even though more terms make the problem unstable and inaccurate.
Anbazhagan, P.; Lijun, Su; Buddhima, Indraratna; Cholachat, Rujikiatkamjorn
2011-08-01
Ballast fouling is created by the breakdown of aggregates or outside contamination by coal dust from coal trains, or from soil intrusion beneath rail track. Due to ballast fouling, the conditions of rail track can be deteriorated considerably depending on the type of fouling material and the degree of fouling. So far there is no comprehensive guideline available to identify the critical degree of fouling for different types of fouling materials. This paper presents the identification of degree of fouling and types of fouling using non-destructive testing, namely seismic surface-wave and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey. To understand this, a model rail track with different degree of fouling has been constructed in Civil engineering laboratory, University of Wollongong, Australia. Shear wave velocity obtained from seismic survey has been employed to identify the degree of fouling and types of fouling material. It is found that shear wave velocity of fouled ballast increases initially, reaches optimum fouling point (OFP), and decreases when the fouling increases. The degree of fouling corresponding after which the shear wave velocity of fouled ballast will be smaller than that of clean ballast is called the critical fouling point (CFP). Ground penetrating radar with four different ground coupled antennas (500 MHz, 800 MHz, 1.6 GHz and 2.3 GHz) was also used to identify the ballast fouling condition. It is found that the 800 MHz ground coupled antenna gives a better signal in assessing the ballast fouling condition. Seismic survey is relatively slow when compared to GPR survey however it gives quantifiable results. In contrast, GPR survey is faster and better in estimating the depth of fouling.
Physical Model Study of Wave Action in New Thomsen Harbor, Sitka, Alaska
2008-02-01
approached from the southwest. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes...Wave height and period for irregular wave conditions refer to Hm0 and Tp, respectively. For mono- chromatic waves, wave height is the actual height...sec, respectively. Plotted along with the Group 12 results are corresponding tests from Group 13 that used mono- chromatic waves. Looking only at
Benoit, Michel; Yates, Marissa L.; Raoult, Cécile
2017-04-01
Efficient and accurate numerical models simulating wave propagation are required for a variety of engineering projects including the evaluation of coastal risks, the design of protective coastal structures, and the estimation of the potential for marine renewable energy devices. Nonlinear and dispersive effects are particularly significant in the coastal zone where waves interact with the bottom, the shoreline, and coastal structures. The main challenge in developing a numerical models is finding a compromise between computational efficiency and the required accuracy of the simulated wave field. Here, a potential approach is selected and the (fully nonlinear) water wave problem is formulated using the Euler-Zakharov equations (Zakharov, 1968) describing the temporal evolution of the free surface elevation and velocity potential. The proposed model (Yates and Benoit, 2015) uses a spectral approach in the vertical (i.e. the vertical variation of the potential is approximated by a linear combination of the first NT+1 Chebyshev polynomials, following the work of Tian and Sato (2008)). The Zakharov equations are integrated in time using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. At each sub-timestep, the Laplace Boundary Value Problem (BVP) is solved to estimate the free surface vertical velocity using the spectral approach, with typical values of NT between 5 to 8 for practical applications. The 1DH version of the code is validated with comparisons to the experimental data set of Becq-Girard et al. (1999), which studied the propagation of irregular waves over a beach profile with a submerged bar. The nonlinear and dispersive capacities of the model are verified with the correct representation of wave-wave interactions, in particular the transfer of energy between different harmonic components during wave propagation (analysis of the transformation of the variance spectrum along the channel). Evolution of wave skewness, asymmetry and kurtosis along the
Shifman, Aaron R; Longtin, André; Lewis, John E
2015-10-30
Identifying and understanding the current sources that give rise to bioelectric fields is a fundamental problem in the biological sciences. It is very difficult, for example, to attribute the time-varying features of an electroencephalogram recorded from the head surface to the neural activity of specific brain areas; model systems can provide important insight into such problems. Some species of fish actively generate an oscillating (c. 1000 Hz) quasi-dipole electric field to communicate and sense their environment in the dark. A specialized electric organ comprises neuron-like cells whose collective signal underlies this electric field. As a step towards understanding the detailed biophysics of signal generation in these fish, we use an anatomically-detailed finite-element modelling approach to reverse-engineer the electric organ signal over one oscillation cycle. We find that the spatiotemporal profile of current along the electric organ constitutes a travelling wave that is well-described by two spatial Fourier components varying in time. The conduction velocity of this wave is faster than action potential conduction in any known neuronal axon (>200 m/s), suggesting that the spatiotemporal features of high-frequency electric organ discharges are not constrained by the conduction velocities of spinal neuron pathways.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tim Verbrugghe
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Wave Energy Converters (WECs need to be deployed in large numbers in an array layout in order to have a significant power production. Each WEC has an impact on the incoming wave field, by diffracting, reflecting and radiating waves. Simulating the wave transformations within and around a WEC array is complex; it is difficult, or in some cases impossible, to simulate both these near-field and far-field wake effects using a single numerical model, in a time- and cost-efficient way in terms of computational time and effort. Within this research, a generic coupling methodology is developed to model both near-field and far-field wake effects caused by floating (e.g., WECs, platforms or fixed offshore structures. The methodology is based on the coupling of a wave-structure interaction solver (Nemoh and a wave propagation model. In this paper, this methodology is applied to two wave propagation models (OceanWave3D and MILDwave, which are compared to each other in a wide spectrum of tests. Additionally, the Nemoh-OceanWave3D model is validated by comparing it to experimental wave basin data. The methodology proves to be a reliable instrument to model wake effects of WEC arrays; results demonstrate a high degree of agreement between the numerical simulations with relative errors lower than 5 % and to a lesser extent for the experimental data, where errors range from 4 % to 17 % .
Converted waves in a shallow marine environment : Experimental and modeling studies
El Allouche, N.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Versteeg, W.; Ghose, R.
2011-01-01
Seismic waves converted from compressional to shear mode in the shallow subsurface can be useful not only for obtaining shear-wave velocity information but also for improved processing of deeper reflection data. These waves generated at deep seas have been used successfully in hydrocarbon
Modelling offshore sand wave evolution
Nemeth, Attila; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.
2007-01-01
We present a two-dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of offshore sand waves. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water surface and a general bed load formula. The water movement is coupled to the sediment transport
Wave Dragon Buoyancy Regulation Study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Jens; Kofoed, Jens Peter
Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter, which was deployed offshore at Nissum Bredning in Denmark in 2003. The experience gained from operating Wave Dragon during 2003 and 2004 has shown that the buoyancy regulation system can be improved in a number of ways. This study describes the current...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prets, A.
1998-07-01
In the present Ph. D. thesis we are considering a special form of scaling limits, namely the hydrodynamic limit. Such limits are considered to explain macroscopic behavior of matter by means of microscopic dynamic laws. In this procedure a rescaling of space and time plays a central role. The limit will be formulated in a quantum mechanical way. Within this framework we study derivations of the Landau Lifshitz equation for ferromagnets. This equation is a macroscopic equation of motion for the magnetization vector and results into the theory of spin waves. Since we have no exact knowledge of the Heisenberg operator's time evolution no definitive statement an how to regain the Landau Lifshitz equation from the microscopic dynamics can be given. In contrast to the Heisenberg operator, for an Ising type interaction inside a ferromagnet one is able to recover macroscopically a solution of a linearized Landau Lifschitz equation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serafimovich, A.; Zuelicke, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Peters, D.; Singer, W. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik, Kuehlungsborn (Germany); Dalin, P. [Swedish Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden)
2006-07-01
We present an experimental and modelling study of a strong gravity wave event in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere near the Scandinavian mountain ridge. Continuous VHP radar measurements during the MaCWAVE rocket and ground-based measurement campaign were performed at the Norwegian Andoya rocket range (ARR) near Andenes (69.3 N, 16 E) in January 2003. Detailed gravity wave investigations based on PSU/NCAR fifth-generation mesoscale model (MM5) data have been used for comparison with experimentally obtained results. The model data show the presence of a mountain wave and of an inertia gravity wave generated by a jet streak near the tropopause region. Temporal and spatial dependencies of jet induced inertia gravity waves with dominant observed periods of about 13 h and vertical wavelengths of {proportional_to}4.5-5 km are investigated with wavelet transform applied on radar measurements and model data. The jet induced wave packet is observed to move upstream and downward in the upper troposphere. The model data agree with the experimentally obtained results fairly well. Possible reasons for the observed differences, e.g. in the time of maximum of the wave activity, are discussed. Finally, the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum are estimated with different methods and provide similar amplitudes. We found indications that the derived positive vertical flux of the horizontal momentum corresponds to the obtained parameters of the jet-induced inertia gravity wave, but only at the periods and heights of the strongest wave activity. (orig.)
Cambazoglu, M. K.; Jacobs, G. A.; Howden, S. D.; Book, J. W.; Arnone, R.; Soto Ramos, I. M.; Vandermeulen, R. A.; Greer, A. T.; Miles, T. N.
2016-02-01
Internal waves enhance mixing in the upper ocean, transport nutrients and plankton over the water column and across the shelf from deeper waters to shallower coastal areas, and could also transport pollutants such as hydrocarbons onshore during an oil spill event. This study aims to characterize internal waves in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) and investigate the possible generation and dissipation mechanisms using a high-resolution (1-km) application of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). Three dimensional model products are used to detect the propagation patterns of internal waves. The vertical structure of internal waves is studied and the role of stratification is analyzed by looking at the temperature, salinity and velocity variations along the water column. The model predictions suggest the generation of internal waves on the continental shelf, therefore the role of ocean bottom topography interacting with tides and general circulation features such as the Loop Current Eddy front, on the internal wave generation will be discussed. The time periods of internal wave occurrences are identified from model predictions and compared to satellite ocean color imagery. Further data analysis, e.g. Fourier analysis, is implemented to determine internal wavelengths and frequencies and to determine if the response of internal waves are at tidal periods or at different frequencies. The atmospheric forcing provided to NCOM and meteorological data records are analyzed to define the interaction between wind forcing and internal wave generation. Wavelet analysis characterizes the ocean response to atmospheric events with periodic frequencies. Ocean color satellite imagery was used to visualize the location of the Mississippi river plume (and other oceanic features) and compared to the model predictions because the enhanced stratification from freshwater plumes which propagate across the Mississippi Bight can provide favorable conditions in coastal waters for internal wave
A statistical study of gyro-averaging effects in a reduced model of drift-wave transport
da Fonseca, J. D.; del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Sokolov, I. M.; Caldas, I. L.
2016-08-01
A statistical study of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on transport driven by electrostatic drift-waves is presented. The study is based on a reduced discrete Hamiltonian dynamical system known as the gyro-averaged standard map (GSM). In this system, FLR effects are incorporated through the gyro-averaging of a simplified weak-turbulence model of electrostatic fluctuations. Formally, the GSM is a modified version of the standard map in which the perturbation amplitude, K0, becomes K0J0(ρ ̂ ) , where J0 is the zeroth-order Bessel function and ρ ̂ is the Larmor radius. Assuming a Maxwellian probability density function (pdf) for ρ ̂ , we compute analytically and numerically the pdf and the cumulative distribution function of the effective drift-wave perturbation amplitude K0J0(ρ ̂ ) . Using these results, we compute the probability of loss of confinement (i.e., global chaos), Pc, and the probability of trapping in the main drift-wave resonance, Pt. It is shown that Pc provides an upper bound for the escape rate, and that Pt provides a good estimate of the particle trapping rate. The analytical results are compared with direct numerical Monte-Carlo simulations of particle transport.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahdouh, S; Wiart, J; Bloch, I; Varsier, N; Nunez Ochoa, M A; Peyman, A
2016-01-01
Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties. (paper)
Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Nunez Ochoa, M. A.; Wiart, J.; Peyman, A.; Bloch, I.
2016-02-01
Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fainstein, P.D.
1989-01-01
The electron emission from different atoms induced by impact of multicharged bare ions at intermediate and high energies is studied. To perform these studies, the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model is used. With this distorted wave model, analytical expressions are obtained for the transition amplitudes as a function of the transverse momentum transfer for hydrogen targets in an arbitrary initial state and for every any orbital of a multielectronic target represented as a linear combination of Slater type orbitals. With these expressions, the different cross sections which are compared with the experimental data available are numerically calculated. The results obtained for different targets and projectiles and the comparison with other theoretical models and experimental data allows to explain the electron emission spectra and to predict new effects which have not been measured so far. The results of the present work permit to view the ionization process as the evolution of the active electron in the combined field of the target and projectile nuclei. (Author) [es
Overview of Wave to Wire Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Ferri, Francesco
A “Wave to Wire” (W2W) model is a numerical tool that can calculate the power output from a specified Wave Energy Converter (WEC), under specified ocean wave conditions. The tool can be used to assess and optimize the performance of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) design and provide knowledge...
Sun, Li-Chung; Chang, Young-Fo; Chang, Chih-Hsiung; Chung, Chia-Lung
2012-05-01
In reflection seismology, detailed knowledge of how seismic waves propagate in anisotropic media is important for locating reservoirs accurately. The SH-wave possesses a pure mode polarization which does not convert to P- and SV-waves when reflecting from a horizontal interface, and vice versa. The simplicity of the SH-wave thus provides an easy way to view the details of SH-wave propagation in anisotropic media. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical reflection moveouts of SH-waves reflected from transversely isotropic (TI) layers with tilted symmetry axes and to verify the reflection point, which could be shifted away from the common midpoint (CMP), by numerical calculations and physical modelling. In travel time-offset analyses, the moveout curves of SH-waves reflected from horizontal TI media (TIM) with different tilted angles of symmetry axes are computed by the TI modified hyperbolic equation and Fermat's principle, respectively. It turns out that both the computed moveout curves are similar and fit well to the observed physical data. The reflection points of SH-waves for a CMP gather computed by Fermat's principle show that they are close to the CMP for TIM with the vertical and horizontal symmetry axes, but they shift away from the CMP for the other tilted angles of symmetry axes. The shifts of the reflection points of the SH-waves from the CMP were verified by physical modelling.
PS-wave moveout inversion for tilted TI media: A physical modeling study
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Dewangan, P.; Tsvankin, I.; Batzle, M.; Van Wijk, K.; Haney, M.
-waves can be inverted for the parameters of a horizontal TI layer with a tilted symmetry axis. The 2D multicomponent reflection data are acquired over a phenolic sample manufactured to simulate the effective medium formed by steeply dipping fracture sets...
Kasimov, Aslan R.
2013-03-08
We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2−uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.
Waves, currents and sediment transport modelling at the Wave Hub site
Gonzalez-Santamaria, Raul
2013-01-01
Primary supervisory team: Qingping Zou and Shunqi Pan This research project uses an integrated modelling system to investigate the effects of a wave farm on nearshore sediment transport at the Wave Hub site. The Wave Hub project is a large scale demonstration site for the development of the operation of arrays of wave energy generation devices located at the southwest coast of the UK where multiple field measurements took place. Particular attention of this study was paid to th...
Larmat, C. S.; Delorey, A.; Rougier, E.; Knight, E. E.; Steedman, D. W.; Bradley, C. R.
2017-12-01
This presentation reports numerical modeling efforts to improve knowledge of the processes that affect seismic wave generation and propagation from underground explosions, with a focus on Rg waves. The numerical model is based on the coupling of hydrodynamic simulation codes (Abaqus, CASH and HOSS), with a 3D full waveform propagation code, SPECFEM3D. Validation datasets are provided by the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) which is a series of highly instrumented chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site with yields from 100kg to 5000kg. A first series of explosions in a granite emplacement has just been completed and a second series in alluvium emplacement is planned for 2018. The long-term goal of this research is to review and improve current existing seismic sources models (e.g. Mueller & Murphy, 1971; Denny & Johnson, 1991) by providing first principles calculations provided by the coupled codes capability. The hydrodynamic codes, Abaqus, CASH and HOSS, model the shocked, hydrodynamic region via equations of state for the explosive, borehole stemming and jointed/weathered granite. A new material model for unconsolidated alluvium materials has been developed and validated with past nuclear explosions, including the 10 kT 1965 Merlin event (Perret, 1971) ; Perret and Bass, 1975). We use the efficient Spectral Element Method code, SPECFEM3D (e.g. Komatitsch, 1998; 2002), and Geologic Framework Models to model the evolution of wavefield as it propagates across 3D complex structures. The coupling interface is a series of grid points of the SEM mesh situated at the edge of the hydrodynamic code domain. We will present validation tests and waveforms modeled for several SPE tests which provide evidence that the damage processes happening in the vicinity of the explosions create secondary seismic sources. These sources interfere with the original explosion moment and reduces the apparent seismic moment at the origin of Rg waves up to 20%.
Wave propagation in the Lorenz-96 model
van Kekem, Dirk L.; Sterk, Alef E.
2018-04-01
In this paper we study the spatiotemporal properties of waves in the Lorenz-96 model and their dependence on the dimension parameter n and the forcing parameter F. For F > 0 the first bifurcation is either a supercritical Hopf or a double-Hopf bifurcation and the periodic attractor born at these bifurcations represents a traveling wave. Its spatial wave number increases linearly with n, but its period tends to a finite limit as n → ∞. For F traveling wave also grows linearly with n. For F < 0 and even n, however, a Hopf bifurcation is preceded by either one or two pitchfork bifurcations, where the number of the latter bifurcations depends on whether n has remainder 2 or 0 upon division by 4. This bifurcation sequence leads to stationary waves and their spatiotemporal properties also depend on the remainder after dividing n by 4. Finally, we explain how the double-Hopf bifurcation can generate two or more stable waves with different spatiotemporal properties that coexist for the same parameter values n and F.
Wave propagation in the Lorenz-96 model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. L. van Kekem
2018-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the spatiotemporal properties of waves in the Lorenz-96 model and their dependence on the dimension parameter n and the forcing parameter F. For F > 0 the first bifurcation is either a supercritical Hopf or a double-Hopf bifurcation and the periodic attractor born at these bifurcations represents a traveling wave. Its spatial wave number increases linearly with n, but its period tends to a finite limit as n → ∞. For F < 0 and odd n, the first bifurcation is again a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, but in this case the period of the traveling wave also grows linearly with n. For F < 0 and even n, however, a Hopf bifurcation is preceded by either one or two pitchfork bifurcations, where the number of the latter bifurcations depends on whether n has remainder 2 or 0 upon division by 4. This bifurcation sequence leads to stationary waves and their spatiotemporal properties also depend on the remainder after dividing n by 4. Finally, we explain how the double-Hopf bifurcation can generate two or more stable waves with different spatiotemporal properties that coexist for the same parameter values n and F.
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Dong, Qian
2017-12-01
The study of propagation law of plane stress wave in jointed rock mass under in-situ stress has important significance for safety excavation of underground rock mass engineering. A model test of the blasting stress waves propagating in the intact rock and jointed rock mass under different in-situ stresses was carried out, and the influencing factors on the propagation law, such as the scale of static loads and the number of joints were studied respectively. The results show that the transmission coefficient of intact rock is larger than that of jointed rock mass under the same loading condition. With the increase of confining pressure, the transmission coefficients of intact rock and jointed rock mass both show an trend of increasing first and then decreasing, and the variation of transmission coefficients in intact rock is smaller than that of jointed rock mass. Transmission coefficient of jointed rock mass decreases with the increase of the number of joints under the same loading condition, when the confining pressure is relatively small, the reduction of transmission coefficients decreases with the increasing of the number of joints, and the variation law of the reduction of transmission coefficients is contrary when the confining pressure is large.
Kasimov, Aslan R; Faria, Luiz M; Rosales, Rodolfo R
2013-03-08
We propose the following model equation, u(t) + 1/2(u(2)-uu(s))x = f(x,u(s)) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, xorder partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.
Impact of surface waves in a Regional Climate Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rutgersson, Anna; Sætra, Oyvind; Semedo, Alvaro
2010-01-01
A coupled regional atmosphere-wave model system is developed with the purpose of investigating the impact of climate changes on the wave field, as well as feed-back effects of the wave field on the atmospheric parameters. This study focuses on the effects of introducing a two-way atmosphere...
Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.
2010-01-01
As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Serafimovich
2006-11-01
Full Text Available We present an experimental and modelling study of a strong gravity wave event in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere near the Scandinavian mountain ridge. Continuous VHF radar measurements during the MaCWAVE rocket and ground-based measurement campaign were performed at the Norwegian Andoya Rocket Range (ARR near Andenes (69.3° N, 16° E in January 2003. Detailed gravity wave investigations based on PSU/NCAR Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5 data have been used for comparison with experimentally obtained results. The model data show the presence of a mountain wave and of an inertia gravity wave generated by a jet streak near the tropopause region. Temporal and spatial dependencies of jet induced inertia gravity waves with dominant observed periods of about 13 h and vertical wavelengths of ~4.5–5 km are investigated with wavelet transform applied on radar measurements and model data. The jet induced wave packet is observed to move upstream and downward in the upper troposphere. The model data agree with the experimentally obtained results fairly well. Possible reasons for the observed differences, e.g. in the time of maximum of the wave activity, are discussed. Finally, the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum are estimated with different methods and provide similar amplitudes. We found indications that the derived positive vertical flux of the horizontal momentum corresponds to the obtained parameters of the jet-induced inertia gravity wave, but only at the periods and heights of the strongest wave activity.
Wave Resource Characterization Using an Unstructured Grid Modeling Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Cheng Wu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling study conducted on the central Oregon coast for wave resource characterization, using the unstructured grid Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN model coupled with a nested grid WAVEWATCH III® (WWIII model. The flexibility of models with various spatial resolutions and the effects of open boundary conditions simulated by a nested grid WWIII model with different physics packages were evaluated. The model results demonstrate the advantage of the unstructured grid-modeling approach for flexible model resolution and good model skills in simulating the six wave resource parameters recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission in comparison to the observed data in Year 2009 at National Data Buoy Center Buoy 46050. Notably, spectral analysis indicates that the ST4 physics package improves upon the ST2 physics package’s ability to predict wave power density for large waves, which is important for wave resource assessment, load calculation of devices, and risk management. In addition, bivariate distributions show that the simulated sea state of maximum occurrence with the ST4 physics package matched the observed data better than with the ST2 physics package. This study demonstrated that the unstructured grid wave modeling approach, driven by regional nested grid WWIII outputs along with the ST4 physics package, can efficiently provide accurate wave hindcasts to support wave resource characterization. Our study also suggests that wind effects need to be considered if the dimension of the model domain is greater than approximately 100 km, or O (102 km.
Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves
Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.
Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).
Model wave functions for the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Certov, A.; Mathelitsch, L.; Moravcsik, M.J.
1987-01-01
Model wave functions are constructed for the deuteron to facilitate the unambiguous exploration of dependencies on the percentage D state and on the small-, medium-, and large-distance parts of the deuteron wave function. The wave functions are constrained by those deuteron properties which are accurately known experimentally, and are in an analytic form which is easily integrable in expressions usually encountered in the use of such wave functions
Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter
This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010.......This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010....
A generalized multivariate regression model for modelling ocean wave heights
Wang, X. L.; Feng, Y.; Swail, V. R.
2012-04-01
In this study, a generalized multivariate linear regression model is developed to represent the relationship between 6-hourly ocean significant wave heights (Hs) and the corresponding 6-hourly mean sea level pressure (MSLP) fields. The model is calibrated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis of Hs and MSLP fields for 1981-2000, and is validated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 2001-2010 and ERA40 reanalysis of Hs and MSLP for 1958-2001. The performance of the fitted model is evaluated in terms of Pierce skill score, frequency bias index, and correlation skill score. Being not normally distributed, wave heights are subjected to a data adaptive Box-Cox transformation before being used in the model fitting. Also, since 6-hourly data are being modelled, lag-1 autocorrelation must be and is accounted for. The models with and without Box-Cox transformation, and with and without accounting for autocorrelation, are inter-compared in terms of their prediction skills. The fitted MSLP-Hs relationship is then used to reconstruct historical wave height climate from the 6-hourly MSLP fields taken from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR, Compo et al. 2011), and to project possible future wave height climates using CMIP5 model simulations of MSLP fields. The reconstructed and projected wave heights, both seasonal means and maxima, are subject to a trend analysis that allows for non-linear (polynomial) trends.
Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first-passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results......A simple model of the wave load on slender members of offshore structures is described. The wave elevation of the sea state is modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...
Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
1985-01-01
velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results......A simple model of the wave load on stender members of offshore structures is described . The wave elevation of the sea stateis modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...
Numerical modelling of nearshore wave transformation
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.
A software has been developed for numerical refraction study based on finite amplitude wave theories. Wave attenuation due to shoaling, bottom friction, bottom percolation and viscous dissipation has also been incorporated. The software...
Wiedemann, Amelie U; Gardner, Benjamin; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke
2014-03-01
Habit formation is thought to lead to long-term maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption. Habits develop through context-dependent repetition, but additional variables such as intrinsic reward of behaviour may influence habit strength. Drawing upon the Associative-Cybernetic Model, this exploratory study tested different pathways by which intrinsic reward may influence fruit and vegetable consumption habit strength. In a three-wave study of fruit and vegetable intake in adults (N = 127) from the general population, intrinsic reward, intention, and self-efficacy were assessed at baseline, fruit and vegetable consumption and intrinsic reward two weeks later, and habit strength another two weeks later. Direct, indirect, and moderation effects of intrinsic reward on habit strength were tested simultaneously in a moderated mediation model. Intrinsic reward had a positive indirect effect on habit strength through its influence on the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption. Further, the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and habit was stronger where consumption was considered more intrinsically rewarding. Findings highlight the potential relevance of intrinsic reward to habit. We suggest that intrinsic rewards from behaviour may not only facilitate habit via behaviour frequency, but also reinforce the relationship between behavioural repetition and habit strength. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains
Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.
2017-09-01
A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.
Model-based internal wave processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.H.
1995-06-09
A model-based approach is proposed to solve the oceanic internal wave signal processing problem that is based on state-space representations of the normal-mode vertical velocity and plane wave horizontal velocity propagation models. It is shown that these representations can be utilized to spatially propagate the modal (dept) vertical velocity functions given the basic parameters (wave numbers, Brunt-Vaisala frequency profile etc.) developed from the solution of the associated boundary value problem as well as the horizontal velocity components. Based on this framework, investigations are made of model-based solutions to the signal enhancement problem for internal waves.
A numerical study of tsunami wave impact and run-up on coastal cliffs using a CIP-based model
Zhao, Xizeng; Chen, Yong; Huang, Zhenhua; Hu, Zijun; Gao, Yangyang
2017-05-01
There is a general lack of understanding of tsunami wave interaction with complex geographies, especially the process of inundation. Numerical simulations are performed to understand the effects of several factors on tsunami wave impact and run-up in the presence of gentle submarine slopes and coastal cliffs, using an in-house code, a constrained interpolation profile (CIP)-based model. The model employs a high-order finite difference method, the CIP method, as the flow solver; utilizes a VOF-type method, the tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing/slope weighting (THINC/SW) scheme, to capture the free surface; and treats the solid boundary by an immersed boundary method. A series of incident waves are arranged to interact with varying coastal geographies. Numerical results are compared with experimental data and good agreement is obtained. The influences of gentle submarine slope, coastal cliff and incident wave height are discussed. It is found that the tsunami amplification factor varying with incident wave is affected by gradient of cliff slope, and the critical value is about 45°. The run-up on a toe-erosion cliff is smaller than that on a normal cliff. The run-up is also related to the length of a gentle submarine slope with a critical value of about 2.292 m in the present model for most cases. The impact pressure on the cliff is extremely large and concentrated, and the backflow effect is non-negligible. Results of our work are highly precise and helpful in inverting tsunami source and forecasting disaster.
Extreme Wave Analysis by Integrating Model and Wave Buoy Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Dentale
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Estimating the extreme values of significant wave height (HS, generally described by the HS return period TR function HS(TR and by its confidence intervals, is a necessity in many branches of coastal science and engineering. The availability of indirect wave data generated by global and regional wind and wave model chains have brought radical changes to the estimation procedures of such probability distribution—weather and wave modeling systems are routinely run all over the world, and HS time series for each grid point are produced and published after assimilation (analysis of the ground truth. However, while the sources of such indirect data are numerous, and generally of good quality, many aspects of their procedures are hidden to the users, who cannot evaluate the reliability and the limits of the HS(TR deriving from such data. In order to provide a simple engineering tool to evaluate the probability of extreme sea-states as well as the quality of such estimates, we propose here a procedure based on integrating HS time series generated by model chains with those recorded by wave buoys in the same area.
Modeling stress wave propagation in rocks by distinct lattice spring model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaofeng Zhao
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the ability of the distinct lattice spring model (DLSM for modeling stress wave propagation in rocks was fully investigated. The influence of particle size on simulation of different types of stress waves (e.g. one-dimensional (1D P-wave, 1D S-wave and two-dimensional (2D cylindrical wave was studied through comparing results predicted by the DLSM with different mesh ratios (lr and those obtained from the corresponding analytical solutions. Suggested values of lr were obtained for modeling these stress waves accurately. Moreover, the weak material layer method and virtual joint plane method were used to model P-wave and S-wave propagating through a single discontinuity. The results were compared with the classical analytical solutions, indicating that the virtual joint plane method can give better results and is recommended. Finally, some remarks of the DLSM on modeling of stress wave propagation in rocks were provided.
Opdriftsbaserede modeller for Wave Star
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kramer, Morten
Formålet med dette skrift er at få en forhåndsvurdering af mulige effektforøgelser for Wave Star ved anvendelse af aktiv akkumulatordrift. Disse vurderinger baseres på simuleringsmodeller for driften af Wave Star i uregelmæssige bølger. Modellen er udarbejdet i programmeringssproget Delphi og er en...
Coupling atmospheric and ocean wave models for storm simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Jianting
the atmosphere must, by conservation, result in the generation of the surface waves and currents. The physics-based methods are sensitive to the choice of wind-input source function (Sin), parameterization of high-frequency wave spectra tail, and numerical cut-off frequencies. Unfortunately, literature survey......This thesis studies the wind-wave interactions through the coupling between the atmospheric model and ocean surface wave models. Special attention is put on storm simulations in the North Sea for wind energy applications in the coastal zones. The two aspects, namely storm conditions and coastal...... shows that in most wind-wave coupling systems, either the Sin in the wave model is different from the one used for the momentum flux estimation in the atmospheric model, or the methods are too sensitive to the parameterization of high-frequency spectra tail and numerical cut-off frequencies. To confront...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalaee, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: mjkalaee@ut.ac.ir [Space Physics Group, Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Katoh, Yuto, E-mail: yuto@stpp.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University (Japan)
2016-07-15
One of the mechanisms for generating electromagnetic plasma waves (Z-mode and LO-mode) is mode conversion from electrostatic waves into electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous plasma. Herein, we study a condition required for mode conversion of electrostatic waves propagating purely perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, by numerically solving the full dispersion relation. An approximate model is derived describing the coupling between electrostatic waves (hot plasma Bernstein mode) and Z-mode waves at the upper hybrid frequency. The model is used to study conditions required for mode conversion from electrostatic waves (electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves, including Bernstein mode) into electromagnetic plasma waves (LO-mode). It is shown that for mode conversion to occur in inhomogeneous plasma, the angle between the boundary surface and the magnetic field vector should be within a specific range. The range of the angle depends on the norm of the k vector of waves at the site of mode conversion in the inhomogeneous region. The present study reveals that inhomogeneity alone is not a sufficient condition for mode conversion from electrostatic waves to electromagnetic plasma waves and that the angle between the magnetic field and the density gradient plays an important role in the conversion process.
Radio wave propagation and parabolic equation modeling
Apaydin, Gokhan
2018-01-01
A thorough understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation is fundamental to the development of sophisticated communication and detection technologies. The powerful numerical methods described in this book represent a major step forward in our ability to accurately model electromagnetic wave propagation in order to establish and maintain reliable communication links, to detect targets in radar systems, and to maintain robust mobile phone and broadcasting networks. The first new book on guided wave propagation modeling and simulation to appear in nearly two decades, Radio Wave Propagation and Parabolic Equation Modeling addresses the fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation generally, with a specific focus on radio wave propagation through various media. The authors explore an array of new applications, and detail various v rtual electromagnetic tools for solving several frequent electromagnetic propagation problems. All of the methods described are presented within the context of real-world scenari...
2015-08-01
published in the NGA’s DNCs, with distinct values assigned to areas of sand, gravel, clay , etc. ERDC/CHL TR-15-14 94 6.5.2 Lateral eddy viscosity As with...6.5.1 Manning’s n bottom friction coefficient ................................................................... 93 6.5.2 Lateral eddy viscosity ...this study include (1) Manning’s n bottom friction coefficient, (2) lateral eddy viscosity , (3) land cover effects on winds (also referred to as
Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Weisz, A.
This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Langlee wave energy converter (WEC). It focused mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device, including investigations of the following issues: Scaling ratiosPTO loadingWave...... height and wave period dependencyOblique incoming waves and directional spreading of waves (3D waves)Damping platesMooring forces and fixed structure setupPitch, surge and heave motion During the study the model supplied by the client (Langlee Wave Power AS) has been heavily instrumented - up to 23...... different instruments was deployed to measure and record data. Tests were performed at scales of 1:30 and 1:20 based on the realized reference wave states....
Astrophysical Model Selection in Gravitational Wave Astronomy
Adams, Matthew R.; Cornish, Neil J.; Littenberg, Tyson B.
2012-01-01
Theoretical studies in gravitational wave astronomy have mostly focused on the information that can be extracted from individual detections, such as the mass of a binary system and its location in space. Here we consider how the information from multiple detections can be used to constrain astrophysical population models. This seemingly simple problem is made challenging by the high dimensionality and high degree of correlation in the parameter spaces that describe the signals, and by the complexity of the astrophysical models, which can also depend on a large number of parameters, some of which might not be directly constrained by the observations. We present a method for constraining population models using a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach which simultaneously infers the source parameters and population model and provides the joint probability distributions for both. We illustrate this approach by considering the constraints that can be placed on population models for galactic white dwarf binaries using a future space-based gravitational wave detector. We find that a mission that is able to resolve approximately 5000 of the shortest period binaries will be able to constrain the population model parameters, including the chirp mass distribution and a characteristic galaxy disk radius to within a few percent. This compares favorably to existing bounds, where electromagnetic observations of stars in the galaxy constrain disk radii to within 20%.
Wave farm impact on the beach profile: A case study
Abanades, J; Greaves, D; Iglesias, G
2014-01-01
If wave energy is to become a fully-fledged renewable, its environmental impacts must be fully understood. The objective of the present work is to examine the impact of a wave farm on the beach profile through a case study. The methodology is based on two coupled numerical models: a nearshore wave propagation model and a morphodynamic model, which are run in two scenarios, both with and without the wave farm. Wave data from a nearby coastal buoy are used to prescribe the boundary conditions. ...
Cobos, C J; Sölter, L; Tellbach, E; Troe, J
2014-06-07
The thermal decomposition reactions of CF3CF2H and CF3CFHCF3 have been studied in shock waves by monitoring the appearance of CF2 radicals. Temperatures in the range 1400-2000 K and Ar bath gas concentrations in the range (2-10) × 10(-5) mol cm(-3) were employed. It is shown that the reactions are initiated by C-C bond fission and not by HF elimination. Differing conclusions in the literature about the primary decomposition products, such as deduced from experiments at very low pressures, are attributed to unimolecular falloff effects. By increasing the initial reactant concentrations in Ar from 60 to 1000 ppm, a retardation of CF2 formation was observed while the final CF2 yields remained close to two CF2 per C2F5H or three CF2 per C3F7H decomposed. This is explained by secondary bimolecular reactions which lead to comparably stable transient species like CF3H, releasing CF2 at a slower rate. Quantum-chemical calculations and kinetic modeling help to identify the reaction pathways and provide estimates of rate constants for a series of primary and secondary reactions in the decomposition mechanism.
Detailed modeling of mountain wave PSCs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Fueglistaler
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play a key role in polar ozone depletion. In the Arctic, PSCs can occur on the mesoscale due to orographically induced gravity waves. Here we present a detailed study of a mountain wave PSC event on 25-27 January 2000 over Scandinavia. The mountain wave PSCs were intensively observed by in-situ and remote-sensing techniques during the second phase of the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 Arctic campaign. We use these excellent data of PSC observations on 3 successive days to analyze the PSCs and to perform a detailed comparison with modeled clouds. We simulated the 3-dimensional PSC structure on all 3 days with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model and a microphysical box model (using best available nucleation rates for ice and nitric acid trihydrate particles. We show that the combined mesoscale/microphysical model is capable of reproducing the PSC measurements within the uncertainty of data interpretation with respect to spatial dimensions, temporal development and microphysical properties, without manipulating temperatures or using other tuning parameters. In contrast, microphysical modeling based upon coarser scale global NWP data, e.g. current ECMWF analysis data, cannot reproduce observations, in particular the occurrence of ice and nitric acid trihydrate clouds. Combined mesoscale/microphysical modeling may be used for detailed a posteriori PSC analysis and for future Arctic campaign flight and mission planning. The fact that remote sensing alone cannot further constrain model results due to uncertainities in the interpretation of measurements, underlines the need for synchronous in-situ PSC observations in campaigns.
Directional wave measurements and modelling
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; Bhat, S.S.; SanilKumar, V.
Some of the results obtained from analysis of the monsoon directional wave data measured over 4 years in shallow waters off the west coast of India are presented. The directional spectrum computed from the time series data seems to indicate...
Improving wave forecasting by integrating ensemble modelling and machine learning
O'Donncha, F.; Zhang, Y.; James, S. C.
2017-12-01
Modern smart-grid networks use technologies to instantly relay information on supply and demand to support effective decision making. Integration of renewable-energy resources with these systems demands accurate forecasting of energy production (and demand) capacities. For wave-energy converters, this requires wave-condition forecasting to enable estimates of energy production. Current operational wave forecasting systems exhibit substantial errors with wave-height RMSEs of 40 to 60 cm being typical, which limits the reliability of energy-generation predictions thereby impeding integration with the distribution grid. In this study, we integrate physics-based models with statistical learning aggregation techniques that combine forecasts from multiple, independent models into a single "best-estimate" prediction of the true state. The Simulating Waves Nearshore physics-based model is used to compute wind- and currents-augmented waves in the Monterey Bay area. Ensembles are developed based on multiple simulations perturbing input data (wave characteristics supplied at the model boundaries and winds) to the model. A learning-aggregation technique uses past observations and past model forecasts to calculate a weight for each model. The aggregated forecasts are compared to observation data to quantify the performance of the model ensemble and aggregation techniques. The appropriately weighted ensemble model outperforms an individual ensemble member with regard to forecasting wave conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jong-In Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Fringing reefs play an important role in protecting the coastal area by inducing wave breaking and wave energy dissipation. However, modeling of wave transformation and energy dissipation on this topography is still difficult due to the unique structure. In the present study, two-dimensional laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the cross-shore variations of wave transformation, setup, and breaking phenomena over an idealized fringing reef with the 1/40 reef slope and to verify the Boussinesq model under monochromatic wave conditions. One-layer and two-layer model configurations of the Boussinesq model were used to figure out the model capability. Both models predicted well (r2>0.8 the cross-shore variation of the wave heights, crests, troughs, and setups when the nonlinearity is not too high (A0/h0<0.07 in this study. However, as the wave nonlinearity and steepness increase, the one-layer model showed problems in prediction and stability due to the error on the vertical profile of fluid velocity. The results in this study revealed that one-layer model is not suitable in the highly nonlinear wave condition over a fringing reef bathymetry. This data set can contribute to the numerical model verification.
A hydrodynamic model of nearshore waves and wave-induced currents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Khaled Seif
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In This study develops a quasi-three dimensional numerical model of wave driven coastal currents with accounting the effects of the wave-current interaction and the surface rollers. In the wave model, the current effects on wave breaking and energy dissipation are taken into account as well as the wave diffraction effect. The surface roller associated with wave breaking was modeled based on a modification of the equations by Dally and Brown (1995 and Larson and Kraus (2002. Furthermore, the quasi-three dimensional model, which based on Navier-Stokes equations, was modified in association with the surface roller effect, and solved using frictional step method. The model was validated by data sets obtained during experiments on the Large Scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF basin and the Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station (HORS. Then, a model test against detached breakwater was carried out to investigate the performance of the model around coastal structures. Finally, the model was applied to Akasaki port to verify the hydrodynamics around coastal structures. Good agreements between computations and measurements were obtained with regard to the cross-shore variation in waves and currents in nearshore and surf zone.
Numerical modelling of extreme waves by Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. H. Dao
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The impact of extreme/rogue waves can lead to serious damage of vessels as well as marine and coastal structures. Such extreme waves in deep water are characterized by steep wave fronts and an energetic wave crest. The process of wave breaking is highly complex and, apart from the general knowledge that impact loadings are highly impulsive, the dynamics of the breaking and impact are still poorly understood. Using an advanced numerical method, the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics enhanced with parallel computing is able to reproduce well the extreme waves and their breaking process. Once the waves and their breaking process are modelled successfully, the dynamics of the breaking and the characteristics of their impact on offshore structures could be studied. The computational methodology and numerical results are presented in this paper.
Modeling of Mud-Wave Interaction: Mud-Induced Wave Transport & Wave-Induced Mud Transport
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Winterwerp, Johan C
2007-01-01
.... Also a new rheological model has been proposed to describe liquefaction of soft mud by waves, and the subsequent strength recovery after the passage of the waves. A scheme is presented on how to implement these formulations in Delft3D.
Modelling of Performance of Caisson Type Breakwaters under Extreme Waves
Güney Doǧan, Gözde; Özyurt Tarakcıoǧlu, Gülizar; Baykal, Cüneyt
2016-04-01
Many coastal structures are designed without considering loads of tsunami-like waves or long waves although they are constructed in areas prone to encounter these waves. Performance of caisson type breakwaters under extreme swells is tested in Middle East Technical University (METU) Coastal and Ocean Engineering Laboratory. This paper presents the comparison of pressure measurements taken along the surface of caisson type breakwaters and obtained from numerical modelling of them using IH2VOF as well as damage behavior of the breakwater under the same extreme swells tested in a wave flume at METU. Experiments are conducted in the 1.5 m wide wave flume, which is divided into two parallel sections (0.74 m wide each). A piston type of wave maker is used to generate the long wave conditions located at one end of the wave basin. Water depth is determined as 0.4m and kept constant during the experiments. A caisson type breakwater is constructed to one side of the divided flume. The model scale, based on the Froude similitude law, is chosen as 1:50. 7 different wave conditions are applied in the tests as the wave period ranging from 14.6 s to 34.7 s, wave heights from 3.5 m to 7.5 m and steepness from 0.002 to 0.015 in prototype scale. The design wave parameters for the breakwater were 5m wave height and 9.5s wave period in prototype. To determine the damage of the breakwater which were designed according to this wave but tested under swell waves, video and photo analysis as well as breakwater profile measurements before and after each test are performed. Further investigations are carried out about the acting wave forces on the concrete blocks of the caisson structures via pressure measurements on the surfaces of these structures where the structures are fixed to the channel bottom minimizing. Finally, these pressure measurements will be compared with the results obtained from the numerical study using IH2VOF which is one of the RANS models that can be applied to simulate
TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION
Lorand Catalin STOENESCU
2011-01-01
The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D) of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishi...
Evaluation of the numerical wave model (SWAN) for wave simulation in the Black Sea
Akpınar, Adem; van Vledder, Gerbrant Ph.; Kömürcü, Murat İhsan; Özger, Mehmet
2012-12-01
This study summaries the implementation of the SWAN model forced by the ECMWF ERA Interim dataset reanalyzed 10 m winds over the Black Sea which will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region, and its verification. The SWAN model results were compared with directional buoy measurements at three locations along the north and south coasts of the Black Sea, parametric model results based on the JONSWAP growth relations, and the results of previous studies. The SWAN model has been applied in a third generation and non-stationary mode with spherical coordinates. The linear and exponential growth from wind input, depth-induced wave breaking, bottom friction, whitecapping, four-wave (for deep water) and triad-wave (for shallow water) nonlinear interactions have been activated in the simulations. The results of this study indicate that agreement between simulated and observed wave parameters is satisfactory and it is slightly more accurate than the results of the previous studies. However, it still has lower estimates for the maximum values of both wave parameters. These lower estimates are probably due to too low wind speeds in the applied ECMWF wind fields, which is probably caused by orographic effects, and due to the relatively course resolution in time and space of the ECMWF (ERA-Interim) wind fields for the Black Sea.
Gravitational waves in hybrid quintessential inflationary models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sa, Paulo M [Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Henriques, Alfredo B, E-mail: pmsa@ualg.pt, E-mail: alfredo.henriques@ist.utl.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica - CENTRA and Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-09-22
The generation of primordial gravitational waves is investigated within the hybrid quintessential inflationary model. Using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, we calculate the full gravitational-wave energy spectrum. The post-inflationary kination period, characteristic of quintessential inflationary models, leaves a clear signature on the spectrum, namely, a sharp rise of the gravitational-wave spectral energy density {Omega}{sub GW} at high frequencies. For appropriate values of the parameters of the model, {Omega}{sub GW} can be as high as 10{sup -12} in the MHz-GHz range of frequencies.
Gravitational waves in hybrid quintessential inflationary models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sa, Paulo M; Henriques, Alfredo B
2011-01-01
The generation of primordial gravitational waves is investigated within the hybrid quintessential inflationary model. Using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, we calculate the full gravitational-wave energy spectrum. The post-inflationary kination period, characteristic of quintessential inflationary models, leaves a clear signature on the spectrum, namely, a sharp rise of the gravitational-wave spectral energy density Ω GW at high frequencies. For appropriate values of the parameters of the model, Ω GW can be as high as 10 -12 in the MHz-GHz range of frequencies.
Wind-wave modelling aspects within complicate topography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Christopoulos
Full Text Available Wave forecasting aspects for basins with complicate geomorphology, such as the Aegean Sea, are investigated through an intercomparison study. The efficiency of the available wind models (ECMWF, UKMO to reproduce wind patterns over special basins, as well as three wave models incorporating different physics and characteristics (WAM, AUT, WACCAS, are tested for selected storm cases representing the typical wind situations over the basin. From the wave results, discussed in terms of time-series and statistical parameters, the crucial role is pointed out of the wind resolution and the reliability of the different wave models to estimate the wave climate in such a basin. The necessary grid resolution is also tested, while for a specific test case (December 1991 ERS-1 satellite data are compared with those of the model.
Travelling Waves in Hybrid Chemotaxis Models
Franz, Benjamin
2013-12-18
Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant), which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybrid models shows good agreement in the case of weak chemotaxis and qualitative agreement for the strong chemotaxis case. In the case of slow cell adaptation, we detect oscillating behaviour of the wave, which cannot be explained by mean-field approximations. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.
TE Wave Measurement and Modeling
Sikora, John P; Sonnad, Kiran G; Alesini, David; De Santis, Stefano
2013-01-01
In the TE wave method, microwaves are coupled into the beam-pipe and the effect of the electron cloud on these microwaves is measured. An electron cloud (EC) density can then be calculated from this measurement. There are two analysis methods currently in use. The first treats the microwaves as being transmitted from one point to another in the accelerator. The second more recent method, treats the beam-pipe as a resonant cavity. This paper will summarize the reasons for adopting the resonant TE wave analysis as well as give examples from CESRTA and DA{\\Phi}NE of resonant beam-pipe. The results of bead-pull bench measurements will show some possible standing wave patterns, including a cutoff mode (evanescent) where the field decreases exponentially with distance from the drive point. We will outline other recent developments in the TE wave method including VORPAL simulations of microwave resonances, as well as the simulation of transmission in the presence of both an electron cloud and magnetic fields.
Tseng, C.
2013-12-01
In exploration seismology, subsurface medium commonly exhibits anisotropy, characterized by a vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) model. Due to the need of exploring small reservoirs in complex structures, the seismic exploration is extended to deal with anisotropic media. The P-S converted wave seismic exploration is a relatively inexpensive, broadly applicable, and effective way to obtain the S-wave information of the medium. In anisotropic traveltime analysis, the moveout curve of horizontal P-SV event can help to determine the ratio of the P- and SV-wave vertical velocities, the normal moveout (NMO) velocity of SV-waves, and the anisotropy parameters. The P-SV conversion point (CP) location is of great importance to P-SV data binning, NMO corrections and common conversion point (CCP) stacking, and the anisotropy has a more significant effect on the conversion point location than on the moveout. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical non-hyperbolic moveout and CP equations for the P-SV waves reflected from a VTI layer by numerical calculations and physical modeling. We are also interested in visualizing the variations of the conversion point locations from a designed VTI medium. In traveltime analysis, the theoretical moveout curve is accurate up to offsets about one and a half times the reflector depth (x/z=1.5). However, the moveout curve computed by Fermat's principle fits well to the physical data. The CP locations of P-SV waves are similar to those calculated by Fermat's principle and theoretical CP equation, which are verified by the physical modeling.
Hydraulic Model Tests on Modified Wave Dragon
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Tue; Lynggaard, Jakob
A floating model of the Wave Dragon (WD) was built in autumn 1998 by the Danish Maritime Institute in scale 1:50, see Sørensen and Friis-Madsen (1999) for reference. This model was subjected to a series of model tests and subsequent modifications at Aalborg University and in the following...... are found in Hald and Lynggaard (2001). Model tests and reconstruction are carried out during the phase 3 project: ”Wave Dragon. Reconstruction of an existing model in scale 1:50 and sequentiel tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters” sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency...
A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections
Yang, Z.; Fries, R. J.
2017-04-01
Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small.
A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Z; Fries, R J
2017-01-01
Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sparks, W.M.; Kutter, G.S.
1980-01-01
The rapid coherent oscillation during a dwarf nova outburst is attributed to an accretion-driven wave going around the white dwarf component of the binary system. The increase and decrease in the period of this oscillation is due to the change in the velocity of the wave as it is first being driven and then damped. Qualitatively, a large number of observations can be explained with such a model. The beginnings of a mathematical representation of this model are developed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishizawa, O; Sato, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Lei, X [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-05-01
In the study of seismic wave propagation, a model experimenting technique has been developed using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) as the sensor. This technique, not dependent on conventional piezoelectric devices, only irradiates the specimen with laser to measure the velocity amplitude on the target surface, eliminating the need for close contact between the specimen and sensor. In the experiment, elastic penetration waves with their noise levels approximately 0.05mm/s were observed upon application of vibration of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 5}Hz. The specimen was stainless steel or rock, and waveforms caught by the LDV and piezoelectric device were compared. As the result, it was found that the LDV is a powerful tool for effectively explaining elastic wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. The piezoelectric device fails to reproduce accurately the waves to follow the initial one while the LDV detect the velocity amplitude on the specimen surface in a wide frequency range encouraging the discussion over the quantification of observed waveforms. 10 refs., 7 figs.
Computational and theoretical study of the wave-particle interaction of protons and waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. S. Moya
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We study the wave-particle interaction and the evolution of electromagnetic waves propagating through a plasma composed of electrons and protons, using two approaches. First, a quasilinear kinetic theory has been developed to study the energy transfer between waves and particles, with the subsequent acceleration and heating of protons. Second, a one-dimensional hybrid numerical simulation has been performed, with and without including an expanding-box model that emulates the spherical expansion of the solar wind, to investigate the fully nonlinear evolution of this wave-particle interaction. Numerical results of both approaches show that there is an anisotropic evolution of proton temperature.
-Advanced Models for Tsunami and Rogue Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. W. Pravica
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A wavelet , that satisfies the q-advanced differential equation for , is used to model N-wave oscillations observed in tsunamis. Although q-advanced ODEs may seem nonphysical, we present an application that model tsunamis, in particular the Japanese tsunami of March 11, 2011, by utilizing a one-dimensional wave equation that is forced by . The profile is similar to tsunami models in present use. The function is a wavelet that satisfies a q-advanced harmonic oscillator equation. It is also shown that another wavelet, , matches a rogue-wave profile. This is explained in terms of a resonance wherein two small amplitude forcing waves eventually lead to a large amplitude rogue. Since wavelets are used in the detection of tsunamis and rogues, the signal-analysis performance of and is examined on actual data.
User's Manual for the Simulating Waves Nearshore Model (SWAN)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Allard, Richard
2002-01-01
The Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model is a numerical wave model used to obtain realistic estimates of wave parameters in coastal areas, lakes, and estuaries from given wind, bottom, and current conditions...
Ocean wave prediction using numerical and neural network models
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mandal, S.; Prabaharan, N.
This paper presents an overview of the development of the numerical wave prediction models and recently used neural networks for ocean wave hindcasting and forecasting. The numerical wave models express the physical concepts of the phenomena...
Assessment of multi class kinematic wave models
Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Vuik, C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2012-01-01
In the last decade many multi class kinematic wave (MCKW) traffic ow models have been proposed. MCKW models introduce heterogeneity among vehicles and drivers. For example, they take into account differences in (maximum) velocities and driving style. Nevertheless, the models are macroscopic and the
Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.
Modelization of highly nonlinear waves in coastal regions
Gouin, Maïté; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Ferrant, Pierre
2015-04-01
The proposed work deals with the development of a highly non-linear model for water wave propagation in coastal regions. The accurate modelization of surface gravity waves is of major interest in ocean engineering, especially in the field of marine renewable energy. These marine structures are intended to be settled in coastal regions where the effect of variable bathymetry may be significant on local wave conditions. This study presents a numerical model for the wave propagation with complex bathymetry. It is based on High-Order Spectral (HOS) method, initially limited to the propagation of non-linear wave fields over flat bottom. Such a model has been developed and validated at the LHEEA Lab. (Ecole Centrale Nantes) over the past few years and the current developments will enlarge its application range. This new numerical model will keep the interesting numerical properties of the original pseudo-spectral approach (convergence, efficiency with the use of FFTs, …) and enable the possibility to propagate highly non-linear wave fields over long time and large distance. Different validations will be provided in addition to the presentation of the method. At first, Bragg reflection will be studied with the proposed approach. If the Bragg condition is satisfied, the reflected wave generated by a sinusoidal bottom patch should be amplified as a result of resonant quadratic interactions between incident wave and bottom. Comparisons will be provided with experiments and reference solutions. Then, the method will be used to consider the transformation of a non-linear monochromatic wave as it propagates up and over a submerged bar. As the waves travel up the front slope of the bar, it steepens and high harmonics are generated due to non-linear interactions. Comparisons with experimental data will be provided. The different test cases will assess the accuracy and efficiency of the method proposed.
Studies of African wave disturbances with the GISS GCM
Druyan, Leonard M.; Hall, Timothy M.
1994-01-01
Simulations made with the general circulation model of the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS GCM) run at 4 deg latitude by 5 deg longitude horizontal resolution are analyzed to determine the model's representation of African wave disturbances. Waves detected in the model's lower troposphere over northern Africa during the summer monsoon season exhibit realistic wavelengths of about 2200 km. However, power spectra of the meridional wind show that the waves propagate westward too slowly, with periods of 5-10 days, about twice the observed values. This sluggishness is most pronounced during August, consistent with simulated 600-mb zonal winds that are only about half the observed speeds of the midtropospheric jet. The modeled wave amplitudes are strongest over West Africa during the first half of the summer but decrease dramatically by September, contrary to observational evidence. Maximum amplitudes occur at realistic latitudes, 12 deg - 20 deg N, but not as observed near the Atlantic coast. Spectral analyses suggest some wave modulation of precipitation in the 5-8 day band, and compositing shows that precipitation is slightly enhanced east of the wave trough, coincident with southerly winds. Extrema of low-level convergence west of the wave troughs, coinciding with northerly winds, were not preferred areas for simulated precipitation, probably because of the drying effect of this advection, as waves were generally north of the humid zone. The documentation of African wave disturbances in the GISS GCM is a first step toward considering wave influences in future GCM studies of Sahel drought.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Victor, L.; Troch, P.; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2009-01-01
For overtopping wave energy converters (WECs) a more efficient energy conversion can be achieved when the volumes of water, wave by wave, that enter their reservoir are known and can be predicted. A numerical tool is being developed using a commercial CFD-solver to study and optimize...... nearshore 2Dstructure. First numerical model results are given for a specific test with regular waves, and are compared with the corresponding experimental results in this paper....
Experimental Update of the Overtopping Model Used for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erik Friis-Madsen
2013-04-01
Full Text Available An overtopping model specifically suited for Wave Dragon is needed in order to improve the reliability of its performance estimates. The model shall be comprehensive of all relevant physical processes that affect overtopping and flexible to adapt to any local conditions and device configuration. An experimental investigation is carried out to update an existing formulation suited for 2D draft-limited, low-crested structures, in order to include the effects on the overtopping flow of the wave steepness, the 3D geometry of Wave Dragon, the wing reflectors, the device motions and the non-rigid connection between platform and reflectors. The study is carried out in four phases, each of them specifically targeted at quantifying one of these effects through a sensitivity analysis and at modeling it through custom-made parameters. These are depending on features of the wave or the device configuration, all of which can be measured in real-time. Instead of using new fitting coefficients, this approach allows a broader applicability of the model beyond the Wave Dragon case, to any overtopping WEC or structure within the range of tested conditions. Predictions reliability of overtopping over Wave Dragon increased, as the updated model allows improved accuracy and precision respect to the former version.
Sicart, J.; Essery, R.; Pomeroy, J.
2004-12-01
At high latitudes, long-wave radiation emitted by the atmosphere and solar radiation can provide similar amounts of energy for snowmelt due to the low solar elevation and the high albedo of snow. This paper investigates temporal and spatial variations of long-wave irradiance at the snow surface in an open sub-Arctic environment. Measurements were conducted in the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada (60°36'N, 134°57'W) during the springs of 2002, 2003 and 2004. The main causes of temporal variability are air temperature and cloud cover, especially in the beginning of the melting period when the atmosphere is still cold. Spatial variability was investigated through a sensitivity study to sky view factors and to temperatures of surrounding terrain. The formula of Brutsaert gives a useful estimation of the clear-sky irradiance at hourly time steps. Emission by clouds was parameterized at the daily time scale from the atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation. The inclusion of air temperature variability does not much improve the calculation of cloud emission.
Reminiscences on the study of wind waves
MITSUYASU, Hisashi
2015-01-01
The wind blowing over sea surface generates tiny wind waves. They develop with time and space absorbing wind energy, and become huge wind waves usually referred to ocean surface waves. The wind waves cause not only serious sea disasters but also take important roles in the local and global climate changes by affecting the fluxes of momentum, heat and gases (e.g. CO2) through the air-sea boundary. The present paper reviews the selected studies on wind waves conducted by our group in the Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University. The themes discussed are interactions between water waves and winds, the energy spectrum of wind waves, nonlinear properties of wind waves, and the effects of surfactant on some air-sea interaction phenomena. PMID:25864467
Magnetospheric pulsations: Models and observations of compressional waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Xiaoming.
1989-01-01
The first part of the dissertation models ultralow frequency (ULF) waves in a simplified geometry in order to understand the physics of the mode coupling between the compressional and shear Alfven waves in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. Wave mode coupling occurs when a field line resonant frequency (defined by the shear Alfven mode) matches the global mode frequency (defined by the compressional mode). Large wave amplitudes occur near the resonant field line. Although the wave amplitude of the global mode is small away from resonant field lines, significant wave energy is stored in the wave mode due to its large scale nature. It serves as a reservoir to continuously feed energy to resonant field lines. This mechanism may explain why some field line resonances can last for times longer than that predicted from the ionospheric Joule dissipation. A nonmonotonic Alfven velocity divides the magnetosphere into two or more cavities by the local maxima of the Alfven velocity. The global mode is typically localized in one of the cavities except at some preferred frequencies, the global mode can extend through more than one cavity. This may explain ULF wave excitations in the low latitude magnetosphere. The second part of the dissertation is devoted to study compressional waves in the outer magnetosphere using magnetic field and plasma data. Statistical information on the distribution of compressional Pc 5 waves in the outer magnetosphere is obtained. Large amplitude, long period compressional Pc 5 pulsations are found very common near the magnetic equator. They are polarized mainly in a meridian plane with comparable compressional and transverse amplitudes. Close correlation between compressional wave amplitude and plasma β is also found. Several case studies show that compressional waves are quenched in the region where β < 1
Computer modeling of inelastic wave propagation in porous rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheney, J.A.; Schatz, J.F.; Snell, C.
1979-01-01
Computer modeling of wave propagation in porous rock has several important applications. Among them are prediction of fragmentation and permeability changes to be caused by chemical explosions used for in situ resource recovery, and the understanding of nuclear explosion effects such as seismic wave generation, containment, and site hardness. Of interest in all these applications are the distance from the source to which inelastic effects persist and the amount of porosity change within the inelastic region. In order to study phenomena related to these applications, the Cam Clay family of models developed at Cambridge University was used to develop a similar model that is applicable to wave propagation in porous rock. That model was incorporated into a finite-difference wave propagation computer code SOC. 10 figures, 1 table
Modelling of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings
Lehmann, M.; Schmidt, J.; Salo, H.
2014-04-01
saturate to a constant value due to the effects of nonlinear viscous damping. A qualitatively similar behaviour has also been predicted for the damping of nonlinear density waves, as described within a streamline formalism (Borderies, Goldreich & Tremaine [1985]). The damping lengths which follow from the weakly nonlinear model depend more or less strongly on a set of different input parameters, such as the viscosity and the surface density of the unperturbed ring state. Further, they depend on the wave's amplitude at resonance. For a real wave, which has been excited by an external satellite, this amplitude can be deduced from the magnitude of the satellite's forcing potential. Appart from that, hydrodynamical simulations are being developed to study the nonlinear damping of resonantly forced density waves.
Simple opdriftsbaserede modeller for Wave Star
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kramer, Morten
Wave Star modellen er udarbejdet i programmeringssproget Delphi. Modellerne er en videre udarbejdelse af tidligere anvendte Excel-modeller. I forhold til Excelmodellerne udmærker de nye Dephi-modeller sig ved at beregningerne udføres mange gange hurtigere og modellerne kan håndtere lange tidsserier...
Studies on the parametric decay of waves in fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paettikangas, T.
1992-08-01
Parametric instabilities of large-amplitude electromagnetic waves are investigated in fusion applications. In laser fusion, the electromegnetic wave reflected from the overdense plasma can act as a secondary pump wave and exite parametric instabilities. In double simulated Brilloun scattering (DSBS), both the incoming and the reflected pump wave scatter from a common ion sound wave. The stationary states and the dynamics of DSBS are investigated by using a simple envelope model. The ion sound wave that is exited in DSBS is shown to have soliton-like properties. The simulated Raman scattering (SRS) of free-electron-laser radiation can be applied to current drive in tokamaks. SRS generates fast longitudinal electron plasma waves which accelerate electrons to relativistic energies. Since the energetic current-carrying electrons are almost collisionless, the current decays very slowly. The feasibility of the Raman current drive in tokamaks is investigated theoretically. The current drive efficiency and the optimum free-electron-laser parameters are determined. The energy transfer to the fast electrons from the electrostatic wave is studied with relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell simulations. The parametric decay of a wave to half-harmonics is investigated. It is shown that the growth rate of the decay vanishes in the limit of a long wavelenght of the pump wave even for general electromagnetic or electrostatic decay models. The results are applied to the decay of a fast magnetosonic waves in tokamak plasmas. (orig.)
Wave and Wind Model Performance Metrics Tools
Choi, J. K.; Wang, D. W.
2016-02-01
Continual improvements and upgrades of Navy ocean wave and wind models are essential to the assurance of battlespace environment predictability of ocean surface wave and surf conditions in support of Naval global operations. Thus, constant verification and validation of model performance is equally essential to assure the progress of model developments and maintain confidence in the predictions. Global and regional scale model evaluations may require large areas and long periods of time. For observational data to compare against, altimeter winds and waves along the tracks from past and current operational satellites as well as moored/drifting buoys can be used for global and regional coverage. Using data and model runs in previous trials such as the planned experiment, the Dynamics of the Adriatic in Real Time (DART), we demonstrated the use of accumulated altimeter wind and wave data over several years to obtain an objective evaluation of the performance the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) model running in the Adriatic Sea. The assessment provided detailed performance of wind and wave models by using cell-averaged statistical variables maps with spatial statistics including slope, correlation, and scatter index to summarize model performance. Such a methodology is easily generalized to other regions and at global scales. Operational technology currently used by subject matter experts evaluating the Navy Coastal Ocean Model and the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model can be expanded to evaluate wave and wind models using tools developed for ArcMAP, a GIS application developed by ESRI. Recent inclusion of altimeter and buoy data into a format through the Naval Oceanographic Office's (NAVOCEANO) quality control system and the netCDF standards applicable to all model output makes it possible for the fusion of these data and direct model verification. Also, procedures were developed for the accumulation of match-ups of modelled and observed parameters to form a data base
Wave energy converter effects on wave propagation: A sensitivity study in Monterey Bay, CA
Chang, G.; Jones, C. A.; Roberts, J.; Magalen, J.; Ruehl, K.; Chartrand, C.
2014-12-01
The development of renewable offshore energy in the United States is growing rapidly and wave energy is one of the largest resources currently being evaluated. The deployment of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays required to harness this resource could feasibly number in the hundreds of individual devices. The WEC arrays have the potential to alter nearshore wave propagation and circulation patterns and ecosystem processes. As the industry progresses from pilot- to commercial-scale it is important to understand and quantify the effects of WECs on the natural nearshore processes that support a local, healthy ecosystem. To help accelerate the realization of commercial-scale wave power, predictive modeling tools have been developed and utilized to evaluate the likelihood of environmental impact. At present, direct measurements of the effects of different types of WEC arrays on nearshore wave propagation are not available; therefore wave model simulations provide the groundwork for investigations of the sensitivity of model results to prescribed WEC characteristics over a range of anticipated wave conditions. The present study incorporates a modified version of an industry standard wave modeling tool, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore), to simulate wave propagation through a hypothetical WEC array deployment site on the California coast. The modified SWAN, referred to as SNL-SWAN, incorporates device-specific WEC power take-off characteristics to more accurately evaluate a WEC device's effects on wave propagation. The primary objectives were to investigate the effects of a range of WEC devices and device and array characteristics (e.g., device spacing, number of WECs in an array) on nearshore wave propagation using SNL-SWAN model simulations. Results showed that significant wave height was most sensitive to variations in WEC device type and size and the number of WEC devices in an array. Locations in the lee centerline of the arrays in each modeled scenario showed the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ettefagh
2018-03-01
Full Text Available One of the new methods for powering low-power electronic devices employed in the sea, is using of mechanical energies of sea waves. In this method, piezoelectric material is employed to convert the mechanical energy of sea waves into electrical energy. The advantage of this method is based on not implementing the battery charging system. Although, many studies have been done about energy harvesting from sea waves, energy harvesting with considering random JONWSAP wave theory is not fully studied up to now. The random JONSWAP wave model is a more realistic approximation of sea waves in comparison of Airy wave model. Therefore, in this paper a vertical beam with the piezoelectric patches, which is fixed to the seabed, is considered as energy harvester system. The energy harvesting system is simulated by MATLAB software, and then the vibration response of the beam and consequently the generated power is obtained considering the JONWSAP wave theory. In addition, the reliability of the system and the effect of piezoelectric patches uncertainties on the generated power are studied by statistical method. Furthermore, the failure possibility of harvester based on violation criteria is investigated.
Cartigny, M.; Postma, G.; Berg, J.H. van den; Mastbergen, D.R.
2011-01-01
Although sediment waves cover many levees and canyon floors of submarine fan systems, their relation to the turbidity currents that formed them is still poorly understood. Over the recent years some large erosional sediment waves have been interpreted as cyclic steps. Cyclic steps are a series of
Analytical study of dissipative solitary waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dini, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emamzadeh, Mehdi Molaie [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Sina [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bobin, Jean Louis [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Amrollahi, Reza [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sodagar, Majid [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnegar, Milad [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2008-02-15
In this paper, the analytical solution to a new class of nonlinear solitons is presented with cubic nonlinearity, subject to a dissipation term arising as a result of a first-order derivative with respect to time, in the weakly nonlinear regime. Exact solutions are found using the combination of the perturbation and Green's function methods up to the third order. We present an example and discuss the asymptotic behavior of the Green's function. The dissipative solitary equation is also studied in the phase space in the non-dissipative and dissipative forms. Bounded and unbounded solutions of this equation are characterized, yielding an energy conversation law for non-dissipative waves. Applications of the model include weakly nonlinear solutions of terahertz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors and ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability.
Holographic p-wave superconductor models with Weyl corrections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lu Zhang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang–Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similarly to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang–Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2015-01-01
Wave models used for site assessments are subjected to model uncertainties, which need to be quantified when using wave model results for probabilistic reliability assessments. This paper focuses on determination of wave model uncertainties. Four different wave models are considered, and validation...... data are collected from published scientific research. The bias and the root-mean-square error, as well as the scatter index, are considered for the significant wave height as well as the mean zero-crossing wave period. Based on an illustrative generic example, this paper presents how the quantified...... uncertainties can be implemented in probabilistic reliability assessments....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2014-01-01
Wave models used for site assessments are subject to model uncertainties, which need to be quantified when using wave model results for probabilistic reliability assessments. This paper focuses on determination of wave model uncertainties. Considered are four different wave models and validation...... data is collected from published scientific research. The bias, the root-mean-square error as well as the scatter index are considered for the significant wave height as well as the mean zero-crossing wave period. Based on an illustrative generic example it is shown how the estimated uncertainties can...... be implemented in probabilistic reliability assessments....
Abnormal Waves Modelled as Second-order Conditional Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2005-01-01
The paper presents results for the expected second order short-crested wave conditional of a given wave crest at a specific point in time and space. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean shallow water wave theory. Numerical results showing the importance of the spectral densit...
Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lipton, Alex [Merrill Lynch, Mlfc Main, 2 King Edward Street, London EC1A 1HQ (United Kingdom); Sepp, Artur [Merrill Lynch, 4 World Financial Center, New York, NY 10080 (United States)], E-mail: Alex_Lipton@ml.com, E-mail: Artur_Sepp@ml.com
2008-08-29
We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics.
Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves
Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur
2008-08-01
We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics.
Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur
2008-01-01
We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics
Wave Analysis Study for the Punta Catalina Jetty, Dominican Republic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Røge, Mads Sønderstrup; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans Falk
This report deals with a two-dimensional test study to identify the largest significant wave height, the maximum wave height and the largest crest level along the Punta Catalina jetty in the Dominican Republic. The scale used for the model tests was 1:50. Unless otherwise specified all values given...
Modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion in Iberia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Badal
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Phase and group velocities of 15–70 s Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian Peninsula have been transformed into local dispersion curves by linear inversion of travel times. The procedure permits that the waveform dispersion to be obtained as a continuous period-dependent velocity function at grid points belonging to the area probed by the waves, thus providing phase- and group-velocity contour maps for several periods within the interval of interest. The regionalization process rests on a homogeneous initial data set in which the number of observations remains almost constant for all periods of reference. Damped least-squares inversion of the local dispersion curves for shear-wave velocity structure is performed to obtain depth-dependent S-wave velocity profiles at the grid points covering the model region. The reliability of the results should improve significantly owing to the use of phase and group velocities simultaneously. On this basis, we have built horizontal depth sections that give an updated view of the seismic velocity structure of the peninsula at lithospheric and upper mantle depths (20–200 km. After averaging all the pure-path S-wave velocities previously determined at each grid point, the velocity-depth models so obtained for major tectonic units allow the comparison between the Hercynian basement and other areas of Mesozoic folding and Tertiary basins.
Hybrid Modelling of a Traveling Wave Piezoelectric Motor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
El, Ghouti N.
a theoretical model is derived. Since the dynamic characteristics of the real motor are difficult to capture in an analytical model, and the parameters of the motor are time varying and highly nonlinear, then some assumptions are required in order to simplify the modeling task and thus provide a suitable model......This thesis considers the modeling of the traveling wave piezoelectric motor (PEM). The rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor "Shinsei type USR60" is the case study considered in this work. The traveling wave PEM has excellent performance and many useful features such as high holding torque, high....... Despite many attempts a lumped motor model of the PEM is unavailable so far. The dynamical characteristics of the PEM are complicated, highly nonlinear, and the motor parameters are time varying due to temperature rise and changes in motor drive operating conditions. Therefore it is difficult to predict...
Antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity in the Hubbard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krahl, H.C.
2007-07-25
The two-dimensional Hubbard model is a promising effective model for the electronic degrees of freedom in the copper-oxide planes of high temperature superconductors. We present a functional renormalization group approach to this model with focus on antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity. In order to make the relevant degrees of freedom more explicitly accessible on all length scales, we introduce composite bosonic fields mediating the interaction between the fermions. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is reflected in a non-vanishing expectation value of a bosonic field. The emergence of a coupling in the d-wave pairing channel triggered by spin wave fluctuations is demonstrated. Furthermore, the highest temperature at which the interaction strength for the electrons diverges in the renormalization flow is calculated for both antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity over a wide range of doping. This ''pseudo-critical'' temperature signals the onset of local ordering. Moreover, the temperature dependence of d-wave superconducting order is studied within a simplified model characterized by a single coupling in the d-wave pairing channel. The phase transition within this model is found to be of the Kosterlitz-Thouless type. (orig.)
Numerical Modeling of a Wave Energy Point Absorber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos; Frigaard, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2009-01-01
The present study deals with numerical modelling of the Wave Star Energy WSE device. Hereby, linear potential theory is applied via a BEM code on the wave hydrodynamics exciting the floaters. Time and frequency domain solutions of the floater response are determined for regular and irregular seas....... Furthermore, these results are used to estimate the power and the energy absorbed by a single oscillating floater. Finally, a latching control strategy is analysed in open-loop configuration for energy maximization....
Modeling wave attenuation by salt marshes in Jamaica Bay, New York, using a new rapid wave model
Marsooli, Reza; Orton, Philip M.; Mellor, George
2017-07-01
Using a new rapid-computation wave model, improved and validated in the present study, we quantify the value of salt marshes in Jamaica Bay—a highly urbanized estuary located in New York City—as natural buffers against storm waves. We augment the MDO phase-averaged wave model by incorporating a vegetation-drag-induced energy dissipation term into its wave energy balance equation. We adopt an empirical formula from literature to determine the vegetation drag coefficient as a function of environmental conditions. Model evaluation using data from laboratory-scale experiments show that the improved MDO model accurately captures wave height attenuation due to submerged and emergent vegetation. We apply the validated model to Jamaica Bay to quantify the influence of coastal-scale salt marshes on storm waves. It is found that the impact of marsh islands is largest for storms with lower flood levels, due to wave breaking on the marsh island substrate. However, the role of the actual marsh plants, Spartina alterniflora, grows larger for storms with higher flood levels, when wave breaking does not occur and the vegetative drag becomes the main source of energy dissipation. For the latter case, seasonality of marsh height is important; at its maximum height in early fall, S. alterniflora causes twice the reduction as when it is at a shorter height in early summer. The model results also indicate that the vegetation drag coefficient varies 1 order of magnitude in the study area, and suggest exercising extra caution in using a constant drag coefficient in coastal wetlands.
Data quality studies of enhanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McIver, Jessica
2012-01-01
Data quality assessment plays an essential role in the quest to detect gravitational wave signals in data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Interferometer data contain a high rate of noise transients from the environment, the detector hardware and the detector control systems. These transients severely limit the statistical significance of gravitational wave candidates of short duration and/or poorly modeled waveforms. This paper describes the data quality studies that have been performed in recent LIGO and Virgo observing runs to mitigate the impact of transient detector artifacts on the gravitational wave searches. (paper)
DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models
Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin
2008-09-01
We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.
DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin
2008-01-01
We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.
Lin, Shangfei; Sheng, Jinyu
2017-12-01
Depth-induced wave breaking is the primary dissipation mechanism for ocean surface waves in shallow waters. Different parametrizations were developed for parameterizing depth-induced wave breaking process in ocean surface wave models. The performance of six commonly-used parameterizations in simulating significant wave heights (SWHs) is assessed in this study. The main differences between these six parameterizations are representations of the breaker index and the fraction of breaking waves. Laboratory and field observations consisting of 882 cases from 14 sources of published observational data are used in the assessment. We demonstrate that the six parameterizations have reasonable performance in parameterizing depth-induced wave breaking in shallow waters, but with their own limitations and drawbacks. The widely-used parameterization suggested by Battjes and Janssen (1978, BJ78) has a drawback of underpredicting the SWHs in the locally-generated wave conditions and overpredicting in the remotely-generated wave conditions over flat bottoms. The drawback of BJ78 was addressed by a parameterization suggested by Salmon et al. (2015, SA15). But SA15 had relatively larger errors in SWHs over sloping bottoms than BJ78. We follow SA15 and propose a new parameterization with a dependence of the breaker index on the normalized water depth in deep waters similar to SA15. In shallow waters, the breaker index of the new parameterization has a nonlinear dependence on the local bottom slope rather than the linear dependence used in SA15. Overall, this new parameterization has the best performance with an average scatter index of ∼8.2% in comparison with the three best performing existing parameterizations with the average scatter index between 9.2% and 13.6%.
Wave attenuation model for dephasing and measurement of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An analysis of previous models to simulate inelastic scattering in such systems is presented and a relatively new model based on wave attenuation is introduced. The problem of Aharonov–Bohm (AB) oscillations in conductance of a mesoscopic ring is studied. We show that the conductance is symmetric under ﬂux reversal ...
Non-homogeneous polymer model for wave propagation and its ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This article concerns certain aspects of four parameter polymer models to study harmonic waves in the non-homogeneous polymer rods of varying density. There are two sections of this paper, in first section, the rheological behaviour of the model is discussed numerically and then it is solved analytically with the help of ...
Study on guided waves in semiconductor lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pudensi, M.A.A.
1980-01-01
In This work we studied the guided waves in semiconductor lasers. In the first part we carried on the experimental measurements on lasers with stripe nonorthogonal to the mirrors. In the second part we developed a matrix method for the study of propagation and reflection of guided waves in lasers. (author) [pt
Source modelling at the dawn of gravitational-wave astronomy
Gerosa, Davide
2016-09-01
The age of gravitational-wave astronomy has begun. Gravitational waves are propagating spacetime perturbations ("ripples in the fabric of space-time") predicted by Einstein's theory of General Relativity. These signals propagate at the speed of light and are generated by powerful astrophysical events, such as the merger of two black holes and supernova explosions. The first detection of gravitational waves was performed in 2015 with the LIGO interferometers. This constitutes a tremendous breakthrough in fundamental physics and astronomy: it is not only the first direct detection of such elusive signals, but also the first irrefutable observation of a black-hole binary system. The future of gravitational-wave astronomy is bright and loud: the LIGO experiments will soon be joined by a network of ground-based interferometers; the space mission eLISA has now been fully approved by the European Space Agency with a proof-of-concept mission called LISA Pathfinder launched in 2015. Gravitational-wave observations will provide unprecedented tests of gravity as well as a qualitatively new window on the Universe. Careful theoretical modelling of the astrophysical sources of gravitational-waves is crucial to maximize the scientific outcome of the detectors. In this Thesis, we present several advances on gravitational-wave source modelling, studying in particular: (i) the precessional dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries; (ii) the astrophysical consequences of black-hole recoils; and (iii) the formation of compact objects in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. All these phenomena are deeply characterized by a continuous interplay between General Relativity and astrophysics: despite being a truly relativistic messenger, gravitational waves encode details of the astrophysical formation and evolution processes of their sources. We work out signatures and predictions to extract such information from current and future observations. At the dawn of a revolutionary
Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fouques, Sebastien
2005-07-01
, along with a RAR modulation transfer function (MTF) with a larger amplitude. Eventually, an optimization of the RAR MTF is carried out by making use of the co-located database and the dependency of the optimized parameters on the wind velocity is studied. In the last three articles. Lagrangian models for ocean surface waves are investigated, and the main results are the following. In Article III, ocean surface properties such as the slope and the curvature are studied for linear irregular waves, and the difference between the Eulerian and the Lagrangian wave spectra is illustrated. In addition, some features of the second-order Lagrangian solution for irregular long-crested waves are presented. Then, in Article IV, the Lagrangian equations of motion, as given in Lamb (1932), are extended to include the irrotational flow assumption and simplified by eliminating the pressure. The first-order solution for two-dimensional irregular waves given by Pierson (1961) is modified through a change of variables that makes the mass conservation equation be fulfilled exactly, instead of being correct to the first order only. The resulting waves show higher sharp crests than in Pierson's solution, in which some water locally and temporary disappears in the vicinity of the surface. Furthermore, a three-dimensional second-order irrotational solution is derived. Monte Carlo simulations of irregular long-crested waves reveal that the fronts of some waves may steepen, while the fluid located on their back side and near the surface is hurled forward, in a way similar to an early stage breaking wave. Then, it is demonstrated that at the second order, short-crested waves develop curved crests owing to a non-uniform current field. Finally, the ability of the Lagrangian formalism to describe capillary waves is investigated in Article V. Assuming that surface tension is the only restoring force, the profile of the first-order monochromatic solution is the same as for gravity waves, with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.
2014-01-01
Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xaplanteris, C. L., E-mail: cxaplanteris@yahoo.com [Plasma Physics Laboratory, IMS, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece and Hellenic Army Academy, Vari Attica (Greece); Xaplanteris, L. C. [School of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Leousis, D. P. [Technical High School of Athens, Athens (Greece)
2014-03-15
Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich
2011-01-01
A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves the Hami...... is proposed. The dynamics of the rarefaction wave is approximated by a collective coordinate approach in the energy balance equation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.......A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves...... the Hamiltonian structure, in contrast to the Kuznetsov equation, a model often used in nonlinear acoustics. An exact traveling wave front solution is derived from a generalized traveling wave assumption for the velocity potential. Numerical studies of the evolution of a number of arbitrary initial conditions...
Simulating Freak Waves in the Ocean with CFD Modeling
Manolidis, M.; Orzech, M.; Simeonov, J.
2017-12-01
Rogue, or freak, waves constitute an active topic of research within the world scientific community, as various maritime authorities around the globe seek to better understand and more accurately assess the risks that the occurrence of such phenomena entail. Several experimental studies have shed some light on the mechanics of rogue wave formation. In our work we numerically simulate the formation of such waves in oceanic conditions by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. For this purpose we implement the NHWAVE and OpenFOAM software packages. Both are non-hydrostatic, turbulent flow solvers, but NHWAVE implements a shock-capturing scheme at the free surface-interface, while OpenFOAM utilizes the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method. NHWAVE has been shown to accurately reproduce highly nonlinear surface wave phenomena, such as soliton propagation and wave shoaling. We conducted a range of tests simulating rogue wave formation and horizontally varying currents to evaluate and compare the capabilities of the two software packages. Then we used each model to investigate the effect of ocean currents and current gradients on the formation of rogue waves. We present preliminary results.
Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles
2014-05-01
The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to
Identification and modeling of internal waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, M.M.M.; SujithKumar, S.; Maneesha, K.; Sandhya, K.S.; Prakash, S.S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.
Analyses of Internal Wave (IW) signatures by insitu observations off Visakhapatnam have been presented to study the impact of IWs on acoustic field. Temperature data were collected for 44 hours off Visakhapatnam (17° 26.46’N and 83° 31.20’E...
Updated thermal model using simplified short-wave radiosity calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, J.A.; Goltz, S.M.
1994-01-01
An extension to a forest canopy thermal radiance model is described that computes the short-wave energy flux absorbed within the canopy by solving simplified radiosity equations describing flux transfers between canopy ensemble classes partitioned by vegetation layer and leaf slope. Integrated short-wave reflectance and transmittance-factors obtained from measured leaf optical properties were found to be nearly equal for the canopy studied. Short-wave view factor matrices were approximated by combining the average leaf scattering coefficient with the long-wave view factor matrices already incorporated in the model. Both the updated and original models were evaluated for a dense spruce fir forest study site in Central Maine. Canopy short-wave absorption coefficients estimated from detailed Monte Carlo ray tracing calculations were 0.60, 0.04, and 0.03 for the top, middle, and lower canopy layers corresponding to leaf area indices of 4.0, 1.05, and 0.25. The simplified radiosity technique yielded analogous absorption values of 0.55, 0.03, and 0.01. The resulting root mean square error in modeled versus measured canopy temperatures for all layers was less than 1°C with either technique. Maximum error in predicted temperature using the simplified radiosity technique was approximately 2°C during peak solar heating. (author)
Updated thermal model using simplified short-wave radiosity calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, J. A.; Goltz, S. M.
1994-02-15
An extension to a forest canopy thermal radiance model is described that computes the short-wave energy flux absorbed within the canopy by solving simplified radiosity equations describing flux transfers between canopy ensemble classes partitioned by vegetation layer and leaf slope. Integrated short-wave reflectance and transmittance-factors obtained from measured leaf optical properties were found to be nearly equal for the canopy studied. Short-wave view factor matrices were approximated by combining the average leaf scattering coefficient with the long-wave view factor matrices already incorporated in the model. Both the updated and original models were evaluated for a dense spruce fir forest study site in Central Maine. Canopy short-wave absorption coefficients estimated from detailed Monte Carlo ray tracing calculations were 0.60, 0.04, and 0.03 for the top, middle, and lower canopy layers corresponding to leaf area indices of 4.0, 1.05, and 0.25. The simplified radiosity technique yielded analogous absorption values of 0.55, 0.03, and 0.01. The resulting root mean square error in modeled versus measured canopy temperatures for all layers was less than 1°C with either technique. Maximum error in predicted temperature using the simplified radiosity technique was approximately 2°C during peak solar heating. (author)
Identification of wind fields for wave modeling near Qatar
Nayak, Sashikant; Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Panchang, Vijay
2016-04-01
Due to the development of coastal and offshore infrastructure in and around the Arabian Gulf, a large semi-enclosed sea, knowledge of met-ocean factors like prevailing wind systems, wind generated waves, and currents etc. are of great importance. Primarily it is important to identify the wind fields that are used as forcing functions for wave and circulation models for hindcasting and forecasting purposes. The present study investigates the effects of using two sources of wind-fields on the modeling of wind-waves in the Arabian Gulf, in particular near the coastal regions of Qatar. Two wind sources are considered here, those obtained from ECMWF and those generated by us using the WRF model. The wave model SWAN was first forced with the 6 hourly ERA Interim daily winds (from ECMWF) having spatial resolution of 0.125°. For the second option, wind fields were generated by us using the mesoscale wind model (WRF) with a high spatial resolution (0.1°) at every 30 minute intervals. The simulations were carried out for a period of two months (7th October-7th December, 2015) during which measurements were available from two moored buoys (deployed and operated by the Qatar Meteorological Department), one in the north of Qatar ("Qatar North", in water depth of 58.7 m) and other in the south ("Shiraouh Island", in water depth of 16.64 m). This period included a high-sea event on 11-12th of October, recorded by the two buoys where the significant wave heights (Hs) reached as high as 2.9 m (i.e. max wave height H ~ 5.22 m) and 1.9 (max wave height H ~ 3.4 m) respectively. Model results were compared with the data for this period. The scatter index (SI) of the Hs simulated using the WRF wind fields and the observed Hs was found to be about 30% and 32% for the two buoys (total period). The observed Hs were generally reproduced but there was consistent underestimation. (Maximum 27% for the high-sea event). For the Hs obtained with ERA interim wind fields, the underestimation was
TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorand Catalin STOENESCU
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishing of the flood wave is important in the case of sinuous courses of water or with urban settlements very close to the minor river bed. In the case of Poiana Uzului dam, 2 scenarios were simulated with the help of Ph.D. Eng. Dan Stematiu, plausible scenarios but with very little chances of actually producing. The results were presented as animations with flooded surfaces at certain time steps successively.
Heat waves over Central Europe in regional climate model simulations
Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan
2014-05-01
Regional climate models (RCMs) have become a powerful tool for exploring impacts of global climate change on a regional scale. The aim of the study is to evaluate the capability of RCMs to reproduce characteristics of major heat waves over Central Europe in their simulations of the recent climate (1961-2000), with a focus on the most severe and longest Central European heat wave that occurred in 1994. We analyzed 7 RCM simulations with a high resolution (0.22°) from the ENSEMBLES project, driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis. In observed data (the E-OBS 9.0 dataset), heat waves were defined on the basis of deviations of daily maximum temperature (Tmax) from the 95% quantile of summer Tmax distribution in grid points over Central Europe. The same methodology was applied in the RCM simulations; we used corresponding 95% quantiles (calculated for each RCM and grid point) in order to remove the bias of modelled Tmax. While climatological characteristics of heat waves are reproduced reasonably well in the RCM ensemble, we found major deficiencies in simulating heat waves in individual years. For example, METNOHIRHAM simulated very severe heat waves in 1996, when no heat wave was observed. Focusing on the major 1994 heat wave, considerable differences in simulated temperature patterns were found among the RCMs. The differences in the temperature patterns were clearly linked to the simulated amount of precipitation during this event. The 1994 heat wave was almost absent in all RCMs that did not capture the observed precipitation deficit, while it was by far most pronounced in KNMI-RACMO that simulated virtually no precipitation over Central Europe during the 15-day period of the heat wave. By contrast to precipitation, values of evaporative fraction in the RCMs were not linked to severity of the simulated 1994 heat wave. This suggests a possible major contribution of other factors such as cloud cover and associated downward shortwave radiation. Therefore, a more detailed
Experimental Study of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy
This report presents the results of an experimental study on the power conversion capabilities and structural loads of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly at identifying the performance of the WEPTOS prototype in a wide range of production wave states...... and at the mooring forces and structural bending moments in extreme wave conditions, in order to estimate the performance and structural loads of larger WEPTOS machines being located at various offshore locations of interest. The following aspects were the main subjects of investigation: Performance of the prototype...... under a constant and linear PTO loading, the opening angle of the device, the effect of alterations to the wave conditions, and mooring forces and structural bending moments in production and extreme wave states. During the study, a highly realistic scale model was supplied by the client, WEPTOS, which...
Numerical Modeling of Infragravity Wave Runup on Steep and Mildly Sloping Natural Beaches
Fiedler, J. W.; Smit, P.; Brodie, K. L.; McNinch, J.; Guza, R. T.; Gallien, T.
2016-12-01
We present ongoing work which aims to validate the non-hydrostatic model SWASH for wave runup and infragravity waves generated by a range of different incident wave spectra at the offshore boundary, including the effect of finite directional spread. Flume studies of wave runup are limited to normally incident (1D) sea and infragravity waves, but natural waves are directionally spread (2D), with substantially different dynamics from 1D. For example, refractive trapping (edge waves) is only possible with 2D waves, and the bound infragravity wave response to short wave groups is highly amplified for the special case of normal incidence. Selected case studies are modeled at Agate Beach, Oregon, a low slope (1:80) beach with maximum offshore wave heights greater than 7m, and Cardiff, California, a steep (1:8) beach with maximum wave heights of 2m. Peak periods ranged between 5-20 s at both sites. On both beaches, waves were measured on a transect from approximately 10m depth to the runup, using pressure sensors, current meters, and a scanning lidar. Bulk short wave quantities, wave runup, infragravity frequency spectra and energy fluxes are compared with SWASH. On the low slope beach with energetic incident waves, the observed horizontal runup excursions reach 140m ( 100s periods). Swash front velocities reached up to several m/s, causing short waves to stack up during runup drawdown. On reversal of the infragravity phase, the stacked short waves are swept onshore with the long wave front, effectively enhancing runup by phase coupling long and short waves. Statistical variability and nonlinearity in swash generation lead to time-varying runup heights. Here, we test these observations with 2D SWASH, as well as the sensitivity of modeled runup to the parameterization of bottom friction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Vekslerchik, Vadym
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study a system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations modelling a quantum degenerate mixture of bosons and fermions. We analyze the stability of plane waves, give precise conditions for the existence of solitons and write explicit solutions in the form of periodic waves. We also check that the solitons observed previously in numerical simulations of the model correspond exactly to our explicit solutions and see how plane waves destabilize to form periodic waves
Monitoring and modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in crystallizing mixtures
Marshall, T.; Challis, R. E.; Tebbutt, J. S.
2002-05-01
The utility of ultrasonic compression wave techniques for monitoring crystallization processes is investigated in a study of the seeded crystallization of copper II sulfate pentahydrate from aqueous solution. Simple models are applied to predict crystal yield, crystal size distribution and the changing nature of the continuous phase. A scattering model is used to predict the ultrasonic attenuation as crystallization proceeds. Experiments confirm that modeled attenuation is in agreement with measured results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Zhang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of offshore wind turbines (WTs, the problem of lightning strikes has become more and more prominent. In order to reduce the failure rate caused by the transient overvoltage of lightning struck offshore WTs, the influencing factors and the response rules of transient overvoltage are analyzed. In this paper, a new integrated electromagnetic transient model of offshore WTs is established by using the numerical calculation method of the electromagnetic field first. Then, based on the lightning model and considering the impedance of the lightning channel, the transient overvoltage of lightning is analyzed. Last, the electromagnetic transient model of offshore WTs is simulated and analyzed by using the alternative transients program electro-magnetic transient program (ATP-EMTP software. The influence factors of lightning transient overvoltage are studied. The main influencing factors include the sea depth, the blade length, the tower height, the lightning flow parameters, the lightning strike point, and the blade rotation position. The simulation results show that the influencing factors mentioned above have different effects on the lightning transient overvoltage. The results of the study have some guiding significance for the design of the lightning protection of the engine room.
Inflationary gravitational waves in collapse scheme models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mariani, Mauro, E-mail: mariani@carina.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); León, Gabriel, E-mail: gleon@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria – Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-01-10
The inflationary paradigm is an important cornerstone of the concordance cosmological model. However, standard inflation cannot fully address the transition from an early homogeneous and isotropic stage, to another one lacking such symmetries corresponding to our present universe. In previous works, a self-induced collapse of the wave function has been suggested as the missing ingredient of inflation. Most of the analysis regarding the collapse hypothesis has been solely focused on the characteristics of the spectrum associated to scalar perturbations, and within a semiclassical gravity framework. In this Letter, working in terms of a joint metric-matter quantization for inflation, we calculate, for the first time, the tensor power spectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio corresponding to the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves resulting from considering a generic self-induced collapse.
Pianezze, J.; Barthe, C.; Bielli, S.; Tulet, P.; Jullien, S.; Cambon, G.; Bousquet, O.; Claeys, M.; Cordier, E.
2018-03-01
Ocean-Waves-Atmosphere (OWA) exchanges are not well represented in current Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems, which can lead to large uncertainties in tropical cyclone track and intensity forecasts. In order to explore and better understand the impact of OWA interactions on tropical cyclone modeling, a fully coupled OWA system based on the atmospheric model Meso-NH, the oceanic model CROCO, and the wave model WW3 and called MSWC was designed and applied to the case of tropical cyclone Bejisa (2013-2014). The fully coupled OWA simulation shows good agreement with the literature and available observations. In particular, simulated significant wave height is within 30 cm of measurements made with buoys and altimeters. Short-term (right place (in the eyewall of the tropical cyclone) and with the right size distribution, which is critical for cloud microphysics.
Innovative technologies to accurately model waves and moored ship motions
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
van der Molen, W
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Late in 2009 CSIR Built Environment in Stellenbosch was awarded a contract to carry out extensive physical and numerical modelling to study the wave conditions and associated moored ship motions, for the design of a new iron ore export jetty for BHP...
Applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures
Zou, T.; Kaminski, M.L.
2016-01-01
In design and operation of floating offshore structures, one has to avoid fatigue failures caused by action of ocean waves. The aim of this paper is to investigate the applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures. The applicability was investigated
Boussinesq Modeling of Wave Propagation and Runup over Fringing Coral Reefs, Model Evaluation Report
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G
2007-01-01
This report describes evaluation of a two-dimensional Boussinesq-type wave model, BOUSS-2D, with data obtained from two laboratory experiments and two field studies at the islands of Guam and Hawaii...
A Coupled Atmospheric and Wave Modeling System for Storm Simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Jianting; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Bolanos, R.
2015-01-01
to parametrize z0. The results are validated through QuikScat data and point measurements from an open ocean site Ekosk and a coastal, relatively shallow water site Horns Rev. It is found that the modeling system captures in general better strong wind and strong wave characteristics for open ocean condition than......This study aims at improving the simulation of wind and waves during storms in connection with wind turbine design and operations in coastal areas. For this particular purpose, we investigated the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System which couples the Weather...... resolution ranging from 25km to 2km. Meanwhile, the atmospheric forcing data of dierent spatial resolution, with one about 100km (FNL) and the other about 38km (CFSR) are both used. In addition, bathymatry data of diferent resolutions (1arc-minute and 30arc-seconds) are used. We used three approaches...
Horizontal circulation and jumps in Hamiltonian wave models
Gagarina, Elena; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Bokhove, Onno
2013-01-01
We are interested in the numerical modeling of wave-current interactions around surf zones at beaches. Any model that aims to predict the onset of wave breaking at the breaker line needs to capture both the nonlinearity of the wave and its dispersion. We have therefore formulated the Hamiltonian
Wave Modelling - The State of the Art
2007-09-27
8217) - -16 C-Ax( M) (I - 2y) -N +1CgAx’(1 -y)(6y’ - 6y + 1) + O(At4), (8.2) 24OX where p is the Courant- Friedrichs -Lewy (CFL) number, j = CgxAt/Ax. Thus...attainable time step is at the best of the order of min- utes . For early third generation wave models, this was unacceptable, and methods were developed to be... Barbara Channel. In: Beal, R. (Ed.), 5th California Islands Symposium, March 29-31. Mineral Management Service, Santa Barbara , CA. Onorato, M., Osborne
A delay differential equation model of follicle waves in women.
Panza, Nicole M; Wright, Andrew A; Selgrade, James F
2016-01-01
This article presents a mathematical model for hormonal regulation of the menstrual cycle which predicts the occurrence of follicle waves in normally cycling women. Several follicles of ovulatory size that develop sequentially during one menstrual cycle are referred to as follicle waves. The model consists of 13 nonlinear, delay differential equations with 51 parameters. Model simulations exhibit a unique stable periodic cycle and this menstrual cycle accurately approximates blood levels of ovarian and pituitary hormones found in the biological literature. Numerical experiments illustrate that the number of follicle waves corresponds to the number of rises in pituitary follicle stimulating hormone. Modifications of the model equations result in simulations which predict the possibility of two ovulations at different times during the same menstrual cycle and, hence, the occurrence of dizygotic twins via a phenomenon referred to as superfecundation. Sensitive parameters are identified and bifurcations in model behaviour with respect to parameter changes are discussed. Studying follicle waves may be helpful for improving female fertility and for understanding some aspects of female reproductive ageing.
Experimental Modeling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik
2011-01-01
The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is currently facing a precommercial phase. At this stage of development a reliable overtopping model is highly required, in order to predict the performance of the device at possible deployment locations. A model formulation derived for an overtopping device...... with general geometry has been used so far. The paper presents an updated formulation drawn through the tank testing of a scaled model the Wave Dragon. The sensitivity analysis of the main features influencing the overtopping flow led to an updated model formulation which can be specifically suited...... for the Wave Dragon....
Rogue waves in a water tank: Experiments and modeling
Lechuga, Antonio
2013-04-01
Recently many rogue waves have been reported as the main cause of ship incidents on the sea. One of the main characteristics of rogue waves is its elusiveness: they present unexpectedly and disappear in the same wave. Some authors (Zakharov and al.2010) are attempting to find the probability of their appearances apart from studyingthe mechanism of the formation. As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum(Akhmediev et al. 2011) as input on the wave maker. The produced waves were clearly rogue waves with a rate (maximum wave height/ Significant wave height) of 2.33 and a kurtosis of 4.77 (Janssen 2003, Onorato 2006). These results were already presented (Lechuga 2012). Similar waves (in pattern aspect, but without being extreme waves) were described as crossing waves in a water tank(Shemer and Lichter1988). To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves. After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This apparently amazing result is easily explained: We know that the Ginzburg-Landau model is related to some regular structures on the surface of a liquid and also in plasmas, electric and magnetic fields and other media. Another important characteristic of the model is that their solutions are invariants with respectto the translation group. The main aim of this presentation is to extract conclusions of the model and the comparison with the measured waves in the water tank.The nonlinear structure of waves and their regularity make suitable the use of the Ginzburg-Landau model to the envelope of generated waves in the tank,so giving us a powerful tool to cope with the results of our experiment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenwood, Charles; Christie, David; Venugopal, Vengatesan; Morrison, James; Vogler, Arne
2016-01-01
This paper presents results from numerical simulations of three Oscillating Wave Surge Converters (OWSC) using two different computational models, Boussinesq wave (BW) and Spectral wave (SW) of the commercial software suite MIKE. The simulation of a shallow water wave farm applies alternative methods for implementing a frequency dependent absorption in both the BW and SW models, where energy extraction is based on experimental data from a scaled Oyster device. The effects of including wave diffraction within the SW model is tested by using diffraction smoothing steps and various directional wave conditions. The results of this study reveal important information on the models realms of validity that is heavily dependent on the incident sea state and the removal of diffraction for the SW model. This yields an increase in simulation accuracy for far-field disturbances when diffraction is entirely removed. This highlights specific conditions where the BW and SW model may thrive but also regions where reduced performance is observed. The results presented in this paper have not been validated with real sea site wave device array performance, however, the methodology described would be useful to device developers to arrive at preliminary decisions on array configurations and to minimise negative environmental impacts.
Endogenous Crisis Waves: Stochastic Model with Synchronized Collective Behavior
Gualdi, Stanislao; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Cencetti, Giulia; Tarzia, Marco; Zamponi, Francesco
2015-02-01
We propose a simple framework to understand commonly observed crisis waves in macroeconomic agent-based models, which is also relevant to a variety of other physical or biological situations where synchronization occurs. We compute exactly the phase diagram of the model and the location of the synchronization transition in parameter space. Many modifications and extensions can be studied, confirming that the synchronization transition is extremely robust against various sources of noise or imperfections.
Application of multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models in radiation belt modeling
Aryan, H.; Kang, S. B.; Balikhin, M. A.; Fok, M. C. H.; Agapitov, O. V.; Komar, C. M.; Kanekal, S. G.; Nagai, T.; Sibeck, D. G.
2017-12-01
Numerical simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model along with many other radiation belt models require inputs for pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. In this study we incorporate recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multi-parameter wave models resembles the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.
Experimental validation of a mathematical model for seabed liquefaction in waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kirca, Özgür; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2011-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study directed towards the validation of a mathematical model for the buildup of pore water pressure and resulting liquefaction of marine soils under progressive waves. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with silt ( d50 = 0.......070 mm) in a wave flume with a soil pit. Waves with wave heights in the range 7.7-18 cm with the water depth 55 cm and the wave period 1.6 s enabled us to study both the liquefaction and no-liquefaction regime pore water pressure buildup. The experimental data was used to validate the model. A numerical...
Forecasting ocean wave energy: A Comparison of the ECMWF wave model with time series methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reikard, Gordon; Pinson, Pierre; Bidlot, Jean
2011-01-01
Recently, the technology has been developed to make wave farms commercially viable. Since electricity is perishable, utilities will be interested in forecasting ocean wave energy. The horizons involved in short-term management of power grids range from as little as a few hours to as long as several...... days. In selecting a method, the forecaster has a choice between physics-based models and statistical techniques. A further idea is to combine both types of models. This paper analyzes the forecasting properties of a well-known physics-based model, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts...... (ECMWF) Wave Model, and two statistical techniques, time-varying parameter regressions and neural networks. Thirteen data sets at locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico are tested. The quantities to be predicted are the significant wave height, the wave period, and the wave...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter
This report presents the results of an experimental study that was performed on small scale model that was a replication of the full-scale Weptos WEC intended for DanWEC. The tests were performed in the circular basin at FloWave at Edinburgh University in October 2014. The laboratory facilities h...... the capabilities to have simultaneously currents and waves from any possible direction and also to produce advanced wave specifications....
A methodology for spectral wave model evaluation
Siqueira, S. A.; Edwards, K. L.; Rogers, W. E.
2017-12-01
Model evaluation is accomplished by comparing bulk parameters (e.g., significant wave height, energy period, and mean square slope (MSS)) calculated from the model energy spectra with those calculated from buoy energy spectra. Quality control of the observed data and choice of the frequency range from which the bulk parameters are calculated are critical steps in ensuring the validity of the model-data comparison. The compared frequency range of each observation and the analogous model output must be identical, and the optimal frequency range depends in part on the reliability of the observed spectra. National Data Buoy Center 3-m discus buoy spectra are unreliable above 0.3 Hz due to a non-optimal buoy response function correction. As such, the upper end of the spectrum should not be included when comparing a model to these data. Bioufouling of Waverider buoys must be detected, as it can harm the hydrodynamic response of the buoy at high frequencies, thereby rendering the upper part of the spectrum unsuitable for comparison. An important consideration is that the intentional exclusion of high frequency energy from a validation due to data quality concerns (above) can have major implications for validation exercises, especially for parameters such as the third and fourth moments of the spectrum (related to Stokes drift and MSS, respectively); final conclusions can be strongly altered. We demonstrate this by comparing outcomes with and without the exclusion, in a case where a Waverider buoy is believed to be free of biofouling. Determination of the appropriate frequency range is not limited to the observed spectra. Model evaluation involves considering whether all relevant frequencies are included. Guidance to make this decision is based on analysis of observed spectra. Two model frequency lower limits were considered. Energy in the observed spectrum below the model lower limit was calculated for each. For locations where long swell is a component of the wave
Integration of coastal inundation modeling from storm tides to individual waves
Li, Ning; Roeber, Volker; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Heitmann, Troy W.; Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai
2014-11-01
Modeling of storm-induced coastal inundation has primarily focused on the surge generated by atmospheric pressure and surface winds with phase-averaged effects of the waves as setup. Through an interoperable model package, we investigate the role of phase-resolving wave processes in simulation of coastal flood hazards. A spectral ocean wave model describes generation and propagation of storm waves from deep to intermediate water, while a non-hydrostatic storm-tide model has the option to couple with a spectral coastal wave model for computation of phase-averaged processes in a near-shore region. The ocean wave and storm-tide models can alternatively provide the wave spectrum and the surface elevation as the boundary and initial conditions for a nested Boussinesq model. Additional surface-gradient terms in the Boussinesq equations maintain the quasi-steady, non-uniform storm tide for modeling of phase-resolving surf and swash-zone processes as well as combined tide, surge, and wave inundation. The two nesting schemes are demonstrated through a case study of Hurricane Iniki, which made landfall on the Hawaiian Island of Kauai in 1992. With input from a parametric hurricane model and global reanalysis and tidal datasets, the two approaches produce comparable significant wave heights and phase-averaged surface elevations in the surf zone. The nesting of the Boussinesq model provides a seamless approach to augment the inundation due to the individual waves in matching the recorded debris line along the coast.
Spin-Wave Wave Function for Quantum Spin Models : Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics
Franjo, FRANJIC; Sandro, SORELLA; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia International School for Advance Studies; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia International School for Advance Studies
1997-01-01
We present a new approach to determine an accurate variational wave function for general quantum spin models, completely defined by a consistency requirement with the simple and well-known linear spin-wave expansion. With this wave function, it is also possible to obtain the correct behavior of the long distance correlation functions for the 1D S=1/2 antiferromagnet. In 2D the proposed spin-wave wave function represents an excellent approximation to the exact ground state of the S=1.2 XY mode...
Mešic, Vanes; Hajder, Erna; Neumann, Knut; Erceg, Nataša
2016-01-01
Research has shown that students have tremendous difficulties developing a qualitative understanding of wave optics, at all educational levels. In this study, we investigate how three different approaches to visualizing light waves affect students' understanding of wave optics. In the first, the conventional, approach light waves are represented…
Directional nonlinear guided wave mixing: Case study of counter-propagating shear horizontal waves
Hasanian, Mostafa; Lissenden, Cliff J.
2018-04-01
While much nonlinear ultrasonics research has been conducted on higher harmonic generation, wave mixing provides the potential for sensitive measurements of incipient damage unencumbered by instrumentation nonlinearity. Studies of nonlinear ultrasonic wave mixing, both collinear and noncollinear, for bulk waves have shown the robust capability of wave mixing for early damage detection. One merit of bulk wave mixing lies in their non-dispersive nature, but guided waves enable inspection of otherwise inaccessible material and a variety of mixing options. Co-directional guided wave mixing was studied previously, but arbitrary direction guided wave mixing has not been addressed until recently. Wave vector analysis is applied to study variable mixing angles to find wave mode triplets (two primary waves and a secondary wave) resulting in the phase matching condition. As a case study, counter-propagating Shear Horizontal (SH) guided wave mixing is analyzed. SH wave interactions generate a secondary Lamb wave mode that is readily receivable. Reception of the secondary Lamb wave mode is compared for an angle beam transducer, an air coupled transducer, and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Results from the angle beam and air coupled transducers are quite consistent, while the LDV measurement is plagued by variability issues.
Studies on fast wave current drive in the JAERI tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Fujii, T.; Kawashima, H.; Tamai, H.; Saigusa, M.; Imai, T.; Hamamatsu, K.; Fukuyama, A.
1991-01-01
Fast wave electron heating experiment (FWEH) on JFT-2M and JT-60 and analysis of fast wave current drive (FWCD) ability on JT-60U are presented. In the JFT-2M, absorption of fast waves have been investigated by using a phased four-loop antenna array. The absorption of the fast waves has been studied for various plasma parameters by using combination of other additional heating methods such as electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and ion cyclotron heating. It is shown that the absorption efficiency estimated from various methods well correlates with one calculated theoretically in single pass damping. Interaction of the fast waves with fast electrons in combination with ECH has been examined through the measurement of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission (ECE). The observed ECE during FWEH is well explained by the theoretical model, which indicates generation of the appreciable energetic fast electrons by the fast waves. New four-loop array antennas have been employed to improve the absorption of unidirectionally-propagating waves. Characteristics of antenna loading resistance can be reproduced by a coupling calculation code. In JT-60, FWEH experiment in combination with lower hybrid current drive was performed. Power absorption efficiency of fast wave is substantially improved in combination with LHCD of relatively low power for both phasing modes. Bulk electron heating is observed with high-k // mode and coupling with fast electron is confirmed in hard X-ray emission with low-k // mode. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction based on 1.D full wave code. Synergetic effects between FWEH and LHCD are found. Coupling calculation indicates that eight-loop antenna is favourable for keeping high directivity in the required N // -range. Current drive efficiency is calculated with 1-D full wave code including trapped particle effects and higher harmonic ion cyclotron damping
Shock waves and rarefaction waves in magnetohydrodynamics. Pt. 1: A model system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myong, R.S.; Roe, P.L.
1997-01-01
The present study consists of two parts. Here in Part I, a model set of conservation laws exactly preserving the MHD hyperbolic singularities is investigated to develop the general theory of the nonlinear evolution of MHD shock waves. Great emphasis is placed on shock admissibility conditions. By developing the viscosity admissibility condition, it is shown that the intermediate shocks are necessary to ensure that the planar Riemann problem is well-posed. In contrast, it turns out that the evolutionary condition is inappropriate for determining physically relevant MHD, shocks. In the general non-planar case, by studying canonical cases, we show that the solution of the Riemann problem is not necessarily unique - in particular, that it depends not only on reference states but also on the associated internal structure. Finally, the stability of intermediate shocks is discussed, and a theory of their nonlinear evolution is proposed. In Part 2, the theory of nonlinear waves developed for the model is applied to the MHD problem. It is shown that the topology of the MHD Hugoniot and wave curves is identical to that of the model problem. (Author)
Improved Wave-vessel Transfer Functions by Uncertainty Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Fønss Bach, Kasper; Iseki, Toshio
2016-01-01
This paper deals with uncertainty modelling of wave-vessel transfer functions used to calculate or predict wave-induced responses of a ship in a seaway. Although transfer functions, in theory, can be calculated to exactly reflect the behaviour of the ship when exposed to waves, uncertainty in inp...
Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy
2016-04-01
As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Long, M. S. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Keene, William C. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Zhang, J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Reichl, B. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Shi, Y. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Hara, T. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Reid, J. S. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Monterey, CA (United States); Fox-Kemper, B. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences; Craig, A. P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Erickson, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division; Ginis, I. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Webb, A. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Ocean Technology, Policy, and Environment
2016-11-08
Primary marine aerosol (PMA) is emitted into the atmosphere via breaking wind waves on the ocean surface. Most parameterizations of PMA emissions use 10-meter wind speed as a proxy for wave action. This investigation coupled the 3^{rd} generation prognostic WAVEWATCH-III wind-wave model within a coupled Earth system model (ESM) to drive PMA production using wave energy dissipation rate – analogous to whitecapping – in place of 10-meter wind speed. The wind speed parameterization did not capture basin-scale variability in relations between wind and wave fields. Overall, the wave parameterization did not improve comparison between simulated versus measured AOD or Na^{+}, thus highlighting large remaining uncertainties in model physics. Results confirm the efficacy of prognostic wind-wave models for air-sea exchange studies coupled with laboratory- and field-based characterizations of the primary physical drivers of PMA production. No discernible correlations were evident between simulated PMA fields and observed chlorophyll or sea surface temperature.
Chen, Pengzhen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Li; Chong, Jinsong
2016-06-01
According to Bragg theory, capillary waves are the predominant scatterers of high-frequency band (such as Ka-band) microwave radiation from the surface of the ocean. Therefore, understanding the modulation mechanism of capillary waves is an important foundation for interpreting high-frequency microwave remote sensing images of the surface of the sea. In our experiments, we discovered that modulations of capillary waves are significantly larger than the values predicted by the classical theory. Further, analysis shows that the difference in restoring force results in an inflection point while the phase velocity changes from gravity waves region to capillary waves region, and this results in the capillary waves being able to resonate with gravity waves when the phase velocity of the gravity waves is equal to the group velocity of the capillary waves. Consequently, we propose a coupling modulation model in which the current modulates the capillary wave indirectly by modulating the resonant gravity waves, and the modulation of the former is approximated by that of the latter. This model very effectively explains the results discovered in our experiments. Further, based on Bragg scattering theory and this coupling modulation model, we simulate the modulation of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of typical internal waves and show that the high-frequency bands are superior to the low-frequency bands because of their greater modulation of NRCS and better radiometric resolution. This result provides new support for choice of radar band for observation of wave-current modulation oceanic phenomena such as internal waves, fronts, and shears.
A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Métivier, L., E-mail: ludovic.metivier@ujf-grenoble.fr [LJK, CNRS, Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Brossier, R. [ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Labbé, S. [LJK, CNRS, Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Operto, S. [Géoazur, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, IRD, OCA, Villefranche-sur-Mer (France); Virieux, J. [ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)
2014-12-15
When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped.
A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Labbé, S.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.
2014-01-01
When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped
Computation of nonlinear water waves with a high-order Boussinesq model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.; Bingham, Harry
2005-01-01
Computational highlights from a recently developed high-order Boussinesq model are shown. The model is capable of treating fully nonlinear waves (up to the breaking point) out to dimensionless depths of (wavenumber times depth) kh \\approx 25. Cases considered include the study of short......-crested waves in shallow/deep water, resulting in hexagonal/rectangular surface patterns; crescent waves, resulting from unstable perturbations of plane progressive waves; and highly-nonlinear wave-structure interactions. The emphasis is on physically demanding problems, and in eachcase qualitative and (when...
Boussinesq Modeling of Wave Propagation and Runup over Fringing Coral Reefs, Model Evaluation Report
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G
2007-01-01
..., for waves propagating over fringing reefs. The model evaluation had two goals: (a) investigate differences between laboratory and field characteristics of wave transformation processes over reefs, and (b...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Air and sea interacts, where winds generate waves and waves affect the winds. This topic is ever relevant for offshore functions such as shipping, portal routines, wind farm operation and maintenance. In a coupled modeling system, the atmospheric modeling and the wave modeling interfere with each...... use the stress directly, thus avoiding the uncertainties caused by parameterizations. This study examines the efficiency of the wave impact transfer to the atmospheric modeling through the two types of interfaces, roughness length and stress, through the coupled......-ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment-transport (COAWST) modeling system. The roughness length has been calculated using seven schemes (Charnock, Fan, Oost, Drennen, Liu, Andreas, Taylor-Yelland). The stress approach is applied through a wave boundary layer model in SWAN. The experiments are done to a case where the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image...
Alfven wave studies on a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kortbawi, D.
1987-10-01
The continuum modes of the shear Alfven resonance are studied on the Tokapole II device, a small tokamak operated in a four node poloidal divertor configuration. A variety of antenna designs and the efficiency with which they deliver energy to the resonant layer are discussed. The spatial structure of the driven waves is studied by means of magnetic probes inserted into the current channel. In an attempt to optimize the coupling of energy in to the resonant layer, the angle of antenna currents with respect to the equilibrium field, antenna size, and plasma-to-antenna distance are varied. The usefulness of Faraday shields, particle shields, and local limiters are investigated. Antennas should be well shielded, either a dense Faraday shield or particle shield being satisfactory. The antenna should be large and very near to the plasma. The wave magnetic fields measured show a spatial resonance, the position of which varies with the value of the equilibrium field and mass density. They are polarized perpendicular to the equilibrium field. A wave propagates radially in to the resonant surface where it is converted to the shear Alfven wave. The signal has a short risetime and does not propagate far toroidally. These points are all consistent with a strongly damped shear Alfven wave. Comparisons of this work to theoretical predictions and results from other tokamaks are made
Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2010-01-01
The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions of the perf......The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions...
Traveling waves in a continuum model of 1D schools
Oza, Anand; Kanso, Eva; Shelley, Michael
2017-11-01
We construct and analyze a continuum model of a 1D school of flapping swimmers. Our starting point is a delay differential equation that models the interaction between a swimmer and its upstream neighbors' wakes, which is motivated by recent experiments in the Applied Math Lab at NYU. We coarse-grain the evolution equations and derive PDEs for the swimmer density and variables describing the upstream wake. We study the equations both analytically and numerically, and find that a uniform density of swimmers destabilizes into a traveling wave. Our model makes a number of predictions about the properties of such traveling waves, and sheds light on the role of hydrodynamics in mediating the structure of swimming schools.
An Incidence Loss Model for Wave Rotors with Axially Aligned Passages
Paxson, Daniel E.
1998-01-01
A simple mathematical model is described to account for the losses incurred when the flow in the duct (port) of a wave rotor is not aligned with the passages. The model, specifically for wave rotors with axially aligned passages, describes a loss mechanism which is sensitive to incident flow angle and Mach number. Implementation of the model in a one-dimensional CFD based wave rotor simulation is presented. Comparisons with limited experimental results are consistent with the model. Sensitivity studies are presented which highlight the significance of the incidence loss relative to other loss mechanisms in the wave rotor.
Model Predictive Control of a Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard
2015-01-01
In this paper reactive control and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) are compared. The analysis is based on a WEC from Wave Star A/S designed as a point absorber. The model predictive controller uses wave models based on the dominating sea states combined with a model...... connecting undisturbed wave sequences to sequences of torque. Losses in the conversion from mechanical to electrical power are taken into account in two ways. Conventional reactive controllers are tuned for each sea state with the assumption that the converter has the same efficiency back and forth. MPC...
Low-order models of wave interactions in the transition to baroclinic chaos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W.-G. Früh
1996-01-01
Full Text Available A hierarchy of low-order models, based on the quasi-geostrophic two-layer model, is used to investigate complex multi-mode flows. The different models were used to study distinct types of nonlinear interactions, namely wave- wave interactions through resonant triads, and zonal flow-wave interactions. The coupling strength of individual triads is estimated using a phase locking probability density function. The flow of primary interest is a strongly modulated amplitude vacillation, whose modulation is coupled to intermittent bursts of weaker wave modes. This flow was found to emerge in a discontinuous bifurcation directly from a steady wave solution. Two mechanism were found to result in this flow, one involving resonant triads, and the other involving zonal flow-wave interactions together with a strong β-effect. The results will be compared with recent laboratory experiments of multi-mode baroclinic waves in a rotating annulus of fluid subjected to a horizontal temperature gradient.
Costen, Robert C.; Heinbockel, John H.; Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E., Jr.; Tabibi, Bagher M.; Lee, Ja H.; Williams, Michael D.
1995-01-01
A numerical rate equation model for a continuous wave iodine laser with longitudinally flowing gaseous lasant is validated by approximating two experiments that compare the perfluoroalkyl iodine lasants n-C3F7I and t-C4F9I. The salient feature of the simulations is that the production rate of the dimer (C4F9)2 is reduced by one order of magnitude relative to the dimer (C3F7)2. The model is then used to investigate the kinetic effects of this reduced dimer production, especially how it improves output power. Related parametric and scaling studies are also presented. When dimer production is reduced, more monomer radicals (t-C4F9) are available to combine with iodine ions, thus enhancing depletion of the laser lower level and reducing buildup of the principal quencher, molecular iodine. Fewer iodine molecules result in fewer downward transitions from quenching and more transitions from stimulated emission of lasing photons. Enhanced depletion of the lower level reduces the absorption of lasing photons. The combined result is more lasing photons and proportionally increased output power.
Report on feasibility study of the Clam Wave Energy Device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1979-04-01
The main emphasis of the feasibility study has been towards producing an acceptable spine design for the Clam wave energy converter. Concrete and steel designs based on a mathematical model of the waveloading have been produced. Progress is also reported in the design of a bellows for a low-pressure air power transmission system. A narrow wave tank and scale model have been constructed in order to carry out a test programme on various aspects of the device's construction and performance.
External wave-launcher study. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
The rationale for liquid dielectrically-loaded external wave-guide launchers is discussed. The arguments are strongly indicative that a liquid dielectric-filled waveguide system could be a practical technique for launching ICRH power into a fusion reactor. A detailed summary of the work performed in the study is presented
Shen, Yujia; Wen, Zichao; Yan, Zhenya; Hang, Chao
2018-04-01
We study the three-wave interaction that couples an electromagnetic pump wave to two frequency down-converted daughter waves in a quadratic optical crystal and P T -symmetric potentials. P T symmetric potentials are shown to modulate stably nonlinear modes in two kinds of three-wave interaction models. The first one is a spatially extended three-wave interaction system with odd gain-and-loss distribution in the channel. Modulated by the P T -symmetric single-well or multi-well Scarf-II potentials, the system is numerically shown to possess stable soliton solutions. Via adiabatical change of system parameters, numerical simulations for the excitation and evolution of nonlinear modes are also performed. The second one is a combination of P T -symmetric models which are coupled via three-wave interactions. Families of nonlinear modes are found with some particular choices of parameters. Stable and unstable nonlinear modes are shown in distinct families by means of numerical simulations. These results will be useful to further investigate nonlinear modes in three-wave interaction models.
Modeling deflagration waves out of hot spots
Partom, Yehuda
2017-01-01
It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives comes about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping through an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step, deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in the cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighboring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration waves may depend on both pressure and temperature. It depends on pressure for quasistatic loading near ambient temperature, and on temperature at high temperatures resulting from shock loading. From the simulation we obtain deflagration fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For 8 to 13 GPa shocks, the emanating fronts propagate as deflagration waves to consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels deflagration waves may interact with the sweeping shock to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds.
Yuan, Bing; de Swart, Huib E.; Panadès, Carles
2016-01-01
Tidal sand ridges and long bed waves are large-scale bedforms that are observed on continental shelves. They differ in their wavelength and in their orientation with respect to the principal direction of tidal currents. Previous studies indicate that tidal sand ridges appear in areas where tidal
The Red Sea: An Arena for Wind-Wave Modeling in Enclosed Seas
Langodan, Sabique
2016-12-01
Wind and waves play a major role in important ocean dynamical processes, such as the exchange of heat, momentum and gases between atmosphere and ocean, that greatly contributes to the earth climate and marine lives. Knowledge on wind and wave weather and climate is crucial for a wide range of applications, including oceanographic studies, maritime activities and ocean engineering. Despite being one of the important world shipping routes, the wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea are yet to be fully explored. Because of the scarcity of waves data in the Red Sea, numerical models become crucial and provide very powerful tools to extrapolate wind and wave data in space, and backward and forward in time. Unlike open oceans, enclosed basins wave have different characteristics, mainly because of their local generation processes. The complex orography on both sides of the Red Sea makes the local wind, and consequently wave, modeling very challenging. This thesis considers the modeling of wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea, including their climate variability and trends using state-of-the-art numerical models and all available observations. Different approaches are investigated to model and understand the general and unusual wind and wave conditions in the basin using standard global meteorological products and customised regional wind and wave models. After studying and identifying the main characteristics of the wind-wave variability in the Red Sea, we demonstrate the importance of generating accurate atmospheric forcing through data assimilation for reliable wave simulations. In particular, we show that the state-of-the-art physical formulation of wave models is not suitable to model the unique situation of the two opposing wind-waves systems in the Red Sea Convergence Zone, and propose and successfully test a modification to the input and white-capping source functions to address this problem. We further investigate the climate variability and trends of wind
Experimental Update of the Overtopping Model Used for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik
2013-01-01
An overtopping model specifically suited for Wave Dragon is needed in order to improve the reliability of its performance estimates. The model shall be comprehensive of all relevant physical processes that affect overtopping and flexible to adapt to any local conditions and device configuration....... An experimental investigation is carried out to update an existing formulation suited for 2D draft-limited, low-crested structures, in order to include the effects on the overtopping flow of the wave steepness, the 3D geometry of Wave Dragon, the wing reflectors, the device motions and the non-rigid connection...... of which can be measured in real-time. Instead of using new fitting coefficients, this approach allows a broader applicability of the model beyond the Wave Dragon case, to any overtopping WEC or structure within the range of tested conditions. Predictions reliability of overtopping over Wave Dragon...
Renormalization group approach to a p-wave superconducting model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Continentino, Mucio A.; Deus, Fernanda; Caldas, Heron
2014-01-01
We present in this work an exact renormalization group (RG) treatment of a one-dimensional p-wave superconductor. The model proposed by Kitaev consists of a chain of spinless fermions with a p-wave gap. It is a paradigmatic model of great actual interest since it presents a weak pairing superconducting phase that has Majorana fermions at the ends of the chain. Those are predicted to be useful for quantum computation. The RG allows to obtain the phase diagram of the model and to study the quantum phase transition from the weak to the strong pairing phase. It yields the attractors of these phases and the critical exponents of the weak to strong pairing transition. We show that the weak pairing phase of the model is governed by a chaotic attractor being non-trivial from both its topological and RG properties. In the strong pairing phase the RG flow is towards a conventional strong coupling fixed point. Finally, we propose an alternative way for obtaining p-wave superconductivity in a one-dimensional system without spin–orbit interaction.
Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions : A numerical study
De Bakker, A. T M; Tissier, M.F.S.; Ruessink, B. G.
2016-01-01
The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to
Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions : A numerical study
de Bakker, A. T M; Tissier, M. F S; Ruessink, B. G.
2016-01-01
The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to
Infragravity-wave dynamics in a barred coastal region, a numerical study
Rijnsdorp, Dirk P.; Ruessink, Gerben; Zijlema, Marcel
2015-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive numerical study into the infragravity-wave dynamics at a field site, characterized by a gently sloping barred beach. The nonhydrostatic wave-flow model SWASH was used to simulate the local wavefield for a range of wave conditions (including mild and storm
Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan
2016-07-01
Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.
Wave Tank Testing and Model Validation of an Autonomous Wave Energy Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bret Bosma
2015-08-01
Full Text Available A key component in bringing ocean wave energy converters from concept to commercialization is the building and testing of scaled prototypes to provide model validation. A one quarter scale prototype of an autonomous two body heaving point absorber was modeled, built, and tested for this work. Wave tank testing results are compared with two hydrodynamic and system models—implemented in both ANSYS AQWA and MATLAB/Simulink—and show model validation over certain regions of operation. This work will serve as a guide for future developers of wave energy converter devices, providing insight in taking their design from concept to prototype stage.
Model-based dispersive wave processing: A recursive Bayesian solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.H.
1999-01-01
Wave propagation through dispersive media represents a significant problem in many acoustic applications, especially in ocean acoustics, seismology, and nondestructive evaluation. In this paper we propose a propagation model that can easily represent many classes of dispersive waves and proceed to develop the model-based solution to the wave processing problem. It is shown that the underlying wave system is nonlinear and time-variable requiring a recursive processor. Thus the general solution to the model-based dispersive wave enhancement problem is developed using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori (MAP) approach and shown to lead to the recursive, nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF) processor. The problem of internal wave estimation is cast within this framework. The specific processor is developed and applied to data synthesized by a sophisticated simulator demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. copyright 1999 Acoustical Society of America.
Beyramzade, Mostafa; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa
2018-01-01
The interaction of waves with fluid mud can dissipate the wave energy significantly over few wavelengths. In this study, the third-generation wave model, SWAN, was advanced to include attenuation of wave energy due to interaction with a viscoelastic fluid mud layer. The performances of implemented viscoelastic models were verified against an analytical solution and viscous formulations for simple one-dimensional propagation cases. Stationary and non-stationary test cases in the Surinam coast and the Atchafalaya Shelf showed that the inclusion of the mud-wave interaction term in the third-generation wave model enhances the model performance in real applications. A high value of mud viscosity (of the order of 0.1 m2/s) was required in both field cases to remedy model overestimation at high frequency ranges of the wave spectrum. The use of frequency-dependent mud viscosity value improved the performance of model, especially in the frequency range of 0.2-0.35 Hz in the wave spectrum. In addition, the mud-wave interaction might affect the high frequency part of the spectrum, and this part of the wave spectrum is also affected by energy transfer from wind to waves, even for the fetch lengths of the order of 10 km. It is shown that exclusion of the wind input term in such cases might result in different values for parameters of mud layer when inverse modeling procedure was employed. Unlike viscous models for wave-mud interaction, the inverse modeling results to a set of mud parameters with the same performance when the viscoelastic model is used. It provides an opportunity to select realistic mud parameters which are in more agreement with in situ measurements.
The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo
2017-01-01
A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...
Modeling internal wave generation by seamounts in oceans
Zhang, L.; Buijsman, M. C.; Comino, E. L.; Swinney, H.
2017-12-01
Recent global bathymetric data at 30 arc-sec resolution has revealed that there are 33,452 seamounts and 138,412 knolls in the oceans. To develop an estimate for the energy converted from tidal flow to internal gravity waves, we have conducted numerical simulations using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology circulation model (MITgcm) to compute the energy conversion by randomly distributed Gaussian-shaped seamounts. We find that for an isolated axisymmetric seamount of height 1100 m and radius 1600 m, which corresponds to the Wessel height-to-radius ratio 0.69, the conversion rate is 100 kW, assuming a tidal speed amplitude 1 cm/s, buoyancy frequency 1e-3 rad/s, and circularly polarized tidal motion, and taking into account the earth's rotation. The 100 kW estimate is about 60% less than the 3-D linear theory prediction because fluid goes around a seamount instead of over it. Our estimate accounts the suppression of energy conversion due to wave interference at the generation site of closely spaced seamounts. We conclude that for randomly distributed Gaussian seamounts of varying widths and separations, separated on average by 18 km as in the oceans, wave interference reduces the energy conversion by seamounts by only about 16%. This result complements previous studies of wave interference for 2-D ridges.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yichao Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Along with the commercialization of offshore wind energy in China, the South China Sea has been identified as ideal for constructing offshore wind farms, especially for farms consisting of floating wind turbines over deep waters. Since the wind profiles and wave spectra are somewhat primitive for the design of an offshore wind turbine, engineering models describing the wind and wave characteristics in the South China Sea area are necessary for the offshore wind energy exploitation given the meteorological, hydrological, and geographical differences between the South China Sea and the North/Norwegian Sea, where the commonly used wind profile and wave spectrum models were designated. In the present study; a series of numerical simulations were conducted to reveal the wave characteristics in the South China Sea under both typhoon and non-typhoon conditions. By analyzing the simulation results; the applicability of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP spectrum model; in terms of characterizing the wind-induced wave fields in the South China Sea; was discussed. In detail; the key parameters of the JONSWAP spectrum model; such as the Phillips constant; spectral width parameter; peak-enhancement factor, and high frequency tail decay; were investigated in the context of finding suitable values.
Dias, Frédéric; Renzi, Emiliano; Gallagher, Sarah; Sarkar, Dripta; Wei, Yanji; Abadie, Thomas; Cummins, Cathal; Rafiee, Ashkan
2017-08-01
The development of new wave energy converters has shed light on a number of unanswered questions in fluid mechanics, but has also identified a number of new issues of importance for their future deployment. The main concerns relevant to the practical use of wave energy converters are sustainability, survivability, and maintainability. Of course, it is also necessary to maximize the capture per unit area of the structure as well as to minimize the cost. In this review, we consider some of the questions related to the topics of sustainability, survivability, and maintenance access, with respect to sea conditions, for generic wave energy converters with an emphasis on the oscillating wave surge converter. New analytical models that have been developed are a topic of particular discussion. It is also shown how existing numerical models have been pushed to their limits to provide answers to open questions relating to the operation and characteristics of wave energy converters.
Dias, Frédéric; Renzi, Emiliano; Gallagher, Sarah; Sarkar, Dripta; Wei, Yanji; Abadie, Thomas; Cummins, Cathal; Rafiee, Ashkan
2017-01-01
The development of new wave energy converters has shed light on a number of unanswered questions in fluid mechanics, but has also identified a number of new issues of importance for their future deployment. The main concerns relevant to the practical use of wave energy converters are sustainability, survivability, and maintainability. Of course, it is also necessary to maximize the capture per unit area of the structure as well as to minimize the cost. In this review, we consider some of the questions related to the topics of sustainability, survivability, and maintenance access, with respect to sea conditions, for generic wave energy converters with an emphasis on the oscillating wave surge converter. New analytical models that have been developed are a topic of particular discussion. It is also shown how existing numerical models have been pushed to their limits to provide answers to open questions relating to the operation and characteristics of wave energy converters.
Mathematical model of snake-type multi-directional wave generation
Muarif; Halfiani, Vera; Rusdiana, Siti; Munzir, Said; Ramli, Marwan
2018-01-01
Research on extreme wave generation is one intensive research on water wave study because the fact that the occurrence of this wave in the ocean can cause serious damage to the ships and offshore structures. One method to be used to generate the wave is self-correcting. This method controls the signal on the wavemakers in a wave tank. Some studies also consider the nonlinear wave generation in a wave tank by using numerical approach. Study on wave generation is essential in the effectiveness and efficiency of offshore structure model testing before it can be operated in the ocean. Generally, there are two types of wavemakers implemented in the hydrodynamic laboratory, piston-type and flap-type. The flap-type is preferred to conduct a testing to a ship in deep water. Single flap wavemaker has been explained in many studies yet snake-type wavemaker (has more than one flap) is still a case needed to be examined. Hence, the formulation in controlling the wavemaker need to be precisely analyzed such that the given input can generate the desired wave in the space-limited wave tank. By applying the same analogy and methodhology as the previous study, this article represents multi-directional wave generation by implementing snake-type wavemakers.
Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models
MURILLO, Carol Andrea; THOREL, Luc; CAICEDO, Bernardo
2009-01-01
The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge test...
Jacobian elliptic wave solutions in an anharmonic molecular crystal model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teh, C.G.R.; Lee, B.S.; Koo, W.K.
1997-07-01
Explicit Jacobian elliptic wave solutions are found in the anharmonic molecular crystal model for both the continuum limit and discrete modes. This class of wave solutions include the famous pulse-like and kink-like solitary modes. We would also like to report on the existence of some highly discrete staggered solitary wave modes not found in the continuum limit. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig
CIMI simulations with newly developed multiparameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models
Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David G.; Kang, Suk-Bin; Balikhin, Michael A.; Fok, Mei-Ching; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Komar, Colin M.; Kanekal, Shrikanth G.; Nagai, Tsugunobu
2017-09-01
Numerical simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts to obtain plausible results. The CIMI model incorporates pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. However, currently, these wave distribution models are based only on a single-parameter, geomagnetic index (AE) and could potentially underestimate the wave amplitudes. Here we incorporate recently developed multiparameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We then perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multiparameter wave models resemble the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.
A coupled DEM-CFD method for impulse wave modelling
Zhao, Tao; Utili, Stefano; Crosta, GiovanBattista
2015-04-01
Rockslides can be characterized by a rapid evolution, up to a possible transition into a rock avalanche, which can be associated with an almost instantaneous collapse and spreading. Different examples are available in the literature, but the Vajont rockslide is quite unique for its morphological and geological characteristics, as well as for the type of evolution and the availability of long term monitoring data. This study advocates the use of a DEM-CFD framework for the modelling of the generation of hydrodynamic waves due to the impact of a rapid moving rockslide or rock-debris avalanche. 3D DEM analyses in plane strain by a coupled DEM-CFD code were performed to simulate the rockslide from its onset to the impact with still water and the subsequent wave generation (Zhao et al., 2014). The physical response predicted is in broad agreement with the available observations. The numerical results are compared to those published in the literature and especially to Crosta et al. (2014). According to our results, the maximum computed run up amounts to ca. 120 m and 170 m for the eastern and western lobe cross sections, respectively. These values are reasonably similar to those recorded during the event (i.e. ca. 130 m and 190 m respectively). In these simulations, the slope mass is considered permeable, such that the toe region of the slope can move submerged in the reservoir and the impulse water wave can also flow back into the slope mass. However, the upscaling of the grains size in the DEM model leads to an unrealistically high hydraulic conductivity of the model, such that only a small amount of water is splashed onto the northern bank of the Vajont valley. The use of high fluid viscosity and coarse grain model has shown the possibility to model more realistically both the slope and wave motions. However, more detailed slope and fluid properties, and the need for computational efficiency should be considered in future research work. This aspect has also been
de Araújo, W. R. B.; de Melo, J. P. B. C.; Tsushima, K.
2018-02-01
We study the nucleon electromagnetic (EM) form factors in symmetric nuclear matter as well as in vacuum within a light-front approach using the in-medium inputs calculated by the quark-meson coupling model. The same in-medium quark properties are used as those used for the study of in-medium pion properties. The zero of the proton EM form factor ratio in vacuum, the electric to magnetic form factor ratio μpGEp (Q2) /GMp (Q2) (Q2 = -q2 > 0 with q being the four-momentum transfer), is determined including the latest experimental data by implementing a hard constituent quark component in the nucleon wave function. A reasonable fit is achieved for the ratio μpGEp (Q2) /GMp (Q2) in vacuum, and we predict that the Q02 value to cross the zero of the ratio to be about 15 GeV2. In addition the double ratio data of the proton EM form factors in 4He and H nuclei, [GEp4He (Q2) /G4HeMp (Q2) ] / [GEp1H (Q2) /GMp1H (Q2) ], extracted by the polarized (e → ,e‧ p →) scattering experiment on 4He at JLab, are well described. We also predict that the Q02 value satisfying μpGEp (Q02) /GMp (Q0 2) = 0 in symmetric nuclear matter, shifts to a smaller value as increasing nuclear matter density, which reflects the facts that the faster falloff of GEp (Q2) as increasing Q2 and the increase of the proton mean-square charge radius. Furthermore, we calculate the neutron EM form factor double ratio in symmetric nuclear matter for 0.1 neutron double ratio is enhanced relative to that in vacuum, while for the proton it is quenched, and agrees with an existing theoretical prediction.
Nonlinear whistler wave model for lion roars in the Earth’s magnetosheath
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dwivedi, N. K.; Singh, S.
2017-01-01
In the present study, we construct a nonlinear whistler wave model to explain the magnetic field spectra observed for lion roars in the Earth’s magnetosheath region. We use two-fluid theory and semi-analytical approach to derive the dynamical equation of whistler wave propagating along the ambient...... magnetic field. We examine the magnetic field localization of parallel propagating whistler wave in the intermediate beta plasma applicable to the Earth’s magnetosheath. In addition, we investigate spectral features of the magnetic field fluctuations and the spectral slope value. The magnetic field...... semi-analytical model provides exposure to the whistler wave turbulence in the Earth’s magnetosheath....
Short-Term Wave Forecasting with AR models in Real-Time Optimal Control of Wave Energy Converters
Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John
2010-01-01
Time domain control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach conditions for optimal energy extraction. Autoregressive models revealed to be a promising approach to the prediction of future values of the wave elevation only from its past history. Results on real wave observations from different ocean locations show that AR models allow to achieve very good predictions for more than one wave period in the future if ...
Modeling the propagation of electromagnetic waves over the surface of the human body
Vendik, I. B.; Vendik, O. G.; Kirillov, V. V.; Pleskachev, V. V.; Tural'chuk, P. A.
2016-12-01
The results of modeling and an experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in microwave range propagating along the surface of the human body have been presented. The parameters of wave propagation, such as the attenuation and phase velocity, have also been investigated. The calculation of the propagation of EM waves by the numerical method FDTD (finite difference time domain), as well as the use of the analytical model of the propagation of the EM wave along flat and curved surfaces has been fulfilled. An experimental study on a human body has been conducted. It has been shown that creeping waves are slow and exhibit a noticeable dispersion, while the surface waves are dispersionless and propagate at the speed of light in free space. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation, analytical calculation, and experimental investigations at a frequency of 2.55 GHz has been carried out.
The Red Sea: A Natural Laboratory for Wind and Wave Modeling
Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2014-01-01
The Red Sea is a narrow, elongated basin that is more than 2000km long. This deceivingly simple structure offers very interesting challenges for wind and wave modeling, not easily, if ever, found elsewhere. Using standard meteorological products and local wind and wave models, this study explores how well the general and unusual wind and wave patterns of the Red Sea could be reproduced. The authors obtain the best results using two rather opposite approaches: the high-resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) local model and the slightly enhanced surface winds from the global European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts model. The reasons why these two approaches produce the best results and the implications on wave modeling in the Red Sea are discussed. The unusual wind and wave patterns in the Red Sea suggest that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of local fields. However, within limits, the WAVEWATCH III wave model, based on Janssen's and also Ardhuin's wave model physics, provides very reasonable results in many cases. The authors also discuss these findings and outline related future work.
The Red Sea: A Natural Laboratory for Wind and Wave Modeling
Langodan, Sabique
2014-12-01
The Red Sea is a narrow, elongated basin that is more than 2000km long. This deceivingly simple structure offers very interesting challenges for wind and wave modeling, not easily, if ever, found elsewhere. Using standard meteorological products and local wind and wave models, this study explores how well the general and unusual wind and wave patterns of the Red Sea could be reproduced. The authors obtain the best results using two rather opposite approaches: the high-resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) local model and the slightly enhanced surface winds from the global European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts model. The reasons why these two approaches produce the best results and the implications on wave modeling in the Red Sea are discussed. The unusual wind and wave patterns in the Red Sea suggest that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of local fields. However, within limits, the WAVEWATCH III wave model, based on Janssen\\'s and also Ardhuin\\'s wave model physics, provides very reasonable results in many cases. The authors also discuss these findings and outline related future work.
Wave Tank Studies of Strong Modulation of Wind Ripples Due To Long Waves
Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.
Modulation of wind capillary-gravity ripples due to long waves has been studied in wave tank experiment at low wind speeds using Ka-band radar. The experiments were carried out both for clean water and the water surface covered with surfactant films. It is obtained that the modulation of radar signals is quite strong and can increase with surfactant concentration and fetch. It is shown that the hydrodynamic Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) calculated for free wind ripples and taking into account the kinematic (straining) effect, variations of the wind stress and variations of surfactant concentration strongly underestimates experimental MTF-values. The effect of strong modulation is assumed to be connected with nonlinear harmonics of longer dm-cm- scale waves - bound waves ("parasitic ripples"). The intensity of bound waves depends strongly on the amplitude of decimetre-scale waves, therefore even weak modulation of the dm-scale waves due to long waves results to strong ("cascade") modulation of bound waves. Modulation of the system of "free/bound waves" is estimated using results of wave tank studies of bound waves generation and is shown to be in quali- tative agreement with experiment. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).
Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.
2009-01-01
A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...... producing electrical power. Through air chambers it is possible to control the level of the WD. It is important to control the level in order to maximize the power production in proportion to the wave height, here the amount of overtopping water and the amount of potential energy is conflicting...
Modeling sheet-flow sand transport under progressive surface waves
Kranenburg, Wouter
2013-01-01
In the near-shore zone, energetic sea waves generate sheet-flow sand transport. In present day coastal models, wave-induced sheet-flow sand transport rates are usually predicted with semi-empirical transport formulas, based on extensive research on this phenomenon in oscillatory flow tunnels.
Variational Boussinesq model for strongly nonlinear dispersive waves
Lawrence, C.; Adytia, D.; van Groesen, E.
2018-01-01
For wave tank, coastal and oceanic applications, a fully nonlinear Variational Boussinesq model with optimized dispersion is derived and a simple Finite Element implementation is described. Improving a previous weakly nonlinear version, high waves over flat and varying bottom are shown to be
Models for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered porous media
Kudarova, A.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Drijkoningen, G.G.
2014-01-01
Several models are discussed for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered poroelastic media where layers represent mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities that are larger than the pore and grain sizes but smaller than the wavelength. The layers behave according to Biot’s theory. Wave propagation
Particle transport model sensitivity on wave-induced processes
Staneva, Joanna; Ricker, Marcel; Krüger, Oliver; Breivik, Oyvind; Stanev, Emil; Schrum, Corinna
2017-04-01
Different effects of wind waves on the hydrodynamics in the North Sea are investigated using a coupled wave (WAM) and circulation (NEMO) model system. The terms accounting for the wave-current interaction are: the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state dependent momentum and energy flux. The role of the different Stokes drift parameterizations is investigated using a particle-drift model. Those particles can be considered as simple representations of either oil fractions, or fish larvae. In the ocean circulation models the momentum flux from the atmosphere, which is related to the wind speed, is passed directly to the ocean and this is controlled by the drag coefficient. However, in the real ocean, the waves play also the role of a reservoir for momentum and energy because different amounts of the momentum flux from the atmosphere is taken up by the waves. In the coupled model system the momentum transferred into the ocean model is estimated as the fraction of the total flux that goes directly to the currents plus the momentum lost from wave dissipation. Additionally, we demonstrate that the wave-induced Stokes-Coriolis force leads to a deflection of the current. During the extreme events the Stokes velocity is comparable in magnitude to the current velocity. The resulting wave-induced drift is crucial for the transport of particles in the upper ocean. The performed sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the model skill depends on the chosen processes. The results are validated using surface drifters, ADCP, HF radar data and other in-situ measurements in different regions of the North Sea with a focus on the coastal areas. The using of a coupled model system reveals that the newly introduced wave effects are important for the drift-model performance, especially during extremes. Those effects cannot be neglected by search and rescue, oil-spill, transport of biological material, or larva drift modelling.
Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Bin Wang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.
Modeling aspects of wave kinematics in offshore structures dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spanos, P.D.; Ghanem, R.; Bhattacharjee, S.
1993-01-01
Magnitude and phase related issues of modeling of ocean wave kinematics are addressed. Causal and non-causal filters are examined. It is shown that if for a particular ocean engineering problem only the magnitude representation of wave spectra spatial relation is critical, analog filters can be quite useful models in conjunction with the technique of statistical linearization, for calculating dynamic analyses. This is illustrated by considering the dynamic response of a simple model of a guyed tower
Solvable model of spiral wave chimeras.
Martens, Erik A; Laing, Carlo R; Strogatz, Steven H
2010-01-29
Spiral waves are ubiquitous in two-dimensional systems of chemical or biological oscillators coupled locally by diffusion. At the center of such spirals is a phase singularity, a topological defect where the oscillator amplitude drops to zero. But if the coupling is nonlocal, a new kind of spiral can occur, with a circular core consisting of desynchronized oscillators running at full amplitude. Here, we provide the first analytical description of such a spiral wave chimera and use perturbation theory to calculate its rotation speed and the size of its incoherent core.
Solvable Model of Spiral Wave Chimeras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martens, Erik Andreas; Laing, Carlo R.; Strogatz, Steven H.
2010-01-01
Spiral waves are ubiquitous in two-dimensional systems of chemical or biological oscillators coupled locally by diffusion. At the center of such spirals is a phase singularity, a topological defect where the oscillator amplitude drops to zero. But if the coupling is nonlocal, a new kind of spiral...... can occur, with a circular core consisting of desynchronized oscillators running at full amplitude. Here, we provide the first analytical description of such a spiral wave chimera and use perturbation theory to calculate its rotation speed and the size of its incoherent core....
Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic
Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew
2001-03-01
Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].
2015-09-30
Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2011-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model-resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, the authors introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and nonorographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. Comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parameterization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and nonorographic gravity wave parameterizations are shown to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. The authors also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Then results are presented where the nonorographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the intertropical convergence zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, a strategy to include these effects in a climate-dependent manner is suggested.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies; Yang, Zhaoqing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Coastal Sciences Division; Wang, Taiping [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Coastal Sciences Division; Gunawan, Budi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies; Dallman, Ann Renee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies
2016-03-01
A wave model test bed is established to benchmark, test and evaluate spectral wave models and modeling methodologies (i.e., best practices) for predicting the wave energy resource parameters recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC TS 62600-101Ed. 1.0 ©2015. Among other benefits, the model test bed can be used to investigate the suitability of different models, specifically what source terms should be included in spectral wave models under different wave climate conditions and for different classes of resource assessment. The overarching goal is to use these investigations to provide industry guidance for model selection and modeling best practices depending on the wave site conditions and desired class of resource assessment. Modeling best practices are reviewed, and limitations and knowledge gaps in predicting wave energy resource parameters are identified.
Towards high fidelity numerical wave tanks for modelling coastal and ocean engineering processes
Cozzuto, G.; Dimakopoulos, A.; de Lataillade, T.; Kees, C. E.
2017-12-01
With the increasing availability of computational resources, the engineering and research community is gradually moving towards using high fidelity Comutational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) models to perform numerical tests for improving the understanding of physical processes pertaining to wave propapagation and interaction with the coastal environment and morphology, either physical or man-made. It is therefore important to be able to reproduce in these models the conditions that drive these processes. So far, in CFD models the norm is to use regular (linear or nonlinear) waves for performing numerical tests, however, only random waves exist in nature. In this work, we will initially present the verification and validation of numerical wave tanks based on Proteus, an open-soruce computational toolkit based on finite element analysis, with respect to the generation, propagation and absorption of random sea states comprising of long non-repeating wave sequences. Statistical and spectral processing of results demonstrate that the methodologies employed (including relaxation zone methods and moving wave paddles) are capable of producing results of similar quality to the wave tanks used in laboratories (Figure 1). Subsequently cases studies of modelling complex process relevant to coastal defences and floating structures such as sliding and overturning of composite breakwaters, heave and roll response of floating caissons are presented. Figure 1: Wave spectra in the numerical wave tank (coloured symbols), compared against the JONSWAP distribution
Modeling the influence of storms on sand wave formation : A linear stability approach
Campmans, G.H.P.; Roos, P.C.; de Vriend, H.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.
2017-01-01
We present an idealized process-based morphodynamic model to study the effect of storms on sand wave formation. To this end, we include wind waves, wind-driven flow and, in addition to bed load transport, suspended load sediment transport. A linear stability analysis is applied to systematically
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jong-In Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents wave height distribution in terms of stem wave evolution phenomena on partially perforated wall structures through three-dimensional laboratory experiments. The plain and partially perforated walls were tested to understand their effects on the stem wave evolution under the monochromatic and random wave cases with the various wave conditions, incident angle (from 10 to 40 degrees, and configurations of front and side walls. The partially perforated wall reduced the relative wave heights more effectively compared to the plain wall structure. Partially perforated walls with side walls showed a better performance in terms of wave height reduction compared to the structure without the side wall. Moreover, the relative wave heights along the wall were relatively small when the relative chamber width is large, within the range of the chamber width in this study. The wave spectra showed a frequency dependency of the wave energy dissipation. In most cases, the existence of side wall is a more important factor than the porosity of the front wall in terms of the wave height reduction even if the partially perforated wall was still effective compared to the plain wall.
Study of nonlinear waves described by the cubic Schroedinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walstead, A.E.
1980-01-01
The cubic Schroedinger equation (CSE) is ubiquitous as a model equation for the long-time evolution of finite-amplitude near-monochromatic dispersive waves. It incorporates the effects of the radiation field pressure on the constitutive properties of the supporting medium in a self-consistent manner. The properties of the uniformly transiating periodic wave solutions of the one-dimensional CSE are studied here. These (so-called cnoidal) waves are characterized by the values of four parameters. Whitham's averaged variational principle is used to derive a system of quasilinear evolution equations (the modulational equations) for the values of these parameters when they are slowly varying in space and time. Explicit expressions for the characteristic velocities of the modulational equations are obtained for the full set of cnoidal waves. Riemann invariants are obtained for several limits for the stable case, and growth rates are obtained for several limits, including the solitary wave chain, for the unstable case. The results for several nontrivial limiting cases agree with those obtained by independent methods by others. The dynamics of the CSE generalized to two spatial dimensions are studied for the unstable case. A large class of similarity solutions with cylindrical symmetry are obtained systematically using infinitesimal transformation group techniques. The methods are adapted to obtain the symmetries of the action functional of the CSE and to deduce nine integral invariants. A numerical study of the self-similar solutions reveals that they are modulationally unstable and that singularities dominate the dynamics of the CSE in two dimensions. The CSE is derived using perturbation theory for a specific problem in plasma physics: the evolution of the envelope of a near-monochromatic electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma. 13 figures, 2 tables
Study of nonlinear waves described by the cubic Schroedinger equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walstead, A.E.
1980-03-12
The cubic Schroedinger equation (CSE) is ubiquitous as a model equation for the long-time evolution of finite-amplitude near-monochromatic dispersive waves. It incorporates the effects of the radiation field pressure on the constitutive properties of the supporting medium in a self-consistent manner. The properties of the uniformly transiating periodic wave solutions of the one-dimensional CSE are studied here. These (so-called cnoidal) waves are characterized by the values of four parameters. Whitham's averaged variational principle is used to derive a system of quasilinear evolution equations (the modulational equations) for the values of these parameters when they are slowly varying in space and time. Explicit expressions for the characteristic velocities of the modulational equations are obtained for the full set of cnoidal waves. Riemann invariants are obtained for several limits for the stable case, and growth rates are obtained for several limits, including the solitary wave chain, for the unstable case. The results for several nontrivial limiting cases agree with those obtained by independent methods by others. The dynamics of the CSE generalized to two spatial dimensions are studied for the unstable case. A large class of similarity solutions with cylindrical symmetry are obtained systematically using infinitesimal transformation group techniques. The methods are adapted to obtain the symmetries of the action functional of the CSE and to deduce nine integral invariants. A numerical study of the self-similar solutions reveals that they are modulationally unstable and that singularities dominate the dynamics of the CSE in two dimensions. The CSE is derived using perturbation theory for a specific problem in plasma physics: the evolution of the envelope of a near-monochromatic electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma. 13 figures, 2 tables.
A Comparison Between Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes in Observations and Climate Models
Geller, Marvin A.; Alexadner, M. Joan; Love, Peter T.; Bacmeister, Julio; Ern, Manfred; Hertzog, Albert; Manzini, Elisa; Preusse, Peter; Sato, Kaoru; Scaife, Adam A.;
2013-01-01
For the first time, a formal comparison is made between gravity wave momentum fluxes in models and those derived from observations. Although gravity waves occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the focus of this paper is on scales that are being parameterized in present climate models, sub-1000-km scales. Only observational methods that permit derivation of gravity wave momentum fluxes over large geographical areas are discussed, and these are from satellite temperature measurements, constant-density long-duration balloons, and high-vertical-resolution radiosonde data. The models discussed include two high-resolution models in which gravity waves are explicitly modeled, Kanto and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), and three climate models containing gravity wave parameterizations,MAECHAM5, Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model. Measurements generally show similar flux magnitudes as in models, except that the fluxes derived from satellite measurements fall off more rapidly with height. This is likely due to limitations on the observable range of wavelengths, although other factors may contribute. When one accounts for this more rapid fall off, the geographical distribution of the fluxes from observations and models compare reasonably well, except for certain features that depend on the specification of the nonorographic gravity wave source functions in the climate models. For instance, both the observed fluxes and those in the high-resolution models are very small at summer high latitudes, but this is not the case for some of the climate models. This comparison between gravity wave fluxes from climate models, high-resolution models, and fluxes derived from observations indicates that such efforts offer a promising path toward improving specifications of gravity wave sources in climate models.
Wind-wave amplification mechanisms: possible models for steep wave events in finite depth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Montalvo
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We extend the Miles mechanism of wind-wave generation to finite depth. A β-Miles linear growth rate depending on the depth and wind velocity is derived and allows the study of linear growth rates of surface waves from weak to moderate winds in finite depth h. The evolution of β is plotted, for several values of the dispersion parameter kh with k the wave number. For constant depths we find that no matter what the values of wind velocities are, at small enough wave age the β-Miles linear growth rates are in the known deep-water limit. However winds of moderate intensities prevent the waves from growing beyond a critical wave age, which is also constrained by the water depth and is less than the wave age limit of deep water. Depending on wave age and wind velocity, the Jeffreys and Miles mechanisms are compared to determine which of them dominates. A wind-forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived and the Akhmediev, Peregrine and Kuznetsov–Ma breather solutions for weak wind inputs in finite depth h are obtained.
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
Can plane wave modes be physical modes in soliton models?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldabe, F.
1995-08-01
I show that plane waves may not be used as asymptotic states in soliton models because they describe unphysical states. When asymptotic states are taken to the physical there is not T-matrix of O(1). (author). 9 refs
Supplementary report: millimeter wave study program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jory, H.R.; Symons, R.S.
1976-02-01
This report describes work done during the months of December 1975 and January 1976, following the writing of the final report on the millimeter wave study program for generation of 100 kW or more power at 120 GHz. The work has been directed to three areas for application to gyrotron devices, small signal analysis, electron beam simulation, and microwave measurements on cavity coupling. A small signal analysis is presented, which allows determination of beam loading in cavities. The results are similar to previous published work, but contain a higher order relativistic correction. The electron beam simulations include two magnetron type guns and one based on electrostatic lenses
Ocean wave characteristic in the Sunda Strait using Wave Spectrum Model
Rachmayani, R.; Ningsih, N. S.; Adiprabowo, S. R.; Nurfitri, S.
2018-03-01
The wave characteristics including significant wave height and direction, seas and swell in the Sunda Strait are analyzed seasonally to provide marine weather information. This is crucial for establishing secured marine activities between islands of Sumatera and Java. Ocean wave characteristics in the Sunda Strait are simulated for one year (July 1996–June 1977) by using SWAN numerical model. The ocean wave characteristics in the Sunda Strait are divided into three areas of interest; southern, centre and northern part of the Sunda Strait. Despite a weaker local wind, the maximum significant wave height is captured at the southern part with its height of 2.6 m in November compared to other seasonally months. This is associated with the dominated swell from the Indian Ocean contributes on wave energy toward the Sunda Strait. The 2D spectrum analysis exhibits the monthly wave characteristic at southern part that is dominated by seas along the year and swell propagating from the Indian Ocean to the Sunda Strait during December to February (northwest monsoon), May, and November. Seas and swell at northern part of the Sunda Strait are apprehended weaker compared to other parts of the Sunda Strait due to its location is farther from the Indian Ocean.
Wave number determination of Pc 1-2 mantle waves considering He++ ions: A Cluster study
Grison, B.; Escoubet, C. P.; Santolík, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Khotyaintsev, Y.
2014-09-01
The present case study concerns narrowband electromagnetic emission detected in the distant cusp region simultaneously with upgoing plasma flows. The wave properties match the usual properties of the Pc 1-2 mantle waves: small angle between the wave vector and the magnetic field line, left-hand polarization, and propagation toward the ionosphere. We report here the first direct wave vector measurement of these waves (about 1.2 × 10- 2 rad/km) through multi spacecraft analysis using the three magnetic components and, at the same time, through single spacecraft analysis based on the refractive index analysis using the three magnetic components and two electric components. The refractive index analysis offers a simple way to estimate wave numbers in this frequency range. Numerical calculations are performed under the observed plasma conditions. The obtained results show that the ion distribution functions are unstable to ion cyclotron instability at the observed wave vector value, due to the large ion temperature anisotropy. We thus show that these electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are amplified in the distant cusp region. The Poynting flux of the waves is counterstreaming with respect to the plasma flow. This sense of propagation is consistent with the time necessary to amplify the emissions to the observed level. We point out the role of the wave damping at the He++ gyrofrequency to explain that such waves cannot be observed from the ground at the cusp foot print location.
An Arctic Ice/Ocean Coupled Model with Wave Interactions
2015-09-30
discussed by DRI participants may aid our understanding as well, e.g. those conducted in the Hamburg Ship Model Basin. Our theoretical advances benefit...the project are – continued modifications to the Arctic wide WIM code in association with advances relating to a new ice/ocean model known as... Auckland , December 2014. Montiel, F. Transmission of ocean waves through a row of randomly perturbed circular ice floes. Minisymposium on Wave Motions of
Modeling Stop-and-Go Waves in Pedestrian Dynamics
Portz, Andrea; Seyfried, Armin
2010-01-01
Several spatially continuous pedestrian dynamics models have been validated against empirical data. We try to reproduce the experimental fundamental diagram (velocity versus density) with simulations. In addition to this quantitative criterion, we tried to reproduce stop-and-go waves as a qualitative criterion. Stop-and-go waves are a characteristic phenomenon for the single file movement. Only one of three investigated models satisfies both criteria.
A case study of gravity waves in noctilucent clouds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Dalin
2004-06-01
Full Text Available We present a case study of a noctilucent cloud (NLC display appearing on 10-11 August 2000 over Northern Sweden. Clear wave structures were visible in the clouds and time-lapse photography was used to derive the parameters characterising the gravity waves which could account for the observed NLC modulation. Using two nearby atmospheric radars, the Esrange MST Radar data and Andoya MF radar, we have identified gravity waves propagating upward from the upper stratosphere to NLC altitudes. The wave parameters derived from the radar measurements support the suggestion that gravity waves are responsible for the observed complex wave dynamics in the NLC.
Spreading speed and travelling waves for a spatially discrete SIS epidemic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Kate Fang; Zhao Xiaoqiang
2008-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study of the asymptotic speed of spread and travelling waves for a spatially discrete SIS epidemic model. By appealing to the theory of spreading speeds and travelling waves for monotonic semiflows, we establish the existence of asymptotic speed of spread and show that it coincides with the minimal wave speed for monotonic travelling waves. This also gives an affirmative answer to an open problem presented by Rass and Radcliffe (2003 Spatial Deterministic Epidemics (Mathematical Surveys and Monographs vol 102) (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society)) in the case of discrete spatial habitat
Theoretical study on the first kind of density wave instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuying, Gao; Jincai, Li; Baocheng, Xu; Zuoyi, Zhang; Cheng, Gao [Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsingua Univ., Beijing (China)
1997-09-01
The present paper summarizes the theoretical studies carried out by INET (Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology) of Tsinghua University on the first kind of density wave instabilities (DWIs) of natural circulation systems. The analysis methods of DWI and mathematical models of drift flux are presented. Based on the general excess entropy production criterion of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, an energy principle of DWI is established. (author). 10 refs, 16 figs.
Modeling elastic wave propagation in kidney stones with application to shock wave lithotripsy.
Cleveland, Robin O; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A
2005-10-01
A time-domain finite-difference solution to the equations of linear elasticity was used to model the propagation of lithotripsy waves in kidney stones. The model was used to determine the loading on the stone (principal stresses and strains and maximum shear stresses and strains) due to the impact of lithotripsy shock waves. The simulations show that the peak loading induced in kidney stones is generated by constructive interference from shear waves launched from the outer edge of the stone with other waves in the stone. Notably the shear wave induced loads were significantly larger than the loads generated by the classic Hopkinson or spall effect. For simulations where the diameter of the focal spot of the lithotripter was smaller than that of the stone the loading decreased by more than 50%. The constructive interference was also sensitive to shock rise time and it was found that the peak tensile stress reduced by 30% as rise time increased from 25 to 150 ns. These results demonstrate that shear waves likely play a critical role in stone comminution and that lithotripters with large focal widths and short rise times should be effective at generating high stresses inside kidney stones.
Geometric models of nested field wave forms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winters, D.
1984-01-01
The authors start with two dimensions. ''Maybe there's this thing we ought to call a 'compressible medium' that seems to be around here''. Maybe it's air or ether. There seems to be this compressible medium which has this quality which is that it conveys inertia momentum. And it is compressible. So, given that, and given not much else, they ought to be able to build things like atomic tables and fundamental concepts of physics. The idea is that the principles of creation are principles of superposition of wave shapes. The suggestion is that wave shape archetypally, naturally builds geometry, and that is the clue to the information structure of atoms and molecules and people
Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on nucleation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haqshenas, S. R., E-mail: seyyed.haqshenas.12@ucl.ac.uk; Saffari, N., E-mail: n.saffari@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Ford, I. J., E-mail: i.ford@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2016-07-14
A phase transformation in a metastable phase can be affected when it is subjected to a high intensity ultrasound wave. In this study we determined the effect of oscillation in pressure and temperature on a phase transformation using the Gibbs droplet model in a generic format. The developed model is valid for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters formed through a stationary or non-stationary process. We validated the underlying model by comparing the predicted kinetics of water droplet formation from the gas phase against experimental data in the absence of ultrasound. Our results demonstrated better agreement with experimental data in comparison with classical nucleation theory. Then, we determined the thermodynamics and kinetics of nucleation and the early stage of growth of clusters in an isothermal sonocrystallisation process. This new contribution shows that the effect of pressure on the kinetics of nucleation is cluster size-dependent in contrast to classical nucleation theory.
Wave Energy Potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin. An Integrated 10-year Study
2014-01-01
SUBTITLE Wave energy potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin. An integrated 10-year study 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c... Cardone CV, Ewing JA, et al. The WAM model e a third generation ocean wave prediction model. J Phys Oceanogr 1988;18(12):1775e810. [70] Varinou M
Larmat, C. S.; Rougier, E.; Delorey, A.; Steedman, D. W.; Bradley, C. R.
2016-12-01
The goal of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to bring empirical and theoretical advances to the problem of detection and identification of underground nuclear explosions. For this, the SPE program includes a strong modeling effort based on first principles calculations with the challenge to capture both the source and near-source processes and those taking place later in time as seismic waves propagate within complex 3D geologic environments. In this paper, we report on results of modeling that uses hydrodynamic simulation codes (Abaqus and CASH) coupled with a 3D full waveform propagation code, SPECFEM3D. For modeling the near source region, we employ a fully-coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) modeling capability with a new continuum-based visco-plastic fracture model for simulation of damage processes, called AZ_Frac. These capabilities produce high-fidelity models of various factors believed to be key in the generation of seismic waves: the explosion dynamics, a weak grout-filled borehole, the surrounding jointed rock, and damage creation and deformations happening around the source and the free surface. SPECFEM3D, based on the Spectral Element Method (SEM) is a direct numerical method for full wave modeling with mathematical accuracy. The coupling interface consists of a series of grid points of the SEM mesh situated inside of the hydrodynamic code's domain. Displacement time series at these points are computed using output data from CASH or Abaqus (by interpolation if needed) and fed into the time marching scheme of SPECFEM3D. We will present validation tests with the Sharpe's model and comparisons of waveforms modeled with Rg waves (2-8Hz) that were recorded up to 2 km for SPE. We especially show effects of the local topography, velocity structure and spallation. Our models predict smaller amplitudes of Rg waves for the first five SPE shots compared to pure elastic models such as Denny &Johnson (1991).
Modeling Whistler Wave Generation Regimes In Magnetospheric Cyclotron Maser
Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Trakhtengerts, V. Y.; Parrot, M.
Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability development in the Earth magnetosphere is made.This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. Two different mechanisms of energetic electron loss from the interaction region are discussed. The first one is precipitation of energetic particles via the loss cone. The other mechanism is drift of particles away from the interaction region across the mag- netic field line. In the case of interaction in plasmasphere or rather large areas of cold plasma density enhancement the loss cone precipitation are dominant. For interaction in a subauroral duct losses due to drift are most effective. A parametric study of the model for both mechanisms of particle losses is made. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch-angle distributions and elec- tron density. We show that in addition to the well-known stationary generation and periodic regime with successive spikes of similar shape, more complex forms of wave spectrum exist. In particular, we found a periodic regime, in which a single period in- cludes two separate spikes with different spectral shapes. In another regime, periodic generation of spikes at higher frequencies together with quasi-stationary generation at lower frequencies occurs. Quasi-periodic regime with spike overlapping, i.e. when generation of a new spike begins before the previous one is over is also found. Results obtained are compared with experimental data on quasi-periodic regimes of whistler wave generation.
Hydro-morphological modelling of small, wave-dominated estuaries
Slinger, Jill H.
2017-11-01
Small, intermittently open or closed estuaries are characteristic of the coasts of South Africa, Australia, California, Mexico and many other areas of the world. However, modelling attention has tended to focus on big estuaries that drain large catchments and serve a wide diversity of interests e.g. agriculture, urban settlement, recreation, commercial fishing. In this study, the development of a simple, parametric, system dynamics model to simulate the opening and closure of the mouths of small, wave-dominated estuaries is reported. In the model, the estuary is conceived as a basin with a specific water volume to water level relationship, connected to the sea by a channel of fixed width, but variable sill height. Changes in the form of the basin are not treated in the model, while the dynamics of the mouth channel are central to the model. The magnitude and direction of the flow through the mouth determines whether erosion or deposition of sediment occurs in the mouth channel, influencing the sill height. The model is implemented on the Great Brak Estuary in South Africa and simulations reveal that the raised low water levels in the estuary during spring tide relative to neap tide, are occasioned by the constriction of the tidal flow through the shallow mouth. Freshwater inflows to the estuary are shown to be significant in determining the behaviour of the inlet mouth, a factor often ignored in studies on tidal inlets. Further it is the balance between freshwater inflows and wave events that determines the opening or closure of the mouth of a particular estuary.
Wave Model Development in Multi-Ion Plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung-Hee Song
1999-06-01
Full Text Available Near-earth space is composed of plasmas which embed a number of plasma waves. Space plasmas consist of electrons and multi-ion that determine local wave propagation characteristics. In multi-ion plasmas, it is di cult to find out analytic solution from the dispersion relation in general. In this work, we have developed a model with an arbitrary magnetic field and density as well as multi-ion plasmas. This model allows us to investigate how plasma waves behave when they propagate along realistic magnetic field lines, which are assumed by IGRF(International Geomagnetic Reference Field. The results are found to be useful for the analysis of the in situ observational data in space. For instance, if waves are assumed to propagate into the polar region, from the equatorial region, our model quantitatively shows how polarization is altered along earth travel path.
Collapse of the wave function models, ontology, origin, and implications
2018-01-01
This is the first single volume about the collapse theories of quantum mechanics, which is becoming a very active field of research in both physics and philosophy. In standard quantum mechanics, it is postulated that when the wave function of a quantum system is measured, it no longer follows the Schrödinger equation, but instantaneously and randomly collapses to one of the wave functions that correspond to definite measurement results. However, why and how a definite measurement result appears is unknown. A promising solution to this problem are collapse theories in which the collapse of the wave function is spontaneous and dynamical. Chapters written by distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics discuss the origin and implications of wave-function collapse, the controversies around collapse models and their ontologies, and new arguments for the reality of wave function collapse. This is an invaluable resource for students and researchers interested in the philosophy of physics and foundations of ...
Sensitivity of a numerical wave model on wind re-analysis datasets
Lavidas, George; Venugopal, Vengatesan; Friedrich, Daniel
2017-03-01
Wind is the dominant process for wave generation. Detailed evaluation of metocean conditions strengthens our understanding of issues concerning potential offshore applications. However, the scarcity of buoys and high cost of monitoring systems pose a barrier to properly defining offshore conditions. Through use of numerical wave models, metocean conditions can be hindcasted and forecasted providing reliable characterisations. This study reports the sensitivity of wind inputs on a numerical wave model for the Scottish region. Two re-analysis wind datasets with different spatio-temporal characteristics are used, the ERA-Interim Re-Analysis and the CFSR-NCEP Re-Analysis dataset. Different wind products alter results, affecting the accuracy obtained. The scope of this study is to assess different available wind databases and provide information concerning the most appropriate wind dataset for the specific region, based on temporal, spatial and geographic terms for wave modelling and offshore applications. Both wind input datasets delivered results from the numerical wave model with good correlation. Wave results by the 1-h dataset have higher peaks and lower biases, in expense of a high scatter index. On the other hand, the 6-h dataset has lower scatter but higher biases. The study shows how wind dataset affects the numerical wave modelling performance, and that depending on location and study needs, different wind inputs should be considered.
Study of a Novel Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Choiniere, Michael [University of Maine; Thiagarajan, Krish P. [University of Maine
2017-08-01
This study investigates the performance of an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) that utilizes adjustable geometry as a means of controlling the hydrodynamic coefficients, a concept originally proposed by [1]. The body of the device consists of a bottom-hinged solid rectangular frame with five horizontal flaps spanning the interior of the frame. The flaps can rotate independently about their center of rotation within the frame like a large window shutter. Changing the orientation of the flaps alters the hydrodynamic coefficients and natural frequency of the device as well as the ability to shed or absorb structural loads accordingly. This ability may allow the device to operate in a wider range of sea states than other current wave energy converter designs. This paper presents and compares the results of numerical simulations and experimental testing of the OSWEC's response to regular waves with all five of the horizontal fin configurations sharing the same orientation of 0 degrees (fully closed interior) and 90 degrees (fully open). The numerical simulations were performed using WAMIT, which calculates hydrodynamic coefficients using a boundary element method code to solve the linear potential flow problem, and WEC-Sim, a MATLAB-based tool that simulates multibody devices in the time domain by solving the governing equations of motion. A 1:14 scale model of the device was built for experimental evaluation in an 8-m-long, 1-m wide wave tank, which supports a water depth of 0.7 m. The OSWEC motion in different wave conditions was measured with displacement sensors while nonlinear wave-structure interaction effects like slamming and overtopping were captured using a high-speed camera and used to understand differences between the simulation and experiments.
A photoelastic study of the effects of an impulsive seismic wave on a nuclear containment vessel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burger, C.P.
1981-01-01
A dynamic photoelastic study of the progressive movement of a dilatational P-wave into a model of a nuclear containment vessel,is studied. The reflections at the dome abutments are observed and the strong flexural wave that deforms the dome itself is studied with photoelasticity and with dynamic strain gage procedures. (E.G.) [pt
Modeling the Pulse Signal by Wave-Shape Function and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform.
Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Han-Kuei; Wang, Chun-Li; Yang, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Hen-Hong
2016-01-01
We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the wave-shape function, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST) to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse wave signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on functional regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse wave signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features.
Modeling the Pulse Signal by Wave-Shape Function and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hau-Tieng Wu
Full Text Available We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the wave-shape function, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse wave signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on functional regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse wave signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Bolanos, Rodolfo; Du, Jianting
modeling for oshore wind farms. This modeling system consists of the atmospheric Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the wave model SWAN and an interface the Wave Boundary Layer Model WBLM, within the framework of coupled-ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system COAWST...... (Hereinafter the WRF-WBLM-SWAN model). WBLM is implemented in SWAN, and it calculates stress and kinetic energy budgets in the lowest atmospheric layer where the wave-induced stress is introduced to the atmospheric modeling. WBLM ensures consistent calculation of stress for both the atmospheric and wave......, which can aect the choice of the off-shore wind turbine type. X-WiWa examined various methodologies for wave modeling. The offline coupling system using atmospheric data such as WRF or global reanalysis wind field to the MIKE 21 SW model has been improved with considerations of stability, air density...
Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models
Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo
2009-06-01
The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.
Modelling of wave propagation over a submerged sand bar using SWASH
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Jishad, M.; Vu, T.T.T.; JayaKumar, S.
cases The wave heights and wave induced velocities obtained from the model and the laboratory experimental resultsare compared The model without the morphology feedback provided good correlation with the measurements for case of low wave energy, whereas...
Unstructured Spectral Element Model for Dispersive and Nonlinear Wave Propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes; Bigoni, Daniele
2016-01-01
We introduce a new stabilized high-order and unstructured numerical model for modeling fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves. The model is based on a nodal spectral element method of arbitrary order in space and a -transformed formulation due to Cai, Langtangen, Nielsen and Tveito (1998). In...
Self-organized Criticality Model for Ocean Internal Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Gang; Hou Yijun; Lin Min; Qiao Fangli
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present a simple spring-block model for ocean internal waves based on the self-organized criticality (SOC). The oscillations of the water blocks in the model display power-law behavior with an exponent of -2 in the frequency domain, which is similar to the current and sea water temperature spectra in the actual ocean and the universal Garrett and Munk deep ocean internal wave model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 (1972) 225; J. Geophys. Res. 80 (1975) 291]. The influence of the ratio of the driving force to the spring coefficient to SOC behaviors in the model is also discussed. (general)
Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten
2008-01-01
A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...... by expanding solutions in terms of cross-sectional eigenfunctions following Stevenson’s method. A transfer matrix can be easily constructed from simple model responses of a given waveguide and later used in computing the response to any complex wave input. Energy losses due to heat conduction and viscous...
DISCRETE DEFORMATION WAVE DYNAMICS IN SHEAR ZONES: PHYSICAL MODELLING RESULTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Bornyakov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Observations of earthquake migration along active fault zones [Richter, 1958; Mogi, 1968] and related theoretical concepts [Elsasser, 1969] have laid the foundation for studying the problem of slow deformation waves in the lithosphere. Despite the fact that this problem has been under study for several decades and discussed in numerous publications, convincing evidence for the existence of deformation waves is still lacking. One of the causes is that comprehensive field studies to register such waves by special tools and equipment, which require sufficient organizational and technical resources, have not been conducted yet.The authors attempted at finding a solution to this problem by physical simulation of a major shear zone in an elastic-viscous-plastic model of the lithosphere. The experiment setup is shown in Figure 1 (A. The model material and boundary conditions were specified in accordance with the similarity criteria (described in detail in [Sherman, 1984; Sherman et al., 1991; Bornyakov et al., 2014]. The montmorillonite clay-and-water paste was placed evenly on two stamps of the installation and subject to deformation as the active stamp (1 moved relative to the passive stamp (2 at a constant speed. The upper model surface was covered with fine sand in order to get high-contrast photos. Photos of an emerging shear zone were taken every second by a Basler acA2000-50gm digital camera. Figure 1 (B shows an optical image of a fragment of the shear zone. The photos were processed by the digital image correlation method described in [Sutton et al., 2009]. This method estimates the distribution of components of displacement vectors and strain tensors on the model surface and their evolution over time [Panteleev et al., 2014, 2015].Strain fields and displacements recorded in the optical images of the model surface were estimated in a rectangular box (220.00×72.17 mm shown by a dot-and-dash line in Fig. 1, A. To ensure a sufficient level of
Test particle modeling of wave-induced energetic electron precipitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, H.C.; Inan, U.S.
1985-01-01
A test particle computer model of the precipitation of radiation belt electrons is extended to compute the dynamic energy spectrum of transient electron fluxes induced by short-duration VLF wave packets traveling along the geomagnetic field lines. The model is adapted to estimate the count rate and associated spectrum of precipitated electrons that would be observed by satellite-based particle detectors with given geometric factor and orientation with respect to the magnetic field. A constant-frequency wave pulse and a lightning-induced whistler wave packet are used as examples of the stimulating wave signals. The effects of asymmetry of particle mirror heights in the two hemispheres and the atmospheric backscatter of loss cone particles on the computed precipitated fluxes are discussed
Suppression of Spiral Wave in Modified Orengonator Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Jun; Wang Chunni; Jin Wuyin; Yi Ming
2008-01-01
In this paper, a spatial perturbation scheme is proposed to suppress the spiral wave in the modified Orengonator model, which is used to describe the chemical reaction in the light-sensitive media. The controllable external illumination Φ is perturbed with a spatial linear function. In our numerical simulation, the scheme is investigated by imposing the external controllable illumination on the space continuously and/or intermittently. The numerical simulation results confirm that the stable rotating spiral wave still can be removed with the scheme proposed in this paper even if the controllable Φ changed vs. time and space synchronously. Then the scheme is also used to control the spiral wave and turbulence in the modified Fitzhugh-Nagumo model. It is found that the scheme is effective to remove the sable rotating and meandering spiral wave but it costs long transient period and intensity of the gradient parameter to eliminate the spiral turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuo, Peng; Fan, Zheng, E-mail: ZFAN@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhou, Yu [Advanced Remanufacturing and Technology Center (ARTC), 3 Clean Tech Loop, CleanTech Two, Singapore 637143 (Singapore)
2016-07-15
Nonlinear guided waves have been investigated widely in simple geometries, such as plates, pipe and shells, where analytical solutions have been developed. This paper extends the application of nonlinear guided waves to waveguides with arbitrary cross sections. The criteria for the existence of nonlinear guided waves were summarized based on the finite deformation theory and nonlinear material properties. Numerical models were developed for the analysis of nonlinear guided waves in complex geometries, including nonlinear Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method to identify internal resonant modes in complex waveguides, and Finite Element (FE) models to simulate the nonlinear wave propagation at resonant frequencies. Two examples, an aluminum plate and a steel rectangular bar, were studied using the proposed numerical model, demonstrating the existence of nonlinear guided waves in such structures and the energy transfer from primary to secondary modes.
Modeling storm waves; Modeliser les houles de tempete
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benoit, M.; Marcos, F.; Teisson, Ch
1999-07-01
Nuclear power stations located on the coast take the water they use to cool their circuits from the sea. The water intake and discharge devices must be able to operate in all weathers, notably during extreme storms, with waves 10 m high and over. To predict the impact of the waves on the equipment, they are modeled digitally from the moment they form in the middle of the ocean right up to the moment they break on the shore. (authors)
Standing and travelling waves in a spherical brain model: The Nunez model revisited
Visser, S.; Nicks, R.; Faugeras, O.; Coombes, S.
2017-06-01
The Nunez model for the generation of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is naturally described as a neural field model on a sphere with space-dependent delays. For simplicity, dynamical realisations of this model either as a damped wave equation or an integro-differential equation, have typically been studied in idealised one dimensional or planar settings. Here we revisit the original Nunez model to specifically address the role of spherical topology on spatio-temporal pattern generation. We do this using a mixture of Turing instability analysis, symmetric bifurcation theory, centre manifold reduction and direct simulations with a bespoke numerical scheme. In particular we examine standing and travelling wave solutions using normal form computation of primary and secondary bifurcations from a steady state. Interestingly, we observe spatio-temporal patterns which have counterparts seen in the EEG patterns of both epileptic and schizophrenic brain conditions.
Modeling Waves and Coastal Flooding along the Connecticut Coast
Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A.; Howard-Strobel, M. M.; Fake, T.; McCardell, G.; O'Donnell, J.; Asthita, M.
2015-12-01
We have used a hydrodynamic- wave coupled numerical model (FVCOM-SWAVE) to simulate flooding at the Connecticut coastline during severe storms. The model employed a one-way nesting scheme and an unstructured grid. The parent domain spanned most of the southern New England shelf and the fine resolution grid covered Long Island Sound (LIS) and extended across the Connecticut coast to the 10m elevation contour. The model results for sea level, current and wave statistics from the parent grid have been tested with data from several field campaigns at different locations spanning the western, central and eastern portions of LIS. Waves are fetch limited and improvements to the model-data comparison required modifications to spectral coefficients in the wave model. Finally, the nested results were validated with two field campaigns in shallow water environments (i.e. New Haven and Old Saybrook). To assess the spatial variability of storm wave characteristics the domain was forced with the hindcast winds obtained from meteorological models (NAM and WRF) for 13 severe weather events that affected LIS in the past 15 years. We have also forced the system with a simulation of Superstorm Sandy in a warmer climate to assess the impact a climate change on the character of flooding. The nested grid is currently being used to map flooding risks under severe weather events including the effects of precipitation on river flow and discharge.
Experimental study of the fast wave propagation in TFR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-02-01
Several experiments (PLT, DIVA, ERASMUS, TFR) have shown that the heating mechanism of ICRF is dominated in Tokamaks by the presence of the ion-ion hybrid layer. The first experimental evidence of this effect came from propagation studies: a very strong damping was observed on magnetic probes since the hybrid layer was inside the plasma. Comparison with simple models which do not take into account boundary conditions have been undertaken. Recently a new theoretical model has been developped. Based on a plane, inhomogeneous, bounded plasma, it shows that the radial structure of the fast wave and hence the loading impedance of the launching coil depends on the position of the hybrid layer with respect to the plasma boundaries. This result is obtained by solving the wave equation, in the cold plasma approximation. We present here, a serie of experiments, performed in TFR. It confirms the validity of that model underlining thus the importance of radial eigenmodes, when the wave conversion layer is inside the plasma
Plane shock wave studies of geologic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, G.D.; Larson, D.B.
1977-01-01
Plane shock wave experiments have been conducted on eight geologic materials in an effort to determine the importance of time-dependent mechanical behavior. Of the eight rocks studied, only Westerly granite and nugget sandstone appear to show time independence. In the slightly porous materials (1-5 percent), Blair dolomite and sodium chloride, and in the highly porous (15 to 40 percent) rock, Mt. Helen tuff and Indiana limestone, time-dependent behavior is associated with the time required to close the available porosity. In water-saturated rocks the time dependence arises because the water that is present shows no indication of transformation to the higher pressure ice phases, thus suggesting the possibility that a metastable form of water exists under dynamic conditions
Modeling whistler wave generation regimes in magnetospheric cyclotron maser
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. L. Pasmanik
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability in the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. A parametric study of the model is performed. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch angle distributions and its intensity. Two mechanisms of removal of energetic electrons from a generation region are considered, one is due to the particle precipitation through the loss cone and another one is related to the magnetic drift of energetic particles.
It was confirmed that two main regimes occur in this system in the presence of a constant particle source, in the case of precipitation losses. At small source intensity relaxation oscillations were found, whose parameters are in good agreement with simplified analytical theory developed earlier. At a larger source intensity, transition to a periodic generation occurs. In the case of drift losses the regime of self-sustained periodic generation regime is realized for source intensity higher than some threshold. The dependencies of repetition period and dynamic spectrum shape on the source parameters were studied in detail. In addition to simple periodic regimes, those with more complex spectral forms were found. In particular, alteration of spikes with different spectral shape can take place. It was also shown that quasi-stationary generation at the low-frequency band can coexist with periodic modulation at higher frequencies.
On the basis of the results obtained, the model for explanation of
Wave climatology of the Indian Ocean derived from altimetry and wave model
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Vethamony, P.; Rao, L.V.G.; Kumar, R.; Sarkar, A.; Mohan, M.; Sudheesh, K.; Karthikeyan, S.B.
are found to be low compared to model values. As expected, central Indian Ocean region is found to have higher waves, generally swells, generated by strong winds prevailing over there in all seasons. In July, the entire Arabian Sea is under the influence...
Travelling waves in models of neural tissue: from localised structures to periodic waves
Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Coombes, Stephen
2014-01-01
We consider travelling waves (fronts, pulses and periodics) in spatially extended one dimensional neural field models. We demonstrate for an excitatory field with linear adaptation that, in addition to an expected stable pulse solution, a stable anti-pulse can exist. Varying the adaptation strength
Attenuation of surface waves in porous media: Shock wave experiments and modelling
Chao, G.E; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Dongen, van M.E.H.
2005-01-01
In this project we conduct experimental and numerical investigations on the attenuation mechanisms of surface waves in poroelastic materials. Viscous dissipation effects are modelled in the framework of Biot's theory. The experiments are performed using a shock tube technique. Quantitative agreement
Chaos induced by breakup of waves in a spatial epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Gui-Quan; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Quan-Xing; Li, Li
2008-01-01
Spatial epidemiology is the study of spatial variation in disease risk or incidence, including the spatial patterns of the population. The spread of diseases in human populations can exhibit large scale patterns, underlining the need for spatially explicit approaches. In this paper, the spatiotemporal complexity of a spatial epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate, which includes the behavioral changes and crowding effect of the infective individuals, is investigated. Based on both theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we find out when, under the parameters which can guarantee a stable limit cycle in the non-spatial model, spiral and target waves can emerge. Moreover, two different kinds of breakup of waves are shown. Specifically, the breakup of spiral waves is from the core and the breakup of target waves is from the far-field, and both kinds of waves become irregular patterns at last. Our results reveal that the spatiotemporal chaos is induced by the breakup of waves. The results obtained confirm that diffusion can form spiral waves, target waves or spatial chaos of high population density, which enrich the findings of spatiotemporal dynamics in the epidemic model
Wave refraction studies off Agonda beach (Goa)
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Krishnakumar, V.; Pathak, M.C.; Kotnala, K.L.
Analysis of wave refraction and longshore current has been carried out for a narrow strip off the shores of Agonda (Goa, India). Zones with high wave energy and rip currents have been demarcated. It is found from the analysis that the southern part...
On wave breaking for Boussinesq-type models
Kazolea, M.; Ricchiuto, M.
2018-03-01
We consider the issue of wave breaking closure for Boussinesq type models, and attempt at providing some more understanding of the sensitivity of some closure approaches to the numerical set-up, and in particular to mesh size. For relatively classical choices of weakly dispersive propagation models, we compare two closure strategies. The first is the hybrid method consisting in suppressing the dispersive terms in breaking regions, as initially suggested by Tonelli and Petti in 2009. The second is an eddy viscosity approach based on the solution of a a turbulent kinetic energy. The formulation follows early work by O. Nwogu in the 90's, and some more recent developments by Zhang and co-workers (Ocean Mod. 2014), adapting it to be consistent with the wave breaking detection used here. We perform a study of the behaviour of the two closures for different mesh sizes, with attention to the possibility of obtaining grid independent results. Based on a classical shallow water theory, we also suggest some monitors to quantify the different contributions to the dissipation mechanism, differentiating those associated to the scheme from those of the partial differential equation. These quantities are used to analyze the dynamics of dissipation in some classical benchmarks, and its dependence on the mesh size. Our main results show that numerical dissipation contributes very little to the the results obtained when using eddy viscosity method. This closure shows little sensitivity to the grid, and may lend itself to the development and use of non-dissipative/energy conserving numerical methods. The opposite is observed for the hybrid approach, for which numerical dissipation plays a key role, and unfortunately is sensitive to the size of the mesh. In particular, when working, the two approaches investigated provide results which are in the same ball range and which agree with what is usually reported in literature. With the hybrid method, however, the inception of instabilities
Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. A. Leykin
1995-01-01
Full Text Available Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves. At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976. The phase shift between o. harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.
Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank
Ileykin, L. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Mellen, R. H.; McLaughlin, D. J.
1995-03-01
Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves) varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves). At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976). The phase shift between o). harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.
A parametric costing model for wave energy technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
This document describes the philosophy and technical approach to a parametric cost model for offshore wave energy systems. Consideration is given both to existing known devices and other devices yet to be conceptualised. The report is complementary to a spreadsheet based cost estimating model. The latter permits users to derive capital cost estimates using either inherent default data or user provided data, if a particular scheme provides sufficient design definition for more accurate estimation. The model relies on design default data obtained from wave energy device designs and a set of specifically collected cost data. (author)
Study on Rayleigh Wave Inversion for Estimating Shear-wave Velocity Profile
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.A. Sanny
2003-05-01
Full Text Available Rayleigh wave or ground roll is a noise in seismic body waves. However, how to use this noise for soil characterization is very interesting since Rayleigh wave phase velocity is a function of compression-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity, density and layer thickness. In layered-medium Rayleigh wave velocity also depends on wavelength or frequency, and this phenomenon is called dispersion. Inversion procedure to get shear-wave velocity profile needs a priori information about the solution of the problem to limit the unknown parameters. The Lagrange multiplier method was used to solve the constrained optimization problems or well known as a smoothing parameter in inversion problems. The advantage of our inversion procedure is that it can guarantee the convergence of solution even though the field data is incomplete, insufficient, and inconsistent. The addition of smoothing parameter can reduce the time to converge. Beside numerical stability, the statistical stability is also involved in inversion procedure. In field experiment we extracted ground roll data from seismic refraction record. The dispersion curves had been constructed by applying f-k analysis and f-k dip filtering. The dispersion curves show the dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in layered media to frequency. The synthetic models also demonstrate the stability and the speed of inversion procedure.
Time-dependent approach to electron scattering and ionization in the s-wave model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ihra, W.; Draeger, M.; Handke, G.; Friedrich, H.
1995-01-01
The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is integrated for continuum states of two-electron atoms in the framework of the s-wave model, in which both electrons are restricted to having vanishing individual orbital angular momenta. The method is suitable for studying the time evolution of correlations in the two-electron wave functions and yields probabilities for elastic and inelastic electron scattering and for electron-impact ionization. The spin-averaged probabilities for electron-impact ionization of hydrogen in the s-wave model reproduce the shape of the experimentally observed integrated ionization cross section remarkably well for energies near and above the maximum
Experimental Study of the Weptos Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy
2012-01-01
This paper presents the power performance results of the experimental study of the WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC). This novel device combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with an adjustable structure that can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce...... loads in extreme wave conditions. This A-shaped floating structure absorbs the energy in the waves through a multitude of rotors, the shape of which is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. These rotors pivot around a common axle, one for each leg of the structure, to which the rotors transfer...... the absorbed wave energy and which is connected to a common power take off system (one for each leg). The study investigates the performance of the device in a large range of wave states and estimates the performance in terms of mechanical power available to the power take off system of the WEPTOS WEC for two...
Effects of wave-induced forcing on a circulation model of the North Sea
Staneva, Joanna; Alari, Victor; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian
2017-04-01
The effect of wind waves on water level and currents during two storms in the North Sea is investigated using a high-resolution NEMO model forced with fluxes and fields from a high-resolution wave model. The additional terms accounting for wave-current interaction that are considered in this study are the Stokes-Coriolis force and the sea-state dependent energy and momentum fluxes. The individual and collective role of these processes is quantified and the results are compared with a control run without wave effects as well as against current and water level measurements from coastal stations. We find a better agreement with observations when the circulation model is forced by sea-state dependent fluxes, especially in extreme events. The two extreme events, the storm Christian (25-27 October 2013), and about a month later, the storm Xaver (5-7 December 2013), induce different wave and surge conditions over the North Sea. Including the wave effects in the circulation model for the storm Xaver raises the modelled surge by more than 40 cm compared with the control run in the German Bight area. For the storm Christian, a difference of 20-30 cm in the surge level between the wave-forced and the stand-alone ocean model is found over the whole southern part of the North Sea. Moreover, the modelled vertical velocity profile fits the observations very well when the wave forcing is accounted for. The contribution of wave-induced forcing has been quantified indicating that this represents an important mechanism for improving water level and current predictions.
Travelling Waves in Hybrid Chemotaxis Models
Franz, Benjamin; Xue, Chuan; Painter, Kevin J.; Erban, Radek
2013-01-01
. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death
Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Y. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, D. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Copping, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, L. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2015-01-01
This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.
A water wave model with horizontal circulation and accurate dispersion
Cotter, C.; Bokhove, Onno
We describe a new water wave model which is variational, and combines a depth-averaged vertical (component of) vorticity with depth-dependent potential flow. The model facilitates the further restriction of the vertical profile of the velocity potential to n-th order polynomials or a finite element
Simple model for decay of laser generated shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trainor, R.J.
1980-01-01
A simple model is derived to calculate the hydrodynamic decay of laser-generated shock waves. Comparison with detailed hydrocode simulations shows good agreement between calculated time evolution of shock pressure, position, and instantaneous pressure profile. Reliability of the model decreases in regions of the target where superthermal-electron preheat effects become comparable to shock effects
Numerical modeling of shoreline undulations part 1: Constant wave climate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2013-01-01
integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model.First the length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a stability analysis. Next the further evolution from the linear to the fully non-linear regime is described...
Wave-particle duality in a quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudder, S.P.
1984-01-01
A quark model based on finite-dimensional quantum mechanics is presented. Observables associated with color, flavor, charge, and spin are considered. Using these observables, quark and baryon Hamiltonians are constructed. Wave-particle dualities in this model are pointed out. (Auth.)
Experimental Study of Irregular Waves on a Gravel Beach
Hu, Nai-Ren; Wu, Yun-Ta; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng
2017-04-01
In the east coast of Taiwan, the sort grain size more belongs to cobble or gravel, which is physically distinct compared to the sandy beach in the west coast of Taiwan. Although gravel beaches can dissipate more of wave energy, gravel beaches were eroded and coastal road were damaged especially during typhoons. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geomorphological response of gravel beach due to irregular waves. This experiment was carry out in a 21m long, 50 cm wide, 70 cm high wave tank at Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan. To simulate of the geometry in the east coast of Taiwan, a physical model with 1/36 scale-down was used, in which the seawall was 10cm built upon a 1:10 slope and gravel grains with D50 being 3.87 mm was nourished in front of the seawall. In terms of typhoon-scale wave condition, irregular waves with scale-down conditions were generated for 600 s for each scenarios and, three different water levels with respect to the gravel beach are designed. Application of laser combined with image processing to produce 3D topographic map, the erosion zone and accretion zone would be found. The resulting morphological change of gravel beach will be measured using an integrated laser and image processing tool to have 3D topographic maps. It is expected to have more understanding about under what conditions the gravel coasts suffer the least damage. In particular, the relation between erosion rates of gravel beach, the angle of gravel slope and the length of the plane on the gravel slope will be achieved
Multiresolution wavelet-ANN model for significant wave height forecasting.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Deka, P.C.; Mandal, S.; Prahlada, R.
Hybrid wavelet artificial neural network (WLNN) has been applied in the present study to forecast significant wave heights (Hs). Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is used to preprocess the time series data (Hs) prior to Artificial Neural Network...
Models for short-wave instability in inviscid shear flows
Grimshaw, Roger
1999-11-01
The generation of instability in an invsicid fluid occurs by a resonance between two wave modes, where here the resonance occurs by a coincidence of phase speeds for a finite, non-zero wavenumber. We show that in the weakly nonlinear limit, the appropriate model consists of two coupled equations for the envelopes of the wave modes, in which the nonlinear terms are balanced with low-order cross-coupling linear dispersive terms rather than the more familiar high-order terms which arise in the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, for instance. We will show that this system may either contain gap solitons as solutions in the linearly stable case, or wave breakdown in the linearly unstable case. In this latter circumstance, the system either exhibits wave collapse in finite time, or disintegration into fine-scale structures.
NASA's Gravitational - Wave Mission Concept Study
Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul
2012-01-01
With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons. the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines. and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility. to define a conceptual design evaluate kt,y performance parameters. assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. S. Lee
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Abnormal storm waves cause coastal disasters along the coasts of Korean Peninsula and Japan in the East/Japan Sea (EJS in winter, arising due to developed low pressures during the East Asia winter monsoon. The generation of these abnormal storm waves during rough sea states were studied and hindcast using an atmosphere-wave coupled modelling system. Wind waves and swell due to developed low pressures were found to be the main components of abnormal storm waves. The meteorological conditions that generate these waves are classified into three patterns based on past literature that describes historical events as well as on numerical modelling. In hindcasting the abnormal storm waves, a bogussing scheme originally designed to simulate a tropical storm in a mesoscale meteorological model was introduced into the modelling system to enhance the resolution of developed low pressures. The modelling results with a bogussing scheme showed improvements in terms of resolved low pressure, surface wind field, and wave characteristics obtained with the wind field as an input.
'Oscillator-wave' model: properties and heuristic instances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damgov, Vladimir; Trenchev, Plamen; Sheiretsky, Kostadin
2003-01-01
The article considers a generalized model of an oscillator, subjected to the influence of an external wave. It is shown that the systems of diverse physical background, which this model encompasses by their nature, should belong to the broader, proposed in previous works class of 'kick-excited self-adaptive dynamical systems'. The theoretical treatment includes an analytic approach to the conditions for emergence of small and large amplitudes, i.e. weak and strong non-linearity of the system. Derived also are generalized conditions for the transition of systems of this 'oscillator-wave' type to non-regular and chaotic behaviour. For the purpose of demonstrating the heuristic properties of the generalized oscillator-wave model from this point of view are considered the relevant systems and phenomena of the quantized cyclotron resonance and the megaquantum resonance-wave model of the Solar System. We point to a number of other natural and scientific phenomena, which can be effectively analyzed from the point of view of the developed approach. In particular we stress on the possibility for development and the wide applicability of specific wave influences, for example for the improvement and the speeding up of technological processes
Forward modeling of space-borne gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubbo, Louis J.; Cornish, Neil J.; Poujade, Olivier
2004-01-01
Planning is underway for several space-borne gravitational wave observatories to be built in the next 10 to 20 years. Realistic and efficient forward modeling will play a key role in the design and operation of these observatories. Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors operate very differently from their ground-based counterparts. Complex orbital motion, virtual interferometry, and finite size effects complicate the description of space-based systems, while nonlinear control systems complicate the description of ground-based systems. Here we explore the forward modeling of space-based gravitational wave detectors and introduce an adiabatic approximation to the detector response that significantly extends the range of the standard low frequency approximation. The adiabatic approximation will aid in the development of data analysis techniques, and improve the modeling of astrophysical parameter extraction
Improvements on Semi-Classical Distorted-Wave model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun Weili; Watanabe, Y.; Kuwata, R. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kohno, M.; Ogata, K.; Kawai, M.
1998-03-01
A method of improving the Semi-Classical Distorted Wave (SCDW) model in terms of the Wigner transform of the one-body density matrix is presented. Finite size effect of atomic nuclei can be taken into account by using the single particle wave functions for harmonic oscillator or Wood-Saxon potential, instead of those based on the local Fermi-gas model which were incorporated into previous SCDW model. We carried out a preliminary SCDW calculation of 160 MeV (p,p`x) reaction on {sup 90}Zr with the Wigner transform of harmonic oscillator wave functions. It is shown that the present calculation of angular distributions increase remarkably at backward angles than the previous ones and the agreement with the experimental data is improved. (author)
Mechanical Balance Laws for Boussinesq Models of Surface Water Waves
Ali, Alfatih; Kalisch, Henrik
2012-06-01
Depth-integrated long-wave models, such as the shallow-water and Boussinesq equations, are standard fare in the study of small amplitude surface waves in shallow water. While the shallow-water theory features conservation of mass, momentum and energy for smooth solutions, mechanical balance equations are not widely used in Boussinesq scaling, and it appears that the expressions for many of these quantities are not known. This work presents a systematic derivation of mass, momentum and energy densities and fluxes associated with a general family of Boussinesq systems. The derivation is based on a reconstruction of the velocity field and the pressure in the fluid column below the free surface, and the derivation of differential balance equations which are of the same asymptotic validity as the evolution equations. It is shown that all these mechanical quantities can be expressed in terms of the principal dependent variables of the Boussinesq system: the surface excursion η and the horizontal velocity w at a given level in the fluid.
An Eulerian two-phase flow model for sediment transport under realistic surface waves
Hsu, T. J.; Kim, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Chauchat, J.
2017-12-01
Wave-driven sediment transport is of major importance in driving beach morphology. However, the complex mechanisms associated with unsteadiness, free-surface effects, and wave-breaking turbulence have not been fully understood. Particularly, most existing models for sediment transport adopt bottom boundary layer approximation that mimics the flow condition in oscillating water tunnel (U-tube). However, it is well-known that there are key differences in sediment transport when comparing to large wave flume datasets, although the number of wave flume experiments are relatively limited regardless of its importance. Thus, a numerical model which can resolve the entire water column from the bottom boundary layer to the free surface can be a powerful tool. This study reports an on-going effort to better understand and quantify sediment transport under shoaling and breaking surface waves through the creation of open-source numerical models in the OpenFOAM framework. An Eulerian two-phase flow model, SedFoam (Cheng et al., 2017, Coastal Eng.) is fully coupled with a volume-of-fluid solver, interFoam/waves2Foam (Jacobsen et al., 2011, Int. J. Num. Fluid). The fully coupled model, named SedWaveFoam, regards the air and water phases as two immiscible fluids with the interfaces evolution resolved, and the sediment particles as dispersed phase. We carried out model-data comparisons with the large wave flume sheet flow data for nonbreaking waves reported by Dohmen-Janssen and Hanes (2002, J. Geophysical Res.) and good agreements were obtained for sediment concentration and net transport rate. By further simulating a case without free-surface (mimic U-tube condition), the effects of free-surface, most notably the boundary layer streaming effect on total transport, can be quantified.
Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling
Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary
2009-01-01
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.
Modeling Tides, Planetary Waves, and Equatorial Oscillations in the MLT
Mengel, J. G.; Mayr, H. G.; Drob, D. P.; Porter, H. S.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Applying Hines Doppler Spread Parameterization for gravity waves (GW), our 3D model reproduces some essential features that characterize the observed seasonal variations of tides and planetary waves in the upper mesosphere. In 2D, our model also reproduces the large Semi-Annual Oscillation (SAO) and Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) observed in this region at low latitudes. It is more challenging to describe these features combined in a more comprehensive self consistent model, and we give a progress report that outlines the difficulties and reports some success. In 3D, the GW's are partially absorbed by tides and planetary waves to amplify them. Thus the waves are less efficient in generating the QBO and SAO at equatorial latitudes. Some of this deficiency is compensated by the fact that the GW activity is observed to be enhanced at low latitudes. Increasing the GW source has the desired effect to boost the QBO, but the effect is confined primarily to the stratosphere. With increasing altitude, the meridional circulation becomes more important in redistributing the momentum deposited in the background flow by the GW's. Another factor involved is the altitude at which the GW's originate, which we had originally chosen to be the surface. Numerical experiments show that moving this source altitude to the top of the troposphere significantly increases the efficiency for generating the QBO without affecting much the tides and planetary waves in the model. Attention to the details in which the GW source comes into play thus appears to be of critical importance in modeling the phenomenology of the MLT. Among the suite of numerical experiments reported, we present a simulation that produced significant variations of tides and planetary waves in the upper mesosphere. The effect is related to the QBO generated in the model, and GW filtering is the likely cause.
Neutron wave optics studied with ultracold neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steyerl, A.
1984-01-01
The author discusses experiments demonstrating or utilizing the wave properties of neutrons with wavelengths of about 100 nm. In particular the 'UCN gravity diffractometer' and the gravity spectrometer NESSIE (Neutronen-Schwerkraft-Spectrometrie) are illustrated. (Auth.)
Improved Modeling and Prediction of Surface Wave Amplitudes
2017-05-31
AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0162 TR-2017-0162 IMPROVED MODELING AND PREDICTION OF SURFACE WAVE AMPLITUDES Jeffry L. Stevens, et al. Leidos...data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented...SUBTITLE Improved Modeling and Prediction of Surface Wave Amplitudes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-14-C-0225 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
Modeling the Complete Gravitational Wave Spectrum of Neutron Star Mergers.
Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Nagar, Alessandro
2015-08-28
In the context of neutron star mergers, we study the gravitational wave spectrum of the merger remnant using numerical relativity simulations. Postmerger spectra are characterized by a main peak frequency f2 related to the particular structure and dynamics of the remnant hot hypermassive neutron star. We show that f(2) is correlated with the tidal coupling constant κ(2)^T that characterizes the binary tidal interactions during the late-inspiral merger. The relation f(2)(κ(2)^T) depends very weakly on the binary total mass, mass ratio, equation of state, and thermal effects. This observation opens up the possibility of developing a model of the gravitational spectrum of every merger unifying the late-inspiral and postmerger descriptions.
Wave Transformation Over Reefs: Evaluation of One-Dimensional Numerical Models
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G; Ward, Donald L; Sanchez, Alejandro
2009-01-01
Three one-dimensional (1D) numerical wave models are evaluated for wave transformation over reefs and estimates of wave setup, runup, and ponding levels in an island setting where the beach is fronted by fringing reef and lagoons...
Effective Orthorhombic Anisotropic Models for Wave field Extrapolation
Ibanez Jacome, Wilson
2013-05-01
Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models, to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, I generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the first-arrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, I develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic one, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation that includes the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P-waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, which is done by explicitly solving the isotropic eikonal equation for the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. I extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the
Model Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Seawave Slot-Cone Generator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kofoed, Jens Peter
This report presents the results of a preliminary experimental study of the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple reservoirs. In the present SSG setup three reservoirs has been used. Model tests have been performed using...... a scale model (length scale 1:15) of a SSG device to be installed on the west coast of the island Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The model has been subjected to regular and irregular waves...... corresponding to typical conditions off shore from the intended installation site. The overtopping rates for the individual reservoirs have been measured and the potential energy in the overtopping water has been calculated....
Optimal parametric modelling of measured short waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mandal, S.
the importance of selecting a suitable sampling interval for better estimates of parametric modelling and also for better statistical representation. Implementation of the above algorithms in a structural monitoring system has the potential advantage of storing...
Frontiers in Anisotropic Shock-Wave Modeling
2012-02-01
Epoxy IFPT simulated and experimental back surface velocities for 572, 788, and 1015 m/s. The experimental data Kevlar / Epoxy materials recovered after...model development for the Nextel and Kevlar / Epoxy materials subject to hypervelocity impact. They also performed the experimental inverse flyer test...IFPT) for Nextel and Kevlar / Epoxy . Their models were to be macro-mechanically based and suitable for implementation into a hydrocode coupled with EOS
Towards a new technique to construct a 3D shear-wave velocity model based on converted waves
Hetényi, G.; Colavitti, L.
2017-12-01
A 3D model is essential in all branches of solid Earth sciences because geological structures can be heterogeneous and change significantly in their lateral dimension. The main target of this research is to build a crustal S-wave velocity structure in 3D. The currently popular methodologies to construct 3D shear-wave velocity models are Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) and Local Earthquake Tomography (LET). Here we propose a new technique to map Earth discontinuities and velocities at depth based on the analysis of receiver functions. The 3D model is obtained by simultaneously inverting P-to-S converted waveforms recorded at a dense array. The individual velocity models corresponding to each trace are extracted from the 3D initial model along ray paths that are calculated using the shooting method, and the velocity model is updated during the inversion. We consider a spherical approximation of ray propagation using a global velocity model (iasp91, Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) for the teleseismic part, while we adopt Cartesian coordinates and a local velocity model for the crust. During the inversion process we work with a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity, with a flexible mesh for the depth of the interfaces. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter space. Depending on the studied area, this method can accommodate possible independent and complementary geophysical data (gravity, active seismics, LET, ANT, etc.), helping to reduce the non-linearity of the inversion. Our first focus of application is the Central Alps, where a 20-year long dataset of
Seismic waves and earthquakes in a global monolithic model
Roubíček, Tomáš
2018-03-01
The philosophy that a single "monolithic" model can "asymptotically" replace and couple in a simple elegant way several specialized models relevant on various Earth layers is presented and, in special situations, also rigorously justified. In particular, global seismicity and tectonics is coupled to capture, e.g., (here by a simplified model) ruptures of lithospheric faults generating seismic waves which then propagate through the solid-like mantle and inner core both as shear (S) or pressure (P) waves, while S-waves are suppressed in the fluidic outer core and also in the oceans. The "monolithic-type" models have the capacity to describe all the mentioned features globally in a unified way together with corresponding interfacial conditions implicitly involved, only when scaling its parameters appropriately in different Earth's layers. Coupling of seismic waves with seismic sources due to tectonic events is thus an automatic side effect. The global ansatz is here based, rather for an illustration, only on a relatively simple Jeffreys' viscoelastic damageable material at small strains whose various scaling (limits) can lead to Boger's viscoelastic fluid or even to purely elastic (inviscid) fluid. Self-induced gravity field, Coriolis, centrifugal, and tidal forces are counted in our global model, as well. The rigorous mathematical analysis as far as the existence of solutions, convergence of the mentioned scalings, and energy conservation is briefly presented.
Herman, Agnieszka
2017-11-01
In this paper, a coupled sea ice-wave model is developed and used to analyze wave-induced stress and breaking in sea ice for a range of wave and ice conditions. The sea ice module is a discrete-element bonded-particle model, in which ice is represented as cuboid grains floating on the water surface that can be connected to their neighbors by elastic joints. The joints may break if instantaneous stresses acting on them exceed their strength. The wave module is based on an open-source version of the Non-Hydrostatic WAVE model (NHWAVE). The two modules are coupled with proper boundary conditions for pressure and velocity, exchanged at every wave model time step. In the present version, the model operates in two dimensions (one vertical and one horizontal) and is suitable for simulating compact ice in which heave and pitch motion dominates over surge. In a series of simulations with varying sea ice properties and incoming wavelength it is shown that wave-induced stress reaches maximum values at a certain distance from the ice edge. The value of maximum stress depends on both ice properties and characteristics of incoming waves, but, crucially for ice breaking, the location at which the maximum occurs does not change with the incoming wavelength. Consequently, both regular and random (Jonswap spectrum) waves break the ice into floes with almost identical sizes. The width of the zone of broken ice depends on ice strength and wave attenuation rates in the ice.
Nonlinear whistler wave model for lion roars in the Earth's magnetosheath
Dwivedi, N. K.; Singh, S.
2017-09-01
In the present study, we construct a nonlinear whistler wave model to explain the magnetic field spectra observed for lion roars in the Earth's magnetosheath region. We use two-fluid theory and semi-analytical approach to derive the dynamical equation of whistler wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field. We examine the magnetic field localization of parallel propagating whistler wave in the intermediate beta plasma applicable to the Earth's magnetosheath. In addition, we investigate spectral features of the magnetic field fluctuations and the spectral slope value. The magnetic field spectrum obtained by semi-analytical approach shows a spectral break point and becomes steeper at higher wave numbers. The observations of IMP 6 plasma waves and magnetometer experiment reveal the existence of short period magnetic field fluctuations in the magnetosheath. The observation shows the broadband spectrum with a spectral slope of -4.5 superimposed with a narrow band peak. The broadband fluctuations appear due to the energy cascades attributed by low-frequency magnetohydrodynamic modes, whereas, a narrow band peak is observed due to the short period lion roars bursts. The energy spectrum predicted by the present theoretical model shows a similar broadband spectrum in the wave number domain with a spectral slope of -3.2, however, it does not show any narrow band peak. Further, we present a comparison between theoretical energy spectrum and the observed spectral slope in the frequency domain. The present semi-analytical model provides exposure to the whistler wave turbulence in the Earth's magnetosheath.
On observational foundations of models with a wave spiral structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suchkov, A.A.
1978-01-01
The validity of the density wave models of the spiral structure is considered. It is shown that the density wave in the Galaxy is doverned by its flat subsystem only, whereas the disk and the halo do not contribute significantly into the wave. It is found that the density wave model of the spiral structure of the Galaxy is confirmed by the value of the pattern speed derived from observational data (Ω = 20-25 km s -1 kpc -1 ). The position and the properties of the outer Lindblad resonance are confirmed by the existence and position of gas ring features in outer regions of our Galaxy and external galaxies. The corotation region in the Galaxy is situated at R=10/12 kpc. Near the corotation region the galactic shock wave is not expected to develop. The observed rapid decrease in the number of H2 regions while moving from R=5 kpc to R=10 kpc confirms this conclusion. The similar consistency between the positions of corotation region and outer resonance and the observed properties of H2 and H1 distribution has also been found for a number of extermal galaxies
Parandaman, A.; Sudhakar, G.; Rajakumar, B.
Thermal reactions of Tetramethylsilane (TMS) diluted in argon were studied behind the reflected shock waves in a single-pulse shock tube (SPST) over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K and pressures varied between 10.6 and 22.8 atm. The stable products resulting from the decomposition of TMS were identified and quantified using gas chromatography and also verified with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The major reaction products are methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4). The minor reaction products are ethane (C2H6) and propylene (C3H6). The initiation of mechanism in the decomposition of TMS takes plays via the Si-C bond scission by ejecting the methyl radicals (CH3) and trimethylsilyl radicals ((CH3)3Si). The measured temperature dependent rate coefficient for the total decomposition of TMS was to be ktotal = 1.66 ×1015 exp (-64.46/RT) s-1 and for the formation of CH4 reaction channel was to be k = 2.20 × 1014 exp (-60.15/RT) s-1, where the activation energies are given in kcal mol-1. A kinetic scheme containing 17 species and 28 elementary reactions was used for the simulation using chemical kinetic simulator over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K. The agreement between the experimental and simulated results was satisfactory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Muliawan, Made Jaya; Gao, Zhen
2012-01-01
The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is ready to be up-scaled to commercial size. The design and feasibility analysis of a 1.5 MW pre-commercial unit to be deployed at the DanWEC test center in Hanstholm, Denmark, is currently ongoing. With regard to the mooring system, the design has to be carr......The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is ready to be up-scaled to commercial size. The design and feasibility analysis of a 1.5 MW pre-commercial unit to be deployed at the DanWEC test center in Hanstholm, Denmark, is currently ongoing. With regard to the mooring system, the design has...... to be carried out numerically, through coupled analyses of alternative solutions. The present study deals with the preliminary hydrodynamic characterization of Wave Dragon needed in order to calibrate the numerical model to be used for the mooring design. A hydrodynamic analysis of the small scale model...
Large Scale Model Test Investigation on Wave Run-Up in Irregular Waves at Slender Piles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
2013-01-01
An experimental large scale study on wave run-up generated loads on entrance platforms for offshore wind turbines was performed. The experiments were performed at GrosserWellenkanal (GWK), Forschungszentrum Küste (FZK) in Hannover, Germany. The present paper deals with the run-up heights determin...
Full-wave modeling of ICRF waves: global and quasi-local descriptions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumont, R. J.
2007-01-01
Waves in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) undergo significant space dispersion as they propagate in magnetic fusion plasmas, making it necessary to incorporate non-local effects in their physical description. Full-wave codes are routinely employed to simulate ICRF heating experiments in tokamaks. The vast majority of these codes rely on a description of the plasma based on a 'quasi-local' derivation of the dielectric tensor, i.e. assuming that the range of space dispersion remains small compared to the system dimensions. However, non-local effects caused by wide particle orbits are expected to play a significant role in current and future experiments featuring wave-driven fast ions, fusion-born alpha particles... Global formalisms have thus been proposed to include these effects in a more comprehensive fashion. Based on a description of the particle dynamics in terms of action-angle variables, a full-wave code, named EVE, is currently under development. Its first version, presented here, incorporates quasi-local expressions valid to second order in Larmor radius, derived from the more general Hamiltonian formalism. The obtained tool has the advantage of being compatible with the current requirements of integrated modeling, and lends itself to direct comparisons with existing codes
MONTE CARLO SIMULATION MODEL OF ENERGETIC PROTON TRANSPORT THROUGH SELF-GENERATED ALFVEN WAVES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Afanasiev, A.; Vainio, R., E-mail: alexandr.afanasiev@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland)
2013-08-15
A new Monte Carlo simulation model for the transport of energetic protons through self-generated Alfven waves is presented. The key point of the model is that, unlike the previous ones, it employs the full form (i.e., includes the dependence on the pitch-angle cosine) of the resonance condition governing the scattering of particles off Alfven waves-the process that approximates the wave-particle interactions in the framework of quasilinear theory. This allows us to model the wave-particle interactions in weak turbulence more adequately, in particular, to implement anisotropic particle scattering instead of isotropic scattering, which the previous Monte Carlo models were based on. The developed model is applied to study the transport of flare-accelerated protons in an open magnetic flux tube. Simulation results for the transport of monoenergetic protons through the spectrum of Alfven waves reveal that the anisotropic scattering leads to spatially more distributed wave growth than isotropic scattering. This result can have important implications for diffusive shock acceleration, e.g., affect the scattering mean free path of the accelerated particles in and the size of the foreshock region.
A boundary element model for diffraction of water waves on varying water depth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulin, Sanne
1997-12-31
In this thesis a boundary element model for calculating diffraction of water waves on varying water depth is presented. The varying water depth is approximated with a perturbed constant depth in the mild-slope wave equation. By doing this, the domain integral which is a result of the varying depth is no longer a function of the unknown wave potential but only a function of position and the constant depth wave potential. The number of unknowns is the resulting system of equations is thus reduced significantly. The integration procedures in the model are tested very thoroughly and it is found that a combination of analytical integration in the singular region and standard numerical integration outside works very well. The gradient of the wave potential is evaluated successfully using a hypersingular integral equation. Deviations from the analytical solution are only found on the boundary or very close to, but these deviations have no significant influence on the accuracy of the solution. The domain integral is evaluated using the dual reciprocity method. The results are compared with a direct integration of the integral, and the accuracy is quite satisfactory. The problem with irregular frequencies is taken care of by the CBIEM (or CHIEF-method) together with a singular value decomposition technique. This method is simple to implement and works very well. The model is verified using Homma`s island as a test case. The test cases are limited to shallow water since the analytical solution is only valid in this region. Several depth ratios are examined, and it is found that the accuracy of the model increases with increasing wave period and decreasing depth ratio. Short waves, e.g. wind generated waves, can allow depth variations up to approximately 2 before the error exceeds 10%, while long waves can allow larger depth ratios. It is concluded that the perturbation idea is highly usable. A study of (partially) absorbing boundary conditions is also conducted. (EG)
Wave Climate and Wave Mixing in the Marginal Ice Zones of Arctic Seas, Observations and Modelling
2015-09-30
measured by R/V Lance ( black solid line) and predicted by SWAN ( black dashed line) and the ship velocity (grey solid line). (c) BFI ( black solid line) and...and potential future trends; and WAVEWATCH-III® and SWAN wave models with new physics, adapted and validated for the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas...nondimensional spectral width ν ( black dashed line). (d–i) Selected photographs from the ship show local sea ice state. Fig. 6 illustrates a
Variational Boussinesq model for simulation of coastal waves and tsunamis
Adytia, D.; Adytia, Didit; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Tan, Soon Keat; Huang, Zhenhua
2009-01-01
In this paper we describe the basic ideas of a so-called Variational Boussinesq Model which is based on the Hamiltonian structure of gravity surface waves. By using a rather simple approach to prescribe the profile of vertical fluid potential in the expression for the kinetic energy, we obtain a set
Non-homogeneous polymer model for wave propagation and its ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
density are functions of space i.e. non-homogeneous engineering material. .... The Solution of equation Eq. (9) in the form of Eq. (10) can be obtained by taking a phase ..... Viscoelastic Model Applied to a Particular Case .... p m i exp m α α σ σ σ. = −. +. −. (35). The progressive harmonic wave which starts from the end. 0 x =.
The second-order decomposition model of nonlinear irregular waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Zhi Wen; Bingham, Harry B.; Li, Jin Xuan
2013-01-01
into the first- and the second-order super-harmonic as well as the second-order sub-harmonic components by transferring them into an identical Fourier frequency-space and using a Newton-Raphson iteration method. In order to evaluate the present model, a variety of monochromatic waves and the second...
FDTD Modelling of Electromagnetic waves in Stratified Medium ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The technique is an adaptation of the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) approach usually applied to model electromagnetic wave propagation. In this paper a simple 2D implementation of FDTD algorithm in mathematica environment is presented. Source implementation and the effect of conductivity on the incident field ...
Gravitational Jaynes–Cummings model beyond the rotating wave
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, the quantum properties of a two-level atom and the cavity-ﬁeld in the Jaynes–Cummings model with the gravity beyond the rotating wave approximation are investigated. For this purpose, by solving the Schrödinger equation in the interaction picture, the evolving state of the system is found by which the ...
Lake St. Clair: Storm Wave and Water Level Modeling
2013-06-01
R. A. Luettich, C. Dawson, V. J. Cardone , A. T. Cox, M. D. Powell, H. J. Westerink, and H. J. Roberts. 2010. A high resolution coupled riverine flow...Storm Wave and Water Level Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Tyler J. Hesser
Yasui, Kyuichi; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Yasuoka, Masaki; Kato, Kazumi
2015-11-01
There are two major categories in a thermoacoustic prime-mover. One is the traveling-wave type and the other is the standing-wave type. A simple analytical model of a standing-wave thermoacoustic prime-mover is proposed at relatively low heat-flux for a stack much shorter than the acoustic wavelength, which approximately describes the Brayton cycle. Numerical simulations of Rott's equations have revealed that the work flow (acoustic power) increases by increasing of the amplitude of the particle velocity (| U|) for the traveling-wave type and by increasing cosΦ for the standing-wave type, where Φ is the phase difference between the particle velocity and the acoustic pressure. In other words, the standing-wave type is a phase-dominant type while the traveling-wave type is an amplitude-dominant one. The ratio of the absolute value of the traveling-wave component (| U|cosΦ) to that of the standing-wave component (| U|sinΦ) of any thermoacoustic engine roughly equals the ratio of the absolute value of the increasing rate of | U| to that of cosΦ. The different mechanism between the traveling-wave and the standing-wave type is discussed regarding the dependence of the energy efficiency on the acoustic impedance of a stack as well as that on ωτα, where ω is the angular frequency of an acoustic wave and τα is the thermal relaxation time. While the energy efficiency of the traveling-wave type at the optimal ωτα is much higher than that of the standing-wave type, the energy efficiency of the standing-wave type is higher than that of the traveling-wave type at much higher ωτα under a fixed temperature difference between the cold and the hot ends of the stack.
Study of the potential of wave energy in Malaysia
Tan, Wan Ching; Chan, Keng Wai; Ooi, Heivin
2017-07-01
Renewable energy is generally defined as energy harnessed from resources which are naturally replenished. It is an alternative to the current conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal, which are nonrenewable. Besides being nonrenewable, the harnessing of these resources generally produce by-products which could be potentially harmful to the environment. On the contrary, the generation from renewable energy does not pose environmental degradation. Some examples of renewable energy sources are sunlight, wind, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Wave energy is considered as one of the most promising marine renewable resources and is becoming commercially viable quicker than other renewable technologies at an astonishing growth rate. This paper illustrates the working principle of wave energy converter (WEC) and the availability of wave energy in Malaysia oceans. A good understanding of the behaviour of ocean waves is important for designing an efficient WEC as the characteristics of the waves in shallow and deep water are different. Consequently, wave energy converters are categorized into three categories on shore, near shore and offshore. Therefore, the objectives of this study is ought to be carried out by focusing on the formation of waves and wave characteristics in shallow as well as in deep water. The potential sites for implementation of wave energy harvesting technology in Malaysia and the wave energy available in the respective area were analysed. The potential of wave energy in Malaysia were tabulated and presented with theoretical data. The interaction between motion of waves and heave buoys for optimum phase condition by using the mass and diameter as the variables were investigated.
Millimeter Wave Radio Frequency Propagation Model Development
2014-08-28
be not be exceeded due to rain could be 95%. However, if the location were in a tropical rain forest , then then threshold might not be exceeded for...molecules grows. Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. 14 Figure 3. Specific Attenuation Due to Water Vapor and Dry Air 3.1.1.2 Rain ... rain being the most detrimental and uncertain. Predictive models of rain attenuation claim some degree of accuracy up to 55 GHz, although they are
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takashima, Keisuke; Adamovich, Igor V.; Xiong Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.; Starikovskaia, Svetlana; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Luggenhoelscher, Dirk
2011-01-01
Fast ionization wave (FIW), nanosecond pulse discharge propagation in nitrogen and helium in a rectangular geometry channel/waveguide is studied experimentally using calibrated capacitive probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge in the channel was generated using a custom designed pulsed plasma generator (peak voltage 10-40 kV, pulse duration 30-100 ns, and voltage rise time ∼1 kV/ns), generating a sequence of alternating polarity high-voltage pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz. Both negative polarity and positive polarity ionization waves have been studied. Ionization wave speed, as well as time-resolved potential distributions and axial electric field distributions in the propagating discharge are inferred from the capacitive probe data. ICCD images show that at the present conditions the FIW discharge in helium is diffuse and volume-filling, while in nitrogen the discharge propagates along the walls of the channel. FIW discharge propagation has been analyzed numerically using quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional kinetic models in a hydrodynamic (drift-diffusion), local ionization approximation. The wave speed and the electric field distribution in the wave front predicted by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results. A self-similar analytic solution of the fast ionization wave propagation equations has also been obtained. The analytic model of the FIW discharge predicts key ionization wave parameters, such as wave speed, peak electric field in the front, potential difference across the wave, and electron density as functions of the waveform on the high voltage electrode, in good agreement with the numerical calculations and the experimental results.
A Dirac sea pilot-wave model for quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colin, S; Struyve, W
2007-01-01
We present a pilot-wave model for quantum field theory in which the Dirac sea is taken seriously. The model ascribes particle trajectories to all the fermions, including the fermions filling the Dirac sea. The model is deterministic and applies to the regime in which fermion number is superselected. This work is a further elaboration of work by Colin, in which a Dirac sea pilot-wave model is presented for quantum electrodynamics. We extend his work to non-electromagnetic interactions, we discuss a cut-off regularization of the pilot-wave model and study how it reproduces the standard quantum predictions. The Dirac sea pilot-wave model can be seen as a possible continuum generalization of a lattice model by Bell. It can also be seen as a development and generalization of the ideas by Bohm, Hiley and Kaloyerou, who also suggested the use of the Dirac sea for the development of a pilot-wave model for quantum electrodynamics
Coupling of high-resolution meteorological and wave models over southern Italy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Bertotti
2009-07-01
Full Text Available In the framework of RISKMED project, three different high-resolution limited area meteorological models (BOLAM, MOLOCH and WRF have been run over southern Italy for the retrospective analysis of three case studies characterized by strong winds and severe wave conditions in the Ionian, southern Adriatic and southern Tyrrhenian seas. All the models were able to reproduce the main meteorological features of each event.
The wind fields simulated by the meteorological models and those provided by the ECMWF analysis have been ingested into a wave model (WAM for the hindcast of the main wave parameters. The results have been compared with the observations of three buoys whose measurements were available in the area of interest.
A remarkable improvement in the representation of the significant wave height came out using the limited area model data with respect to the simulations where the ECMWF analyses were used as forcing. Among the limited area models, the BOLAM-MOLOCH modelling system provided slightly better performances. From the limited set of simulations, the different model predictions came out closer to each other and more skilful in areas where the waves approach the coastline perpendicularly from the open sea.
Dum, C. T.
1990-01-01
Particle simulation experiments were used to study the basic physical ingredients needed for building a global model of foreshock wave phenomena. In particular, the generation of Langmuir waves by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution is analyzed. It is shown that, with appropriately designed simulations experiments, quasi-linear theory can be quantitatively verified for parameters corresponding to the electron foreshock.
Wang, Xiaofeng; Matula, Thomas J.; Ma, Yong; Liu, Zheng; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong
2013-06-01
It is well known that extracorporeal shock wave treatment is capable of providing a non-surgical and relatively pain free alternative treatment modality for patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders but do not respond well to conservative treatments. The major objective of current work is to investigate how the shock wave (SW) field would change if a bony structure exists in the path of the acoustic wave. Here, a model of finite element method (FEM) was developed based on linear elasticity and acoustic propagation equations to examine SW propagation and deflection near a mimic musculoskeletal bone. High-speed photography experiments were performed to record cavitation bubbles generated in SW field with the presence of mimic bone. By comparing experimental and simulated results, the effectiveness of FEM model could be verified and strain energy distributions in the bone were also predicted according to numerical simulations. The results show that (1) the SW field will be deflected with the presence of bony structure and varying deflection angles can be observed as the bone shifted up in the z-direction relative to SW geometric focus (F2 focus); (2) SW deflection angels predicted by the FEM model agree well with experimental results obtained from high-speed photographs; and (3) temporal evolutions of strain energy distribution in the bone can also be evaluated based on FEM model, with varied vertical distance between F2 focus and intended target point on the bone surface. The present studies indicate that, by combining MRI/CT scans and FEM modeling work, it is possible to better understand SW propagation characteristics and energy deposition in musculoskeletal structure during extracorporeal shock wave treatment, which is important for standardizing the treatment dosage, optimizing treatment protocols, and even providing patient-specific treatment guidance in clinic.
Wave study of compound eyes for efficient infrared detection
Kilinc, Takiyettin Oytun; Hayran, Zeki; Kocer, Hasan; Kurt, Hamza
2017-08-01
Improving sensitivity in the infrared spectrum is a challenging task. Detecting infrared light over a wide bandwidth and at low power consumption is very important. Novel solutions can be acquired by mimicking biological eyes such as compound eye with many individual lenses inspired from the nature. The nature provides many ingenious approaches of sensing and detecting the surrounding environment. Even though compound eye consists of small optical units, it can detect wide-angle electromagnetic waves and it has high transmission and low reflection loss. Insects have eyes that are superior compared to human eyes (single-aperture eyes) in terms of compactness, robustness, wider field of view, higher sensitivity of light intensity and being cheap vision systems. All these desired properties are accompanied by an important drawback: lower spatial resolution. The first step to investigate the feasibility of bio-inspired optics in photodetectors is to perform light interaction with the optical system that gather light and detect it. The most common method used in natural vision systems is the ray analysis. Light wave characteristics are not taken into consideration in such analyses, such as the amount of energy at the focal point or photoreceptor site, the losses caused by reflection at the interfaces and absorption cannot be investigated. In this study, we present a bio-inspired optical detection system investigated by wave analysis. We numerically model the wave analysis based on Maxwell equations from the viewpoint of efficient light detection and revealing the light propagation after intercepting the first interface of the eye towards the photoreceptor site.
Wave propagation model of heat conduction and group speed
Zhang, Long; Zhang, Xiaomin; Peng, Song
2018-03-01
In view of the finite relaxation model of non-Fourier's law, the Cattaneo and Vernotte (CV) model and Fourier's law are presented in this work for comparing wave propagation modes. Independent variable translation is applied to solve the partial differential equation. Results show that the general form of the time spatial distribution of temperature for the three media comprises two solutions: those corresponding to the positive and negative logarithmic heating rates. The former shows that a group of heat waves whose spatial distribution follows the exponential function law propagates at a group speed; the speed of propagation is related to the logarithmic heating rate. The total speed of all the possible heat waves can be combined to form the group speed of the wave propagation. The latter indicates that the spatial distribution of temperature, which follows the exponential function law, decays with time. These features show that propagation accelerates when heated and decelerates when cooled. For the model media that follow Fourier's law and correspond to the positive heat rate of heat conduction, the propagation mode is also considered the propagation of a group of heat waves because the group speed has no upper bound. For the finite relaxation model with non-Fourier media, the interval of group speed is bounded and the maximum speed can be obtained when the logarithmic heating rate is exactly the reciprocal of relaxation time. And for the CV model with a non-Fourier medium, the interval of group speed is also bounded and the maximum value can be obtained when the logarithmic heating rate is infinite.
Millimeter wave studies of circumstellar chemistry
Tenenbaum, Emily Dale
2010-06-01
Millimeter wave studies of molecules in circumstellar envelopes and a planetary nebula have been conducted. Using the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) on Mt. Graham, a comparative spectral survey from 215-285 GHz was carried out of the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC +10216 and the oxygen-rich supergiant VY Canis Majoris. A total of 858 emission lines were observed in both objects, arising from 40 different molecules. In VY Canis Majoris, AlO, AlOH, and PO were detected for the first time in interstellar space. In IRC +10216, PH3 was detected for the first time beyond the solar system, and C3O, and CH2NH were found for the first time in a circumstellar envelope. Additionally, in the evolved planetary nebula, the Helix, H2CO, C2H, and cyclic-C3H2 were observed using the SMT and the Kitt Peak 12 m telescopes. The presence of these three molecules in the Helix suggests that relatively complex chemistry occurs in planetary nebulae, despite the harsh ultraviolet field. Overall, the research on molecules in circumstellar and planetary nebulae furthers our understanding of the nature of the material that is fed back into the interstellar medium from evolved stars. Besides telescope work, laboratory research was also conducted -- the rotational spectrum of ZnCl was measured and its bond length and rotational constants were determined. Lastly, in partial fulfillment of a graduate certificate in entrepreneurial chemistry, the commercial applications of terahertz spectroscopy were explored through literature research.
Predicting spiral wave patterns from cell properties in a model of biological self-organization.
Geberth, Daniel; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten
2008-09-01
In many biological systems, biological variability (i.e., systematic differences between the system components) can be expected to outrank statistical fluctuations in the shaping of self-organized patterns. In principle, the distribution of single-element properties should thus allow predicting features of such patterns. For a mathematical model of a paradigmatic and well-studied pattern formation process, spiral waves of cAMP signaling in colonies of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, we explore this possibility and observe a pronounced anticorrelation between spiral waves and cell properties (namely, the firing rate) and particularly a clustering of spiral wave tips in regions devoid of spontaneously firing (pacemaker) cells. Furthermore, we observe local inhomogeneities in the distribution of spiral chiralities, again induced by the pacemaker distribution. We show that these findings can be explained by a simple geometrical model of spiral wave generation.
Structural Modeling and Analysis of a Wave Energy Converter Applying Dynamical Substructuring Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Damkilde, Lars; Gao, Zhen
2013-01-01
to the relative stiff behavior of the arm the calculation can be reduced to a quasi-static analysis. The hydrodynamic and the structural analyses are thus performed separately. In order to reduce the computational time of the finite element calculation the main structure is modeled as a superelement......This paper deals with structural modeling and analysis of a wave energy converter. The device, called Wavestar, is a bottom fixed structure, located in a shallow water environment at the Danish Northwest coast. The analysis is concentrated on a single float and its structural arm which connects...... the WEC to a jackup structure. The wave energy converter is characterized by having an operational and survival mode. The survival mode drastically reduces the exposure to waves and therfore to the wave loads. Structural response analysis of the Wavestar arm is carried out in this study. Due...
Kuala Kemaman hydraulic model study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdul Kadir Ishak
2005-01-01
There The problems facing the area of Kuala Kemaman are siltation and erosion at shoreline. The objectives of study are to assess the best alignment of the groyne alignment, to ascertain the most stable shoreline regime and to investigate structural measures to overcome the erosion. The scope of study are data collection, wave analysis, hydrodynamic simulation and sediment transport simulation. Numerical models MIKE 21 are used - MIKE 21 NSW, for wind-wave model, which describes the growth, decay and transformation of wind-generated waves and swell in nearshore areas. The study takes into account effects of refraction and shoaling due to varying depth, energy dissipation due to bottom friction and wave breaking, MIKE 21 HD - modelling system for 2D free-surface flow which to stimulate the hydraulics phenomena in estuaries, coastal areas and seas. Predicted tidal elevation and waves (radiation stresses) are considered into study while wind is not considered. MIKE 21 ST - the system that calculates the rates of non-cohesive (sand) sediment transport for both pure content and combined waves and current situation
Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2011-01-01
This paper deals with wave energy converters used to reduce the wave height along shorelines. For this study the Wave Dragon wave energy converter is chosen. The wave height reduction from a single device has been evaluated from physical model tests in scale 1:51.8 of the 260 x 150 m, 24 kW/m model...... Spain, to evaluate the potential for reducing wave heights close the shore by means of Wave Dragons....
Numerical study of wave disturbance in liquid cooling film
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.R. Shine
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Transient numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the liquid-gas interface characteristics associated with liquid film cooling flows. A two-dimensional axisymmetric multi-phase numerical model using finite volume formulation is developed. The model has been validated against available experimental data for liquid-film cooling flows inside tubes. The model has been used to predict the interface characteristics for a variety of imposed parameters and momentum flux ratios under cold flow conditions wherein both the coolant and mainstream are maintained at the same temperature. Disturbance waves are observed at the liquid-gas interface for coolant flows above a critical value and after a finite distance from the inlet. The distance toward the wave inception point increased with the increase of momentum flux ratio. However, at higher momentum flux ratios, the properties of the disturbance waves did not vary significantly. The parameters related to the liquid-gas interface waves, namely, wave velocity, frequency, amplitude and wave length have been analyzed in detail. Analysis indicates that the liquid entrainment is due to the shearing of the disturbance wave crest.
Model for ICRF fast wave current drive in self-consistent MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonoli, P.T.; Englade, R.C.; Porkolab, M.; Fenstermacher, M.E.
1993-01-01
Recently, a model for fast wave current drive in the ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) range was incorporated into the current drive and MHD equilibrium code ACCOME. The ACCOME model combines a free boundary solution of the Grad Shafranov equation with the calculation of driven currents due to neutral beam injection, lower hybrid (LH) waves, bootstrap effects, and ICRF fast waves. The equilibrium and current drive packages iterate between each other to obtain an MHD equilibrium which is consistent with the profiles of driven current density. The ICRF current drive package combines a toroidal full-wave code (FISIC) with a parameterization of the current drive efficiency obtained from an adjoint solution of the Fokker Planck equation. The electron absorption calculation in the full-wave code properly accounts for the combined effects of electron Landau damping (ELD) and transit time magnetic pumping (TTMP), assuming a Maxwellian (or bi-Maxwellian) electron distribution function. Furthermore, the current drive efficiency includes the effects of particle trapping, momentum conserving corrections to the background Fokker Planck collision operator, and toroidally induced variations in the parallel wavenumbers of the injected ICRF waves. This model has been used to carry out detailed studies of advanced physics scenarios in the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Results are shown, for example, which demonstrate the possibility of achieving stable equilibria at high beta and high bootstrap current fraction in TPX. Model results are also shown for the proposed ITER device
Study of blast wave overpressures using the computational fluid dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. L. COSTA NETO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The threats of bomb attacks by criminal organizations and accidental events involving chemical explosives are a danger to the people and buildings. Due the severity of these issues and the need of data required for a safety design, more research is required about explosions and shock waves. This paper presents an assessment of blast wave overpressures using a computational fluid dynamics software. Analyses of phenomena as reflection of shock waves and channeling effects were done and a comparison between numerical results and analytical predictions has been executed, based on the simulation on several models. The results suggest that the common analytical predictions aren’t accurate enough for an overpressure analysis in small stand-off distances and that poorly designed buildings may increase the shock wave overpressures due multiple blast wave reflections, increasing the destructive potential of the explosions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keqin Yan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This chapter presents a reliability study for an offshore jacket structure with emphasis on the features of nonconventional modeling. Firstly, a random set model is formulated for modeling the random waves in an ocean site. Then, a jacket structure is investigated in a pushover analysis to identify the critical wave direction and key structural elements. This is based on the ultimate base shear strength. The selected probabilistic models are adopted for the important structural members and the wave direction is specified in the weakest direction of the structure for a conservative safety analysis. The wave height model is processed in a P-box format when it is used in the numerical analysis. The models are applied to find the bounds of the failure probabilities for the jacket structure. The propagation of this wave model to the uncertainty in results is investigated in both an interval analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. The results are compared in context of information content and numerical accuracy. Further, the failure probability bounds are compared with the conventional probabilistic approach.
2016-11-01
Carderock Division for overall management of wave slam phenomenology and craft motion mechanics investigations. During different periods of the...approach to transition this definition to an equivalent static acceleration, Riley and Coats (2012). The first assumption is that the vertical
Modelling and Testing of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Towards Full Scale Deployment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano
-commercial stage in which it has proven difficult to secure the necessary funding for the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator unit. The work presented aims at easing this process, by increasing public and scientific knowledge of the device, as well as by showing the latest progress in its development. Research....... This is mainly due to the development of an updated overtopping model specifically suited to Wave Dragon, which allows greater quality to predictions of the primary energy absorption of the device compared to previous versions. At the same time an equitable approach has been described and used in the performance......, the research has also provided a deeper insight into the physics of the overtopping process by individually assessing the influence of related device configuration and wave features, which goes beyond the present application and may be used for other overtopping WECs as well. Comprehensive analysis...
Sea Bed Sand Waves Studied To Help Pipeline Planners
van der Mark, C.F.; de Koning, M.F.; Blom, Astrid; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Stolk, A.
2008-01-01
The article cites a study that offers information on the variability of sand wave characteristics in the North Sea. The sand waves variability includes a statement that pipelines may start vibrating due to turbulence generated under the free span and navigational channels often need to be dredged
Tidal and gravity waves study from the airglow measurements at ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E) during the period 2004–2007 are analyzed to study the dominant waves present in the 80–100 km altitude region of the atmosphere. The nocturnal intensity variations of different airglow emissions are observed using scanning temperature controlled filter photometers. Waves having period lying between 2 and 12 hours ...
Various continuum approaches for studying shock wave structure in carbon dioxide
Alekseev, I. V.; Kosareva, A. A.; Kustova, E. V.; Nagnibeda, E. A.
2018-05-01
Shock wave structure in carbon dioxide is studied using different continuum models within the framework of one-temperature thermal equilibrium flow description. Navier-Stokes and Euler equations as well as commonly used Rankine-Hugoniot equations with different specific heat ratios are used to find the gas-dynamic parameters behind the shock wave. The accuracy of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations in polyatomic gases is assessed, and it is shown that they give a considerable error in the predicted values of fluid-dynamic variables. The effect of bulk viscosity on the shock wave structure in CO2 is evaluated. Taking into account bulk viscosity yields a significant increase in the shock wave width; for the complete model, the shock wave thickness varies non-monotonically with the Mach number.
Modeling of a Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor
Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, Gary M.
2010-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented
Wind waves in the Black Sea: results of a hindcast study
Arkhipkin, V. S.; Gippius, F. N.; Koltermann, K. P.; Surkova, G. V.
2014-11-01
In this study we describe the wind wave fields in the Black Sea. The general aims of the work were the estimation of statistical wave parameters and the assessment of interannual and seasonal wave parameter variability. The domain of this study was the entire Black Sea. Wave parameters were calculated by means of the SWAN wave model on a 5 × 5 km rectangular grid. Initial conditions (wind speed and direction) for the period between 1949 and 2010 were derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. According to our calculations the average significant wave height on the Black Sea does not exceed 0.7 m. Areas of most significant heavy sea are the southwestern and the northeastern parts of the sea as expressed in the spatial distribution of significant wave heights, wave lengths and periods. Besides, long-term annual variations of wave parameters were estimated. Thus, linear trends of the annual total duration of storms and of their quantity are nearly stable over the hindcast period. However, an intensification of storm activity is observed in the 1960s-1970s.
Wave Energy, Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF Study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Margheritini, Lucia
The fully instrumented Resen Waves Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF wave energy buoy model has gone through the first stage of testing in regular waves in scale 1:25 of the North Sea wave conditions, in the 3D deep wave basin at the Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering Laboratory of Aalborg...... University in Denmark. The model size was 60cm W x 90cm L x 21cm H. The 60 cm width pointed towards the wave front. The LOPF buoy is characterized by a simple mechanical design with few moving parts and direct electrical output and it is taut moored to the sea bed, so all forces are referenced to the seabed...... for maximum energy output in regular as well as irregular waves. During storms the buoy pivots and streamlines itself to minimize loads on the mooring line. A conservative estimate shows that a full scale system for North Sea conditions has a float size width of 15 m that will, with 60% generator efficiency...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valeo, Ernest; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Eun-Hwa; Phillips, Cynthia
2012-01-01
A wide variety of plasma waves play an important role in the energization and loss of particles in the inner magnetosphere. Our ability to understand and model wave-particle interactions in this region requires improved knowledge of the spatial distribution and properties of these waves as well as improved understanding of how the waves depend on changes in solar wind forcing and/or geomagnetic activity. To this end, we have developed a two-dimensional, finite element code that solves the full wave equations in global magnetospheric geometry. The code describes three-dimensional wave structure including mode conversion when ULF, EMIC, and whistler waves are launched in a two-dimensional axisymmetric background plasma with general magnetic field topology. We illustrate the capabilities of the code by examining the role of plasmaspheric plumes on magnetosonic wave propagation; mode conversion at the ion-ion and Alfven resonances resulting from external, solar wind compressions; and wave structure and mode conversion of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves launched in the equatorial magnetosphere, which propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the ionosphere. We also discuss advantages of the finite element method for resolving resonant structures, and how the model may be adapted to include nonlocal kinetic effects.
Travelling waves and their bifurcations in the Lorenz-96 model
van Kekem, Dirk L.; Sterk, Alef E.
2018-03-01
In this paper we study the dynamics of the monoscale Lorenz-96 model using both analytical and numerical means. The bifurcations for positive forcing parameter F are investigated. The main analytical result is the existence of Hopf or Hopf-Hopf bifurcations in any dimension n ≥ 4. Exploiting the circulant structure of the Jacobian matrix enables us to reduce the first Lyapunov coefficient to an explicit formula from which it can be determined when the Hopf bifurcation is sub- or supercritical. The first Hopf bifurcation for F > 0 is always supercritical and the periodic orbit born at this bifurcation has the physical interpretation of a travelling wave. Furthermore, by unfolding the codimension two Hopf-Hopf bifurcation it is shown to act as an organising centre, explaining dynamics such as quasi-periodic attractors and multistability, which are observed in the original Lorenz-96 model. Finally, the region of parameter values beyond the first Hopf bifurcation value is investigated numerically and routes to chaos are described using bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. The observed routes to chaos are various but without clear pattern as n → ∞.
Research Centre for the Study of the Rogue Waves
Shamin, Roman
2013-04-01
In 2012, in Sakhalin (Russia) was established Research Center for the Study of the Rogue Waves. This center unites many known scientists, who study rogue waves. The center is founded by the following scientific organizations: - The Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics of FEB RAS - The Far Eastern Federal University - Special Research Bureau for Automation of Marine Researches of FEB RAS - The Institute of Applied Physics of RAS - Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of RAS Heads this center Dr. Roman V. Shamin (Russia). Topics projects: - Probability of emergence of rogue waves - Finding of the sites of the Ocean most dangerous from the point of view of rogue waves - Assessment of risk of dangerous impact of rogue waves - and many others... Our Center is open for new participants from all countries. Our Centre have web-site: roguewaves.ru For contacts: center@roguewaves.ru (Dr. Roman Shamin)
Modelling shear wave splitting observations from Wellington, New Zealand
Marson-Pidgeon, Katrina; Savage, Martha K.
2004-05-01
Frequency-dependent anisotropy was previously observed at the permanent broad-band station SNZO, South Karori, Wellington, New Zealand. This has important implications for the interpretation of measurements in other subduction zones and hence for our understanding of mantle flow. This motivated us to make further splitting measurements using events recorded since the previous study and to develop a new modelling technique. Thus, in this study we have made 67 high-quality shear wave splitting measurements using events recorded at the SNZO station spanning a 10-yr period. This station is the only one operating in New Zealand for longer than 2 yr. Using a combination of teleseismic SKS and S phases and regional ScS phases provides good azimuthal coverage, allowing us to undertake detailed modelling. The splitting measurements indicate that in addition to the frequency dependence observed previously at this station, there are also variations with propagation and initial polarization directions. The fast polarization directions range between 2° and 103°, and the delay times range between 0.75 s and 3.05 s. These ranges are much larger than observed previously at SNZO or elsewhere in New Zealand. Because of the observed frequency dependence we measure the dominant frequency of the phase used to make the splitting measurement, and take this into account in the modelling. We fit the fast polarization directions fairly well with a two-layer anisotropic model with horizontal axes of symmetry. However, such a model does not fit the delay times or explain the frequency dependence. We have developed a new inversion method which allows for an inclined axis of symmetry in each of the two layers. However, applying this method to SNZO does not significantly improve the fit over a two-layer model with horizontal symmetry axes. We are therefore unable to explain the frequency dependence or large variation in delay time values with multiple horizontal layers of anisotropy, even
Improved heat transfer modeling of the eye for electromagnetic wave exposures.
Hirata, Akimasa
2007-05-01
This study proposed an improved heat transfer model of the eye for exposure to electromagnetic (EM) waves. Particular attention was paid to the difference from the simplified heat transfer model commonly used in this field. From our computational results, the temperature elevation in the eye calculated with the simplified heat transfer model was largely influenced by the EM absorption outside the eyeball, but not when we used our improved model.
Aryan, H.; Yearby, K.; Balikhin, M. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Agapitov, O. V.
2013-12-01
The interaction of gyroresonant wave particles with chorus waves largely determine the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts that effects the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons. The common approach is to present model waves distribution in the inner magnetosphere under different values of geomagnetic activity as expressed by the geomagnetic indices. However it is known that solar wind parameters such as bulk velocity (V) and density (n) are more effective in the control of high energy fluxes at the geostationary orbit. Therefore in the present study the set of parameters of the wave distribution is expanded to include the solar wind parameters in addition to the geomagnetic indices. The present study examines almost four years (01, January, 2004 to 29, September, 2007) of Cluster STAFF-SA, Double Star TC1 and OMNI data in order to present a combined model of wave magnetic field intensities for the chorus waves as a function of magnetic local time (MLT), L-shell (L*), geomagnetic activity, and solar wind velocity and density. Generally, the largest wave intensities are observed during average solar wind velocities (3006cm-3. On the other hand the wave intensity is lower and limited between 06:00 to 18:00 MLT for V700kms-1.
Evaluation of wave runup predictions from numerical and parametric models
Stockdon, Hilary F.; Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.
2014-01-01
Wave runup during storms is a primary driver of coastal evolution, including shoreline and dune erosion and barrier island overwash. Runup and its components, setup and swash, can be predicted from a parameterized model that was developed by comparing runup observations to offshore wave height, wave period, and local beach slope. Because observations during extreme storms are often unavailable, a numerical model is used to simulate the storm-driven runup to compare to the parameterized model and then develop an approach to improve the accuracy of the parameterization. Numerically simulated and parameterized runup were compared to observations to evaluate model accuracies. The analysis demonstrated that setup was accurately predicted by both the parameterized model and numerical simulations. Infragravity swash heights were most accurately predicted by the parameterized model. The numerical model suffered from bias and gain errors that depended on whether a one-dimensional or two-dimensional spatial domain was used. Nonetheless, all of the predictions were significantly correlated to the observations, implying that the systematic errors can be corrected. The numerical simulations did not resolve the incident-band swash motions, as expected, and the parameterized model performed best at predicting incident-band swash heights. An assimilated prediction using a weighted average of the parameterized model and the numerical simulations resulted in a reduction in prediction error variance. Finally, the numerical simulations were extended to include storm conditions that have not been previously observed. These results indicated that the parameterized predictions of setup may need modification for extreme conditions; numerical simulations can be used to extend the validity of the parameterized predictions of infragravity swash; and numerical simulations systematically underpredict incident swash, which is relatively unimportant under extreme conditions.
Sassi, F.; McDonald, S. E.; McCormack, J. P.; Tate, J.; Liu, H.; Kuhl, D.
2017-12-01
The 2015-2016 boreal winter and spring is a dynamically very interesting time in the lower atmosphere: a minor high latitude stratospheric warming occurred in February 2016; an interrupted descent of the QBO was found in the tropical stratosphere; and a large warm ENSO took place in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The stratospheric warming, the QBO and ENSO are known to affect in different ways the meteorology of the upper atmosphere in different ways: low latitude solar tides and high latitude planetary-scale waves have potentially important implications on the structure of the ionosphere. In this study, we use global atmospheric analyses from a high-altitude version of the High-Altitude Navy Global Environmental Model (HA-NAVGEM) to constrain the meteorology of numerical simulations of the Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, extended version (SD-WACCM-X). We describe the large-scale behavior of tropical tides and mid-latitude planetary waves that emerge in the lower thermosphere. The effect on the ionosphere is captured by numerical simulations of the Navy Highly Integrated Thermosphere Ionosphere Demonstration System (Navy-HITIDES) that uses the meteorology generated by SD-WACCM-X to drive ionospheric simulations during this time period. We will analyze the impact of various dynamical fields on the zonal behavior of the ionosphere by selectively filtering the relevant dynamical modes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rupamanjari Majumder
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Cardiac arrhythmias, such as ventricular tachycardia (VT and ventricular fibrillation (VF, are among the leading causes of death in the industrialized world. These are associated with the formation of spiral and scroll waves of electrical activation in cardiac tissue; single spiral and scroll waves are believed to be associated with VT whereas their turbulent analogs are associated with VF. Thus, the study of these waves is an important biophysical problem. We present a systematic study of the combined effects of muscle-fiber rotation and inhomogeneities on scroll-wave dynamics in the TNNP (ten Tusscher Noble Noble Panfilov model for human cardiac tissue. In particular, we use the three-dimensional TNNP model with fiber rotation and consider both conduction and ionic inhomogeneities. We find that, in addition to displaying a sensitive dependence on the positions, sizes, and types of inhomogeneities, scroll-wave dynamics also depends delicately upon the degree of fiber rotation. We find that the tendency of scroll waves to anchor to cylindrical conduction inhomogeneities increases with the radius of the inhomogeneity. Furthermore, the filament of the scroll wave can exhibit drift or meandering, transmural bending, twisting, and break-up. If the scroll-wave filament exhibits weak meandering, then there is a fine balance between the anchoring of this wave at the inhomogeneity and a disruption of wave-pinning by fiber rotation. If this filament displays strong meandering, then again the anchoring is suppressed by fiber rotation; also, the scroll wave can be eliminated from most of the layers only to be regenerated by a seed wave. Ionic inhomogeneities can also lead to an anchoring of the scroll wave; scroll waves can now enter the region inside an ionic inhomogeneity and can display a coexistence of spatiotemporal chaos and quasi-periodic behavior in different parts of the simulation domain. We discuss the experimental implications of our study.
Modeling and Simulation of a Wave Energy Converter INWAVE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seung Kwan Song
2017-01-01
Full Text Available INGINE Inc. developed its own wave energy converter (WEC named INWAVE and has currently installed three prototype modules in Jeju Island, Korea. This device is an on-shore-type WEC that consists of a buoy, pulleys fixed to the sea-floor and a power take off module (PTO. Three ropes are moored tightly on the bottom of the buoy and connected to the PTO via the pulleys, which are moving back and forth according to the motion of the buoy. Since the device can harness wave energy from all six degrees of movement of the buoy, it is possible to extract energy efficiently even under low energy density conditions provided in the coastal areas. In the PTO module, the ratchet gears convert the reciprocating movement of the rope drum into a uni-directional rotation and determine the transmission of power from the relation of the angular velocities between the rope drum and the generator. In this process, the discontinuity of the power transmission occurs and causes the modeling divergence. Therefore, we introduce the concept of the virtual torsion spring in order to prevent the impact error in the ratchet gear module, thereby completing the PTO modeling. In this paper, we deal with dynamic analysis in the time domain, based on Newtonian mechanics and linear wave theory. We derive the combined dynamics of the buoy and PTO modules via geometric relation between the buoy and mooring ropes, then suggest the ratchet gear mechanism with the virtual torsion spring element to reduce the dynamic errors during the phase transitions. Time domain simulation is carried out under irregular waves that reflect the actual wave states of the installation area, and we evaluate the theoretical performance using the capture width ratio.
Some aspects of wave-functions in disordered and incommensurate models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roman, E.; Wiecko, C.
1984-09-01
We study the localization length and fractal dimensionality of wave functions in the random diagonal and off-diagonal Anderson model. This preliminary study is intended to establish how much connection between these two magnitudes exists and how they behave at the transition from the localized to extended regimes both in these random models as well as in the incommensurate models such as Aubry's. (author)
Study on the Performance of the “Pendulor” Wave Energy Converter in an Array Configuration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudath Prasanna Gunawardane
2016-04-01
Full Text Available For over three decades the “Pendulor” wave energy device has had a significant influence in this field, triggering several research endeavours. It includes a top-hinged flap propelled by the standing waves produced in a caisson with a back wall on the leeward side. However, one of the main disadvantages which impedes its progress is the enormous expense involved in the construction of the custom made typical caisson structure, about a little more than one-quarter of the wave length. In this study, the influence of such design parameters on the performance of the device is investigated, via numerical modelling for a device arranged in an array configuration, for irregular waves. The potential wave theory is applied to derive the frequency-dependent hydrodynamic parameters by making a distinction in the fluid domain into a separate sea side and lee side. The Cummins equation was utilised for the development of the time domain equation of motion while the transfer function estimation methods were used to solve the convolution integrals. Finally, the device was tested numerically for irregular wave conditions for a 50 kW class unit. It was observed that in irregular wave operating conditions, the caisson chamber length could be reduced by 40% of the value estimated for the regular waves. Besides, the device demonstrated around 80% capture efficiency for irregular waves thus allowing provision for avoiding the employment of any active control.
Modelling and Experiments of a Standing Wave Piezomotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, B.; Helbo, Jan; Blanke, Mogens
The paper presents a new contact model for standing wave piezomotors. The contact model is based on the Hertz theory for normal contact deformations and elastic contact theory for tangential loads. The contact theory is simplified into a model with discrete springs for normal and tangential loads...... which allows the calculation of slip/stick transitions. Simulations show that tip trajectories in general cannot be prescribed. The paper presents the principle of a bending resonator. Experiments indicate that the bending vibrations are too small to generate rotor rotations. However, due to unintended...
Modelling and Experiments of a Standing Wave Piezomotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Helbo, Jan; Andersen, Brian; Blanke, Mogens
2002-01-01
The paper presents a new contact model for standing wave piezomotors. The contact model is based on the Hertz theory for normal contact deformations and elastic contact theory for tangential loads. The contact theory is simplified into a model with discrete springs for normal and tangential loads...... which allows the calculation of slip/stick transitions. Simulations show that tip trajectories in general cannot be prescribed. The paper presents the principle of a bending resonator. Experiments indicate that the bending vibrations are too small to generate rotor rotations. However, due to unintended...
A particle model of rolling grain ripples under waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste
2001-01-01
A simple model for the formation of rolling grain ripples on a flat sand bed by the oscillatory flow generated by a surface wave is presented. An equation of motion is derived for the individual ripples, seen as "particles," on the otherwise flat bed. The model accounts for the initial appearance...... of the ripples, the subsequent coarsening of the ripples, and the final equilibrium state. The model is related to the physical parameters of the problem, and an analytical approximation for the equilibrium spacing of the ripples is developed. It is found that the spacing between the ripples scales...
Coupled wave and surge modelling for the eastern Irish Sea and implications for model wind-stress
Brown, Jennifer M.; Wolf, Judith
2009-05-01
We revisit the surge of November 1977, a storm event which caused damage on the Sefton coast in NW England. A hindcast has been made with a coupled surge-tide-wave model, to investigate whether a wave-dependent surface drag is necessary for accurate surge prediction, and also if this can be represented by an optimised Charnock parameter. The Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Modelling System-Wave Model (POLCOMS-WAM) has been used to model combined tides, surges, waves and wave-current interaction in the Irish Sea on a 1.85 km grid. This period has been previously thoroughly studied, e.g. Jones and Davies [Jones, J.E., Davies, A.M., 1998. Storm surge computations for the Irish Sea using a three-dimensional numerical model including wave-current interaction. Continental Shelf Research 18(2), 201-251] and we build upon this previous work to validate the POLCOMS-WAM model to test the accuracy of surge elevation predictions in the study area. A one-way nested approach has been set up from larger scale models to the Irish Sea model. It was demonstrated that (as expected) swell from the North Atlantic does not have a significant impact in the eastern Irish Sea. To capture the external surge generated outside of the Irish Sea a (1/9° by 1/6°) model extending beyond the continental shelf edge was run using the POLCOMS model for tide and surge. The model results were compared with tide gauge observations around the eastern Irish Sea. The model was tested with different wind-stress formulations including Smith and Banke [Smith, S.D., Banke, E.G., 1975. Variation of the surface drag coefficient with wind speed. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorology Society, 101(429), 665-673] and Charnock [Charnock, H., 1955. Wind-stress on a water surface. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 81(350), 639-640]. In order to get a single parameterisation that works with wave-coupling, the wave-derived surface roughness length has been imposed in the surge model
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, Nirmol K.
2009-01-01
In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1-20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas
The morphodynamics of tidal sand waves: A model overview
Besio, G.; Blondeaux, P.; Brocchini, M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Idier, Deborah; Knaapen, Michiel; Nemeth, Attila; Roos, Pieter C.; Vittori, G.
2008-01-01
This paper reviews recent theoretical studies of sand waves which are rhythmic large-scale bedforms observed in the continental shelf far from the near-shore region. Emphasis is given to the investigations carried out in the framework of the EU research project HUMOR. First, the results of linear
Improved bag models of P-wave baryons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Fan; Wong Chunwa
1988-01-01
Problems in two previous bag-model calculations of P-wave baryon states are pointed out. The two-body matrix elements used in one of these models, the Myhrer-Wroldsen bag model, have now been revised and corrected by Myhrer, Umino and Wroldsen. We use their corrected matrix elements to construct simple bag models in which baryon masses are stabilized against collapse by using a finite pion size. We find that baryon masses in both ground and excited states can be fitted with the same model parameters. Models with small-bag baryons of the type proposed by Brown and Rho are then obtained. Typical bag radii are 0.5 fm for N, 0.6 fm for Δ and 0.7 fm for P-wave nonstrange baryons. In these models, the mixing angles are still unsatisfactory, while inadequacy in the treatment of center-of-mass motion found in an earlier paper persists. These results are briefly discussed. especially in connection with skyrmion models. (orig.)
Nonhydrostatic and surfbeat model predictions of extreme wave run-up in fringing reef environments
Lashley, Christopher H.; Roelvink, Dano; van Dongeren, Ap R.; Buckley, Mark L.; Lowe, Ryan J.
2018-01-01
The accurate prediction of extreme wave run-up is important for effective coastal engineering design and coastal hazard management. While run-up processes on open sandy coasts have been reasonably well-studied, very few studies have focused on understanding and predicting wave run-up at coral reef-fronted coastlines. This paper applies the short-wave resolving, Nonhydrostatic (XB-NH) and short-wave averaged, Surfbeat (XB-SB) modes of the XBeach numerical model to validate run-up using data from two 1D (alongshore uniform) fringing-reef profiles without roughness elements, with two objectives: i) to provide insight into the physical processes governing run-up in such environments; and ii) to evaluate the performance of both modes in accurately predicting run-up over a wide range of conditions. XBeach was calibrated by optimizing the maximum wave steepness parameter (maxbrsteep) in XB-NH and the dissipation coefficient (alpha) in XB-SB) using the first dataset; and then applied to the second dataset for validation. XB-NH and XB-SB predictions of extreme wave run-up (Rmax and R2%) and its components, infragravity- and sea-swell band swash (SIG and SSS) and shoreline setup (), were compared to observations. XB-NH more accurately simulated wave transformation but under-predicted shoreline setup due to its exclusion of parameterized wave-roller dynamics. XB-SB under-predicted sea-swell band swash but overestimated shoreline setup due to an over-prediction of wave heights on the reef flat. Run-up (swash) spectra were dominated by infragravity motions, allowing the short-wave (but not wave group) averaged model (XB-SB) to perform comparably well to its more complete, short-wave resolving (XB-NH) counterpart. Despite their respective limitations, both modes were able to accurately predict Rmax and R2%.
Towards a new tool to develop a 3-D shear-wave velocity model from converted waves
Colavitti, Leonardo; Hetényi, György
2017-04-01
The main target of this work is to develop a new method in which we exploit converted waves to construct a fully 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the crust. A reliable 3-D model is very important in Earth sciences because geological structures may vary significantly in their lateral dimension. In particular, shear-waves provide valuable complementary information with respect to P-waves because they usually guarantee a much better correlation in terms of rock density and mechanical properties, reducing the interpretation ambiguities. Therefore, it is fundamental to develop a new technique to improve structural images and to describe different lithologies in the crust. In this study we start from the analysis of receiver functions (RF, Langston, 1977), which are nowadays largely used for structural investigations based on passive seismic experiments, to map Earth discontinuities at depth. The RF technique is also commonly used to invert for velocity structure beneath single stations. Here, we plan to combine two strengths of RF method: shear-wave velocity inversion and dense arrays. Starting from a simple 3-D forward model, synthetic RFs are obtained extracting the structure along a ray to match observed data. During the inversion, thanks to a dense stations network, we aim to build and develop a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity. The initial model should be chosen simple to make sure that the inversion process is not influenced by the constraints in terms of depth and velocity posed at the beginning. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999a, b), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter
Mathematical Modeling of Oscillating Water Columns Wave-Structure Interaction in Ocean Energy Plants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aitor J. Garrido
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Oscillating Water Column (OWC-based power take-off systems are one of the potential solutions to the current energy problems arising from the use of nuclear fission and the consumption of fossil fuels. This kind of energy converter turns wave energy into electric power by means of three different stages: firstly wave energy is transformed into pneumatic energy in the OWC chamber, and then a turbine turns it into mechanical energy and finally the turbogenerator module attached to the turbine creates electric power from the rotational mechanical energy. To date, capture chambers have been the least studied part. In this context, this paper presents an analytical model describing the dynamic behavior of the capture chamber, encompassing the wave motion and its interaction with the OWC structure and turbogenerator module. The model is tested for the case of the Mutriku wave power plant by means of experimental results. For this purpose, representative case studies are selected from wave and pressure drop input-output data. The results show an excellent matching rate between the values predicted by the model and the experimental measured data with a small bounded error in all cases, so that the validity of the proposed model is proven.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereyra, Brandon; Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason
2017-03-09
The hydrodynamic loads on an offshore wind turbine's support structure present unique engineering challenges for offshore wind. Two typical approaches used for modeling these hydrodynamic loads are potential flow (PF) and strip theory (ST), the latter via Morison's equation. This study examines the first- and second-order wave-excitation surge forces on a fixed cylinder in regular waves computed by the PF and ST approaches to (1) verify their numerical implementations in HydroDyn and (2) understand when the ST approach breaks down. The numerical implementation of PF and ST in HydroDyn, a hydrodynamic time-domain solver implemented as a module in the FAST wind turbine engineering tool, was verified by showing the consistency in the first- and second-order force output between the two methods across a range of wave frequencies. ST is known to be invalid at high frequencies, and this study investigates where the ST solution diverges from the PF solution. Regular waves across a range of frequencies were run in HydroDyn for a monopile substructure. As expected, the solutions for the first-order (linear) wave-excitation loads resulting from these regular waves are similar for PF and ST when the diameter of the cylinder is small compared to the length of the waves (generally when the diameter-to-wavelength ratio is less than 0.2). The same finding applies to the solutions for second-order wave-excitation loads, but for much smaller diameter-to-wavelength ratios (based on wavelengths of first-order waves).
Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport
2004-05-13
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.
Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; Rappaport, H.L.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed
Experimental study of the formation of steep waves and breakers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanis³aw R. Massel
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Breaking waves (whitecaps are one of the most important and least understood processes associated with the evolution of the surface gravity wave field in the open sea. This process is the principal means by which energy and momentum are transferred away from a developing sea. However, an estimation of the frequency of breaking waves or the fraction of sea surface covered by whitecaps and the amount of dissipated energy induced by breaking is very difficult to carry out under real sea conditions. A controlled experiment, funded by the European Commission under the Improving Human Potential Access Infrastructures programme, was carried out in the Ocean Basin Laboratory at MARINTEK, Trondheim (Norway. Simulation of random waves of the prescribed spectra by wave makers provided a very realistic pattern of the sea surface. The number of breaking waves was estimated by photographing the sea surface and recording the noise caused by the breaking waves. The experimental data will serve for calibration of the theoretical models of the sea surface fraction related to the whitecaps.
Marghany, Maged; Ibrahim, Zelina; Van Genderen, Johan
2002-11-01
The present work is used to operationalize the azimuth cut-off concept in the study of significant wave height. Three ERS-1 images have been used along the coastal waters of Terengganu, Malaysia. The quasi-linear transform was applied to map the SAR wave spectra into real ocean wave spectra. The azimuth cut-off was then used to model the significant wave height. The results show that azimuth cut-off varied with the different period of the ERS-1 images. This is because of the fact that the azimuth cut-off is a function of wind speed and significant wave height. It is of interest to find that the significant wave height modeled from azimuth cut-off is in good relation with ground wave conditions. It can be concluded that ERS-1 can be used as a monitoring tool in detecting the significant wave height variation. The azimuth cut-off can be used to model the significant wave height. This means that the quasi-linear transform could be a good application to significant wave height variation during different seasons.
Simulations of short-crested harbour waves with variational Boussinesq modelling
Adytia, D.
2014-01-01
Waves propagating from the deep ocean to the coast show large changes in wave height, wave length and direction. The challenge to simulate the essential wave characteristics is in particular to model the speed and nonlinear interaction correctly. All these physical phenomena are present, but hidden,
Studying Lorentz-violating electromagnetic waves in confined media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viana, Davidson R.; Gomes, Andre H.; Fonseca, Jakson M.; Moura-Melo, Winder A.
2009-01-01
Full text. Planck energy scale is still far beyond current possibilities. A question of interest is whether the Lorentz symmetry remains valid at these extremely high energies, whose answer certainly would be useful whenever building grand unified theories, in which general relativity is consistently accommodated. Here, we study a reminiscent of this possible symmetry violation, incorporated in the body of the so-called Standard Model Extension (SME). More precisely, we deal with the pure (Abelian) gauge sector, so that we have a modified classical electromagnetism in (3+1) dimensions, whose Lagrangian include a term proportional to a (constant) background tensor that breaks the Lorentz symmetry, but respecting CPT. Our attention is devoted to the wave-like solutions constrained to propagate inside confined media, like waveguides and resonant cavities. Our preliminary findings indicate that Lorentz-breaking implies in modifications of the standard results which are proportional to the (very small) violating parameters, but could be largely enhanced by diminishing the size of the confined media. Under study is the case of a toroidal cavity where the electromagnetic field should respect the additional requirement of being single-valued in the (toroidal) angular variable. Perhaps, such an extra feature combined with the usual boundary conditions could lead us to large effects of this violation, somewhat similar to those predicted for CPT- and Lorentz-odd electromagnetic waves constrained to propagate along a hollow conductor waveguide. (author)
Cnoidal waves as solutions of the nonlinear liquid drop model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ludu, Andrei; Sandulescu, Aureliu; Greiner Walter
1997-01-01
By introducing in the hydrodynamic model, i.e. in the hydrodynamic equation and the corresponding boundary conditions, the higher order terms in the deviation of the shape, we obtain in the second order the Korteweg de Vries equations (KdV). The same equation is obtained by introducing in the liquid drop model (LDM), i.e. in the kinetic, surface and Coulomb terms, the higher terms in the second order. The KdV equation has the cnoidal waves as steady-state solutions. These waves could describe the small anharmonic vibrations of spherical nuclei up to the solitary waves. The solitons could describe the preformation of clusters on the nuclear surface. We apply this nonlinear liquid drop model to the alpha formation in heavy nuclei. We find an additional minimum in the total energy of such systems, corresponding to the solitons as clusters on the nuclear surface. By introducing the shell effects we choose this minimum to be degenerated with the ground state. The spectroscopic factor is given by ratio of the square amplitudes in the two minima. (authors)
Modeling North Atlantic Nor'easters With Modern Wave Forecast Models
Perrie, Will; Toulany, Bechara; Roland, Aron; Dutour-Sikiric, Mathieu; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Qi, Jianhua; Hu, Yongcun; Casey, Michael P.; Shen, Hui
2018-01-01
Three state-of-the-art operational wave forecast model systems are implemented on fine-resolution grids for the Northwest Atlantic. These models are: (1) a composite model system consisting of SWAN implemented within WAVEWATCHIII® (the latter is hereafter, WW3) on a nested system of traditional structured grids, (2) an unstructured grid finite-volume wave model denoted "SWAVE," using SWAN physics, and (3) an unstructured grid finite element wind wave model denoted as "WWM" (for "wind wave model") which uses WW3 physics. Models are implemented on grid systems that include relatively large domains to capture the wave energy generated by the storms, as well as including fine-resolution nearshore regions of the southern Gulf of Maine with resolution on the scale of 25 m to simulate areas where inundation and coastal damage have occurred, due to the storms. Storm cases include three intense midlatitude cases: a spring Nor'easter storm in May 2005, the Patriot's Day storm in 2007, and the Boxing Day storm in 2010. Although these wave model systems have comparable overall properties in terms of their performance and skill, it is found that there are differences. Models that use more advanced physics, as presented in recent versions of WW3, tuned to regional characteristics, as in the Gulf of Maine and the Northwest Atlantic, can give enhanced results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....
Acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. VII - Non-grey, non-LTE H(-) models
Schmitz, F.; Ulmschneider, P.; Kalkofen, W.
1985-01-01
The propagation and shock formation of radiatively damped acoustic waves in the solar chromosphere are studied under the assumption that H(-) is the only absorber; the opacity is non-grey. Deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) are permitted. The results of numerical simulations show the depth dependence of the heating by the acoustic waves to be insensitive to the mean state of the atmosphere. After the waves have developed into shocks, their energy flux decays exponentially with a constant damping length of about 1.4 times the pressure scale height, independent of initial flux and wave period. Departures from LTE have a strong influence on the mean temperature structure in dynamical chromosphere models; this is even more pronounced in models with reduced particle density - simulating conditions in magnetic flux tubes - which show significantly increased temperatures in response to mechanical heating. When the energy dissipation of the waves is sufficiently large to dissociate most of the H(-) ions, a strong temperature rise is found that is reminiscent of the temperature structure in the transition zone between chromosphere and corona; the energy flux remaining in the waves then drives mass motions.
Mathematical modeling of calcium waves induced by mechanical stimulation in keratinocytes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yasuaki Kobayashi
Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the behavior of calcium in the epidermis is closely related to the conditions of the skin, especially the differentiation of the epidermal keratinocytes and the permeability barrier function, and therefore a correct understanding of the calcium dynamics is important in explaining epidermal homeostasis. Here we report on experimental observations of in vitro calcium waves in keratinocytes induced by mechanical stimulation, and present a mathematical model that can describe the experimentally observed wave behavior that includes finite-range wave propagation and a ring-shaped pattern. A mechanism of the ring formation hypothesized by our model may be related to similar calcium propagation patterns observed during the wound healing process in the epidermis. We discuss a possible extension of our model that may serve as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of various skin diseases.
Modeling waves forced by a drop bouncing on a vibrating bath
Turton, Sam; Rosales, Ruben; Bush, John
2017-11-01
We study the wavefield generated by a droplet bouncing on a bath of silicon oil undergoing vertical oscillations. Such droplets may bounce indefinitely below the Faraday threshold, and in certain parameter regimes destabilize into a walking state in which they are propelled by their own wavefield. While previous theoretical models have rationalize the behavior of single droplets, difficulties have arisen in rationalizing the behavior of multi-droplet systems. We here present a refined wave model that allows us to do so. In particular, we give a detailed account of the spatio-temporal decay of the waves, in addition to the couping between the wave amplitude and modulations in the droplet's vertical dynamics. Our analytic model is compared with the results of direct numerical simulations and experiments. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF.
A Comparison of Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling Methods
Wilson, W. c.; Atkinson, G. M.
2009-01-01
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method a first order model, and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices.
Assessing the Wave Energy Potential of Jamaica, a Greater Antilles Island, through Dynamic Modelling
Daley, A. P., Jr.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Taylor, M. A.
2017-12-01
Globally wave energy has been on the rise as a result of the impacts of climate change and continuous fluctuation in oil prices. The water's inertia provides waves with greater stability than that of other renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Jamaica is part of the Greater Antilles Arc and has over 1000 km of coast line with an abundance of shallow water approximately 80% within a 50km band. This configuration provides a wealth of sites for wave exploitation even in minimal wave energy conditions. Aside from harnessing the oceans waves converters can be viewed as a tool for protection of coastal areas against natural marine occurrences. Jamica has done extensive studies where solar, hydro and wind resouces are concerned. However, there has been no studies done to date on the country's wave energy resources.The aim of this study is to bridge this gap by characterizing Jamaica's wave energy resources generating in a half-closed Caribbean Sea using data available from: buoys, altimetric satellite, and numerical model. Available data has been used to assess the available resource on the coastal area for the last 12 years. Statistical analysis of the available energy is determined using the sea state (Hs, Tp and Dir) and the atmospheric forcing (10m-wind, atmospheric pressure, sea-air temperature) relating to the season.The chain of dynamical model is presented (WW3-SWAN-SWASH), allowing for the tracking of the propagation of the wave energy from an offshore region to nearshore zone along with their interaction with areas of shallow depth. This will provide a better assessment of the energy and the quality of the waves closer to the electrical grid.Climate prediction is used to estimate the sea state and wave energy exploitable up to 2100. An analysis of the possible usage of the available coastal resource up to 2100. The main results present small but exploitable resources with seasonal variability in the energy available but not wave direction.
Benchmark Modeling of the Near-Field and Far-Field Wave Effects of Wave Energy Arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rhinefrank, Kenneth E; Haller, Merrick C; Ozkan-Haller, H Tuba
2013-01-26
This project is an industry-led partnership between Columbia Power Technologies and Oregon State University that will perform benchmark laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the near-field and far-field impacts of wave scattering from an array of wave energy devices. These benchmark experimental observations will help to fill a gaping hole in our present knowledge of the near-field effects of multiple, floating wave energy converters and are a critical requirement for estimating the potential far-field environmental effects of wave energy arrays. The experiments will be performed at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (Oregon State University) and will utilize an array of newly developed Buoys' that are realistic, lab-scale floating power converters. The array of Buoys will be subjected to realistic, directional wave forcing (1:33 scale) that will approximate the expected conditions (waves and water depths) to be found off the Central Oregon Coast. Experimental observations will include comprehensive in-situ wave and current measurements as well as a suite of novel optical measurements. These new optical capabilities will include imaging of the 3D wave scattering using a binocular stereo camera system, as well as 3D device motion tracking using a newly acquired LED system. These observing systems will capture the 3D motion history of individual Buoys as well as resolve the 3D scattered wave field; thus resolving the constructive and destructive wave interference patterns produced by the array at high resolution. These data combined with the device motion tracking will provide necessary information for array design in order to balance array performance with the mitigation of far-field impacts. As a benchmark data set, these data will be an important resource for testing of models for wave/buoy interactions, buoy performance, and far-field effects on wave and current patterns due to the presence of arrays. Under the proposed project we will initiate
Modelling viscoacoustic wave propagation with the lattice Boltzmann method.
Xia, Muming; Wang, Shucheng; Zhou, Hui; Shan, Xiaowen; Chen, Hanming; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Qingchen
2017-08-31
In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate wave propagation in viscous media. LBM is a kind of microscopic method for modelling waves through tracking the evolution states of a large number of discrete particles. By choosing different relaxation times in LBM experiments and using spectrum ratio method, we can reveal the relationship between the quality factor Q and the parameter τ in LBM. A two-dimensional (2D) homogeneous model and a two-layered model are tested in the numerical experiments, and the LBM results are compared against the reference solution of the viscoacoustic equations based on the Kelvin-Voigt model calculated by finite difference method (FDM). The wavefields and amplitude spectra obtained by LBM coincide with those by FDM, which demonstrates the capability of the LBM with one relaxation time. The new scheme is relatively simple and efficient to implement compared with the traditional lattice methods. In addition, through a mass of experiments, we find that the relaxation time of LBM has a quantitative relationship with Q. Such a novel scheme offers an alternative forward modelling kernel for seismic inversion and a new model to describe the underground media.
Nonlinear Displacement Discontinuity Model for Generalized Rayleigh Wave in Contact Interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, No Hyu; Yang, Seung Yong [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)
2007-12-15
Imperfectly jointed interface serves as mechanical waveguide for elastic waves and gives rise to two distinct kinds of guided wave propagating along the interface. Contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) is known to plays major role in the generation of these interface waves called generalized Rayleigh waves in non-welded interface. Closed crack is modeled as non-welded interface that has nonlinear discontinuity condition in displacement across its boundary. Mathematical analysis of boundary conditions and wave equation is conducted to investigate the dispersive characteristics of the interface waves. Existence of the generalized Rayleigh wave(interface wave) in nonlinear contact interface is verified in theory where the dispersion equation for the interface wave is formulated and analyzed. It reveals that the interface waves have two distinct modes and that the phase velocity of anti-symmetric wave mode is highly dependent on contact conditions represented by linear and nonlinear dimensionless specific stiffness
Nonlinear Displacement Discontinuity Model for Generalized Rayleigh Wave in Contact Interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, No Hyu; Yang, Seung Yong
2007-01-01
Imperfectly jointed interface serves as mechanical waveguide for elastic waves and gives rise to two distinct kinds of guided wave propagating along the interface. Contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) is known to plays major role in the generation of these interface waves called generalized Rayleigh waves in non-welded interface. Closed crack is modeled as non-welded interface that has nonlinear discontinuity condition in displacement across its boundary. Mathematical analysis of boundary conditions and wave equation is conducted to investigate the dispersive characteristics of the interface waves. Existence of the generalized Rayleigh wave(interface wave) in nonlinear contact interface is verified in theory where the dispersion equation for the interface wave is formulated and analyzed. It reveals that the interface waves have two distinct modes and that the phase velocity of anti-symmetric wave mode is highly dependent on contact conditions represented by linear and nonlinear dimensionless specific stiffness
Preliminary study of slow and fast ultrasonic waves using MR images of trabecular bone phantom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solis-Najera, S. E., E-mail: solisnajera@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: lucia.medina@ciencias.unam.mx; Neria-Pérez, J. A., E-mail: solisnajera@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: lucia.medina@ciencias.unam.mx; Medina, L., E-mail: solisnajera@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: lucia.medina@ciencias.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Garipov, R., E-mail: ruslan.garipov@mrsolutions.co.uk [MR Solutions Ltd, Surrey (United Kingdom); Rodríguez, A. O., E-mail: arog@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, México, DF 09340 (Mexico)
2014-11-07
Cancellous bone is a complex tissue that performs physiological and biomechanical functions in all vertebrates. It is made up of trabeculae that, from a simplified structural viewpoint, can be considered as plates and beams in a hyperstatic structure that change with time leading to osteoporosis. Several methods has been developed to study the trabecular bone microstructure among them is the Biot’s model which predicts the existence of two longitudinal waves in porous media; the slow and the fast waves, that can be related to porosity of the media. This paper is focused on the experimental detection of the two Biot’s waves of a trabecular bone phantom, consisting of a trabecular network of inorganic hydroxyapatite. Experimental measurements of both waves were performed using through transmission ultrasound. Results had shown clearly that the propagation of two waves propagation is transversal to the trabecular alignment. Otherwise the waves are overlapped and a single wave seems to be propagated. To validate these results, magnetic resonance images were acquired to assess the trabecular direction, and to assure that the pulses correspond to the slow and fast waves. This approach offers a methodology for non-invasive studies of trabecular bones.
Model Predictive Control of Buoy Type Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Mohsen N.; Sichani, Mahdi T.; Mirzaei, Mahmood
2014-01-01
by forcing this condition. In the paper the theoretical framework for this principal is shown. The optimal controller requires information of the sea state for infinite horizon which is not applicable. Model Predictive Controllers (MPC) can have finite horizon which crosses out this requirement....... This approach is then taken into account and an MPC controller is designed for a model wave energy converter and implemented on a numerical example. Further, the power outtake of this controller is compared to the optimal controller as an indicator of the performance of the designed controller....
Modelling guided waves in the Alaskan-Aleutian subduction zone
Coulson, Sophie; Garth, Thomas; Reitbrock, Andreas
2016-04-01
Subduction zone guided wave arrivals from intermediate depth earthquakes (70-300 km depth) have a huge potential to tell us about the velocity structure of the subducting oceanic crust as it dehydrates at these depths. We see guided waves as the oceanic crust has a slower seismic velocity than the surrounding material, and so high frequency energy is retained and delayed in the crustal material. Lower frequency energy is not retained in this crustal waveguide and so travels at faster velocities of the surrounding material. This gives a unique observation at the surface with low frequency energy arriving before the higher frequencies. We constrain this guided wave dispersion by comparing the waveforms recorded in real subduction zones with simulated waveforms, produced using finite difference full waveform modelling techniques. This method has been used to show that hydrated minerals in the oceanic crust persist to much greater depths than accepted thermal petrological subduction zone models would suggest in Northern Japan (Garth & Rietbrock, 2014a), and South America (Garth & Rietbrock, in prep). These observations also suggest that the subducting oceanic mantle may be highly hydrated at intermediate depth by dipping normal faults (Garth & Rietbrock 2014b). We use this guided wave analysis technique to constrain the velocity structure of the down going ~45 Ma Pacific plate beneath Alaska. Dispersion analysis is primarily carried out on guided wave arrivals recorded on the Alaskan regional seismic network. Earthquake locations from global earthquake catalogues (ISC and PDE) and regional earthquake locations from the AEIC (Alaskan Earthquake Information Centre) catalogue are used to constrain the slab geometry and to identify potentially dispersive events. Dispersed arrivals are seen at stations close to the trench, with high frequency (>2 Hz) arrivals delayed by 2 - 4 seconds. This dispersion is analysed to constrain the velocity and width of the proposed waveguide
Competing States in the t-J Model: Uniform d-Wave State versus Stripe State versus Stripe State
Corboz, P.R.; Rice, T.M.; Troyer, M.
2014-01-01
Variational studies of the t-J model on the square lattice based on infinite projected-entangled pair states confirm an extremely close competition between a uniform d-wave superconducting state and different stripe states. The site-centered stripe with an in-phase d-wave order has an equal or only
Tidal and gravity waves study from the airglow measurements at ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The other waves may be the upward propagating gravity waves or waves resulting from the interaction of inter-mode tidal oscillations, interaction of tidal waves with planetary waves and gravity waves. Some times, the second harmonic wave has higher vertical velocity than the corresponding fundamental wave. Application ...
A Study on Parametric Wave Estimation Based on Measured Ship Motions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio
2011-01-01
The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics of the param......The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics...... of the parametric model are discussed by considering the results of a similar estimation concept based on Bayesian modelling. The purpose of the latter comparison is not to favour the one estimation approach to the other but rather to highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches....
A staggered-grid convolutional differentiator for elastic wave modelling
Sun, Weijia; Zhou, Binzhong; Fu, Li-Yun
2015-11-01
The computation of derivatives in governing partial differential equations is one of the most investigated subjects in the numerical simulation of physical wave propagation. An analytical staggered-grid convolutional differentiator (CD) for first-order velocity-stress elastic wave equations is derived in this paper by inverse Fourier transformation of the band-limited spectrum of a first derivative operator. A taper window function is used to truncate the infinite staggered-grid CD stencil. The truncated CD operator is almost as accurate as the analytical solution, and as efficient as the finite-difference (FD) method. The selection of window functions will influence the accuracy of the CD operator in wave simulation. We search for the optimal Gaussian windows for different order CDs by minimizing the spectral error of the derivative and comparing the windows with the normal Hanning window function for tapering the CD operators. It is found that the optimal Gaussian window appears to be similar to the Hanning window function for tapering the same CD operator. We investigate the accuracy of the windowed CD operator and the staggered-grid FD method with different orders. Compared to the conventional staggered-grid FD method, a short staggered-grid CD operator achieves an accuracy equivalent to that of a long FD operator, with lower computational costs. For example, an 8th order staggered-grid CD operator can achieve the same accuracy of a 16th order staggered-grid FD algorithm but with half of the computational resources and time required. Numerical examples from a homogeneous model and a crustal waveguide model are used to illustrate the superiority of the CD operators over the conventional staggered-grid FD operators for the simulation of wave propagations.
Evaluation Statistics Computed for the Wave Information Studies (WIS)
2016-07-01
the numerical wave model ( SWAN ) for wave simulation in the Black Sea. Continental Shelf Research 50–51: 80–99. Alves, J.-H. G. M., S...York Harbor Entrance. The time series plots, shown in the left column of Figure 1, compare time series of the modeled ( black line) and observed (red...Hmo on the horizontal axis. Within these plots, the diagonal black line is the best fit line, and the closer a dot lies to the best fit line,
Travelling Wave Solutions in Multigroup Age-Structured Epidemic Models
Ducrot, Arnaut; Magal, Pierre; Ruan, Shigui
2010-01-01
Age-structured epidemic models have been used to describe either the age of individuals or the age of infection of certain diseases and to determine how these characteristics affect the outcomes and consequences of epidemiological processes. Most results on age-structured epidemic models focus on the existence, uniqueness, and convergence to disease equilibria of solutions. In this paper we investigate the existence of travelling wave solutions in a deterministic age-structured model describing the circulation of a disease within a population of multigroups. Individuals of each group are able to move with a random walk which is modelled by the classical Fickian diffusion and are classified into two subclasses, susceptible and infective. A susceptible individual in a given group can be crisscross infected by direct contact with infective individuals of possibly any group. This process of transmission can depend upon the age of the disease of infected individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide sufficient conditions that ensure the existence of travelling wave solutions for the age-structured epidemic model. The case of two population groups is numerically investigated which applies to the crisscross transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and some sexual transmission diseases.
Generation and Active Absorption of 2- and 3-Dimensional Linear Water Waves in Physical Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Morten
in the wave channel in front of the wave generator. The results of physical model tests performed with an absorbing wave maker based on this principle show that the problem of rereflection is reduced significantly when active absorption is performed. Finally, an absorbing directional wave generator for 3-D...... generator is capable of of reducing the problem of rereflection in multidirectional, irregular wave fields significantly....
Studies of drift waves in a toroidal heliac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, X.H.; Blackwell, B.D.; Hamberger, S.M.
1989-01-01
Low frequency, coherent density fluctuations have been studied for three typical magnetic configurations in the helical axis stellarator SHEILA using Langmuir probe techniques. The parametric dependence, the threshold magnetic field, the frequency spectrum and the spatial structure of the fluctuations are measured experimentally. Mode analyses are made in a magnetic coordinate system. Both the mode numbers thus obtained and the smallness of the directly measured values of the wavenumber along the magnetic field lines indicate a close correspondence between the helicity of the fluctuations and the field lines. These experimental results are consistent with a collisional drift wave model, derived from a linearized two-fluid theory, related to the heliac geometry. Density reduction associated with the fluctuations is clearly observed and is consistent with rough estimates of the cross-filed particle flux due to the fluctuations. 17 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab
Quantum wave packet study of D+OF reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurban, M.; Karabulut, E.; Tutuk, R.; Goektas, F.
2010-01-01
The quantum dynamics of the D+OF reaction on the adiabatic potential energy surface of the ground 1 3 A ' state has been studied by using a time-dependent quantum real wave packet method. The state-to-state and state-to-all reaction probabilities for total angular momentum J = 0 have been calculated. The probabilities for J > 0 have been calculated by J-shifting the J = 0 results by means of capture model. Then, the integral cross sections and initial state selected rate constants have been calculated. The initial state-selected reaction probabilities and reaction cross section show threshold but not manifest any resonances and the initial state selected rate constants are sensitive to the temperature.
Accuracy of semi-analytical finite elements for modelling wave propagation in rails
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Andhavarapu, EV
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The semi-analytical finite element method (SAFE) is a popular method for analysing guided wave propagation in elastic waveguides of complex cross-section such as rails. The convergence of these models has previously been studied for linear...
Grobbe, N.
2016-01-01
In this thesis, I study coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media. The focus is two-fold:
1. Increase the theoretical and physical understanding of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenon by analytically-based numerical modeling.
2. Investigate the potential of
Frequency-Domain Hydrodynamic Modelling of Dense and Sparse Arrays of Wave Energy Converters
Wei, Yanji; Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Yu, Zhiheng; van Rooij, Marijn; Prins, Wouter; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Vakis, Antonis I.
2018-01-01
In this work, we develop a frequency-domain model to study the hydrodynamic behaviour of a floater blanket (FB), i.e., an array of floater elements individually connected to power take-off (PTO) systems, which constitutes the core technology of the novel Ocean Grazer (OG) wave energy converter
A Frequency-Domain Model for a Novel Wave Energy Converter
Wei, Yanji; Yu, Zhiheng; Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; van Rooij, Marijn; Prins, Wouter; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Vakis, Antonis I.
In this work, we develop a frequency-domain model for the novel Ocean Grazer (OG) wave energy converter (WEC), with the intention to study the hydrodynamic behavior of its array of floater elements individually connected to power take-off (PTO) systems. To investigate these hydrodynamic
Wave-Structure Interactions on Point Absorbers - an experimental study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Morten Møller
used in the case studies is a pitching point absorber (Wavestar). The central part of the thesis deals with the challenges, choices, and experi- ences gained during the Ph.D. The more in-depth technical details and results are presented in peer-reviewed publications and technical reports. The chal...... that combines waves and current in a meaningful way. The method needs to be inexpensive, easy to implement and reduce the turbulence without distorting the incident waves in a detrimental way....
Technical and economic feasibility study of a Frond type wave power generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
This report describes the first stage of the development of a Frond type wave generator by the Engineering Business (EB) in collaboration with the University of Lancaster Engineering Department. The EB Frond concept is a sea-bed reacting, surging machine consisting of a near-surface collector mounted on an arm pivoted near the seabed. The study had six main elements (investigation, physical and mathematical modelling, site characterisation, design review and cost study). The investigation phase involved a study of wave properties and behaviour, while physical models were tested in a wave tank. A mathematical model was developed and used to assess the design's power output. The characteristics of a suitable site for EB Frond generators were determined and the process of identifying possible sites for a demonstrator machine was begun. The mechanical and system arrangement of the design were evaluated and modified. The effects of varying the installation's input parameters (e.g. wave environment factors) were examined using an energy cost model whose output is energy production and cost. It was concluded that the Frond principle was technically viable though there were some remaining engineering and other application problems. Cost modelling suggested that the EB Frond system had potential for long-term commercial prospects. The report recommends the construction and testing of an intermediate scale model with more realistic wave conditions.
Modeling of high‐frequency seismic‐wave scattering and propagation using radiative transfer theory
Zeng, Yuehua
2017-01-01
This is a study of the nonisotropic scattering process based on radiative transfer theory and its application to the observation of the M 4.3 aftershock recording of the 2008 Wells earthquake sequence in Nevada. Given a wide range of recording distances from 29 to 320 km, the data provide a unique opportunity to discriminate scattering models based on their distance‐dependent behaviors. First, we develop a stable numerical procedure to simulate nonisotropic scattering waves based on the 3D nonisotropic scattering theory proposed by Sato (1995). By applying the simulation method to the inversion of M 4.3 Wells aftershock recordings, we find that a nonisotropic scattering model, dominated by forward scattering, provides the best fit to the observed high‐frequency direct S waves and S‐wave coda velocity envelopes. The scattering process is governed by a Gaussian autocorrelation function, suggesting a Gaussian random heterogeneous structure for the Nevada crust. The model successfully explains the common decay of seismic coda independent of source–station locations as a result of energy leaking from multiple strong forward scattering, instead of backscattering governed by the diffusion solution at large lapse times. The model also explains the pulse‐broadening effect in the high‐frequency direct and early arriving S waves, as other studies have found, and could be very important to applications of high‐frequency wave simulation in which scattering has a strong effect. We also find that regardless of its physical implications, the isotropic scattering model provides the same effective scattering coefficient and intrinsic attenuation estimates as the forward scattering model, suggesting that the isotropic scattering model is still a viable tool for the study of seismic scattering and intrinsic attenuation coefficients in the Earth.
Waves and particles in the Fermi accelerator model. Numerical simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meplan, O.
1996-01-01
This thesis is devoted to a numerical study of the quantum dynamics of the Fermi accelerator which is classically chaotic: it is particle in a one dimensional box with a oscillating wall. First, we study the classical dynamics: we show that the time of impact of the particle with the moving wall and its energy in the wall frame are conjugated variables and that Poincare surface of sections in these variables are more understandable than the usual stroboscopic sections. Then, the quantum dynamics of this systems is studied by the means of two numerical methods. The first one is a generalization of the KKR method in the space-time; it is enough to solve an integral equation on the boundary of a space-time billiard. The second method is faster and is based on successive free propagations and kicks of potential. This allows us to obtain Floquet states which we can on one hand, compare to the classical dynamics with the help of Husimi distributions and on the other hand, study as a function of parameters of the system. This study leads us to nice illustrations of phenomenons such as spatial localizations of a wave packet in a vibrating well or tunnel effects. In the adiabatic situation, we give a formula for quasi-energies which exhibits a phase term independent of states. In this regime, there exist some particular situations where the quasi-energy spectrum presents a total quasi-degeneracy. Then, the wave packet energy can increase significantly. This phenomenon is quite surprising for smooth motion of the wall. The third part deals with the evolution of a classical wave in the Fermi accelerator. Using generalized KKR method, we show a surprising phenomenon: in most of situations (so long as the wall motion is periodic), a wave is localized exponentially in the well and its energy increases in a geometric way. (author). 107 refs., 66 figs., 5 tabs. 2 appends
Experimental Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter
The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the overtopping type. Oncoming waves are focused by two wing reflectors towards the ramp of the device, surge-up and overtop into a reservoir placed at a higher level than the surface of the sea. The energy production takes...
An Improved Split-Step Wavelet Transform Method for Anomalous Radio Wave Propagation Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Iqbal
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Anomalous tropospheric propagation caused by ducting phenomenon is a major problem in wireless communication. Thus, it is important to study the behavior of radio wave propagation in tropospheric ducts. The Parabolic Wave Equation (PWE method is considered most reliable to model anomalous radio wave propagation. In this work, an improved Split Step Wavelet transform Method (SSWM is presented to solve PWE for the modeling of tropospheric propagation over finite and infinite conductive surfaces. A large number of numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Developed algorithm is compared with previously published techniques; Wavelet Galerkin Method (WGM and Split-Step Fourier transform Method (SSFM. A very good agreement is found between SSWM and published techniques. It is also observed that the proposed algorithm is about 18 times faster than WGM and provide more details of propagation effects as compared to SSFM.
A Bingham-plastic model for fluid mud transport under waves and currents
Liu, Chun-rong; Wu, Bo; Huhe, Ao-de
2014-04-01
Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.
Entanglement entropy in a holographic p-wave superconductor model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Fang Li
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In a recent paper, arXiv:1309.4877, a holographic p-wave model has been proposed in an Einstein–Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a negative cosmological constant. The model exhibits rich phase structure depending on the mass and the charge of the vector field. We investigate the behavior of the entanglement entropy of dual field theory in this model. When the above two model parameters change, we observe the second order, first order and zeroth order phase transitions from the behavior of the entanglement entropy at some intermediate temperatures. These imply that the entanglement entropy can indicate not only the occurrence of the phase transition, but also the order of the phase transition. The entanglement entropy is indeed a good probe to phase transition. Furthermore, the “retrograde condensation” which is a sub-dominated phase is also reflected on the entanglement entropy.
Optimization of arterial age prediction models based in pulse wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scandurra, A G [Bioengineering Laboratory, Electronic Department, Mar del Plata University (Argentina); Meschino, G J [Bioengineering Laboratory, Electronic Department, Mar del Plata University (Argentina); Passoni, L I [Bioengineering Laboratory, Electronic Department, Mar del Plata University (Argentina); Dai Pra, A L [Engineering Aplied Artificial Intelligence Group, Mathematics Department, Mar del Plata University (Argentina); Introzzi, A R [Bioengineering Laboratory, Electronic Department, Mar del Plata University (Argentina); Clara, F M [Bioengineering Laboratory, Electronic Department, Mar del Plata University (Argentina)
2007-11-15
We propose the detection of early arterial ageing through a prediction model of arterial age based in the coherence assumption between the pulse wave morphology and the patient's chronological age. Whereas we evaluate several methods, a Sugeno fuzzy inference system is selected. Models optimization is approached using hybrid methods: parameter adaptation with Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms. Features selection was performed according with their projection on main factors of the Principal Components Analysis. The model performance was tested using the bootstrap error type .632E. The model presented an error smaller than 8.5%. This result encourages including this process as a diagnosis module into the device for pulse analysis that has been developed by the Bioengineering Laboratory staff.
Entanglement entropy in a holographic p-wave superconductor model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Li-Fang, E-mail: lilf@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Cai, Rong-Gen, E-mail: cairg@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Li, E-mail: liliphy@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shen, Chao, E-mail: sc@nssc.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2015-05-15
In a recent paper, (arXiv:1309.4877), a holographic p-wave model has been proposed in an Einstein–Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a negative cosmological constant. The model exhibits rich phase structure depending on the mass and the charge of the vector field. We investigate the behavior of the entanglement entropy of dual field theory in this model. When the above two model parameters change, we observe the second order, first order and zeroth order phase transitions from the behavior of the entanglement entropy at some intermediate temperatures. These imply that the entanglement entropy can indicate not only the occurrence of the phase transition, but also the order of the phase transition. The entanglement entropy is indeed a good probe to phase transition. Furthermore, the “retrograde condensation” which is a sub-dominated phase is also reflected on the entanglement entropy.
Optimization of arterial age prediction models based in pulse wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scandurra, A G; Meschino, G J; Passoni, L I; Dai Pra, A L; Introzzi, A R; Clara, F M
2007-01-01
We propose the detection of early arterial ageing through a prediction model of arterial age based in the coherence assumption between the pulse wave morphology and the patient's chronological age. Whereas we evaluate several methods, a Sugeno fuzzy inference system is selected. Models optimization is approached using hybrid methods: parameter adaptation with Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms. Features selection was performed according with their projection on main factors of the Principal Components Analysis. The model performance was tested using the bootstrap error type .632E. The model presented an error smaller than 8.5%. This result encourages including this process as a diagnosis module into the device for pulse analysis that has been developed by the Bioengineering Laboratory staff
Kinetic computer modeling of microwave surface-wave plasma production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganachev, Ivan P.
2004-01-01
Kinetic computer plasma modeling occupies an intermediate position between the time consuming rigorous particle dynamic simulation and the fast but rather rough cold- or warm-plasma fluid models. The present paper reviews the kinetic modeling of microwave surface-wave discharges with accent on recent kinetic self-consistent models, where the external input parameters are reduced to the necessary minimum (frequency and intensity of the applied microwave field and pressure and geometry of the discharge vessel). The presentation is limited to low pressures, so that Boltzmann equation is solved in non-local approximation and collisional electron heating is neglected. The numerical results reproduce correctly the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions observed experimentally. (author)
Falsification of Leggett's model using neutron matter waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Yuji; Sponar, Stephan; Durstberger-Rennhofer, Katharina; Badurek, Gerald; Schmitzer, Claus; Bartosik, Hannes; Klepp, Jürgen
2012-01-01
According to Bell's theorem, no theory based on the joint assumption of realism and locality can reproduce certain predictions of quantum mechanics. Another class of realistic models, proposed by Leggett, that demands realism but abandons reliance on locality, is predicted to be in conflict with quantum mechanics. In this paper, we report on an experimental test of a contextual realistic model analogous to the model of Leggett performed with matter waves, more precisely with neutrons. Correlation measurements of the spin-energy entangled single-particle system show violation of a Leggett-type inequality by more than 7.6 standard deviations. Our experimental data falsify the contextual realistic model and are fully in favor of quantum mechanics. (paper)
A modified symplectic PRK scheme for seismic wave modeling
Liu, Shaolin; Yang, Dinghui; Ma, Jian
2017-02-01
A new scheme for the temporal discretization of the seismic wave equation is constructed based on symplectic geometric theory and a modified strategy. The ordinary differential equation in terms of time, which is obtained after spatial discretization via the spectral-element method, is transformed into a Hamiltonian system. A symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) scheme is used to solve the Hamiltonian system. A term related to the multiplication of the spatial discretization operator with the seismic wave velocity vector is added into the symplectic PRK scheme to create a modified symplectic PRK scheme. The symplectic coefficients of the new scheme are determined via Taylor series expansion. The positive coefficients of the scheme indicate that its long-term computational capability is more powerful than that of conventional symplectic schemes. An exhaustive theoretical analysis reveals that the new scheme is highly stable and has low numerical dispersion. The results of three numerical experiments demonstrate the high efficiency of this method for seismic wave modeling.
Microstrip natural wave spectrum mathematical model using partial inversion method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pogarsky, S.A.; Litvinenko, L.N.; Prosvirnin, S.L.
1995-01-01
It is generally agreed that both microstrip lines itself and different discontinuities based on microstrips are the most difficult problem for accurate electrodynamic analysis. Over the last years much has been published about principles and accurate (or full wave) methods of microstrip lines investigations. The growing interest for this problem may be explained by the microstrip application in the millimeter-wave range for purpose of realizing interconnects and a variety of passive components. At these higher operating rating frequencies accurate component modeling becomes more critical. A creation, examination and experimental verification of the accurate method for planar electrodynamical structures natural wave spectrum investigations are the objects of this manuscript. The moment method with partial inversion operator method using may be considered as a basical way for solving this problem. This method is outlook for accurate analysis of different planar discontinuities in microstrip: such as step discontinuities, microstrip turns, Y- and X-junctions and etc., substrate space steps dielectric constants and other anisotropy types
A two dimension model of the uterine electrical wave propagation.
Rihana, S; Lefrançois, E; Marque, C
2007-01-01
The uterus, usually quiescent during pregnancy, exhibits forceful contractions at term leading to delivery. These contractions are caused by the synchronized propagation of electrical waves from the pacemaker cells to its neighbors inducing the whole coordinated contraction of the uterus wall leading to labor. In a previous work, we simulate the electrical activity of a single uterine cell by a set of ordinary differential equations. Then, this model has been used to simulate the electrical activity propagation. In the present work, the uterine cell tissue is assumed to have uniform and isotropic propagation, and constant electrical membrane properties. The stability of the numerical solution imposes the choice of a critical temporal step. A wave starts at a pacemaker cell; this electrical activity is initiated by the injection of an external stimulation current to the cell membrane. We observe synchronous wave propagation for axial resistance values around 0.5 GOmega or less and propoagation blocking for values greater than 0.7 GOmega. We compute the conduction velocity of the excitation, for different axial resistance values, and obtain a velocity about 10 cm/sec, approaching the one described by the literature for the rat at end of term.
Wave energy, lever operated pivoting float LOPF study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margheritini, L.
2012-11-01
The fully instrumented Resen Waves Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF wave energy buoy model has gone through the first stage of testing in regular waves in scale 1:25 of the North Sea wave conditions, in the 3D deep wave basin at the Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering Laboratory of Aalborg University in Denmark. The model size was 60cm W x 90cm L x 21cm H. The 60 cm width pointed towards the wave front. The LOPF buoy is characterized by a simple mechanical design with few moving parts and direct electrical output and it is taut moored to the sea bed, so all forces are referenced to the seabed for maximum energy output in regular as well as irregular waves. During storms the buoy pivots and streamlines itself to minimize loads on the mooring line. A conservative estimate shows that a full scale system for North Sea conditions has a float size width of 15 m that will, with 60% generator efficiency, produce 610 MWh/y (609.497 kWh/y) with an average power output of 69.6 kW, which requires a generator capacity of 700 kW. It is expected the generator efficiency can be increased to 90% in the future. More specific calculations (from EnergiNet) show that with one generator of 695 kW the expected power production is 585 MWh/y; with a generator of 250 kW and 100 kW, the expected power production is 481 MWh/y and 182 MWh/y respectively. In addition there are several areas for future improvements for increased power production. (Author)
Xuyang, CHEN; Fangfang, SHEN; Yanming, LIU; Wei, AI; Xiaoping, LI
2018-06-01
A plasma-based stable, ultra-wideband electromagnetic (EM) wave absorber structure is studied in this paper for stealth applications. The stability is maintained by a multi-layer structure with several plasma layers and dielectric layers distributed alternately. The plasma in each plasma layer is designed to be uniform, whereas it has a discrete nonuniform distribution from the overall view of the structure. The nonuniform distribution of the plasma is the key to obtaining ultra-wideband wave absorption. A discrete Epstein distribution model is put forward to constrain the nonuniform electron density of the plasma layers, by which the wave absorption range is extended to the ultra-wideband. Then, the scattering matrix method (SMM) is employed to analyze the electromagnetic reflection and absorption of the absorber structure. In the simulation, the validation of the proposed structure and model in ultra-wideband EM wave absorption is first illustrated by comparing the nonuniform plasma model with the uniform case. Then, the influence of various parameters on the EM wave reflection of the plasma are simulated and analyzed in detail, verifying the EM wave absorption performance of the absorber. The proposed structure and model are expected to be superior in some realistic applications, such as supersonic aircraft.
New exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear physical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekir, Ahmet; Cevikel, Adem C.
2009-01-01
In this work, we established abundant travelling wave solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations. This method was used to construct travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The travelling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions. The ((G ' )/G )-expansion method presents a wider applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations.
van der Ven, S.H.G.; Boom, J.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; Leseman, P.P.M.
2012-01-01
Variability in strategy selection is an important characteristic of learning new skills such as mathematical skills. Strategies gradually come and go during this development. In 1996, Siegler described this phenomenon as "overlapping waves." In the current microgenetic study, we attempted to model
The development of efficient numerical time-domain modeling methods for geophysical wave propagation
Zhu, Lieyuan
This Ph.D. dissertation focuses on the numerical simulation of geophysical wave propagation in the time domain including elastic waves in solid media, the acoustic waves in fluid media, and the electromagnetic waves in dielectric media. This thesis shows that a linear system model can describe accurately the physical processes of those geophysical waves' propagation and can be used as a sound basis for modeling geophysical wave propagation phenomena. The generalized stability condition for numerical modeling of wave propagation is therefore discussed in the context of linear system theory. The efficiency of a series of different numerical algorithms in the time-domain for modeling geophysical wave propagation are discussed and compared. These algorithms include the finite-difference time-domain method, pseudospectral time domain method, alternating directional implicit (ADI) finite-difference time domain method. The advantages and disadvantages of these numerical methods are discussed and the specific stability condition for each modeling scheme is carefully derived in the context of the linear system theory. Based on the review and discussion of these existing approaches, the split step, ADI pseudospectral time domain (SS-ADI-PSTD) method is developed and tested for several cases. Moreover, the state-of-the-art stretched-coordinate perfect matched layer (SCPML) has also been implemented in SS-ADI-PSTD algorithm as the absorbing boundary condition for truncating the computational domain and absorbing the artificial reflection from the domain boundaries. After algorithmic development, a few case studies serve as the real-world examples to verify the capacities of the numerical algorithms and understand the capabilities and limitations of geophysical methods for detection of subsurface contamination. The first case is a study using ground penetrating radar (GPR) amplitude variation with offset (AVO) for subsurface non-aqueous-liquid (NAPL) contamination. The
Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bull, Diana L; Smith, Chris; Jenne, Dale Scott; Jacob, Paul; Copping, Andrea; Willits, Steve; Fontaine, Arnold; Brefort, Dorian; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; Copeland, Robert; Jepsen, Richard Alan
2014-10-01
This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. In this report, a conceptual design for an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (WEC) device appropriate for the modeled reference resource site was identified, and a detailed backward bent duct buoy (BBDB) device design was developed using a combination of numerical modeling tools and scaled physical models. Our team used the methodology in SAND2013-9040 for the economic analysis that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays, up to 100 devices. The methodology was applied to identify key cost drivers and to estimate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for this RM6 Oscillating Water Column device in dollars per kilowatt-hour ($/kWh). Although many costs were difficult to estimate at this time due to the lack of operational experience, the main contribution of this work was to disseminate a detailed set of methodologies and models that allow for an initial cost analysis of this emerging technology. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program Office (WWPTO), within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). Sandia National Laboratories, the lead in this effort, collaborated with partners from National Laboratories, industry, and universities to design and test this reference model.
Study on thermal wave based on the thermal mass theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The conservation equations for heat conduction are established based on the concept of thermal mass.We obtain a general heat conduction law which takes into account the spatial and temporal inertia of thermal mass.The general law introduces a damped thermal wave equation.It reduces to the well-known CV model when the spatial inertia of heat flux and temperature and the temporal inertia of temperature are neglected,which indicates that the CV model only considers the temporal inertia of heat flux.Numerical simulations on the propagation and superposition of thermal waves show that for small thermal perturbation the CV model agrees with the thermal wave equation based on the thermal mass theory.For larger thermal perturbation,however,the physically impossible phenomenon pre-dicted by CV model,i.e.the negative temperature induced by the thermal wave superposition,is eliminated by the general heat conduction law,which demonstrates that the present heat conduction law based on the thermal mass theory is more reasonable.
Study on thermal wave based on the thermal mass theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU RuiFeng; CAO BingYang
2009-01-01
The conservation equations for heat conduction are established based on the concept of thermal mass. We obtain a general heat conduction law which takes into account the spatial and temporal inertia of thermal mass. The general law introduces a damped thermal wave equation. It reduces to the well-known CV model when the spatial inertia of heat flux and temperature and the temporal inertia of temperature are neglected, which indicates that the CV model only considers the temporal inertia of heat flux. Numerical simulations on the propagation and superposition of thermal waves show that for small thermal perturbation the CV model agrees with the thermal wave equation based on the thermal mass theory. For larger thermal perturbation, however, the physically impossible phenomenon pre-dicted by CV model, i.e. the negative temperature induced by the thermal wave superposition, is eliminated by the general heat conduction law, which demonstrates that the present heat conduction law based on the thermal mass theory is more reasonable.
Model of the electromagnetic waves processing in ultrasound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrego L, J.; Azorin N, J.; Siles A, S.; Cruz O, A.
2004-01-01
In this work, a model to process the electromagnetic waves in ultrasonic equipment is proposed and it is experimentally demonstrated that, the origin of the ultrasound is electronic and non mechanic. The above mentioned, it has been demonstrated when making in an electronic equipment a spectral analysis the one that indicated an unfolding of the original ultrasonic pulses of 17 K Hz., to 88 K Hz., and of 5 MHz., to 23 GHz. Also, it was obtained the degradation with ultrasound of particles of Hematite and of Galena, as well as the fading of the methylene blue and the generation of an electric current exciting with ultrasound. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roussel, Th.
2001-12-01
The propagation of an alkaline wave through a clay rock has been investigated- The wave is generated by a cementitious matrix through the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite of the Meuse Haute-Marne Laboratory (-480 m depth). The argillite itself is composed of quartz, micas, calcite and an interstratified l/S. In order to characterise the interactions between the alkaline fluid and the argillaceous medium, dynamic column experiments have been carried out. The originality of the investigation methodology consists in exploiting the data generated from the breakthrough curves as well as from the characterisation of the solids extracted from the columns. Two types of processes having totally different reaction times have hence been thoroughly studied: - Fast surface adsorption and condensation reactions: On the one hand cation adsorption reactions by site ionisation have been characterised. They are responsible of the buffering effect of the clays. On the other hand an original reaction of calcium compound condensation in the interlayer space of the swelling clays has been revealed. These processes have been modelled and their simulations with the IMPACT calculation code showed that the models elaborated were very satisfying. - Strongly kinetically limited dissolution/precipitation reactions: The main primary phases dissolved are quartz and interstratified l/S. The precipitation of secondary phases are mainly C(A)SH and zeolites. After the injection of an alkaline fluid for 6 months at 60 deg C, the argillite is strongly amorphized but only 20 to 30% of the quartz and the interstratified I/S are dissolved. Therefore, dissolution kinetics of the primary phases and the solubility products of the main secondary phases have been determined. (author)
Simanungkalit, R. H.; Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Amran, A.; Supriyanto
2018-03-01
Earthquake signal observations around the world allow seismologists to obtain the information of internal structure of the Earth especially the Earth’s crust. In this study, we used joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure beneath CBJI station in West Java, Indonesia. Receiver function were calculated from earthquakes with magnitude more than 5 and at distance 30°-90°. Surface wave group velocities were calculated using frequency time analysis from earthquakes at distance of 30°- 40°. We inverted shear wave velocity model beneath the station by conducting joint inversion from receiver functions and surface wave dispersions. We suggest that the crustal thickness beneath CBJI station, West Java, Indonesia is about 35 km.
Modeling stretched solitary waves along magnetic field lines
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L. Muschietti
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A model is presented for a new type of fast solitary waves which is observed in downward current regions of the auroral zone. The three-dimensional, coherent structures are electrostatic, have a positive potential, and move along the magnetic field lines with speeds on the order of the electron drift. Their parallel potential profile is flattened and cannot fit to the Gaussian shape used in previous work. We develop a detailed BGK model which includes a flattened potential and an assumed cylindrical symmetry around a centric magnetic field line. The model envisions concentric shells of trapped electrons slowly drifting azimuthally while bouncing back and forth in the parallel direction. The electron dynamics is analysed in terms of three basic motions that occur on different time scales characterized by the cyclotron frequency We , the bounce frequency wb , and the azimuthal drift frequency wg. The ordering We >> wb >> wg is required. Self-consistent distribution functions are calculated in terms of approximate constants of motion. Constraints on the parameters characterizing the amplitude and shape of the stretched solitary wave are discussed.
COMPARISON STUDY OF EXPERIMENTS AND PREDICTIONS OF WAVE KINEMATICS FOR ROGUE WAVE
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Hae Jin Choi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available To investigate the wave kinematics under the rogue wave crest, a series of experiments were performed in 2-D wave tank with the application of PIV technique to measure the velocities under the free surface. Three different prediction methods of linear extrapolation, Wheeler stretching, and modified stretching were applied to estimate water wave kinematics and compared with PIV experimental results under the highest wave crest of irregular wave trains satisfying with rogue wave criteria. Also, the cut-off frequency dependence for three prediction methods was investigated with varying spectral peak frequencies to estimate wave kinematics including velocities and accelerations in horizontal and vertical directions. It was suggested that the cut-off frequency for the reasonable prediction of the wave kinematics under the rogue wave crest could be chosen three times of spectral peak wave frequency for the linear extrapolation and higher frequency than four times of spectral peak wave frequency for Wheeler stretching and modified stretching method.
Advanced DPSM approach for modeling ultrasonic wave scattering in an arbitrary geometry
Yadav, Susheel K.; Banerjee, Sourav; Kundu, Tribikram
2011-04-01
Several techniques are used to diagnose structural damages. In the ultrasonic technique structures are tested by analyzing ultrasonic signals scattered by damages. The interpretation of these signals requires a good understanding of the interaction between ultrasonic waves and structures. Therefore, researchers need analytical or numerical techniques to have a clear understanding of the interaction between ultrasonic waves and structural damage. However, modeling of wave scattering phenomenon by conventional numerical techniques such as finite element method requires very fine mesh at high frequencies necessitating heavy computational power. Distributed point source method (DPSM) is a newly developed robust mesh free technique to simulate ultrasonic, electrostatic and electromagnetic fields. In most of the previous studies the DPSM technique has been applied to model two dimensional surface geometries and simple three dimensional scatterer geometries. It was difficult to perform the analysis for complex three dimensional geometries. This technique has been extended to model wave scattering in an arbitrary geometry. In this paper a channel section idealized as a thin solid plate with several rivet holes is formulated. The simulation has been carried out with and without cracks near the rivet holes. Further, a comparison study has been also carried out to characterize the crack. A computer code has been developed in C for modeling the ultrasonic field in a solid plate with and without cracks near the rivet holes.
Validation of Hydrodynamic Numerical Model of a Pitching Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
López, Maria del Pilar Heras; Thomas, Sarah; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede
2017-01-01
Validation of numerical model is essential in the development of new technologies. Commercial software and codes available simulating wave energy converters (WECs) have not been proved to work for all the available and upcoming technologies yet. The present paper presents the first stages...... of the validation process of a hydrodynamic numerical model for a pitching wave energy converter. The development of dry tests, wave flume and wave basin experiments are going to be explained, lessons learned shared and results presented....
The impact of waves and sea spray on modeling storm track and development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik
2015-01-01
parameterisation were applied to anatmospherewave coupled model to study the mid-latitude storm development of six storm cases. Comparedwith measurements from the FINO1 platform in the North Sea, the new wind stress parameterisation canreduce wind speed simulation errors in the high wind speed range. Considering......In high wind speed conditions, sea spray generated by intensely breaking waves greatly influences the windstress and heat fluxes. Measurements indicate that the drag coefficient decreases at high wind speeds. The seaspray generation function (SSGF), an important term of wind stress parameterisation...... at high wind speeds, isusually treated as a function of wind speed/friction velocity. In this study, we introduce a wave-state-dependentSSGF and wave-age-dependent Charnock number into a high wind speedwind stress parameterisation. Thenewly proposed wind stress parameterisation and sea spray heat flux...
Xu, Guanjun; Song, Zhaohui
2017-04-01
Traveling solar wind disturbances have a significant influence on radio wave characteristics during the superior solar conjunction communication. This paper considers the impact of solar scintillation on phase fluctuations of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation during the superior solar conjunction. Based on the Geometric Optics approximation, the close-form approximation model for phase fluctuations is developed. Both effects of anisotropic temporal variations function of plasma irregularities and their power spectrum are presented and analyzed numerically. It is found that phase fluctuations rapidly decrease with increasing Sun-Earth-Probe angle and decrease with increasing frequency at the rate of 1/f2. Moreover, the role of various features of the solar wind irregularities and their influence on the EM wave characteristic parameters is studied and discussed. Finally, we study the phase fluctuations of typical cases in order to better understand the impact of phase fluctuations in future deep space communication scenarios during solar conjunction periods.
Rockslide and Impulse Wave Modelling in the Vajont Reservoir by DEM-CFD Analyses
Zhao, T.; Utili, S.; Crosta, G. B.
2016-06-01
This paper investigates the generation of hydrodynamic water waves due to rockslides plunging into a water reservoir. Quasi-3D DEM analyses in plane strain by a coupled DEM-CFD code are adopted to simulate the rockslide from its onset to the impact with the still water and the subsequent generation of the wave. The employed numerical tools and upscaling of hydraulic properties allow predicting a physical response in broad agreement with the observations notwithstanding the assumptions and characteristics of the adopted methods. The results obtained by the DEM-CFD coupled approach are compared to those published in the literature and those presented by Crosta et al. (Landslide spreading, impulse waves and modelling of the Vajont rockslide. Rock mechanics, 2014) in a companion paper obtained through an ALE-FEM method. Analyses performed along two cross sections are representative of the limit conditions of the eastern and western slope sectors. The max rockslide average velocity and the water wave velocity reach ca. 22 and 20 m/s, respectively. The maximum computed run up amounts to ca. 120 and 170 m for the eastern and western lobe cross sections, respectively. These values are reasonably similar to those recorded during the event (i.e. ca. 130 and 190 m, respectively). Therefore, the overall study lays out a possible DEM-CFD framework for the modelling of the generation of the hydrodynamic wave due to the impact of a rapid moving rockslide or rock-debris avalanche.
Experimental investigation of shock wave diffraction over a single- or double-sphere model
Zhang, L. T.; Wang, T. H.; Hao, L. N.; Huang, B. Q.; Chen, W. J.; Shi, H. H.
2017-01-01
In this study, the unsteady drag produced by the interaction of a shock wave with a single- and a double-sphere model is measured using imbedded accelerometers. The shock wave is generated in a horizontal circular shock tube with an inner diameter of 200 mm. The effect of the shock Mach number and the dimensionless distance between spheres is investigated. The time-history of the drag coefficient is obtained based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) band-block filtering and polynomial fitting of the measured acceleration. The measured peak values of the drag coefficient, with the associated uncertainty, are reported.
Wind waves on the Black Sea: results of a hindcast study
Arkhipkin, V. S.; Gippius, F. N.; Koltermann, K. P.; Surkova, G. V.
2014-02-01
In this study we describe the wind waves fields on the Black Sea. The general aims of the work were the estimation of statistical wave parameters and the assessment of interannual and seasonal storm variability. The domain of this study was the entire Black Sea. Wave parameters were calculated by means of the SWAN wave model on a 5 km × 5 km rectangular grid. Initial conditions (wind speed and direction) for the period between 1948 and 2010 were derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In our calculations the average significant wave height on the Black Sea does not exceed 0.7 m. Areas of most significant storminess are the south-western and the north-eastern corners as expressed in the spatial distribution of wave heights, wave lengths and periods. Besides that, long-term annual variations of storminess were estimated. Thus, linear trends of the annual total duration of storms and of their quantity are nearly stable over the reanalysis period. However, an intensification of storm activity is observed in the 1960s-1970s.
Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.
Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R
2016-02-01
The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parametric study of two-body floating-point wave absorber
Amiri, Atena; Panahi, Roozbeh; Radfar, Soheil
2016-03-01
In this paper, we present a comprehensive numerical simulation of a point wave absorber in deep water. Analyses are performed in both the frequency and time domains. The converter is a two-body floating-point absorber (FPA) with one degree of freedom in the heave direction. Its two parts are connected by a linear mass-spring-damper system. The commercial ANSYS-AQWA software used in this study performs well in considering validations. The velocity potential is obtained by assuming incompressible and irrotational flow. As such, we investigated the effects of wave characteristics on energy conversion and device efficiency, including wave height and wave period, as well as the device diameter, draft, geometry, and damping coefficient. To validate the model, we compared our numerical results with those from similar experiments. Our study results can clearly help to maximize the converter's efficiency when considering specific conditions.
Study of Lamb Waves for Non-Destructive Testing Behind Screens
Kauffmann, P.; Ploix, M.-A.; Chaix, J.-F.; Gueudré, C.; Corneloup, G.; Baqué, F. AF(; )
2018-01-01
The inspection and control of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) is a major issue for the nuclear industry. Ultrasonic solutions are under study because of the opacity of liquid sodium. In this paper, the use of leaky Lamb waves is considered for non-destructive testing (NDT) on parallel and immersed structures assimilated as plates. The first phase of our approach involved studying the propagation properties of leaky Lamb waves. Equations that model the propagation of Lamb waves in an immersed plate were solved numerically. The phase velocity can be experimentally measured using a two dimensional Fourier transform. The group velocity can be experimentally measured using a short-time Fourier transform technique. Attenuation of leaky Lamb waves is mostly due to the re-emission of energy into the surrounding fluid, and it can be measured by these two techniques.
Traveling waves and spreading speed on a lattice model with age structure
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Zongyi Wang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study a lattice differential model for a single species with distributed age-structure in an infinite patchy environment. Using method of approaches by Diekmann and Thieme, we develop a comparison principle and construct a suitable sub-solution to the given model, and show that there exists a spreading speed of the system which in fact coincides with the minimal wave speed.
Traveling Wave Solutions of Reaction-Diffusion Equations Arising in Atherosclerosis Models
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Narcisa Apreutesei
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this short review article, two atherosclerosis models are presented, one as a scalar equation and the other one as a system of two equations. They are given in terms of reaction-diffusion equations in an infinite strip with nonlinear boundary conditions. The existence of traveling wave solutions is studied for these models. The monostable and bistable cases are introduced and analyzed.
Liu, Huiqing; Xie, Lian
2009-06-01
The effects of wave-current interactions on ocean surface waves induced by Hurricane Hugo in and around the Charleston Harbor and its adjacent coastal waters are examined by using a three-dimensional (3D) wave-current coupled modeling system. The 3D storm surge modeling component of the coupled system is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), the wave modeling component is based on the third generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the inundation model is adopted from [Xie, L., Pietrafesa, L. J., Peng, M., 2004. Incorporation of a mass-conserving inundation scheme into a three-dimensional storm surge model. J. Coastal Res., 20, 1209-1223]. The results indicate that the change of water level associated with the storm surge is the primary cause for wave height changes due to wave-surge interaction. Meanwhile, waves propagating on top of surge cause a feedback effect on the surge height by modulating the surface wind stress and bottom stress. This effect is significant in shallow coastal waters, but relatively small in offshore deep waters. The influence of wave-current interaction on wave propagation is relatively insignificant, since waves generally propagate in the direction of the surface currents driven by winds. Wave-current interactions also affect the surface waves as a result of inundation and drying induced by the storm. Waves break as waters retreat in regions of drying, whereas waves are generated in flooded regions where no waves would have occurred without the flood water.
Vackář, Jiří; Zahradník, Jiří
2013-04-01
A recent shallow earthquake in the Corinth Gulf, Greece (Mw 5.3, January 18, 2010; Sokos et al., Tectonophysics 2012) generated unusual long-period waves (periods > 5 seconds), well recorded at several near-regional stations between the P - and S-wave arrival. The 5-second period, being significantly longer than the source duration, indicates a structural effect. The wave is similar to PL-wave or Pnl-wave, but with shorter periods and observed in much closer distances (ranging from 30 to 200 km). For theoretical description of the observed wave, structural model is required. No existing regional crustal model generates that wave, so we need to find another model, better in terms of the PL-wave existence and strength. We find such models by full waveform inversion using the subset of stations with strong PL-wave. The Discrete Wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981; Coutant 1989) is used for forward problem and the Neighborhood Algorithm (Sambridge, 1999) for stochastic search (more details in poster by V. Plicka and J. Zahradník). We obtain a suite of models well fitting synthetic seismograms and use some of these models to evaluate dependence of the studied waves on receiver distance and azimuth as well as dependence on source depth. We compare real and synthetic dispersion curves (derived from synthetic seismograms) as an independent validation of found model and discuss limitations of using dispersion curves for these cases. We also relocated the event in the new model. Then we calculate the wavefield by two other methods: modal summation and ray theory to better understand the nature of the PL-wave. Finally, we discuss agreement of found models with published crustal models in the region. The full waveform inversion for structural parameters seems to be powerful tool for improving seismic source modeling in cases we do not have accurate structure model of studied area. We also show that the PL-wave strength has a potential to precise the earthquake depth
Madeiro, João P V; Nicolson, William B; Cortez, Paulo C; Marques, João A L; Vázquez-Seisdedos, Carlos R; Elangovan, Narmadha; Ng, G Andre; Schlindwein, Fernando S
2013-08-01
This paper presents an innovative approach for T-wave peak detection and subsequent T-wave end location in 12-lead paced ECG signals based on a mathematical model of a skewed Gaussian function. Following the stage of QRS segmentation, we establish search windows using a number of the earliest intervals between each QRS offset and subsequent QRS onset. Then, we compute a template based on a Gaussian-function, modified by a mathematical procedure to insert asymmetry, which models the T-wave. Cross-correlation and an approach based on the computation of Trapezium's area are used to locate, respectively, the peak and end point of each T-wave throughout the whole raw ECG signal. For evaluating purposes, we used a database of high resolution 12-lead paced ECG signals, recorded from patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) in the University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, UK, and the well-known QT database. The average T-wave detection rates, sensitivity and positive predictivity, were both equal to 99.12%, for the first database, and, respectively, equal to 99.32% and 99.47%, for QT database. The average time errors computed for T-wave peak and T-wave end locations were, respectively, -0.38±7.12 ms and -3.70±15.46 ms, for the first database, and 1.40±8.99 ms and 2.83±15.27 ms, for QT database. The results demonstrate the accuracy, consistency and robustness of the proposed method for a wide variety of T-wave morphologies studied. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parisi, Laura
2016-02-10
The surface wave full ray theory (FRT) is an efficient tool to calculate synthetic waveforms of surface waves. It combines the concept of local modes with exact ray tracing as a function of frequency, providing a more complete description of surface wave propagation than the widely used great circle approximation (GCA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the FRT approach to model teleseismic long-period surface waveforms (T ∼ 45–150 s) in the context of current 3-D Earth models to empirically assess its validity domain and its scope for future studies in seismic tomography. To achieve this goal, we compute vertical and horizontal component fundamental mode synthetic Rayleigh waveforms using the FRT, which are compared with calculations using the highly accurate spectral element method. We use 13 global earth models including 3-D crustal and mantle structure, which are derived by successively varying the strength and lengthscale of heterogeneity in current tomographic models. For completeness, GCA waveforms are also compared with the spectral element method. We find that the FRT accurately predicts the phase and amplitude of long-period Rayleigh waves (T ∼ 45–150 s) for almost all the models considered, with errors in the modelling of the phase (amplitude) of Rayleigh waves being smaller than 5 per cent (10 per cent) in most cases. The largest errors in phase and amplitude are observed for T ∼ 45 s and for the three roughest earth models considered that exhibit shear wave anomalies of up to ∼20 per cent, which is much larger than in current global tomographic models. In addition, we find that overall the GCA does not predict Rayleigh wave amplitudes well, except for the longest wave periods (T ∼ 150 s) and the smoothest models considered. Although the GCA accurately predicts Rayleigh wave phase for current earth models such as S20RTS and S40RTS, FRT\\'s phase errors are smaller, notably for the shortest wave periods considered (T
O'Boyle, Louise; Whittaker, Trevor; Cox, Ronadh; Elsäßer, Björn
2017-04-01
During the winter of 2013-2014 the west coast of Ireland was exposed to 6 storms over a period of 8 weeks with wind speeds equating to hurricane categories 3 and 4. During this period, the largest significant wave height recorded at the Marine Institute M6 wave buoy, approximately 300km from the site, was 13.6m (on 26th January 2014). However, this may not be the largest sea state of that winter, because the buoy stopped logging on 30th January and therefore failed to capture the full winter period. During the February 12th 2014 "Darwin" storm, the Kinsale Energy Gas Platform off Ireland's south coast measured a wave height of 25 m, which remains the highest wave measured off Ireland's coasts[1]. Following these storms, significant dislocation and transportation of boulders and megagravel was observed on the Aran Islands, Co. Galway at elevations of up to 25m above the high water mark and distances up to 220 m inland including numerous clasts with masses >50t, and at least one megagravel block weighing >500t [2]. Clast movements of this magnitude would not have been predicted from the measured wave heights. This highlights a significant gap in our understanding of the relationships between storms and the coastal environment: how are storm waves amplified and modified by interactions with bathymetry? To gain further understanding of wave amplification, especially over steep and irregular bathymetry, we have designed Froude-scaled wave tank experiments using the 3D coastal wave basin facility at Queen's University Belfast. The basin is 18m long by 16m wide with wave generation by means of a 12m wide bank of 24 top hinged, force feedback, sector carrier wave paddles at one end. The basin is equipped with gravel beaches to dissipate wave energy on the remaining three sides, capable of absorbing up to 99% of the incident wave energy, to prevent unwanted reflections. Representative bathymetry for the Aran Islands is modelled in the basin based on a high resolution
Comparative numerical and experimental study of two combined wind and wave energy concepts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhen Gao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available With a successful and rapid development of offshore wind industry and increased research activities on wave energy conversion in recent years, there is an interest in investigating the technological and economic feasibility of combining offshore wind turbines (WTs with wave energy converters (WECs. In the EU FP7 MARINA Platform project, three floating combined concepts, namely the spar torus combination (STC, the semi-submersible flap combination (SFC and the oscillating water column (OWC array with a wind turbine, were selected and studied in detail by numerical and experimental methods. This paper summarizes the numerical modeling and analysis of the two concepts: STC and SFC, the model tests at a 1:50 scale under simultaneous wave and wind excitation, as well as the comparison between the numerical and experimental results. Both operational and survival wind and wave conditions were considered. The numerical analysis was based on a time-domain global model using potential flow theory for hydrodynamics and blade element momentum theory (for SFC or simplified thrust force model (for STC for aerodynamics. Different techniques for model testing of combined wind and wave concepts were discussed with focus on modeling of wind turbines by disk or redesigned small-scale rotor and modeling of power take-off (PTO system for wave energy conversion by pneumatic damper or hydraulic rotary damper. In order to reduce the uncertainty due to scaling, the numerical analysis was performed at model scale and both the numerical and experimental results were then up-scaled to full scale for comparison. The comparison shows that the current numerical model can well predict the responses (motions, PTO forces, power production of the combined concepts for most of the cases. However, the linear hydrodynamic model is not adequate for the STC concept in extreme wave conditions with the torus fixed to the spar at the mean water level for which the wave slamming on the
SIMPLE MODELS OF THREE COUPLED PT -SYMMETRIC WAVE GUIDES ALLOWING FOR THIRD-ORDER EXCEPTIONAL POINTS
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Jan Schnabel
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We study theoretical models of three coupled wave guides with a PT-symmetric distribution of gain and loss. A realistic matrix model is developed in terms of a three-mode expansion. By comparing with a previously postulated matrix model it is shown how parameter ranges with good prospects of finding a third-order exceptional point (EP3 in an experimentally feasible arrangement of semiconductors can be determined. In addition it is demonstrated that continuous distributions of exceptional points, which render the discovery of the EP3 difficult, are not only a feature of extended wave guides but appear also in an idealised model of infinitely thin guides shaped by delta functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Rui; Chaplain, M.A.J.; Davidson, F.A.
2006-01-01
In this paper, we first investigate a stage-structured competitive model with time delays, harvesting, and nonlocal spatial effect. By using an iterative technique recently developed by Wu and Zou (Wu J, Zou X. Travelling wave fronts of reaction-diffusion systems with delay. J Dynam Differen Equat 2001;13:651-87), sufficient conditions are established for the existence of travelling front solution connecting the two boundary equilibria in the case when there is no positive equilibrium. The travelling wave front corresponds to an invasion by a stronger species which drives the weaker species to extinction. Secondly, we consider a stage-structured competitive model with time delays and nonlocal spatial effect when the domain is finite. We prove the global stability of each of the nonnegative equilibria and demonstrate that the more complex model studied here admits three possible long term behaviors: coexistence, bistability and dominance as is the case for the standard Lotka-Voltera competitive model
Costet, Alexandre; Melki, Lea; Sayseng, Vincent; Hamid, Nadira; Nakanishi, Koki; Wan, Elaine; Hahn, Rebecca; Homma, Shunichi; Konofagou, Elisa
2017-12-01
Echocardiography is often used in the clinic for detection and characterization of myocardial infarction. Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is a non-invasive ultrasound-based imaging technique based on time-domain incremental motion and strain estimation that can evaluate changes in contractility in the heart. In this study, electromechanical activation is assessed in infarcted heart to determine whether EWI is capable of detecting and monitoring infarct formation. Additionally, methods for estimating electromechanical wave (EW) velocity are presented, and changes in the EW propagation velocity after infarct formation are studied. Five (n = 5) adult mongrels were used in this study. Successful infarct formation was achieved in three animals by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Dogs were survived for a few days after LAD ligation and monitored daily with EWI. At the end of the survival period, dogs were sacrificed and TTC (tetrazolium chloride) staining confirmed the formation and location of the infarct. In all three dogs, as soon as day 1 EWI was capable of detecting late-activated and non-activated regions, which grew over the next few days. On final day images, the extent of these regions corresponded to the location of infarct as confirmed by staining. EW velocities in border zones of infarct were significantly lower post-infarct formation when compared to baseline, whereas velocities in healthy tissues were not. These results indicate that EWI and EW velocity might help with the detection of infarcts and their border zones, which may be useful for characterizing arrhythmogenic substrate.
Travelling wave solutions for an infection-age structured epidemic model with external supplies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ducrot, Arnaud; Magal, Pierre
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate the spatial invasion of some infectious disease. The contamination process is described by the age since infection. Compared with the classical Kermack and McKendrick's model, the vital dynamic is not omitted, and we allow some constant input flux into the population. This problem is rather natural in the context of epidemic problems and it has not been studied. Here we prove an existence and non-existence result for travelling wave solutions. We also describe the minimal wave speed. We are able to construct a suitable Lyapunov like functional decreasing along the travelling wave allowing to derive some qualitative properties, namely their convergence towards equilibrium points at x = ±∞
Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik
2016-01-01
Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere-wave-coupled...... regional climate model, separately and combined. The swell influence on atmospheric mixing is introduced into the atmospheric mixing length formula by adding a swell-induced contribution to the mixing. The swell influence on the wind stress under wind-following swell, moderate-range wind, and near......-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kijanka, Piotr; Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J; Zhu, Xuan; Di Scalea, Francesco Lanza
2015-01-01
The paper presents a three-dimensional temperature-dependent model of surface-bonded, low-profile piezoceramic transducers (PZT) used for Lamb wave propagation. The effect of temperature on Lamb wave actuation, propagation and sensing is investigated. The major focus is on the study of actuation and sensing properties of PZT for various temperature levels. These properties are investigated through the electric field analysis of transducers. The temperature effect on transducer bond layers is also investigated. Numerically simulated amplitude responses are analysed for various temperatures and excitation frequencies. Numerical simulations are validated experimentally. The results demonstrate that temperature-dependent physical properties of PZT, bond layers and particularly host structures significantly affect the amplitude and phase of Lamb wave responses. (paper)
Coastal flooding: impact of waves on storm surge during extremes – a case study for the German Bight
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J. Staneva
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This study addresses the impact of wind, waves, tidal forcing and baroclinicity on the sea level of the German Bight during extreme storm events. The role of wave-induced processes, tides and baroclinicity is quantified, and the results are compared with in situ measurements and satellite data. A coupled high-resolution modelling system is used to simulate wind waves, the water level and the three-dimensional hydrodynamics. The models used are the wave model WAM and the circulation model GETM. The two-way coupling is performed via the OASIS3-MCT coupler. The effects of wind waves on sea level variability are studied, accounting for wave-dependent stress, wave-breaking parameterization and wave-induced effects on vertical mixing. The analyses of the coupled model results reveal a closer match with observations than for the stand-alone circulation model, especially during the extreme storm Xaver in December 2013. The predicted surge of the coupled model is significantly enhanced during extreme storm events when considering wave–current interaction processes. This wave-dependent approach yields a contribution of more than 30 % in some coastal areas during extreme storm events. The contribution of a fully three-dimensional model compared with a two-dimensional barotropic model showed up to 20 % differences in the water level of the coastal areas of the German Bight during Xaver. The improved skill resulting from the new developments justifies further use of the coupled-wave and three-dimensional circulation models in coastal flooding predictions.
2.5-D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modelling using finite-element method
Zhao, Jian-guo; Huang, Xing-xing; Liu, Wei-fang; Zhao, Wei-jun; Song, Jian-yong; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Shang-xu
2017-10-01
2-D seismic modelling has notable dynamic information discrepancies with field data because of the implicit line-source assumption, whereas 3-D modelling suffers from a huge computational burden. The 2.5-D approach is able to overcome both of the aforementioned limitations. In general, the earth model is treated as an elastic material, but the real media is viscous. In this study, we develop an accurate and efficient frequency-domain finite-element method (FEM) for modelling 2.5-D viscoelastic wave propagation. To perform the 2.5-D approach, we assume that the 2-D viscoelastic media are based on the Kelvin-Voigt rheological model and a 3-D point source. The viscoelastic wave equation is temporally and spatially Fourier transformed into the frequency-wavenumber domain. Then, we systematically derive the weak form and its spatial discretization of 2.5-D viscoelastic wave equations in the frequency-wavenumber domain through the Galerkin weighted residual method for FEM. Fixing a frequency, the 2-D problem for each wavenumber is solved by FEM. Subsequently, a composite Simpson formula is adopted to estimate the inverse Fourier integration to obtain the 3-D wavefield. We implement the stiffness reduction method (SRM) to suppress artificial boundary reflections. The results show that this absorbing boundary condition is valid and efficient in the frequency-wavenumber domain. Finally, three numerical models, an unbounded homogeneous medium, a half-space layered medium and an undulating topography medium, are established. Numerical results validate the accuracy and stability of 2.5-D solutions and present the adaptability of finite-element method to complicated geographic conditions. The proposed 2.5-D modelling strategy has the potential to address modelling studies on wave propagation in real earth media in an accurate and efficient way.
Temperature elevation in the eye of anatomically based human head models for plane-wave exposures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirata, A; Watanabe, S; Fujiwara, O; Kojima, M; Sasaki, K; Shiozawa, T
2007-01-01
This study investigated the temperature elevation in the eye of anatomically based human head models for plane-wave exposures. The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation. The eyes in the anatomic models have average dimensions and weight. Computational results show that the ratio of maximum temperature in the lens to the eye-average SAR (named 'heating factor for the lens') is almost uniform (0.112-0.147 deg. C kg W -1 ) in the frequency region below 3 GHz. Above 3 GHz, this ratio increases gradually with an increase of frequency, which is attributed to the penetration depth of an electromagnetic wave. Particular attention is paid to the difference in the heating factor for the lens between this study and earlier works. Considering causes clarified in this study, compensated heating factors in all these studies are found to be in good agreement
Modeling the SAR Signature of Nonlinear Internal Waves
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lettvin, Ellen E
2008-01-01
Nonlinear Internal Waves are pervasive globally, particularly in coastal waters. The currents and displacements associated with internal waves influence acoustic propagation and underwater navigation, as well as ocean transport and mixing...
Modeling of the 35-mm Rarefaction Wave Gun
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Coffee, Terence P
2006-01-01
.... The opening of the breech creates a rarefaction wave that travels down the bore of the gun. If the timing is done correctly, the rarefaction wave will not reach the projectile until at or after muzzle exit...
Compound waves in a higher order nonlinear model of thermoviscous fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønne Rasmussen, Anders; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri B.
2016-01-01
A generalized traveling wave ansatz is used to investigate compound shock waves in a higher order nonlinear model of a thermoviscous fluid. The fluid velocity potential is written as a traveling wave plus a linear function of space and time. The latter offers the possibility of predicting...
Modelling of Wave Attenuation Induced by Multi-Purpose Floating Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stratigaki, Vasiliki; Troch, Peter; Stallard, Tim
2014-01-01
, polychromatic, long- and short-crested irregular waves), WEC response and modification of the wave field have been measured to provide data for the understanding of WEC farm interactions and for the evaluation of farm interaction numerical models. A first extensive wave farm database is established...
Evaluation of surface-wave waveform modeling for lithosphere velocity structure
Chang, Tao-Ming
Surface-waveform modeling methods will become standard tools for studying the lithosphere structures because they can place greater constraints on earth structure and because of interest in the three-dimensional earth. The purpose of this study is to begin to learn the applicabilities and limitations of these methods. A surface-waveform inversion method is implemented using generalized seismological data functional theory. The method has been tested using synthetic and real seismic data and show that this method is well suited for teleseismic and regional seismograms. Like other linear inversion problems, this method also requires a good starting model. To ease reliance on good starting models, a global search technique, the genetic algorithm, has been applied to surface waveform modeling. This method can rapidly find good models for explaining surface-wave waveform at regional distance. However, this implementation also reveals that criteria which are widely used in seismological studies are not good enough to indicate the goodness of waveform fit. These two methods with the linear waveform inversion method, and traditional surface wave dispersion inversion method have been applied to a western Texas earthquake to test their abilities. The focal mechanism of the Texas event has been reestimated using a grid search for surface wave spectral amplitudes. A comparison of these four algorithms shows some interesting seismic evidences for lithosphere structure.
Wind waves modelling on the water body with coupled WRF and WAVEWATCH III models
Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Baydakov, Georgy; Vdovin, Maxim; Papko, Vladislav; Sergeev, Daniil
2015-04-01
Simulation of ocean and sea waves is an accepted instrument for the improvement of the weather forecasts. Wave modelling, coupled models modelling is applied to open seas [1] and is less developed for moderate and small inland water reservoirs and lakes, though being of considerable interest for inland navigation. Our goal is to tune the WAVEWATCH III model to the conditions of the inland reservoir and to carry out the simulations of surface wind waves with coupled WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and WAVEWATCH III models. Gorky Reservoir, an artificial lake in the central part of the Volga River formed by a hydroelectric dam, was considered as an example of inland reservoir. Comparing to [2] where moderate constant winds (u10 is up to 9 m/s) of different directions blowing steadily all over the surface of the reservoir were considered, here we apply atmospheric model WRF to get wind input to WAVEWATCH III. WRF computations were held on the Yellowstone supercomputer for 4 nested domains with minimum scale of 1 km. WAVEWATCH III model was tuned for the conditions of the Gorky Reservoir. Satellite topographic data on altitudes ranged from 56,6° N to 57,5° N and from 42.9° E to 43.5° E with increments 0,00833 ° in both directions was used. 31 frequencies ranged from 0,2 Hz to 4 Hz and 30 directions were considered. The minimal significant wave height was changed to the lower one. The waves in the model were developing from some initial seeding spectral distribution (Gaussian in frequency and space, cosine in direction). The range of the observed significant wave height in the numerical experiment was from less than 1 cm up to 30 cm. The field experiments were carried out in the south part of the Gorky reservoir from the boat [2, 3]. 1-D spectra of the field experiment were compared with those obtained in the numerical experiments with different parameterizations of flux provided in WAVEWATCH III both with constant wind input and WRF wind input. For all the