Goldstein, M. E.
1984-01-01
Attention is given to the sound produced by artificially excited, spatially growing instability waves on subsonic shear layers. Real flows that always diverge in the downstream direction allow sound to be produced by the interaction of the instability waves with the resulting streamwise variations of the flow. The upstream influence, or feedback, can interact with the splitter plate lip to produce a downstream-propagating instability wave that may under certain conditions be the same instability wave that originally generated the upstream influence. The present treatment is restricted to very low Mach number flows, so that compressibility effects can only become important over large distances.
Strong wave/mean-flow coupling in baroclinic acoustic streaming
Chini, Greg; Michel, Guillaume
2017-11-01
Recently, Chini et al. demonstrated the potential for large-amplitude acoustic streaming in compressible channel flows subjected to strong background cross-channel density variations. In contrast with classic Rayleigh streaming, standing acoustic waves of O (ɛ) amplitude acquire vorticity owing to baroclinic torques acting throughout the domain rather than via viscous torques acting in Stokes boundary layers. More significantly, these baroclinically-driven streaming flows have a magnitude that also is O (ɛ) , i.e. comparable to that of the sound waves. In the present study, the consequent potential for fully two-way coupling between the waves and streaming flows is investigated using a novel WKBJ analysis. The analysis confirms that the wave-driven streaming flows are sufficiently strong to modify the background density gradient, thereby modifying the leading-order acoustic wave structure. Simulations of the wave/mean-flow system enabled by the WKBJ analysis are performed to illustrate the nature of the two-way coupling, which contrasts sharply with classic Rayleigh streaming, for which the waves can first be determined and the streaming flows subsequently computed.
Couston, Louis-Alexandre; Lecoanet, Daniel; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael
2017-11-01
We investigate via direct numerical simulations the spontaneous generation and reversals of mean zonal flows in a stably-stratified fluid layer lying above a turbulent convective fluid. Contrary to the leading idealized theories of mean flow generation by self-interacting internal waves, the emergence of a mean flow in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field is not always possible because nonlinear interactions of waves of different frequencies can disrupt the mean flow generation mechanism. Strong mean flows thus emerge when the divergence of the Reynolds stress resulting from the nonlinear interactions of internal waves produces a strong enough anti-diffusive acceleration for the mean flow, which, as we will demonstrate, is the case when the Prandtl number is sufficiently low, or when the energy input into the internal wavefield by the convection and density stratification are sufficiently large. Implications for mean zonal flow production as observed in the equatorial stratospheres of the Earth, Saturn and Jupiter, and possibly occurring in other geophysical systems such as planetary and stellar interiors will be briefly discussed. Funding provided by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program through Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG.
Understanding Wave-mean Flow Feedbacks and Tropospheric Annular Variability
Lorenz, D. J.
2016-12-01
The structure of internal tropospheric variability is important for determining the impact of the stratosphere on the troposphere. This study aims to better understand the fundamental dynamical mechanisms that control the feedbacks between the eddies and the mean flow, which in turn select the tropospheric annular mode. Recent work using Rossby Wave Chromatography suggests that "barotropic processes", which directly impact the meridional propagation of wave activity (specifically the reflectivity of the poleward flank of the mid-latitude jet), are more important for the positive feedback between the annular mode and the eddies than "baroclinic processes", which involve changes in the generation of wave activity by baroclinic instability. In this study, experiments with a fully nonlinear quasi-geostrophic model are discussed which provide independent confirmation of the importance of barotropic versus baroclinic processes. The experiments take advantage of the steady-state balance at upper-levels between the meridional gradient in diabatic heating and the second derivative of the upper-level EP flux divergence. Simulations with standard Newtonian heating are compared to simulations with constant-in-time heating taken from the climatology of the standard run and it is found that the forced annular mode response to changes in surface friction is very similar. Moreover, as expected from the annular mode response, the eddy momentum fluxes are also very similar. This is despite the fact that the upper-level EP flux divergence is very different between the two simulations (upper-level EP flux divergence must remain constant in the constant heating simulation while in the standard simulation there is no such constraint). The upper-level balances are maintained by a large change in the baroclinic wave source (i.e. vertical EP flux), which is accompanied by little momentum flux change. Therefore the eddy momentum fluxes appear to be relatively insensitive to the wave
Kinoshita, T.; Sato, K.
2012-12-01
The Transformed Eulerian-Mean (TEM) equations formulated by Andrews and McIntyre (1976, 1978) has been widely used to examine wave-mean flow interaction in the meridional cross section. Although a lot of efforts have been made to generalize the TEM equations to three dimensions so far, formulae derived by previous studies are applicable to particular waves, mainly Rossby waves on the quasi-geostrophic (QG) equations or inertia-gravity waves on the primitive equations. This study has newly formulated three-dimensional (3D) TEM equations which are applicable to both Rossby waves and gravity waves. The formulae can be used to examine the 3D material transport driven by these waves. Moreover, two kinds of 3D wave activity flux have been derived respectively for describing the wave force to the mean flow and for the wave propagation. The residual mean flow is expressed with the sum of the Eulerian-mean flow and the Stokes drift in the 2D TEM equations. Thus, a formulation is made for the 3D Stokes drift on the primitive equation (PRSD) from its original definition using a small amplitude theory for a slowly-varying mean flow. The PRSD is equivalent to the 3D Stokes drift derived by Kinoshita et al. (2010) for gravity waves for the constant Coriolis parameter and to the 3D QG Stokes drift which is also derived in this study for the small Rossby number limit. The 3D wave activity flux (3D-flux-M), whose divergence corresponds to the wave force, is derived by using PRSD. The 3D residual mean flow associated with synoptic-scale wave disturbances in the upper troposphere in April is investigated by applying the new formulae to ERA-Interim data. It is found that the sum of time-mean unbalanced flow and PRSD is southward in the east end of the storm track although it is northward in the west as is consistent with the 2D residual flow. A case study is also made for dominant gravity waves around the Southern Andes by applying the PRSD and 3D-flux-M to the simulation data of a
A wave-envelope of sound propagation in nonuniform circular ducts with compressible mean flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; Kaiser, J. E.; Shaker, B. S.
1979-01-01
An acoustic theory is developed to determine the sound transmission and attenuation through an infinite, hard-walled or lined circular duct carrying compressible, sheared, mean flows and having a variable cross section. The theory is applicable to large as well as small axial variations, as long as the mean flow does not separate. The technique is based on solving for the envelopes of the quasi-parallel acoustic modes that exist in the duct instead of solving for the actual wave, thereby reducing the computation time and the round-off error encountered in purely numerical techniques. The solution recovers the solution based on the method of multiple scales for slowly varying duct geometry. A computer program was developed based on the wave-envelope analysis for general mean flows. Results are presented for the reflection and transmission coefficients as well as the acoustic pressure distributions for a number of conditions: both straight and variable area ducts with and without liners and mean flows from very low to high subsonic speeds are considered.
Wave-number-frequency spectrum for turbulence from a random sweeping hypothesis with mean flow.
Wilczek, M; Narita, Y
2012-12-01
We derive the energy spectrum in wave-number-frequency space for turbulent flows based on Kraichnan's idealized random sweeping hypothesis with additional mean flow, which yields the instantaneous energy spectrum multiplied by a Gaussian frequency distribution. The model spectrum has two adjustable parameters, the mean flow velocity and the sweeping velocity, and has the property that the power-law index of the wave-number spectrum translates to the frequency spectrum, invariant for arbitrary choices of the mean velocity and sweeping velocity. The model spectrum incorporates both Taylor's frozen-in flow approximation and the random sweeping approximation in a natural way and can be used to distinguish between these two effects when applied to real time-resolved multipoint turbulence data. Evaluated in real space, its properties with respect to space-time velocity correlations are discussed, and a comparison to the recently introduced elliptic model is drawn.
Approximation of wave action flux velocity in strongly sheared mean flows
Banihashemi, Saeideh; Kirby, James T.; Dong, Zhifei
2017-08-01
Spectral wave models based on the wave action equation typically use a theoretical framework based on depth uniform current to account for current effects on waves. In the real world, however, currents often have variations over depth. Several recent studies have made use of a depth-weighted current U˜ due to [Skop, R. A., 1987. Approximate dispersion relation for wave-current interactions. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Eng. 113, 187-195.] or [Kirby, J. T., Chen, T., 1989. Surface waves on vertically sheared flows: approximate dispersion relations. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1013-1027.] in order to account for the effect of vertical current shear. Use of the depth-weighted velocity, which is a function of wavenumber (or frequency and direction) has been further simplified in recent applications by only utilizing a weighted current based on the spectral peak wavenumber. These applications do not typically take into account the dependence of U˜ on wave number k, as well as erroneously identifying U˜ as the proper choice for current velocity in the wave action equation. Here, we derive a corrected expression for the current component of the group velocity. We demonstrate its consistency using analytic results for a current with constant vorticity, and numerical results for a measured, strongly-sheared current profile obtained in the Columbia River. The effect of choosing a single value for current velocity based on the peak wave frequency is examined, and we suggest an alternate strategy, involving a Taylor series expansion about the peak frequency, which should significantly extend the range of accuracy of current estimates available to the wave model with minimal additional programming and data transfer.
Southern Ocean Eddy Heat Flux and Eddy-Mean Flow Interactions in Drake Passage
Foppert, Annie
. Long-term trends in EHF are calculated from January 1992 to December 2014 and reveal varying trends at the eight ACC EHF hot spots, with only three having statistically significant temporal trends of strengthening cross-frontal EHF. The dynamics of an oceanic storm track are investigated using CPIES observations in the local dynamics array to better understand the processes responsible for the spatial oset between EHF and EKE. Wave activity flux ( W), calculated from the total geostrophic stream-function, is used to diagnose eddy-mean flow interactions in the eddy-rich region immediately downstream of the SFZ. In the full four-year mean and in a composite of eddy events, elevated values of eddy potential energy (EPE) are aligned with the vertical component of W. This is indicative of a conversion of mean available potential energy to EPE through EHF associated with baroclinic instability. Emanating from this region, horizontal W vectors point towards the adjacent region of elevated EKE. A case study of an eddy event, lasting from 15 to 23 July 2010, is presented and highlights the capability of W to illustrate the evolution of the storm track in a snap-shot sense. While baroclinic processes initially dominate the event, the alignment of elevated values of EKE with the convergence of the horizontal W vectors indicates the importance of barotropic processes in transporting EKE away from the ACC's interaction with the SFZ.
Acoustic-mean flow interaction in solid rocket motors using Navier-Stokes equations
Vuillot, F.; Avalon, G.
1988-07-01
The presented numerical solution of laminar, two-dimensional, compressible and unsteady Navier-Stokes equations is aimed at a complete description of acoustic boundary layers that develop above a burning propellant. Such acoustic boundary layers are responsible for the so-called flow turning losses and also govern the local unsteady flow conditions that are seen by the burning propellant and to which it finally responds. In those respects, a complete understanding of such acoustic boundary layers is essential to improve existing solid rocket stability prediction codes. The full numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations permits to naturally incorporate into the analysis all the features of two-dimensional rocket chamber mean flow field. After a standing wave pattern is established through forcing at a given frequency, a special Fourier treatment is used to put the numerical results in a form directly comparable to available linear acoustic data. The presented results indicate that the acoustic boundary layer is substantially thinner than predicted by simplified models. Moreover, its acoustic admittance is found to significantly vary along the chamber, a result that is of major importance to stability predictions. Finally, the acoustic field is found to be rotational over a significant volume of the chamber, leading to a volume flow turning loss, rather than to a pure surface effect as usually assumed.
The mean flow and long waves induced by two-dimensional internal gravity wavepackets
van den Bremer, T. S.; Sutherland, B. R.
2014-10-01
Through theory supported by numerical simulations, we examine the induced local and long range response flows resulting from the momentum flux divergence associated with with a two-dimensional Boussinesq internal gravity wavepacket in a uniformly stratified ambient. Our theoretical approach performs a perturbation analysis that takes advantage of the separation of scales between waves and the amplitude envelope of a quasi-monochromatic wavepacket. We first illustrate our approach by applying it to the well-studied case of deep water surface gravity waves, showing that the induced flow, UDF, resulting from the divergence of the horizontal momentum flux is equal to the Stokes drift. For a localized surface wavepacket, UDF is itself a divergent flow and so there is the well-known non-local response manifest in the form of a deep return flow beneath the wavepacket. For horizontally periodic and vertically localized internal wavepackets, the divergent-flux induced flow, uDF, is found from consideration of the vertical gradient of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum associated with the waves. Because uDF is itself a non-divergent flow field, this accounts entirely for the wave-induced flow; there is no response flow. Our focus is upon internal wavepackets that are localized in the horizontal and vertical. We derive a formula for the divergent-flux induced flow that, as in this case of surface wavepackets, is itself a divergent flow. We show that the response is a horizontally long internal wave that translates vertically with the wavepacket at its group velocity. Scaling relationships are used to estimate the wavenumber, horizontal extent, and amplitude of this induced long wave. At higher order in perturbation theory we derive an explicit integral formula for the induced long wave. Thus, we provide validation of Bretherton's analysis of flows induced by two-dimensional internal wavepackets [F. P. Bretherton, "On the mean motion induced by gravity waves," J. Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Yu. Kanukhina
2008-05-01
Full Text Available NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction – National Center for Atmospheric Research data have been used to estimate the long-term variability of the mean flow, temperature, and Stationary Planetary Waves (SPW in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The results obtained show noticeable climatic variabilities in the intensity and position of the tropospheric jets that are caused by temperature changes in the lower atmosphere. As a result, we can expect that this variability of the mean flow will cause the changes in the SPW propagation conditions. The simulation of the SPW with zonal wave number m=1 (SPW1, performed with a linearized model using the mean flow distributions typical for the 1960s and for the beginning of 21st century, supports this assumption and shows that during the last 40 years the amplitude of the SPW1 in the stratosphere and mesosphere increased substantially. The analysis of the SPW amplitudes extracted from the geopotential height and zonal wind NCEP/NCAR data supports the results of simulation and shows that during the last years there exists an increase in the SPW1 activity in the lower stratosphere. These changes in the amplitudes are accompanied by increased interannual variability of the SPW1, as well. Analysis of the SPW2 activity shows that changes in its amplitude have a different sign in the northern winter hemisphere and at low latitudes in the southern summer hemisphere. The value of the SPW2 variability differs latitudinally and can be explained by nonlinear interference of the primary wave propagation from below and from secondary SPW2.
Hu, Fang; Pizzo, Michelle E.; Nark, Douglas M.
2017-01-01
It has been well-known that under the assumption of a constant uniform mean flow, the acoustic wave propagation equation can be formulated as a boundary integral equation, in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Compared with solving partial differential equations, numerical methods based on the boundary integral equation have the advantage of a reduced spatial dimension and, hence, requiring only a surface mesh. However, the constant uniform mean flow assumption, while convenient for formulating the integral equation, does not satisfy the solid wall boundary condition wherever the body surface is not aligned with the uniform mean flow. In this paper, we argue that the proper boundary condition for the acoustic wave should not have its normal velocity be zero everywhere on the solid surfaces, as has been applied in the literature. A careful study of the acoustic energy conservation equation is presented that shows such a boundary condition in fact leads to erroneous source or sink points on solid surfaces not aligned with the mean flow. A new solid wall boundary condition is proposed that conserves the acoustic energy and a new time domain boundary integral equation is derived. In addition to conserving the acoustic energy, another significant advantage of the new equation is that it is considerably simpler than previous formulations. In particular, tangential derivatives of the solution on the solid surfaces are no longer needed in the new formulation, which greatly simplifies numerical implementation. Furthermore, stabilization of the new integral equation by Burton-Miller type reformulation is presented. The stability of the new formulation is studied theoretically as well as numerically by an eigenvalue analysis. Numerical solutions are also presented that demonstrate the stability of the new formulation.
Oberleithner, Kilian; Rukes, Lothar; Paschereit, Oliver; Soria, Julio
2014-11-01
We report on a number of experimental and theoretical investigations of shear flow instabilities in jet flows. In these studies, linear stability analysis is employed to the time-averaged flow taken from experiments, contrasting the ``classic'' stability approach that is based on a stationary base flow. The eigenmodes of the time-averaged flow are considered as models for the nonlinearly saturated state of the instability waves. The accuracy of these models is validated through a detailed comparison with experiments. In this talk we outline the potential and limitation of these flow models for convectively and globally unstable jet flows. The first author was supported by a fellowship within the Postdoc-Program of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). The support of the Australian Research Council (ARC) and the German Research Foundation (DFG) is greatfully acknowledged.
Self-Consistent Multiscale Theory of Internal Wave, Mean-Flow Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holm, D.D.; Aceves, A.; Allen, J.S.; Alber, M.; Camassa, R.; Cendra, H.; Chen, S.; Duan, J.; Fabijonas, B.; Foias, C.; Fringer, O.; Gent, P.R.; Jordan, R.; Kouranbaeva, S.; Kovacic, G.; Levermore, C.D.; Lythe, G.; Lifschitz, A.; Marsden, J.E.; Margolin, L.; Newberger, P.; Olson, E.; Ratiu, T.; Shkoller, S.; Timofeyev, I.; Titi, E.S.; Wynn, S.
1999-06-03
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The research reported here produced new effective ways to solve multiscale problems in nonlinear fluid dynamics, such as turbulent flow and global ocean circulation. This was accomplished by first developing new methods for averaging over random or rapidly varying phases in nonlinear systems at multiple scales. We then used these methods to derive new equations for analyzing the mean behavior of fluctuation processes coupled self consistently to nonlinear fluid dynamics. This project extends a technology base relevant to a variety of multiscale problems in fluid dynamics of interest to the Laboratory and applies this technology to those problems. The project's theoretical and mathematical developments also help advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of complex behavior in fluid dynamical systems with strong spatial and temporal internal variability.
Libration-induced mean flow in a spherical shell
Sauret, Alban
2013-01-01
We investigate the flow in a spherical shell subject to a time harmonic oscillation of its rotation rate, also called longitudinal libration, when the oscillation frequency is larger than twice the mean rotation rate. In this frequency regime, no inertial waves are directly excited by harmonic forcing. We show however that it can generate through non-linear interactions in the Ekman layers a strong mean zonal flow in the interior. An analytical theory is developed using a perturbative approach in the limit of small libration amplitude $\\epsilon$ and small Ekman number $E$. The mean flow is found to be at leading order an azimuthal flow which scales as the square of the libration amplitude and only depends on the cylindrical-radius coordinate. The mean flow also exhibits a discontinuity across the cylinder tangent to the inner sphere. We show that this discontinuity can be smoothed through multi-scale Stewartson layers. The mean flow is also found to possess a weak axial flow which scales as $O(\\epsilon^2 E^{5...
Nonlinear wave interactions of kinetic sound waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Brodin
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We reconsider the nonlinear resonant interaction between three electrostatic waves in a magnetized plasma. The general coupling coefficients derived from kinetic theory are reduced here to the low-frequency limit. The main contribution to the coupling coefficient we find in this way agrees with the coefficient recently presented in Annales Geophysicae. But we also deduce another contribution which sometimes can be important, and which qualitatively agrees with that of an even more recent paper. We have thus demonstrated how results derived from fluid theory can be improved and generalized by means of kinetic theory. Possible extensions of our results are outlined.
Shallow water cnoidal wave interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. R. Osborne
1994-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamics of cnoidal waves, within the context of the general N-cnoidal wave solutions of the periodic Korteweg-de Vries (KdV and Kadomtsev-Petvishvilli (KP equations, are considered. These equations are important for describing the propagation of small-but-finite amplitude waves in shallow water; the solutions to KdV are unidirectional while those of KP are directionally spread. Herein solutions are constructed from the 0-function representation of their appropriate inverse scattering transform formulations. To this end a general theorem is employed in the construction process: All solutions to the KdV and KP equations can be written as the linear superposition of cnoidal waves plus their nonlinear interactions. The approach presented here is viewed as significant because it allows the exact construction of N degree-of-freedom cnoidal wave trains under rather general conditions.
Dynamics of interacting information waves in networks
Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Lizana, Ludvig; Rosvall, Martin
2013-01-01
To better understand the inner workings of information spreading, network researchers often use simple models to capture the spreading dynamics. But most models only highlight the effect of local interactions on the global spreading of a single information wave, and ignore the effects of interactions between multiple waves. Here we take into account the effect of multiple interacting waves by using an agent-based model in which the interaction between information waves is based on their novelty. We analyzed the global effects of such interactions and found that information that actually reaches nodes reaches them faster. This effect is caused by selection between information waves: slow waves die out and only fast waves survive. As a result, and in contrast to models with non-interacting information dynamics, the access to information decays with the distance from the source. Moreover, when we analyzed the model on various synthetic and real spatial road networks, we found that the decay rate also depends on ...
Ulysses Observations of Nonlinear Wave-wave Interactions in the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 21; Issue 3-4. Ulysses Observations of Nonlinear Wave-wave Interactions in the Source Regions of Type III Solar Radio Bursts. G. Thejappa R. J. MacDowall. Session XI – Solar Wind & Interplanetary Magnetic Fields Volume 21 Issue 3-4 ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zemach, Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kurien, Susan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-11-14
These notes present an account of the Local Wave Vector (LWV) model of a turbulent flow defined throughout physical space. The previously-developed Local Wave Number (LWN) model is taken as a point of departure. Some general properties of turbulent fields and appropriate notation are given first. The LWV model is presently restricted to incompressible flows and the incompressibility assumption is introduced at an early point in the discussion. The assumption that the turbulence is homogeneous is also introduced early on. This assumption can be relaxed by generalizing the space diffusion terms of LWN, but the present discussion is focused on a modeling of homogeneous turbulence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murawski, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung
2007-07-01
The present thesis deals with the mutual influences of surface waves and currents, which are discussed theoretically and studied on the basis of numerical simulations. Interactively coupled models covering the area of the North and Baltic Seas are used to simulate the large-scale circulation and wind generated waves. Complex interactions between these scale-different processes are not limited to the surf zone, where waves break, but are also taking place in the open ocean. Nonlinear wave theory predicts a non-vanishing momentum contribution to the mean flow. Conversely, wave propagation and refraction depend nonlinearly on water depth and current velocity. Waves are considered to be a periodic perturbation of the fluid's basic state, which is identified with Eularian flow. Wave evolution is influenced by environmental effects such as changing winds, water depths, and currents. The mean flow, which is equal to the Eularian flow in the absence of waves, slowly adjust itself to a changing wave field. The coupled wave-current model describes this adjustment process. The final set of hydrodynamic equations for larger-scale circulation is the results of a nonlinear perturbation analysis using the WKB approximation. The wave-current model was applied to several storm periods in the North Sea. Simulations run on the coupled model system are compared to runs using separate models for mean circulation and wind waves, and to measurements. In accordance with observations, the numerical simulations show wave setup in the surf zone and balancing alongshore currents due to the decay of the wave field. The wave-current interaction effects may be relevant to coastal protection measures and nearshore applications. (orig.)
Wave-Turbulence Interactions: a DPIV Study
Lang, Amy; Lalinde, David
1999-11-01
Previous studies on wave-turbulence interactions, such as the one by Olmez & Milgram (JFM, 1992), supported the hypothesis that the dominant mechanism for the dissipation of non-breaking waves by turbulence is vertical mixing, rather than wave-to-turbulence energy transfer in the wave layer. In this study, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was used to study the increase in turbulence levels due to the presence of surface waves. Two types of turbulent fields were studied. A grid of cylindrical rods was placed in a water tunnel with smaller scale turbulence resulting in the wake of the grid. The second case used a flat plate grid, with the plates aligned parallel to the free-stream flow. This allowed for a range of scales to be generated within the turbulent flow-field in the test section. Next, a wave-generator was placed in the tunnel allowing waves to propagate into the area studied and interact with the grid-generated turbulence. Variation in wavelength and frequency of the surface waves was performed. Results will be presented.
A scalable method for computing quadruplet wave-wave interactions
Van Vledder, Gerbrant
2017-04-01
Non-linear four-wave interactions are a key physical process in the evolution of wind generated ocean waves. The present generation operational wave models use the Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA), but it accuracy is poor. It is now generally acknowledged that the DIA should be replaced with a more accurate method to improve predicted spectral shapes and derived parameters. The search for such a method is challenging as one should find a balance between accuracy and computational requirements. Such a method is presented here in the form of a scalable and adaptive method that can mimic both the time consuming exact Snl4 approach and the fast but inaccurate DIA, and everything in between. The method provides an elegant approach to improve the DIA, not by including more arbitrarily shaped wave number configurations, but by a mathematically consistent reduction of an exact method, viz. the WRT method. The adaptiveness is to adapt the abscissa of the locus integrand in relation to the magnitude of the known terms. The adaptiveness is extended to the highest level of the WRT method to select interacting wavenumber configurations in a hierarchical way in relation to their importance. This adaptiveness results in a speed-up of one to three orders of magnitude depending on the measure of accuracy. This definition of accuracy should not be expressed in terms of the quality of the transfer integral for academic spectra but rather in terms of wave model performance in a dynamic run. This has consequences for the balance between the required accuracy and the computational workload for evaluating these interactions. The performance of the scalable method on different scales is illustrated with results from academic spectra, simple growth curves to more complicated field cases using a 3G-wave model.
Near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in channel flow - Nonlinear interaction and focussing
Hall, Philip; Smith, Frank T.
1990-01-01
The nonlinear interaction between planar or near-planar Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices, induced or input, is considered theoretically for channel flows at high Reynolds numbers. Several kinds of nonlinear interaction, dependent on the input amplitudes and wavenumbers or on previously occurring interactions, are found and inter-related. The first, Type 1, is studied the most here and it usually produces spanwise focusing of both the wave and the vortex motion, within a finite scaled time, along with enhancement of both their amplitudes. This then points to the nonlinear interaction Type 2 where new interactive effects come into force to drive the wave and the vortex nonlinearly. Types 3, 4 correspond to still higher amplitudes, with 3 being related to 2, while 4 is connected with a larger-scale interaction 5 studied in an allied paper. Both 3, 4 are subsets of the full three-dimensional triple-deck-lie interaction, 6. The strongest nonlinear interactions are those of 4, 5, 6 since they alter the mean-flow profile substantially, i.e., by an O(1) relative amount. All the types of nonlinear interaction, however, can result in the formation of focused responses in the sense of spanwise concentrations and/or amplifications of vorticity and wave amplitude.
Near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in channel flow: Nonlinear interaction and focusing
Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.
1989-01-01
The nonlinear interaction between planar or near-planar Tollmien-Schlichting waves and longitudinal vortices, induced or input, is considered theoretically for channel flows at high Reynolds numbers. Several kinds of nonlinear interaction, dependent on the input amplitudes and wavenumbers or on previously occurring interactions, are found and inter-related. The first, Type 1, is studied the most here and it usually produces spanwise focusing of both the wave and the vortex motion, within a finite scaled time, along with enhancement of both their amplitudes. This then points to the nonlinear interaction Type 2 where new interactive effects come into force to drive the wave and the vortex nonlinearly. Types 3, 4 correspond to still higher amplitudes, with 3 being related to 2, while 4 is connected with a larger-scale interaction 5 studied in an allied paper. Both 3, 4 are subsets of the full three-dimensional triple-deck-lie interaction, 6. The strongest nonlinear interactions are those of 4, 5, 6 since they alter the mean-flow profile substantially, i.e., by an 0(1) relative amount. All the types of nonlinear interaction however can result in the formation of focussed responses in the sense of spanwise concentrations and/or amplifications of vorticity and wave amplitude.
WAVE: Interactive Wave-based Sound Propagation for Virtual Environments.
Mehra, Ravish; Rungta, Atul; Golas, Abhinav; Ming Lin; Manocha, Dinesh
2015-04-01
We present an interactive wave-based sound propagation system that generates accurate, realistic sound in virtual environments for dynamic (moving) sources and listeners. We propose a novel algorithm to accurately solve the wave equation for dynamic sources and listeners using a combination of precomputation techniques and GPU-based runtime evaluation. Our system can handle large environments typically used in VR applications, compute spatial sound corresponding to listener's motion (including head tracking) and handle both omnidirectional and directional sources, all at interactive rates. As compared to prior wave-based techniques applied to large scenes with moving sources, we observe significant improvement in runtime memory. The overall sound-propagation and rendering system has been integrated with the Half-Life 2 game engine, Oculus-Rift head-mounted display, and the Xbox game controller to enable users to experience high-quality acoustic effects (e.g., amplification, diffraction low-passing, high-order scattering) and spatial audio, based on their interactions in the VR application. We provide the results of preliminary user evaluations, conducted to study the impact of wave-based acoustic effects and spatial audio on users' navigation performance in virtual environments.
Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch
2011-01-11
Wave-particle interactions in E×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.
Wave-wave interactions and deep ocean acoustics.
Guralnik, Z; Bourdelais, J; Zabalgogeazcoa, X; Farrell, W E
2013-10-01
Deep ocean acoustics, in the absence of shipping and wildlife, is driven by surface processes. Best understood is the signal generated by non-linear surface wave interactions, the Longuet-Higgins mechanism, which dominates from 0.1 to 10 Hz, and may be significant for another octave. For this source, the spectral matrix of pressure and vector velocity is derived for points near the bottom of a deep ocean resting on an elastic half-space. In the absence of a bottom, the ratios of matrix elements are universal constants. Bottom effects vitiate the usual "standing wave approximation," but a weaker form of the approximation is shown to hold, and this is used for numerical calculations. In the weak standing wave approximation, the ratios of matrix elements are independent of the surface wave spectrum, but depend on frequency and the propagation environment. Data from the Hawaii-2 Observatory are in excellent accord with the theory for frequencies between 0.1 and 1 Hz, less so at higher frequencies. Insensitivity of the spectral ratios to wind, and presumably waves, is indeed observed in the data.
Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alizadeh, Mohsen
2010-04-09
In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An
Nonlinear interaction between acoustic gravity waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Axelsson
1996-03-01
Full Text Available The resonant interaction between three acoustic gravity waves is considered. We improve on the results of previous authors and write the new coupling coefficients in a symmetric form. Particular attention is paid to the low-frequency limit.
Nonlinear interaction between acoustic gravity waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Axelsson
Full Text Available The resonant interaction between three acoustic gravity waves is considered. We improve on the results of previous authors and write the new coupling coefficients in a symmetric form. Particular attention is paid to the low-frequency limit.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich
2011-01-01
the Hamiltonian structure, in contrast to the Kuznetsov equation, a model often used in nonlinear acoustics. An exact traveling wave front solution is derived from a generalized traveling wave assumption for the velocity potential. Numerical studies of the evolution of a number of arbitrary initial conditions...... as well as head-on colliding and confluent wave fronts exhibit several nonlinear interaction phenomena. These include wave fronts of changed velocity and amplitude along with the emergence of rarefaction waves. An analysis using the continuity of the solutions as well as the boundary conditions...
Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak
Chen, Hongsheng; Wu, Bae-Ian; Zhang, Baile; Kong, Jin Au
2007-08-01
We establish analytically the interactions of electromagnetic wave with a general class of spherical cloaks based on a full wave Mie scattering model. We show that for an ideal cloak the total scattering cross section is absolutely zero, but for a cloak with a specific type of loss, only the backscattering is exactly zero, which indicates the cloak can still be rendered invisible with a monostatic (transmitter and receiver in the same location) detection. Furthermore, we show that for a cloak with imperfect parameters the bistatic (transmitter and receiver in different locations) scattering performance is more sensitive to ηt=μt/γt than nt=μtγt.
Three-wave and four-wave interactions in gravity wave turbulence
Aubourg, Quentin; Campagne, Antoine; Peureux, Charles; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Sommeria, Joel; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas
2017-11-01
Weak-turbulence theory is a statistical framework to describe a large ensemble of nonlinearly interacting waves. The archetypal example of such system is the ocean surface that is made of interacting surface gravity waves. Here we describe a laboratory experiment dedicated to probe the statistical properties of turbulent gravity waves. We set up an isotropic state of interacting gravity waves in the Coriolis facility (13-m-diam circular wave tank) by exciting waves at 1 Hz by wedge wave makers. We implement a stereoscopic technique to obtain a measurement of the surface elevation that is resolved in both space and time. Fourier analysis shows that the laboratory spectra are systematically steeper than the theoretical predictions and the field observations in the Black Sea by Leckler et al. [F. Leckler et al., J. Phys. Oceanogr. 45, 2484 (2015), 10.1175/JPO-D-14-0237.1]. We identify a strong impact of surface dissipation on the scaling of the Fourier spectrum at the scales that are accessible in the experiments. We use bicoherence and tricoherence statistical tools in frequency and/or wave-vector space to identify the active nonlinear coupling. These analyses are also performed on the field data by Leckler et al. for comparison with the laboratory data. Three-wave coupling is characterized by and shown to involve mostly quasiresonances of waves with second- or higher-order harmonics. Four-wave coupling is not observed in the laboratory but is evidenced in the field data. We discuss temporal scale separation to explain our observations.
Wave-turbulence theory of four-wave nonlinear interactions
Chibbaro, Sergio; Dematteis, Giovanni; Josserand, Christophe; Rondoni, Lamberto
2017-08-01
The Sagdeev-Zaslavski (SZ) equation for wave turbulence is analytically derived, both in terms of a generating function and of a multipoint probability density function (PDF), for weakly interacting waves with initial random phases. When the initial amplitudes are also random, a one-point PDF equation is derived. Such analytical calculations remarkably agree with results obtained in totally different fashions. Numerical investigations of the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) and of a vibrating plate prove the following: (i) Generic Hamiltonian four-wave systems rapidly attain a random distribution of phases independently of the slower dynamics of the amplitudes, vindicating the hypothesis of initially random phases. (ii) Relaxation of the Fourier amplitudes to the predicted stationary distribution (exponential) happens on a faster time scale than relaxation of the spectrum (Rayleigh-Jeans distribution). (iii) The PDF equation correctly describes dynamics under different forcings: The NLSE has an exponential PDF corresponding to a quasi-Gaussian solution, as the vibrating plates, that also shows some intermittency at very strong forcings.
Lutocline Mixing and sediment wave interaction
Medina, P.; Gonzalez/Nieto, P. L.
2010-05-01
Coastal mixing induced by waves is modeled experimentally by means of an oscillating grid, [1,2]when the boundary layer is turbulent as when waves generated by a storm break and spill, or when wind interacts with wave stirring, then a strong turbulence lifts off bottom sediments and these often form a distinct sediment laden region capped by a sharp density interface called in this case a Lutocline. These particle layer may be transported to deeper regions by compensation or gravity currents[3,4]. Point velocity distributions created by wind, waves and sloping currents are dominated by breaker areas which act as strong attractors for the sediments in suspension, because at the same time there is a higher mean water level near the coast due to wave radiation[5]. The combination of offshore and onshore together with the longshore and crosshore strong currents due to wave radiation imbalance produce the strongest local shear induced morphological sediment transport. The use of a circular Couette flow to hold sediments in suspension using a vortex generator (producing shear) or an oscilating grid is used to investigate the parameter range of sediment lift off. [1] Crespo A. and Redondo J.M.(1989) A simple experiment on the interaction between gravity currents and sediment transport, Rev. de Geofisica 45, 203-210. [2] Redondo J.M. and Cantalapiedra I.R. (1993) Mixing in horizontally heterogeneous flows", Applied Scientific Research, 51, 217-222 [3] J.E. Simpson (1997) Gravity Currents: In the Environment and the Laboratory, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. [4] R.S.J. Sparks, R.T. Bonnecaze, H.E. Huppert, J.R. Lister, M.A. Hallworth, H. Mader, J. Phillips (1993) Sediment-laden gravity currents with reversing buoyancy, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 114. 243-257. [5] Bezerra M.O., Diez M., Medeiros C. Rodriguez A., Bahia E., Sanchez Arcilla A and Redondo J.M. (1998) Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied
Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction
Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan
2013-01-01
Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Katoh
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In the upcoming JAXA/ERG satellite mission, Wave Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA will be installed as an onboard software function. We study the statistical significance of the WPIA for measurement of the energy transfer process between energetic electrons and whistler-mode chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The WPIA measures a relative phase angle between the wave vector E and velocity vector v of each electron and computes their inner product W, where W is the time variation of the kinetic energy of energetic electrons interacting with plasma waves. We evaluate the feasibility by applying the WPIA analysis to the simulation results of whistler-mode chorus generation. We compute W using both a wave electric field vector observed at a fixed point in the simulation system and a velocity vector of each energetic electron passing through this point. By summing up Wi of an individual particle i to give Wint, we obtain significant values of Wint as expected from the evolution of chorus emissions in the simulation result. We can discuss the efficiency of the energy exchange through wave-particle interactions by selecting the range of the kinetic energy and pitch angle of the electrons used in the computation of Wint. The statistical significance of the obtained Wint is evaluated by calculating the standard deviation σW of Wint. In the results of the analysis, positive or negative Wint is obtained at the different regions of velocity phase space, while at the specific regions the obtained Wint values are significantly greater than σW, indicating efficient wave-particle interactions. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using the WPIA, which will be on board the upcoming ERG satellite, for direct measurement of wave-particle interactions.
Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction
Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.
1993-01-01
Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of
Eddy-Mean Flow Interactions in Western Boundary Current Jets
2009-02-01
SYNOP) was the discovery of strong, transient, nearly depth- independent cyclones in the deep ocean that formed beneath the large amplitude GS meander...interest given the discovery of deep zonal jets in ocean observations (Maximenko et al., 2005) and ocean GCMs (Richards et al., 2006). Finally, the...fundamentally different in many ways: it has a distinct orientation, topography, influence from thermohaline circulation, and modes of variability. As a
Observation of resonant interactions among surface gravity waves
Bonnefoy, F; Michel, G; Semin, B; Humbert, T; Aumaître, S; Berhanu, M; Falcon, E
2016-01-01
We experimentally study resonant interactions of oblique surface gravity waves in a large basin. Our results strongly extend previous experimental results performed mainly for perpendicular or collinear wave trains. We generate two oblique waves crossing at an acute angle, while we control their frequency ratio, steepnesses and directions. These mother waves mutually interact and give birth to a resonant wave whose properties (growth rate, resonant response curve and phase locking) are fully characterized. All our experimental results are found in good quantitative agreement with four-wave interaction theory with no fitting parameter. Off-resonance experiments are also reported and the relevant theoretical analysis is conducted and validated.
Wave-Flow Interactions and Acoustic Streaming
Chafin, Clifford E
2016-01-01
The interaction of waves and flows is a challenging topic where a complete resolution has been frustrated by the essential nonlinear features in the hydrodynamic case. Even in the case of EM waves in flowing media, the results are subtle. For a simple shear flow of constant n fluid, incident radiation is shown to be reflected and refracted in an analogous manner to Snell's law. However, the beam intensities differ and the system has an asymmetry in that an internal reflection gap opens at steep incident angles nearly oriented with the shear. For EM waves these effects are generally negligible in real systems but they introduce the topic at a reduced level of complexity of the more interesting acoustic case. Acoustic streaming is suggested, both from theory and experimental data, to be associated with vorticity generation at the driver itself. Bounds on the vorticity in bulk and nonlinear effects demonstrate that the bulk sources, even with attenuation, cannot drive such a strong flow. A review of the velocity...
Nonlinear interaction of near-planar TS waves and longitudinal vortices in boundary-layer transition
Smith, F. T.
1988-01-01
The nonlinear interactions that evolve between a planar or nearly planar Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave and the associated longitudinal vortices are considered theoretically for a boundary layer at high Reynolds number. The vortex flow is either induced by the TS nonlinear forcing or is input upstream, and similarly for the nonlinear wave development. Three major kinds of nonlinear spatial evolution, Types 1-3, are found. Each can start from secondary instability and then become nonlinear, Type 1 proving to be relatively benign but able to act as a pre-cursor to the Types 2, 3 which turn out to be very powerful nonlinear interactions. Type 2 involves faster stream-wise dependence and leads to a finite-distance blow-up in the amplitudes, which then triggers the full nonlinear 3-D triple-deck response, thus entirely altering the mean-flow profile locally. In contrast, Type 3 involves slower streamwise dependence but a faster spanwise response, with a small TS amplitude thereby causing an enhanced vortex effect which, again, is substantial enough to entirely alter the meanflow profile, on a more global scale. Streak-like formations in which there is localized concentration of streamwise vorticity and/or wave amplitude can appear, and certain of the nonlinear features also suggest by-pass processes for transition and significant changes in the flow structure downstream. The powerful nonlinear 3-D interactions 2, 3 are potentially very relevant to experimental findings in transition.
Simulation Analysis of Zero Mean Flow Edge Turbulence in LAPD
Friedman, Brett Cory
I model, simulate, and analyze the turbulence in a particular experiment on the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The experiment, conducted by Schaffner et al. [D. Schaffner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 135002 (2012)], nulls out the intrinsic mean flow in LAPD by limiter biasing. The model that I use in the simulation is an electrostatic reduced Braginskii two-fluid model that describes the time evolution of density, electron temperature, electrostatic potential, and parallel electron velocity fluctuations in the edge region of LAPD. The spatial domain is annular, encompassing the radial coordinates over which a significant equilibrium density gradient exists. My model breaks the independent variables in the equations into time-independent equilibrium parts and time-dependent fluctuating parts, and I use experimentally obtained values as input for the equilibrium parts. After an initial exponential growth period due to a linear drift wave instability, the fluctuations saturate and the frequency and azimuthal wavenumber spectra become broadband with no visible coherent peaks, at which point the fluctuations become turbulent. The turbulence develops intermittent pressure and flow filamentary structures that grow and dissipate, but look much different than the unstable linear drift waves, primarily in the extremely long axial wavelengths that the filaments possess. An energy dynamics analysis that I derive reveals the mechanism that drives these structures. The long k|| ˜ 0 intermittent potential filaments convect equilibrium density across the equilibrium density gradient, setting up local density filaments. These density filaments, also with k || ˜ 0, produce azimuthal density gradients, which drive radially propagating secondary drift waves. These finite k|| drift waves nonlinearly couple to one another and reinforce the original convective filament, allowing the process to bootstrap itself. The growth of these structures is by nonlinear instability because
Transmission of sound through nonuniform circular ducts with compressible mean flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; Shaker, B. S.; Kaiser, J. E.
1977-01-01
An acoustic theory is developed to determine the sound transmission and attenuation through an infinite, hard-walled or lined, circular duct carrying compressible, sheared, mean flows and having a variable cross section. The theory is applicable to large as well as small axial variations, as long as the mean flow does not separate. Although the theory is described for circular ducts, it is applicable to other duct configurations - annular, two dimensional, and rectangular. The theory is described for the linear problem, but the technique is general and has the advantage of being applicable to the nonlinear case as well as the linear case. The technique is based on solving for the envelopes of the quasi-parallel acoustic modes that exist in the duct instead of solving for the actual wave. A computer program was developed. The mean flow model consists of a one dimensional flow in the core and a quarter-sine profile in the boundary layer. Results are presented for the reflection and transmission coefficients in ducts with varying slopes and carrying different mean flows.
Numerical wave interaction with tetrapods breakwater
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dentale Fabio
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The paper provides some results of a new procedure to analyze the hydrodynamic aspects of the interactions between maritime emerged breakwaters and waves by integrating CAD and CFD. The structure is modeled in the numerical domain by overlapping individual three-dimensional elements (Tetrapods, very much like the real world or physical laboratory testing. Flow of the fluid within the interstices among concrete blocks is evaluated by integrating the RANS equations. The aim is to investigate the reliability of this approach as a design tool. Therefore, for the results' validation, the numerical run-up and reflection effects on virtual breakwater were compared with some empirical formulae and some similar laboratory tests. Here are presented the results of a first simple validation procedure. The validation shows that, at present, this innovative approach can be used in the breakwater design phase for comparison between several design solutions with a significant minor cost.
Numerical wave interaction with tetrapods breakwater
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Dentale
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The paper provides some results of a new procedure to analyze the hydrodynamic aspects of the interactions between maritime emerged breakwaters and waves by integrating CAD and CFD. The structure is modeled in the numerical domain by overlapping individual three-dimensional elements (Tetrapods, very much like the real world or physical laboratory testing. Flow of the fluid within the interstices among concrete blocks is evaluated by integrating the RANS equations. The aim is to investigate the reliability of this approach as a design tool. Therefore, for the results’ validation, the numerical run-up and reflection effects on virtual breakwater were compared with some empirical formulae and some similar laboratory tests. Here are presented the results of a first simple validation procedure. The validation shows that, at present, this innovative approach can be used in the breakwater design phase for comparison between several design solutions with a significant minor cost.
Wave-particle interaction in the Faraday waves.
Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2015-10-01
Wave motion in disordered Faraday waves is analysed in terms of oscillons or quasi-particles. The motion of these oscillons is measured using particle tracking tools and it is compared with the motion of fluid particles on the water surface. Both the real floating particles and the oscillons, representing the collective fluid motion, show Brownian-type dispersion exhibiting ballistic and diffusive mean squared displacement at short and long times, respectively. While the floating particles motion has been previously explained in the context of two-dimensional turbulence driven by Faraday waves, no theoretical description exists for the random walk type motion of oscillons. It is found that the r.m.s velocity ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) of oscillons is directly related to the turbulent r.m.s. velocity ⟨μ̃⟩(rms) of the fluid particles in a broad range of vertical accelerations. The measured ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) accurately explains the broadening of the frequency spectra of the surface elevation observed in disordered Faraday waves. These results suggest that 2D turbulence is the driving force behind both the randomization of the oscillons motion and the resulting broadening of the wave frequency spectra. The coupling between wave motion and hydrodynamic turbulence demonstrated here offers new perspectives for predicting complex fluid transport from the knowledge of wave field spectra and vice versa.
Liu, Yu; Catalan, Jean-Cédric
2017-09-01
This paper studies the influence of an external mean flow on the sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials and various configurations of coupling the poroelastic layer to the facing plates are considered. The clamped boundary of finite panels are dealt with by the modal superposition theory and the weighted residual (Garlekin) method, leading to a matrix equation solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) through the structure. The theoretical model is validated against existing theories of infinite sandwich panels with and without an external flow. The numerical results of a single incident wave show that the external mean flow has significant effects on the STL which are coupled with the clamped boundary effect dominating in the low-frequency range. The external mean flow also influences considerably the limiting incidence angle of the panel system and the effect of the incidence angle on the STL. However, the influences of the azimuthal angle and the external flow orientation are negligible.
Efficient algorithms for non-linear four-wave interactions
Van Vledder, G.P.
2012-01-01
This paper addresses the on-going activities in the development of efficient methods for computing the non-linear four-wave interactions in operational discrete third-generation wind-wave models. It is generally assumed that these interactions play an important role in the evolution of wind
Wave-current interactions in megatidal environment
Bennis, A. C.; Pascal, B. D. B.; Feddy, A.; Garnier, V.; Accenti, M.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.
2016-12-01
The strongest tidal current in western Europe (up to 12 knots) occurs in Raz Blanchard (Normandy, France). High winds occur over six months which generate energetic wave conditions with breaking waves, hence the name of `Blanchard'. However, few studies have been conducted on the wave effects on the tidal current at this location because of the lack of measurements. Studies are now required to aid the creation of tidal farms. For this purpose, the 3D fully-coupled model MARS-WW3 is used with three nested ranks which are forced at boundaries by wave spectra from HOMERE database (Boudière et al., 2013) and by sea level from the French Navy (SHOM). The model is tested against ADCP data of IRSN at three locations near Raz Blanchard. Time series of current velocity and of mean sea level are consistent with ADCP data. A rephasing by waves of the tidal current is observed in comparison with simulations without waves, which fits the ADCP data. A strong dependence of the tidal current on bottom roughness is shown as well as the necessity to take into account its spatial heterogeneity. The simulated mean sea level is close to the measured one while it was underestimated for high tide in simulations without wave effects. The vertical shape of the tidal current is especially modified near the surface by waves as expected. Depending on the tidal cycle and wave direction, acceleration or deceleration of the surface current due to waves is observed. Lastly, several hydrodynamical scenarios for Raz Blanchard are carried out for different tidal and wave conditions pending the HYD2M'17 data (ADCP, ADV, drifting wave buoys, HF and VHF and X-Band radars). First results show the impacts of refractive, shoaling and blocking effects on the flood and ebb currents.
Ulysses Observations of Nonlinear Wave-wave Interactions in the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. 2. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771. *e-mail: .... power law type energetic electrons present in the solar wind plasmas, provided it is less than the Langmuir wave growth rate γb due to beam plasma instability by an order of ...
Wind/wave interactions in the surf zone
King, Daniel Martin.
1994-01-01
Wind/wave interactions in the surf zone are studied using a wave tank and environmental wind tunnel. The wind simulation is achieved over a relatively short fetch using accelerated growth techniques at a scale of roughly 1:100. Waves are scaled at approximately 1:50, and consequently there is some scaling mis-match between the wind and wave simulations. Results show that wind has a significant effect on the breaking of the waves. Both breaker location and breaker type are shown to be affe...
An experimental and numerical investigation on wave-mud interactions
Hsu, W. Y.; Hwung, H. H.; Hsu, T. J.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Yang, R. Y.
2013-03-01
Wave attenuation over a mud (kaolinite) layer is investigated via laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. The rheological behavior of kaolinite exhibits hybrid properties of a Bingham and pseudoplastic fluid. Moreover, the measured time-dependent velocity profiles in the mud layer reveal that the shear rate under wave loading is highly phase dependent. The measured shear rate and rheological data allow us to back-calculate the time-dependent viscosity of the mud layer under various wave loadings, which is also shown to fluctuate up to 1 order of magnitude during one wave period. However, the resulting time-dependent bottom stress is shown to only fluctuate within 25% of its mean. The back-calculated wave-averaged bottom stress is well correlated with the wave damping rate in the intermediate-wave energy condition. The commonly adopted constant viscosity assumption is then evaluated via linear and nonlinear wave-mud interaction models. When driving the models with measured wave-averaged mud viscosity (forward modeling), the wave damping rate is generally overpredicted under the low wave energy condition. On the other hand, when a constant viscosity is chosen to match the observed wave damping rate (inverse modeling), the predicted velocity profiles in the mud layer are not satisfactory and the corresponding viscosity is lower than the measured value. These discrepancies are less pronounced when waves become more energetic. Differences between the linear and nonlinear model results become significant under low-energy conditions, suggesting an amplification of wave nonlinearity due to non-Newtonian rheology. In general, the constant viscosity assumption for modeling wave-mud interaction is only appropriate for more energetic wave conditions.
Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.
2010-01-01
As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.
Density waves in a system of non-interacting particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolmes, E.J., E-mail: ekolmes@princeton.edu; Geyko, V.I.; Fisch, N.J.
2016-09-07
An ensemble of non-interacting bouncing balls being acted on by a constant gravitational force, starting at rest from a uniform density distribution, will develop a structure of sharply peaked density waves. We describe these waves by computing the density profile of such a system analytically, and we find that the analytical results are in good agreement with numerical findings. We suggest that in a real system, these density waves could be used to produce measurements of the strength of a gravitational field. - Highlights: • Non-interacting balls dropped in a gravitational field can form sharply peaked density waves. • We explain these waves analytically and discuss their characteristics. • It may be possible to measure the strength of a gravitational field using these waves.
Wave-particle Interactions in Space and Laboratory Plasmas
An, Xin
This dissertation presents a study of wave-particle interactions in space and in the laboratory. To be concrete, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves in space and in the laboratory is studied in the first part. The relaxation of whistler anisotropy instability relevant to whistler-mode chorus waves in space is examined. Using a linear growth rate analysis and kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, the electron distributions are demonstrated to be well-constrained by the whistler anisotropy instability to a marginal-stability state, consistent with measurements by Van Allen Probes. The electron parallel beta beta ∥e separates the excited whistler waves into two groups: (i) quasi-parallel whistler waves for beta∥e > 0.02 and (ii) oblique whistler waves close to the resonance cone for beta∥e particle-in-cell simulations. Motivated by the puzzles of chorus waves in space and by their recognized importance, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves is studied in the Large Plasma Device by the injection of a helical electron beam into a cold plasma. Incoherent broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are observed in the laboratory plasma. Their mode structures are identified by the phase-correlation technique. It is demonstrated that the waves are excited through a combination of Landau resonance, cyclotron resonance and anomalous cyclotron resonance. To account for the finite size effect of the electron beam, linear unstable eigenmodes of whistler waves are calculated by matching the eigenmode solution at the boundary. It is shown that the perpendicular wave number inside the beam is quantized due to the constraint imposed by the boundary condition. Darwin particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to study the simultaneous excitation of Langmuir and whistler waves in a beam-plasma system. The electron beam is first slowed down and relaxed by the rapidly growing Langmuir wave parallel to the background magnetic field. The tail of the
Computational and theoretical study of the wave-particle interaction of protons and waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. S. Moya
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We study the wave-particle interaction and the evolution of electromagnetic waves propagating through a plasma composed of electrons and protons, using two approaches. First, a quasilinear kinetic theory has been developed to study the energy transfer between waves and particles, with the subsequent acceleration and heating of protons. Second, a one-dimensional hybrid numerical simulation has been performed, with and without including an expanding-box model that emulates the spherical expansion of the solar wind, to investigate the fully nonlinear evolution of this wave-particle interaction. Numerical results of both approaches show that there is an anisotropic evolution of proton temperature.
Computational and theoretical study of the wave-particle interaction of protons and waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moya, P.S.; Munoz, V. [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Vinas, A.F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Heliophysics Science Div.; Valdivia, J.A. [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, CEDENNA (Chile); CEIBA complejidad, Bogota (Colombia)
2012-11-01
We study the wave-particle interaction and the evolution of electromagnetic waves propagating through a plasma composed of electrons and protons, using two approaches. First, a quasilinear kinetic theory has been developed to study the energy transfer between waves and particles, with the subsequent acceleration and heating of protons. Second, a one-dimensional hybrid numerical simulation has been performed, with and without including an expanding-box model that emulates the spherical expansion of the solar wind, to investigate the fully nonlinear evolution of this wave-particle interaction. Numerical results of both approaches show that there is an anisotropic evolution of proton temperature. (orig.)
Parametric interaction and intensification of nonlinear Kelvin waves
Novotryasov, Vadim
2008-01-01
Observational evidence is presented for nonlinear interaction between mesoscale internal Kelvin waves at the tidal -- $\\omega_t$ or the inertial -- $\\omega_i$ frequency and oscillations of synoptic -- $\\Omega $ frequency of the background coastal current of Japan/East Sea. Enhanced coastal currents at the sum -- $\\omega_+ $ and dif -- $\\omega_-$ frequencies: $\\omega_\\pm =\\omega_{t,i}\\pm \\Omega$ have properties of propagating Kelvin waves suggesting permanent energy exchange from the synoptic band to the mesoscale $\\omega_\\pm $ band. The interaction may be responsible for the greater than predicted intensification, steepen and break of boundary trapped and equatorially trapped Kelvin waves, which can affect El Ni\\~{n}o. The problem on the parametric interaction of the nonlinear Kelvin wave at the frequency $\\omega $ and the low-frequency narrow-band nose with representative frequency $\\Omega\\ll\\omega $ is investigated with the theory of nonlinear week dispersion waves.
New Wave-Ice Interaction Physics in WAVEWATCH III
2014-08-01
22nd IAHR International Symposium on Ice Singapore, August 11 to 15, 2014 New wave- ice interaction physics in WAVEWATCH III...Swinburne University Melbourne , Australia szieger@swin.edu.au The third generation model for wind-generated surface gravity waves WAVEWATCH...III® is modified to represent the effect of ice on waves as a source function. This replaces the existing approach of representing ice via fractional
Wave-ice Interaction and the Marginal Ice Zone
2015-09-30
single buoys that were moved from place to place. These new data, obtained within the comprehensive set of ocean, ice and atmosphere sensors and remote...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave- ice interaction and the Marginal Ice Zone Prof...between ocean waves and a sea ice cover, in terms, of scattering, attenuation, and mechanical effect of the waves on the ice . OBJECTIVES The
Solitary versus Shock Wave Acceleration in Laser-Plasma Interactions
Macchi, Andrea; Nindrayog, Amritpal Singh; Pegoraro, Francesco
2011-01-01
The excitation of nonlinear electrostatic waves, such as shock and solitons, by ultraintense laser interaction with overdense plasmas and related ion acceleration are investigated by numerical simulations. Stability of solitons and formation of shock waves is strongly dependent on the velocity distribution of ions. Monoenergetic components in ion spectra are produced by "pulsed" reflection from solitary waves. Possible relevance to recent experiments on "shock acceleration" is discussed.
Solitary versus shock wave acceleration in laser-plasma interactions.
Macchi, Andrea; Nindrayog, Amritpal Singh; Pegoraro, Francesco
2012-04-01
The excitation of nonlinear electrostatic waves, such as shock and solitons, by ultraintense laser interaction with overdense plasmas and related ion acceleration are investigated by numerical simulations. Stability of solitons and formation of shock waves is strongly dependent on the velocity distribution of ions. Monoenergetic components in ion spectra are produced by "pulsed" reflection from solitary waves. Possible relevance to recent experiments on "shock acceleration" is discussed.
Interaction of gravitational waves with superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inan, N.A.; Thompson, J.J. [University of California, Schools of Natural Sciences, Merced, CA (United States); Chiao, R.Y. [University of California, Schools of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Merced, CA (United States)
2017-06-15
Applying the Helmholtz Decomposition theorem to linearized General Relativity leads to a gauge-invariant formulation where the transverse-traceless part of the metric perturbation describes gravitational waves in matter. Gravitational waves incident on a superconductor can be described by a linear London-like constituent equation characterized by a ''gravitational shear modulus'' and a corresponding plasma frequency and penetration depth. Electric-like and magnetic-like gravitational tensor fields are defined in terms of the strain field of a gravitational wave. It is shown that in the DC limit, the magnetic-like tensor field is expelled from the superconductor in a gravitational Meissner-like effect. The Cooper pair density is described by the Ginzburg-Landau theory embedded in curved space-time. The ionic lattice is modeled by quantum harmonic oscillators coupled to gravitational waves and characterized by quasi-energy eigenvalues for the phonon modes. The formulation predicts the possibility of a dynamical Casimir effect since the zero-point energy of the ionic lattice phonons is found to be modulated by the gravitational wave, in a quantum analog of a ''Weber-bar effect.'' Applying periodic thermodynamics and the Debye model in the low-temperature limit leads to a free energy density for the ionic lattice. Lastly, we relate the gravitational strain of space to the strain of matter to show that the response to a gravitational wave is far less for the Cooper pair density than for the ionic lattice. This predicts a charge separation effect in the superconductor as a result of the gravitational wave. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Experimental investigation of gravity wave turbulence and of non-linear four wave interactions..
Berhanu, Michael
2017-04-01
Using the large basins of the Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France), non-linear interactions of gravity surface waves are experimentally investigated. In a first part we study statistical properties of a random wave field regarding the insights from the Wave Turbulence Theory. In particular freely decaying gravity wave turbulence is generated in a closed basin. No self-similar decay of the spectrum is observed, whereas its Fourier modes decay first as a time power law due to nonl-inear mechanisms, and then exponentially due to linear viscous damping. We estimate the linear, non-linear and dissipative time scales to test the time scale separation. By estimation of the mean energy flux from the initial decay of wave energy, the Kolmogorov-Zakharov constant of the weak turbulence theory is evaluated. In a second part, resonant interactions of oblique surface gravity waves in a large basin are studied. We generate two oblique waves crossing at an acute angle. These mother waves mutually interact and give birth to a resonant wave whose properties (growth rate, resonant response curve and phase locking) are fully characterized. All our experimental results are found in good quantitative agreement with four-wave interaction theory. L. Deike, B. Miquel, P. Gutiérrez, T. Jamin, B. Semin, M. Berhanu, E. Falcon and F. Bonnefoy, Role of the basin boundary conditions in gravity wave turbulence, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 781, 196 (2015) F. Bonnefoy, F. Haudin, G. Michel, B. Semin, T. Humbert, S. Aumaître, M. Berhanu and E. Falcon, Observation of resonant interactions among surface gravity waves, Journal of Fluid Mechanics (Rapids) 805, R3 (2016)
Numerical Simulation of Wave Interaction with Moving Net Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2015-01-01
was described as a sheet of porous media with prescribed rigid body motion and mesh motion was incorporated to conform the motion of the net. Free surface wave generation and absorption framework was also introduced to simulate wave interaction with moving net structures. The results showed that mesh motion...
A new approach to estimating Mean Flow in the UK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. G. R. Holmes
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Traditionally, the estimation of Mean Flow (MF in ungauged catchments has been approached using conceptual water balance models or empirical formulae relating climatic inputs to stream flow. In the UK, these types of models have difficulty in predicting MF in low rainfall areas because the conceptualisation of soil moisture behaviour and its relationship with evaporation rates used is rather simplistic. However, it is in these dry regions where the accurate estimation of flows is most critical to effective management of a scarce resource. A novel approach to estimating MF, specifically designed to improve estimation of runoff in dry catchments, has been developed using a regionalisation of the Penman drying curve theory. The dynamic water balance style Daily Soil Moisture Accounting (DSMA model operates at a daily time step, using inputs of precipitation and potential evaporation and simulates the development of soil moisture deficits explicitly. The model has been calibrated using measured MFs from a large data set of catchments in the United Kingdom. The performance of the DSMA model is superior to existing established steady state and dynamic water-balance models over the entire data set considered and the largest improvement is observed in very low rainfall catchments. It is concluded that the performance of all models in high rainfall areas is likely to be limited by the spatial representation of rainfall. Keywords: hydrological models, regionalisation, water resources, mean flow, runoff, water balance, Penman drying curve, soil moisture model
PIV measurements in two hypersonic shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions
Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Williams, Owen; Smits, Alexander J.
2017-11-01
Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were performed to study two compression corner interactions in hypersonic flow. The experiments, carried out at Mach 7.2 and at a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of 3500, included mean flow surveys as well as turbulence measurements in the near-field of the interaction. For the 8° compression corner, the flow remained attached, and for the 33° compression corner a large separation bubble formed. For the attached case, the influence of the shock wave on the streamwise turbulence intensities is weak, but the wall-normal component and the Reynolds shear stress show considerable amplification. In the fully separated case, both the streamwise and wall normal velocity fluctuations, as well as the Reynolds shear stresses, show strong amplification across the interaction. In contrast with the behavior in the attached case, equilibrium flow is approached much more rapidly in the separated case. Turbulence measurements in such complex hypersonic flows are far from trivial, with particle frequency response limitations often significantly reducing the measured wall-normal turbulence. We will therefore discuss these influences on overall data quality as well as the interpretation of flow physics based on these results.
Resonant Interactions of Capillary-Gravity Water Waves
Martin, Calin Iulian
2017-12-01
We show here that capillary-gravity wave trains can propagate at the free surface of a rotational water flow of constant non-zero vorticity over a flat bed only if the flow is two-dimensional. Moreover, we also show that the vorticity must have only one non zero component which points in the horizontal direction orthogonal to the direction of wave propagation. This result is of relevance in the study of nonlinear resonances of wave trains. We perform such a study for three- and four wave interactions.
Kadlecová, Hedvika; Weber, Stefan; Korn, Georg
2016-01-01
We analyze theoretical models of gravitational wave generation in the interaction of high power lasers with matter in linear approximation of gravitational theory. We derive the analytical formulas and estimates for the metric perturbations and the radiated power of the generated gravitational waves. Furthermore we investigate the characteristics of polarization and the behavior of test particles in the presence of gravitational wave which will be important for the detection.
On the interaction between ocean surface waves and seamounts
Sosa, Jeison; Cavaleri, Luigi; Portilla-Yandún, Jesús
2017-12-01
Of the many topographic features, more specifically seamounts, that are ubiquitous in the ocean floor, we focus our attention on those with relatively shallow summits that can interact with wind-generated surface waves. Among these, especially relatively long waves crossing the oceans (swells) and stormy seas are able to affect the water column up to a considerable depth and therefore interact with these deep-sea features. We quantify this interaction through numerical experiments using a numerical wave model (SWAN), in which a simply shaped seamount is exposed to waves of different length. The results show a strong interaction that leads to significant changes in the wave field, creating wake zones and regions of large wave amplification. This is then exemplified in a practical case where we analyze the interaction of more realistic sea conditions with a very shallow rock in the Yellow Sea. Potentially important for navigation and erosion processes, mutatis mutandis, these results are also indicative of possible interactions with emerged islands and sand banks in shelf seas.
On the interaction between ocean surface waves and seamounts
Sosa, Jeison; Cavaleri, Luigi; Portilla-Yandún, Jesús
2017-10-01
Of the many topographic features, more specifically seamounts, that are ubiquitous in the ocean floor, we focus our attention on those with relatively shallow summits that can interact with wind-generated surface waves. Among these, especially relatively long waves crossing the oceans (swells) and stormy seas are able to affect the water column up to a considerable depth and therefore interact with these deep-sea features. We quantify this interaction through numerical experiments using a numerical wave model (SWAN), in which a simply shaped seamount is exposed to waves of different length. The results show a strong interaction that leads to significant changes in the wave field, creating wake zones and regions of large wave amplification. This is then exemplified in a practical case where we analyze the interaction of more realistic sea conditions with a very shallow rock in the Yellow Sea. Potentially important for navigation and erosion processes, mutatis mutandis, these results are also indicative of possible interactions with emerged islands and sand banks in shelf seas.
Simple wave interaction of an elastic string
Broer, L.J.F.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.
1977-01-01
The equations for the two-dimensional motion of a completely flexible elastic string can be derived from a Lagrangian. The equations of motion possess four characteristic velocities, to which the following four simple wave solutions correspond: leftward and rightward propagating longitudinal and
Elementary wave interactions in blood flow through artery
Raja Sekhar, T.; Minhajul
2017-10-01
In this paper, we consider the Riemann problem and interaction of elementary waves for the quasilinear hyperbolic system of conservation laws that arises in blood flow through arteries. We study the properties of solution involving shocks and rarefaction waves and establish the existence and uniqueness conditions. We show that the Riemann problem is solvable for arbitrary initial data under certain condition and construct the condition for no-feasible solution. Finally, we present numerical examples with different initial data and discuss all possible interactions of elementary waves.
2015-09-30
Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave
Finite amplitude wave interaction with premixed laminar flames
Aslani, Mohamad; Regele, Jonathan D.
2014-11-01
The physics underlying combustion instability is an active area of research because of its detrimental impact in many combustion devices, such as turbines, jet engines, and liquid rocket engines. Pressure waves, ranging from acoustic waves to strong shocks, are potential sources of these disturbances. Literature on flame-disturbance interactions are primarily focused on either acoustics or strong shock wave interactions, with little information about the wide spectrum of behaviors that may exist between these two extremes. For example, the interaction between a flame and a finite amplitude compression wave is not well characterized. This phenomenon is difficult to study numerically due to the wide range of scales that need to be captured, requiring powerful and efficient numerical techniques. In this work, the interaction of a perturbed laminar premixed flame with a finite amplitude compression wave is investigated using the Parallel Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method (PAWCM). This method optimally solves the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations while capturing the essential scales. The results show that depending on the amplitude and duration of a finite amplitude disturbance, the interaction between these waves and premixed flames can produce a broad range of responses.
Note on the 2-component Analogue of 2-dimensional Long Wave-Short Wave Resonance Interaction System
Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Masayuki
2008-01-01
An integrable two-component analogue of the two-dimensional long wave-short wave resonance interaction (2c-2d-LSRI) system is studied. Wronskian solutions of 2c-2d-LSRI system are presented. A reduced case, which describes resonant interaction between an interfacial wave and two surface wave packets in a two layer fluid, is also discussed.
Numerical simulation of wave interacting with a free rolling body
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jae Hwan Jung
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The present study numerically models the interaction between a regular wave and the roll motion of a rectangular floating structure. In order to simulate two-dimensional incompressible viscous two-phase flow in a numerical wave tank with the rectangular floating structure, the present study used the volume of fluid method based on the finite volume method. The sliding mesh technique is adopted to handle the motion of the rectangular floating structure induced by fluid-structure interaction. The effect of the wave period on the flow, roll motion and forces acting on the structure is examined by considering three different wave periods. The time variations of the wave height and the roll motion of the rectangular structure are in good agreement with experimental results for all wave periods. The present response amplitude operator is in good agreement with experimental results with the linear potential theory. The present numerical results effectively represent the entire process of vortex generation and evolution described by the experimental results. The longer wave period showed a different mechanism of the vortex evolution near each bottom corner of the structure compared to cases of shorter wave periods. In addition, the x-directional and z-directional forces acting on the structure are analyzed.
Development of a coupled wave-flow-vegetation interaction model
Beudin, Alexis; Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Ganju, Neil K.; Warner, John C.
2017-01-01
Emergent and submerged vegetation can significantly affect coastal hydrodynamics. However, most deterministic numerical models do not take into account their influence on currents, waves, and turbulence. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a wave-flow-vegetation module into a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system that includes a flow model (ROMS) and a wave model (SWAN), and illustrate various interacting processes using an idealized shallow basin application. The flow model has been modified to include plant posture-dependent three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and production of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy to parameterize vertical mixing. The coupling framework has been updated to exchange vegetation-related variables between the flow model and the wave model to account for wave energy dissipation due to vegetation. This study i) demonstrates the validity of the plant posture-dependent drag parameterization against field measurements, ii) shows that the model is capable of reproducing the mean and turbulent flow field in the presence of vegetation as compared to various laboratory experiments, iii) provides insight into the flow-vegetation interaction through an analysis of the terms in the momentum balance, iv) describes the influence of a submerged vegetation patch on tidal currents and waves separately and combined, and v) proposes future directions for research and development.
Hamilton, David; Dorfman, Seth; Howes, Gregory; Carter, Troy
2017-10-01
The current theoretical understanding of astrophysical turbulence is based largely upon the nonlinear interactions between counterpropagating Alfven waves. These interactions are the fundamental building block used to model energy transfer from large to small scales. We present current experimental findings obtained in a laboratory plasma at the Large Plasma Device (LAPD), in which counterpropagating Alfven waves with crossed polarizations interacted with each other after being generated by antennas at the two ends of the device. This work is largely based off of previous efforts conducted at the LAPD by G. G. Howes, et al., but with differing key parameters, such as the amplitudes and frequencies of the two waves. We expect to find a daughter wave produced by the nonlinear interactions of the two parent waves. Additionally, ongoing analysis may reveal the same phenomenon to occur between the main daughter wave and either of the two parent waves; this effect has not yet been observed in the laboratory. This work may assist in furthering our understanding of the energy cascade effect in astrophysical turbulence. This work was performed at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility, which is supported by the DOE and NSF.
Contribution of non-resonant wave-wave interactions in the dynamics of long-crested sea wave fields
Benoit, Michel
2017-04-01
Gravity waves fields at the surface of the oceans evolve under the combined effects of several physical mechanisms, of which nonlinear wave-wave interactions play a dominant role. These interactions transfer energy between components within the energy spectrum and allow in particular to explain the shape of the distribution of wave energy according to the frequencies and directions of propagation. In the oceanic domain (deep water conditions), dominant interactions are third-order resonant interactions, between quadruplets (or quartets) of wave components, and the evolution of the wave spectrum is governed by a kinetic equation, established by Hasselmann (1962) and Zakharov (1968). The kinetic equation has a number of interesting properties, including the existence of self-similar solutions and cascades to small and large wavelengths of waves, which can be studied in the framework of the wave (or weak) turbulence theory (e.g. Badulin et al., 2005). With the aim to obtain more complete and precise modelling of sea states dynamics, we investigate here the possibility and consequences of taking into account the non-resonant interactions -quasi-resonant in practice- among 4 waves. A mathematical formalism has recently been proposed to account for these non-resonant interactions in a statistical framework by Annenkov & Shrira (2006) (Generalized Kinetic Equation, GKE) and Gramstad & Stiassnie (2013) (Phase Averaged Equation, PAE). In order to isolate the non-resonant contributions, we limit ourselves here to monodirectional (i.e. long-crested) wave trains, since in this case the 4-wave resonant interactions vanish. The (stochastic) modelling approaches proposed by Annenkov & Shrira (2006) and Gramstad & Stiassnie (2013) are compared to phase-resolving (deterministic) simulations based on a fully nonlinear potential approach (using a high-order spectral method, HOS). We study and compare the evolution dynamics of the wave spectrum at different time scales (i.e. over
Vegetation-wave interactions in salt marshes under storm surge conditions
Rupprecht, F; Möller, I.; Paul, M.; Kudella, M.; Spencer, T.; van Wesenbeeck, B.K.; Wolters, G.; Jensen, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Miranda-Lange, M.; Schimmels, S.
2017-01-01
Vegetation-wave interactions are critical in determining the capacity of coastal salt marshes to reducewave energy (wave dissipation), enhance sedimentation and protect the shoreline from erosion. Whilevegetation-induced wave dissipation is increasingly recognized in low wave energy environments,
Nonlinear Acoustic Wave Interactions in Layered Media.
1980-03-06
entire complex plane. The residue of GX at all of its poles must be determined in order to evaluate Equation (2-22) via Cauchy’s Residue Theorem ...4 ,0 0 Q) N +1 - 0 L I. 35 zero. Then, by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem , the Green’s function G [Equation (2-27)] for forward-guided modes is given by a...34Connection Between the Fay and Fubini Solutions for Plane Sound Waves of Finite-Amplitude." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 39 (1966
Numerical modelling of wave current interactions at a local scale
Teles, Maria João; Pires-Silva, António A.; Benoit, Michel
2013-08-01
The present work is focused on the evaluation of wave-current interactions through numerical simulations of combined wave and current flows with the Code_Saturne (Archambeau et al., 2004), an advanced CFD solver based on the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) equations. The objectives of this paper are twofold. Firstly, changes in the mean horizontal velocity and the horizontal-velocity amplitude profiles are studied when waves are superposed on currents. The influence of various first and second order turbulence closure models is addressed. The results of the numerical simulations are compared to the experimental data of Klopman (1994) and Umeyama (2005). Secondly, a more detailed study of the shear stresses and the turbulence viscosity vertical profile changes is also pursued when waves and currents interact. This analysis is completed using the data from Umeyama (2005). A relationship between a non-dimensional parameter involving the turbulence viscosity and the Ursell number is subsequently proposed.
VIGOR: Virtual Interaction with Gravitational Waves to Observe Relativity
Kitagawa, Midori; Kesden, Michael; Tranm, Ngoc; Venlayudam, Thulasi Sivampillai; Urquhart, Mary; Malina, Roger
2017-05-01
In 2015, a century after Albert Einstein published his theory of general relativity, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves from binary black holes fully consistent with this theory. Our goal for VIGOR (Virtual-reality Interaction with Gravitational waves to Observe Relativity) is to communicate this revolutionary discovery to the public by visualizing the gravitational waves emitted by binary black holes. VIGOR has been developed using the Unity game engine and VR headsets (Oculus Rift DK2 and Samsung Gear VR). Wearing a VR headset, VIGOR users control an avatar to "fly" around binary black holes, experiment on the black holes by manipulating their total mass, mass ratio, and orbital separation, and witness how gravitational waves emitted by the black holes stretch and squeeze the avatar. We evaluated our prototype of VIGOR with high school students in 2016 and are further improving VIGOR based on our findings.
Seismic metasurfaces: Sub-wavelength resonators and Rayleigh wave interaction
Colquitt, D J; Craster, R V; Roux, P; Guenneau, S R L
2016-01-01
We consider the canonical problem of an array of rods, which act as resonators, placed on an elastic substrate; the substrate being either a thin elastic plate or an elastic half-space. In both cases the flexural plate, or Rayleigh surface, waves in the substrate interact with the resonators to create interesting effects such as effective band-gaps for surface waves or filters that transform surface waves into bulk waves; these effects have parallels in the field of optics where such sub-wavelength resonators create metamaterials, and metasurfaces, in the bulk and at the surface respectively. Here we carefully analyse this canonical problem by extracting the dispersion relations analytically thereby examining the influence of both the flexural and compressional resonances on the propagating wave. For an array of resonators atop an elastic half-space we augment the analysis with numerical simulations. Amongst other effects, we demonstrate the striking effect of a dispersion curve that transitions from Rayleigh...
Optical vortex interaction and generation via nonlinear wave mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lenzini, F. [INLN, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, 1361 route des Lucioles, FR-06560 Valbonne (France); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, via Sansone 1, IT-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Residori, S.; Bortolozzo, U. [INLN, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, 1361 route des Lucioles, FR-06560 Valbonne (France); Arecchi, F. T. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, via Sansone 1, IT-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2011-12-15
Optical vortex beams are made to interact via degenerate two-wave mixing in a Kerr-like nonlinear medium. Vortex mixing is shown to occur inside the medium, leading to exchange of topological charge and cascaded generation of vortex beams. A mean-field model is developed and is shown to account for the selection rules of the topological charges observed after the wave-mixing process. Fractional charges are demonstrated to follow the same rules as for integer charges.
Wave Interaction with Porous Coastal Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjarne
. The present study seeks to extend the methods currently applied to gain more insight into the physical processes involved with armour layer destabilisation. Both experimental and numerical methods are treated. In Chapter 2 the flow and turbulence around armour layer stones as well as the shear stresses...... the contribution to generation of turbulence, and destabilizing shear stresses, from the wave breaking, the armour layer, and the porous core was singled out. In Chapter 3 a similar detailed approach was taken towards experimental investigation of the pressure induced forces in the filter layers below the main...... with the simulation of a rock toe structure on a rubble mound breakwater. The stones in the toe structure were resolved directly in the model while the rest of the breakwater was included with the porosity model. In Chapter 6 both experimental and numerical topics are included. The physical experiments includes...
Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes
Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali
2016-05-01
Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.
Simon, Bruno; Seez, William; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian; Touboul, Julien
2017-04-01
During the last ten years, the topic of water waves interacting with sheared current has drawn a lot of attention, since the interaction of water waves with vorticity was recently found to be significant when modeling the propagation of water waves. In this framework, the configuration involving constantly sheared current (indeed a constant vorticity) is of special interst, since the equations remain tractable. In this framework, it is demonstrated that the flow related to water waves can be described by means of potential theory, since the source term in the vorticity equation is proportionnal to the curvature of the current profile (Nwogu, 2009). In the mean time, the community often wonders if this argument is valid, since the existence of a perfectly linearly sheared current is purely theoretical, and the presence of the vorticity within the wave field can be external (through wave generation mechanisms, for instance). Thus, this work is dedicated to investigate the magnitude of the vorticity related to the wave field, in conditions similar to this analytical case of constant vorticity. This approach is based on the comparison of experimental data, and three models. The first model is linear, supposing a constantly seared current and water waves described by potential theory. The second is fully nonlinear, but still supposing that water waves are potential, and finally, the third model is fully nonlinear, but solves the Euler equations, allowing the existence of vorticity related to the waves. The confrontation of these three approaches with the experimental data will allow to quantify the wave-related vorticity within the total flow, and analyze its importance as a function of nonlinearity and vorticity magnitude. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement, France) is acknowledged for its financial support through the ANR grant N°ANR-13-ASTR-0007.
The interaction of Rayleigh waves with delaminations in composite laminates.
Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Dayal, Vinay
2014-05-01
In the present work, the interaction of Rayleigh waves with a delamination in a fiber reinforced composite plate was analyzed. Rayleigh waves, upon interacting with delamination mode, convert into Lamb waves in the delamination zone. These guided Lamb modes have the capability to mode convert back into Rayleigh modes when they interact with the edge of the delamination. A unidirectional glass/epoxy laminate with a delamination of known size was fabricated and tested using air-coupled ultrasonics. Finite element models were developed to understand the mode conversions occurring at various sections of the delamination. Particle displacements along with numerical and experimental velocities were considered to identify each mode. Conclusions were drawn based on the velocity analysis.
Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility
Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis
2015-04-01
Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The
Guided-wave acousto-optics interactions, devices, and applications
1990-01-01
The field of integrated- or guided-wave optics has experienced significant and continuous growth since its inception in the late 1960s. There has been a considerable increase in research and development activity in this field worldwide and some significant advances in the realization of working in tegrated optic devices and modules have been made in recent years. In fact, there have already been some commercial manufacturing and technical ap plications of such devices and modules. The guided-wave-acoustooptics involving Bragg interactions between guided optical waves and surface acoustic waves is one of the areas of in tegrated-optics that has reached some degree of scientific and technological maturity. This topical volume is devoted to an in-depth treatment of this emerging branch of science and technology. Presented in this volume are concise treatments on bulk-wave acoustooptics, guided-wave optics, and surface acoustic waves, and detailed studies of guided-wave acoustooptic Bragg diffraction in thr...
Energy Cascade Analysis: from Subscale Eddies to Mean Flow
Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James
2017-11-01
Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.
3D Acoustic Modelling of Dissipative Silencers with Nonhomogeneous Properties and Mean Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. M. Sánchez-Orgaz
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A finite element approach is proposed for the acoustic analysis of automotive silencers including a perforated duct with uniform axial mean flow and an outer chamber with heterogeneous absorbent material. This material can be characterized by means of its equivalent acoustic properties, considered coordinate-dependent via the introduction of a heterogeneous bulk density, and the corresponding material airflow resistivity variations. An approach has been implemented to solve the pressure wave equation for a nonmoving heterogeneous medium, associated with the problem of sound propagation in the outer chamber. On the other hand, the governing equation in the central duct has been solved in terms of the acoustic velocity potential considering the presence of a moving medium. The coupling between both regions and the corresponding acoustic fields has been carried out by means of a perforated duct and its acoustic impedance, adapted here to include absorbent material heterogeneities and mean flow effects simultaneously. It has been found that bulk density heterogeneities have a considerable influence on the silencer transmission loss.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken-Chung Ko Huang-Hsiung Hsu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study used the barotropic kinetic energy conversion to record the active eddy-mean flow interaction between the TC/sub-monthly wave pattern (TSM and the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO in the western North Pacific (WNP. Overall, the TSM extracted (lost kinetic energy from (to the cyclonic (anticyclonic circulation of the ISO, which is located in the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea, during the ISO westerly (easterly phase. The phase change in barotropic energy conversion was due to the opposite background flow set up by the ISO. When the climatological-mean southwesterly was retained as part of the background flow in both ISO westerly and easterly phases as in previous studies, the ISO along with the low-frequency background flow always provided kinetic energy to the TSM regardless of the phase. The stronger (weaker southwesterly in the ISO westerly (easterly phase, the stronger (weaker energy conversion to the TSM. Climatological mean flow exclusion showed an upscale feedback in the TSM to the ISO during the easterly phase. However, this feedback was weaker than the downscale conversion from the ISO to the TSM during the westerly phase.
Interaction of Elastic Waves with Corrosion Damage
2010-08-01
plate and interact with the damaged areas which is described next. LDV data collection is performed using a Polytec High Frequency PSV -400- 3D-M...Scanning Vibrometer system designed for full-field vibration measurements for frequencies up to 1 MHz. The system consists of a motorized PSV -A-T31...tripod, supporting three separate PSV -I-400 sensor heads, as well as a high- resolution camera that provides the capability to make precise corrections to
Shock wave interaction with laser-generated single bubbles.
Sankin, G N; Simmons, W N; Zhu, S L; Zhong, P
2005-07-15
The interaction of a lithotripter shock wave (LSW) with laser-generated single vapor bubbles in water is investigated using high-speed photography and pressure measurement via a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. The interaction leads to nonspherical collapse of the bubble with secondary shock wave emission and microjet formation along the LSW propagation direction. The maximum pressure amplification is produced during the collapse phase of the bubble oscillation when the compressive pulse duration of the LSW matches with the forced collapse time of the bubble.
Wave-particle and wave-wave interactions in hot plasmas: a French historical point of view
Laval, Guy; Pesme, Denis; Adam, Jean-Claude
2016-11-01
The first researches on nuclear fusion for energy applications marked the entrance of hot plasmas into the laboratory. It became necessary to understand the behavior of such plasmas and to learn how to manipulate them. Theoreticians and experimentalists, building on the foundations of empirical laws, had to construct this new plasma physics from first principles and to explain the results of more and more complicated experiments. Along this line, two important topics emerged: wave-particle and wave-wave interactions. Here, their history is recalled as it has been lived by a French team from the end of the sixties to the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Dutton, J. C.; Carroll, B. F.
1988-01-01
Multiple shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions in constant or nearly constant area supersonic duct flows occur in a variety of devices including scramjet inlets, gas ejectors, and supersonic wind tunnels. For sufficiently high duct exit pressures, a multiple shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction or shock train may form in the duct and cause a highly nonuniform, and possibly unsteady, flow at the duct exit. In this report, the mean flow characteristics of two shock train interactions, one with an initial Mach number of 2.5 the other at Mach 1.6, are investigated using spark Schlieren photography, surface oil flow visualization, and mean wall pressure measurements. The Mach 2.5 interaction was oblique and asymmetric in nature. A large separation occurs after the first oblique shock. The top and bottom wall boundary layer separation has been investigated, revealing that the shape of the reattachment lines and surface flow patterns for the two separation regions are quite different. This oblique shock flow pattern occurs in a neurally stable fashion with each type of opposing separation region alternately existing on either the top or bottom wall during the course of a run. A small scale unsteadiness in the shock train location, with movement on the order of a boundary layer thickness, is also observed.
Wave-structure interaction for long wave models with a freely moving bottom
Benyo, Krisztian
2017-01-01
43 pages; In this paper we address a particular fluid-solid interaction problem in which the solid object is lying at the bottom of a layer of fluid and moves under the forces created by waves travelling on the surface of this layer. More precisely, we consider the water waves problem in a fluid of fixed depth with a flat bottom topography and with an object lying on the bottom, allowed to move horizontally under the pressure forces created by the waves. After establishing the physical settin...
Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions, I., Introduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kueny, C.S.; Morrison, P.J.
1994-11-01
Conventional linear stability analyses may fail for fluid systems with an indefinite free energy functional. When such a system is linearly stable, it is said to possess negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes, or nonlinearly via resonant wave-wave coupling, leading to explosive growth. In the dissipationless case, it is conjectured that intrinsic chaotic behavior may allow initially nonresonant systems to reach resonance by diffusion in phase space. In this and a companion paper [submitted to Physics of Plasmas], this phenomenon is demonstrated for a simple equilibrium involving cold counterstreaming ions. The system is described in the fluid approximation by a Hamiltonian functional and associated noncanonical Poisson bracket. By Fourier decomposition and appropriate coordinate transformations, the Hamiltonian for the perturbed energy is expressed in action-angle form. The normal modes correspond to Doppler-shifted ion-acoustic waves of positive and negative energy. Nonlinear coupling leads to decay instability via two-wave interactions, and to either decay or explosive instability via three-wave interactions. These instabilities are described for various (integrable) systems of waves interacting via single nonlinear terms. This discussion provides the foundation for the treatment of nonintegrable systems in the companion paper.
Interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake
He, G.; Zhao, Y. X.; Zhou, J.
2017-09-01
The interaction of a swept shock wave and a supersonic wake has been studied. The swept shock wave is generated by a swept compression sidewall, and the supersonic wake is generated by a wake generator. The flow field is visualized with the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering method, and a supplementary numerical simulation is conducted by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that the pressure rise induced by the swept shock wave can propagate upstream in the wake, which makes the location where vortices are generated move upstream, thickens the laminar section of the wake, and enlarges the generated vortices. The wake is swept away from the swept compression sidewall by the pressure gradient of the swept shock wave. This pressure gradient is not aligned with the density gradient of the supersonic wake, so the baroclinic torque generates streamwise vorticity and changes the distribution of the spanwise vorticity. The wake shock is curved, so the flow downstream of it is non-uniform, leaving the swept shock wave being distorted. A three-dimensional Mach disk structure is generated when the wake shock interacts with the swept shock wave.
The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulos, Gregory Steve [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
1997-01-01
The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.
Nonlinear interaction between acoustic gravity waves in a rotating atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Axelsson
1996-01-01
Full Text Available The influence of the Earth's rotation on the resonant interaction of atmospheric waves is investigated. The explicit expressions for the coupling coefficients are presented. They are derived by means of two different techniques; first, by a direct expansion derivation from a set of reduced equations, and second, by a Hamiltonian method.
Wheel-rail interaction at short-wave irregularities
Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.
2008-01-01
Short-wave irregularities in the wheel-rail interface are at the basis of track and vehicle damage and deterioration. On the short term, they result into high dynamic train-track interaction forces and a high energy input into the system that must be dissipated in the different system components or
Breakdown of Modulational Approximations in Nonlinear Wave Interaction
Gerhardt, L; Barbedo-Rizzato, F; Lopes, S R
1999-01-01
In this work we investigate the validity limits of the modulational approximation as a method to describe the nonlinear interaction of conservative wave fields. We focus on a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation and suggest that the breakdown of the approximation is accompanied by a transition to regimes of spatiotemporal chaos.
Modeling Wave-Ice Interactions in the Marginal Ice Zone
Orzech, Mark; Shi, Fengyan; Bateman, Sam; Veeramony, Jay; Calantoni, Joe
2015-04-01
The small-scale (O(m)) interactions between waves and ice floes in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) are investigated with a coupled model system. Waves are simulated with the non-hydrostatic finite-volume model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012) and ice floes are represented as bonded collections of smaller particles with the discrete element system LIGGGHTS (Kloss et al., 2012). The physics of fluid and ice are recreated as authentically as possible, to allow the coupled system to supplement and/or substitute for more costly and demanding field experiments. The presentation will first describe the development and validation of the coupled system, then discuss the results of a series of virtual experiments in which ice floe and wave characteristics are varied to examine their effects on energy dissipation, MIZ floe size distribution, and ice pack retreat rates. Although Wadhams et al. (1986) suggest that only a small portion (roughly 10%) of wave energy entering the MIZ is reflected, dissipation mechanisms for the remaining energy have yet to be delineated or measured. The virtual experiments are designed to focus on specific properties and processes - such as floe size and shape, collision and fracturing events, and variations in wave climate - and measure their relative roles the transfer of energy and momentum from waves to ice. Questions to be examined include: How is energy dissipated by ice floe collisions, fracturing, and drag, and how significant is the wave attenuation associated with each process? Do specific wave/floe length scale ratios cause greater wave attenuation? How does ice material strength affect the rate of wave energy loss? The coupled system will ultimately be used to test and improve upon wave-ice parameterizations for large-scale climate models. References: >Kloss, C., C. Goniva, A. Hager, S. Amberger, and S. Pirker (2012). Models, algorithms and validation for opensource DEM and CFD-DEM. Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics 12(2/3), 140-152. >Ma, G
Secondary Flows and Sediment Transport due to Wave - Current Interaction
Ismail, Nabil; Wiegel, Robert
2015-04-01
Objectives: The main purpose of this study is to determine the modifications of coastal processes driven by wave-current interaction and thus to confirm hydrodynamic mechanisms associated with the interaction at river mouths and tidal inlets where anthropogenic impacts were introduced. Further, the aim of the work has been to characterize the effect of the relative strength of momentum action of waves to the opposing current on the nearshore circulation where river flow was previously effective to entrain sediments along the shoreline. Such analytical information are useful to provide guidelines for sustainable design of coastal defense structures. Methodology and Analysis: Use is made of an earlier study reported by the authors (1983) on the interaction of horizontal momentum jets and opposing shallow water waves at shorelines, and of an unpublished laboratory study (1980). The turbulent horizontal discharge was shore-normal, directed offshore, and the incident wave direction was shore-normal, travelling toward shore. Flow visualization at the smooth bottom and the water surface, velocity and water surface elevation measurements were made. Results were obtained for wave , current modifications as well as the flow pattern in the jet and the induced circulation on both sides of the jet, for a range of wave and jet characteristics. The experimental data, obtained from measurement in the 3-D laboratory basin, showed several distinct flow pattern regimes on the bottom and the water surface. The observed flow circulation regimes were found to depend on the ratio of the wave momentum action on the jet to the jet initial momentum. Based on the time and length scales of wave and current parameters and using the time average of the depth integrated conservation equations, it is found that the relative strength of the wave action on the jet could be represented by a dimensionless expression; Rsm ( ) 12ρSa20g-L0h-Cg- 2 Rsm ≈ (C0 - U) /ρ0U w (1) In the above dimensionless
Wave-Particle Interactions involving Whistler/Chorus Waves in the Earth's Radiation Belt
Echterling, N.; Schriver, D.; Roeder, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.
2016-12-01
Whistler mode chorus and electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are common in the Earth's radiation belt and have been detected by the Van Allen Probes at L 4-6 during the recovery of substorm plasma injections. During an event on January 13, 2013, quasi-periodic bursts of 16-40 keV electrons in very narrow, oblique ranges of pitch angles (75-80° and 100-105°) were observed by MagEIS, which were correlated with simultaneous bursts of upper-band, whistler-mode chorus waves. ECH emissions were also detected, but exhibited little correlation with the electron bursts. To understand the generation of these different wave emissions a linear theory and particle in cell (PIC) simulation study is being carried out using the observed velocity distribution functions as the starting point. Anisotropies and gradients in the distributions can lead to the generation of both whistler and ECH waves and the PIC simulations will be used to understand how these waves interact with the electrons non-linearly, which can lead to energy diffusion and pitch angle scattering. Comparisons between the simulation results and the Van Allen probe data will be made to determine acceleration, heating and transport of electrons in the radiation belt region due to wave-particle interactions.
Lithotripter shock wave interaction with a bubble near various biomaterials
Ohl, S. W.; Klaseboer, E.; Szeri, A. J.; Khoo, B. C.
2016-10-01
Following previous work on the dynamics of an oscillating bubble near a bio-material (Ohl et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6313-36) and the interaction of a bubble with a shockwave (Klaseboer et al 2007 J. Fluid Mech. 593 33-56), the present work concerns the interaction of a gas bubble with a traveling shock wave (such as from a lithotripter) in the vicinity of bio-materials such as fat, skin, muscle, cornea, cartilage, and bone. The bubble is situated in water (to represent a water-like biofluid). The bubble collapses are not spherically symmetric, but tend to feature a high speed jet. A few simulations are performed and compared with available experimental observations from Sankin and Zhong (2006 Phys. Rev. E 74 046304). The collapses of cavitation bubbles (created by laser in the experiment) near an elastic membrane when hit by a lithotripter shock wave are correctly captured by the simulation. This is followed by a more systematic study of the effects involved concerning shockwave bubble biomaterial interactions. If a subsequent rarefaction wave hits the collapsed bubble, it will re-expand to a very large size straining the bio-materials nearby before collapsing once again. It is noted that, for hard bio-material like bone, reflection of the shock wave at the bone—water interface can affect the bubble dynamics. Also the initial size of the bubble has a significant effect. Large bubbles (˜1 mm) will split into smaller bubbles, while small bubbles collapse with a high speed jet in the travel direction of the shock wave. The numerical model offers a computationally efficient way of understanding the complex phenomena involving the interplay of a bubble, a shock wave, and a nearby bio-material.
Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alcoba, Diego R. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis, E-mail: qfplapel@lg.ehu.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Massaccesi, Gustavo E. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Ciclo Básico Común, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oña, Ofelia B. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CCT La Plata, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, CC 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2014-06-21
This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.
Wave-Ice interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone: Toward a Wave-Ocean-Ice Coupled Modeling System
2015-09-30
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave-Ice interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone: Toward a...scattering of waves by interaction with ice in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). The wave model physics developed here will later be part of an operational...10.5670/oceanog.2014.73. Liu, A.K., B. Holt, and P.W. Vachon, 1991: Wave propagation in the Marginal Ice Zone: Model predictions and comparisons
Particle Dynamics under Quasi-linear Interaction with Electromagnetic Waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.
2003-07-01
Langevin equations for quasi-linear wave particle interaction are obtained taking advantage of the unique vocal equivalence between Fokker-Plank equation and the former ones. Langevin equations are solved numerically and, hence, the evolution of a single particle embedded in an electromagnetic field in momentum space is obtained. The equations are relativistic and valid for any wave. It is also shown that the stochastic part of the equations is negligible in comparison with the deterministic term, except for the momentum to the resonance condition for the main parallel refractive index. (Author) 24 refs.
Acoustic-Gravity Waves Interacting with a Rectangular Trench
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Usama Kadri
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical solution of the two-dimensional linear problem of an acoustic-gravity wave interacting with a rectangular trench, in a compressible ocean, is presented. Expressions for the flow field on both sides of the trench are derived. The dynamic bottom pressure produced by the acoustic-gravity waves on both sides of the trench is measurable, though on the transmission side it decreases with the trench depth. A successful recording of the bottom pressures could assist in the early detection of tsunami.
Modeling of Mud-Wave Interaction: Mud-Induced Wave Transport & Wave-Induced Mud Transport
2007-11-01
seabed. This can be a fairly rapid process (i.e. of the order of tens of seconds, up to a few minutes at most, e.g. Foda and Zhang (1994); Lindenberg...response of cohesive sediments to water waves, PhD-dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, USA. Chou, H.-T., M.A. Foda and J.R. Hunt, 1993...Dingemans, M.W., 1997, Water wave propagation over uneven bottoms; Part I & II, World Scientific, Singapore. Foda , M.A. and S.-Y. Tzang, 1994
Hopkins, Julia; Elgar, Steve; Raubenheimer, Britt
2017-04-01
Accurately characterizing the interaction of waves and currents can improve predictions of wave propagation and subsequent sediment transport in the nearshore. Along the southern shoreline of Martha's Vineyard, MA, waves propagate across strong tidal currents as they shoal, providing an ideal environment for investigating wave-current interaction. Wave directions and mean currents observed for two 1-month-long periods in 7- and 2-m water depths along 11 km of the Martha's Vineyard shoreline have strong tidal modulations. Wave directions shift by as much as 70 degrees over a tidal cycle in 7 m depth, and by as much as 25 degrees in 2 m depth. The magnitude of the tidal modulations in the wave field decreases alongshore to the west, consistent with the observed decrease in tidal currents from 2.1 to 0.2 m/s. The observations are reproduced accurately by a numerical model (SWAN and Deflt3D-FLOW) that simulates waves and currents over the observed bathymetry. Model simulations with and without wave-current interaction and tidal depth changes demonstrate that the observed tidal modulations of the wave field primarily are caused by wave-current interaction and not by tidal changes to water depths over the nearby complex shoals. Sediment transport estimates from simulated wave conditions using a range of tidal currents and offshore wave fields indicate that the modulation of the wave field at Martha's Vineyard can impact the direction of wave-induced alongshore sediment transport, sometimes driving transport opposing the direction of the offshore incident wave field. As such, the observations and model simulations suggest the importance of wave-current interaction to tidally averaged transport in mixed-energy wave-and-current nearshore environments. Supported by ASD(R&E), NSF, NOAA (Sea Grant), and ONR.
Multi-directional random wave interaction with an array of cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ji, Xinran; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.
2015-01-01
Based on the linear theory of wave interaction with an array of circular bottom-mounted vertical cylinders, systematic calculations are made to investigate the effects of the wave directionality on wave loads in short-crested seas. The multi-directional waves are specified using a discrete form...... of the Mitsuyasu-type spreading function. The time series of multi-directional wave loads, including both the wave run-up and wave force, can be simulated. The effect of wave directionality on the wave run-up and wave loading on the cylinders is investigated. For multi-directional waves, as the distribution...... of wave spreading becomes wider, the wave run-up at some points around the cylinders is found to increase. This suggests that multi-directional wave run-up tends to be larger than unidirectional wave run-up. In addition, the wave directionality has a significant influence on the transverse force...
A 20-Year High-Resolution Wave Resource Assessment of Japan with Wave-Current Interactions
Webb, A.; Waseda, T.; Kiyomatsu, K.
2016-02-01
Energy harvested from surface ocean waves and tidal currents has the potential to be a significant source of green energy, particularly for countries with extensive coastlines such as Japan. As part of a larger marine renewable energy project*, The University of Tokyo (in cooperation with JAMSTEC) has conducted a state-of-the-art wave resource assessment (with uncertainty estimates) to assist with wave generator site identification and construction in Japan. This assessment will be publicly available and is based on a large-scale NOAA WAVEWATCH III (version 4.18) simulation using NCEP and JAMSTEC forcings. It includes several key components to improve model skill: a 20-year simulation to reduce aleatory uncertainty, a four-nested-layer approach to resolve a 1 km shoreline, and finite-depth and current effects included in all wave power density calculations. This latter component is particularly important for regions near strong currents such as the Kuroshio. Here, we will analyze the different wave power density equations, discuss the model setup, and present results from the 20-year assessment (with a focus on the role of wave-current interactions). Time permitting, a comparison will also be made with simulations using JMA MSM 5 km winds. *New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO): "Research on the Framework and Infrastructure of Marine Renewable Energy; an Energy Potential Assessment"
Cylindrical sound wave generated by shock-vortex interaction
Ribner, H. S.
1985-01-01
The passage of a columnar vortex broadside through a shock is investigated. This has been suggested as a crude, but deterministic, model of the generation of 'shock noise' by the turbulence in supersonic jets. The vortex is decomposed by Fourier transform into plane sinusoidal shear waves disposed with radial symmetry. The plane sound waves produced by each shear wave/shock interaction are recombined in the Fourier integral. The waves possess an envelope that is essentially a growing cylindrical sound wave centered at the transmitted vortex. The pressure jump across the nominal radius R = ct attenuates with time as 1/(square root of R) and varies around the arc in an antisymmetric fashion resembling a quadrupole field. Very good agreement, except near the shock, is found with the antisymmetric component of reported interferometric measurements in a shock tube. Beyond the front r approximately equals R is a precursor of opposite sign, that decays like 1/R, generated by the 1/r potential flow around the vortex core. The present work is essentially an extension and update of an early approximate study at M = 1.25. It covers the range (R/core radius) = 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 for M = 1.25 and (in part) for M = 1.29 and, for fixed (R/core radius) = 1000, the range M = 1.01 to infinity.
Ebisuzaki, Wesley
1989-01-01
The interactions between synoptic-scale and long waves were investigated analytically. First, the influence of the long wave on the synoptic-scale wave is examined. The structure of a synoptic-scale wave growing on a wavy basic scale was analyzed under an assumption that the synoptic-scale waves have the structure of the most unstable normal modes. The derived analytical solution, which is simple and is amenable to physical interpretation, can be understood in terms of eddies and their local growth rate. The analytical solution is then used to examine growth of a long wave in the presence of parameterized synoptic-scale waves. Two possibly unstable solutions were found; one is a modification of the linear long wave, and the other a strongly nonlinear solution. In both cases, the synoptic-scale wave increases the growth rate of the long wave.
Interaction of matter-wave gap solitons in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dabrowska, Beata J; Ostrovskaya, Elena A; Kivshar, Yuri S [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Australian Centre for Quantum-Atom Optics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
2004-10-01
We study the mobility and interaction of gap solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) confined by an optical lattice potential. Such localized wavepackets can exist only in the gaps of the matter-wave band-gap spectrum and their interaction properties are shown to serve as a measure of the discreteness imposed on a BEC by the lattice potential. We show that inelastic collisions of two weakly localized near-band-edge gap solitons provide a simple and effective means for generating strongly localized in-gap solitons through soliton fusion.
Climatology and trends in the forcing of the stratospheric zonal-mean flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Monier
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The momentum budget of the Transformed Eulerian-Mean (TEM equation is calculated using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40 and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP Reanalysis 2 (R-2. This study outlines the considerable contribution of unresolved waves, deduced to be gravity waves, to the forcing of the zonal-mean flow. A trend analysis, from 1980 to 2001, shows that the onset and break down of the Northern Hemisphere (NH stratospheric polar night jet has a tendency to occur later in the season in the more recent years. This temporal shift follows long-term changes in planetary wave activity that are mainly due to synoptic waves, with a lag of one month. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH, the polar vortex shows a tendency to persist further into the SH summertime. This also follows a statistically significant decrease in the intensity of the stationary EP flux divergence over the 1980–2001 period. Ozone depletion is well known for strengthening the polar vortex through the thermal wind balance. However, the results of this work show that the SH polar vortex does not experience any significant long-term changes until the month of December, even though the intensification of the ozone hole occurs mainly between September and November. This study suggests that the decrease in planetary wave activity in November provides an important feedback to the zonal wind as it delays the breakdown of the polar vortex. In addition, the absence of strong eddy feedback before November explains the lack of significant trends in the polar vortex in the SH early spring. A long-term weakening in the Brewer-Dobson (B-D circulation in the polar region is identified in the NH winter and early spring and during the SH late spring and is likely driven by the decrease in planetary wave activity previously mentioned. During the rest of the year, there are large discrepancies in the representation of the B
A note on the resonant interaction between a surface wave and two interfacial waves
Jamali, Mirmosadegh; Lawrence, Gregory A.; Seymour, Brian
2003-09-01
Hill & Foda (1998) and Jamali (1998) have presented theoretical and experimental studies of the resonant interaction between a surface wave and two oblique interfacial waves. Despite many similarities between the findings there is one seemingly major difference. Hill & Foda's (1998) analysis indicated that there are only narrow bands of frequency, density ratio and direction angle within which growth is possible. On the other hand, Jamali (1998) predicted and observed wave growth over wide ranges of frequency and direction angle, and for all the density ratios that he investigated. We show that Hill & Foda's (1998) second-order representation of the dynamic interfacial boundary condition is missing a term proportional to the time derivative of the square of the velocity shear across the interface. When this missing term is included in the analysis, the resulting predictions are consistent with the laboratory experiments.
A Note on the Resonant Interaction of a Surface Wave With two Interfacial Waves
Jamali, M.; Lawrence, G. A.; Seymour, B. R.
2002-12-01
Recently Hill and Foda (1998) and Jamali (1998) have performed theoretical and experimental studies of the resonant interaction between a surface wave and two oblique interfacial waves. Despite many similarities between the findings of the two studies there is one seemingly major difference. The analysis of Hill and Foda (1998) indicated that there are only narrow bands of frequency, density ratio, and direction angle within which growth is possible. On the other hand Jamali (1998) predicted and observed wave growth over wide ranges of frequency and direction angle, and for all the density ratios that he investigated. We show that second order representation of the dynamic interfacial boundary condition of Hill and Foda (1998) is missing a term proportional to the velocity shear across the interface. When this missing term is included in the analysis the resulting predictions are consistent with the laboratory experiments.
Time scales and structures of wave interaction exemplified with water waves
Kartashova, Elena
2013-05-01
Presently two models for computing energy spectra in weakly nonlinear dispersive media are known: kinetic wave turbulence theory, using a statistical description of an energy cascade over a continuous spectrum (K-cascade), and the D-model, describing resonant clusters and energy cascades (D-cascade) in a deterministic way as interaction of distinct modes. In this letter we give an overview of these structures and their properties and a list of criteria about which model of energy cascade should be used in the analysis of a given experiment, using water waves as an example. Applying the time scale analysis to weakly nonlinear wave systems modeled by the focusing nonlinear Schödinger equation, we demonstrate that K-cascade and D-cascade are not competing processes but rather two processes taking place at different time scales, at different characteristic levels of nonlinearity and based on different physical mechanisms. Applying those criteria to data known from experiments with surface water waves we find that the energy cascades observed occur at short characteristic times compatible only with a D-cascade. The only pre-requisite for a D-cascade being a focusing nonlinear Schödinger equation, the same analysis may be applied to existing experiments with wave systems appearing in hydrodynamics, nonlinear optics, electrodynamics, plasma, convection theory, etc.
Turbulence-particle interactions under surface gravity waves
Paskyabi, Mostafa Bakhoday
2016-11-01
The dispersion and transport of single inertial particles through an oscillatory turbulent aquatic environment are examined numerically by a Lagrangian particle tracking model using a series of idealised test cases. The turbulent mixing is incorporated into the Lagrangian model by the means of a stochastic scheme in which the inhomogeneous turbulent quantities are governed by a one-dimensional k- ɛ turbulence closure scheme. This vertical mixing model is further modified to include the effects of surface gravity waves including Coriolis-Stokes forcing, wave breaking, and Langmuir circulations. To simplify the complex interactions between the deterministic and the stochastic phases of flow, we assume a time-invariant turbulent flow field and exclude the hydrodynamic biases due to the effects of ambient mean current. The numerical results show that the inertial particles acquire perturbed oscillations traced out as time-varying sinking/rising orbits in the vicinity of the sea surface under linear and cnoidal waves and acquire a non-looping single arc superimposed with the high-frequency fluctuations beneath the nonlinear solitary waves. Furthermore, we briefly summarise some recipes through the course of this paper on the implementation of the stochastic particle tracking models to realistically describe the drift and suspension of inertial particles throughout the water column.
Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Sun, Yu-Hao; Shen, Yu-Jia; Su, Chuan-Qi
2016-11-01
In this paper, a two-component (2 + 1) -dimensional long-wave-short-wave (LWSW) system with nonlinearity coefficients, which describes the nonlinear resonance interaction between two short waves and a long wave, is studied. Via the Hirota's bilinear method and Pfaffian, N -order rogue waves for the LWSW system are constructed. Furthermore, correction of the N -order rogue waves is proved directly via the Pfaffian, which is cumbersome or inaccessible in other methods. Results of the first- and second-order rogue waves are presented: 1) For the first-order rogue waves, the two short-wave components are bright, while the long-wave component is dark. The position of maximum amplitude of the rogue wave is analyzed. Evolution process for the first-order rogue wave is also presented and discussed. 2) Choosing different forms of the elements defined in the Pfaffian, we obtain some kinds of the second-order rogue waves with new spatial distributions: when the elements defined in Pfaffian are the same as the first-order rogue waves, we find that the second-order rogue waves for the two short-wave components are split into two first-order rogue waves and the two bumps coexist and interact with each other; when we change the combination of the elements in Pfaffian, we find that the second-order rogue waves for the two short-wave components are split into three and four first-order rogue waves. 3) N -order rogue waves for a general M -component LWSW system are constructed.
Single-photon scattering with counter rotating wave interaction
He, Qi-Kai; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Z. H.; Zhou, D. L.
2017-07-01
Recent experiments have pushed the studies on atom-photon interactions to the ultrastrong regime, which motivates the exploration of physics beyond the rotation wave approximation. Here we study the single-photon scattering on a system composed of a coupling cavity array with a two-level atom in the center cavity, which, by varying two outside coupling parameters, corresponds to a model from a supercavity (SC) QED to a waveguide QED with counter rotating wave (CRW) interaction. By applying a time-independent scattering theory based on the bound states in the scattering region, we find that the CRW interaction obviously changes the transmission valley even in the weak atom-cavity coupling regime; in particular, the CRW interaction leads to an inelastic scattering process and a Fano-type resonance, which is directly observed in the crossover from the SC-QED case to the waveguide QED case. Predictably, our findings provide the potential of manipulating the CRW effects in realistic systems and pave the way for the numerical study of very general QED systems.
Interactions between volume and surface EM waves in layered structures
Ushioda, S.
1984-01-01
Using light scattering spectroscopy, the interaction of Surface Plasmon Polariton SPP in silver films on a glass substrate is with the incident radiation and with optical phonons of an external medium in contact with the film. The mean free path and the field strength of SPP are determined. The same SPP plays an important role in light emitting tunnel junctions (LETJ) in which an electrical current is converted into Volume Electromagnetic Wave VEW. The efficiency of light emission from LETJ through a prism coupler rather than through surface roughness is discussed. The coupling between phonon surface polaritons (PhSP) and optical guided waves (OGW) in thin films of GaP is also examined.
Liquid-bubble Interaction under Surf Zone Breaking Waves
Derakhti, M.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.
2014-12-01
Liquid-bubble interaction, especially in complex two-phase bubbly flow under breaking waves, is still poorly understood. Derakhti and Kirby (2014a,b) have recently studied bubble entrainment and turbulence modulation by dispersed bubbles under isolated unsteady breaking waves along with extensive model verifications and convergence tests. In this presentation, we continue this examination with attention turned to the simulation of periodic surf zone breaking waves. In addition, the relative importance of preferential accumulation of dispersed bubbles in coherent vortex cores is investigated. Heavier-than-liquid particles, i.e. sediment, tend to accumulate in regions of high strain rate and avoid regions of intense vorticity. In contrast, lighter-than-liquid particles such as bubbles tend to congregate in vortical regions. We perform a three dimensional (3D) large-eddy simulation (LES) using a Navier-Stokes solver extended to incorporate entrained bubble populations, using an Eulerian-Eulerian formulation for the polydisperse bubble phase. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used for free surface tracking. The model accounts for momentum exchange between dispersed bubbles and liquid phase as well as bubble-induced dissipation. We investigate the formation and evolution of breaking-induced turbulent coherent structures (BTCS) under both plunging and spilling periodic breaking waves as well as BTCS's role on the intermittent 3D distributions of bubble void fraction in the surf zone. We particularly examine the correlation between bubble void fractions and Q-criterion values to quantify this interaction. Also, the vertical transport of dispersed bubbles by downburst type coherent structures in the transition region is compared to that by obliquely descending eddies. All the results are summarized at different zones from outer to inner surf zone.
2016-12-22
by gale force and stronger winds. This project seeks to reconcile laboratory and field measurements of wind-wave interaction and surface drag in...December 2016 Award Number: N00014-12-10184 Turbulence Simulation of Laboratory Wind-Wave Interaction in High Winds and Upscaling to Ocean...modulational properties appears warranted. Our simulations did not account for: long wave-short wave interactions which may impact strongly on
Spin-wave propagation in the presence of inhomogeneous Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions
Lee, Seung-Jae; Moon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2017-11-01
We theoretically investigate spin-wave propagation through a magnetic metamaterial with spatially modulated Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. We establish an effective Schrödinger equation for spin waves and derive boundary conditions for spin waves passing through the boundary between two regions having different Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Based on these boundary conditions, we find that the spin wave can be amplified at the boundary and the spin-wave band gap is tunable either by an external magnetic field or the strength of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which offers a spin-wave analog of the field-effect transistor in traditional electronics.
Murphy, Kyle R.; Mann, Ian R.; Rae, I. Jonathan; Sibeck, David G.; Watt, Clare E. J.
2016-01-01
Wave-particle interactions play a crucial role in energetic particle dynamics in the Earths radiation belts. However, the relative importance of different wave modes in these dynamics is poorly understood. Typically, this is assessed during geomagnetic storms using statistically averaged empirical wave models as a function of geomagnetic activity in advanced radiation belt simulations. However, statistical averages poorly characterize extreme events such as geomagnetic storms in that storm-time ultralow frequency wave power is typically larger than that derived over a solar cycle and Kp is a poor proxy for storm-time wave power.
Chaotic and fractal patterns for interacting nonlinear waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maccari, Attilio, E-mail: solitone@yahoo.i [Via Alfredo Casella 3, 00013 Mentana, Rome (Italy)
2010-12-15
Research highlights: Chaotic and fractal solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations. Soliton and dromion solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations. Elastic interactions between solitons and dromions. - Abstract: Using an appropriate reduction method, a quite general new integrable system of equations 2 + 1 dimensions can be derived from the dispersive long-wave equation. Various soliton and dromion solutions are obtaining by selecting some types of solutions appropriately. The interaction between the localized solutions is completely elastic, because they pass through each other and preserve their shapes and velocities, the only change being a phase shift. The arbitrariness of the functions included in the general solution implies that approximate lower dimensional chaotic patterns such as chaotic-chaotic patterns, periodic-chaotic patterns, chaotic line soliton patterns and chaotic dromion patterns can appear in the solution. In a similar way, fractal dromion patterns and stochastic fractal excitations also exist for appropriate choices of the boundary conditions and/or initial conditions.
Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere
Wong, Alfred Y.
1999-09-01
The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.
Wave-current interactions: model development and preliminary results
Mayet, Clement; Lyard, Florent; Ardhuin, Fabrice
2013-04-01
The coastal area concentrates many uses that require integrated management based on diagnostic and predictive tools to understand and anticipate the future of pollution from land or sea, and learn more about natural hazards at sea or activity on the coast. The realistic modelling of coastal hydrodynamics needs to take into account various processes which interact, including tides, surges, and sea state (Wolf [2008]). These processes act at different spatial scales. Unstructured-grid models have shown the ability to satisfy these needs, given that a good mesh resolution criterion is used. We worked on adding a sea state forcing in a hydrodynamic circulation model. The sea state model is the unstructured version of WAVEWATCH III c (Tolman [2008]) (which version is developed at IFREMER, Brest (Ardhuin et al. [2010]) ), and the hydrodynamic model is the 2D barotropic module of the unstructured-grid finite element model T-UGOm (Le Bars et al. [2010]). We chose to use the radiation stress approach (Longuet-Higgins and Stewart [1964]) to represent the effect of surface waves (wind waves and swell) in the barotropic model, as previously done by Mastenbroek et al. [1993]and others. We present here some validation of the model against academic cases : a 2D plane beach (Haas and Warner [2009]) and a simple bathymetric step with analytic solution for waves (Ardhuin et al. [2008]). In a second part we present realistic application in the Ushant Sea during extreme event. References Ardhuin, F., N. Rascle, and K. Belibassakis, Explicit wave-averaged primitive equations using a generalized Lagrangian mean, Ocean Modelling, 20 (1), 35-60, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.07.001, 2008. Ardhuin, F., et al., Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part I: Definition, Calibration, and Validation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40 (9), 1917-1941, doi:10.1175/2010JPO4324.1, 2010. Haas, K. A., and J. C. Warner, Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and
Interaction of guided waves with delaminations in composite plate structures
Gupta, Saurabh; Yu, Xudong; Fan, Zheng; Rajagopal, Prabhu
2017-02-01
This paper addresses a gap in the literature on the 3-dimensional scattering of the fundamental symmetric Lamb mode S0 from delimitations in composite plates. We study the scattering of low-frequency S0 Lamb mode from a delamination in a stiffened 4-ply CFRP composite plate with [0/0]S ply orientation. Far field scattering coefficients for the S0 Lamb mode are plotted as a function of circumferential position around the delamination using 3D FE simulations. Results show that the delamination size has less influence on S0 Lamb wave scattering in the low-frequency regime where the S0 mode is non-dispersive. Further analysis was done using two-dimensional FE simulation for different ply-layup orientations with S0 Lamb mode. This study shows that ply-layup orientation and through-thickness delamination location in fiber composite laminate have a significant influence on S0 Lamb mode interaction. We also analyzed the interaction of A0 Lamb mode for a few cases. This work will be useful for practical Lamb wave based inspection of composite plate structures.
Initiation of Insensitive High Explosives Using Multiple Wave Interactions
Francois, Elizabeth; Burritt, Rosmary; Biss, Matt; Bowden, Patrick
2017-06-01
Insensitive High Explosives (IHEs) increase safety in many types of weapons. However, the safety comes at the cost of performance. Initiation of IHE requires large boosters and powerful detonators as well. Multipoint initiation is being utilized to exploit explosive wave interactions to create overdriven states, greatly facilitating the initiation of IHEs. This presentation will build from recent explosive experiments where the minimum spot size for single-point initiation in PBX 9502 was determined. Below this threshold, PBX 9502 could not be initiated. This was then expanded to three initiation points, which were smaller this threshold. Measurements of the velocity and pressure of the wave interactions were measured using Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Initiation was observed, and the resulting pressures at the double and triple points were found to be above the CJ state for PBX 9502. Based on these results, further tests were conducted to isolate and measure the longevity and pressure of this phenomenon using cut-back tests. All results will be presented and discussed.
Interactions of two identical wave trains with a relative separation angle of 24°
Ma, Yuxiang; Liu, Dianyong; Liu, Wei; Dong, Guohai; Perlin, Marc
2017-08-01
Interactions between two identical monochromatic wave trains with a relative separation angle of 24° were experimentally investigated in a well-designed `X' configuration. Wave trains with different amplitudes and frequencies were generated. The results demonstrated that the interaction was strongly dependent on both wave amplitude and frequency. For nonbreaking and lower-frequency cases, the wave trains can approximately reestablish their initial state following the interaction. However, for larger waves, the interaction was enhanced, distorting the surfaces significantly - the wave trains were no longer two-dimensional after the encounter. During the interaction process, there was an obvious increase in wave height, reaching a maximum amplification in the middle of the interaction region that was approximately 1.55 times the initial height. Furthermore, the images captured by high-speed cameras illustrated that two wave trains entered the interaction region at the same time and then merged during the interaction process, resulting in an increase in wave amplitude. The combined wave crest was initially composed of two straight segments with a relative angle of 24° and gradually morphed into a single segment as is evident in the plan view. The wave then broke in the downstream, still within the interaction region, exhibiting a crescent pattern along the crest.
Wave-Ice Interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone: Toward a Wave-Ocean-Ice Coupled Modeling System
2014-09-30
Wave- ice interaction...in the Marginal Ice Zone: toward a wave-ocean- ice coupled modeling system W. E. Rogers Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7322, Stennis Space Center...Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, MS Now at: COEST, Swinburne Univ. Tech., Melbourne , Australia Phone: +61 3 9214 5430 email: szieger
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verba, Roman, E-mail: verrv@ukr.net [Institute of Magnetism, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv 03142 (Ukraine); Tiberkevich, Vasil; Slavin, Andrei [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States)
2015-09-14
The influence of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (IDMI) on the parametric amplification of spin waves propagating in ultrathin ferromagnetic film is considered theoretically. It is shown that the IDMI changes the relation between the group velocities of the signal and idler spin waves in a parametric amplifier, which may result in the complete vanishing of the reversed idler wave. In the optimized case, the idler spin wave does not propagate from the pumping region at all, which increases the efficiency of the amplification of the signal wave and suppresses the spurious impact of the idler waves on neighboring spin-wave processing devices.
Possible second-order nonlinear interactions of plane waves in an elastic solid
Korneev, V.A.; Demcenko, A.
2014-01-01
There exist ten possible nonlinear elastic wave interactions for an isotropic solid described by three constants of the third order. All other possible interactions out of 54 combinations (triplets) of interacting and resulting waves are prohibited, because of restrictions of various kinds. The
Up- and down-conversion at three-wave interaction in medium with combined nonlinear response
Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Levitskiy, Nikita V.
2011-06-01
In this paper we construct the solution of nonlinear Schrödinger equations, describing the three-wave interaction in medium with combined (cubic and quadratic) nonlinear response under the condition of long pulse duration and plane wave approximation. The main feature of applied approach concludes in using of Hamiltonian of the equations set to find the algebraical equation with respect to difference of phases of interacting waves without the solution of the corresponding differential equation. For three-wave interaction we write the integral which depends on mismatching of wave-vectors and on input intensities of interacting waves. The evolution of intensity of each wave is express by the elliptical function.
Low-order models of wave interactions in the transition to baroclinic chaos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W.-G. Früh
1996-01-01
Full Text Available A hierarchy of low-order models, based on the quasi-geostrophic two-layer model, is used to investigate complex multi-mode flows. The different models were used to study distinct types of nonlinear interactions, namely wave- wave interactions through resonant triads, and zonal flow-wave interactions. The coupling strength of individual triads is estimated using a phase locking probability density function. The flow of primary interest is a strongly modulated amplitude vacillation, whose modulation is coupled to intermittent bursts of weaker wave modes. This flow was found to emerge in a discontinuous bifurcation directly from a steady wave solution. Two mechanism were found to result in this flow, one involving resonant triads, and the other involving zonal flow-wave interactions together with a strong β-effect. The results will be compared with recent laboratory experiments of multi-mode baroclinic waves in a rotating annulus of fluid subjected to a horizontal temperature gradient.
Interactions between waves, sediment, and turbulence on a shallow estuarine mudflat
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
MacVean, Lissa J; Lacy, Jessica R
2014-01-01
Measurements were collected on a shallow estuarine mudflat in northern San Francisco Bay to examine the physical processes controlling waves, turbulence, sediment resuspension, and their interactions...
Global smooth solutions in R3 to short wave-long wave interactions in magnetohydrodynamics
Frid, Hermano; Jia, Junxiong; Pan, Ronghua
2017-04-01
We consider a Benney-type system modeling short wave-long wave interactions in compressible viscous fluids under the influence of a magnetic field. Accordingly, this large system now consists of the compressible MHD equations coupled with a nonlinear Schrödinger equation along particle paths. We study the global existence of smooth solutions to the Cauchy problem in R3 when the initial data are small smooth perturbations of an equilibrium state. An important point here is that, instead of the simpler case having zero as the equilibrium state for the magnetic field, we consider an arbitrary non-zero equilibrium state B bar for the magnetic field. This is motivated by applications, e.g., Earth's magnetic field, and the lack of invariance of the MHD system with respect to either translations or rotations of the magnetic field. The usual time decay investigation through spectral analysis in this non-zero equilibrium case meets serious difficulties, for the eigenvalues in the frequency space are no longer spherically symmetric. Instead, we employ a recently developed technique of energy estimates involving evolution in negative Besov spaces, and combine it with the particular interplay here between Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates.
On the mechanisms of interaction of low-intensity millimeter waves with biological objects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Betskii, O.V.
1994-07-01
The interaction of low-intensity millimeter-band electromagnetic waves with biological objects is examined. These waves are widely used in medical practice as a means of physiotherapy for the treatment of various human disorders. Principal attention is given to the mechanisms through which millimeter waves act on the human organism.
Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions : A numerical study
de Bakker, A. T M; Tissier, M. F S; Ruessink, B. G.
2016-01-01
The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to
Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions : A numerical study
De Bakker, A. T M; Tissier, M.F.S.; Ruessink, B. G.
2016-01-01
The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to
Interaction of a weak discontinuity with elementary waves of Riemann problema)
Radha, R.; Sharma, V. D.
2012-01-01
We study the interaction of a weak discontinuity wave with the elementary waves of the Riemann problem for the one-dimensional Euler equations governing the flow of ideal polytropic gases, and investigate the effects of initial states, and the shock strength on the jumps in shock acceleration and the reflected and transmitted waves.
Two-nucleon Hulthen-type interactions for few higher partial waves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
By exploiting supersymmetry and factorization method, higher partial wave nucleon–nucleon potentials (ℓ = 1,2,3) for a few selected triplet and singlet states are generated from the ground-state interaction and wave function. The nuclear Hulthen potential and the corresponding wave function with the parameters of Arnold ...
Viscothermal wave propagation including acousto-elastic interaction
Beltman, W.M.
1998-01-01
This research deals with pressure waves in a gas trapped in thin layers or narrow tubes. In these cases viscous and thermal effects can have a significant effect on the propagation of waves. This so-called viscothermal wave propagation is governed by a number of dimensionless parameters. The two
Laboratory Study of Triggered Emissions and Nonlinear Wave-Particle Interactions
Amatucci, B.; Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C. E.; Enloe, C. L.; Ganguli, G.
2016-12-01
Experiments conducted in the Space Physics Simulation Chamber at the Naval Research Laboratory using an electron beam propagating in a non-uniform magnetic field and an antenna launching counter-propagating Whistler waves have demonstrated nonlinear Whistler amplification and triggered emissions due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions. When the antenna was not used, chorus-like chirped Whistler waves were observed. These experiments provide a good testbed for studying nonlinear wave-particle interactions and the resulting wave phenomena. Recent results from these experiments will be presented. *Work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program
Nonlinear Interaction of Naturally and Artificially Excited VLF and ELF Waves in the Ionosphere
Sotnikov, Vladimir; Caplinger, James; Kim, Tony; Mishin, Euvgeny
2017-10-01
We report on analysis of nonlinear parametric coupling between quasi-electrostatic whistler waves (also known as Lower Oblique Resonance (LOR) waves) and of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) fast magnetosonic waves to generate electromagnetic whistler waves. Natural and artificial VLF and ELF sources are analyzed. In the case of naturally excited VLF/ELF waves we show that nonlinear parametric coupling between the LOR and ELF waves suffices to explain the observed electromagnetic whistler waves in the plasmasphere boundary layer. In the case of artificial sources such as a loop antenna a great deal of the source power is radiated not as an electromagnetic whistler wave, but as a quasi-electrostatic LOR mode. Only a small percentage of the power is radiated as the electromagnetic whistler wave. We present new results on parametric interaction of LOR waves with ELF waves to demonstrate the possibility to overcome this difficulty. It will be shown that interaction of LOR waves gives rise to excitation of electromagnetic whistler waves. Additionally, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which demonstrate the excitation and spatial structure of VLF waves excited by conventional and parametric sources will be presented. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Statistical analysis of nonlinear wave interactions in simulated Langmuir turbulence data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Soucek
2003-03-01
Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of strong turbulence of Langmuir and ion-sound waves resulting from beam-plasma interaction. The analysis is carried out on data sets produced by a numerical simulation of one-dimensional Zakharov’s equations. The nonlinear wave interactions are studied using two different approaches: high-order spectra and Volterra models. These methods were applied to identify two and three wave processes in the data, and the Volterra model was furthermore employed to evaluate the direction and magnitude of energy transfer between the wave modes in the case of Langmuir wave decay. We demonstrate that these methods allow one to determine the relative importance of strongly and weakly turbulent processes. The statistical validity of the results was thoroughly tested using surrogated data set analysis.Key words. Space plasma physics (wave-wave interactions; experimental and mathematical techniques; nonlinear phenomena
Statistical analysis of nonlinear wave interactions in simulated Langmuir turbulence data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Soucek
Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of strong turbulence of Langmuir and ion-sound waves resulting from beam-plasma interaction. The analysis is carried out on data sets produced by a numerical simulation of one-dimensional Zakharov’s equations. The nonlinear wave interactions are studied using two different approaches: high-order spectra and Volterra models. These methods were applied to identify two and three wave processes in the data, and the Volterra model was furthermore employed to evaluate the direction and magnitude of energy transfer between the wave modes in the case of Langmuir wave decay. We demonstrate that these methods allow one to determine the relative importance of strongly and weakly turbulent processes. The statistical validity of the results was thoroughly tested using surrogated data set analysis.
Key words. Space plasma physics (wave-wave interactions; experimental and mathematical techniques; nonlinear phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. M. Huang
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear interactions of gravity waves are studied with a two-dimensional, fully nonlinear model. The energy exchanges among resonant and near-resonant triads are examined in order to understand the spectral energy transfer through interactions. The results show that in both resonant and near-resonant interactions, the energy exchange between two high frequency waves is strong, but the energy transfer from large to small vertical scale waves is rather weak. This suggests that the energy cascade toward large vertical wavenumbers through nonlinear interaction is inefficient, which is different from the rapid turbulence cascade. Because of considerable energy exchange, nonlinear interactions can effectively spread high frequency spectrum, and play a significant role in limiting wave amplitude growth and transferring energy into higher altitudes. In resonant interaction, the interacting waves obey the resonant matching conditions, and resonant excitation is reversible, while near-resonant excitation is not so. Although near-resonant interaction shows the complexity of match relation, numerical experiments show an interesting result that when sum and difference near-resonant interactions occur between high and low frequency waves, the wave vectors tend to approximately match in horizontal direction, and the frequency of the excited waves is also close to the matching value.
Heale, C. J.; Snively, J. B.
2014-12-01
Short-period (~5-15 minute), small-scale (10s of km) gravity waves propagating through the middle atmosphere will encounter and interact with other atmospheric waves and flows, which can vary horizontally, vertically, and temporally across a wide range of scales. Simulations of gravity wave impacts over global scales generally consider vertical propagation and atmospheric variations, and neglect small scale wave reflection and interactions between waves of different scales and the time dependent background atmosphere [e.g., Fritts and Alexander, Rev. Geo., 41, 1, 2003, and references cited therein]. Short period gravity waves , which are often subject to reflection, nevertheless carry significant momentum through the atmosphere [Hines, 1997, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59]. Prior studies have investigated gravity wave propagation through horizontally sheared winds [e.g., Basovich and Tsimring, J. Fluid. Mech., 142, 1984], or in altitude and time varying backgrounds [e.g., Broutman and Young, J. Fluid. Mech., 166, 1986]. Senf and Achatz [JGR, 116, D24, 2011, and references cited therein] have also considered propagation through vertically, horizontally, and temporally varying background winds, finding significant reduction of dissipation by critical levels. We here use a combination of 2D numerical simulations and ray-tracing to study the effects of medium scale background wave wind fields on the upward propagation of small-scale, short-period waves. In particular, we consider cases where the short-period waves would be classically reflected or ducted in static realistic background temperature and wind structures. Results suggest an important role for medium-scale temporal and spatial atmospheric variability in reducing the strength of reflections and facilitating the upward propagation of small-scale waves.
Belinda Lipa; Donald Barrick; Andres Alonso-Martirena; Maria Fernandes; Maria Inmaculada Ferrer; Bruce Nyden
2014-01-01
We describe radar measurements of waves, currents and winds made on the coast of northern Scotland during two 2013/14 winter storms, giving methods, results and interpretation. Wave parameters (height, period, direction and short-wave/wind direction) were derived and compared with measurements made by a neighboring buoy and local weather stations. Wind direction and current velocity maps were produced and the interactions of winds and currents discussed. Significant oscillations in wave param...
(Investigations of ultrasonic wave interactions with grain boundaries and grain imperfections)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-01-01
The main objective of our research is to obtain a better understanding of ultrasonic wave interaction with interfaces in polycrystalline materials. This report discusses two recently developed experimental techniques: scanning acoustic microscope and optical point sensors. As for general wave propagation problems in anisotropic media, four major topics are discussed in separate sections. First, single boundaries between large bicrystals are considered. The reflection and transmission coefficients of such interfaces are calculated for imperfect boundary conditions by using the finite interface stiffness approach. Ultrasonic transmission through multiple-grain structures are investigated by computer simulation based on the statistical evaluation of repeated acoustical wave interactions with individual grain boundaries. The number of grains interacting with the propagating acoustical wave is considered to be high enough to approximate the wave-material interaction as scattering on elastic inhomogeneities. The grain scattering induced attenuation of Rayleigh waves is investigated in polycrystalline materials. 41 refs., 43 figs.
Three-wave interaction in two-component quadratic nonlinear lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Konotop, V. V.; Cunha, M. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1999-01-01
We investigate a two-component lattice with a quadratic nonlinearity and find with the multiple scale technique that integrable three-wave interaction takes place between plane wave solutions when these fulfill resonance conditions. We demonstrate that. energy conversion and pulse propagation known...... from three-wave interaction is reproduced in the lattice and that exact phase matching of parametric processes can be obtained in non-phase-matched lattices by tilting the interacting plane waves with respect to each other. [S1063-651X(99)15110-9]....
Interaction of Submerged Breakwater by a Solitary Wave Using WC-SPH Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Afshin Mansouri
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Interaction of a solitary wave and submerged breakwater is studied in a meshless, Lagrangian approach. For this purpose, a two-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH code is developed. Furthermore, an extensive set of simulations is conducted. In the first step, the generated solitary wave is validated. Subsequently, the interaction of solitary wave and submerged breakwater is investigated thoroughly. Results of the interaction of solitary wave and a submerged breakwater are also shown to be in good agreement with published experimental studies. Afterwards, the effects of the inclination and length of breakwater as well as distance between two breakwaters are evaluated on damping ratio of breakwater.
Long-term wave growth and its linear and nonlinear interactions with wind fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Ge
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Following Ge and Liu (2007, the simultaneously recorded time series of wave elevation and wind velocity are examined for long-term (on Lavrenov's τ_{4}-scale or 3 to 6 h linear and nonlinear interactions between the wind fluctuations and the wave field. Over such long times the detected interaction patterns should reveal general characteristics for the wave growth process. The time series are divided into three episodes, each approximately 1.33 h long, to represent three sequential stages of wave growth. The classic Fourier-domain spectral and bispectral analyses are used to identify the linear and quadratic interactions between the waves and the wind fluctuations as well as between different components of the wave field.
The results show clearly that as the wave field grows the linear interaction becomes enhanced and covers wider range of frequencies. Two different wave-induced components of the wind fluctuations are identified. These components, one at around 0.4 Hz and the other at around 0.15 to 0.2 Hz, are generated and supported by both linear and quadratic wind-wave interactions probably through the distortions of the waves to the wind field. The fact that the higher-frequency wave-induced component always stays with the equilibrium range of the wave spectrum around 0.4 Hz and the lower-frequency one tends to move with the downshifting of the primary peak of the wave spectrum defines the partition of the primary peak and the equilibrium range of the wave spectrum, a characteristic that could not be revealed by short-time wavelet-based analyses in Ge and Liu (2007. Furthermore, these two wave-induced peaks of the wind spectrum appear to have different patterns of feedback to the wave field. The quadratic wave-wave interactions also are assessed using the auto-bispectrum and are found to be especially active during the first and the third episodes. Such directly detected wind-wave interactions, both linear and
Raman three-wave interaction in partially spin polarized plasma
Shahid, M.; Iqbal, Z.; Jamil, M.; Murtaza, G.
2017-10-01
By employing the separate spin evolution-quantum hydrodynamic model (SSE-QHD), the nonlinear growth rate of the parametric decay instability is studied via the Raman scattering process of three-wave coupling. SSE-QHD equations are solved for the pump wave (O-mode), sideband Shear Alfvén wave, and the electron plasma perturbations. It is observed that the spectrum of the electron plasma waves is modified due to newly generated spin dependent waves which contribute in the coupling process. The nonlinear growth rate as a result of three wave coupling is plotted for different sets of parameters and conditions. It is also observed that the growth rate is suppressed due to the spin effects. Shifting of diamagnetic behavior of plasma to paramagnetic behavior is noticed.
Lamb wave interactions through dispersion 2D filters
Martinez, L.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Caplain, E.; Sarens, B.; Glorieux, C.
2012-03-01
Acoustic surface waves are widely used to sense and map the properties of the propagation media. In order to characterise local space-time waves, methods such as Gabor analysis are powerful. Nevertheless, knowing which wave is observed, extracting its full bandwidth contribution from the others and to map it in the signal domain is also of great interest. In the Fourier domain, the acoustic energy of a wave is concentrated along the wave-number frequency (k-ω) dispersion curve, a way to extract one wave from others is to filter the signals by mean of k-ω band-pass area that keeps only the selected surface wave. The objective of the present paper is to propose 2D Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters based on an arbitrary area shape designed to extract selected waves. FIR filtering is based on convolving the impulse response of the filter with the signals. Impulse responses derived from using k-ω elliptical areas (E-FIR) are presented. The E-FIR filters are successfully tested on three experimental space-time signals corresponding to the propagation of Lamb waves measured by standard transducers on a cylindrical shell, by laser Doppler on a plate and generated by a circular pulse and observed by shearography on a rectangular plate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jong-In Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents wave height distribution in terms of stem wave evolution phenomena on partially perforated wall structures through three-dimensional laboratory experiments. The plain and partially perforated walls were tested to understand their effects on the stem wave evolution under the monochromatic and random wave cases with the various wave conditions, incident angle (from 10 to 40 degrees, and configurations of front and side walls. The partially perforated wall reduced the relative wave heights more effectively compared to the plain wall structure. Partially perforated walls with side walls showed a better performance in terms of wave height reduction compared to the structure without the side wall. Moreover, the relative wave heights along the wall were relatively small when the relative chamber width is large, within the range of the chamber width in this study. The wave spectra showed a frequency dependency of the wave energy dissipation. In most cases, the existence of side wall is a more important factor than the porosity of the front wall in terms of the wave height reduction even if the partially perforated wall was still effective compared to the plain wall.
Convectively generated stratospheric gravity waves - The role of mean wind shear
Holton, J. R.; Durran, D.
1993-01-01
A two-dimensional numerical simulation of mid-latitude squall lines is used to study the properties of storm-induced stratospheric gravity waves. Owing to the tendency for convective cells to form at the forward edge of a squall line, and then propagate toward the rear, the simulated storms preferentially generate gravity waves that propagate toward the rear of the storm. This anisotropy in gravity wave generation leads to a net vertical transfer of momentum into the stratosphere. Cases with and without stratospheric mean wind shear are compared. In the latter case Doppler shifting of the waves to lower frequencies leads to wave breaking and enhanced wave - mean-flow interaction.
Modelling wave-boundary layer interaction for wind power applications
Jenkins, A. D.; Barstad, I.; Gupta, A.; Adakudlu, M.
2012-04-01
Marine wind power production facilities are subjected to direct and indirect effects of ocean waves. Direct effects include forces due to wave orbital motions and slamming of the water surface under breaking wave conditions, corrosion and icing due to sea spray, and the effects of wave-generated air bubbles. Indirect effects include include the influence of waves on the aerodynamic sea-surface roughness, air turbulence, the wind velocity profile, and air velocity oscillations, wave-induced currents and sediment transport. Field observations within the boundary layers from floating measurement may have to be corrected to account for biases induced as a result of wave-induced platform motions. To estimate the effect of waves on the atmospheric boundary layer we employ the WRF non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmosphere model, using the default YSU planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and the WAM spectral wave model, running simultaneously and coupled using the open-source coupler MCEL which can interpolate between different model grids and timesteps. The model is driven by the WRF wind velocity at 10 m above the surface. The WRF model receives from WAM updated air-sea stress fields computed from the wind input source term, and computes new fields for the Charnock parameter and marine surface aerodynamic roughness. Results from a North Atlantic and Nordic Seas simulation indicate that the two-way coupling scheme alters the 10 metre wind predicted by WRF by up to 10 per cent in comparison with a simulation using a constant Charnock parameter. The changes are greatest in developing situations with passages of fronts, moving depressions and squalls. This may be directly due to roughness length changes, or may be due to changes in the timing of front/depression/squall passages. Ongoing work includes investigating the effect of grid refinement/nesting, employing different PBL schemes, and allowing the wave field to change the direction of the total air-sea stress.
The parameterization of wave-particle interactions in the Outer Radiation Belt
Watt, Clare E. J.; Rae, I. J.; Murphy, K. R.; Anekallu, C.; Bentley, S. N.; Forsyth, C.
2017-09-01
We explore the use of mean value empirical wave models in diffusion models of the Outer Radiation Belt. We show that magnetospheric wave power is not normally distributed in time and that geomagnetic activity does not provide a deterministic proxy for the temporal variability of wave activity. Our findings indicate that current diffusion models significantly overestimate the action of wave-particle interactions due to extremely low frequency and very low frequency waves in the magnetosphere. We suggest that other techniques such as stochastic parameterization will lead to a better characterization of subgrid diffusion physics in the Outer Radiation Belt.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Si, Haiqing; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2013-01-01
Acoustic propagation in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow is studied numerically by using two different acoustic propagating models, which solve linearized Euler equations (LEE) and acoustic perturbation equations (APE). As noise induced by turbulent flows often propagates from near field t...
Interaction of a mode-2 internal solitary wave with narrow isolated topography
Deepwell, David; Stastna, Marek; Carr, Magda; Davies, Peter A.
2017-07-01
Numerical and experimental studies of the transit of a mode-2 internal solitary wave over an isolated ridge are presented. All studies used a quasi-two-layer fluid with a pycnocline centred at the mid-depth. The wave amplitude and total fluid depth were both varied, while the topography remained fixed. The strength of the interaction between the internal solitary waves and the hill was found to be characterized by three regimes: weak, moderate, and strong interactions. The weak interaction exhibited negligible wave modulation and bottom surface stress. The moderate interaction generated weak and persistent vorticity in the lower layer, in addition to negligible wave modulation. The strong interaction clearly showed material from the trapped core of the mode-2 wave extracted in the form of a thin filament while generating a strong vortex at the hill. A criterion for the strength of the interaction was found by non-dimensionalizing the wave amplitude by the lower layer depth, a /ℓ . A passive tracer was used to measure the conditions for resuspension of boundary material due to the interaction. The speed and prevalence of cross boundary layer transport increased with a /ℓ .
The Roles of Transport and Wave-Particle Interactions on Radiation Belt Dynamics
Fok, Mei-Ching; Glocer, Alex; Zheng, Qiuhua
2011-01-01
Particle fluxes in the radiation belts can vary dramatically during geomagnetic active periods. Transport and wave-particle interactions are believed to be the two main types of mechanisms that control the radiation belt dynamics. Major transport processes include substorm dipolarization and injection, radial diffusion, convection, adiabatic acceleration and deceleration, and magnetopause shadowing. Energetic electrons and ions are also subjected to pitch-angle and energy diffusion when interact with plasma waves in the radiation belts. Important wave modes include whistler mode chorus waves, plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and magnetosonic waves. We investigate the relative roles of transport and wave associated processes in radiation belt variations. Energetic electron fluxes during several storms are simulated using our Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model. The model includes important transport and wave processes such as substorm dipolarization in global MHD fields, chorus waves, and plasmaspheric hiss. We discuss the effects of these competing processes at different phases of the storms and validate the results by comparison with satellite and ground-based observations. Keywords: Radiation Belts, Space Weather, Wave-Particle Interaction, Storm and Substorm
Extension of NHWAVE to Couple LAMMPS for Modeling Wave Interactions with Arctic Ice Floes
2015-09-30
physical processes governing the attenuation of wave energy in the marginal ice zone (MIZ). 3. Conducting comparative simulations to evaluate MIZ...Discrete element method simulations of wave-ice interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone”, 2014 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union...Orzech, M., Shi, F., Calantoni, J., Bateman, S., and Veeramony, J., “Small-scale modeling of waves and floes in the Marginal Ice Zone”, 2014 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union.
Wave-induced current considering wave-tide interaction in Haeundae
Lim, Hak Soo
2017-04-01
The Haeundae, located at the south eastern end of the Korean Peninsula, is a famous beach, which has an approximately 1.6 km long and 70 m wide coastline. The beach has been repeatedly eroded by the swell waves caused by typhoons in summer and high waves originating in the East Sea in winter. The Korean government conducted beach restoration projects including beach nourishment (620,000 m3) and construction of two submerged breakwaters near both ends of the beach. To prevent the beach erosion and to support the beach restoration project, the Korean government initiated a R&D project, the development of coastal erosion control technology since 2013. As a part of the project, we have been measuring waves and currents at a water depth of 22 m, 1.8 km away from the beach using an acoustic wave and current meter (AWAC) continuously for more than three years; we have also measured waves and currents intensively near the surf-zone in summer and winter. In this study, a numerical simulation using a wave and current coupled model (ROMS-SWAN) was conducted for determining the wave-induced current considering seasonal swell waves (Hs : 2.5 m, Tp: 12 s) and for better understanding of the coastal process near the surf-zone in Haeundae. By comparing the measured and simulated results, we found that cross-shore current during summer is mainly caused by the eddy produced by the wave-induced current near the beach, which in turn, is generated by the strong waves coming from the SSW and S directions. During other seasons, longshore wave-induced current is produced by the swell waves coming from the E and ESE directions. The longshore current heading west toward Dong-Back Island, west end of the beach, during all the seasons and eddy current toward Mipo-Port, east end of the beach, in summer which is well matched with the observed residual current. The wave-induced current with long-term measurement data is incorporated in simulation of sediment transport modeling for developing
Advanced Accelerators: Particle, Photon and Plasma Wave Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Ronald L. [Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2017-06-29
The overall objective of this project was to study the acceleration of electrons to very high energies over very short distances based on trapping slowly moving electrons in the fast moving potential wells of large amplitude plasma waves, which have relativistic phase velocities. These relativistic plasma waves, or wakefields, are the basis of table-top accelerators that have been shown to accelerate electrons to the same high energies as kilometer-length linear particle colliders operating using traditional decades-old acceleration techniques. The accelerating electrostatic fields of the relativistic plasma wave accelerators can be as large as GigaVolts/meter, and our goal was to study techniques for remotely measuring these large fields by injecting low energy probe electron beams across the plasma wave and measuring the beam’s deflection. Our method of study was via computer simulations, and these results suggested that the deflection of the probe electron beam was directly proportional to the amplitude of the plasma wave. This is the basis of a proposed diagnostic technique, and numerous studies were performed to determine the effects of changing the electron beam, plasma wave and laser beam parameters. Further simulation studies included copropagating laser beams with the relativistic plasma waves. New interesting results came out of these studies including the prediction that very small scale electron beam bunching occurs, and an anomalous line focusing of the electron beam occurs under certain conditions. These studies were summarized in the dissertation of a graduate student who obtained the Ph.D. in physics. This past research program has motivated ideas for further research to corroborate these results using particle-in-cell simulation tools which will help design a test-of-concept experiment in our laboratory and a scaled up version for testing at a major wakefield accelerator facility.
Mathematical modelling of sand wave migration and the interaction with pipelines
Morelissen, Robin; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Knaapen, Michiel; Nemeth, Attila; Bijker, Romke
2003-01-01
A new method is presented for identifying potential pipeline problems, such as hazardous exposures. This method comprises a newly developed sand wave amplitude and migration model, and an existing pipeline–seabed interaction model. The sand wave migration model is based on physical principles and
Three-wave interaction during electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Hansen, Søren Kjer
2016-01-01
Non-linear wave-wave interactions in fusion plasmas, such as the parametric decay instability (PDI) of gyrotron radiation, can potentially hamper the use of microwave diagnostics. Here we report on anomalous scattering in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak during electron cyclotron resonance heating...
Plasma heating by non-linear wave-Plasma interaction | Echi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The wave-plasma interaction has a non-conservative Hamiltonian description. The resulting system of Hamilton's equations is integrated numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme. It is found that for wave amplitude α as low as 0.01Bo the response of the plasma is remarkably different from the prediction of linear ...
Interaction of Acoustic Waves with a Cryogenic Nitrogen Jet at Sub- and Supercritical Pressures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chehroudi, B
2001-01-01
To better understand the nature of the interaction between acoustic waves and liquid fuel jets in rocket engines, cryogenic liquid nitrogen is injected into a room temperature high-pressure chamber...
Resonant interactions between cometary ions and low frequency electromagnetic waves
Thorne, Richard M.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.
1987-01-01
The conditions for resonant wave amplification in a plasma with a ring-beam distribution which is intended to model pick-up ions in a cometary environment are investigated. The inclination between the interplanetary field and the solar wind is found to play a crucial role in governing both the resonant frequency and the growth rate of any unstable mode. It is suggested that the low-frequency MHD mode should experience the most rapid amplification for intermediate inclination. In the frame of the solar wind, such waves should propagate along the field in the direction upstream toward the sun with a phase speed lower than the beaming velocity of the pick-up ions. This mechanism may account for the presence of the interior MHD waves noted by satellites over a region surrounding comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley.
Zhao, J. S.
2012-09-01
Kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) are dispersive Alfvén waves with perpendicular wavelengths comparable to the ion gyroradius or the electron inertial length. The KAWs can play an important role in plasma heating, particle acceleration, and anomalous particle transport, and have been extensively applied to various active phenomena of plasma. Therefore, the wave characters for the KAWs in various astrophysical and space plasmas have been an interesting subject with extensive attentions. In this thesis we study in depth nonlinear wave-wave interaction processes of the KAWs in various plasma environments, and focus on the nonlinear growth rates of the KAWs caused by these wave-wave coupling processes. In this thesis, we first study the local nonlinear wave-wave coupling among three KAWs in different plasma beta conditions, where Q≡ m_{e}/m_{i} is the electron-ion mass ratio and β is the kinetic-magnetic pressure ratio of the plasma. Our results show that: (1) in the inertial region, the reverse decay, where the pump wave decays into two reversely propagating KAWs, is stronger than the parallel decay, where the pump wave decays into two KAWs propagating in the same direction; (2) in the aspect of the wavelength change, the decay rate of the pump wave into the shorter-wavelength daughter waves is higher than that into the longer-wavelength daughter waves, implying that the decay process develops mainly towards exciting small-scale waves; (3) in the kinetic region (Q≪ β ≪ 1) and the high-β region, the nonlinear growth rate decreases with β, but increases with the ion-electron temperature ratio T_{i}/T_{e}. Secondly, we study the non-local coupling of small-scale KAWs with large-scale Alfvén waves (AWs) and convective cell. The results show that: (1) in the inertial region of βQ, the coupling occurs in the way of ``AW + KAW1 → KAW2''; (2) the modulation instability of KAWs can excite the electrostatic convective cell in the inertial region of β≪ Q and the
Resonance zones for interactions of magnetosonic waves with radiation belt electrons and protons
Zhang, Wenxun; Zhou, Ruoxian; Yi, Juan; Gu, Xudong; Ni, Binbin; Zheng, Chengyao; Hua, Man
2017-12-01
As an important plasma wave mode in the geospace, magnetosonic waves can interact with both radiation belt electrons and protons, thereby impacting the dynamics of magnetospheric particles. Based on the Doppler-shifted resonance condition and the cold plasma dispersion relation, we investigate the profiles of resonance zone and resonant frequency of the Landau resonance between radiation belt electrons and magnetosonic waves and the cyclotron resonances with protons. The results demonstrate that resonant interactions between magnetosonic waves and magnetospheric charged particles largely rely on L-shell, wave normal angle, and kinetic energy and equatorial pitch angle of particles. Resonance zones for the Landau resonance between magnetosonic waves and radiation belt electrons are confined to a very narrow (mostly less than 1°) extent of magnetic latitude, which tends to shift to lower latitudes with increasing equatorial pitch angle and decreasing electron energy. Landau resonance frequencies also increase with magnetosonic wave normal angle. In contrast, higher order cyclotron resonances of magnetosonic waves with protons are much easier to occur in a broad range of magnetic latitude. As the resonance order increases, the coverage of the resonance zone shrinks overall and occupies the geomagnetic equatorial region. In addition, resonant frequencies increase with resonance order. Corresponding to higher order cyclotron resonances, protons are more likely to interact with magnetosonic waves at intermediate to high frequencies. Our study can be useful to elaborate the resonant interaction processes between magnetosonic waves and radiation belt electrons and protons and improve the current understanding of the multi-aspect impact of magnetosonic waves on the magnetospheric particle dynamics.
Hybrid Ray/Wave Optics for Laser-Plasma Interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ratowsky, R.P.; Kallman, J.S.; Afeyan, B.B.; Feit, M.D.
1999-02-18
This aim of this FY 1998 LDRD project was to create a computational tool which bridges the gap between wave and ray optical regimes, important for application areas such as laser propagation in plasma and multimode photonics. We used phase space methods, where a set of rays distributed in a particular way in position and angle retain many essential features of wave optics. To characterize and enhance our understanding of the method, we developed a GUI-based photonics tool which can analyze light propagation in systems with a variety of axial and transverse refractive index distributions.
Measurements of wave-particle interaction in a single-ended Q machine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, S.A.; Christoffersen, G.B.; Jensen, Vagn Orla
1971-01-01
A Green-function technique is used to solve the linearized Vlasov equation for the perturbed ion velocity distribution function, f( x,v,t), in a case where a short density pulse is released into a plasma. Some characteristic features in the calculated curves are caused by wave-particle interaction....... The features showing the wave-particle interaction appear in the experimental results...
Assessment of CFD Modeling Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions
2015-11-30
RUTGERS UNIVERSITY Final Technical Report ONR Grant N00014-14-1-0827 Assessment of CFD Modeling Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Boundary...Layer Interactions 30 November 2015 Doyle Knight Dept Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 98 Brett...30 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessment of CFD Modeling Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions 5a. CONTRACT
The influence of strong field vacuum polarization on gravitational-electromagnetic wave interaction
Forsberg, Mats; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Brodin, Gert
2010-01-01
The interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the presence of a static magnetic field is studied. The field strength of the static field is allowed to surpass the Schwinger critical field, such that the quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects of vacuum polarization and magnetization are significant. Equations governing the interaction are derived and analyzed. It turns out that the energy conversion from gravitational to electromagnetic waves can be significantly altered d...
Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Grison
2005-12-01
Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 R_{E} cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belinda Lipa
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We describe radar measurements of waves, currents and winds made on the coast of northern Scotland during two 2013/14 winter storms, giving methods, results and interpretation. Wave parameters (height, period, direction and short-wave/wind direction were derived and compared with measurements made by a neighboring buoy and local weather stations. Wind direction and current velocity maps were produced and the interactions of winds and currents discussed. Significant oscillations in wave parameters were observed, which appear to be due to forcing by tidal current velocity variations. The oscillations in waveheight are explained using hydrodynamic analysis and derived amplitudes are compared with radar measurements.
On resonant interactions of ions with plasma waves in a reduced quasi-linear theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Marsch
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Based on quasi-linear theory (involving pitch angle scattering, the resonant interactions between ions and waves in an anisotropic multi-component plasma are discussed. In particular, electromagnetic Alfvén and ion-cyclotron waves propagating along or obliquely to the magnetic field are considered. A set of reduced (with respect to the perpendicular velocity component quasi-linear diffusion equations is derived, involving reduced 1-D velocity distribution functions (VDFs, as they occur in wave dispersion relations. A 2-D model VDF can be constructed when using the Gaussian approximation. Wave-particle heating and acceleration rates are calculated.
A linear model for amplitude modulation of Langmuir waves in weak electron-beam plasma interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Baumgärtel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A simple linear approach to the phenomenon of amplitude modulation of Langmuir waves in weak beam plasma interaction is presented. During the short growth phase of the instability and within the longer period after saturation, the waves are described by their linear kinetic dispersion properties.The amplitude modulation appears as result of the beating of waves with different wavelengths and amplitudes that have grown from noise in the initial phase. The Langmuir wave fields are calculated via FFT (fast Fourier transform technique. The resulting waveforms in temporal representation are quite similar to those observed by spacecraft.
Validation of a Wave-Body Interaction Model by Experimental Tests
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ferri, Francesco; Kramer, Morten; Pecher, Arthur
2013-01-01
Within the wave energy field, numerical simulation has recently acquired a worldwide consent as being a useful tool, besides physical model testing. The main goal of this work is the validation of a numerical model by experimental results. The numerical model is based on a linear wave-body intera......-body interaction theory, applied for a point absorber wave energy converter. The results show that the ratio floater size/wave amplitude is a key parameter for the validity of the applied theory....
Interaction of Rayleigh waves with 2D dipolar exciton gas: impact of Bose–Einstein condensation
Boev, M. V.; Chaplik, A. V.; Kovalev, V. M.
2017-12-01
The theory of the interaction of a two-dimensional gas of indirect dipolar excitons with Rayleigh surface elastic waves has been developed. The absorption and renormalization of the phase velocity of a surface wave, as well as the drag of excitons by the surface acoustic wave and the generation of bulk acoustic waves by a two dimensional gas of dipolar excitons irradiated by external electromagnetic radiation, have been considered. These effects have been studied both in a normal phase at high temperatures and in a condensed phase of the exciton gas. The calculations have been performed in the ballistic and diffusion limits for both phases.
Page 1 Shock-wave-turbulent-boundary-layer interaction & its ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
shock .. rehabilitation shock with a turbulent boundary phase asºn: phase layer: M., + 1.47 (from Seddon. p x / So 1960). al 1977). Figures 16 and 17 show some of the important features of the separated flow and the surface pressure distributions as observed by Seddon (1960). The strong normal shock wave bifurcates near ...
An overset grid approach to linear wave-structure interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Read, Robert; Bingham, Harry B.
2012-01-01
. This software implementation has been validated by performing time-domain simulations to evaluate the dynamic forces applied to a half-submerged cylinder and a rectangular barge in response to a prescribed motion. A Gaussian displacement is used to introduce a range of wave frequencies, thereby allowing...
Laboratory Studies of Sea-Ice-Wave Interactions
Monty, J.; Meylan, M. H.; Babanin, A. V.; Toffoli, A.; Bennetts, L.
2016-12-01
A world-first facility for studying the Marginal Ice Zone has been constructed in the Michell Hydrodynamics Laboratory at the University of Melbourne. A 14m long wave tank (0.75m wide, 0.6m deep) resides in a freezer, where air temperature can be controlled down to -15C. This permits the freezing of the water surface. Large stainless steel ice-making trays (up to 4 m long) are also available to create ice of desired thickness and microstructure, which can be lowered onto the water surface. A computer controlled wave generator is capable of creating waves of any desired form. The temperature of the water in the tank can also be controlled between 2 and 30C. The tank frame is constructed of marine-treated wood and the entire tank is glass and acrylic, permitting the use of corrosive fluids, such as salt water. Here we present the first laboratory experiments of break-up of a controlled thickness, fresh water ice sheet impacted by regular and JONSWAP spectrum surface waves. The geometry of the resultant ice-floes is measured with high-resolution, time-resolved imaging, providing the crucial data of floe size distribution. Initial observations show that, in the case of high steepness waves, the primary mechanisms of ice break-up at the ice edge are overwash and rafting, both of which put weight on the ice interior to the ice-water interface. This additional weight (and impact in the case of rafting) breaks more ice, which allows overwash and rafting deeper into the ice sheet, breaking more ice and so on. For lower steepness waves, overwash and rafting are still present but far less significant. Finally, results of vertical ice movement using laser height gauges will be presented showing the attenuation of waves into an ice sheet and through a pack of ice floes. These results are compared with field data and theory available (e.g. Squire & Moore, Nature, 1980 and Kohout et al., Nature, 2014).
Depth averaged wave-current interaction in the multi bank morphology of the southern North Sea
Komijani, Homayoon; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo Torres, Francisco; Monbaliu, Jaak
2017-04-01
The effects of wind induced waves on the barotropic mean flow during a storm event in the southern North Sea are investigated. The well known radiation stress gradient theory of Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (1962, 1964) together with the influence of waves through the Stokes drift (Hasselmann, 1971 and Garret, 1976) are incorporated in the RANS equation system of the COHERENS circulation model (Luyten et al., 2005) following the methodology worked out by Bennis et al. (2011) . The SWAN spectral wave model (version 40.91, http://www.swan.tudelft.nl/) is used to provide the wave information. This allows us to take into account the dissipative terms of wave momentum flux to the mean flow such as depth induced wave breaking and bottom friction as well as the conservative terms of wave effects such as the vortex-force and wave induced pressure gradient. The resulting coupled COHERENS-SWAN model has been validated using the well known planar beach test case proposed by Haas and Warner (2009) in depth averaged mode. For the application in the southern North Sea, a series of nested grids using COHERENS (circulation model) and WAM cycle 4.5.3 (spectral wave model applied to the North Sea shelf area, Monbaliu et al. 2000; Günther, H. and A. Behrens, personal communications, May 2012) is set up to provide the hydrodynamic and wave boundary conditions for the COHERENS-SWAN two way coupled wave-current model for the Belgian coastal zone model. The improvements obtained in hindcasting the circulation processes in the Belgian coastal area during a storm event will be highlighted. But also difficulties faced in the coupling of the models and in the simulation of a real case storm will be discussed. In particular, some of the approaches for dealing with the numerical instabilities due to multi bank morphology of the southern North Sea will be addressed. References : Bennis, A.-C., F. Ardhuin, and F. Dumas (2011). "On the coupling of wave and three-dimensional circulation models
Interaction of solitary waves in longitudinal magnetic field in two-fluid MHD
Gavrikov, M. B.; Savelyev, V. V.
2017-01-01
The interaction of solitary waves in a model of two-fluid MHD is studied analytically and numerically in the most general case of waves in cold plasma in longitudinal magnetic field. The distinctive feature of this work is the use of “exact” equations rather than an approximate approach (a model equation). Numerical analysis of the solutions of this system of eight partial differential equations shows that the the interaction of solitary waves found in this case is the same (with great accuracy) as that of solitons, i.e., solitary waves that are solutions of various model equations. The solitary waves considered here transport plasmoids with velocities of the order of the Alfven velocity. The main finite-difference method used here for solving the said equations is a natural generalization of the classical two-step Lax-Wendorff scheme.
Singh, Avinash; Mohapatra, Shubhajyoti; Ziman, Timothy; Chatterji, Tapan
2017-02-01
Spin waves in the type-III ordered antiferromagnetic state of the frustrated t- t ' Hubbard model on the face-centred-cubic (fcc) lattice are calculated to investigate finite-U-induced competing interaction and frustration effects on magnetic excitations and instabilities. Particularly strong competing interactions generated due to the interplay of fcc lattice geometry and magnetic order result in significant spin wave softening. The calculated spin wave dispersion is found to be in qualitative agreement with the measured spin wave dispersion in the pyrite mineral MnS2 obtained from inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Instabilities to other magnetic orders (type I, type II, spiral, non-collinear), as signalled by spin wave energies turning negative, are also discussed.
Numerical Modeling of Fluid Structure Interactions of a Floating Wave Energy Extraction Device
Lee, J.; Kang, S.
2014-12-01
In recent years there has been increased attention towards developing the strategies for harnessing hydrokinetic and wave energy from the ocean. There exists several hydrokinetic energy devices designed to extract energy from the ocean current but few wave energy devices are available. The moored floating cylinder-like structure that has been recently developed in South Korea is one of such devices. We carry out numerical simulation of the three-dimensional interactions of a floating cylinder and incoming waves using the level-set curvilinear immersed boundary method of Kang and Sotiropoulos (2012) to improve the understanding the wave energy extraction mechanisms of that device. The results demonstrate the potential of our numerical model as a powerful engineering tool for predicting complex wave-structure interaction phenomena associated with energy extraction devices.
Modeling a nonperturbative spinor vacuum interacting with a strong gravitational wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Folomeev, Vladimir [Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science, NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)
2015-07-15
We consider the propagation of strong gravitational waves interacting with a nonperturbative vacuum of spinor fields. To described the latter, we suggest an approximate model. The corresponding Einstein equation has the form of the Schroedinger equation. Its gravitational-wave solution is analogous to the solution of the Schroedinger equation for an electron moving in a periodic potential. The general solution for the periodic gravitational waves is found. The analog of the Kronig-Penney model for gravitational waves is considered. It is shown that the suggested gravitational-wave model permits the existence of weak electric charge and current densities concomitant with the gravitational wave. Based on this observation, a possible experimental verification of the model is suggested. (orig.)
Nonlinear interaction of impulsive gravitational waves for the vacuum Einstein equations
Luk, Jonathan
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study the problem of the nonlinear interaction of impulsive gravitational waves for the Einstein vacuum equations. The problem is studied in the context of a characteristic initial value problem with data given on two null hypersurfaces and containing curvature delta singularities. We establish an existence and uniqueness result for the spacetime arising from such data and show that the resulting spacetime represents the interaction of two impulsive gravitational waves germinating from the initial singularities. In the spacetime, the curvature delta singularities propagate along 3-dimensional null hypersurfaces intersecting to the future of the data. To the past of the intersection, the spacetime can be thought of as containing two independent, non-interacting impulsive gravitational waves and the intersection represents the first instance of their nonlinear interaction. Our analysis extends to the region past their first interaction and shows that the spacetime still remains smooth away fro...
An Arctic Ice/Ocean Coupled Model with Wave Interactions
2015-09-30
New Zealand phone: +64 (3) 479-8303 email: vernon.squire@otago.ac.nz Award Number: N00014-131-0279 http://www.maths.otago.ac.nz/∼vsquire LONG...Symposium on Ice, Singapore, August 2014. Squire, V. A. Perspectives of ocean wave / sea ice connectivity relating to climate change and modelling...contemporary Arctic climate models. OBJECTIVES To make progress with our long-term goals, over the lifetime of the project we will – further our
Interacting relativistic quantum dynamics for multi-time wave functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lienert Matthias
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we report on recent progress about a rigorous and manifestly covariant interacting model for two Dirac particles in 1+1 dimensions [9, 10]. It is formulated using the multi-time formalism of Dirac, Tomonaga and Schwinger. The mechanism of interaction is a relativistic generalization of contact interactions, and it is achieved going beyond the usual functional-analytic Hamiltonian method.
Consequences of repeated discovery and benign neglect of non-interaction of waves (NIW)
Roychoudhuri, ChandraSekhar
2017-08-01
This paper presents the historical background behind the repeated discovery and repeated ignoring of the generic important property of all propagating waves, the Non-Interaction of Waves (NIW). The focus will be on the implications of NIW in most of the major optical phenomena with brief hints of importance. We argue that the prevailing postulate of wave-particle duality becomes unnecessary, once we accept NIW. Semi-classical model of treating light-matter interactions should be the preferred approach since the quantumness actually arises from within the structure of the energy levels (bands) in materials. Waves, and wave equations, do not support bullet-like propagation. We follow the historical trend starting from the tenth century physicist Alhazen, to the seventeenth century Newton and Huygens, then to the nineteenth century Young and Fresnel. Then we jump to twentieth century physicists Planck, Einstein, Bose, Dirac and Feynman. Had we recognized and appreciated NIW property of waves from the time of Alhazen, the evolutionary history of physics would have been dramatically different from what we have today. The prevailing dominance of the postulate of wave-particle duality is keeping us confused from seeking out actual reality; and hence, we should abandon this concept and search out better models. The paper demonstrates that NIW provides us with a platform for deeper understanding of the nature of EM waves that we have missed; it is not just semantics.
Wave-current interaction during Hudhud cyclone in the Bay of Bengal
Samiksha, Volvaiker; Vethamony, Ponnumony; Antony, Charls; Bhaskaran, Prasad; Nair, Balakrishnan
2017-11-01
The present work describes the interaction between waves and currents utilizing a coupled ADCIRC+SWAN model for the very severe cyclonic storm Hudhud, which made landfall at Visakhapatnam on the east coast of India in October 2014. Model-computed wave and surge heights were validated with measurements near the landfall point. The Holland model reproduced the maximum wind speed of ≈ 54 m s-1 with the minimum pressure of 950 hPa. The modelled maximum surge of 1.2 m matches with the maximum surge of 1.4 m measured off Visakhapatnam. The two-way coupling with SWAN showed that waves contributed ≈ 0.25 m to the total water level during the Hudhud event. At the landfall point near Visakhapatnam, the East India Coastal Current speed increased from 0.5 to 1.8 m s-1 for a short duration ( ≈ 6 h) with net flow towards the south, and thereafter reversed towards the north. An increase of ≈ 0.2 m in Hs was observed with the inclusion of model currents. It was also observed that when waves travelled perpendicular to the coast after crossing the shelf area, with current towards the southwest, wave heights were reduced due to wave-current interaction; however, an increase in wave height was observed on the left side of the track, when waves and currents opposed each other.
Shen, Yanfeng
2017-04-01
This paper presents a numerical investigation of the nonlinear interactions between multimodal guided waves and delamination in composite structures. The elastodynamic wave equations for anisotropic composite laminate were formulated using an explicit Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA). The contact dynamics was modeled using the penalty method. In order to capture the stick-slip contact motion, a Coulomb friction law was integrated into the computation procedure. A random gap function was defined for the contact pairs to model distributed initial closures or openings to approximate the nature of rough delamination interfaces. The LISA procedure was coded using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which enables the highly parallelized computation on powerful graphic cards. Several guided wave modes centered at various frequencies were investigated as the incident wave. Numerical case studies of different delamination locations across the thickness were carried out. The capability of different wave modes at various frequencies to trigger the Contact Acoustic Nonlinearity (CAN) was studied. The correlation between the delamination size and the signal nonlinearity was also investigated. Furthermore, the influence from the roughness of the delamination interfaces was discussed as well. The numerical investigation shows that the nonlinear features of wave delamination interactions can enhance the evaluation capability of guided wave Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. This paper finishes with discussion, concluding remarks, and suggestions for future work.
Interaction of torsional and longitudinal guided waves in weakly nonlinear circular cylinders.
Liu, Yang; Khajeh, Ehsan; Lissenden, Cliff J; Rose, Joseph L
2013-05-01
The nonlinear forcing terms for the wave equation in general curvilinear coordinates are derived based on an isotropic homogeneous weakly nonlinear elastic material. The expressions for the nonlinear part of the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress are specialized for axisymmetric torsional and longitudinal fundamental waves in a circular cylinder. The matrix characteristics of the nonlinear forcing terms and secondary mode wave structures are manipulated to analyze the higher harmonic generation due to the guided wave mode self-interactions and mutual interactions. It is proved that both torsional and longitudinal secondary wave fields can be cumulative by a specific type of guided wave mode interactions. A method for the selection of preferred fundamental excitations that generate strong cumulative higher harmonics is formulated, and described in detail for second harmonic generation. Nonlinear finite element simulations demonstrate second harmonic generation by T(0,3) and L(0,4) modes at the internal resonance points. A linear increase of the normalized modal amplitude ratio A2/A1(2) over the propagation distance is observed for both cases, which indicates that mode L(0,5) is effectively generated as a cumulative second harmonic. Counter numerical examples demonstrate that synchronism and sufficient power flux from the fundamental mode to the secondary mode must occur for the secondary wave field to be strongly cumulative.
The Reciprocal Relationship between Marital Interaction and Marital Happiness: A Three-Wave Study.
Zuo, Jiping
1992-01-01
Examined reciprocal relationship between marital interaction and marital happiness with three-wave panel study of national sample of married persons. Overall findings support hypothesis that there exists positive reciprocal relationship between marital interaction and marital happiness, particularly demonstrating important role of marital…
Periodic permanent waves in an anharmonic chain with nearest-neighbour interaction
Valkering, T.P.
1978-01-01
The existence of longitudinal periodic permanent waves in a one-dimensional translationally invariant anharmonic chain with nearest-neighbour interaction is established by means of variational methods. A general expression for the energy is given in terms of the dispersion relation. The interaction
Laboratory Studies of Nonlinear Interactions Relevant to Alfvén Wave Decay Instabilities
Dorfman, Seth
2014-10-01
Alfvén waves, a fundamental mode of magnetized plasmas, are ubiquitous in both laboratory and space plasmas. Many theoretical predictions show that these waves may be unstable to various decay instabilities (e.g.). Despite the possible importance of these processes in problems such as the heating of the solar corona and the transfer of energy to small spacial scales in the solar wind, observational evidence is limited. The present work at UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD) represents the first fundamental laboratory study of the non-linear Alfvén wave interactions responsible for this class of instabilities; in particular, we present 1) laboratory observation of the Alfvén-acoustic mode coupling at the heart of the Parametric Decay Instability and 2) laboratory observations consistent with a decay instability in which a Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW) decays into two co-propagating KAWs. The first study is conducted by launching counterpropagating Alfvén waves from antennas placed at either end of the LAPD. A resonance in the beat wave response produced by the two launched Alfvén waves is observed and is identified as a damped ion acoustic mode based on the measured dispersion relation. Results are consistent with theoretical predictions for a three-wave interaction driven by a nonlinear ponderomotive force. In the second experiment, a single high-frequency ω /ωci ~ 0 . 7 Alfvén wave is launched, resulting in two daughter modes with frequencies and wave numbers that suggest co-propagating KAWs produced by decay of the pump wave. The observed process is parametric in nature, with the frequency of the daughter modes varying as a function of pump amplitude. Efforts are underway to fully characterize the second set of experiments and compare with decay instabilities predicted by theory and simulations. Supported by DOE, NSF, and DOE FES and NASA Eddy Postdoctoral Fellowships.
Numerical simulation of wave interactions during sudden stratospheric warming
Gavrilov, N. M.; Koval, A. V.; Pogoreltsev, A. I.; Savenkova, E. N.
2017-11-01
Parameterizations of normal atmospheric modes (NAMs) and orographic gravity waves (OGWs) are implemented into the mechanistic general circulation model of the middle and upper atmosphere (MUA). Numerical experiments of sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events are performed for climatological conditions typical for January and February using meteorological reanalysis data from the UK MET Office in the MUA model averaged over the years 1992-2011 with the easterly phase of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The simulation shows that an increase in the OGW amplitudes occurs at altitudes higher than 30 km in the Northern Hemisphere after SSW. The OGW amplitudes have maximums at altitudes of about 50 km over the North American and European mountain systems before and during SSW, as well as over the Himalayas after SSW. At high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, significant (up to 50-70%) variations in the amplitudes of stationary planetary waves (SPWs) are observed during and after the SSW. Westward travelling NAMs have local amplitude maximums not only in the Northern Hemisphere, but also in the Southern Hemisphere, where there are waveguides for the propagation of these modes. Calculated variations of SPW and NAM amplitudes correspond to changes in the mean temperature and wind fields, as well as the Eliassen-Palm flux and atmospheric refractive index for the planetary waves, during SSW. Including OGW thermal and dynamical effects leads to an increase in amplitude (by 30-70%) of almost all SPWs before and during SSW and to a decrease (up to 20-100%) after the SSW at middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.
Wave-Particle Interactions on Relativistic Electron Beams.
1980-05-16
block nuebstj C-, S_ i l iN .... . .6l I~A.S i~In V )d... D D 1473 EDO ,o,, OF 1 NOv i IS 02SOLTE . S/NC 007-014-CL601 , -T ASIeStC4-UIrYl CLAS’.IFICA...differential equation and per- nits the electron orbits to turn in the wave frame, corresponding as one advances along the beam in the direction of...state helical orbits are included. If perturbed, these orbits oscillate about equilibrium, so that substantial gain enhancement can occur if the
Vertical motion of ionization induced by the linear interaction of tides with planetary waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Voiculescu
2003-07-01
Full Text Available Experimental findings have shown that travelling planetary waves modulate the occurrence of mid-latitude sporadic-E-layers. Using a simple quantitative model, we analyse the effects of the linear interaction between tides and planetary waves on ion motion. Besides an expected variation of the dumping height, it is found that the boundaries of the oscillations induced by the descending semidiurnal tide are significantly modified by the presence of the planetary wave. The height variations of the ionisation cause planetary wave modulations of the metallic ion content in the background plasma density. This could explain the long-term variation found in the occurrence of strong Es layers. The fact that the dumping height variations are strongly influenced by the tidal phase velocity and amplitude, together with the variability of the metallic ion content, could contribute to the understanding of the sporadic nature of the E-layers.Key words. Ionosphere (Ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; Mid-latitude ionosphere
Optical Gaussian beam interaction with one-dimensional thermal wave in the Raman-Nath configuration.
Bukowski, Roman J
2009-03-01
Optical Gaussian beam interaction with a one-dimensional temperature field in the form of a thermal wave in the Raman-Nath configuration is analyzed. For the description of the Gaussian beam propagation through the nonstationary temperature field the complex geometric optics method was used. The influence of the refractive coefficient modulation by thermal wave on the complex ray phase, path, and amplitude was taken into account. It was assumed that for detection of the modulated Gaussian beam parameters two types of detector can be used: quadrant photodiodes or centroidal photodiodes. The influence of such parameters as the size and position of the Gaussian beam waist, the laser-screen (detector) distance, the thermal wave beam position and width, as well as thermal wave frequency and the distance between the probing optical beam axis and source of thermal waves on the so-called normal signal was taken into account.
Spin-wave canting induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in ferromagnetic nanowires
Guo, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ming
2017-07-01
The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) can cause spin-wave (SW) nonreciprocality in extended magnetic films. Here, we report a correlated effect for SWs propagating in a waveguide, namely, a longitudinally magnetized nanowire. Due to the shape confinement, SWs traveling in the wire are quasiquantized along the width direction. In the presence of the DMI, the wave-front lines become oblique with respect to the propagation direction, unlike any ordinary wave pattern. The tilting direction of the wave front is determined by the sign of the DMI constant, manifesting the chiral nature of the DMI. Another remarkable SW property revealed is that the two dynamical magnetization components that jointly characterize a SW mode exhibit different spatial profiles. Mathematically, these extraordinary effects can be attributed to the first-order spatial derivative brought into the wave equation by the DMI.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stratigaki, Vasiliki; Troch, Peter; Stallard, Tim
2014-01-01
Experiments have been performed in the Shallow Water Wave Basin of DHI (Hørsholm, Denmark), on large arrays of up to 25 heaving point absorber type Wave Energy Converters (WECs), for a range of geometric layout configurations and wave conditions. WEC response and modifications of the wave field...... are measured to provide data for understanding WEC array interactions and to evaluate array interaction numerical models. Each WEC consists of a buoy with a diameter of 0.315 m and power take-off (PTO) is modeled by realizing friction based energy dissipation through damping of the WEC’s motion. Wave gauges...... are located within and around the WEC array. Wave conditions studied include regular, polychromatic, long- and short-crested irregular waves. A rectilinear arrangement of WEC support structures is employed such that several array configurations can be studied. In this paper, the experimental arrangement...
How the Wave-Current Interactions Are Modulated By the Horizontal Mixing inside a Rip System ?
Bennis, A. C.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Blanke, B.
2014-12-01
The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. We study the effects of the horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions with the 3D fully-coupled model MARS-WW3. First, very weak mixing are used at high resolution. Modifications of the vorticity and wave fields, by adding of feedback from the currents to the waves, are in agreement with previous studies. The flow is purely non-stationary and, after half an hour, several vortices appear inside both the rip neck and feeder. The decrease of the mixing accentuates the nonstationary effects and the generation of vortices. Second, we consider a grid-spacing dependent mixing. Comparisons with simulations that use a constant value for the viscosity coefficient are carried out for three different cases of spatial resolution. The mixing is stronger than previously, leading to stabilization of the flow and reduction of the rip intensity. Wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests due to refraction by both the bathymetry and current field, showing that the wave motion depends on the rip intensity. When the mixing is based on grid spacing, a high resolution is necessary to observe significant effects of the feedback from the currents to the waves. A grid-independent solution is obtained for a constant viscosity. With a viscosity dependent on the grid spacing, the wave motion at low resolution is the same for both coupling modes because the change in wave direction due to the currents is weak. The fully-coupled simulations show similar depth-averaged rip velocities for all mixing cases and resolutions, showing the improvement in the numerical convergence of the velocity thanks to the feedback from the currents to the waves. Horizontal mixing and feedback have little impact on the vertical shear of the 3D velocity, but strongly affect the intensity of the rip velocity.
Wave-Structure Interactions on Point Absorbers - an experimental study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Morten Møller
We are facing a significant challenge when it comes to securing the energy needed to sustain our standard of living in the future. With the increasing global temperature and the climbing levels of carbon dioxide in our atmo- sphere we need to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. The renewable...... of a wave energy device by determin- ing the loads on the device. The loads plays a key part in optimizing the power extraction, reducing the structural cost, and increasing the survivabil- ity. Experiments are carried out in small and large scale and compared to simulations and empirical functions. The WEC...... technologies will play a key role in achieving this. The renewable energy sec- tor consists of a wide range of technologies yet the source with the highest energy density is still untapped. The extraction of energy from the ocean has shown to be costly and difficult. This thesis deals with the development...
Packo, P.; Staszewski, W. J.; Uhl, T.
2016-01-01
Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808
Spin wave mediated interaction as a mechanism of pairs formation in iron-based superconductors
Lima, Leonardo S.
2018-03-01
The spin wave mediated interaction between electrons has been proposed as mechanism to formation of electron pairs in iron-based superconductors. We employe the diagrammatic expansion to calculate the binding energy of electrons pairs mediated by spin wave. Therefore, we propose the coupling of electrons in high-temperature superconductors mediated by spin waves, since that is well known that this class of superconductors materials if relates with spin-1/2 two-dimensional antiferromagnets, where it is well known there be an interplay between antiferromagnetism 2D and high-temperature superconductivity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Hashemiyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort.
Internal Gravity Wave Interactions with Double-Diffusive Instabilities
Brown, Justin; Radko, Timour
2017-04-01
In this study, we focus on the phenomenon of oscillatory double-diffusive convection, which occurs when cool fresh water is stratified above warm salty water, as commonly observed in the Arctic Ocean. In the Arctic, these regions are generally stable to the development of oscillatory double-diffusive instabilities; despite this, observations show the presence of staircases, i.e., the well-defined structures consisting of a series of homogeneous layers separated by thin high-gradient interfaces. Recent studies have shown that an instability can develop in such circumstances if weak static shear is present even when the shear and double-diffusion are themselves individually stable. However, the impact of oscillating shear, associated with the ubiquitous presence of internal gravity waves, has not yet been addressed for the diffusive case. Through two-dimensional simulations of diffusive convection, we have investigated the impact of magnitude and frequency of externally forced internal waves on the double-diffusive shear instability. The analysis is focused on the parameter regime in which the flow is individually stable with respect to double-diffusion and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but could be susceptible to the combined thermohaline-shear instability. We have illustrated that rapid oscillation inhibits the development of this instability if the dominant period is shorter than four hours for the oceanographically relevant parameters; otherwise, models with static shear adequately reproduce our results. If the dominant period is shorter than four hours but still significantly exceeds the buoyancy period, the instability range is much reduced to the low Richardson number regime. Some of these simulations show the saturated system developing into structures reminiscent of double-diffusive staircases whose thickness is given by the wavelength of the forced shear. Finally, preliminary three-dimensional simulations show no major differences in the growth rate of
A simplified two-dimensional boundary element method with arbitrary uniform mean flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bassem Barhoumi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available To reduce computational costs, an improved form of the frequency domain boundary element method (BEM is proposed for two-dimensional radiation and propagation acoustic problems in a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. The boundary integral equation (BIE representation solves the two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation (CHE and its fundamental solution, which must satisfy a new Sommerfeld radiation condition (SRC in the physical space. In order to facilitate conventional formulations, the variables of the advanced form are expressed only in terms of the acoustic pressure as well as its normal and tangential derivatives, and their multiplication operators are based on the convected Greenâs kernel and its modified derivative. The proposed approach significantly reduces the CPU times of classical computational codes for modeling acoustic domains with arbitrary mean flow. It is validated by a comparison with the analytical solutions for the sound radiation problems of monopole, dipole and quadrupole sources in the presence of a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. Keywords: Two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation, Two-dimensional convected Greenâs function, Two-dimensional convected boundary element method, Arbitrary uniform mean flow, Two-dimensional acoustic sources
Bulat, P. V.; Ilyina, T. E.; Volkov, K. N.; Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.
2017-06-01
Two-phase systems that involve gas-particle or gas-droplet flows are widely used in aerospace and power engineering. The problems of weakening and suppression of detonation during saturation of a gas or liquid flow with the array of solid particles are considered. The tasks, associated with the formation of particles arrays, dust lifting behind a travelling shock wave, ignition of particles in high-speed and high-temperature gas flows are adjoined to safety of space flight. The mathematical models of shock wave interaction with the array of solid particles are discussed, and numerical methods are briefly described. The numerical simulations of interaction between sub- and supersonic flows and an array of particles being in motionless state at the initial time are performed. Calculations are carried out taking into account the influence that the particles cause on the flow of carrier gas. The results obtained show that inert particles significantly weaken the shock waves up to their suppression, which can be used to enhance the explosion safety of spacecrafts.
Scaffolding the Next Wave of Digital Visitor Interaction in Museums
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudloff, Maja
2013-01-01
that when designing for user interaction and participation, museums must carefully consider the complexities of user participation with new technologies. If the design and conceptual frame becomes too complex, it can actually limit the intended visitor experience with the museum subject matter. By combining...... insights from communication and design theory with conceptual models for scaffolding the museum visitor experience, this paper uses a Danish digital museum case called the WALL created by the Museum of Copenhagen to consider the special implications of designing technology for museum visitor interaction...
Chaotic Solutions of Nonlinear Wave-Wave Interacting Systems in Plasmas.
1980-06-01
complex roots a±ib. Then, YI+y2+73 = c-2a, 1 U(Y2+1Y3) IvIA 0 2/(Y2Y3 a 2 b22ac, (3.12) (Y2Y3) IvJA0 2 y1y2y3= c(a2 +b2)/4. Since IvJA 0 2 > 1 (Y 2Y3...1(YC2Y3 ) ), the energy is dissipated more rapidly than supplied. When the external wave is strong ( IvIA 0 2 >-y1 (Y2Y 3 )1), the energy supply is at
FDTD model of acoustic wave interaction with soft targets | Ikata ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Our interest has been on the character of the acoustic field inside the target and the interaction parameters which influence it. The numerical simulations suggest that for an acoustically denser target the interior field consist of alternate bands of high-(and low-) pressure, though in a narrow cylindrical target the interior is ...
Nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents
Sivan, Y.; Rozenberg, S.; Halstuch, A.; Ishaaya, A. A.
2016-07-01
We study the nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents. Unlike the well-understood mixing of quasi-monochromatic waves, this configuration is highly non-intuitive due to the complex coupling between the spatial and temporal degrees of freedom of the interacting pulses. We illustrate the process intuitively with transitions between different branches of the dispersion curves and interpret it in terms of spectral exchange between the interacting pulses. We verify our interpretation with an example whereby a spectrally-narrow pulse “inherits” the wide spectrum of a pump pulse centered at a different wavelength, using exact numerical simulations, as well as a simplified coupled mode analysis and an asymptotic analytical solution. The latter also provides a simple and intuitive quantitative interpretation. The complex wave mixing process studied here may enable flexible spatio-temporal shaping of short pulses and is the starting point of the study of more complicated systems.
Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability
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C. Krafft
Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.
Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions
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K. M. Huang
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Relative to extensive studies of interactions between the quasi 2-day wave and tides, nonlinear interaction of the 16-day wave with tides was reported less, in particular interaction with the diurnal tide. We present an observational study of a possible nonlinear interaction event between the 16-day wave and the diurnal tide based on meteor radar measurement at Maui. An obvious 16-day wave can be observed from raw wind data. Its maximum meridional wind amplitude can attain 18.0 m s−1 at a height of 92 km during the time of our attention, which is larger than that in previous reports. Sum and difference interactions between the 16-day wave and the diurnal tide are observed to have rather different intensities. Because sum nonlinear interaction is very intense, the secondary sum wave with a period of 22.59 h is stronger than the diurnal tide. However, weak spectrum of the secondary difference wave is hardly identified. The beat of the diurnal tide with the secondary sum wave leads to substantial modulation of the diurnal tide at a period of 16 days. Moreover, this strong secondary sum wave further interacts with the 16-day wave to generate a new secondary wave with a period of 21.33 h. Such an interaction may be also regarded as a third-order nonlinear interaction between the 16-day wave and the diurnal tide with two-step interaction. Hence, the third-order nonlinear interaction between planetary waves and tides may occur significantly in the MLT region.
Breaker, Brian K.
2015-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality, Southwestern Energy, the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, and the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, developed regression equations for estimation of dry season mean monthly flows and harmonic mean flows that are representative of natural streamflow conditions at selected ungaged basins in Arkansas. Observed values of dry season mean monthly flow and harmonic mean flow computed from daily-mean flow data were used with basin characteristics to identify significant explanatory variables for multiple-linear-regression equations to estimate predicted values of dry season mean monthly flow and harmonic mean flow. Five dry season mean monthly flow regression equations and two harmonic mean flow regression equations were developed using dry season mean monthly flows and harmonic mean flows established for 91 and 93 U.S. Geological Survey continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, respectively. The dry season in Arkansas is defined as the months of July through November for this study. For harmonic mean flow calculations and regression equations, the study area is composed of the Springfield-Salem Plateaus (Arkansas and Missouri), Boston Mountains, Arkansas Valley, Ouachita Mountains (Arkansas and Oklahoma), and West Gulf Coastal Plain (Arkansas) physiographic sections. All continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations used to compute dry season mean monthly flows were located within Arkansas.
Nonlinear Interaction of Langmuir and Whistler Waves Observed with Incoherent Scatter Radar
Akbari, H.; Semeter, J. L.
2016-12-01
High-latitude ionosphere is characterized by particle precipitations of different origins. Among these are electron precipitation caused by quasi-static parallel electric fields and Alfven wave-particle interactions. In-situ measurements of fields and particles have commonly detected various plasma modes, such as Langmuir and whistler, enhanced by these precipitating electrons. The waves have been shown to undergo various nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interaction including parametric type instabilities. Detecting such processes with in-situ instruments however is not always straightforward and certain processes may remain undetected. We present new incoherent scatter radar data from the auroral F-region where strong echoes simultaneously appear in the ion- and both up- and down-shifted plasma lines channels. While aspects of these observations have been previously discussed in detail in terms of electron beam-generated Langmuir turbulence, some new aspects, namely the presence of two peaks separated by 300 kHz in both the up- and down-shifted plasma line channels are discussed in this paper. The unique and asymmetric displacement of the peaks with respect to the radar transmitting frequency suggests that the anomalous spectra are produced as a result of the existence of non-resonant waves generated by nonlinear beating between intense Langmuir and whistler modes. The results suggest that such nonlinear interactions contribute to the appearance of wave activities close to the plasma frequency as observed by in-situ electric field spectral measurements and that not all these wave activities are directly generated by the initial electron beam. The anomalous plasma lines spectra are often observed just above the altitude where Langmuir turbulence is observed. This altitudinal morphology and its implications are also discussed is this paper.
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E. E. Woodfield
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Jupiter has the most intense radiation belts of all the outer planets. It is not yet known how electrons can be accelerated to energies of 10 MeV or more. It has been suggested that cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions by chorus waves could accelerate electrons to a few MeV near the orbit of Io. Here we use the chorus wave intensities observed by the Galileo spacecraft to calculate the changes in electron flux as a result of pitch angle and energy diffusion. We show that, when the bandwidth of the waves and its variation with L are taken into account, pitch angle and energy diffusion due to chorus waves is a factor of 8 larger at L-shells greater than 10 than previously shown. We have used the latitudinal wave intensity profile from Galileo data to model the time evolution of the electron flux using the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt (BAS model. This profile confines intense chorus waves near the magnetic equator with a peak intensity at ∼5° latitude. Electron fluxes in the BAS model increase by an order of magnitude for energies around 3 MeV. Extending our results to L = 14 shows that cyclotron-resonant interactions with chorus waves are equally important for electron acceleration beyond L = 10. These results suggest that there is significant electron acceleration by cyclotron-resonant interactions at Jupiter contributing to the creation of Jupiter's radiation belts and also increasing the range of L-shells over which this mechanism should be considered.
Blackwell, William C., Jr.
2004-01-01
In this paper space is modeled as a lattice of Compton wave oscillators (CWOs) of near- Planck size. It is shown that gravitation and special relativity emerge from the interaction between particles Compton waves. To develop this CWO model an algorithmic approach was taken, incorporating simple rules of interaction at the Planck-scale developed using well known physical laws. This technique naturally leads to Newton s law of gravitation and a new form of doubly special relativity. The model is in apparent agreement with the holographic principle, and it predicts a cutoff energy for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that is consistent with observational data.
Compressibility and shock wave interaction effects on free shear layers
Samimy, M.; Erwin, D. E.; Elliott, G. S.
1989-01-01
Two compressible free shear layers with convective Mach numbers of .51 and .86 were studied as baseline configurations to investigate the effects of compressibility on the turbulence characteristics. These shear layers were then disturbed by the placement of an obstruction in the shear layer in an attempt to enhance the shear layer growth rate. These models produced a curved shock in the supersonic side of the shear layer. The results indicate a significant reduction in turbulence levels with increased compressibility. However, there are not any significant changes due to the bow shock interaction with the shear layer.
Yu, Xiaolong; Pan, Weiran; Zheng, Xiangjing; Zhou, Shenjie; Tao, Xiaoqin
2017-08-01
The effects of wave-current interaction on storm surge are investigated by a two-dimensional wave-current coupling model through simulations of Typhoon Morakot in the Taiwan Strait. The results show that wind wave and slope of sea floor govern wave setup modulations within the nearshore surf zone. Wave setup during Morakot can contribute up to 24% of the total storm surge with a maximum value of 0.28 m. The large wave setup commonly coincides with enhanced radiation stress gradient, which is itself associated with transfer of wave momentum flux. Water levels are to leading order in modulating significant wave height inside the estuary. High water levels due to tidal change and storm surge stabilize the wind wave and decay wave breaking. Outside of the estuary, waves are mainly affected by the current-induced modification of wind energy input to the wave generation. By comparing the observed significant wave height and water level with the results from uncoupled and coupled simulations, the latter shows a better agreement with the observations. It suggests that wave-current interaction plays an important role in determining the extreme storm surge and wave height in the study area and should not be neglected in a typhoon forecast.
Modulation of wave-current interactions by horizontal mixing and spatial resolution
Bennis, A.-C.; Dumas, F.; Blanke, B.
2016-03-01
The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and bathymetry that pose particular challenges for numerical modeling. Horizontal turbulent diffusion in a rip system is difficult to measure using dye dilution or surfzone drifters, as shown by the range of published values for the horizontal diffusion coefficient. Here, we studied the effects of horizontal mixing on wave-current interactions by testing several diffusivity estimates in a fully coupled 3D wave-current model run at two different spatial resolutions. Published results using very low diffusion have found that near the shore the wave rays converge towards the rip channel because of refraction by the currents. We showed that this process is modulated by both horizontal mixing and spatial resolution. We found that, without the feedback of currents on waves, the flow is more sensitive to horizontal mixing, with large alterations, especially offshore, and generally lower velocities. These modifications ascribed to mixing are similar to those induced by the feedback mechanism. When a large mixing coefficient is used: (i) the behavior of the rip system is similar for both coupling modes (i.e., with and without the feedback of currents on waves) and for each resolution; and (ii) the evolution of the flow is more stable over time. Lastly, we show that the horizontal mixing strongly decreases the intensity of the 3D rip velocity, but not its vertical shear, which is mainly dependent on the vertical mixing scheme and on the forcing terms.
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L. Pellet
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We present second-order expressions for the free-surface elevation, velocity potential and pressure resulting from the interaction of surface waves in water of arbitrary depth. When the surface waves have nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions, a second-order pressure can be felt all the way to the sea bottom. There are at least two areas of applications: reflective structures and microseisms. Microseisms generated by water waves in the ocean are small vibrations of the ground resulting from pressure oscillations associated with the coupling of ocean surface gravity waves and the sea floor. They are recorded on land-based seismic stations throughout the world and they are divided into primary and secondary types, as a function of spectral content. Secondary microseisms are generated by the interaction of surface waves with nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions. The efficiency of microseism generation thus depends in part on ocean wave frequency and direction. Based on the second-order expressions for the dynamic pressure, a simple theoretical analysis that quantifies the degree of nearness in amplitude, frequency, and incidence angle, which must be reached to observe the phenomenon, is presented.
Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder
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Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang [High Speed Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China); Luo, Xisheng, E-mail: xluo@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
2015-06-15
The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF{sub 6} surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.
Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder
Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang; Luo, Xisheng
2015-06-01
The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF6 surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.
Fu, S.
2015-12-01
There are many energetic electrons in the radiation belt of Earth. When the geomagnetic activity becomes stronger, the energy flux of energetic electrons will increase to more than ten times in the outer radiation belt, therefore it is very important to study how the energetic electrons generate and the lifetime of energetic electrons for space weather research. The acceleration of electrons in radiation belt is mainly depending on wave-particle interaction: the whistler mode chorus is the main driver for local acceleration mechanism, which could accelerate and loss energetic electrons; the geomagnetic pulsation ULF wave will cause energetic electron inward radial diffusion which will charge the electrons; recently observation results show us that the fast magnetosonic waves may also accelerate energetic electrons. For the reason that we try to study the wave-particle interaction between fast Magnetosonic and energetic electrons based on numerical simulation, in which the most important past is at the storm time the combination of highly warped Earth magnetic field and fast magnetosonic wave field will be applied for the electromagnetic environment of moving test particles. The energy, pitch angle and cross diffusion coefficients will be calculated respectively in this simulation to study how the electrons receive energy from fast magnetosonic wave. The diffusion coefficients within different dipole Earth magnetic field and non-dipole storm magnetic field are compared, while dynamics of electrons at selected initial energys are shown in our study.
Zhiltsov, Konstantin; Kostyushin, Kirill; Kagenov, Anuar; Tyryshkin, Ilya
2017-11-01
This paper presents a mathematical investigation of the interaction of a long tsunami-type wave with a submerge dike. The calculations were performed by using the freeware package OpenFOAM. Unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were used for mathematical modeling of incompressible two-phase medium. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is used to capture the free surface of a liquid. The effects caused by long wave of defined amplitude motion through a submerged dike of varying thickness were discussed in detail. Numerical results show that after wave passing through the barrier, multiple vortex structures were formed behind. Intensity of vortex depended on the size of the barrier. The effectiveness of the submerge barrier was estimated by evaluating the wave reflection and transmission coefficients using the energy integral method. Then, the curves of the dependences of the reflection and transmission coefficients were obtained for the interaction of waves with the dike. Finally, it was confirmed that the energy of the wave could be reduced by more than 50% when it passed through the barrier.
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Johan Liakka
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This study examines mutual interactions between stationary waves and ice sheets using a dry atmospheric primitive-equation model coupled to a three-dimensional thermomechanical ice-sheet model. The emphasis is on how non-linear interactions between thermal and topographical forcing of the stationary waves influence the ice-sheet evolution by changing the ablation. Simulations are conducted in which a small ice cap, on an idealised Northern Hemisphere continent, evolves to an equilibrium continental-scale ice sheet. In the absence of stationary waves, the equilibrium ice sheet arrives at symmetric shape with a zonal equatorward margin. In isolation, the topographically induced stationary waves have essentially no impact on the equilibrium features of the ice sheet. The reason is that the temperature anomalies are located far from the equatorward ice margin. When forcing due to thermal cooling is added to the topographical forcing, thermally induced perturbation winds amplify the topographically induced stationary-wave response, which that serves to increase both the equatorward extent and the volume of the ice sheet. Roughly, a 10% increase in the ice volume is reported here. Hence, the present study suggests that the topographically induced stationary-wave response can be substantially enhanced by the high albedo of ice sheets.
A stress-strain lag Eddy viscosity model for unsteady mean flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Revell, A.J. [University of Manchester, School of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: alistair.revell@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Benhamadouche, S. [University of Manchester, School of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); EDF-DER-LNH, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Craft, T. [University of Manchester, School of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Laurence, D. [University of Manchester, School of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); EDF-DER-LNH, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)
2006-10-15
A new Eddy viscosity model is proposed to include stress-strain lag effects in the modelling of unsteady mean flows. A transport equation for the lag parameter, hereby denoted C {sub as}, is derived from a full Reynolds stress model (RSM), to be solved in conjunction with a standard two equation Eddy viscosity model (EVM). The performance of the new k-{epsilon}-C {sub as} model is assessed by applying it to the flow in a homogeneous irrotational cyclic strain; a channel flow driven by a pressure gradient oscillating around a non-zero mean, and a NACA0012 profile in deep stall. For the oscillating channel, results are compared with recent large Eddy simulations (LES) of the same flow and the addition of the lag parameter equation is shown to give improved results when compared to the standard EVM outside the near wall region.
Evidence for four- and three-wave interactions in solar type III radio emissions
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G. Thejappa
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The high time resolution observations obtained by the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts, Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets with short durations of only few ms. One of these wave packets shows that it is a three-dimensional field structure with WLneTe ~ 10−3, where WL is the peak energy density, and ne and Te are the electron density and temperature, respectively. For this wave packet, the conditions of the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI and supersonic collapse are satisfied within the error range of determination of main parameters. The density cavity, observed during this wave packet indicates that its depth, width and temporal coincidence are consistent with those of a caviton, generated by the ponderomotive force of the collapsing wave packet. The spectrum of each of the parallel and perpendicular components of the wave packet contains a primary peak at fpe, two secondary peaks at fpe ± fS and a low-frequency enhancement below fS, which, as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the fast Fourier transform (FFT-based tricoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, fpe + fS, fpe − fS, are coupled to each other by the OTSI type of four-wave interaction (fpe is the local electron plasma frequency and fS is the frequency of ion sound waves. In addition to the primary peak at fpe, each of these spectra also contains a peak at 2fpe, which as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the wavelet-based bicoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, appears to correspond to the second harmonic electromagnetic waves generated as a result of coalescence of oppositely propagating sidebands excited by the OTSI. Thus, these observations for the first time provide combined evidence that (1 the OTSI and related strong turbulence processes play a significant role in the stabilization of the electron beam, (2 the coalescence
Parametric interaction of optical waves in metamaterials under low-frequency pumping
Kasumova, R. J.; Amirov, Sh Sh; Shamilova, Sh A.
2017-07-01
The influence of phase effects under three-wave parametric interaction and low-frequency pumping in metamaterials is studied in the case of a negative refractive index at a signal-wave frequency. It is found that the efficiency of the backward signalwave amplification is the higher, the greater the ratio of the intensities of the idler and signal waves at the input to the metamaterial. An increase in the idler wave intensity at the input by five times, as compared to the signal-wave intensity, leads to a nonlinear increase in the signal-wave amplification by almost 20 times. According to the analytic expressions obtained in the constant-intensity approximation, the choice of the optimal parameters for the pump intensity, total length of the metamaterial and phase detuning will facilitate the implementation of regimes of effective amplification and generation of the signal wave. A comparison is made with the results obtained in the constant-field approximation, and a numerical estimate of the expected efficiency of the frequency conversion is presented. Control of frequency and pump power is shown to make possible the smooth tuning of the parametric converter frequency. The developed method can be used to design frequency converters based on nonlinear metamaterials.
Kinetic theory for distribution functions of wave-particle interactions in plasmas.
Kominis, Y; Ram, A K; Hizanidis, K
2010-06-11
The evolution of a charged particle distribution function under the influence of coherent electromagnetic waves in a plasma is determined from kinetic theory. For coherent waves, the dynamical phase space of particles is an inhomogeneous mix of chaotic and regular orbits. The persistence of long time correlations between the particle motion and the phase of the waves invalidates any simplifying Markovian or statistical assumptions--the basis for usual quasilinear theories. The generalized formalism in this Letter leads to a hierarchy of evolution equations for the reduced distribution function. The evolution operators, in contrast to the quasilinear theories, are time dependent and nonsingular and include the rich phase space dynamics of particles interacting with coherent waves.
Software-type Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer (SWPIA) by RPWI for JUICE
Katoh, Y.; Kojima, H.; Asamura, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kasahara, Y.; Ishisaka, S.; Kimura, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Santolik, O.; Bergman, J.; Puccio, W.; Gill, R.; Wieser, M.; Schmidt, W.; Barabash, S.; Wahlund, J.-E.
2017-09-01
Software-type Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer (SWPIA) will be realized as a software function of Low-Frequency receiver (LF) running on the DPU of RPWI (Radio and Plasma Waves Investigation) for the ESA JUICE mission. SWPIA conducts onboard computations of physical quantities indicating the energy exchange between plasma waves and energetic ions. Onboard inter-instruments communications are necessary to realize SWPIA, which will be implemented by efforts of RPWI, PEP (Particle Environment Package) and J-MAG (JUICE Magnetometer). By providing the direct evidence of ion energization processes by plasma waves around Jovian satellites, SWPIA contributes scientific output of JUICE as much as possible with keeping its impact on the telemetry data size to a minimum.
Interactions, disorder and spin waves in quantum Hall ferromagnets near integer filling
Rapsch, S
2001-01-01
dynamics is discussed in chapter 5 and employed to study spin waves in a domain wall structure. A hydrodynamic theory of spin waves is used to treat long-wavelength excitations of randomly disordered quantum Hall ferromagnets. Finally, the contribution of spin waves to the optical conductivity is studied in chapter 6. Predictions are made for the experimental signatures of spin waves in disordered quantum Hall systems. The observability of these signatures is discussed both for transport measurements and NMR experiments. The interplay between exchange interactions and disorder is studied in quantum Hall ferromagnets near integer filling. Both analytical and numerical methods are used to investigate a non-linear sigma model of these systems in the limit of vanishing Zeeman coupling and at zero temperature. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the quantum Hall effect and to quantum Hall ferromagnets in particular. A brief review of existing work on disordered quantum Hall systems is included. In chapters 2-4, the...
A Hamiltonian Model of Dissipative Wave-particle Interactions and the Negative-mass Effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
A. Zhmoginov
2011-02-07
The effect of radiation friction is included in the Hamiltonian treatment of wave-particle interactions with autoresonant phase-locking, yielding a generalized canonical approach to the problem of dissipative dynamics near a nonlinear resonance. As an example, the negativemass eff ect exhibited by a charged particle in a pump wave and a static magnetic field is studied in the presence of the friction force due to cyclotron radiation. Particles with negative parallel masses m! are shown to transfer their kinetic energy to the pump wave, thus amplifying it. Counterintuitively, such particles also undergo stable dynamics, decreasing their transverse energy monotonically due to cyclotron cooling, whereas some of those with positive m! undergo cyclotron heating instead, extracting energy from the pump wave.
Interference and interaction in Schrödinger's wave mechanics
Treder, Hans-Jürgen; von Borzeszkowski, Horst-Heino
1988-01-01
Reminiscing on the fact that E. Schrödinger was rooted in the same physical tradition as M. Planck and A. Einstein, some aspects of his attitude to quantum mechanics are discussed. In particular, it is demonstrated that the quantum-mechanical paradoxes assumed by Einstein and Schrödinger should not exist, but that otherwise the epistemological problem of physical reality raised in this context by Einstein and Schrödinger is fundamental for our understanding of quantum theory. The nonexistence of such paradoxes just shows that quantum-mechanical effects are due to interference and not to interaction. This line of argument leads consequently to quantum field theories with second quantization, and accordingly quantum theory based both on Planck's constant h and on Democritus's atomism.
Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances
Kupfer, Klaus
2006-01-01
This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.
Apostol, Ileana; Teodorescu, G.; Serbanescu-Oasa, Anca; Dragulinescu, Dumitru; Chis, Ioan; Stoian, Razvan
1995-03-01
Laser radiation interaction with materials is a complex process in which creation of acoustic waves or stress waves is a part of it. As a function of the laser radiation energy and intensity incident on steel target surface ultrasound signals were registered and studied. Thermoelastic, ablation and breakdown mechanisms of generation of acoustic waves were analyzed.
Transition, coexistence, and interaction of vector localized waves arising from higher-order effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Chong [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yang, Zhan-Ying, E-mail: zyyang@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhao, Li-Chen, E-mail: zhaolichen3@163.com [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)
2015-11-15
We study vector localized waves on continuous wave background with higher-order effects in a two-mode optical fiber. The striking properties of transition, coexistence, and interaction of these localized waves arising from higher-order effects are revealed in combination with corresponding modulation instability (MI) characteristics. It shows that these vector localized wave properties have no analogues in the case without higher-order effects. Specifically, compared to the scalar case, an intriguing transition between bright–dark rogue waves and w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons, which occurs as a result of the attenuation of MI growth rate to vanishing in the zero-frequency perturbation region, is exhibited with the relative background frequency. In particular, our results show that the w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons can coexist with breathers, coinciding with the MI analysis where the coexistence condition is a mixture of a modulation stability and MI region. It is interesting that their interaction is inelastic and describes a fusion process. In addition, we demonstrate an annihilation phenomenon for the interaction of two w-shaped solitons which is identified essentially as an inelastic collision in this system. -- Highlights: •Vector rogue wave properties induced by higher-order effects are studied. •A transition between vector rogue waves and solitons is obtained. •The link between the transition and modulation instability (MI) is demonstrated. •The coexistence of vector solitons and breathers coincides with the MI features. •An annihilation phenomenon for the vector two w-shaped solitons is presented.
Numerical simulation of nonlinear long waves interacting with arrays of emergent cylinders
Zainali, Amir; Weiss, Robert; Irish, Jennifer L; Yang, Yongqian
2016-01-01
We presented numerical simulation of long waves, interacting with arrays of emergent cylinders inside regularly spaced patches, representing discontinues patchy coastal vegetation. We employed the fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive Serre-Green-Naghdi equations (SGN) until the breaking process starts, while we changed the governing equations to nonlinear shallow water equations (NSW) at the vicinity of the breaking-wave peak and during the runup stage. We modeled the cylinders as physical boundaries rather than approximating them as macro-roughness friction. We showed that the cylinders provide protection for the areas behind them. However they might also cause amplification in local water depth in those areas. The presented results are extensively validated against the existing numerical and experimental data. Our results demonstrate the capability and reliability of our model in simulating wave interaction with emergent cylinders.
On the overtaking interaction of typical shock waves in the solar wind flow
Grib, S. A.
2010-01-01
The interaction of traveling fast solar shock waves with other fast shock waves generated previously is considered in terms of magnetohydrodynamics for various solar wind parameters. The shocks are not piston ones and move freely in the flow. The magnetic structure in the interplanetary magnetic field emerging after the shock interaction is shown to correspond to the well-known magnetic configuration commonly observed on spacecraft or the classical Hundhausen R model. A head-on collision of solar shock waves with the boundary of a magnetic cloud is considered. It is pointed out that a slow shockwave refracted into the magnetic cloud can appear at an oblique collision of the shock with the cloud boundary. The results clarify our understanding of the available spacecraft data.
A Dirac Sea and thermodynamic equilibrium for the quantized three-wave interaction
Beals, R; Williams, E
1998-01-01
The classical version of the three wave interaction models the creation and destruction of waves; the quantized version models the creation and destruction of particles. The quantum three wave interaction is described and the Bethe Ansatz for the eigenfunctions is given in closed form. The Bethe equations are derived in a rigorous fashion and are shown to have a thermodynamic limit. The Dirac sea of negative energy states is obtained as the infinite density limit. Finite particle/hole excitations are determined and the asymptotic relation of energy and momentum is obtained. The Yang-Yang functional for the relative free energy of finite density excitations is constructed and is shown to be convex and bounded below. The equations of thermal equilibrium are obtained.
CFD Validation Experiment of a Mach 2.5 Axisymmetric Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction
Davis, David Owen
2015-01-01
Preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a Mach 2.5 two-dimensional axisymmetric shock-wave/ boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) are presented. The purpose of the investigation is to create a SWBLI dataset specifically for CFD validation purposes. Presented herein are the details of the facility and preliminary measurements characterizing the facility and interaction region. These results will serve to define the region of interest where more detailed mean and turbulence measurements will be made.
D5.3 Interaction between currents, wave, structure and subsoil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Schouten, Jan-Joost
2015-01-01
This chapter gives an introduction to deliverable D5.3 - Interaction between currents, waves, structure and subsoil – with respect to the MERMAID project. The deliverable focuses on the conditions in European waters such as the four sites that is addressed in the MERMAID project. The most important...
Gravitating toward Science: Parent-Child Interactions at a Gravitational-Wave Observatory
Szechter, Lisa E.; Carey, Elizabeth J.
2009-01-01
This research examined the nature of parent-child conversations at an informal science education center housed in an active gravitational-wave observatory. Each of 20 parent-child dyads explored an interactive exhibit hall privately, without the distraction of other visitors. Parents employed a variety of strategies to support their children's…
Nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions on a gently sloping laboratory beach
de Bakker, A. T M; Herbers, T. H C; Smit, P. B.; Tissier, M. F S; Ruessink, B. G.
2015-01-01
A high-resolution dataset of three irregular wave conditions collected on a gently sloping laboratory beach is analyzed to study nonlinear energy transfers involving infragravity frequencies. This study uses bispectral analysis to identify the dominant, nonlinear interactions and estimate energy
Wave-Vector Dependence of the Jahn-Teller Interactions in TmVO4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjems, Jørgen; Hayes, W.; Smith, S. H.
1975-01-01
The resonant Jahn-Teller coupling of the B2g acoustic phonon and the Zeeman-split ground doublet in TmVO4 has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. Tuning of the magnetic field provides a means for investigating the wave-vector dependence of the interactions. We find that the coupling...
Nonlinear infragravity–wave interactions on a gently sloping laboratory beach
De Bakker, A.T.M.; Herbers, T.H.C.; Smit, P.B.; Tissier, M.F.S.; Ruessink, B.G.
2015-01-01
A high-resolution dataset of three irregular wave conditions collected on a gently sloping laboratory beach is analyzed to study nonlinear energy transfers involving infragravity frequencies. This study uses bispectral analysis to identify the dominant, nonlinear interactions and estimate energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Lomdahl, P. S.
1982-01-01
We have studied the effect of interchain interaction on thermally excited solitons in a charge-density wave for a Peierls system of commensurability 3. In such a system solitons with charges ±2e / 3 are expected. It is shown that the interchain coupling in some cases will generate solitons with l...
Shock Waves Oscillations in the Interaction of Supersonic Flows with the Head of the Aircraft
Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.
2016-01-01
In this article we reviewed the shock wave oscillation that occurs when supersonic flows interact with conic, blunt or flat nose of aircraft, taking into account the aerospike attached to it. The main attention was paid to the problem of numerical modeling of such oscillation, flow regime classification, and cases where aerospike attachment can…
Flow features that arise due to the interaction of a plane shock wave with concave profiles
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
MacLucas, David A
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The focus of the author's thesis was the aerodynamic flow field that develops as a result of the interaction of a moving plane shock wave with concave profiles. In this presentation, he discusses some of the interesting flow phenomena that arise...
Plasticity of brain wave network interactions and evolution across physiologic states
Liu, Kang K. L.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Lin, Aijing; Mantegna, Rosario N.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.
2015-01-01
Neural plasticity transcends a range of spatio-temporal scales and serves as the basis of various brain activities and physiologic functions. At the microscopic level, it enables the emergence of brain waves with complex temporal dynamics. At the macroscopic level, presence and dominance of specific brain waves is associated with important brain functions. The role of neural plasticity at different levels in generating distinct brain rhythms and how brain rhythms communicate with each other across brain areas to generate physiologic states and functions remains not understood. Here we perform an empirical exploration of neural plasticity at the level of brain wave network interactions representing dynamical communications within and between different brain areas in the frequency domain. We introduce the concept of time delay stability (TDS) to quantify coordinated bursts in the activity of brain waves, and we employ a system-wide Network Physiology integrative approach to probe the network of coordinated brain wave activations and its evolution across physiologic states. We find an association between network structure and physiologic states. We uncover a hierarchical reorganization in the brain wave networks in response to changes in physiologic state, indicating new aspects of neural plasticity at the integrated level. Globally, we find that the entire brain network undergoes a pronounced transition from low connectivity in Deep Sleep and REM to high connectivity in Light Sleep and Wake. In contrast, we find that locally, different brain areas exhibit different network dynamics of brain wave interactions to achieve differentiation in function during different sleep stages. Moreover, our analyses indicate that plasticity also emerges in frequency-specific networks, which represent interactions across brain locations mediated through a specific frequency band. Comparing frequency-specific networks within the same physiologic state we find very different degree of
Plasticity of brain wave network interactions and evolution across physiologic states.
Liu, Kang K L; Bartsch, Ronny P; Lin, Aijing; Mantegna, Rosario N; Ivanov, Plamen Ch
2015-01-01
Neural plasticity transcends a range of spatio-temporal scales and serves as the basis of various brain activities and physiologic functions. At the microscopic level, it enables the emergence of brain waves with complex temporal dynamics. At the macroscopic level, presence and dominance of specific brain waves is associated with important brain functions. The role of neural plasticity at different levels in generating distinct brain rhythms and how brain rhythms communicate with each other across brain areas to generate physiologic states and functions remains not understood. Here we perform an empirical exploration of neural plasticity at the level of brain wave network interactions representing dynamical communications within and between different brain areas in the frequency domain. We introduce the concept of time delay stability (TDS) to quantify coordinated bursts in the activity of brain waves, and we employ a system-wide Network Physiology integrative approach to probe the network of coordinated brain wave activations and its evolution across physiologic states. We find an association between network structure and physiologic states. We uncover a hierarchical reorganization in the brain wave networks in response to changes in physiologic state, indicating new aspects of neural plasticity at the integrated level. Globally, we find that the entire brain network undergoes a pronounced transition from low connectivity in Deep Sleep and REM to high connectivity in Light Sleep and Wake. In contrast, we find that locally, different brain areas exhibit different network dynamics of brain wave interactions to achieve differentiation in function during different sleep stages. Moreover, our analyses indicate that plasticity also emerges in frequency-specific networks, which represent interactions across brain locations mediated through a specific frequency band. Comparing frequency-specific networks within the same physiologic state we find very different degree of
Kadlecová, Hedvika; Weber, Stefan; Korn, Georg
2016-01-01
We analyze theoretical models of gravitational waves generation in the interaction of high intensity laser with matter, namely ablation and piston models. We analyse the generated gravitational waves in linear approximation of gravitational theory. We derive the analytical formulas and estimates for the metric perturbations and the radiated power of generated gravitational waves. Furthermore we investigate the characteristics of polarization and the behaviour of test particles in the presence of gravitational wave which will be important for the detection.
Efficient techniques for wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications
Mehra, Ravish
Sound propagation techniques model the effect of the environment on sound waves and predict their behavior from point of emission at the source to the final point of arrival at the listener. Sound is a pressure wave produced by mechanical vibration of a surface that propagates through a medium such as air or water, and the problem of sound propagation can be formulated mathematically as a second-order partial differential equation called the wave equation. Accurate techniques based on solving the wave equation, also called the wave-based techniques, are too expensive computationally and memory-wise. Therefore, these techniques face many challenges in terms of their applicability in interactive applications including sound propagation in large environments, time-varying source and listener directivity, and high simulation cost for mid-frequencies. In this dissertation, we propose a set of efficient wave-based sound propagation techniques that solve these three challenges and enable the use of wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications. Firstly, we propose a novel equivalent source technique for interactive wave-based sound propagation in large scenes spanning hundreds of meters. It is based on the equivalent source theory used for solving radiation and scattering problems in acoustics and electromagnetics. Instead of using a volumetric or surface-based approach, this technique takes an object-centric approach to sound propagation. The proposed equivalent source technique generates realistic acoustic effects and takes orders of magnitude less runtime memory compared to prior wave-based techniques. Secondly, we present an efficient framework for handling time-varying source and listener directivity for interactive wave-based sound propagation. The source directivity is represented as a linear combination of elementary spherical harmonic sources. This spherical harmonic-based representation of source directivity can support analytical, data
Nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves with 3-component relativistic quantum plasma
Ikramullah, Ahmad, Rashid; Sharif, Saqib; Khattak, Fida Younus
2017-05-01
The interaction of intense circularly polarized electro-magnetic (CPEM) wave with 3-component relativistic-quantum plasma consisting of relativistic-degenerate electrons and positrons, and dynamic degenerate ions is theoretically studied. A mathematical model is structured by coupling Klein-Gordon equations for the electrons and positrons, and Schrödinger equation for the ions with Maxwell equations through Poisson equations. The solutions of the dispersion relation are plotted for relativistic quantum plasma in the density-range of ˜ 10 30 → 10 36 m - 3 for several positron concentrations. Three wave modes are observed: electrons, ions, and positrons. The pair branch mode having a possible association with the positron states stays unaltered by variation in the positron concentration but varies significantly with a change in the quantum parameter defined in terms of the particles number density. The addition of positron to the plasma and increasing the positron concentration suggest enhancement of the opacity of the relativistic quantum plasma. The nonlinear interaction of large amplitude CPEM waves with the plasma leads to self-induced transparency. The transparency decreases with increasing positron concentration. The model so developed is then applied to study stimulated Raman scattering, modulational instability, and stimulated Brillouin scattering of intense CPEM waves in such plasmas. The results show that the growth rates are affected by the positron concentration, the quantum parameter of the plasma, as well as by the amplitude of the incident electromagnetic wave.
Suga, Sei-Ichiro; Inaba, Kensuke
2014-03-01
We investigate pairing symmetry of the superfluid state in repulsively interacting three-component (colors) fermionic atoms in optical lattices. This superfluid state appears, when two of the color-dependent three repulsions are much stronger than the other close to half filling. We evaluate the effective pairing interaction by collecting random-phase-approximation-type diagrams and ladder diagrams, and solve the Eliashberg equation within weak-coupling theory in square optical lattices. We find that pairing symmetry is an extended s-wave, although in the phase diagram the superfluid state is adjacent to the color-density wave or paired Mott insulator at half filling. The k-dependence of the superfluid order parameter is caused by quantum fluctuations of the staggered color-density wave. When the difference in the three repulsions is decreased, paring symmetry changes from an extended s-wave to a d-wave. We expect 6Li, 171Yb, 173Yb atoms and their mixtures in optical lattices to be possible candidates for observing this superfluid state. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 23540467) and (B) (No. 25287104) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
3D Modeling of Ultrasonic Wave Interaction with Disbonds and Weak Bonds
Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.
2011-01-01
Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.
Interactions between the surface gravity waves and the Von Karman streets: a numerical study
Gunnoo, Hans; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Rivier, Aurélie; Abcha, NIzar; Ezersky, Alexander
2015-04-01
The growth of renewable energy over the past decade is impressive. Offshore wind farms are planned to construct along the site of Courseulles s/mer (Normandy, France) in 2018. The ofelia project leads to study the environmental impacts of the offshore wind farms in the Channel. In parallel with the regional modeling of the changes in hydrodynamic and in sediment transport due to monopiles (Rivier et al., 2014), studies at local scales are also carried out. Laboratory experiments show that the resonance between the surface gravity waves and the Von Karman streets leads to modify the synchronisation of the vortex (Gunnoo et al., 2014). Numerical simulations are performed to reproduce this mechanism. The CFD code, IHFOAM, based on an OpenFoam Kernel, allows to simulate the wave-current interactions at local scales. First, bi-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations without waves are set-up to validate our modeling plateform. The well-known Von Karman streets are obtained. Results are in agreement with the experimental data. Second, waves are included in the simulations. The free-surface is explicitely solved by the Volume Of Fluid method. Regular and irregular wave spectrums are tested. Changes in Von Karman Streets due to waves are observed. In the future, some comparisons with the experimental results will be done.
Kim, Kwang-Soo; Settles, Gary S.
1988-01-01
The laser interferometric skin friction meter was used to measure wall shear stress distributions in two interactions of fin-generated swept shock waves with turbulent boundary layers. The basic research configuration was an unswept sharp-leading-edge fin of variable angle mounted on a flatplate. The results indicate that such measurements are practical in high-speed interacting flows, and that a repeatability of + or - 6 percent or better is possible. Marked increases in wall shear were observed in both swept interactions tested.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin
2013-01-01
We interpret the purely spectral forward Maxwell equation with up to third-order induced polarizations for pulse propagation and interactions in quadratic nonlinear crystals. The interpreted equation, also named the nonlinear wave equation in the frequency domain, includes quadratic and cubic...... nonlinearities, delayed Raman effects, and anisotropic nonlinearities. The full potential of this wave equation is demonstrated by investigating simulations of solitons generated in the process of ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation. We show that a balance in the soliton delay can be achieved due...
Second generation diffusion model of interacting gravity waves on the surface of deep fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Pushkarev
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a second generation phenomenological model for nonlinear interaction of gravity waves on the surface of deep water. This model takes into account the effects of non-locality of the original Hasselmann diffusion equation still preserving important properties of the first generation model: physically consistent scaling, adherence to conservation laws and the existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions. Numerical comparison of both models with the original Hasselmann equation shows that the second generation models improves the angular distribution in the evolving wave energy spectrum.
Effect of particle momentum transfer on an oblique-shock-wave/laminar-boundary-layer interaction
Teh, E.-J.; Johansen, C. T.
2016-11-01
Numerical simulations of solid particles seeded into a supersonic flow containing an oblique shock wave reflection were performed. The momentum transfer mechanism between solid and gas phases in the shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction was studied by varying the particle size and mass loading. It was discovered that solid particles were capable of significant modulation of the flow field, including suppression of flow separation. The particle size controlled the rate of momentum transfer while the particle mass loading controlled the magnitude of momentum transfer. The seeding of micro- and nano-sized particles upstream of a supersonic/hypersonic air-breathing propulsion system is proposed as a flow control concept.
Nonlinear wave-particle interaction upstream from the Earth's bow shock
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Mazelle
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Well-defined ring-like backstreaming ion distributions have been recently reported from observations made by the 3DP/PESA-High analyzer onboard the WIND spacecraft in the Earth's foreshock at large distances from the bow shock, which suggests a local production mechanism. The maximum phase space density for these distributions remains localized at a nearly constant pitch-angle value for a large number of gyroperiods while the shape of the distribution remains very steady. These distributions are also observed in association with quasi-monochromatic low frequency (~ 50 mHz waves with substantial amplitude (δB/B>0.2. The analysis of the magnetic field data has shown that the waves are propagating parallel to the background field in the right-hand mode. Parallel ion beams are also often observed in the same region before the observation of both the ring-like distributions and the waves. The waves appear in cyclotron resonance with the ion parallel beams. We investigate first the possibility that the ion beams could provide the free energy source for driving an ion/ion instability responsible for the ULF wave occurrence. For that, we solve the wave dispersion relation with the observed parameters. Second, we show that the ring-like distributions could then be produced by a coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction. It tends to trap the ions into narrow cells in velocity space centered on a well-defined pitch-angle, directly related to the saturation wave amplitude in the analytical theory. The theoretical predictions are in good quantitative agreement with the observations
Dynamics of wave-current-surge interactions in Lake Michigan: A model comparison
Mao, Miaohua; Xia, Meng
2017-02-01
Wave, storm surge dynamics, and wave-current-surge interactions (WCSI) were investigated by applying a pair of unstructured-grid-based models to Lake Michigan under two strong wind events. The effects of wind field sources, wind drag coefficient bulk formula, and parameterizations of the bottom friction term were explored to understand lake dynamics. Two wave models were calibrated by using alternative wave physics settings under the 2011 northeasterly wind event. Forced by the southwesterly wind event in 2013, the calibrated models using the atmosphere-ocean fully coupled Climate Forecast System Version 2 wind field were further validated. It is found that the northwesterly winds induced 0.57 m setup near the southwestern coast, whereas the southwesterly winds produced 0.28 m setup and -0.43 m setdown near the northern and southwestern coasts, respectively. The WCSI mostly influence waves and storm surge in shallow-water areas near coasts and islands through depth-induced breaking, current-induced frequency shift and refraction, and wave-induced setup/setdown through wave radiation stress. Owing to the adoption of different discretization algorithms and bottom friction formulations, the modeled storm surge and waves exhibit some variation between the paired models. Even though the storm surge difference with and without WCSI is smaller than that between the two WCSI-coupled models, both circulation models adopt WCSI considering their consistent improvement on model accuracy under both wind events. The analysis of water transport indicates that wind speed, direction, and coastal geometry and bathymetry are also important factors in storm surge.
Calderer, Antoni; Guo, Xin; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2018-02-01
We develop a numerical method for simulating coupled interactions of complex floating structures with large-scale ocean waves and atmospheric turbulence. We employ an efficient large-scale model to develop offshore wind and wave environmental conditions, which are then incorporated into a high resolution two-phase flow solver with fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The large-scale wind-wave interaction model is based on a two-fluid dynamically-coupled approach that employs a high-order spectral method for simulating the water motion and a viscous solver with undulatory boundaries for the air motion. The two-phase flow FSI solver is based on the level set method and is capable of simulating the coupled dynamic interaction of arbitrarily complex bodies with airflow and waves. The large-scale wave field solver is coupled with the near-field FSI solver with a one-way coupling approach by feeding into the latter waves via a pressure-forcing method combined with the level set method. We validate the model for both simple wave trains and three-dimensional directional waves and compare the results with experimental and theoretical solutions. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of the new computational framework by carrying out large-eddy simulation of a floating offshore wind turbine interacting with realistic ocean wind and waves.
Electron Lifetimes from Narrowband Wave-Particle Interactions within the Plasmasphere
Ripoll, J. F.; Albert, J.; Cunningham, G.
2014-12-01
This work is devoted to the systematic study of electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions in the plasmasphere. It relies on a new formulation of the bounce-averaged quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion coefficients parameterized by a single frequency, w, and wave-normal angle, theta [Albert, 2012]. We first show that the diffusion coefficients scale with w/Wce, where Wce is the equatorial electron gyrofrequency, and that maximal pitch angle diffusion occurs along the line alpha0=pi/2-theta, where alpha0 is the equatorial pitch angle. Lifetimes are computed for L-shell values in the range [1.5, 3.5] and energies, E, in the range [0.1, 6] MeV as a function of frequency and wave-normal angle. The lifetimes are relatively independent of frequency and wave-normal angle after taking into consideration the scaling law, with a weak dependence on wave-normal angle up to 60-70°, increasing to infinity as the wave-normal angle approaches the resonance cone. We identify regions in the (L, E) plane in which a single wave type (hiss, VLF transmitters, or lightning-generated waves) is dominant relative to the others. We find that VLF waves dominate the lifetime for 0.2-0.4 MeV at L~2 and for 0.5-0.8 MeV at L~1.5, while hiss dominates the lifetime for 2-3 MeV at L=3-3.5. The influence of lightning-generated waves is always mixed with the other two and cannot be easily differentiated. Limitations of the method for addressing effects due to restricted latitude or pitch angle domains are also discussed. Finally, for each (L, E) we search for the minimum lifetime and find that the "optimal" frequency that produces this lifetime increases as L diminishes. Restricting the search to very oblique waves, which could be emitted during the DSX satellite mission, we find that the optimal frequency is always close to 0.16Wce.
Touchscreen surface based on interaction of ultrasonic guided waves with a contact impedance
Quaegebeur, Nicolas; Masson, Patrice; Beaudet, Nicolas; Sarret, Philippe
2017-04-01
In the present paper, a touchscreen device is proposed, based on guided wave reflection and transmission induced by the presence of an object. The principle uses the advantages of other acoustic waves devices in terms of simplicity and applicability to any thin surface but is not subject to classical drawbacks (single-touch, sensitivity to scratches or contaminant, impossibility to follow motion of contact point). The theoretical interaction of guided waves with a contact impedance are first derived in order to define the requirements of the sensor in terms of frequency range, mode, sensor type and location, and embedded electronics. Design criteria and experimental validation on a small prototype (300 x 300 mm) are proposed to demonstrate the potential of the approach for simple, robust and reliable contact detection and contact pressure estimation of point-like or extended objects for consumer electronics or biomedical applications.
Study of virtual cathodes formation during beam-wave interaction in the reltron oscillator
Mahto, Manpuran; Jain, P. K.
2017-09-01
In the present work, a high power microwave oscillator—reltron has been analyzed to investigate the virtual cathode formation mechanism during the beam-wave interaction. In reltron, a side coupled modulation cavity is used as its RF interaction structure containing three metal grids along the longitudinal direction. The space charge current responsible for the virtual cathode and its steady state electric field distribution has been analyzed. Space charge and beam impedance conditions for efficient device operation have been demonstrated. It has been shown that during the beam-wave interaction in the device, first a virtual cathode forms in the post-acceleration gap, and then the second virtual cathode develops between the first and second grids of the modulation cavity. These two virtual cathodes co-exist and cause the formation of a third virtual cathode between the second and third grids. At this instant, only the third virtual cathode remains, and for sustained device oscillation, this process repeats periodically in the device. The present study would be useful in understanding the beam-wave interaction mechanism as well as the design and development of efficient reltron devices.
Interactions between benthic predators and zooplanktonic prey are affected by turbulent waves.
Robinson, H E; Finelli, C M; Koehl, M A R
2013-11-01
Predators capture prey in complex and variable environments. In the ocean, bottom-dwelling (benthic) organisms are subjected to water currents, waves, and turbulent eddies. For benthic predators that feed on small animals carried in the water (zooplankton), flow not only delivers prey, but can also shape predator-prey interactions. Benthic passive suspension feeders collect prey delivered by movement of ambient water onto capture-surfaces, whereas motile benthic predators, such as burrow-dwelling fish, dart out to catch passing zooplankton. How does the flow of ambient water affect these contrasting modes of predation by benthic zooplanktivores? We studied the effects of turbulent, wavy flow on the encounter, capture, and retention of motile zooplanktonic prey (copepods, Acartia spp.) by passive benthic suspension feeders (sea anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima). Predator-prey interactions were video-recorded in a wave-generating flume under two regimes of oscillating flow with different peak wave velocities and levels of turbulent kinetic energy ("weak" and "strong" waves). Rates of encounter (number of prey passing through a sea anemone's capture zone per time), capture (prey contacting and sticking to tentacles per time), and retention (prey retained on tentacles, without struggling free or washing off, per time) were measured at both strengths of waves. Strong waves enhanced encounter rates both for dead copepods and for actively swimming copepods, but there was so much variability in the behavior of the live prey that the effect of wave strength on encounter rates was not significant. Trapping efficiency (number of prey retained per number encountered) was the same in both flow regimes because, although fewer prey executed maneuvers to escape capture in strong waves, more of the captured prey was washed off the predators' tentacles. Although peak water velocities and turbulence of waves did not affect feeding rates of passive suspension-feeding sea anemones
On the modulation of wave-current interactions by horizontal mixing and spatial resolution
Bennis, A. C.; Ardhuin, F.; Dumas, F.; Blanke, B.
2016-02-01
The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and bathymetry that pose particular challenges for numerical models. Horizontal turbulent diffusion in a rip system is difficult to measure using dye dilution or surfzone drifters, as shown by the range of published values for the horizontal diffusion coeffcient. Here, we study the effects of horizontal mixing on wave-current interactions by testing several diffusivity estimates in a fully coupled 3D wave-current model run at two different spatial resolution. Published results using very low diffusion have found near the shore the wave rays converge towards the rip channel because of refraction by the currents. We show that this process depends on the alongshore gradient of the rip current and that this gradient is modulated by both horizontal mixing and spatial resolution. We find that without the feedback of currents on waves, the flow is more sensitive to horizontal mixing with large alterations especially offshore and generally lower velocities. These modifications ascribed to mixing are similar to those induced by the feedback mechanism. When a large mixing coeffcient is used, we observe that: i) the behavior of the rip system is similar for both coupling modes (i.e. with and without the feedback of currents on waves) and for each resolution, ii) the evolution of the flow is more stable over time. Lastly, we show that the horizontal mixing strongly decreases the intensity of the 3D rip velocity, but not its vertical shear that is strongly dependent on the vertical mixing scheme and on the forcing terms.
Numerical simulation of wave-current interaction under strong wind conditions
Larrañaga, Marco; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier
2017-04-01
Although ocean surface waves are known to play an important role in the momentum and other scalar transfer between the atmosphere and the ocean, most operational numerical models do not explicitly include the terms of wave-current interaction. In this work, a numerical analysis about the relative importance of the processes associated with the wave-current interaction under strong off-shore wind conditions in Gulf of Tehuantepec (the southern Mexican Pacific) was carried out. The numerical system includes the spectral wave model WAM and the 3D hydrodynamic model POLCOMS, with the vertical turbulent mixing parametrized by the kappa-epsilon closure model. The coupling methodology is based on the vortex-force formalism. The hydrodynamic model was forced at the open boundaries using the HYCOM database and the wave model was forced at the open boundaries by remote waves from the southern Pacific. The atmospheric forcing for both models was provided by a local implementation of the WRF model, forced at the open boundaries using the CFSR database. The preliminary analysis of the model results indicates an effect of currents on the propagation of the swell throughout the study area. The Stokes-Coriolis term have an impact on the transient Ekman transport by modifying the Ekman spiral, while the Stokes drift has an effect on the momentum advection and the production of TKE, where the later induces a deepening of the mixing layer. This study is carried out in the framework of the project CONACYT CB-2015-01 255377 and RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793).
Heat transfer measurements in swept shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions
Lee, Yeol
An experimental research program providing basic knowledge and establishing a database on the heat transfer in three-dimensional shock wave/boundary-layer interaction is described. High thermal loading in such interactions constitutes a fundamental problem of critical concern to future supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles. A turbulent boundary-layer on a flat plate is subjected to interactions with swept planar shock waves generated by a sharp fin. Fin angles from 10 deg to 20 deg at freestream Mach numbers 3.0 and 4.0 produce a variety of interaction strengths from weak to very strong. A foil heater generates a uniform heat flux over the surface of interest and thin-film resistance thermometers mounted on it are used to measure the local surface temperature. The heat convection equation is then used to calculate the local heat transfer coefficients. The present heat transfer technique is applied to measure heat transfer distributions for 5 different interaction cases. The experimental data are compared with numerical Navier-Stokes solutions. The estimation of total uncertainty of the present measurements is about plus or minus 10 percent, which makes them suitable for CFD code validation purposes. The measured peak heat transfer data are correlated with the normal Mach number based on the concept of the quasi-conical nature of such interactions, and the results show good agreement with other experimental data.
Wave-turbulence interaction-induced vertical mixing and its effects in ocean and climate models.
Qiao, Fangli; Yuan, Yeli; Deng, Jia; Dai, Dejun; Song, Zhenya
2016-04-13
Heated from above, the oceans are stably stratified. Therefore, the performance of general ocean circulation models and climate studies through coupled atmosphere-ocean models depends critically on vertical mixing of energy and momentum in the water column. Many of the traditional general circulation models are based on total kinetic energy (TKE), in which the roles of waves are averaged out. Although theoretical calculations suggest that waves could greatly enhance coexisting turbulence, no field measurements on turbulence have ever validated this mechanism directly. To address this problem, a specially designed field experiment has been conducted. The experimental results indicate that the wave-turbulence interaction-induced enhancement of the background turbulence is indeed the predominant mechanism for turbulence generation and enhancement. Based on this understanding, we propose a new parametrization for vertical mixing as an additive part to the traditional TKE approach. This new result reconfirmed the past theoretical model that had been tested and validated in numerical model experiments and field observations. It firmly establishes the critical role of wave-turbulence interaction effects in both general ocean circulation models and atmosphere-ocean coupled models, which could greatly improve the understanding of the sea surface temperature and water column properties distributions, and hence model-based climate forecasting capability. © 2016 The Authors.
Vertical motion of ionization induced by the linear interaction of tides with planetary waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Voiculescu
Full Text Available Experimental findings have shown that travelling planetary waves modulate the occurrence of mid-latitude sporadic-E-layers. Using a simple quantitative model, we analyse the effects of the linear interaction between tides and planetary waves on ion motion. Besides an expected variation of the dumping height, it is found that the boundaries of the oscillations induced by the descending semidiurnal tide are significantly modified by the presence of the planetary wave. The height variations of the ionisation cause planetary wave modulations of the metallic ion content in the background plasma density. This could explain the long-term variation found in the occurrence of strong E_{s} layers. The fact that the dumping height variations are strongly influenced by the tidal phase velocity and amplitude, together with the variability of the metallic ion content, could contribute to the understanding of the sporadic nature of the E-layers.
Key words. Ionosphere (Ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; Mid-latitude ionosphere
Source and listener directivity for interactive wave-based sound propagation.
Mehra, Ravish; Antani, Lakulish; Kim, Sujeong; Manocha, Dinesh
2014-04-01
We present an approach to model dynamic, data-driven source and listener directivity for interactive wave-based sound propagation in virtual environments and computer games. Our directional source representation is expressed as a linear combination of elementary spherical harmonic (SH) sources. In the preprocessing stage, we precompute and encode the propagated sound fields due to each SH source. At runtime, we perform the SH decomposition of the varying source directivity interactively and compute the total sound field at the listener position as a weighted sum of precomputed SH sound fields. We propose a novel plane-wave decomposition approach based on higher-order derivatives of the sound field that enables dynamic HRTF-based listener directivity at runtime. We provide a generic framework to incorporate our source and listener directivity in any offline or online frequency-domain wave-based sound propagation algorithm. We have integrated our sound propagation system in Valve's Source game engine and use it to demonstrate realistic acoustic effects such as sound amplification, diffraction low-passing, scattering, localization, externalization, and spatial sound, generated by wave-based propagation of directional sources and listener in complex scenarios. We also present results from our preliminary user study.
A statistical model for relativistic quantum fluids interacting with an intense electromagnetic wave
Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Asenjo, Felipe A.
2016-05-01
A statistical model for relativistic quantum fluids interacting with an arbitrary amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave is developed in two steps. First, the energy spectrum and the wave function for a quantum particle (Klein Gordon and Dirac) embedded in the electromagnetic wave are calculated by solving the appropriate eigenvalue problem. The energy spectrum is anisotropic in the momentum K and reflects the electromagnetic field through the renormalization of the rest mass m to M =√{m2+q2A2 } . Based on this energy spectrum of this quantum particle plus field combination (QPF), a statistical mechanics model of the quantum fluid made up of these weakly interacting QPF is developed. Preliminary investigations of the formalism yield highly interesting results—a new scale for temperature, and fundamental modification of the dispersion relation of the electromagnetic wave. It is expected that this formulation could, inter alia, uniquely advance our understanding of laboratory as well as astrophysical systems where one encounters arbitrarily large electromagnetic fields.
Interaction of wave with a body floating on a wide polynya
Li, Z. F.; Shi, Y. Y.; Wu, G. X.
2017-09-01
A method based on wide spacing approximation is proposed for the interaction of water wave with a body floating on a polynya. The ice sheet is modelled as an elastic plate and fluid flow is described by the velocity potential theory. The solution procedure is constructed based on the assumption that when the distance between two disturbances to the free surface is sufficiently large, the interactions between them involve only the travelling waves caused by the disturbances and the effect of the evanescent waves is ignored. The solution for the problem can then be obtained from those for a floating body without an ice sheet and for an ice sheet/free surface without a floating body. Both latter solutions have already been found previously and therefore there will be no additional effort in solution once the wide spacing approximation formulation is derived. Extensive numerical results are provided to show that the method is very accurate compared with the exact solution. The obtained formulations are then used to provide some insightful explanations for the physics of flow behaviour, as well as the mechanism for the highly oscillatory features of the hydrodynamic force and body motion. Some explicit equations are derived to show zero reflection by the polynya and peaks and troughs of the force and excited body motion. It is revealed that some of the peaks of the body motion are due to resonance while others are due to the wave characters in the polynya.
Interaction between counterpropagating Rossby and capillarity waves in planar jets and wakes
Biancofiore, Luca; Gallaire, Francois; Laure, Patrice
2012-11-01
By means of a global linear analysis, Tammisola et al. (2011) have observed a counterintuitive destabilizing effect of the surface tension in planar wakes. They have justified this destabilization by the presence of two different temporal unstable modes found when analyzing the local stability of an extracted velocity profile from the base flow. In the present study, we approximate the velocity profile of a jet/wake flow through a piecewise broken-line. We then explain the presence of these two temporal unstable modes for such flows using the counterpropagating Rossby wave (CRW) perspective (see Heifetz et al., 1999), which associates to each vorticity discontinuity an individual Rossby wave. The introduction of a finite amount of surface tension at the interface creates two capillarity waves (CW) which move with the same velocity but in opposite directions. The interaction of this four waves originates the two temporal unstable modes for both sinuous and varicose symmetries. Analyses of the influence of the shear layer thickness δw and the confinement h on the behaviour of both CRWs and CWs and on their interaction are provided. Finally, comparisons to direct numerical simulations of jets/wakes including surface tension will complete the study.
Nonlinear interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Candy, J.; Borba, D.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Berk, H.L. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies
1996-12-17
A numerical algorithm to study the nonlinear, resonant interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in tokamak geometry has been developed. The scope of the formalism is wide enough to describe the nonlinear evolution of fishbone modes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmodes, driven by both passing and trapped fast ions. When the instability is sufficiently weak, it is known that the wave-particle trapping nonlinearity will lead to mode saturation before wave-wave nonlinearities are appreciable. The spectrum of linear modes can thus be calculated using a magnetohydrodynamic normal-mode code, then nonlinearly evolved in time in an efficient way according to a two-time-scale Lagrangian dynamical wave model. The fast particle kinetic equation, including the effect of orbit nonlinearity arising from the mode perturbation, is simultaneously solved of the deviation, {delta}f = f {minus} f{sub 0}, from an initial analytic distribution f{sub 0}. High statistical resolution allows linear growth rates, frequency shifts, resonance broadening effects, and nonlinear saturation to be calculated quickly and precisely. The results have been applied to an ITER instability scenario. Results show that weakly-damped core-localized modes alone cause negligible alpha transport in ITER-like plasmas--even with growth rates one order of magnitude higher than expected values. However, the possibility of significant transport in reactor-type plasmas due to weakly unstable global modes remains an open question.
Mathematical Modeling of Oscillating Water Columns Wave-Structure Interaction in Ocean Energy Plants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aitor J. Garrido
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Oscillating Water Column (OWC-based power take-off systems are one of the potential solutions to the current energy problems arising from the use of nuclear fission and the consumption of fossil fuels. This kind of energy converter turns wave energy into electric power by means of three different stages: firstly wave energy is transformed into pneumatic energy in the OWC chamber, and then a turbine turns it into mechanical energy and finally the turbogenerator module attached to the turbine creates electric power from the rotational mechanical energy. To date, capture chambers have been the least studied part. In this context, this paper presents an analytical model describing the dynamic behavior of the capture chamber, encompassing the wave motion and its interaction with the OWC structure and turbogenerator module. The model is tested for the case of the Mutriku wave power plant by means of experimental results. For this purpose, representative case studies are selected from wave and pressure drop input-output data. The results show an excellent matching rate between the values predicted by the model and the experimental measured data with a small bounded error in all cases, so that the validity of the proposed model is proven.
The Wave-Particle Interactions Experiment (WPIx) on the DSX Spacecraft
McCollough, J. P., II; Starks, M. J.; Albert, J.; Johnston, W. R.
2016-12-01
In 2017, the Air Force Research Laboratory is planning to launch its Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) mission to investigate wave-particle interactions and the particle and space environment in medium Earth orbit (MEO). The WPIx payload includes VLF broadband and narrowband receivers, a VLF transmitter/amplifier, two orthogonal antennae (80 and 16 meters in length), and the Loss Cone Imager (LCI) particle detector. WPIx will study VLF transmission, propagation, and interaction with trapped particles. It will also observe the ambient wave environment and examine the basic physics of an antenna in a plasma. We will describe the capabilities of the WPIx instruments, science plans, and opportunities for collaborative studies such as conjunction observations and far-field measurements.
Counter-propagating wave interaction for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging
Renaud, G.; Bosch, J. G.; ten Kate, G. L.; Shamdasani, V.; Entrekin, R.; de Jong, N.; van der Steen, A. F. W.
2012-11-01
Most techniques for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging require linear propagation to detect nonlinear scattering of contrast agent microbubbles. Waveform distortion due to nonlinear propagation impairs their ability to distinguish microbubbles from tissue. As a result, tissue can be misclassified as microbubbles, and contrast agent concentration can be overestimated; therefore, these artifacts can significantly impair the quality of medical diagnoses. Contrary to biological tissue, lipid-coated gas microbubbles used as a contrast agent allow the interaction of two acoustic waves propagating in opposite directions (counter-propagation). Based on that principle, we describe a strategy to detect microbubbles that is free from nonlinear propagation artifacts. In vitro images were acquired with an ultrasound scanner in a phantom of tissue-mimicking material with a cavity containing a contrast agent. Unlike the default mode of the scanner using amplitude modulation to detect microbubbles, the pulse sequence exploiting counter-propagating wave interaction creates no pseudoenhancement behind the cavity in the contrast image.
Wave-Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge Advance
2015-09-30
ice . The ROV and all sensors were tested extensively at WHOI. This platform will complement the AUV by performing rapid, short under ice ...Bruncin, 3) two WHOI-built IMBs also equipped with acoustic snow depth sensors and CTDs, and 4) one CRREL Seasonal Sea Ice Zone IMB. In addition, an...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave- Ice and Air- Ice -Ocean Interaction During the
Wilgeroth, J. M.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Proud, W. G.
2014-05-01
Injuries to the tympanic membrane (ear drum) are particularly common in individuals subjected to blast overpressure such as military personnel engaged in conflict. Here, the interaction between blast wave and reticulated foams of varying density and thickness has been investigated using shock tube apparatus. The degree of mitigation afforded by the foam samples is discussed in relation to an injury threshold which has been suggested by others for the tympanic membrane.
Interactions of Delta Shock Waves for Zero-Pressure Gas Dynamics with Energy Conservation Law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Cai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the interactions of delta shock waves and vacuum states for the system of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in zero-pressure gas dynamics. The Riemann problems with initial data of three piecewise constant states are solved case by case, and four different configurations of Riemann solutions are constructed. Furthermore, the numerical simulations completely coinciding with theoretical analysis are shown.
Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim
2014-05-01
Three examples of usage of high-speed video filming in investigation of wind-wave interaction in laboratory conditions is described. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) and at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m, wind velocity up to 10 m/s). A combination of PIV-measurements, optical measurements of water surface form and wave gages were used for detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. The modified PIV-method is based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by particles and high-speed video. During the experiments on the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS Green (532 nm) CW laser with 1.5 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint (VS-Fast) was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz. Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved using conditional in phase averaging like in [1]. In the experiments on the LASIF more powerful Argon laser (4 Wt, CW) was used as well as high-speed camera with higher sensitivity and resolution: Optronics Camrecord CR3000x2, frame rate 3571 Hz, frame size 259×1696 px. In both series of experiments spherical 0.02 mm polyamide particles with inertial time 7 ms were used for seeding airflow. New particle seeding system based on utilization of air pressure is capable of injecting 2 g of particles per second for 1.3 - 2.4 s without flow disturbance. Used in LASIF this system provided high particle density on PIV-images. In combination with high-resolution camera it allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hada
Full Text Available Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths lW - P are calculated using the measured wave intensities, polarizations, and k directions. The values of lW - P are found to be ~ 5 times less than the value of lHe , the latter derived from He intensity and anisotropy time profiles. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that scattering rates through a 90° pitch angle are lower than that of other pitch angles, and that this is a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the lW - P and lHe values. At this time the scattering mechanism(s is unknown. We suggest a means where a direct comparison between the two l values could be made. Computer simulations indicate that although scattering through 90° is lower, it still occurs. Possibilities are either large pitch angle scattering through resonant interactions, or particle mirroring off of field compression regions. The largest solar proton events are analyzed to investigate the possibilities of local wave generation at 1 AU. In accordance with the results of a previous calculation (Gary et al., 1985 of beam stability, proton beams at 1 AU are found to be marginally stable. No evidence for substantial wave amplitude was found. Locally generated waves, if present, were less than 10-3 nT 2 Hz-1 at the leading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. T. Tsurutani
2002-04-01
Full Text Available Energetic particles and MHD waves are studied using simultaneous ISEE-3 data to investigate particle propagation and scattering between the source near the Sun and 1 AU. 3 He-rich events are of particular interest because they are typically low intensity "scatter-free" events. The largest solar proton events are of interest because they have been postulated to generate their own waves through beam instabilities. For 3 He-rich events, simultaneous interplanetary magnetic spectra are measured. The intensity of the interplanetary "fossil" turbulence through which the particles have traversed is found to be at the "quiet" to "intermediate" level of IMF activity. Pitch angle scattering rates and the corresponding particle mean free paths lW - P are calculated using the measured wave intensities, polarizations, and k directions. The values of lW - P are found to be ~ 5 times less than the value of lHe , the latter derived from He intensity and anisotropy time profiles. It is demonstrated by computer simulation that scattering rates through a 90° pitch angle are lower than that of other pitch angles, and that this is a possible explanation for the discrepancy between the lW - P and lHe values. At this time the scattering mechanism(s is unknown. We suggest a means where a direct comparison between the two l values could be made. Computer simulations indicate that although scattering through 90° is lower, it still occurs. Possibilities are either large pitch angle scattering through resonant interactions, or particle mirroring off of field compression regions. The largest solar proton events are analyzed to investigate the possibilities of local wave generation at 1 AU. In accordance with the results of a previous calculation (Gary et al., 1985 of beam stability, proton beams at 1 AU are found to be marginally stable. No evidence for substantial wave amplitude was found. Locally generated waves, if present, were less than 10-3 nT 2 Hz-1 at the leading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taillade, F.; Krapez, J.C.; Lamarque, T.; Balageas, D.; Lepoutre, F. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. de Mecanique du Solide et de l' Endommagement, 92 - Chatillon (France)
1999-07-01
This paper presents the speckle shearing interferometer as a tool for imaging in quasi real time cw or burst Lamb waves and their interaction with plate defects. This method provides full-field images of ultrasonic waves with an uncertainty of 1 mm. Finally, for CND applications, we developed a specific optical filter which eliminates in the shearographic image the nominal Lamb wave modulation and only keeps the perturbations induced by the defects. (authors)
Influence of gain dynamics on dissipative soliton interaction in the presence of a continuous wave
Niang, A.; Amrani, F.; Salhi, M.; Leblond, H.; Sanchez, F.
2015-09-01
We investigate the effect of the gain dynamics on the motion and interactions of solitons in the frame of a complex Ginzburg-Landau-type model, which accounts for dissipative soliton formation and propagation in a ring fiber laser. It is shown that the gain dynamics modifies the soliton velocity and their interactions. In the presence of an injected continuous wave, an initial crystal of a few solitons gets broken, either into bunches or into individual solitons. Quasielastic collisions analogous to Newton's cradle have been seen. The soliton set may evolve into gas, solitons, or harmonic mode-locked patterns. The time jitter present in the last situation has been considered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jixiong Xiao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A linear theory for the electromagnetic properties and interactions of an annular beam-ion channel system in plasma waveguide is presented. The dispersion relations for two families of propagating modes, including the electrostatic and transverse magnetic modes, are derived. The dependencies of the dispersion behavior and interaction for different wave modes on the thickness of the annular beam and betatron oscillation frequency are studied in detail by numerical calculations. The results show that the inner and outer radii of the beam have different influences on propagation properties of the electrostatic and electromagnetic modes with different betatron oscillation parameters. In the weak ion channel situation, the two types of electrostatic waves, that is, space charge and betatron modes, have no interaction with the transverse magnetic modes. However, in the strong ion channel situation, the transverse magnetic modes will have two branches and a low frequency mode emerged as the new branch. In this case, compared with the solid beam case, the betatron modes not only can interact with the high frequency branch at small wavenumber but also can interact with the low frequency branch at large wavenumber.
Gallet, Basile; Nazarenko, Sergey; Dubrulle, Bérengère
2015-07-01
In field theory, particles are waves or excitations that propagate on the fundamental state. In experiments or cosmological models, one typically wants to compute the out-of-equilibrium evolution of a given initial distribution of such waves. Wave turbulence deals with out-of-equilibrium ensembles of weakly nonlinear waves, and is therefore well suited to address this problem. As an example, we consider the complex Klein-Gordon equation with a Mexican-hat potential. This simple equation displays two kinds of excitations around the fundamental state: massive particles and massless Goldstone bosons. The former are waves with a nonzero frequency for vanishing wave number, whereas the latter obey an acoustic dispersion relation. Using wave-turbulence theory, we derive wave kinetic equations that govern the coupled evolution of the spectra of massive and massless waves. We first consider the thermodynamic solutions to these equations and study the wave condensation transition, which is the classical equivalent of Bose-Einstein condensation. We then focus on nonlocal interactions in wave-number space: we study the decay of an ensemble of massive particles into massless ones. Under rather general conditions, these massless particles accumulate at low wave number. We study the dynamics of waves coexisting with such a strong condensate, and we compute rigorously a nonlocal Kolmogorov-Zakharov solution, where particles are transferred nonlocally to the condensate, while energy cascades towards large wave numbers through local interactions. This nonlocal cascading state constitutes the intermediate asymptotics between the initial distribution of waves and the thermodynamic state reached in the long-time limit.
Long Wave Flow Interaction with a Single Square Structure on a Sloping Beach
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Gian C. Bremm
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In the context of dam breaks, tsunami, and flash floods, it is paramount to quantify the time-history of forces by the rapidly transient flow to vertical structures and the characteristics of the induced flow patterns. To resemble on-land tsunami-induced flow, a free-surface-piercing structure is exposed to long leading depression waves in a tsunami flume where long waves run up and down a 1:40 smooth and impermeable sloping beach after its generation by a volume-driven wave maker. The structure and its surrounding were monitored with force transducers, pressure gauges and cameras. Preparatory steady-state experiments were accomplished to determine the drag force coefficient of the square cylinder at various water depths. The flow during wave run-up and draw-down acting on the structure resulted in distinct flow pattern which were characteristic for the type of flow-structure interaction. Besides bow wave propagating upstream, a standing or partially-standing wave was observed in front of the structure together with a wake formation downstream, while a von Kármán vortex street developed during the deceleration phase of the flow motion and during draw-down. Force measurements indicated a sudden increase in the stream-wise total force starting with the arrival of the flow front during initial run-up. Lateral velocities showed significant oscillations in correlation with the von Kármán vortex street development. A comparison of the total measured base force with the analytically-calculated share of the drag force revealed that forces were prevailingly drag-dominated.
Tsurutani, B. T.; Arballo, J. K.; Goldstein, B. E.; Ho, C.; Smith, E. J.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Prange, R.; Lin, N.; Phillips, J. R.; Balogh, A.;
1996-01-01
The full Jovian magnetopause boundary layer (BL) plasma wave spectra from 10(sup -3) to 10(sup 3) Hz, have been measured for the first time...The B'/E' ration does not have a f(sup -1) dependency, so it was suggested that the waves are a mixture of whistler mode electromagnetic emissions and electrostatic waves.
Development and application of an oil spill model with wave-current interactions in coastal areas.
Guo, WeiJun; Hao, Yanni; Zhang, Li; Xu, Tiaojian; Ren, Xiaozhong; Cao, Feng; Wang, Shoudong
2014-07-15
The present paper focuses on developing a numerical oil spill model that incorporates the full three-dimensional wave-current interactions for a better representation of the spilled oil transport mechanics in complicated coastal environments. The incorporation of surface wave effects is not only imposing a traditional drag coefficient formulation at the free surface, but also the 3D momentum equations are adjusted to include the impact of the vertically dependent radiation stresses on the currents. Based on the current data from SELFE and wave data from SWAN, the oil spill model utilizes oil particle method to predict the trajectory of individual droplets and the oil concentration. Compared with the observations in Dalian New Port oil spill event, the developed model taking into account wave-current coupling administers to giving better conformity than the one without. The comparisons demonstrates that 3D radiation stress impacts the spill dynamics drastically near the sea surface and along the coastline, while having less impact in deeper water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Interaction of energetic particles with waves in strongly inhomogeneous solar wind plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krafft, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Volokitin, A. S. [Space Research Institute, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya Str., 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnoselskikh, V. V., E-mail: catherine.krafft@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement et de l' Espace, 3A Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)
2013-12-01
Observations performed in the solar wind by different satellites show that electron beams accelerated in the low corona during solar flares can propagate up to distances around 1 AU, that Langmuir waves' packets can be clumped into spikes with peak amplitudes three orders of magnitude above the mean, and that the average level of density fluctuations can reach several percents. A Hamiltonian model is built describing the properties of Langmuir waves propagating in a plasma with random density fluctuations by the Zakharov's equations and the beam by means of particles moving self-consistently in the fields of the waves. Numerical simulations, performed using parameters relevant to solar type III conditions at 1 AU, show that when the average level of density fluctuations is sufficiently low, the beam relaxation and the wave excitation processes are very similar to those in a homogeneous plasma and can be described by the quasilinear equations of the weak turbulence theory. On the contrary, when the average level of density fluctuations overcomes some threshold depending on the ratio of the thermal velocity to the beam velocity, the plasma inhomogeneities crucially influence the characteristics of the Langmuir turbulence and the beam-plasma interaction.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....
Rashid, M.
2011-01-01
A circularly orbiting electromagnetic harmonic wave may appear when a 1S electron encounters a decelerating stopping positively charged hole inside a semiconductor. The circularly orbiting electromagnetic harmonic wave can have an interaction with a conducting electron which has a constant time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Fan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Transmission loss (TL is often used to evaluate the acoustic attenuation performance of a silencer. In this work, a three-dimensional (3D finite element method (FEM is employed to calculate the TL of some representative silencers, namely, circular expansion chamber silencer and straight-through perforated pipe silencer. In order to account for the effect of mean flow that exists inside the silencer, the 3D FEM is used in conjunction with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation of the flow field. More concretely, the 3D mean flow field is computed by firstly using CFD, and then the obtained mean flow data are imported to an acoustic solution undertaken using FEM. The data transfer between the two steps is accomplished by mesh mapping. The results presented demonstrate good agreement between present TL predictions and previously published experimental and numerical works. Also, the details of the flow inside the silencers may be studied. Furthermore, the effect of mean flow velocity on acoustic attenuation performance of the silencers is investigated. It is concluded that for the studied silencers, in general, increasing flow velocity increases the TL and decreases the resonance peaks.
Passage of waves in fluids through damping interlayers and their interaction with barrier
Lyakhov, A. G.
1984-04-01
Interaction of a wave in a liquid-gas mixture with a barrier after passage through a porous solid medium is analyzed, taking into account the relaxation mechanism. A momentary compression of the liquid is assumed to occur under load, while the pressure in air bubbles is assumed to change adiabatically and deformation of air bubbles can be described by the viscous term in the Rayleigh-Lamb equation alone. The corresponding two equations of change of state, through deformation and relaxation respectively, together with the Euler equation and the equation of continuity in Lagrange variables constitute a closed system of equations which is solvable by the method of characteristics. Pressure transients have been calculated by this method for three forms of pressure wave (step of finite duration, step of finite duration, descending ramp of finite duration) in glycerin with air bubbles passing through a 3 mm thick porous damper before reaching an immovable solid barrier to which the damper adheres. The damper effectiveness, characterized by amper action time which shortens the wave barrier interaction time, is found to be approximately proportional to the volume fraction of air in the liquid within the 0.02-0.4 range and also approximately proportional to the thickness of the damping layer.
Kucharek, Harald; Galvin, Antoinette; Farrugia, Charles; Klecker, Berndt; Pogorelov, Nikolai
2016-04-01
Wave-particle interactions, ion acceleration, and magnetic turbulence are closely interlinked and the physical processes may occur on different scales. These scales range from the kinetic scale to the macro-scale (MHD-scale). These processes are likely universal and the same basic processes occur at the Earth's environment, at the Earth's bow shock, the solar wind, and around the heliosphere. Undoubtedly, the Earth's environment as well as the close interplanetary space are the best plasma environments to study these processes using satellite measurements. Recently, ACE, STEREO, IBEX and Voyager observations clearly showed that turbulence and wave-particle interactions and turbulence are extremely important in interplanetary space and in the heliosphere. Using data from STEREO, Wind, we have investigated the spectral properties of suprathermal ion distributions. The results show that spectral slopes are very variable and depend on the plasma properties. We have also performed 3D hybrid simulations and studied particle dynamics. These simulations show that the particle dynamics in the turbulent magnetic wave field is Levy-Flight like which leads to a kappa distribution, which is often found in various space environments. This result is very significant of future mission such as THOR and IMAP and current operating missions such as STEREO, IBEX, and MMS.
Discrete Solitary Waves in Systems with Nonlocal Interactions and the Peierls-Nabarro Barrier
Jenkinson, M.; Weinstein, M. I.
2017-04-01
We study a class of discrete focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equations (DNLS) with general nonlocal interactions. We prove the existence of onsite and offsite discrete solitary waves, which bifurcate from the trivial solution at the endpoint frequency of the continuous spectrum of linear dispersive waves. We also prove exponential smallness, in the frequency-distance to the bifurcation point, of the Peierls-Nabarro energy barrier (PNB), as measured by the difference in Hamiltonian or mass functionals evaluated on the onsite and offsite states. These results extend those of the authors for the case of nearest neighbor interactions to a large class of nonlocal short-range and long-range interactions. The appearance of distinct onsite and offsite states is a consequence of the breaking of continuous spatial translation invariance. The PNB plays a role in the dynamics of energy transport in such nonlinear Hamiltonian lattice systems. Our class of nonlocal interactions is defined in terms of coupling coefficients, J m , where {min{Z}} is the lattice site index, with {J_m˜eq m^{-1-2s}, sin[1,∞)} and {J_m˜ e^{-γ|m|}, s=∞, γ > 0,} (Kac-Baker). For {s≥1}, the bifurcation is seeded by solutions of the (effective/homogenized) cubic focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). However, for {1/4 fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, FNLS, with {(-Δ)^s} replacing {-Δ}. The proof is based on a Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction strategy applied to a momentum space formulation. The PN barrier bounds require appropriate uniform decay estimates for the discrete Fourier transform of DNLS discrete solitary waves. A key role is also played by non-degeneracy of the ground state of FNLS, recently proved by Frank, Lenzmann and Silvestrie.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...
Kinetic effects during the interaction between high density microplasma and electromagnetic wave
Levko, Dmytro; Raja, Laxminarayan
2017-10-01
The interaction between a high-density microplasma and high-power electromagnetic wave is studied by one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model coupled with the Maxwell's equations. We find the value of the amplitude of the wave field above which a fully ionized plasma is generated on the picosecond time scale. This fully ionized plasma is obtained only in the skin layer while the ionization degree of the plasma bulk is 20%. The simulation results show that such non-homogeneous distribution of plasma and gas density influences significantly the heating of plasma electrons and time evolution of the electron energy probability function. Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) through a Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI) Grant titled ``Plasma-Based Reconfigurable Photonic Crystals and Metamaterials'' with Dr. Mitat Birkan as the program manager.
Comments on ``The Depth-Dependent Current and Wave Interaction Equations: A Revision''
Bennis, Anne-Claire; Ardhuin, Fabrice
2011-10-01
Equations for the wave-averaged three-dimensional momentum equations have been published in this journal. It appears that these equations are not consistent with the known depth-integrated momentum balance, especially over a sloping bottom. These equations should thus be considered with caution as they can produce erroneous flows, in particular outside of the surf zone. It is suggested that the inconsistency in the equations may arise from the different averaging operators applied to the different terms of the momentum equation. It is concluded that other forms of the momentum equations, expressed in terms of the quasi-Eulerian velocity, are better suited for three dimensional modelling of wave-current interactions.
Interaction acoustic waves with a layered structure containing layer of bubbly liquid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gubaidullin Damir
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The results of a theoretical study of the effect of a bubble layer on the propagation of acoustic waves through a thin three-layered barrier at various angles of incidence are presented. The barrier consists of a layer of gel with polydisperse air bubbles bounded by layers of polycarbonate. It is shown that the presence of polydisperse air bubbles in the gel layer significantly changes the transmission and reflection of the acoustic signal when it interacts with such an obstacle for frequencies close to the resonant frequency of natural oscillations of the bubbles. The frequency range is identified where the angle of incidence has little effect on the reflection and transmission coefficients of acoustic waves.
Interactions of Cavitation Bubbles Observed by High-Speed Imaging in Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; McAteer, James A.; Williams, James C.; Evan, Andrew P.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Crum, Lawrence A.
2006-05-01
A multi-frame high-speed photography was used to investigate the dynamics of cavitation bubbles induced by a passage of a lithotripter shock wave in a water tank. Solitary bubbles in the free field each radiated a shock wave upon collapse, and typically emitted a micro-jet on the rebound following initial collapse. For bubbles in clouds, emitted jets were directed toward neighboring bubbles and could break the spherical symmetry of the neighboring bubbles before they in turn collapsed. Bubbles at the periphery of a cluster underwent collapse before the bubbles at the center. Observations with high-speed imaging confirm previous predictions that bubbles in a cavitation cloud do not cycle independently of one another but instead interact as a dynamic bubble cluster.
Yadav, N.; Ghosh, S.; Agrawal, A.
2017-05-01
Using quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) of semiconductor plasma for a one-component we present an analytical investigation on parametric interaction of a laser radiation in an unmagnetised material with a strain-dependent dielectric constant. The nonlinear current density and third order susceptibility are analyzed in different wave number regions in presence and absence of quantum effect. We present the qualitative behavior of threshold pump intensity with respect to wave number in presence and absence of quantum effect. The numeric estimates are made for n-BaTiO3 crystals at 77k duly irradiated by pulsed 10.6μm CO2 laser. It is found that the quantum correction through Fermi temperature and Bohm potential terms modifies the threshold characteristics.
Interactions between waves, sediment, and turbulence on a shallow estuarine mudflat
MacVean, Lissa J.; Lacy, Jessica R.
2014-01-01
Measurements were collected on a shallow estuarine mudflat in northern San Francisco Bay to examine the physical processes controlling waves, turbulence, sediment resuspension, and their interactions. Tides alone forced weak to moderate currents of 10–30 cm s-1 in depths of 0–3 m, and maintained a background suspension of 30–50 mg L21 of fine sediment. In the presence of wind waves, bottom orbital velocities spanned 20–30 cm s-1, suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) at 15 and 30 cm above the bed (cmab) increased by 1–2 orders of magnitude, and vertical gradients in SSC were strong enough to produce turbulence-limiting stratification, with gradient Richardson numbers exceeding 0.25. Simultaneously, turbulent
Non-resonant interacting ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maccari, Attilio [Technical Institute ' G Cardano' , Monterotondo, Rome (Italy)
1999-01-29
We perform an analytical and numerical investigation of the interaction among non-resonant ion acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma. Waves are supposed to be non-resonant, i.e. with different group velocities that are not close to each other. We use an asymptotic perturbation method, based on Fourier expansion and spatio-temporal rescaling. We show that the amplitude slow modulation of Fourier modes cannot be described by the usual nonlinear Schroedinger equation but by a new model system of nonlinear evolution equations. This system is C-integrable, i.e. it can be linearized through an appropriate transformation of the dependent and independent variables. We demonstrate that a subclass of solutions gives rise to envelope solitons. Each envelope soliton propagates with its own group velocity. During a collision solitons maintain their shape, the only change being a phase shift. Numerical results are used to check the validity of the asymptotic perturbation method. (author)
Electron Fluid Description of Wave-Particle Interactions in Strong Buneman Turbulence
Che, H
2014-01-01
To understand the nature of anomalous resistivity in magnetic reconnection, we investigate turbulence-induced momentum transport and energy dissipation during Buneman instability in force-free current sheets. Using 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we find that the macroscopic effects generated by wave-particle interactions in Buneman instability can be approximately described by a set of electron fluid equations. These equations show that the energy dissipation and momentum transports along current sheets are locally quasi-static but globally non-static and irreversible. Turbulence drag dissipates both the streaming energy of current sheets and the associated magnetic energy. The decrease of magnetic field maintains an inductive electric field that re-accelerates electrons. The net loss of streaming energy is converted into the heat of electrons moving along the magnetic field and increases the electron Boltzmann entropy. The growth of self-sustained Buneman waves satisfies a Bernoulli-like equation that rela...
Rotating Convection in F-Planes: Mean Flow and Reynolds Stress
Chan, Kwing L.
2001-02-01
We study turbulent compressible convection under the influence of rotation in an f-plane configuration using numerical simulation. Our focus is on the behaviors of the mean flows and the Reynolds stress. A parametric study is conducted, using 36 computed cases with different energy fluxes, rotation rates (Ω), and inclinations of the rotation vector. The flux varies over a factor of 8; the Coriolis number ranges from 0 to approximately 7; the inclination of the rotation vector covers the range from 0 (at the pole) to π/2 (at the equator). The coverage of this piece of parameter space is rather full and dense, so that we do not need to base our discussions on extrapolations of sparsely distributed cases. Special attention is paid to obtaining statistical convergence of the Reynolds stress, a very slow process that consumes much computer time. The numerical results show that: (1) Even though the properties of the convection zones are different (efficient versus inefficient convection), the behavior of our cases has considerable similarity to that of the turbulent cases explored by Brummell et al. (2) Between the two studies, the most significant difference in flow behavior occurs in the mean zonal velocity at low Rossby numbers. While Brummell et al. found a ``constant-with-depth profile in the bulk of the layer'' (and two ``boundary layers''), we find that the profile develops a prominent retrograde dip at the top of the convection zone. (3) We offer an explanation for the dip based on the vertical distribution of the vertical-meridional component of the Reynolds stress. This may have relevance for understanding the radial drop of the solar angular velocity near the Sun's surface. (4) When the rotation vector is perpendicular to the vertical direction (at the equator), the behavior of the system undergoes a qualitative jump from those with other rotation vector inclinations. A shear with a strain rate of -2Ω develops in the mean zonal velocity, independent of the
Shock wave interaction with a thermal layer produced by a plasma sheet actuator
Koroteeva, E.; Znamenskaya, I.; Orlov, D.; Sysoev, N.
2017-03-01
This paper explores the phenomena associated with pulsed discharge energy deposition in the near-surface gas layer in front of a shock wave from the flow control perspective. The energy is deposited in 200 ns by a high-current distributed sliding discharge of a ‘plasma sheet’ type. The discharge, covering an area of 100× 30 mm2, is mounted on the top or bottom wall of a shock tube channel. In order to analyse the time scales of the pulsed discharge effect on an unsteady supersonic flow, we consider the propagation of a planar shock wave along the discharge surface area 50-500 μs after the discharge pulse. The processes in the discharge chamber are visualized experimentally using the shadowgraph method and modelled numerically using 2D/3D CFD simulations. The interaction between the planar shock wave and the discharge-induced thermal layer results in the formation of a lambda-shock configuration and the generation of vorticity in the flow behind the shock front. We determine the amount and spatial distribution of the electric energy rapidly transforming into heat by comparing the calculated flow patterns and the experimental shadow images. It is shown that the uniformity of the discharge energy distribution strongly affects the resulting flow dynamics. Regions of turbulent mixing in the near-surface gas are detected when the discharge energy is deposited non-uniformly along the plasma sheet. They account for the increase in the cooling rate of the discharge-induced thermal layer and significantly influence its interaction with an incident shock wave.
The Interaction between the Plane Wave and the Plate with Limited Height in Soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.A. Lokteva
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A solution of the two-dimensional task on interaction between the harmonic wave and the plate with the limited height in soil has been provided. The plate surrounded on both sides with the half-spaces filled with soil medium has been used as a vibro-absorbing obstacle. The mechanical behavior of the plate has been described by S.P. Timoshenko's shift model and the mechanical behavior of soil by a linear elasticity theory equation. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the total acceleration vector field inducted by the penetrated and radiated waves in the second half-space. The mathematical formulation of the task includes a model of upcoming wave, soil medium and plate movement equation, infinity conditions, and conditions of soil contact with obstacle. Conditions of free slip have been taken as the contact conditions between the soil and the obstacle. We have considered a closed system of equations, which includes wave equations for scalar and vector potentials, elasticity theory equations for soil mediums, Koshi's relations, physical law, and plate movement equation. The boundary conditions for the plate correspond to a hinged support. To solve this task, all functions have been expanded in trigonometric series that allowed to obtain potential values in the coefficients of the series. To define the integrations constants, the contact conditions between the obstacle and soil have been used. On the basis of the revealed potentials, we have defined displacements on the boundary between the plate and soil and in other points of the second half-space. The vibro-absorbing properties of the plate have been investigated depending on the frequency of the harmonic wave falling on the plate. From the practical point of view, this task is related to protection of buildings from vibrations formed at a distance from underground railways.
Mann, Ian R.; Rae, I. Jonathan; Sibeck, David G.; Watt, Clare E. J.
2016-01-01
Abstract Wave‐particle interactions play a crucial role in energetic particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. However, the relative importance of different wave modes in these dynamics is poorly understood. Typically, this is assessed during geomagnetic storms using statistically averaged empirical wave models as a function of geomagnetic activity in advanced radiation belt simulations. However, statistical averages poorly characterize extreme events such as geomagnetic storms in that storm‐time ultralow frequency wave power is typically larger than that derived over a solar cycle and Kp is a poor proxy for storm‐time wave power. PMID:27867798
Interference of lee waves over mountain ranges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. I. Makarenko
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Internal waves in the atmosphere and ocean are generated frequently from the interaction of mean flow with bottom obstacles such as mountains and submarine ridges. Analysis of these environmental phenomena involves theoretical models of non-homogeneous fluid affected by the gravity. In this paper, a semi-analytical model of stratified flow over the mountain range is considered under the assumption of small amplitude of the topography. Attention is focused on stationary wave patterns forced above the rough terrain. Adapted to account for such terrain, model equations involves exact topographic condition settled on the uneven ground surface. Wave solutions corresponding to sinusoidal topography with a finite number of peaks are calculated and examined.
2015-09-30
the internal wave field and how it impacts the surface waves. APPROACH We are focusing on the problem of modification of the wind -wave field...Meneveau, C., and L. Shen (2014), Large-eddy simulation of offshore wind farm , Physics of Fluids, 26, 025101. Zhang, Z., Fringer, O.B., and S.R...being centimeter scale, surface mixed layer processes arising from the combined actions of tides, winds and mesoscale currents. Issues related to
Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction
Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela
2016-04-01
Wind waves, elevated water levels and river discharge can cause flooding in low-lying coastal areas, where the water level is the interaction between wave storm elevated water levels and river flow interaction. The factors driving the potential flood risk include weather conditions, river water stage and storm surge. These data are required to obtain inputs to run the hydrological model used to evaluate the water surface level during ordinary and extreme events regarding both the fluvial overflow and storm surge at the river mouth. In this paper we studied the interaction between the sea level variation and the river hydraulics in order to assess the location of the river floods in the Sele coastal plain. The wave data were acquired from the wave buoy of Ponza, while the water level data needed to assess the sea level variation were recorded by the tide gauge of Salerno. The water stages, river discharges and rating curves for Sele river were provided by Italian Hydrographic Service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN).We used the dataset of Albanella station (40°29'34.30"N, 15°00'44.30"E), located around 7 km from the river mouth. The extreme river discharges were evaluated through the Weibull equation, which were associated with their return period (TR). The steady state river water levels were evaluated through HEC-RAS 4.0 model, developed by Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (USACE,2006). It is a well-known 1D model that computes water surface elevation (WSE) and velocity at discrete cross-sections by solving continuity, energy and flow resistance (e.g., Manning) equation. Data requirements for HEC-RAS include topographic information in the form of a series of cross-sections, friction parameter in the form of Manning's n values across each cross-section, and flow data including flow rates, flow change locations, and boundary conditions. For a steady state sub
Stability and acoustic scattering in a cylindrical thin shell containing compressible mean flow
Brambley, E. J.; Peake, N.
We consider the stability of small perturbations to a uniform inviscid compressible flow within a cylindrical linear-elastic thin shell. The thin shell is modelled using FlBers criterion, and the system is found to be either stable or absolutely unstable, with absolute instability occurring for sufficiently small shell thicknesses. This is significantly different from the stability of a thin shell containing incompressible fluid, even for parameters for which the fluid would otherwise be expected to behave incompressibly (for example, water within a steel thin shell). Asymptotic expressions are derived for the shell thickness separating stable and unstable behaviour.We then consider the scattering of waves by a sudden change in the duct boundary from rigid to thin shell, using the Wienerspringspring-damper model. The scattering results derived here are exact, unique and causal, without the need to apply a Kutta-like condition or to include an instability wave. A movie is available with the online version of the paper.
Interaction of a planar reacting shock wave with an isotropic turbulent vorticity field
Huete, César; Jin, Tai; Martínez-Ruiz, Daniel; Luo, Kun
2017-11-01
Linear interaction analysis (LIA) is employed to investigate the interaction of reactive and nonreactive shock waves with isotropic vortical turbulence. The analysis is carried out, through Laplace-transform technique, accounting for long-time effects of vortical disturbances on the burnt-gas flow in the fast-reaction limit, where the reaction-region thickness is significantly small in comparison with the most representative turbulent length scales. Results provided by the opposite slow-reaction limit are also recollected. The reactive case is here restricted to situations where the overdriven detonation front does not exhibit self-induced oscillations nor inherent instabilities. The interaction of the planar detonation with a monochromatic pattern of perturbations is addressed first, and then a Fourier superposition for three-dimensional isotropic turbulent fields is employed to provide integral formulas for the amplification of the kinetic energy, enstrophy, and anisotropy downstream. Transitory evolution is also provided for single-frequency disturbances. In addition, further effects associated to the reaction rate, which have not been included in LIA, are studied through direct numerical simulations. The numerical computations, based on WENO-BO4-type scheme, provide spatial profiles of the turbulent structures downstream for four different conditions that include nonreacting shock waves, unstable reacting shock (sufficiently high activation energy), and stable reacting shocks for different detonation thicknesses. Effects of the propagation Mach number, chemical heat release, and burn rate are analyzed.
Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.; Narayanswami, N.; Knight, D. D.
1994-01-01
Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossing-shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 deg at Mach 3 and 15 deg at Mach 3.85. The measurements were made using a laser interferometer skin-friction meter, a device that determines the wall shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin-friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction center line. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k-epsilon model, are compared with the experimental results for the Mach 3.85, 15-deg interaction case. Although the k-epsilon model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin-friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near-surface flow in this complex interaction.
Lyubarsky, Yuri
2018-02-01
This paper is the first in the series of papers aiming to study interaction of the electromagnetic precursor waves generated at the front of a relativistic shock with the upstream flow. It is motivated by a simple consideration showing that the absorption of such an electromagnetic precursor could yield an efficient transformation of the kinetic energy of the upstream flow to the energy of accelerated particles. Taking into account that the precursor is a strong wave, in which electrons oscillate with relativistic velocities, the standard plasma-radiation interaction processes should be reconsidered. In this paper, I calculate the synchrotron absorption of strong electromagnetic waves.
Nonlinear interaction of infrared waves on a VO2 surface at a semiconductor-metal phase transition
Berger, N. K.; Zhukov, E. A.; Novokhatskii, V. V.
1984-04-01
Nonlinear interactions (including wavefront reversal) of light from CW or pulsed 10.6-micron CO2 lasers at the semiconductor-metal phase transition in a VO2 film are investigated experimentally. The results are presented in graphs and characterized in detail. The intensity reflection coefficients of the three-wave interactions are found to be 0.5 percent for a CW reference wave of intensity 900 mW/sq cm and 42 percent for a pulsed reference wave of threshold density 600-800 microjoule/sq cm.
A Boussinesq-type method for fully nonlinear waves interacting with a rapidly varying bathymetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Wang, Benlong
2006-01-01
New equations are derived for fully nonlinear and highly dispersive water waves interacting with a rapidly varying bathymetry. The derivation is an extension of a recent high order Boussinesq type formulation valid on a mildly sloping bottom. It is based on a series expansion from a rapidly...... locally deteriorate, and we provide a guideline for using this technique within acceptable accuracy bounds. Numerical results are given for the linear reflection from a plane shelf, a Gaussian shaped trench, and a symmetric trench with sloped transitions. Furthermore, we simulate the linear class I...
Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.
2015-03-01
This paper presents a hybrid modeling technique for the efficient simulation of guided wave propagation and interaction with damage in composite structures. This hybrid approach uses a local finite element model (FEM) to compute the excitability of guided waves generated by piezoelectric transducers, while the global domain wave propagation, wave-damage interaction, and boundary reflections are modeled with the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). A small-size multi-physics FEM with non-reflective boundaries (NRB) was built to obtain the excitability information of guided waves generated by the transmitter. Frequency-domain harmonic analysis was carried out to obtain the solution for all the frequencies of interest. Fourier and inverse Fourier transform and frequency domain convolution techniques are used to obtain the time domain 3-D displacement field underneath the transmitter under an arbitrary excitation. This 3-D displacement field is then fed into the highly efficient time domain LISA simulation module to compute guided wave propagation, interaction with damage, and reflections at structural boundaries. The damping effect of composite materials was considered in the modified LISA formulation. The grids for complex structures were generated using commercial FEM preprocessors and converted to LISA connectivity format. Parallelization of the global LISA solution was achieved through Compute Unified Design Architecture (CUDA) running on Graphical Processing Unit (GPU). The multi-physics local FEM can reliably capture the detailed dimensions and local dynamics of the piezoelectric transducers. The global domain LISA can accurately solve the 3-D elastodynamic wave equations in a highly efficient manner. By combining the local FEM with global LISA, the efficient and accurate simulation of guided wave structural health monitoring procedure is achieved. Two numerical case studies are presented: (1) wave propagation in a unidirectional CFRP composite plate
McCready, M
2000-01-01
The long waves that cause slugs almost always form more slowly than short waves, and linear stability always predicts that the growth rate for long waves is much less than that for short waves. However, at many conditions above neutral stability, long waves dominate the wave field. Three different studies were undertaken as part of the funded work: (1) linear interaction for unsteady flows; (2) wave evolution in oil-water channel flows; (3) retrograde stability and subcritical bifurcations. The oil-water system was used as a surrogate for gas-liquid systems because the gas phase is usually turbulent, and this complication is thus avoided although the phenomena involved are similar. The following overall conclusions about flow regime development were reached: (a) Oscillations in pressure and flow rate, due to interfacial waves or a malfunctioning pump, can cause significant growth rate changes in short waves within narrow FR-equency ranges, but probably do not have a large effect on long waves and thus regime ...
Interaction of excitable waves emitted from two defects by pulsed electric fields
Chen, Jiang-Xing; Zhang, Han; Qiao, Li-Yan; Liang, Hong; Sun, Wei-Gang
2018-01-01
In response to a pulsed electric field, spatial distributed heterogeneities in excitable media can serve as nucleation sites for the generation of intramural electrical waves, a phenomenon called as ;wave emission from heterogeneities; (WEH effect). Heterogeneities in cardiac tissue strongly influence each other in the WEH effect. We study the WEH effect in a medium possessing two defects. The role of two defects and their interaction by pulsed DC electric fields (DEF) and rotating electric fields (REF) are investigated. The direction of the applied electric field plays a major role not only in the minimum electrical field necessary to originate wave propagation, but also in the degree of influences of nearby defects. The distance between two defects, i.e. the density of defects, also play an important role in the WEH effect. Generally, the REF is better than the DEF when pulsed electric fields are applied. These results may contribute to the improved application of WEH, especially in older patients with fibrosis and scarring, which are accompanied by a higher incidence of conductivity discontinuities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hisham Elkenani
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a reliable computational scheme to serve in pulse wave velocity (PWV assessment in large arteries. Clinicians considered it as an indication of human blood vessels’ stiffness. The simulation of PWV was conducted using a 3D elastic tube representing an artery. The constitutive material model specific for vascular applications was applied to the tube material. The fluid was defined with an equation of state representing the blood material. The onset of a velocity pulse was applied at the tube inlet to produce wave propagation. The Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL modeling technique with fluid structure interaction (FSI was implemented. The scaling of sound speed and its effect on results and computing time is discussed and concluded that a value of 60 m/s was suitable for simulating vascular biomechanical problems. Two methods were used: foot-to-foot measurement of velocity waveforms and slope of the regression line of the wall radial deflection wave peaks throughout a contour plot. Both methods showed coincident results. Results were approximately 6% less than those calculated from the Moens-Korteweg equation. The proposed method was able to describe the increase in the stiffness of the walls of large human arteries via the PWV estimates.
Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui
2013-06-01
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are long suggested to account for the rapid loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. Here we perform both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to comprehensively investigate the nonlinear interaction between EMIC wave and relativistic electrons. In particular, we emphasize the dependence of nonlinear processes on the electron initial latitude. The nonlinear phase trapping yields negative equatorial pitch angle transport, with efficiency varying over the electron initial latitude, implying that it can increase the loss rate predicted by quasilinear theory. The nonlinear channel effect phase bunching produces positive equatorial pitch angle transport, less dependent on the electron initial latitude, suggesting that it can decrease the loss rate predicted by quasilinear theory. The nonlinear cluster effect phase bunching alternately causes positive and negative equatorial pitch angle transport, quasi-periodically dependent on the electron initial latitude, suggesting that it can either decrease or increase the loss rate predicted by the quasilinear theory. Such latitudinal dependence of nonlinear processes should be taken into account in the evaluation of radiation belt electron loss rate driven by EMIC waves.
Conditions for Debris-Background Ion Interactions and Collisionless Shock Wave Generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-10
We use hybrid simulations and simple theoretical arguments to determine when debris ions streaming relative to background ions in a collisionless, magnetized plasma couple strongly enough to generate a magnetosonic shock wave. We consider three types of configurations: one-dimensional, the two-dimensional extension of the 1-D case, and a more complex 2-D geometry that contains some effects that would be found in a laser-produced, laboratory plasma. We show that the simulation results as well as previous Russian and LLNL results reduce to a simple condition (R{sub m}/{rho}{sub d} = equal mass radius/debris ion gyroradius {ge} 0.7) for the generation of a shock wave. Strong debris interaction with the background is characterized by the formation of a magnetic pulse that steepens and speeds up as it encounters the debris ions deflected by the magnetic field. The pulse further evolves into a shock. As the earlier work has indicated, the process also involves the generation of a transverse electric field perpendicular to the flow and the magnetic field that accelerates the background ions radially outward, which in turn causes the speedup of the pulse. With electric and magnetic field probes, the UCLA laser experiments should be able to detect these signatures of coupling as well as the generation of the shock wave.
Lamb wave interaction at debondings due to impact damage in complex stiffened CFRP structures
Eckstein, B.; Moix Bonet, M.; Bach, M.; Fritzen, C.-P.
2017-04-01
The increasing usage of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) for primary aerospace structures involves dealing with the principal susceptibility of composite laminates to impact loads as well as the occurrence of barely visible impact damages. One special case among the variety of impact sources is the so called blunt impact, which may cause primarily damage to the internal structure. Thus, the assessment of debonding of stiffening elements in CFRP structures poses an attractive application case for Structural Health Monitoring by Guided Ultrasonic Waves. Wave propagation phenomena at impact damages as well as the utilized signal processing to extract a damage related feature (i.e. damage index) contribute to the sensitivity and thus to the reliability of SHM systems. This work is based on data from the EU-funded project SARISTU, where a generic CFRP door surrounding fuselage panel with an integrated sensor network has been built and tested by introducing a large number of impact damages. Wave interaction of stringer debondings of different size and morphology in omega-stringer stiffened structures are examined to highlight the factors contributing to the sensitivity. Common damage indicator formulations for use with imaging algorithms, such as the Reconstruction Algorithm for the Probabilistic Inspection of Damage (RAPID), are applied on data from various damage cases. Furthermore, the difference in detectability of debondings and delaminations as well as the implications on imaging algorithms are examined.
DG-FEM solution for nonlinear wave-structure interaction using Boussinesq-type equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan; Bingham, Harry B.
2008-01-01
We present a high-order nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method (DG-FEM) solution based on a set of highly accurate Boussinesq-type equations for solving general water-wave problems in complex geometries. A nodal DG-FEM is used for the spatial discretization to solve the Boussinesq equ...... and absorbed in the interior of the computational domain using a flexible relaxation technique applied on the free surface variables....... waters within the breaking limit. To demonstrate the current applicability of the model both linear and mildly nonlinear test cases are considered in two horizontal dimensions where the water waves interact with bottom-mounted fully reflecting structures. It is established that, by simple symmetry...... considerations combined with a mirror principle, it is possible to impose weak slip boundary conditions for both structured and general curvilinear wall boundaries while maintaining the accuracy of the scheme. As is standard for current high-order Boussinesq-type models, arbitrary waves can be generated...
Particle trajectories beneath wave-current interaction in a two-dimensional field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.-Y. Chen
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Within the Lagrangian reference framework we present a third-order trajectory solution for water particles in a two-dimensional wave-current interaction flow. The explicit parametric solution highlights the trajectory of a water particle and the wave kinematics above the mean water level and within a vertical water column, which were calculated previously by an approximation method using an Eulerian approach. Mass transport associated with a particle displacement can now be obtained directly in Lagrangian form without using the transformation from Eulerian to Lagrangian coordinates. In particular, the Lagrangian wave frequency and the Lagrangian mean level of particle motion can also be obtained, which are different from those in an Eulerian description. A series of laboratory experiments are performed to measure the trajectories of particles. By comparing the present asymptotic solution with laboratory experiments data, it is found that theoretical results show excellent agreement with experimental data. Moreover, the influence of a following current is found to increase the relative horizontal distance traveled by a water particle, while the converse is true in the case of an opposing current.
Large-aperture Tunable Plasma Meta-material to Interact with Electromagnetic Waves
Corke, Thomas; Matlis, Eric
2016-11-01
The formation of spatially periodic arrangements of glow discharge plasma resulting from charge instabilities were investigated as a tuneable plasma meta-material. The plasma was formed between two 2-D parallel dielectric covered electrodes: one consisting of an Indium-Tin-Oxide coated glass sheet, and the other consisting of a glass-covered circular electrode. The dielectric covered electrodes were separated by a gap that formed a 2-D channel. The gap spacing was adjustable. The electrodes were powered by a variable amplitude AC generator. The parallel electrode arrangement was placed in a variable pressure vacuum chamber. Various combinations of gap spacing, pressure and voltage resulted in the formation of spatially periodic arrangements (lattice) of glow discharge plasma. The lattice spacing perfectly followed 2-D packing theory, and was fully adjustable through the three governing parameters. Lattice arrangements were designed to interact with electromagnetic (EM) waves in the frequency range between 10GHz-80GHz. Its feasibility was investigate through an EM wave simulation that we adapted to allow for plasma permittivity. The results showed a clear suppression of the EM wave amplitude through the plasma gratings. Supported by AFOSR.
Possible evidence for Lin's three-wave interaction mechanism at corotation in the galaxy NGC 1566
Comte, G.
The distribution and kinematics of the ionized hydrogen in the large southern spiral NGC 1566 are analyzed in terms of the interaction of three spiral waves at corotation, as described by Lin (1969) and calculated in detail by Mark (1976). As reported by Comte and Duquennoy (1982), NGC 1566 has a four-arm spiral structure with two bright inner arms, two fainter outer arms, and an incomplete inner ring. The corotation circle is located at r = 130 arcsec, where the main inner open spiral vanishes. Parameters calculated include Omega(p) between 17.5 and 19 km/sec kpc for Delta = 15.3 Mpc, outer resonance at r = 300-350 arcsec, and inner Lindblad resonance just inside the inner ring at r = 35 arcsec. The pitch angles calculated using this model are found to agree with observations for r between 4.5 and 7.5 kpc. It is estimated that a shock capable of triggering star formation may occur at the front of the longer, high-contrast wave, but not at the front of the shorter, low-contrast wave.
E. Camporeale (Enrico); G. Zimbardo
2015-01-01
htmlabstractWe present self-consistent Particle-in-Cell simulations of the resonant interactions between anisotropic energetic electrons and a population of whistler waves, with parameters relevant to the Earth's radiation belt. By tracking PIC particles, and comparing with test-particles
E. Camporeale (Enrico); G. Zimbardo
2014-01-01
htmlabstractWe present self-consistent Particle-in-Cell simulations of the resonant interactions between anisotropic energetic electrons and a population of whistler waves, with parameters relevant to the Earth's radiation belt. By tracking PIC particles, and comparing with test-particles
Software-type Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer on board the Arase satellite
Katoh, Yuto; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Takashima, Takeshi; Asamura, Kazushi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasahara, Satoshi; Mitani, Takefumi; Higashio, Nana; Matsuoka, Ayako; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsuda, Shoya; Kitahara, Masahiro; Shinohara, Iku
2018-01-01
We describe the principles of the Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA) and the implementation of the Software-type WPIA (S-WPIA) on the Arase satellite. The WPIA is a new type of instrument for the direct and quantitative measurement of wave-particle interactions. The S-WPIA is installed on the Arase satellite as a software function running on the mission data processor. The S-WPIA on board the Arase satellite uses an electromagnetic field waveform that is measured by the waveform capture receiver of the plasma wave experiment (PWE), and the velocity vectors of electrons detected by the medium-energy particle experiment-electron analyzer (MEP-e), the high-energy electron experiment (HEP), and the extremely high-energy electron experiment (XEP). The prime objective of the S-WPIA is to measure the energy exchange between whistler-mode chorus emissions and energetic electrons in the inner magnetosphere. It is essential for the S-WPIA to synchronize instruments to a relative time accuracy better than the time period of the plasma wave oscillations. Since the typical frequency of chorus emissions in the inner magnetosphere is a few kHz, a relative time accuracy of better than 10 μs is required in order to measure the relative phase angle between the wave and velocity vectors. In the Arase satellite, a dedicated system has been developed to realize the time resolution required for inter-instrument communication. Here, both the time index distributed over all instruments through the satellite system and an S-WPIA clock signal are used, that are distributed from the PWE to the MEP-e, HEP, and XEP through a direct line, for the synchronization of instruments within a relative time accuracy of a few μs. We also estimate the number of particles required to obtain statistically significant results with the S-WPIA and the expected accumulation time by referring to the specifications of the MEP-e and assuming a count rate for each detector.
Importance of air-sea interaction on wind waves, storm surge and hurricane simulations
Chen, Yingjian; Yu, Xiping
2017-04-01
It was reported from field observations that wind stress coefficient levels off and even decreases when the wind speed exceeds 30-40 m/s. We propose a wave boundary layer model (WBLM) based on the momentum and energy conservation equations. Taking into account the physical details of the air-sea interaction process as well as the energy dissipation due to the presence of sea spray, this model successfully predicts the decreasing tendency of wind stress coefficient. Then WBLM is embedded in the current-wave coupled model FVCOM-SWAVE to simulate surface waves and storm surge under the forcing of hurricane Katrina. Numerical results based on WBLM agree well with the observed data of NDBC buoys and tide gauges. Sensitivity analysis of different wind stress evaluation methods also shows that large anomalies of significant wave height and surge elevation are captured along the passage of hurricane core. The differences of the local wave height are up to 13 m, which is in accordance with the general knowledge that the ocean dynamic processes under storm conditions are very sensitive to the amount of momentum exchange at the air-sea interface. In the final part of the research, the reduced wind stress coefficient is tested in the numerical forecast of hurricane Katrina. A parabolic formula fitted to WBLM is employed in the atmosphere-ocean coupled model COAWST. Considering the joint effects of ocean cooling and reduced wind drag, the intensity metrics - the minimum sea level pressure and the maximum 10 m wind speed - are in good inconsistency with the best track result. Those methods, which predict the wind stress coefficient that increase or saturate in extreme wind condition, underestimate the hurricane intensity. As a whole, we unify the evaluation methods of wind stress in different numerical models and yield reasonable results. Although it is too early to conclude that WBLM is totally applicable or the drag coefficient does decrease for high wind speed, our current
Dirac-fermions in graphene d-wave superconducting heterojunction with the spin orbit interaction
Wang, Juntao; Wang, Andong; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Deng; Yang, Yanling
2017-09-01
In this study, based on the Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, we theoretically investigate the interaction effect between the anisotropic d-wave pairing symmetry and the spin orbit interaction (the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction (DSOI)) in a graphene superconducting heterojunction. We find that the spin orbit interaction (SOI) plays a critical role on the tunneling conductance in the pristine case, but minimally affecting the tunneling conductance in the heavily doped case. As for the zero bias state, in contrast to the keep intact feature in the heavily doped case, it exhibits a distinct dependence on the RSOI and the DSOI in the pristine case. In particular, the damage of the zero bias state with a slight DSOI results in the disappearance of the zero bias conductance peak. Moreover, the tunneling conductances also show a qualitative difference with respect to the RSOI when both the RSOI and the DSOI are finite. These remarkable results suggest that the SOI and the anisotropic superconducting gap can be regarded as a key tool for diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection.
MEAN FLOW AND TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS AROUND A 2-D ARRAY OF BUILDINGS IN A WIND TUNNEL
In order to predict the dispersion of harmful materials released in or near an urban environment, it is important to first understand the complex flow patterns which result from the interaction of the wind with buildings and, more commonly, clusters of buildings. Recent advanc...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lipkens, Bart, E-mail: blipkens@wne.edu [Mechanical Engineering, Western New England University, Springfield, Massachusetts, 01119 (United States); Ilinskii, Yurii A., E-mail: ilinskii@gmail.com; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A., E-mail: zheniazabolotskaya@gmail.com [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78713–8029 (United States)
2015-10-28
Ultrasonic standing waves are widely used for separation applications. In MEMS applications, a half wavelength standing wave field is generated perpendicular to a laminar flow. The acoustic radiation force exerted on the particle drives the particle to the center of the MEMS channel, where concentrated particles are harvested. In macro-scale applications, the ultrasonic standing wave spans multiple wavelengths. Examples of such applications are oil/water emulsion splitting [1], and blood/lipid separation [2]. In macro-scale applications, particles are typically trapped in the standing wave, resulting in clumping or coalescence of particles/droplets. Subsequent gravitational settling results in separation of the secondary phase. An often used expression for the radiation force on a particle is that derived by Gorkov [3]. The assumptions are that the particle size is small relative to the wavelength, and therefore, only monopole and dipole scattering contributions are used to calculate the radiation force. This framework seems satisfactory for MEMS scale applications where each particle is treated separately by the standing wave, and concentrations are typically low. In macro-scale applications, particle concentration is high, and particle clumping or droplet coalescence results in particle sizes not necessarily small relative to the wavelength. Ilinskii et al. developed a framework for calculation of the acoustic radiation force valid for any size particle [4]. However, this model does not take into account particle to particle effects, which can become important as particle concentration increases. It is known that an acoustic radiation force on a particle or a droplet is determined by the local field. An acoustic radiation force expression is developed that includes the effect of particle to particle interaction. The case of two neighboring particles is considered. The approach is based on sound scattering by the particles. The acoustic field at the location of
Travaglini, Christophe
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) consists of the continuous process of damage detection in an engineering component using built-in transducers and any resultant intervention to preserve structural integrity. It is a multidisciplinary field in terms of the technology involved as well as the diverse applications. Good SHM systems are considered those that combine a high sensitivity to defects and a low density of sensors. Ultrasonic guided waves have the ability to propagate long distances with minimal attenuation making them particularly interesting in SHM applications. Using the baseline subtraction approach, the signal from a defect free structure is compared to the actual monitoring signal in order to detect and characterize defects. There are many scientific publications on low frequency guided waves for SHM purposes and the interaction between guided wave fundamental modes and defects is also well documented. There are, however, a very limited number of studies on high order modes. High frequency guided waves may enable the detection of smaller cracks relative to conventional low frequency guided waves systems. The main difficulty at high frequency is the co-existence of several modes with different velocities. This study investigates the advantages of high frequency guided waves relative to low frequency to detect cracks at their initiation. Thus the scattering around a through-thickness hole is studied with a view to develop a highly sensitive SHM method. 2D and 3D finite element models of a 305 mm x 305 mm x 1.6 mm aluminum plate were used to determine the scattering of cracks on the circumference of a throughthickness hole in the middle of the plate. Crack properties such as orientation, length and depth were studied in order to characterize the crack using the received signals. A subset of the finite element simulations was validated against experimental results. The experimental setup comprised a classic contact piezoelectric transducer bonded on the
Tsunami mitigation by resonant triad interaction with acoustic–gravity waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Usama Kadri
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Tsunamis have been responsible for the loss of almost a half million lives, widespread long lasting destruction, profound environmental effects, and global financial crisis, within the last two decades. The main tsunami properties that determine the size of impact at the shoreline are its wavelength and amplitude in the ocean. Here, we show that it is in principle possible to reduce the amplitude of a tsunami, and redistribute its energy over a larger space, through forcing it to interact with resonating acoustic–gravity waves. In practice, generating the appropriate acoustic–gravity modes introduces serious challenges due to the high energy required for an effective interaction. However, if the findings are extended to realistic tsunami properties and geometries, we might be able to mitigate tsunamis and so save lives and properties. Moreover, such a mitigation technique would allow for the harnessing of the tsunami's energy.
Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction
Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.
2016-01-01
Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.
Does the Coherent Lidar System Corroborate Non-Interaction of Waves (NIW)?
Prasad, Narasimha S.; Roychoudhari, Chandrasekhar
2013-01-01
The NIW (non-interaction of waves) property has been proposed by one of the coauthors. The NIW property states that in the absence of any "obstructing" detectors, all the Huygens-Fresnel secondary wavelets will continue to propagate unhindered and without interacting (interfering) with each other. Since a coherent lidar system incorporates complex behaviors of optical components with different polarizations including circular polarization for the transmitted radiation, then the question arises whether the NIW principle accommodate elliptical polarization of light. Elliptical polarization presumes the summation of orthogonally polarized electric field vectors which contradicts the NIW principle. In this paper, we present working of a coherent lidar system using Jones matrix formulation. The Jones matrix elements represent the anisotropic dipolar properties of molecules of optical components. Accordingly, when we use the Jones matrix methodology to analyze the coherent lidar system, we find that the system behavior is congruent with the NIW property.
Contributions of tropical waves to tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific
Wu, Liang; Takahashi, Masaaki
2017-09-01
The present study investigates the relationship between the tropical waves and the tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) for the period 1979-2011. Five wave types are considered in this study. It is shown that the TC genesis is strongly related to enhanced low-level vorticity and convection of tropical waves and significant difference are detected in the TC modulation by dynamic and thermodynamic components of the waves. More TCs tend to form in regions of waves with overlapping cyclonic vorticity and active convection. About 83.2% of TCs form within active phase of tropical waves, mainly in a single wave and two coexisting waves. Each wave type-related genesis accounts for about 30% of all TC geneses except for the Kelvin waves that account for only 25.2% of TC geneses. The number of each wave type-related TC genesis consistently varies seasonally with peak in the TC season (July-November), which is attributed to a combined effect of active wave probability and intensity change. The interannual variation in the TC genesis is well reproduced by the tropical wave-related TC genesis, especially in the region east of 150°E. An eastward extension of the enhanced monsoon trough coincides with increased tropical wave activity by accelerated wave-mean flow interaction.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Shock-Wave Boundary Layer Interaction and its Control Using Sparkjet
Yang, Guang; Yao, Yufeng; Fang, Jian; Gan, Tian; Lu, Lipeng
2016-06-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of an oblique shock-wave generated by an 8° sharp wedge impinging onto a spatially-developing Mach 2.3 turbulent boundary layer and their interactions has been carried out in this study. The Reynolds number based on the incoming flow property and the boundary layer displacement thickness at the impinging point without shock-wave is 20,000. The detailed numerical approaches are described and the inflow turbulence is generated using the digital filter method to avoid artificial temporal or streamwise periodicity. Numerical results are compared with the available wind tunnel PIV measurements of the same flow conditions. Further LES study on the control of flow separation due to the strong shock-viscous interaction is also conducted by using an active control actuator “SparkJet” concept. The single-pulsed characteristics of the control device are obtained and compared with the experiments. Instantaneous flowfield shows that the “SparkJet” promotes the flow mixing in the boundary layer and enhances its ability to resist the flow separation. The time and spanwise averaged skin friction coefficient distribution demonstrates that the separation bubble length is reduced by maximum 35% with the control exerted.
Interaction and coalescence of multiple simultaneous and non-simultaneous blast waves
Qiu, S.; Eliasson, V.
2016-05-01
Interaction of multiple blast waves can be used to direct energy toward a target while simultaneously reducing collateral damage away from the target area. In this paper, simulations of multiple point source explosives were performed and the resulting shock interaction and coalescence behavior were explored. Three to ten munitions were placed concentrically around the target, and conditions at the target area were monitored and compared to those obtained using a single munition. For each simulation, the energy summed over all munitions was kept constant, while the radial distances between target and munitions and the munition initiation times were varied. Each munition was modeled as a point source explosion. The resulting blast wave propagation and shock front coalescence were solved using the inviscid Euler equations of gas dynamics on overlapping grids employing a finite difference scheme. Results show that multiple munitions can be beneficial for creating extreme conditions at the intended target area; over 20 times higher peak pressure is obtained for ten simultaneous munitions compared to a single munition. Moreover, peak pressure at a point away from the target area is reduced by more than a factor of three.
Traveling-wave-tube simulation: The IBC (Interactive Beam-Circuit) code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morey, I.J.; Birdsall, C.K.
1989-09-26
Interactive Beam-Circuit (IBC) is a one-dimensional many particle simulation code which has been developed to run interactively on a PC or Workstation, and displaying most of the important physics of a traveling-wave-tube. The code is a substantial departure from previous efforts, since it follows all of the particles in the tube, rather than just those in one wavelength, as commonly done. This step allows for nonperiodic inputs in time, a nonuniform line and a large set of spatial diagnostics. The primary aim is to complement a microwave tube lecture course, although past experience has shown that such codes readily become research tools. Simple finite difference methods are used to model the fields of the coupled slow-wave transmission line. The coupling between the beam and the transmission line is based upon the finite difference equations of Brillouin. The space-charge effects are included, in a manner similar to that used by Hess; the original part is use of particle-in-cell techniques to model the space-charge fields. 11 refs., 11 figs.
Bennett, James E. M.; Bair, Wyeth
2015-01-01
Traveling waves in the developing brain are a prominent source of highly correlated spiking activity that may instruct the refinement of neural circuits. A candidate mechanism for mediating such refinement is spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP), which translates correlated activity patterns into changes in synaptic strength. To assess the potential of these phenomena to build useful structure in developing neural circuits, we examined the interaction of wave activity with STDP rules in simple, biologically plausible models of spiking neurons. We derive an expression for the synaptic strength dynamics showing that, by mapping the time dependence of STDP into spatial interactions, traveling waves can build periodic synaptic connectivity patterns into feedforward circuits with a broad class of experimentally observed STDP rules. The spatial scale of the connectivity patterns increases with wave speed and STDP time constants. We verify these results with simulations and demonstrate their robustness to likely sources of noise. We show how this pattern formation ability, which is analogous to solutions of reaction-diffusion systems that have been widely applied to biological pattern formation, can be harnessed to instruct the refinement of postsynaptic receptive fields. Our results hold for rich, complex wave patterns in two dimensions and over several orders of magnitude in wave speeds and STDP time constants, and they provide predictions that can be tested under existing experimental paradigms. Our model generalizes across brain areas and STDP rules, allowing broad application to the ubiquitous occurrence of traveling waves and to wave-like activity patterns induced by moving stimuli. PMID:26308406
Doveil, Fabrice; Guyomarc'h, Didier; Caetano da Sousa, Meirielen; Elskens, Yves
2016-10-01
Beside industrial uses, Traveling Wave Tubes (TWT) are useful to mimic and study plasma-like wave-particle interaction. We upgraded a TWT, whose slow wave structure is a 4 m long helix (diameter 3.4 cm, pitch 1 mm) of Be-Cu wire in a vacuum glass tube. At one end, a cathode injects electrons, radially confined by a constant axial magnetic field. Movable probes, capacitively coupled to the helix, launch and monitor waves with an arbitrary waveform at a few tens of MHz. At the other end of the helix, a trochoidal analyzer allows to reconstruct the beam electron distribution function after its self-consistent interaction with the waves. The new device's observed dispersion relation agrees very well with a sheath model. The measured probe-helix coupling coefficients are used to reconstruct the spatial evolution of a launched wave as it interacts with the beam. For low beam intensity, chaotic effects are observed on the beam. For larger beam intensity, growth and saturation of a launched wave is observed.
Wang, Ting; Sheng, Meiping; Qin, Qinghua
2017-02-01
In the context of sound incident upon a metamaterial plate, explicit formulas for sound transmission loss (STL) are derived in the presence of external mean flow. Metamaterial plate, consisting of homogeneous plate and lateral local resonators (LLRs), is homogenized by using effective medium method to obtain the effective mass density and facilitate the calculation of STL. Results show that (a) vigorously oscillating LLRs lead to higher STL compared with bare plate, (b) increasing Mach number of the external mean flow helps obtain higher STL below the coincidence frequency but decreases STL above the coincidence frequency due to the added mass effect of light fluid loading and aerodynamic damping effect, (c) the coincidence frequency shifts to higher frequency range for the refracted effect of the external mean flow. However, effects of the flow on STL within negative mass density range can be neglected because of the lateral local resonance occurring. Moreover, hysteretic damping from metamaterial can only smooth the transmission curves by lowering higher peaks and filling dips. Effects of incident angles on STL are also examined. It is demonstrated that increasing elevation angle can improve the sound insulation, while the azimuth angle does not.
Troian, Renata; Dragna, Didier; Bailly, Christophe; Galland, Marie-Annick
2017-03-01
A new broadband impedance eduction method is introduced to identify the surface impedance of acoustic liners from in situ measurements on a test rig. Multimodal acoustic propagation is taken into account in order to reproduce realistic conditions. The present approach is based on the resolution of the linearized 3D Euler equations in the time domain. The broadband impedance time domain boundary condition is prescribed from a multipole impedance model, and is formulated as a differential form well-suited for high-order numerical methods. Numerical values of the model coefficients are determined by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated acoustic quantities, namely the insertion loss and wall pressure fluctuations at a few locations inside the duct. The minimization is performed through a multi-objective optimization thanks to the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The present eduction method is validated with benchmark data provided by NASA for plane wave propagation, and by synthesized numerical data for multimodal propagation.
SCIDAC Center for simulation of wave particle interactions CompX participation
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Harvey, R.W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA (United States)
2017-11-14
Harnessing the energy that is released in fusion reactions would provide a safe and abundant source of power to meet the growing energy needs of the world population. The next step toward the development of fusion as a practical energy source is the construction of ITER, a device capable of producing and controlling the high performance plasma required for self-sustaining fusion reactions, or “burning” plasma. The input power required to drive the ITER plasma into the burning regime will be supplied primarily with a combination of external power from radio frequency waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies and energetic ions from neutral beam injection sources, in addition to internally generated Ohmic heating from the induced plasma current that also serves to create the magnetic equilibrium for the discharge. The ITER project is a large multi-billion dollar international project in which the US participates. The success of the ITER project depends critically on the ability to create and maintain burning plasma conditions, it is absolutely necessary to have physics-based models that can accurately simulate the RF processes that affect the dynamical evolution of the ITER discharge. The Center for Simulation of WavePlasma Interactions (CSWPI), also known as RF-SciDAC, is a multi-institutional collaboration that has conducted ongoing research aimed at developing: (1) Coupled core-to-edge simulations that will lead to an increased understanding of parasitic losses of the applied RF power in the boundary plasma between the RF antenna and the core plasma; (2) Development of models for core interactions of RF waves with energetic electrons and ions (including fusion alpha particles and fast neutral beam ions) that include a more accurate representation of the particle dynamics in the combined equilibrium and wave fields; and (3) Development of improved algorithms that will take advantage of massively parallel computing platforms at the petascale level and
Heat transfer and wall temperature effects in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions
Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio; Grasso, Francesco
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the effect of the wall temperature on the behavior of oblique shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions at freestream Mach number $2.28$ and shock angle of the wedge generator $\\varphi = 8^{\\circ}$. Five values of the wall-to-recovery-temperature ratio ($T_w/T_r$) are considered, corresponding to cold, adiabatic and hot wall thermal conditions. We show that the main effect of cooling is to decrease the characteristic scales of the interaction in terms of upstream influence and extent of the separation bubble. The opposite behavior is observed in the case of heating, that produces a marked dilatation of the interaction region. The distribution of the Stanton number shows that a strong amplification of the heat transfer occurs across the interaction, and the maximum values of thermal and dynamic loads are found in the case of cold wall. The analysis reveals that the fluctuating heat flux exhibits a strong intermittent behavior, characterized by ...
Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field
Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.
2010-12-01
When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of the mixing process in a compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in a shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in inertial confinement fusion and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such an interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in two dimensions results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulae are further simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak/strong shocks and highly compressible fluids. A comparison with the related problem of a shock interacting with a pre-shock isotropic vorticity field is also presented.
Impact of viscous boundary layers on the emission of lee-waves
Renaud, Antoine; Venaille, Antoine; Bouchet, Freddy
2017-04-01
Oceans large-scale structures such as jets and vortices can lose their energy into small-scale turbulence. Understanding the physical mechanisms underlying those energy transfers remains a major theoretical challenge. Here we propose an approach that shed new light on the role of bottom topography in this problem. At a linear level, one efficient way of extracting energy and momentum from the mean-flow above topography undulations is the radiation of lee-waves. The generated lee-waves are well described by inviscid theory which gives a prediction for the energy-loss rate at short time [1]. Using a quasi-linear approach we describe the feedback of waves on the mean-flow occurring mostly close to the bottom topography. This can thereafter impact the lee-waves radiation and thus modify the energy-loss rate for the mean-flow. In this work, we consider the Boussinesq equations with periodic boundary conditions in the zonal direction. Taking advantage of this idealized geometry, we apply zonally-symmetric wave-mean interaction theory [2,3]. The novelty of our work is to discuss the crucial role of dissipative effects, such as molecular or turbulent viscosities, together with the importance of the boundary conditions (free-slip vs no-slip). We provide explicite computations in the case of the free evolution of an initially barotropic flow above a sinusoidal topography with free-slip bottom boundary condition. We show how the existence of the boundary layer for the wave-field can enhance the streaming close to the topography. This leads to the emergence of boundary layer for the mean-flow impacting the energy-loss rate through lee-wave emissions. Our results are compared against direct numerical simulations using the MIT general circulation model and are found to be in good agreement. References [1] S.L. Smith, W.R. Young, Conversion of the Barotropic Tide, JPhysOcean 2002 [2] 0. Bühler, Waves and Mean Flows, second edition, Cambridge university press 2014 [3] J
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Tadokoro
2009-04-01
Full Text Available It has been believed that electrons in the inner belt do not show the dynamical variation during magnetic storms except for great magnetic storms. However, Tadokoro et al. (2007 recently disclosed that low-altitude electrons in the inner belt frequently show flux variations during storms (Storm Time inner belt Electron Enhancement at the Low altitude (STEEL. This paper investigates a possible mechanism explaining STEEL during small and moderate storms, and shows that it is caused not by radial transport processes but by pitch angle scattering through wave-particle interactions. The waves related to wave-particle interactions are attributed to be banded whistler mode waves around 30 kHz observed in the inner magnetosphere by the Akebono satellite. The estimated pitch angle distribution based on a numerical calculation is roughly consistent with the observed results.
Reintjes, Moritz
2015-01-01
We give a constructive proof that coordinate transformations exist which raise the regularity of the gravitational metric tensor from $C^{0,1}$ to $C^{1,1}$ in a neighborhood of points of shock wave collision in General Relativity. The proof applies to collisions between shock waves coming from different characteristic families, in spherically symmetric spacetimes. Our result here implies that spacetime is locally inertial and corrects an error in our earlier RSPA-publication, which led us to the false conclusion that such coordinate transformations, which smooth the metric to $C^{1,1}$, cannot exist. Thus, our result implies that regularity singularities, (a type of mild singularity introduced in our RSPA-paper), do not exist at points of interacting shock waves from different families in spherically symmetric spacetimes. Our result generalizes Israel's celebrated 1966 paper to the case of such shock wave interactions but our proof strategy differs fundamentally from that used by Israel and is an extension o...
Chriss, R. M.; Hingst, W. R.; Strazisar, A. J.; Keith, T. G., Jr.
1989-01-01
Nonintrusive measurements were made of a normal shock wave/boundary layer interaction. Two dimensional measurements were made throughout the interaction region while 3-D measurements were made in the vicinity of the shock wave. The measurements were made in the corner of the test section of a continuous supersonic wind tunnel in which a normal shock wave had been stabilized. Laser Doppler Anemometry, surface pressure measurement and flow visualization techniques were employed for two freestream Mach number test cases: 1.6 and 1.3. The former contained separated flow regions and a system of shock waves. The latter was found to be far less complicated. The results define the flow field structure in detail for each case.
MMS observations of wave-particle interactions in a kinetic-scale Alfvén-branch wave
Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Boardsen, S. A.; Avanov, L. A.; Bellan, P. M.; Schwartz, S. J.; Lavraud, B.; Coffey, V. N.; Chandler, M. O.; Saito, Y.; Paterson, W. R.; Fuselier, S. A.; Ergun, R.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.
2016-12-01
High-resolution particle and field measurements from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission provide an unprecedented look at fundamental plasma physics phenomena. Here we present MMS observations of a nearly monochromatic kinetic-scale Alfvén-branch wave packet observed in a reconnection exhaust near the dayside magnetopause. From multi-spacecraft spectral analysis techniques, the wave packet was found to propagate obliquely at an angle of 100o with respect to the magnetic field with parallel wavespeed VA, frequency ω/ωci 0.6, and scale k-ρi 1.3. The particle current and electric field inferred from the electron pressure tensor are found to be 90o out of phase with one another, leading to instantaneous J-·E' ≠ 0, providing the first direct observation of the energy-exchange between a kinetic Alfvén wave field and particles. The wave-averaged J-·E' and fluctuations in parallel electron temperature are equal to zero, suggesting that the measured wave was in a marginally stable state. Fluctuations in the perpendicular electron temperature, however, indicate net plasma heating and are unexpected from traditional KAW theory. Examination of the velocity distribution function of electrons in the wave packet reveals a population of suprathermal electrons with 90o magnetic pitch-angles that account for these increased perpendicular temperatures. These trapped electrons contribute 50% to the density fluctuations within the KAW and are confined within magnetic minima by a combination of the magnetic mirror force and the wave's parallel electric field.
Equatorial atmospheric Kelvin waves during El Niño episodes and their effect on stratospheric QBO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Uma [Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton (Canada); Pan, C.J., E-mail: cjpan@jupiter.ss.ncu.edu.tw [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)
2016-02-15
Equatorial atmospheric Kelvin waves are investigated during a positive El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode using temperature data retrieved from GPS Radio Occultation (RO) observations of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC during the period from August 2006 to December 2013. Enhanced Kelvin wave amplitudes are observed during the El Niño episode of 2009–2010 and it is also observed that these amplitudes correlate with the Niño 3.4 index and also with outgoing longwave radiation and trade wind index. This study indicates that the enhanced equatorial atmospheric Kelvin wave amplitudes might be produced by geophysical processes that were involved in the onset and development of the El Niño episode. Further, easterly winds above the tropopause during this period favored the vertically upward propagation of these waves that induced a fast descending westerly regime by the end of 2010, where the zero-wind line is observed to take only 5 months to descend from 10 to 50 hPa. The current study presents observational evidence of enhanced Kelvin wave amplitudes during El Niño that has affected the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) through wave–mean flow interactions. Earlier El Niño episodes of 1987 and 1998 are also qualitatively investigated, using reanalysis data. It is found that there might have been an enhancement in the equatorial Kelvin wave amplitudes during almost all El Niño episodes, however, an effect of a fast descending westerly is observed in the QBO only when the ambient zonal winds in the lower stratosphere favor the upward propagation of the Kelvin waves and consequently they interact with the mean flow. This study indicates that the El Niño and QBO are not linearly related and wave mean flow interactions play a very important role in connecting these two geophysical phenomena. - Highlights: • Enhanced atmospheric Kelvin Wave amplitudes observed during El Nino of 2010. • The waves are probably produced by processes generating El Nino.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Tripathi
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Pitch-angle diffusion coefficients have been calculated for resonant interaction with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH waves in the magnetospheres of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Calculations have been performed at two radial distances of each planet. It is found that observed wave electric field amplitudes in the magnetospheres of Earth and Jupiter are sufficient to put electrons on strong diffusion in the energy range of less than 100 eV. However, for Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, the observed ECH wave amplitude are insufficient to put electrons on strong diffusion at any radial distance.
Berger, N. K.; Zhukov, E. A.; Novokhatskiĭ, V. V.
1984-04-01
The use of a semiconductor-metal phase transition for wavefront reversal of laser radiation was proposed. An investigation was made of nonlinear reflection of CO2 laser radiation at a phase transition in VO2. A three-wave interaction on a VO2 surface was achieved using low-power cw and pulsed CO2 lasers. In the first case, the intensity reflection coefficient was 0.5% for a reference wave intensity of 0.9 W/cm2 and in the second case, it was 42% for a threshold reference wave energy density of 0.6-0.8 mJ/cm2.
Separation control in a hypersonic shock wave / turbulent boundary-layer interaction
Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Kim, Jeonglae; Urzay, Javier
2016-11-01
Hypersonic vehicles play a key role for affordable access to space. The associated flow fields are strongly affected by shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions, and the inherent separation causes flow distortion and low-frequency unsteadiness. Microramp sub-boundary layer vortex generators are a promising means to control separation and diminish associated detrimental effects. We investigate the effect of a microramp on the low-frequency unsteadiness in a fully separated interaction. A large eddy simulation of a 33 ∘ -compression-ramp interaction was performed for an inflow Mach number of 7.2 and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Reθ = 3500 , matching the experiment of Schreyer et al. (2011). For the control case, we introduced a counter-rotating vortex pair, as induced by a single microramp, into the boundary layer through the inflow conditions. We applied a dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) on both cases to identify coherent structures that are responsible for the dynamic behavior. Based on the DMD, we discuss the reduction of the separation zone and the stabilization of the shock motion achieved by the microramp, and contribute to the description of the governing mechanisms. Pursued during the 2016 CTR Summer Program at Stanford University.
Quasilinear diffusion operator for wave-particle interactions in inhomogeneous magnetic fields
Catto, P. J.; Lee, J.; Ram, A. K.
2017-10-01
The Kennel-Engelmann quasilinear diffusion operator for wave-particle interactions is for plasmas in a uniform magnetic field. The operator is not suitable for fusion devices with inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Using drift kinetic and high frequency gyrokinetic equations for the particle distribution function, we have derived a quasilinear operator which includes magnetic drifts. The operator applies to RF waves in any frequency range and is particularly relevant for minority ion heating. In order to obtain a physically meaningful operator, the first order correction to the particle's magnetic moment has to be retained. Consequently, the gyrokinetic change of variables has to be retained to a higher order than usual. We then determine the perturbed distribution function from the gyrokinetic equation using a novel technique that solves the kinetic equation explicitly for certain parts of the function. The final form of the diffusion operator is compact and completely expressed in terms of the drift kinetic variables. It is not transit averaged and retains the full poloidal angle variation without any Fourier decomposition. The quasilinear diffusion operator reduces to the Kennel-Engelmann operator for uniform magnetic fields. Supported by DoE Grant DE-FG02-91ER-54109.
Nonlinear field dependence and f-wave interactions in superfluid 3He
Collett, C. A.; Pollanen, J.; Li, J. I. A.; Gannon, W. J.; Halperin, W. P.
2013-01-01
We present results of transverse acoustics studies in superfluid 3He-B at fields up to 0.11 T. Using acoustic cavity interferometry, we observe the acoustic Faraday effect for a transverse sound wave propagating along the magnetic field, and we measure Faraday rotations of the polarization as large as 1710∘. We use these results to determine the Zeeman splitting of the imaginary squashing mode, an order-parameter collective mode with total angular momentum J=2. We show that the pairing interaction in the f-wave channel is attractive at a pressure of P=6 bars. We also report nonlinear field dependence of the Faraday rotation at frequencies substantially above the mode frequency not accounted for in the theory of the transverse-acoustic dispersion relation formulated for frequencies near the mode. Consequently, we have identified the region of validity of the theory allowing us to make corrections to the analysis of Faraday rotation experiments performed in earlier work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanson Huang
1996-01-01
Full Text Available A detailed solution to the transient interaction of plane acoustic waves with a spherical elastic shell was obtained more than a quarter of a century ago based on the classical separation of variables, series expansion, and Laplace transform techniques. An eight-term summation of the time history series was sufficient for the convergence of the shell deflection and strain, and to a lesser degree, the shell velocity. Since then, the results have been used routinely for validation of solution techniques and computer methods for the evaluation of underwater explosion response of submerged structures. By utilizing modern algorithms and exploiting recent advances of computer capacities and floating point mathematics, sufficient terms of the inverse Laplace transform series solution can now be accurately computed. Together with the application of the Cesaro summation using up to 70 terms of the series, two primary deficiencies of the previous solution are now remedied: meaningful time histories of higher time derivative data such as acceleration and pressure are now generated using a sufficient number of terms in the series; and uniform convergence around the discontinuous step wave front is now obtained, completely eradicating spurious oscillations due to the Gibbs' phenomenon. New results of time histories of response items of interest are presented.
Mo, Yirong; Gao, Jiali; Peyerimhoff, Sigrid D.
2000-04-01
An energy decomposition scheme based on the block-localized wave function (BLW) method is proposed. The key of this scheme is the definition and the full optimization of the diabatic state wave function, where the charge transfer among interacting molecules is deactivated. The present energy decomposition (ED), BLW-ED, method is similar to the Morokuma decomposition scheme in definition of the energy terms, but differs in implementation and the computational algorithm. In addition, in the BLW-ED approach, the basis set superposition error is fully taken into account. The application of this scheme to the water dimer and the lithium cation-water clusters reveals that there is minimal charge transfer effect in hydrogen-bonded complexes. At the HF/aug-cc-PVTZ level, the electrostatic, polarization, and charge-transfer effects contribute 65%, 24%, and 11%, respectively, to the total bonding energy (-3.84 kcal/mol) in the water dimer. On the other hand, charge transfer effects are shown to be significant in Lewis acid-base complexes such as H3NSO3 and H3NBH3. In this work, the effect of basis sets used on the energy decomposition analysis is addressed and the results manifest that the present energy decomposition scheme is stable with a modest size of basis functions.
Rao, Chengping; Zhang, Youlin; Wan, Decheng
2017-12-01
Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) caused by fluid impacting onto a flexible structure commonly occurs in naval architecture and ocean engineering. Research on the problem of wave-structure interaction is important to ensure the safety of offshore structures. This paper presents the Moving Particle Semi-implicit and Finite Element Coupled Method (MPS-FEM) to simulate FSI problems. The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is used to calculate the fluid domain, while the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to address the structure domain. The scheme for the coupling of MPS and FEM is introduced first. Then, numerical validation and convergent study are performed to verify the accuracy of the solver for solitary wave generation and FSI problems. The interaction between the solitary wave and an elastic structure is investigated by using the MPS-FEM coupled method.
Bruno, M.; Carolli, M.; Maiolini, B.; Siviglia, A.; Zolezzi, G.
2013-12-01
M. C. Bruno1*, M. Carolli2, B. Maiolini1, A. Siviglia2, Zolezzi, G.2 1 Fondazione Edmund Mach, Research and Innovation Centre. S. Michele all'Adige, I-38010, Italy 2 Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, I-38100, Trento, Italy * cristina.bruno@fmach.it In Alpine regions, hydroelectricity generation is a key power source and its ability to quickly respond to short-term changes in energy demand makes it an ideal source to meet the needs of the deregulated energy market. This economic need is reflected in the temporal patterns of dam operations with consequences for the water bodies that receive downstream releases in the form of ';hydropeaking', typically consisting of sharp water releases in river reaches below dams. The unsteadiness related to this highly intermittent phenomenon has cascading effects on both biotic and abiotic river resources. Regulation by dams may also significantly affect the thermal regime of riversespecially in mountain areas, where releases from high-elevation reservoirs are often characterized by a markedly different temperature from that of the receiving body, thus causing also sharp water temperature variations, named ';thermopeaking'. While interacting with external forcing, the hydrodynamic and thermal waves propagate downstream with different celerities and a first phase of mutual overlap is followed by a second phase in which the two waves proceed separately. The asynchronous propagation of the two waves produces two distinct but consecutive impacts on the benthic community. Because it is difficult to disentangle the multiple effects of hydropeaking and thermopeaking on benthic macroinvertebrates in experiments conducted in natural conditions, we conducted our studies in an experimental structure of five steel channels directly fed by an alpine stream, the Fersina, a tributary to the Adige River of northern Italy. We simulated two sets of cold and warm thermopeaking waves, and measured the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pirro, P.; Sebastian, T.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Koyama, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Brächer, T. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Gottlieb-Daimler-Strasse 47, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)
2015-06-08
The interaction of propagating dipolar spin waves with magnetic domain walls is investigated in square-shaped microstructures patterned from the Heusler compound Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}Si. Using magnetic force microscopy, the reversible preparation of a Landau state with four magnetic domains separated by Néel domain walls is confirmed. A local spin-wave excitation using a microstructured antenna is realized in one of the domains. It is shown by Brillouin light scattering microscopy that the domain structure in the remanence state has a strong influence on the spin-wave excitation and propagation. The domain walls strongly reflect the spin waves and can be used as spin-wave reflectors. A comparison with micromagnetic simulations shows that the strong reflection is due to the long-range dipolar interaction which has important implications for the use of these spin waves for exerting an all-magnonic spin-transfer torque.
MacKenzie Laxague, Nathan Jean
short ocean surface waves to atmospheric forcing. Another is the exploration of long wave-short wave interactions and their effects on air-sea interaction vis-a-vis hydrodynamic modulation. The third and final topic is the characterization of the gravity-capillary regime of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum for the purpose of retrieving near-surface, wind-driven current. All of these fit as part of the desire to more fully describe the mechanism by which momentum is transferred across the air-sea interface and to discuss the consequences of this flux in the very near-surface layer of the ocean. Gravity-capillary waves are found to have an outsize share of ocean surface roughness, with short wave spectral peaks showing a connection to turbulent atmospheric stress. Short wave modulation is found to occur strongest at high wavenumbers at the lowest wind speeds, with peak modulation occurring immediately downwind of the long wave crest. Furthermore, short scale roughness enhancement is found to occur upwind of the long wave crest for increasing wind forcing magnitude. Observations of the near-surface current profile show that flows retrieved via this method agree well with the results of camera-tracked dye. Application of this method to data collected in the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) indicates the presence of a near-surface current component that departs considerably from the tidal flow and orients into the wind stress direction. These observations demonstrate that wind speed-based parameterizations may not be sufficient to estimate wind drift and hold implications for the way in which surface material (e.g., debris or spilled oil) transport is estimated when atmospheric stress is of relatively high magnitude or is steered off the mean wind direction.
Euler-Lagrange Simulations of Shock Wave-Particle Cloud Interaction
Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Park, Chanyoung; Balachandar, S.
2017-11-01
Numerical experiments of shock interacting with an evolving and fixed cloud of particles are performed. In these simulations we use Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. As validation, we use Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments and particle-resolved simulations. The particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In the simulations evolving the particle cloud, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions. A detailed analysis of the influence of initial conditions on the evolution of the particle cloudis presented. The early time behavior of the models is studied in the fixed bed simulations at varying volume fractions and shock Mach numbers.The mean gas quantities are measured in the context of 1-way and 2-way coupled simulations. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Castro, G; Mascali, D; Agnello, R; Celona, L; Leonardi, O; Neri, L; Nicolosi, D; Torrisi, G; Gammino, S
2016-02-01
A characterization of wave-to-plasma interaction in a quasi-flat magnetostatic field at 3.75 GHz has been carried out by using a small-wire movable RF antenna, connected to a spectrum analyzer. The coupling between electromagnetic and electrostatic waves leads to a characteristic spectral emission in low frequency range and around the pumping wave frequency. The most relevant results consist in the broadening of the pumping wave spectrum above critical RF power thresholds and in the generation of sidebands of the pumping frequency, with corresponding components in low frequency domain. The non-linearities are accompanied by the generation of overdense plasmas and intense fluxes of X-rays.
CFD Validation Experiment of a Mach 2.5 Axisymmetric Shock-Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction
Davis, David O.
2015-01-01
Preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a Mach 2.5 two-dimensional axisymmetric shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) are presented. The purpose of the investigation is to create a SWBLI dataset specifically for CFD validation purposes. Presented herein are the details of the facility and preliminary measurements characterizing the facility and interaction region. The results will serve to define the region of interest where more detailed mean and turbulence measurements will be made.
Numerical simulation of the fluid-structure interaction between air blast waves and soil structure
Umar, S.; Risby, M. S.; Albert, A. Luthfi; Norazman, M.; Ariffin, I.; Alias, Y. Muhamad
2014-03-01
Normally, an explosion threat on free field especially from high explosives is very dangerous due to the ground shocks generated that have high impulsive load. Nowadays, explosion threats do not only occur in the battlefield, but also in industries and urban areas. In industries such as oil and gas, explosion threats may occur on logistic transportation, maintenance, production, and distribution pipeline that are located underground to supply crude oil. Therefore, the appropriate blast resistances are a priority requirement that can be obtained through an assessment on the structural response, material strength and impact pattern of material due to ground shock. A highly impulsive load from ground shocks is a dynamic load due to its loading time which is faster than ground response time. Of late, almost all blast studies consider and analyze the ground shock in the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) because of its influence on the propagation and interaction of ground shock. Furthermore, analysis in the FSI integrates action of ground shock and reaction of ground on calculations of velocity, pressure and force. Therefore, this integration of the FSI has the capability to deliver the ground shock analysis on simulation to be closer to experimental investigation results. In this study, the FSI was implemented on AUTODYN computer code by using Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE). Euler-Godunov has the capability to deliver a structural computation on a 3D analysis, while ALE delivers an arbitrary calculation that is appropriate for a FSI analysis. In addition, ALE scheme delivers fine approach on little deformation analysis with an arbitrary motion, while the Euler-Godunov scheme delivers fine approach on a large deformation analysis. An integrated scheme based on Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian allows us to analyze the blast propagation waves and structural interaction simultaneously.
Viscothermal wave propagation including acousto-elastic interaction, part I: theory
Beltman, W.M.
1999-01-01
This research deals with pressure waves in a gas trapped in thin layers or narrow tubes. In these cases viscous and thermal effects can have a significant effect on the propagation of waves. This so-called viscothermal wave propagation is governed by a number of dimensionless parameters. The two
Calderer, Antoni; Guo, Xin; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2014-06-01
We develop a computational framework for simulating the coupled interaction of complex floating structures with large-scale ocean waves and atmospheric turbulent winds. The near-field approach features a partitioned fluid-structure interaction model (FSI) combining the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method of Borazjani and Sotiropoulos (J. Comput. Phys. 2008) and the two-phase flow level set formulation of Kang and Sotiropoulos (Adv. in Water Res. 2012) and is capable of solving complex free-surface flows interacting non-linearly with complex real life floating structures. The near-field solver is coupled with a large-scale wave and wind model based on the two-fluid approach of Yang and Shen (J. Comput. Phys. 2011) which integrates a viscous Navier-Stokes solver with undulatory boundaries for the motion of the air and an efficient potential-flow based wave solver. The large-scale turbulent wind is incorporated from the far-field solver to the near-field solver by feeding into the latter inlet boundary conditions. The wave field is incorporated to the near-field solver by using the pressure-forcing method of Guo and Shen (J. Comput. Phys. 2009) which has been appropriately adapted to the level set method. The algorithm for coupling the two codes has been validated for a variety of wave cases including a broadband spectrum showing excellent agreement when compared to theoretical results. Finally, the capabilities of the numerical framework are demonstrated by carrying out large eddy simulation (LES) of a floating wind turbine interacting with realistic ocean wind and wave conditions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sayed, Karim El; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko
1997-01-01
We present a theoretical investigation of ultrafast transient four-wave mixing (FWM) of GaAs quantum wells for coherent excitation of excitons and a large number of continuum states. It is shown that in this case the line shape of the FWM signal is drastically altered due to an interaction-induce...
A Comment on Interaction of Lower Hybrid Waves with the Current-Driven Ion-Acoustic Instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schrittwieser, R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1985-01-01
Majeski et al. (1984) have investigated the interaction between the current-driven 'ion-acoustic' instability and high frequency lower hybrid waves. The 'ion-acoustic' instability was excited by drawing an electron current through the plasma column of a single-ended Q-machine by means...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ducrozet, Guillaume; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bingham, Harry B.
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the development of an enhanced model for solving wave–wave and wave–structure interaction problems. We describe the application of a non-linear splitting method originally suggested by Di Mascio et al. [1], to the high-order finite difference model developed by Bingham et al...
Tkalcevic, S.
1982-01-01
The longitudinal resonance of waves and energetic electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere, and the possible role this resonance may play in generating various magnetospheric phenomena are studied. The derivation of time-averaged nonlinear equations of motion for energetic particles longitudinally resonant with a whistler mode wave propagating with nonzero wave normal is considered. It is shown that the wave magnetic forces can be neglected at lower particle pitch angles, while they become equal to or larger than the wave electric forces for alpha 20 deg. The time-averaged equations of motion were used in test particle simulation which were done for a wide range of wave amplitudes, wave normals, particle pitch angles, particle parallel velocities, and in an inhomogeneous medium such as the magnetosphere. It was found that there are two classes of particles, trapped and untrapped, and that the scattering and energy exchange for those two groups exhibit significantly different behavior.
Reintjes, Moritz; Temple, Blake
2015-05-08
We give a constructive proof that coordinate transformations exist which raise the regularity of the gravitational metric tensor from C0,1 to C1,1 in a neighbourhood of points of shock wave collision in general relativity. The proof applies to collisions between shock waves coming from different characteristic families, in spherically symmetric spacetimes. Our result here implies that spacetime is locally inertial and corrects an error in our earlier Proc. R. Soc. A publication, which led us to the false conclusion that such coordinate transformations, which smooth the metric to C1,1, cannot exist. Thus, our result implies that regularity singularities (a type of mild singularity introduced in our Proc. R. Soc. A paper) do not exist at points of interacting shock waves from different families in spherically symmetric spacetimes. Our result generalizes Israel's celebrated 1966 paper to the case of such shock wave interactions but our proof strategy differs fundamentally from that used by Israel and is an extension of the strategy outlined in our original Proc. R. Soc. A publication. Whether regularity singularities exist in more complicated shock wave solutions of the Einstein-Euler equations remains open.
Khotyanovsky, Dmitry; Kudryavtsev, Alexey; Kosinov, Alexander
2017-10-01
The results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of the interaction of the plane N-wave propagating at an angle to the free stream in the transverse direction with the sharp and blunted leading edges of the plate in a supersonic flow are presented. Interaction of the N-wave with a weak shock attached to the leading edge of the sharp plate causes corrugation of the shock wave surface that propagates downstream. A steady pressure perturbation is also formed that propagates inside the boundary layer in the transverse direction at an angle close to the Mach angle. This perturbation causes curving of the streamlines in the boundary layer and generation of a quasi-steady vorticity disturbance. In the case of the N-wave impinging on the leading edge of the blunted plate there is a large subsonic zone behind the bow shock where the pronounced oblique directivity of the disturbance transmitted through the shock is declined. Nevertheless, local disturbances of the flow parameters are observed in the boundary layer downstream of the region of the contact of the oblique shocks of the N-wave with the bow shock.
Papoutsellis, Christos; Athanassoulis, Gerassimos; Charalampopoulos, Alexis-Tzianni
2017-04-01
In this work, we investigate the transformations that solitary surface waves undergo during their interaction with uneven seabed and/or fully reflective vertical boundaries. This is accomplished by performing simulations using a non-local Hamiltonian formulation, taking into account full nonlinearity and dispersion, in the presence of variable seabed [1]. This formulation is based on an exact coupled-mode representation of the velocity potential, leading to efficient and accurate computations of the Dirichlet to Neumann operator, required in Zakharov/Craig-Sulem formulation [2], [3]. In addition, it allows for the efficient computation of wave kinematics (velocity, acceleration) and the pressure field, in the time-dependent fluid domain, up to its physical boundaries. Such computations are performed for the case of high-amplitude solitary waves interacting with varying bathymetry and/or a vertical wall, shedding light to their kinematics and dynamics. More specifically, we first consider two benchmark cases, namely the transformation of solitary waves over a plane beach [4], and the reflection of solitary waves on a vertical wall [5]. As a further step, results on the scattering/reflection of a solitary wave due to an undulating seabed, and on the disintegration of a solitary wave travelling form shallow to deep water are also presented. References:[1] G.A. Athanassoulis. & Ch.E. Papoutsellis, in Volume 7: Ocean Engineering, ASME, OMAE2015-41452, p. V007T06A029 (2015)[2] W. Craig, C. Sulem, J. Comp. Phys. 108, 73-83 (1993) [3] V. Zakharov, J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys 9, 86-94 (1968)[4] S. Grilli, R. Subramanya, T. Svendsen. & J. Veeramony, J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng. 120(6), 609-628. (1994)[5] Y.Y. Chen, C. Kharif , J.H. Yang, H.C. Hsu, J. Touboul & J. Chambarel, Eur. J. Mech B-Fluid 49, 20-28 (2015)
Gao, W; Cheng, H; Zhang, S S; Liu, H P
2015-01-01
We have investigated the wave-function feature of Rydberg sodium in a uniform electric field and found that the core-induced interaction of non-hydrogenic atom in electric field can be directly visualized in the wave-function. As is well known, the hydrogen atom in electric field can be separated in parabolic coordinates (\\eta, \\xi), whose eigen-function can show a clear pattern towards negative and positive directions corresponding to the so-called red and blue states without ambiguity, respectively. It can be served as a complete orthogonal basis set to study the core-induced interaction of non-hydrogenic atom in electric field. Owing to complete different patterns of the probability distribution for red and blue states, the interaction can be visualized in the wave-function directly via superposition. Moreover, the constructive and destructive interferences between red and blue states are also observed in the wave-function, explicitly explaining the experimental measurement for the spectral oscillator stre...
The effect of wave-particle interactions on the polar wind: Preliminary results
Barakat, A. R.; Barghouthi, I. A.
1994-11-01
A Monte Carlo simulation was developed in order to study the effects of wave-particle interactions (WPI) on the plasma outflow in the polar wind. The simulation also considered the other mechanisms included in the `classical' polar wind studies such as gravity, the polarization electrostatic field, and the divergence of geomagnetic field lines. Although the plasma consisted of electrons, H(+) and O(+) ions, we emphasized the behavior of H(+) in this preliminary study. The ion distribution function, as well as the profiles of its moments (density, drift velocity, temperatures, etc.) were found for different levels of WPI, that is, for different values of normalized diffusion rates in the velocity space (normalized D(sub perpendicular) H(+)). We found that as the WPI strength increases: (1) the ion drift velocity increases and its density decreases; (2) the perpendicular temperature T(sub perpendicular) (H(+)) increases; (3) the parallel temperature T(sub parallel) (H(+)) first decreases and then increases due to the balance between the parallel adiabatic cooling and the transfer of the energy from the perpendicular to the parallel direction; and (4) the temperature anisotropy ((T(sub parallel) (H(+))/T(sub perpendicular) (H(+)) is reduced and even reversed in some cases. For strong WPI (normalized D(sub perpendicular) (H(+) much greater than 1), the ion distribution function shows weak conic features at high altitudes.
Kawase, Kodo; Tripathi, Saroj R.
2016-03-01
Recently, some studies reported that the sweat ducts act as a low-Q-factor helical antenna due to their helical structure, and resonate in the terahertz frequency range according to their structural parameters. According to the antenna theory, when the duct works as a helical antenna, the dimension of the helix plays a key role to determine the frequency of resonance. Therefore, the accurate determination of structural parameters of sweat duct is crucially important to obtain the reliable frequency of resonance and modes of operations. Therefore, here we performed the optical coherence tomography (OCT) of human subjects on their palm and foot to investigate the density, distribution and morphological features of sweat ducts. Moreover, we measured the dielectric properties of stratum corneum using terahertz time domain spectroscopy and based upon this information, we determined the frequency of resonance. We recruited 32 subjects for the measurement and the average duct diameter was 95±11μm. Based upon this information on diameter of duct and THz dielectric properties of stratum corneum (ɛ=5.1±1.3), we have calculated the frequency of resonance of sweat duct. Finally, we determined that the center frequency of resonance was 442±76 GHz. We believe that these findings will facilitate further investigation of the THz-skin interaction and provide guidelines for safety levels with respect to human exposure. We will also report on the EEG measurement while being shined by micro watt order THz waves.
Frequency variations of gravity waves interacting with a time-varying tide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. M. Huang
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Using a nonlinear, 2-D time-dependent numerical model, we simulate the propagation of gravity waves (GWs in a time-varying tide. Our simulations show that when a GW packet propagates in a time-varying tidal-wind environment, not only its intrinsic frequency but also its ground-based frequency would change significantly. The tidal horizontal-wind acceleration dominates the GW frequency variation. Positive (negative accelerations induce frequency increases (decreases with time. More interestingly, tidal-wind acceleration near the critical layers always causes the GW frequency to increase, which may partially explain the observations that high-frequency GW components are more dominant in the middle and upper atmosphere than in the lower atmosphere. The combination of the increased ground-based frequency of propagating GWs in a time-varying tidal-wind field and the transient nature of the critical layer induced by a time-varying tidal zonal wind creates favorable conditions for GWs to penetrate their originally expected critical layers. Consequently, GWs have an impact on the background atmosphere at much higher altitudes than expected, which indicates that the dynamical effects of tidal–GW interactions are more complicated than usually taken into account by GW parameterizations in global models.
Type-I and type-II topological nodal superconductors with s -wave interaction
Huang, Beibing; Yang, Xiaosen; Xu, Ning; Gong, Ming
2018-01-01
Topological nodal superconductors with protected gapless points in momentum space are generally realized based on unconventional pairings. In this work we propose a minimal model to realize these topological nodal phases with only s -wave interaction. In our model the linear and quadratic spin-orbit couplings along the two orthogonal directions introduce anisotropic effective unconventional pairings in momentum space. This model may support different nodal superconducting phases characterized by either an integer winding number in BDI class or a Z2 index in D class at the particle-hole invariant axes. In the vicinity of the nodal points the effective Hamiltonian can be described by either type-I or type-II Dirac equations, and the Lifshitz transition from type-I nodal phases to type-II nodal phases can be driven by external in-plane magnetic fields. We show that these nodal phases are robust against weak impurities, which only slightly renormalizes the momentum-independent parameters in the impurity-averaged Hamiltonian, thus these phases are possible to be realized in experiments with real semi-Dirac materials. The smoking-gun evidences to verify these phases based on scanning tunneling spectroscopy method are also briefly discussed.
The effect of wave-particle interactions on the polar wind: Preliminary results
Barakat, A. R.; Barghouthi, I. A.
1994-01-01
A Monte Carlo simulation was developed in order to study the effects of wave-particle interactions (WPI) on the plasma outflow in the polar wind. The simulation also considered the other mechanisms included in the `classical' polar wind studies such as gravity, the polarization electrostatic field, and the divergence of geomagnetic field lines. Although the plasma consisted of electrons, H(+) and O(+) ions, we emphasized the behavior of H(+) in this preliminary study. The ion distribution function, as well as the profiles of its moments (density, drift velocity, temperatures, etc.) were found for different levels of WPI, that is, for different values of normalized diffusion rates in the velocity space (normalized D(sub perpendicular) H(+)). We found that as the WPI strength increases: (1) the ion drift velocity increases and its density decreases; (2) the perpendicular temperature T(sub perpendicular) (H(+)) increases; (3) the parallel temperature T(sub parallel) (H(+)) first decreases and then increases due to the balance between the parallel adiabatic cooling and the transfer of the energy from the perpendicular to the parallel direction; and (4) the temperature anisotropy ((T(sub parallel) (H(+))/T(sub perpendicular) (H(+)) is reduced and even reversed in some cases. For strong WPI (normalized D(sub perpendicular) (H(+) much greater than 1), the ion distribution function shows weak conic features at high altitudes.
Reynolds-Stress Budgets in an Impinging Shock Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction
Vyas, Manan A.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Gaitonde, Datta V.
2018-01-01
Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Comparisons with experimental data showed a sensitivity of the current prediction to the modeling of the sidewalls. This was found to be common among various computational studies in the literature where periodic boundary conditions were used in the spanwise direction, as was the case in the present work. Thus, although the experiment was quasi-two-dimensional, the present simulation was determined to be two-dimensional. Quantities present in the exact equation of the Reynolds-stress transport, i.e., production, molecular diffusion, turbulent transport, pressure diffusion, pressure strain, dissipation, and turbulent mass flux were calculated. Reynolds-stress budgets were compared with past large-eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation datasets in the undisturbed portion of the turbulent boundary layer to validate the current approach. The budgets in SBLI showed the growth in the production term for the primary normal stress and energy transfer mechanism was led by the pressure strain term in the secondary normal stresses. The pressure diffusion term, commonly assumed as negligible by turbulence model developers, was shown to be small but non-zero in the normal stress budgets, however it played a key role in the primary shear stress budget.
Frequency variations of gravity waves interacting with a time-varying tide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, C.M.; Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F.; Huang, K.M.; Gan, Q.; Gong, Y. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhang, Y.H. [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). College of Hydrometeorolgy
2013-11-01
Using a nonlinear, 2-D time-dependent numerical model, we simulate the propagation of gravity waves (GWs) in a time-varying tide. Our simulations show that when aGW packet propagates in a time-varying tidal-wind environment, not only its intrinsic frequency but also its ground-based frequency would change significantly. The tidal horizontal-wind acceleration dominates the GW frequency variation. Positive (negative) accelerations induce frequency increases (decreases) with time. More interestingly, tidal-wind acceleration near the critical layers always causes the GW frequency to increase, which may partially explain the observations that high-frequency GW components are more dominant in the middle and upper atmosphere than in the lower atmosphere. The combination of the increased ground-based frequency of propagating GWs in a time-varying tidal-wind field and the transient nature of the critical layer induced by a time-varying tidal zonal wind creates favorable conditions for GWs to penetrate their originally expected critical layers. Consequently, GWs have an impact on the background atmosphere at much higher altitudes than expected, which indicates that the dynamical effects of tidal-GW interactions are more complicated than usually taken into account by GW parameterizations in global models.
Elkamash, I. S.; Kourakis, I.; Haas, F.
2017-10-01
Understanding the transport properties of charged particle beams is important not only from a fundamental point of view but also due to its relevance in a variety of applications. A theoretical model is established in this article, to model the interaction of a tenuous positively charged ion beam with an ultradense quantum electron-ion plasma, by employing a rigorous relativistic quantum-hydrodynamic (fluid plasma) electrostatic model proposed in McKerr et al. [M. McKerr, F. Haas, and I. Kourakis, Phys. Rev. E 90, 033112 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.033112]. A nonlinear analysis is carried out to elucidate the propagation characteristics and the existence conditions of large amplitude electrostatic solitary waves propagating in the plasma in the presence of the beam. Anticipating stationary profile excitations, a pseudomechanical energy balance formalism is adopted to reduce the fluid evolution equation to an ordinary differential equation. Exact solutions are thus obtained numerically, predicting localized excitations (pulses) for all of the plasma state variables, in response to an electrostatic potential disturbance. An ambipolar electric field form is also obtained. Thorough analysis of the reality conditions for all variables is undertaken in order to determine the range of allowed values for the solitonic pulse speed and how it varies as a function of the beam characteristics (beam velocity and density).
Wave-matter interactions in epsilon-and-mu-near-zero structures.
Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Engheta, Nader
2014-12-05
In recent years, the concept of metamaterials has offered platforms for unconventional tailoring and manipulation of the light-matter interaction. Here we explore the notion of 'static optics', in which the electricity and magnetism are decoupled, while the fields are temporally dynamic. This occurs when both the relative effective permittivity and permeability attain near-zero values at a given operating frequency. We theoretically investigate some of the resulting wave features in bounded scenarios, such as unusual radiation characteristics of an emitter embedded in such epsilon-and-mu-near-zero media in bounded environments. Using such media, one might in principle 'open up' and 'stretch' the space, and have regions behaving electromagnetically as 'single points' despite being electrically large. We suggest a possible design for implementation of such structures using a single dielectric rod inserted in a waveguide operating near its cutoff frequency, providing the possibility of having electrically large 'empty' volumes to behave as epsilon-and-mu-near-zero media.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smith, GG
2002-07-30
Full Text Available 0025-3227 / 02 / $ ^ see front matter C223 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S0025-3227(02)00385-7 * Corresponding author. E-mail address: gsmith@csir.co.za (G.G. Smith). MARGO 3183 24-7-02 Marine Geology 187 (2002) 329^345 www....G. Smith, G.P. Mocke/ Marine Geology 187 (2002) 329^345 wave breaking processes, which interact with in- fragravity motions. Possible examples of the inter- action of wave breaking and infragravity sediment suspension and transport phenomena are (1) more...
Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. J. Dunkerton
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i a region of
Lieske, Mike; Schlurmann, Torsten
2016-04-01
INTRODUCTION & MOTIVATION The design of structures in coastal and offshore areas and their maintenance are key components of coastal protection. Usually, assessments of processes and loads on coastal structures are derived from experiments with flow and wave parameters in separate physical models. However, Peregrin (1976) already points out that processes in natural shallow coastal waters flow and sea state processes do not occur separately, but influence each other nonlinearly. Kemp & Simons (1982) perform 2D laboratory tests and study the interactions between a turbulent flow and following waves. They highlight the significance of wave-induced changes in the current properties, especially in the mean flow profiles, and draw attention to turbulent fluctuations and bottom shear stresses. Kemp & Simons (1983) also study these processes and features with opposing waves. Studies on the wave-current interaction in three-dimensional space for a certain wave height, wave period and water depth were conducted by MacIver et al. (2006). The research focus is set on the investigation of long-crested waves on obliquely opposing and following currents in the new 3D wave-current basin. METHODOLOGY In a first step the flow analysis without waves is carried out and includes measurements of flow profiles in the sweet spot of the basin at predefined measurement positions. Five measuring points in the water column have been delineated in different water depths in order to obtain vertical flow profiles. For the characterization of the undisturbed flow properties in the basin, an uniformly distributed flow was generated in the wave basin. In the second step wave analysis without current, the unidirectional wave propagation and wave height were investigated for long-crested waves in intermediate wave conditions. In the sweet spot of the wave basin waves with three different wave directions, three wave periods and uniform wave steepness were examined. For evaluation, we applied a common
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaoqin Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper uses improved technology for dynamic strain measurement to investigate the dynamic strain signals of blasting wave action tested in the range of 8–16 cm from the central blast. Based on the blasting mechanism and on the analysis of signal characteristics, blasting waves are recognized and divided into three zones, namely, shock wave zone, stress wave zone, and gas-expanding zone. This paper studies the relationships between stress, strain, and time of every zone. The tensile and compressive stresses of stress wave are considered. After the blasting test, four cracks from the borehole center toward the minimum burden appear at the model surface. The relationship between blasting wave and concrete damage is analyzed.
Measurements of Ocean Surface Turbulence and Wave-Turbulence Interactions (PREPRINT)
2008-02-19
density variations (Webb et al., 1980). For the purposes of this paper, the good agreement be- tween the ßux covariance data and estimates using the...wind-wave Þeld grows. Figure 2c also shows good agreement between the signiÞcant wave height measured with the altimeter and that measured with the waves...corrects the directional spreading caused by the conventional MLM technique (Isobe et al., 1984, Capon, 1969), and the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM, Lygre
2005-01-01
tut quiz Tutorial Quiz Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial reviews the mechanisms of Rossby waves. Rossby waves in both the northern and southern hemispheres are considered. The interactions involve answering simple fill-in-the-blank questions. Diagrams are used to illustrate some of the concepts reviewed. MR4322 Dynamic Meteorology
Demcenko, Andriejus; Mazilu, Michael; Wilson, Rab; Cooper, Jonathan M.
2017-04-01
Non-collinear ultrasonic wave mixing for nonlinear ultrasonics is used for various NDT&E applications to characterize structure/material state. Experiments are frequently conducted using immersion ultrasonic techniques. In this configuration various wave modes are generated at the fluid-solid interface. We have characterised this scenario experimentally and developed a 2D numerical model to analyse the influence of the interface on the possible second-order interactions of the ultrasonic waves. The model is based on the decomposition of the ultrasonic wave into a superposition of monochromatic plane waves. As these waves propagate through the interface and solid, their nonlinear interaction defines a flow of energy between the different modes. Using the Murnaghan's nonlinear interaction potential, we have studied the efficiency of this energy transfer as a function different geometrical parameters.
Wave-Current Interactions in the Southern North Sea: The Impact on Salinity
Stanev, Emil; Grashorn, Sebastian
2017-04-01
The interplay between wind waves and currents in the coastal zone of southern North Sea along with the resulting changes in the salinity distribution there are quantified using simulations with the unstructured-grid ocean model SCHISM coupled with the wind wave model WWM. The wave-induced transport of salt leads to changes in the horizontal salinity distribution. These are most pronounced in front of barrier islands where coherent patterns caused by the coupling between tides, surface drift and wind waves reveal salinity changes up to 0.5. The weak stratification dominating the patterns of salinity in the coastal zone is mostly destroyed by wind waves. Thus, effects created by wind waves tend to substantially modify the estuarine circulation. An explanation of these important processes in the coastal zone has been given based on analysis of ratio between significant wave height and tidal range. This control-parameter, which is relatively small under mild weather conditions, can exceed under strong-wind condition 1 in the coastal zone, thus mixing due to waves becomes dominant. The effect of fresh water fluxes from subterranean estuaries is relatively small and confined only in the vicinity of corresponding sources.
Martin, Gary R.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Arihood, Leslie D.
2016-09-06
Information on low-flow characteristics of streams is essential for the management of water resources. This report provides equations for estimating the 1-, 7-, and 30-day mean low flows for a recurrence interval of 10 years and the harmonic-mean flow at ungaged, unregulated stream sites in Indiana. These equations were developed using the low-flow statistics and basin characteristics for 108 continuous-record streamgages in Indiana with at least 10 years of daily mean streamflow data through the 2011 climate year (April 1 through March 31). The equations were developed in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Environmental Management.Regression techniques were used to develop the equations for estimating low-flow frequency statistics and the harmonic-mean flows on the basis of drainage-basin characteristics. A geographic information system was used to measure basin characteristics for selected streamgages. A final set of 25 basin characteristics measured at all the streamgages were evaluated to choose the best predictors of the low-flow statistics.Logistic-regression equations applicable statewide are presented for estimating the probability that selected low-flow frequency statistics equal zero. These equations use the explanatory variables total drainage area, average transmissivity of the full thickness of the unconsolidated deposits within 1,000 feet of the stream network, and latitude of the basin outlet. The percentage of the streamgage low-flow statistics correctly classified as zero or nonzero using the logistic-regression equations ranged from 86.1 to 88.9 percent.Generalized-least-squares regression equations applicable statewide for estimating nonzero low-flow frequency statistics use total drainage area, the average hydraulic conductivity of the top 70 feet of unconsolidated deposits, the slope of the basin, and the index of permeability and thickness of the Quaternary surficial sediments as explanatory variables. The average standard error of
Dissipation of ionospheric irregularities by wave-particle and collisional interactions
Bernhardt, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.; Gray, S. P.; Thomsen, M. F.
1982-01-01
The nonlinear dissipation of plasma irregularities aligned parallel to an ambient magnetic field is studied numerically using a model which employs both wave-particle and collisional diffusion. A wave-particle diffusion coefficient derived from a local theory of the universal drift instability is used. This coefficient is effective in regions of nonzero plasma gradients and produces triangular-shaped irregularities with spectra which vary as f to the -4th, where f is the spatial frequency. Collisional diffusion acts rapidly on the vertices of the irregularities to reduce their amplitude. The simultaneous action of the two dissipative processes is more efficient than collisions acting alone. In this model, wave-particle diffusion mimics the forward cascade process of wave-wave coupling.
Xing, Jiuxing; Davies, Alan M.; Jones, John Eric
2012-07-01
A three-dimensional finite volume unstructured mesh model of the west coast of Britain, with high resolution in the coastal regions, is used to investigate the role of wind wave turbulence and wind and tide forced currents in producing maximum bed stress in the eastern Irish Sea. The spatial distribution of the maximum bed stress, which is important in sediment transport problems, is determined, together with how it is modified by the direction of wind forced currents, tide-surge interaction and a surface source of wind wave turbulence associated with wave breaking. Initial calculations show that to first order the distribution of maximum bed stress is determined by the tide. However, since maximum sediment transport occurs at times of episodic events, such as storm surges, their effects upon maximum bed stresses are examined for the case of strong northerly, southerly and westerly wind forcing. Calculations show that due to tide-surge interaction both the tidal distribution and the surge are modified by non-linear effects. Consequently, the magnitude and spatial distribution of maximum bed stress during major wind events depends upon wind direction. In addition calculations show that a surface source of turbulence due to wind wave breaking in shallow water can influence the maximum bed stress. In turn, this influences the wind forced flow and hence the movement of suspended sediment. Calculations of the spatial variability of maximum bed stress indicate the level of measurements required for model validation.
Reintjes, Moritz
2014-01-01
We prove that spacetime is locally inertial at points of shock wave collision in General Relativity. The result applies for collisions between shock waves coming from different characteristic families, in spherically symmetric spacetimes. We give a constructive proof that there exist coordinate transformations which raise the regularity of the gravitational metric tensor from $C^{0,1}$ to $C^{1,1}$ in a neighborhood of such points of shock wave interaction, and a $C^{1,1}$ metric regularity suffices for locally inertial frames to exist. This result corrects an error in our earlier RSPA-publication, which led us to the wrong conclusion that such coordinate transformations, which smooth the metric to $C^{1,1}$, cannot exist. Our result here proves that regularity singularities, (a type of mild singularity introduced in our RSPA-publication), do \\emph{not exist} at points of interacting shock waves from different families in spherically symmetric spacetimes, and this generalizes Israel's famous 1966 result to th...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schnack, Dalton D.
2012-07-01
Final technical report for research performed by Dr. Thomas G. Jenkins in collaboration with Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodyanics, DE-FC02-06ER54899, for the period of 8/15/06 - 8/14/11. This report centers on the Slow MHD physics campaign work performed by Dr. Jenkins while at UW-Madison and then at Tech-X Corporation. To make progress on the problem of RF induced currents affect magnetic island evolution in toroidal plasmas, a set of research approaches are outlined. Three approaches can be addressed in parallel. These are: (1) Analytically prescribed additional term in Ohm's law to model the effect of localized ECCD current drive; (2) Introduce an additional evolution equation for the Ohm's law source term. Establish a RF source 'box' where information from the RF code couples to the fluid evolution; and (3) Carry out a more rigorous analytic calculation treating the additional RF terms in a closure problem. These approaches rely on the necessity of reinvigorating the computation modeling efforts of resistive and neoclassical tearing modes with present day versions of the numerical tools. For the RF community, the relevant action item is - RF ray tracing codes need to be modified so that general three-dimensional spatial information can be obtained. Further, interface efforts between the two codes require work as well as an assessment as to the numerical stability properties of the procedures to be used.
The effect of wave-particle interactions on the polar winds O(+)
Barakat, A. R.; Barghouthi, I. A.
1994-01-01
The escape of the polar wind plasma is an important element in the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. Both theory and observations indicate that the wave-particle interactions (WPI) play a significant role in the dynamics of ion outflow along open geomagnetic field lines. A Monte Carlo simulation was developed in order to include the effect of the WPI in addition to the factors that are traditionally included in the 'classical' polar wind (i.e. gravity, electrostatic field, and divergence of geomagnetic field lines). The ion distribution function (f(sub j)), as well as the profiles of its moments (density, drift velocity, temperature, etc.) were found for different levels of WPI, that is, for different values of the normalized diffusion rate in the velocity space (D(tilde) (sub j perpendicular). Although the model included O(=), H(+) and eletrons, we presented only the results related to the O(+) ion. We found that (1) both the density and drift velocity of O(+) increased with the WPI strength, and consequently, the O(+) escape flux was enhanced by a factor of up to 10(exp 5), (2) The O(+) ions could be energized up to a few electron volts; (3) for moderate and high levels of WPI D(tilde) (sub perpendicular) (O(+) greater than (tilde) 1, the distribution function f(O(+)) displayed very pronounced conic features at altitudes around 3 R(sub e). Finally, the interplay between the downward body force, the upward mirror force, and the perpendicular heating resulted in the formation of the 'pressure cooker' effect. This phenomena explained some interesting features of our solution, such as, the peak in the O(=) temperature, and the formation of 'ears' and conics for f(O(+)) around 2.5 R(sub e).
Alayon Glazunov, Andrés.
2014-08-01
This paper provides an overview of recent advances in the modeling, analysis, and measurements of interactions between antennas and the propagation channel in multiple antenna systems based on the spherical vector wave mode expansion of the electromagnetic field and the antenna scattering matrix. It demonstrates the importance and usefulness of this approach to gain further insights into a variety of topics such as physics-based propagation channel modeling, mean effective gain, channel correlation, propagation channel measurements, antenna measurements and testing, the number of degrees of freedom of the radio propagation channel, channel throughput, and diversity systems. The paper puts particular emphasis on the unified approach to antenna-channel analysis at the same time as the antenna and the channel influence are separated. Finally, the paper provides the first bibliography on the application of the spherical vector wave mode expansion of the electromagnetic field to antenna-channel interactions.
Lemordant, Léo.; Gentine, Pierre; Stéfanon, Marc; Drobinski, Philippe; Fatichi, Simone
2016-10-01
Plant stomata couple the energy, water, and carbon cycles. We use the framework of Regional Climate Modeling to simulate the 2003 European heat wave and assess how higher levels of surface CO2 may affect such an extreme event through land-atmosphere interactions. Increased CO2 modifies the seasonality of the water cycle through stomatal regulation and increased leaf area. As a result, the water saved during the growing season through higher water use efficiency mitigates summer dryness and the heat wave impact. Land-atmosphere interactions and CO2 fertilization together synergistically contribute to increased summer transpiration. This, in turn, alters the surface energy budget and decreases sensible heat flux, mitigating air temperature rise. Accurate representation of the response to higher CO2 levels and of the coupling between the carbon and water cycles is therefore critical to forecasting seasonal climate, water cycle dynamics, and to enhance the accuracy of extreme event prediction under future climate.
Nonlinear interaction of proton whistler with kinetic Alfvén wave to study solar wind turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goyal, R.; Sharma, R. P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi-110016 (India); Goldstein, M. L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre, Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Dwivedi, N. K. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz (Austria)
2013-12-15
This paper presents the nonlinear interaction between small but finite amplitude kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) and proton whistler wave using two-fluid model in intermediate beta plasma, applicable to solar wind. The nonlinearity is introduced by modification in the background density. This change in density is attributed to the nonlinear ponderomotive force due to KAW. The solutions of the model equations, governing the nonlinear interaction (and its effect on the formation of localized structures), have been obtained using semi-analytical method in solar wind at 1AU. It is concluded that the KAW properties significantly affect the threshold field required for the filament formation and their critical size (for proton whistler). The magnetic and electric field power spectra have been obtained and their relevance with the recent observations of solar wind turbulence by Cluster spacecraft has been pointed out.
Liu, Ru-Fen; Franzese, Christina A; Malek, Ryan; Żuchowski, Piotr S; Ángyán, János G; Szczȩśniak, Małgorzata M; Chałasiński, Grzegorz
2011-08-09
The aurophilic interaction is examined in three model systems Au2((3)Σg(+)), (AuH)2, and (HAuPH3)2 which contain interactions of pairs of the Au centers in the oxidation state (I). Several methods are employed ranging from wave function theory-based (WFT) approaches to symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) density functional theory (DFT) methods. The most promising and accurate approach consists of a combination of the DFT and WFT approaches in the RSH framework. In this combination the short-range DFT handles the slow convergence of the correlation cusp, whereas the long-range WFT is best suited for the long-range correlation. Of the three tested RSH DFT methods, the one which uses a short-range exchange functional based on the Ernzerhof-Perdew exchange hole model with a range-separation parameter of 0.4 bohr(-1) seems to be the best candidate for treatment of gold. In combination with the long-range coupled cluster singles, doubles, and noniterative triples [CCSD(T)] treatment it places the strength of aurophilic bonding in (HAuPH3)2 at 5.7 kcal/mol at R = 3.09 Å. This value is somewhat larger than our best purely WFT result based on CCSD(T), 4.95 kcal/mol (R = 3.1 Å), and considerably smaller than the Hartree-Fock+dispersion value of 7.4 kcal/mol (R = 2.9 Å). The 5.7 kcal/mol estimate fits reasonably well within the prediction of the empirical relationship proposed by Schwerdtfeger et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.1998, 120, 6587). A direct computation of dispersion energy, including exchange corrections, results in values of ca. -9 kcal/mol for Au2((3)Σg(+)) and (AuH)2 and -13 kcal/mol for (HAuPH3)2 at the distance of a typical aurophilic bond, R = 3.0 Å.
Deringer, Volker L; George, Janine; Dronskowski, Richard; Englert, Ulli
2017-05-16
Molecular compounds, organic and inorganic, crystallize in diverse and complex structures. They continue to inspire synthetic efforts and "crystal engineering", with implications ranging from fundamental questions to pharmaceutical research. The structural complexity of molecular solids is linked with diverse intermolecular interactions: hydrogen bonding with all its facets, halogen bonding, and other secondary bonding mechanisms of recent interest (and debate). Today, high-resolution diffraction experiments allow unprecedented insight into the structures of molecular crystals. Despite their usefulness, however, these experiments also face problems: hydrogen atoms are challenging to locate, and thermal effects may complicate matters. Moreover, even if the structure of a crystal is precisely known, this does not yet reveal the nature and strength of the intermolecular forces that hold it together. In this Account, we show that periodic plane-wave-based density functional theory (DFT) can be a useful, and sometimes unexpected, complement to molecular crystallography. Initially developed in the solid-state physics communities to treat inorganic solids, periodic DFT can be applied to molecular crystals just as well: theoretical structural optimizations "help out" by accurately localizing the elusive hydrogen atoms, reaching neutron-diffraction quality with much less expensive measurement equipment. In addition, phonon computations, again developed by physicists, can quantify the thermal motion of atoms and thus predict anisotropic displacement parameters and ORTEP ellipsoids "from scratch". But the synergy between experiment and theory goes much further than that. Once a structure has been accurately determined, computations give new and detailed insights into the aforementioned intermolecular interactions. For example, it has been debated whether short hydrogen bonds in solids have covalent character, and we have added a new twist to this discussion using an orbital
Ulku, Huseyin Arda
2014-07-06
Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half
M. S. Abdul Aziz; Abdullah, M. Z.; Khor, C. Y.
2014-01-01
An efficient simulation technique was proposed to examine the thermal-fluid structure interaction in the effects of solder temperature on pin through-hole during wave soldering. This study investigated the capillary flow behavior as well as the displacement, temperature distribution, and von Mises stress of a pin passed through a solder material. A single pin through-hole connector mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) was simulated using a 3D model solved by FLUENT. The ABAQUS solver was ...
Kelvin-Helmholtz billows and their effects on mean state during gravity wave propagation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Liu
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH billows which appear in the process of gravity wave (GW propagation are simulated directly by using a compressible nonlinear two-dimensional gravity wave model. The differences between our model and others include: the background field has no special initial configuration and there is no initial triggering mechanism needed in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT region to excite the KH billows. However, the initial triggering mechanism is performed in the lower atmosphere through GW, which then propagate into the MLT region and form billows. The braid structures and overturning of KH billows, caused by nonlinear interactions between GWs and mean flow, can be resolved precisely by the model. These results support the findings in airglow studies that GWs propagating from below into the MLT region are important sources of KH billows. The onset of small scale waves and the wave energy transfer induce the shallower vertical wave number power spectral densities (PSD. However, most of the slopes are steeper than the expected k_{z}^{−3} power law, which indicates that GWs with 10 km vertical wavelength are still a dominant mode. The results also show that the evolution of mean wind vary substantially between the different processes of GWs propagation. Before the KH billows evolve, the mean wind is accelerated greatly by GWs. By contrast, as the KH billows evolve and mix with mean flow, the mean wind and its peak value decrease.
Wave-Current Interactions in the Vicinity of the Sea Bed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holmedal, Lars Erik
2002-01-01
The intention of the work carried out in the present thesis is to span a part of the range of sea bed boundary layer research by three separate parts. The two first parts deal with the sea bed boundary layer beneath random waves and current, while the third part represents a more fundamental approach towards the smooth turbulent boundary layer under a horizontally uniform sinusoidal plus steady forcing. The first part focuses on the bottom shear stress amplitudes under random waves plus current. Shear stresses on a rough seabed under irregular waves plus current are calculated. Parameterized models valid for regular waves plus current have been used in Monte Carlo simulations, assuming the wave amplitudes to be Rayleigh distributed. Numerical estimates of the probability distribution functions are presented. For waves only, the shear stress maxima follow a two-parameter Weibull distribution, while for waves plus current, both the maximum and time-averaged shear stresses are well represented by a three-parameter Weibull distribution. The behaviour of the maximum shear stresses under a wide range of wave-current conditions has been investigated, and it appears that under certain conditions the current has a significant influence on the maximum shear stresses. Results of comparison between predictions and measurements of the maximum bottom shear stresses from laboratory and field experiments are presented. The second part extends the first approach by applying a dynamic eddy viscosity model; the boundary layer under random waves alone as well as under random waves plus current have been examined by a dynamic turbulent boundary layer model based on the linearized boundary layer equations with horizontally uniform forcing. The turbulence closure is provided by a high Reynolds number k - {epsilon} model. The model appears to be verified as far as data exists, i.e., for sinusoidal waves alone as well as for sinusoidal waves plus a mean current. The time and space
Eash, David A.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.
2017-01-01
A statewide study was conducted to develop regression equations for estimating six selected low-flow frequency statistics and harmonic mean flows for ungaged stream sites in Iowa. The estimation equations developed for the six low-flow frequency statistics include: the annual 1-, 7-, and 30-day mean low flows for a recurrence interval of 10 years, the annual 30-day mean low flow for a recurrence interval of 5 years, and the seasonal (October 1 through December 31) 1- and 7-day mean low flows for a recurrence interval of 10 years. Estimation equations also were developed for the harmonic-mean-flow statistic. Estimates of these seven selected statistics are provided for 208 U.S. Geological Survey continuous-record streamgages using data through September 30, 2006. The study area comprises streamgages located within Iowa and 50 miles beyond the State's borders. Because trend analyses indicated statistically significant positive trends when considering the entire period of record for the majority of the streamgages, the longest, most recent period of record without a significant trend was determined for each streamgage for use in the study. The median number of years of record used to compute each of these seven selected statistics was 35. Geographic information system software was used to measure 54 selected basin characteristics for each streamgage. Following the removal of two streamgages from the initial data set, data collected for 206 streamgages were compiled to investigate three approaches for regionalization of the seven selected statistics. Regionalization, a process using statistical regression analysis, provides a relation for efficiently transferring information from a group of streamgages in a region to ungaged sites in the region. The three regionalization approaches tested included statewide, regional, and region-of-influence regressions. For the regional regression, the study area was divided into three low-flow regions on the basis of hydrologic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ecker, R.M.; Onishi, Y.
1979-08-01
A field sampling program was conducted on Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York during November and December 1977 to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Suspended sediment, bed sediment, and water samples were collected during mean flow conditions over a 45 mile reach of stream channel. Radiological analysis of these samples included primarily gamma ray emitters; however, some plutonium, strontium, curium, and tritium analyses were also included. The principal gamma emitter found during the sampling program was /sup 137/Cs where, in some cases, levels associated with the sand and clay size fractions of bed sediment exceeded 100 pCi/g. Elevated levels of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr were found downstream of the Nuclear Fuel Services Center, an inactive plutonium reprocessing plant and low level nuclear waste disposal site. Based on radionuclide levels in upstream control stations, /sup 137/Cs was the only radionuclide whose levels in the creeks downstream of the site could confidently be attributed to the site during this sampling program. This field sampling effort is the first of a three phase program to collect data during low, medium and high flow conditions.
Andrä, Jörg; Böhling, Arne; Gronewold, Thomas M A; Schlecht, Ulrich; Perpeet, Markus; Gutsmann, Thomas
2008-08-19
Surface acoustic wave biosensors are a powerful tool for the study of biomolecular interactions. The modulation of a surface-confined acoustic wave is utilized here for the analysis of surface binding. Phase and amplitude of the wave correspond roughly to mass loading and viscoelastic properties of the surface, respectively. We established a procedure to reconstitute phospholipid and lipopolysaccharide bilayers on the surface of a modified gold sensor chip to study the mode of action of membrane-active peptides. The procedure included the formation of a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanol, covalent coupling of carboxymethyl-dextran, and subsequent coating with a poly- l-lysine layer. The lipid coverage of the surface is highly reproducible and homogeneous as demonstrated in atomic force micrographs. Ethanol/triton treatment removed the lipids completely, which provided the basis for continuous sequences of independent experiments. The setup was applied to investigate the binding of human cathelicidin-derived peptide LL32, as an example for antimicrobial peptides, to immobilized phosphatidylserine membranes. The peptide-membrane interaction results in a positive phase shift and an increase in amplitude, indicating a mass increase along with a loss in viscosity. This suggests that the bilayer becomes more rigid upon interaction with LL32.
Collet, M.; Ouisse, M.; Ichchou, M.; Ohayon, R.
2013-04-01
This paper presents an integrated methodology for optimizing vibroacoustic energy flow in interaction between an adaptive metacomposite made of periodically distributed shunted piezoelectric material glued onto passive plate and open acoustic domain. The computation of interacting Floquet-Bloch propagators is also used to optimize vibroacoustic behavior. The main purpose of this work is first to propose a numerical methodology to compute the fluid-structure multi-modal wave dispersions. In a second step, optimization of electric circuit is used to control the acoustic power flow. 3D standard computation is used to confirm the efficiency of the designed metacomposite in terms of acoustic emissivity and absorption.
Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves
Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.
2008-06-01
The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, resembles the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development within the critical layer is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally this "marsupial paradigm" one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. This translation requires an appropriate "gauge" that renders translating streamlines and isopleths of translating stream function approximately equivalent to flow trajectories. In the translating frame, the closed circulation is stationary, and a dividing streamline effectively separates air within the critical layer from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because it provides (i) a region of
Numerical modelling of structures of dolosse and their interaction with waves
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Greben, JM
2008-11-01
Full Text Available The authors have applied various numerical techniques to describe the stability of breakwater structures under the exposure of waves. These studies are intended to get a better understanding of the parameters playing a role in breakwater stability...
Reconstruction of Casimir—Polder interactions from matter-wave interference experiments
Fiedler, Johannes; Broer, Wijnand; Scheel, Stefan
2017-08-01
Interference of matter waves at nanostructures has been studied in a variety of experiments to explore the quantum nature of atoms, molecules and clusters. The detection process typically focuses on an amplitude measurement of the matter wave. However, more information can be gained about the physical mechanism behind the scattering process at the nanostructure by also investigating the phase properties of the matter wave. Measurement devices for the wavefront, known as Hartmann-Shack sensors, rely on a lens array to refocus the wavefront onto a screen and to detect lateral deviations of the focal position. Here we show that the construction of a similar device is possible for matter waves. In particular, we propose an experiment where the Casimir-Polder potential between a small polarisable particle and the nanostructure is reconstructed by measuring both the amplitude in a conventional set-up and the wavefront in a Hartmann-Shack configuration.
Wave fronts and cascades of soliton interactions in the periodic two dimensional Volterra system
Bury, Rhys; Mikhailov, Alexander V.; Wang, Jing Ping
2017-05-01
In the paper we develop the dressing method for the solution of the two-dimensional periodic Volterra system with a period N. We derive soliton solutions of arbitrary rank k and give a full classification of rank 1 solutions. We have found a new class of exact solutions corresponding to wave fronts which represent smooth interfaces between two nonlinear periodic waves or a periodic wave and a trivial (zero) solution. The wave fronts are non-stationary and they propagate with a constant average velocity. The system also has soliton solutions similar to breathers, which resembles soliton webs in the KP theory. We associate the classification of soliton solutions with the Schubert decomposition of the Grassmannians GrR(k , N) and GrC(k , N) .
Second-order Lagrangian description of tri-dimensional gravity wave interactions
NOUGUIER, Frederic; Chapron, Bertrand; GUERIN, Charles-Antoine
2015-01-01
We revisit and supplement the description of gravity waves based on perturbation expansions in Lagrangian coordinates. A general analytical framework is developed to derive a second-order Lagrangian solution to the motion of arbitrary surface gravity wave fields in a compact and vectorial form. The result is shown to be consistent with the classical second-order Eulerian expansion by Longuet-Higgins (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 17, 1963, pp. 459-480) and is used to improve the original derivation by...
NATURE OF WAVE PROCESSES AND THEIR INTERACTION WITH Tidal power PLANTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alekseeva Ol'ga Aleksandrovna
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The author examines the nature of wave processes and their impact on the operation of tidal power plants. The article also has an overview of both operating and prospective tidal power plants in Russia and worldwide. Patterns of tidal fluctuations and the intensity of their driving forces are also considered in the article. The author discloses the origin of tides in terms of elementary physics and hydraulics. The author covers various aspects of formation of different types of inequality of tides caused by alterations in the mutual positions of the Sun and the Moon in relation to the Earth, variable declination of tide-generating luminaries (the Sun and the Moon in relation to the plane of the Earth equator, and variable distance between the luminaries and the Earth. The author analyzes wave-related phenomena, including refraction, diffraction and interference, their origin and influence onto the properties of waves. The author also covers the origin of advancing and standing waves, or waves of mixed origin, and the impact of the wind onto the characteristics of wave fluctuations. The author provides suggestions regarding potential methods of their control that can affect the essential concept of construction of tidal power plants.
Laboratory modelling of resonant wave-current interaction in the vicinity wind farm masts
Gunnoo, Hans; Abcha, Nizar; Garcia-Hermosa, Maria-Isabel; Ezersky, Alexander
2015-04-01
In the nearest future, by 2020, about 4% of electricity in Europe will be supplied by sea stations operating from renewable sources: ocean thermal energy, wave and tidal energy, wind farms. By now the wind stations located in the coastal zone, provide the most part of electricity in different European countries. Meanwhile, effects of wind farms on the environment are not sufficiently studied. We report results of laboratory simulations aimed at investigation of hydrodynamic fields arising in the vicinity of wind farm masts under the action of currents and surface waves. The main attention is paid to modeling the resonance effects when the amplitude of velocity pulsations in the vicinity of the masts under the joint action of currents and harmonic waves demonstrate significant growth. This resonance can lead to an increase in Reynolds stress on the bottom, intensification of sediment transport and sound generation. The experiments are performed in the 17 meters hydrodynamical channel of laboratory Morphodynamique Continentale et Côtière UMR CNRS 6143. Mast are modeled by vertical cylinder placed in a steady flow. Behind the cylinder turbulent Karman vortex street occurs. Results are obtained in interval of Reynolds numbers Re=103 - 104(Re=Ud/v, where U is the velocity of the flow, d is diameter of the cylinder, ν is cinematic viscosity). Harmonic surface waves of small amplitude propagating upstream are excited by computer controlled wave maker. In the absence of surface waves, turbulent Karman street with averaged frequency f is observed. It is revealed experimentally that harmonic surface waves with a frequencies closed to 2f can synchronize vortex shedding and increase the amplitude of velocity fluctuations in the wake of the cylinder. Map of regimes is found on the parameter plane amplitude of the surface wave - wave frequency. In order to distinguish the synchronization regimes, we defined phase of oscillations using the Hilbert transform technique. We
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dabrowska-Wuester, B J; Davis, M J [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Wuester, S [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: b.dabrowska-wuester@massey.ac.nz
2009-05-15
We model the dynamics of formation of multiple, long-lived, bright solitary waves (BSWs) in the collapse of Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interactions as studied in the experiment of Cornish et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 170401). We use both mean-field and approximate quantum field simulation techniques. While a number of separated wave packets form as observed in the experiment, they do not have a repulsive {pi} phase difference as has been previously inferred. We observe that the inclusion of quantum fluctuations causes soliton dynamics to be predominantly repulsive in one-dimensional (1D) simulations independent of their initial relative phase. However, indicative 3D simulations do not show a similar effect. In contrast, in 3D quantum noise has a negative impact on BSW lifetimes. Finally, we show that condensate oscillations, after the collapse, may serve to deduce three-body recombination rates.
van 't Oever, Jan Joannes Frederik
2018-01-01
The main theme of this thesis is waves: sound waves for trapping, guiding or mixing suspended particles, and light waves for making sound waves and rough surfaces visible. One of the important functions on a Lab-on-a-Chip system is suspended particle manipulation and concentration. One way to
Nazarian, Negin; Martilli, Alberto; Kleissl, Jan
2017-10-01
As urbanization progresses, more realistic methods are required to analyze the urban microclimate. However, given the complexity and computational cost of numerical models, the effects of realistic representations should be evaluated to identify the level of detail required for an accurate analysis. We consider the realistic representation of surface heating in an idealized three-dimensional urban configuration, and evaluate the spatial variability of flow statistics (mean flow and turbulent fluxes) in urban streets. Large-eddy simulations coupled with an urban energy balance model are employed, and the heating distribution of urban surfaces is parametrized using sets of horizontal and vertical Richardson numbers, characterizing thermal stratification and heating orientation with respect to the wind direction. For all studied conditions, the thermal field is strongly affected by the orientation of heating with respect to the airflow. The modification of airflow by the horizontal heating is also pronounced for strongly unstable conditions. The formation of the canyon vortices is affected by the three-dimensional heating distribution in both spanwise and streamwise street canyons, such that the secondary vortex is seen adjacent to the windward wall. For the dispersion field, however, the overall heating of urban surfaces, and more importantly, the vertical temperature gradient, dominate the distribution of concentration and the removal of pollutants from the building canyon. Accordingly, the spatial variability of concentration is not significantly affected by the detailed heating distribution. The analysis is extended to assess the effects of three-dimensional surface heating on turbulent transfer. Quadrant analysis reveals that the differential heating also affects the dominance of ejection and sweep events and the efficiency of turbulent transfer (exuberance) within the street canyon and at the roof level, while the vertical variation of these parameters is less
Les, Andrea S; Yeung, Janice J; Schultz, Geoffrey M; Herfkens, Robert J; Dalman, Ronald L; Taylor, Charles A
2010-03-01
Hemodynamic forces are thought to play a critical role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth. In silico and in vitro simulations can be used to study these forces, but require accurate aortic geometries and boundary conditions. Many AAA simulations use patient-specific geometries, but utilize inlet boundary conditions taken from a single, unrelated, healthy young adult. In this study, we imaged 43 AAA patients using a 1.5 T MR scanner. A 24-frame cardiac-gated one-component phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging sequence was used to measure volumetric flow at the supraceliac (SC) and infrarenal (IR) aorta, where flow information is typically needed for simulation. For the first 36 patients, individual waveforms were interpolated to a 12-mode Fourier curve, peak-aligned, and averaged. Allometric scaling equations were derived from log-log plots of mean SC and IR flow vs. body mass, height, body surface area (BSA), and fat-free body mass. The data from the last seven patients were used to validate our model. Both the SC and IR averaged waveforms had the biphasic shapes characteristic of older adults, and mean SC and IR flows over the cardiac cycle were 51.2 ± 10.3 and 17.5 ± 5.44 mL/s, respectively. Linear regression of the log-log plots revealed that BSA was most strongly predictive of mean SC ( R 2 = 0.29) and IR flow ( R 2 = 0.19), with the highest combined R 2 . When averaged, the measured and predicted waveforms for the last seven patients agreed well. We present a method to estimate SC and IR mean flows and waveforms for AAA simulation.
El-Bennich, B.; Kloet, W. M.; Loiseau, B.
2003-07-01
We use a distorted wave approximation approach which includes 3P0 and 3S1 quark-antiquark annihilation mechanisms to reproduce the data set from LEAR on bar pp -> π ^ + π ^ - in the range from 360 to 1550 MeV/c. Improvements of the model are sought by implementing final-state interactions of the pions and by observing that the annihilation is too short-ranged in earlier attempts to describe the data. While the former improvement is due to to the final-state ππ wave functions solely, the latter one originates from quark wave functions for proton, antiproton, and pions with radii slightly larger than the respective measured charge radii. This increase in hadron radius, as compared with typically much smaller radii used before in the quark model, increases the annihilation range and thereby the amplitudes for J ≥ 2 are much higher. Finally, given the very high kinetic energy of the final pions, we investigate the role of relativistic corrections in the pion wave functions when boosted into the center-of-mass frame.
Liu, Zhongxian; Wang, Yirui; Liang, Jianwen
2016-06-01
The scattering of plane harmonic P and SV waves by a pair of vertically overlapping lined tunnels buried in an elastic half space is solved using a semi-analytic indirect boundary integration equation method. Then the effect of the distance between the two tunnels, the stiffness and density of the lining material, and the incident frequency on the seismic response of the tunnels is investigated. Numerical results demonstrate that the dynamic interaction between the twin tunnels cannot be ignored and the lower tunnel has a significant shielding effect on the upper tunnel for high-frequency incident waves, resulting in great decrease of the dynamic hoop stress in the upper tunnel; for the low-frequency incident waves, in contrast, the lower tunnel can lead to amplification effect on the upper tunnel. It also reveals that the frequency-spectrum characteristics of dynamic stress of the lower tunnel are significantly different from those of the upper tunnel. In addition, for incident P waves in low-frequency region, the soft lining tunnels have significant amplification effect on the surface displacement amplitude, which is slightly larger than that of the corresponding single tunnel.
Daglis, Ioannis A.; Turner, Drew; Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Georgiou, Marina; Katsavrias, Christos
Wave-particle interactions in the inner magnetosphere play a critical role in the acceleration of electrons to high energies characteristic of the Van Allen belts. In the MAARBLE project we have been investigating the properties of ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere and the particular ways in which these waves can influence electron acceleration. For a number of selected intense magnetic storms, we studied the variations of energetic electron fluxes in the outer Van Allen belt along with variations of the power of Pc 4-5 waves and their earthward penetration, using multi-point observations both from a number of spacecraft and from ground-based magnetometer arrays. We present and discuss the results of this study. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors’ views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.
Prodhan, Suryoday
2016-01-01
Singlet fission is a potential pathway for significant enhancement of efficiency in organic solar cells. In this article, we have studied singlet fission in a pair of polyene molecules employing exact many-body wave packet dynamics. The individual molecules are treated within Hubbard and Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) models and the interaction between them involves transfer terms, intersite electron repulsions and site charge-bond charge repulsion terms. Initial wave packet is constructed from excited singlet state of one molecule and ground state of the other. Time development of this wave packet under the influence of intermolecular interactions is followed within the Schr\\"{o}dinger picture by an efficient predictor-corrector scheme. In unsubstituted Hubbard and PPP chains, $2{}^1A$ excited singlet state leads to significant fission yield while the $1{}^1B$ state gives negligible fission yield. On substitution by donor-acceptor groups of moderate strength, singlet state derived from $1{}^1B$ state also gives si...
Chriss, Randall M.
1991-01-01
Nonintrusive 3-D measurements were made of a normal shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction. The measurements were made through a quadrant of a square test section of a continuous flow supersonic wind tunnel in which a normal shock wave had been stabilized. Two dimensional measurements were made throughout the interaction region while 3-D measurements were made near the corner in the vicinity of the shock where 3-D flow effects were expected to be significant. Laser Doppler velocimetry, surface static pressure measurements, and flow visualization techniques were used for two freestream nominal Mach number test cases: 1.6 and 1.3. No turbulence information was obtained. The mean velocity measurements were converted to Mach number by recording the wind tunnel total temperature. Some shock oscillation was present during both of the test cases. After startup of the wind tunnel, the shock oscillated with an amplitude of approx. + or - 1 cm, however, after reaching steady condition, the shock oscillation amplitude was greatly reduced, as evidenced by the laser velocimeter results. The Mach 1.3 test case resulted in a nearly uniform flow without secondary shock waves and with no or very isolated corner separation.
Jaafari, F. B.; Horwitz, J. L.; Jones, S.; Su, Y.; Zeng, W.
2008-12-01
When inertial Alfvén waves propagate along auroral field lines, they involve parallel electric fields which can accelerate auroral electrons. Here, we simulate the propagation of Alfvén waves through O+ and H+ auroral ionosphere-magnetosphere density profiles obtained from the UT Arlington Dynamic Fluid- Kinetic (DyFK) ionospheric plasma transport model. A linear one dimensional gyrofluid code [Jones and Parker, 2003] is used for the Alfvén wave description, incorporating electron inertia, electron pressure gradient and finite ion gyroradius effects. Then, the test particle approach of Su et al. [2004] is used to simulate the response of a distribution of electrons to these Alfvén wave electric fields. These electrons are incorporated into the DyFK model to produce a partially-self-consistent approach to producing the associated ionization and thermal electron heating within the ionosphere-magnetosphere system. Jones, S. T., and S. E. Parker (2003), Including electron inertia without advancing electron flow, J. Comput. Phys., 191, 322. Su, Y.-J., S. T. Jones, R. E. Ergun, and S. E. Parker (2004), Modeling of field-aligned electron bursts by dispersive Alfvén waves in the dayside auroral region, J. Geophys. Res., 109, A11201, doi:10.1029/2003JA010344.
Laboratory modelling of the wind-wave interaction with modified PIV-method
Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Bopp, Maximilian; Jaehne, Bernd
Laboratory experiments on studying the structure of the turbulent air boundary layer over waves were carried out at the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), in conditions modeling the near water boundary layer of the atmosphere under strong and hurricane winds and the equivalent wind velocities from 10 to 48 m/s at the standard height of 10 m. A modified technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to obtain turbulent pulsation averaged velocity fields of the air flow over the water surface curved by a wave and average profiles of the wind velocity. The main modifications are: 1) the use of high-speed video recording (1000-10000 frames/sec) with continuous laser illumination helps to obtain ensemble of the velocity fields in all phases of the wavy surface for subsequent statistical processing; 2) the development and application of special algorithms for obtaining form of the curvilinear wavy surface of the images for the conditions of parasitic images of the particles and the droplets in the air side close to the surface; 3) adaptive cross-correlation image processing to finding the velocity fields on a curved grid, caused by wave boarder; 4) using Hilbert transform to detect the phase of the wave in which the measured velocity field for subsequent appropriate binning within procedure obtaining the average characteristics.
Laboratory modelling of the wind-wave interaction with modified PIV-method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergeev Daniil
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Laboratory experiments on studying the structure of the turbulent air boundary layer over waves were carried out at the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS, in conditions modeling the near water boundary layer of the atmosphere under strong and hurricane winds and the equivalent wind velocities from 10 to 48 m/s at the standard height of 10 m. A modified technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was used to obtain turbulent pulsation averaged velocity fields of the air flow over the water surface curved by a wave and average profiles of the wind velocity. The main modifications are: 1 the use of high-speed video recording (1000-10000 frames/sec with continuous laser illumination helps to obtain ensemble of the velocity fields in all phases of the wavy surface for subsequent statistical processing; 2 the development and application of special algorithms for obtaining form of the curvilinear wavy surface of the images for the conditions of parasitic images of the particles and the droplets in the air side close to the surface; 3 adaptive cross-correlation image processing to finding the velocity fields on a curved grid, caused by wave boarder; 4 using Hilbert transform to detect the phase of the wave in which the measured velocity field for subsequent appropriate binning within procedure obtaining the average characteristics.
Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Dirckx, Joris
2015-09-01
In this manuscript a computer based simulation is proposed for teaching concepts of interference of light (under the scheme of a Michelson interferometer), phase-shifting and polarization states. The user can change some parameters of the interfering waves, such as their amplitude and phase difference in order to graphically represent the polarization state of a simulated travelling wave. Regarding to the interference simulation, the user is able to change the wavelength and type of the interfering waves by selecting combinations between planar and Gaussian profiles, as well as the optical path difference by translating or tilting one of the two mirrors in the interferometer setup, all of this via a graphical user interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB. A theoretical introduction and simulation results for each phenomenon will be shown. Due to the simulation characteristics, this GUI can be a very good non-formal learning resource.
Wave-ice interactions in the neXtSIM sea-ice model
Williams, Timothy D.; Rampal, Pierre; Bouillon, Sylvain
2017-09-01
In this paper we describe a waves-in-ice model (WIM), which calculates ice breakage and the wave radiation stress (WRS). This WIM is then coupled to the new sea-ice model neXtSIM, which is based on the elasto-brittle (EB) rheology. We highlight some numerical issues involved in the coupling and investigate the impact of the WRS, and of modifying the EB rheology to lower the stiffness of the ice in the area where the ice has broken up (the marginal ice zone or MIZ). In experiments in the absence of wind, we find that wind waves can produce noticeable movement of the ice edge in loose ice (concentration around 70 %) - up to 36 km, depending on the material parameters of the ice that are used and the dynamical model used for the broken ice. The ice edge position is unaffected by the WRS if the initial concentration is higher (≳ 0.9). Swell waves (monochromatic waves with low frequency) do not affect the ice edge location (even for loose ice), as they are attenuated much less than the higher-frequency components of a wind wave spectrum, and so consequently produce a much lower WRS (by about an order of magnitude at least).In the presence of wind, we find that the wind stress dominates the WRS, which, while large near the ice edge, decays exponentially away from it. This is in contrast to the wind stress, which is applied over a much larger ice area. In this case (when wind is present) the dynamical model for the MIZ has more impact than the WRS, although that effect too is relatively modest. When the stiffness in the MIZ is lowered due to ice breakage, we find that on-ice winds produce more compression in the MIZ than in the pack, while off-ice winds can cause the MIZ to be separated from the pack ice.
Makarov, V. A.; Petnikova, V. M.; Shuvalov, V. V.
2015-09-01
Three unusual classes of particular analytical solutions to a system of four nonlinear equations are found for slowly varying complex amplitudes of circularly polarised components of the electric field. The system describes the self-action and interaction of two elliptically polarised plane waves collinearly propagating in an isotropic medium with second-order frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion of cubic nonlinearity. The solutions correspond to self-consistent combinations of two elliptically polarised cnoidal waves whose mutually orthogonal polarisation components vary in accordance with pairwise identical laws during propagation. At the same time, the amplitudes of the component with the same circular polarisation are proportional to two different elliptic Jacobi functions with the same periods.
Coherent laser-millimeter-wave interactions en route to coherent population transfer.
Grimes, David D; Barnum, Timothy J; Zhou, Yan; Colombo, Anthony P; Field, Robert W
2017-10-14
We demonstrate coherent two-photon population transfer to Rydberg states of barium atoms using a combination of a pulsed dye laser and a chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer. Numerical calculations, using a density matrix formalism, reproduce our experimental results and explain the factors responsible for the observed fractional population transferred, optimal experimental conditions, and possibilities for future improvements. The long coherence times associated with the millimeter-wave radiation aid in creating coherence between the ground state and Rydberg states, but higher-coherence laser sources are required to achieve stimulated Raman adiabatic passage and for applications to molecules.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Sicard-Piet
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Wave particle interactions play an important role in controlling the dynamics of the radiation belts. The purpose of this study is to estimate how variations in the plasma density can affect diffusion rates resulting from interactions between chorus waves and plasmaspheric hiss with energetic particles and the resulting evolution of the energetic electron population. We perform a statistical analysis of the electron density derived from the plasma wave experiment on the CRRES satellite for two magnetic local time sectors corresponding to near midnight and near noon. We present the cumulative probability distribution of the electron plasma density for three levels of magnetic activity as measured by Kp. The largest densities are seen near L* = 2.5 while the smallest occur near L* = 6. The broadest distribution, corresponding to the greatest variability, occurs near L* = 4. We calculate diffusion coefficients for plasmaspheric hiss and whistler mode chorus for extreme values of the electron density and estimate the effects on the radiation belts using the Salammbô model. At L* = 4 and L* = 6, in the low density case, using the density from the 5th percentile of the cumulative distribution function, electron energy diffusion by chorus waves is strongest at 2 MeV and increases the flux by up to 3 orders of magnitude over a period of 24 h. In contrast, in the high density case, using the density from the 95th percentile, there is little acceleration at energies above 800 keV at L* = 6, and virtually no acceleration at L* = 4. In this case the strongest energy diffusion occurs at lower energies around 400 keV where the flux at L* = 6 increases 3 orders of magnitude.
Sicard-Piet, A.; Boscher, D.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Maget, V.
2014-08-01
Wave particle interactions play an important role in controlling the dynamics of the radiation belts. The purpose of this study is to estimate how variations in the plasma density can affect diffusion rates resulting from interactions between chorus waves and plasmaspheric hiss with energetic particles and the resulting evolution of the energetic electron population. We perform a statistical analysis of the electron density derived from the plasma wave experiment on the CRRES satellite for two magnetic local time sectors corresponding to near midnight and near noon. We present the cumulative probability distribution of the electron plasma density for three levels of magnetic activity as measured by Kp. The largest densities are seen near L* = 2.5 while the smallest occur near L* = 6. The broadest distribution, corresponding to the greatest variability, occurs near L* = 4. We calculate diffusion coefficients for plasmaspheric hiss and whistler mode chorus for extreme values of the electron density and estimate the effects on the radiation belts using the Salammbô model. At L* = 4 and L* = 6, in the low density case, using the density from the 5th percentile of the cumulative distribution function, electron energy diffusion by chorus waves is strongest at 2 MeV and increases the flux by up to 3 orders of magnitude over a period of 24 h. In contrast, in the high density case, using the density from the 95th percentile, there is little acceleration at energies above 800 keV at L* = 6, and virtually no acceleration at L* = 4. In this case the strongest energy diffusion occurs at lower energies around 400 keV where the flux at L* = 6 increases 3 orders of magnitude.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Yu. Klimushkin
2004-03-01
Full Text Available It is assumed to date that the energy source of azimuthal small-scale ULF waves in the magnetosphere (azimuthal wave numbers m≧1 is provided by the energetic particles interacting with the waves through the bounce-drift resonance. In this paper we have solved the problem of the bounce-drift instability influence on the spatio-temporal structure of Alfvén waves excited by a source of the type of sudden impulse in a dipole-like magnetosphere. It is shown that the impulse-generated Alfvén oscillation within a time τ~m∕ΩTN (where ΩTN is the toroidal eigenfrequency is a poloidal one, and each field line oscillates with its own eigenfrequency that coincides with the poloidal frequency of a given L-shell. As time elapses, the wave becomes toroidally polarized because of the phase difference of the disturbance, and the oscillation frequency of field lines tends to the toroidal frequency. The drift-bounce instability growth rate becomes smaller during the wave temporal evolution, and the instability undergoes stabilization when the wave frequency coincides with the toroidal eigenfrequency. The total amplification of the wave can be estimated as , where is the wave growth rate at the beginning of the process, when it has its maximum value. The wave amplitude can increase only within a time ~τ, when it is poloidally polarized. After this time, when the wave becomes to be toroidally polarized, it goes damped because of the finite ionospheric conductivity. This is in qualitative agreement with the recent radar experimental data.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities. Space plasma physics (kinetic and MHD theory; wave-particle interactions
On Wave-Ice Interaction in the Arctic Marginal Ice Zone: Dispersion, Attenuation, and Ice Response
2016-06-01
attention is given to formulations of the dispersion relation. The dispersion relation determines the wave attenuation for non- conservative dissipation...41 4.3 FINAL THOUGHTS ...2.0 M, AND 3.5 M ARE SHOWN FROM LEFT TO RIGHT , TOP TO BOTTOM. THE SHEAR MODULUS RANGES FROM 1 PA (DARK BLUE) TO 1010 PA (DARK RED) WITH
Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume
2012-01-01
Whilst there is general consensus that phonological processing is deficient in developmental dyslexia, recent research also implicates visuo-attentional contributions. Capitalising on the P3a wave of event-related potentials as an index of attentional capture, we tested dyslexic and normal readers on a novel variant of a visual oddball task to…
Controlled Studies of Whistler Wave Interactions with Energetic Particles in Radiation Belts
2009-07-01
acted as "ionospheric ducts" or parallel- plate waveguides for whistler-mode wave propagation experiments. As part of the experiments identical VLF...accelerated by HF excited instabilities, J. Atmos. Terr . Phys., 44, 1089, 1982. Imhof, W. L., J. B. Reagan, H. D. Voss, E. E. Gaines, D. W. Datlowe, J
Free Surface Waves And Interacting Bouncing Droplets: A Parametric Resonance Case Study
Borja, Francisco J.
2013-07-01
Parametric resonance is a particular type of resonance in which a parameter in a system changes with time. A particularly interesting case is when the parameter changes in a periodic way, which can lead to very intricate behavior. This di↵ers from periodic forcing in that solutions are not necessarily periodic. A system in which parametric resonance is realized is when a fluid bath is shaken periodically, which leads to an e↵ective time dependent gravitational force. This system will be used to study the onset of surface waves in a bath with non-uniform topography. A linear model for the surface waves is derived from the Euler equations in the limit of shallow waves, which includes the geometry of the bottom and surface tension. Experiments are performed to compare with the proposed model and good qualitative agreement is found. Another experiment which relies on a shaking fluid bath is that of bouncing fluid droplets. In the case of two droplets the shaking allows for a larger bouncing droplet to attract a smaller moving droplet in a way that creates a bound system. This bound system is studied and shows some analogous properties to quantum systems, so a quantum mechanical model for a two dimensional atom is studied, as well as a proposed model for the droplet-wave system in terms of equations of fluid mechanics.
Two-soliton and three-soliton interactions of electron acoustic waves ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of the Kortweg–de Vries (KdV) equation [2]. On the other hand, electron acoustic waves (EAWs) do exhibit soliton solutions and have been investigated in detail both theoretically and experimentally by many resear- chers [3–5]. The evolution of small-amplitude EAWs in collisionless plasma is usually. Pramana – J. Phys.
Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1996-01-01
We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of ultrafast transient four-wave mixing of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells for coherent excitation of exciton and continuum states. The signal appears at the exciton resonance and is shown to consist of two contributions: an intense spectrally...
Hennings, Ingo; Herbers, Dagmar
2006-10-01
The investigations carried out between 2002 and 2004 during six field experiments within the Operational Radar and Optical Mapping in monitoring hydrodynamic, morphodynamic and environmental parameters for coastal management (OROMA) project aimed to improve the effectiveness of new remote sensing monitoring technologies such as shipborne imaging radars in coastal waters. The coastal monitoring radar of the GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht, Germany, is based on a Kelvin Hughes RSR 1000 X band (9.42 GHz) vertical (VV) polarized river radar and was mounted on board the research vessel Ludwig Prandtl during the experiments in the Lister Tief, a tidal inlet of the German Bight in the North Sea. The important progress realized in this investigation is the availability of calibrated X band radar data. Another central point of the study is to demonstrate the applicability of the quasi-specular scattering theory in combination with the weak hydrodynamic interaction theory for the radar imaging mechanism of the seabed. Radar data have been taken at very low grazing angles ≤2.6° of flood and ebb tide-oriented sand wave signatures at the sea surface during ebb tidal current phases. Current speeds perpendicular to the sand wave crest ≤0.6 m s-1 have been measured at wind speeds ≤4.5 m s-1 and water depths ≤25 m. The difference between the maximum measured and simulated normalized radar cross section (NRCS) modulation of the ebb tide-oriented sand wave is 27%. For the flood tide-oriented sand wave, a difference of 21% has been calculated. The difference between the minimum measured and simulated NRCS modulation of the ebb tide-oriented sand wave is 10%, and for the flood tide-oriented sand wave, a value of 43% has been derived. Phases of measured and simulated NRCS modulations correspond to asymmetric sand wave slopes. The results of the simulated NRCS modulation show the qualitative trend but do not always quantitatively match the measured NRCS modulation profiles
Effect of next-nearest-neighbour interaction on dx2−y2-wave ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this class of systems the strength of the interactions between ... in real materials. The interaction values decrease with increasing interatomic dis- tances in the lattice and have important consequences on the characteristics of the strongly ... neighbour interactions by an exact method is important for these materials.
Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.
1993-01-01
Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossingshock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symmetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 degrees at Mach 3 and 15 degrees at Mach 4. The measurements were made using a Laser Interferometer Skin Friction (LISF) meter; a device which determines the wail shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction centerline. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k- model, are compared to the experimental results for the Mach 4, 15 degree interaction case. While the k- model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near surface flow in this complex interaction.
Talebi, Nahid
2017-10-01
Investigating the interaction of electron beams with materials and light has been a field of research for more than a century. The field was advanced theoretically by the rise of quantum mechanics and technically by the introduction of electron microscopes and accelerators. It is possible nowadays to uncover a multitude of information from electron-induced excitations in matter by means of advanced techniques like holography, tomography, and, most recently, photon-induced near-field electron microscopy. The question is whether the interaction can be controlled in an even, more efficient way in order to unravel important questions like modal decomposition of the electron-induced polarization by performing experiments with better spatial, temporal, and energy resolutions. This review discusses recent advances in controlling electron and light interactions at the nanoscale. Theoretical and numerical aspects of the interaction of electrons with nanostructures and metamaterials will be discussed with the aim of understanding the mechanisms of radiation in the interaction of electrons with even more sophisticated structures. Based on these mechanisms of radiation, state-of-the art and novel electron-driven few-photon sources will be discussed. Applications of such sources to gain an understanding of quantum optical effects and also to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes will be covered. In an inverse approach, as in the case of the inverse Smith-Purcell effect, laser-induced excitations of nanostructures can cause electron beams traveling in the near-field of such structures to accelerate, provided a synchronization criterion is satisfied. This effect is the basis for linear dielectric and metallic electron accelerators. Moreover, acceleration is accompanied by bunching of the electrons. When single electrons are considered, an efficient design of nanostructures can lead to the shaping of the electron wave function travelling adjacent to them, for
Scattering of coherent sound waves by atmospheric turbulence
Chow, P. L.; Liu, C. H.; Maestrello, L.
1975-01-01
An analytical study of the propagation of coherent sound waves through an atmosphere containing both mean and fluctuating flow variables is presented. The general flow problem is formulated as a time-dependent wave propagation in a half-space containing the turbulent medium. The coherent acoustic waves are analyzed by a smoothing technique, assuming that mean flow variables vary with the height only. The general equations for the coherent waves are derived, and then applied to two special cases, corresponding to uniform and shear mean flow, respectively. The results show that mean shear and turbulence introduce pronounced effects on the propagation of coherent acoustic disturbances.
Zavershinsky, D. I.; Molevich, N. E.
2014-08-01
It is shown that Alfvén waves propagating parallel and antiparallel to a magnetic field can be generated and amplified in an acoustically active heat-releasing ionized medium. The amplification is due to parametric energy pumping from the unstable magnetoacoustic waves to the Alfvén waves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. Abdul Aziz
2014-03-01
Full Text Available An effective simulation approach is introduced in this paper to study the thermal fluid-structure interaction (thermal FSI on the effect of pin-through-hole (PTH diameter on the wave soldering zone. A 3D single PTH connector and a printed circuit board model were constructed to investigate the capillary flow behavior when passing through molten solder (63SnPb37. In the analysis, the fluid solver FLUENT was used to solve and track the molten solder advancement using the volume of fluid technique. The structural solver ABAQUS was used to examine the von Mises stress and displacement of the PTH connector in the wave soldering process. Both solvers were coupled by MpCCI software. The effects of six different diameter ratios (0.1 < d/D < 0.97 were studied through a simulation modeling. The use of ratio d/D = 0.2 yielded a balanced filling profile and low thermal stress. Results revealed that filling level, temperature, and displacement exhibited polynomial behavior to d/D. Stress of pin varied quadratically with the d/D. The predicted molten solder profile was validated by experimental results. The simulation results are expected to provide better visualization and understanding of the wave soldering process by considering the aspects of thermal FSI.
Diamessis, P. J.; Wunsch, S.; Delwiche, I.; Richter, M. P.
2014-06-01
The interaction of an internal wave beam (IWB) with an idealized oceanic pycnocline is examined using two-dimensional fully nonlinear direct numerical simulations based on a spectral multidomain penalty method in the vertical direction. The phenomenon of focus is the nonlinear generation of harmonics. A total of 24 simulations have been performed, varying the normalized pycnocline thickness and the ratio of peak pycnocline Brunt-Väisälä frequency to that of the stratified lower layer. Harmonics at the point of IWB entry into the pycnocline increase in amplitude and number with a measure of the maximum gradient of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, suggesting refraction as an important factor in harmonic generation. Among the simulations performed, two distinct limits of pycnocline thickness are identified. For thin pynoclines, whose thickness is 10% of the incident IWB's horizontal wavelength, harmonics trapped within the pycnocline have maximum amplitude when their frequency and wavenumber match those of the natural pycnocline interfacial wave mode. Results in this case are compared with weakly nonlinear theory for harmonic generation by plane wave refraction. For thicker pycnoclines, whose thickness is equal the incident IWB's horizontal wavelength, IWB refraction results in harmonic generation at multiple locations in addition to pycnocline entry, giving rise to complex flow structure inside the pycnocline.
Mechanism of ignition in shock wave interactions with reactive liquid droplets
Pierce, T. H.; Kauffman, C. W.; Nicholls, J. A.
1975-01-01
A detailed qualitative analysis of the processes leading to the explosive ignition of a reactive liquid droplet that is suspended in a gas-phase oxidizer and subjected to the passage of a shock wave, is presented. The interval of time between shock wave passage and ignition is described by identifying a two-stage process which consists of a period of relative reactive dormancy that is followed by a chemical induction period leading to the thermal explosion of reactant that has been stripped from the liquid drop, vaporized, and mixed with the gas-phase oxidizer. The results of first-order calculations based on this model are presented and compared with experimental data for diethlcyclohexane drops in oxygen.
Competing turbulent cascades and eddy-wave interactions in shallow water equilibria
Weichman, Peter B.
2017-03-01
In recent work, Renaud, Venaille, and Bouchet (RVB) [Renaud et al., J. Stat. Phys. 163, 784 (2016), 10.1007/s10955-016-1496-x] revisit the equilibrium statistical mechanics theory of the shallow water equations, within a microcanonical approach, focusing on a more careful treatment of the energy partition between inertial gravity wave and eddy motions in the equilibrium state and deriving joint probability distributions for the corresponding dynamical degrees of freedom. The authors derive a Liouville theorem that determines the underlying phase space statistical measure, but then, through some physical arguments, actually compute the equilibrium statistics using a measure that violates this theorem, choosing equal volume vs equal area fluid parcels. Here, using a more convenient, but essentially equivalent, grand canonical approach, the full statistical theory consistent with the Liouville theorem is derived. The results reveal several significant differences from the previous results (1) The microscale wave motions lead to a strongly fluctuating thermodynamics, including long-range correlations, in contrast to the mean-field-like behavior found by RVB. The final effective model is equivalent to that of an elastic membrane with a nonlinear wave-renormalized surface tension. (2) Even when a mean-field approximation is made, a rather more complex joint probability distribution is revealed. Alternative physical arguments fully support the consistency of the results. Of course, the true fluid final steady state relies on dissipative processes not included in the shallow water equations, such as wave breaking and viscous effects, but it is argued that the current theory provides a more mathematically consistent starting point for future work aimed at assessing their impacts.
Nonlinear wave-structure interactions with a high-order Boussinesq model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Bingham, Harry; Madsen, Per A.
2005-01-01
on a structurally divided domain, and it is shown that exterior corner points pose potential stability problems, as well as other numerical difficulties. These are mainly due to the discretization of high-order mixed-derivative terms near these points, where the flow is theoretically singular. Fortunately......, and highly nonlinear deep water wave run-up on a vertical plate. These cases demonstrate the applicability of the model over a wide range of water depth and nonlinearity....
Investigation of Ionospheric Turbulence and Whistler Wave Interactions with Space Plasmas
2012-11-21
rely on naturally occurring spread F irregularities to serve as ionospheric ducts. We can also use HF wave-created ducts/artificial waveguides, as... ionospheric plasma structures have different configurations. In brief, large-scale sheet- like ionospheric density irregularities can be excited within and...Burke W J, Sulzer M P, Kuo S P and Klien E M C 1998 Generation of large sheet-like ionospheric plasma irregularities at Arecibo Geophys. Res. Lett
Kamath, Arun
2015-01-01
The application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to various problems in the field of coastal and ocean engineering is gaining importance due to the level of detail and accuracy offered by these methods. With the advances made in the computing power over the last decade and anticipated future increase in computational power, large and complex problems can be handled using CFD modeling. The PhD study aims at the development of a CFD-based numerical wave tank, vali...
Laboratory experiments on the interaction between inclined negatively buoyant jets and regular waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferrari Simone
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the results from a series of laboratory experiments on inclined negatively buoyant jets released in a receiving environment with waves. This simulates the case, typical of many practical applications, of the sea discharge of fluids denser than the receiving environment, as in the case of the brine from a desalination plant. The experiments were performed employing a Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF technique, in order to measure the concentration fields. Both the jet and the wave motion features were varied, in order to simulate a typical discharge into the Mediterranean Sea. Reference discharges in a stagnant environment were performed as well. The jet behaviour was analyzed from a statistical point of view, both considering the global phenomenon and its single phases. The influence of the wave motion on the inclined negatively buoyant jet geometry and dilution turns out to be a combined action of a split into two branches of the jet and a rotation. Their combined action decreases the jet maximum height and the impact distance, and is the main cause for the higher dilution reached in a wavy environment.
About the wave-current interactions: a framework for the use of the two-way mode
Bennis, A.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.
2012-12-01
An important goal for the future is to simulate coastal circulation with the greatest accuracy and lowest computational cost, in particular to study marine submersion, the dispersion of pollutants and sediment transport. For all of these fields of application, wave-current interactions play an important role. We propose to define a framework for the use of the three-dimensional numerical wave-current model because of its combination with sediment transport and biological models, which increase computational time. The importance of the feedback of the flow on the waves is particularly investigated in the context of idealized (Yu et Slinn, 2003) and realistic (Bruneau et al, 2009) barred beaches. The fully coupled model MARS3D-WAVEWATCH III (Bennis et al, 2011) based on the vortex force formalism is used. The differences between the one-way and two-way modes with horizontal resolution are highlighted. First, the results obtained by Weir et al (2011), for the barotropic mode and for finer resolution, are found, which validates our modelization. Next, we show that (a) from coarser to finer meshes, the differences between the two modes are greatly increased, in particular by a factor of two on the magnitude of the rip current; (b) the vertical structure of the rip current and the momentum balance is also affected by the feedback, with a decrease in the vertical shear of the rip current when the feedback is activated. We conclude that the one-way mode is sufficient with the coarse mesh and a classification defining the framework for the use of the numerical wave-current model is established with the computing time for each situation. In the future, we will work on taking into account the feedback effects in the one-way mode using inverse methods in order to further decrease computational time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloch, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1965-06-01
A spin wave theory is developed where account is taken of spin wave interactions at finite temperatures. The temperature dependence of the spin wave energies and of the magnetization is derived. The theory is developed for ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnets. (author) [French] On expose une theorie d'ondes de spin en interaction a temperature finie. On en deduit l'evolution avec la temperature du spectre en energie des ondes de spin et de l'aimantation. La theorie est developpee pour les corps ferro-, ferri-, et antiferromagnetiques. (auteur)
The separated polar winter stratopause - A gravity wave driven climatological feature
Hitchman, Matthew H.; Gille, John C.; Rodgers, Clive D.; Brasseur, Guy
1989-01-01
An examination of satellite-derived temperatures reveals that the winter polar stratopause is usually elevated and warmer than the adjacent midlatitude stratopause. This separated stratopause occurs in both hemispheres, but is more pronounced and persistent in the southern winter. It descends with time towards spring and exhibits week-to-week variability. Observational diagnostics and results from a two-dimensional model suggest that gravity-wave driving can account for this separated polar stratopause by driving a meridional circulation, with downwelling over the winter pole. In the model, the solar heating pattern induces stronger winter westerlies than summer easterlies, which leads to a stronger gravity-wave-driven circulation in the winter hemisphere. Spherical geometry and the high latitude location of the winter westerly jet combine to yield a concentrated region of downwelling. Model results suggest that descent of the temperature maximum with time is probably caused by wave/mean-flow interaction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Guang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The efficiency and mechanism of an active control device “SparkJet” and its application in shock-induced separation control are studied using large-eddy simulation in this paper. The base flow is the interaction of an oblique shock-wave generated by 8° wedge and a spatially-developing Ma = 2.3 turbulent boundary layer. The Reynolds number based on the incoming flow property and the boundary layer displacement thickness at the impinging point without shock-wave is 20000. The detailed numerical approaches were presented. The inflow turbulence was generated using the digital filter method to avoid artificial temporal or streamwise periodicity. The numerical results including velocity profile, Reynolds stress profile, skin friction, and wall pressure were systematically validated against the available wind tunnel particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements of the same flow condition. Further study on the control of flow separation due to the strong shock-viscous interaction using an active control actuator “SparkJet” was conducted. The single-pulsed characteristic of the device was obtained and compared with the experiment. Both instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields have shown that the jet flow issuing from the actuator cavity enhances the flow mixing inside the boundary layer, making the boundary layer more resistant to flow separation. Skin friction coefficient distribution shows that the separation bubble length is reduced by about 35% with control exerted.
Wu, N.; Wang, J. H.; Shen, L.
2017-03-01
This paper presents a numerical investigation on the three-dimensional interaction between two bow shock waves in two environments, i.e. ground high-enthalpy wind tunnel test and real space flight, using Fluent 15.0. The first bow shock wave, also called induced shock wave, which is generated by the leading edge of a hypersonic vehicle. The other bow shock wave can be deemed objective shock wave, which is generated by the cowl clip of hypersonic inlet, and in this paper the inlet is represented by a wedge shaped nose cone. The interaction performances including flow field structures, aerodynamic pressure and heating are analyzed and compared between the ground test and the real space flight. Through the analysis and comparison, we can find the following important phenomena: 1) Three-dimensional complicated flow structures appear in both cases, but only in the real space flight condition, a local two-dimensional type IV interaction appears; 2) The heat flux and pressure in the interaction region are much larger than those in the no-interaction region in both cases, but the peak values of the heat flux and pressure in real space flight are smaller than those in ground test. 3) The interaction region on the objective surface are different in the two cases, and there is a peak value displacement of 3 mm along the stagnation line.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, Pavel A., E-mail: andreevpa@physics.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-06-15
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
Yamanaka, M. D.
1989-01-01
In MAP observations, it was found that: (1) gravity waves in selected or filtered portions of data are fit for monochromatic structures, whereas (2) those in fully continuous and resolved observations take universal continuous spectra. It is possible to explain (2) by dispersion of quasi-monochromatic (or slowly varying) wave packets observed locally as (1), since the medium atmosphere is unsteady and nonuniform. Complete verification of the wave-mean flow interactions by tracking individual wave packets seems hopeless, because the wave induced flow cannot be distinguished from the basic flow independent of the waves. Instead, the primitive picture is looked at before MAP, that is, the atmosphere is just like an entertainment stage illuminated by cocktail lights of quasi-monochromatic gravity waves. The wave parameters are regarded as functions of time and spatial coordinates. The observational evidences (1) and (2) suggest that the wave parameter field is rather homogeneous, which can be explained by interference of quasi-monochromatic wave packets.
Liepmann, H. W.; Torczynski, J. R.
1983-01-01
Second sound techniques were used to study superfluid helium. Second sound shock waves produced relative velocities in the bulk fluid. Maximum counterflow velocities produced in this way are found to follow the Langer-Fischer prediction for the fundamental critical velocity in its functional dependence on temperature and pressure. Comparison of successive shock and rotating experiments provides strong evidence that breakdown results in vorticity production in the flow behind the shock. Schlieren pictures have verified the planar nature of second sound shocks even after multiple reflections. The nonlinear theory of second sound was repeatedly verified in its prediction of double shocks and other nonlinear phenomena.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvaro Calle Cordon,Manuel Pavon Valderrama,Enrique Ruiz Arriola
2012-02-01
We study the interplay between charge symmetry breaking and renormalization in the NN system for S-waves. We find a set of universality relations which disentangle explicitly the known long distance dynamics from low energy parameters and extend them to the Coulomb case. We analyze within such an approach the One-Boson-Exchange potential and the theoretical conditions which allow to relate the proton-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-neutron scattering observables without the introduction of extra new parameters and providing good phenomenological success.
Lash, E. Lara; Schmisseur, John
2017-11-01
Pressure-sensitive paint has been used to evaluate the unsteady dynamics of transitional and turbulent shock wave-boundary layer interactions generated by a vertical cylinder on a flat plate in a Mach 2 freestream. The resulting shock structure consists of an inviscid bow shock that bifurcates into a separation shock and trailing shock. The primary features of interest are the separation shock and an upstream influence shock that is intermittently present in transitional boundary layer interactions, but not observed in turbulent interactions. The power spectral densities, frequency peaks, and normalized wall pressures are analyzed as the incoming boundary layer state changes from transitional to fully turbulent, comparing both centerline and outboard regions of the interaction. The present study compares the scales and frequencies of the dynamics of the separation shock structure in different boundary layer regimes. Synchronized high-speed Schlieren imaging provides quantitative statistical analyses as well as qualitative comparisons to the fast-response pressure sensitive paint measurements. Materials based on research supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research under Award Number N00014-15-1-2269.
Caprini, Chiara; Tamanini, Nicola
2016-10-01
We perform a forecast analysis of the capability of the eLISA space-based interferometer to constrain models of early and interacting dark energy using gravitational wave standard sirens. We employ simulated catalogues of standard sirens given by merging massive black hole binaries visible by eLISA, with an electromagnetic counterpart detectable by future telescopes. We consider three-arms mission designs with arm length of 1, 2 and 5 million km, 5 years of mission duration and the best-level low frequency noise as recently tested by the LISA Pathfinder. Standard sirens with eLISA give access to an intermediate range of redshift 1 lesssim z lesssim 8, and can therefore provide competitive constraints on models where the onset of the deviation from ΛCDM (i.e. the epoch when early dark energy starts to be non-negligible, or when the interaction with dark matter begins) occurs relatively late, at z lesssim 6. If instead early or interacting dark energy is relevant already in the pre-recombination era, current cosmological probes (especially the cosmic microwave background) are more efficient than eLISA in constraining these models, except possibly in the interacting dark energy model if the energy exchange is proportional to the energy density of dark energy.