WorldWideScience

Sample records for wave magnitude estimates

  1. Mrg: A Magnitude Scale for 1 s Rayleigh Waves at Local Distances with Focus on Yield Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-23

    definition for filtering Rg near 1 s period at distances between 2-100 km. We used the new formula to estimate MRg for 39 small (37 ≤ Y ≤ 12,270 kg TNT...the Butterworth filter order (Russell, 2006). Filter Definition . To estimate the time-domain amplitude of Rg, we filter the time series with a 2nd... phenomenology experiments, including the Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiment (AZ-SPE), Bighorn Active Seismic Experiment (BASE), the HUMMING ALBATROS

  2. Fast Moment Magnitude Determination from P-wave Trains for Bucharest Rapid Early Warning System (BREWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizurek, Grzegorz; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Wiszniowski, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Bucharest, with a population of approximately 2 million people, has suffered damage from earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone, which is located about 170 km from Bucharest, at a depth of 80-200 km. Consequently, an earthquake early warning system (Bucharest Rapid earthquake Early Warning System or BREWS) was constructed to provide some warning about impending shaking from large earthquakes in the Vrancea zone. In order to provide quick estimates of magnitude, seismic moment was first determined from P-waves and then a moment magnitude was determined from the moment. However, this magnitude may not be consistent with previous estimates of magnitude from the Romanian Seismic Network. This paper introduces the algorithm using P-wave spectral levels and compares them with catalog estimates. The testing procedure used waveforms from about 90 events with catalog magnitudes from 3.5 to 5.4. Corrections to the P-wave determined magnitudes according to dominant intermediate depth events mechanism were tested for November 22, 2014, M5.6 and October 17, M6 events. The corrections worked well, but unveiled overestimation of the average magnitude result of about 0.2 magnitude unit in the case of shallow depth event ( H < 60 km). The P-wave spectral approach allows for the relatively fast estimates of magnitude for use in BREWS. The average correction taking into account the most common focal mechanism for radiation pattern coefficient may lead to overestimation of the magnitude for shallow events of about 0.2 magnitude unit. However, in case of events of intermediate depth of M6 the resulting M w is underestimated at about 0.1-0.2. We conclude that our P-wave spectral approach is sufficiently robust for the needs of BREWS for both shallow and intermediate depth events.

  3. Robust Wave Resource Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    density estimates of the PDF as a function both of Hm0 and Tp, and Hm0 and T0;2, together with the mean wave power per unit crest length, Pw, as a function of Hm0 and T0;2. The wave elevation parameters, from which the wave parameters are calculated, are filtered to correct or remove spurious data....... An overview is given of the methods used to do this, and a method for identifying outliers of the wave elevation data, based on the joint distribution of wave elevations and accelerations, is presented. The limitations of using a JONSWAP spectrum to model the measured wave spectra as a function of Hm0 and T0......;2 or Hm0 and Tp for the Hanstholm site data are demonstrated. As an alternative, the non-parametric loess method, which does not rely on any assumptions about the shape of the wave elevation spectra, is used to accurately estimate Pw as a function of Hm0 and T0;2....

  4. Magnitude Estimation for Large Earthquakes from Borehole Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, A.; Tiampo, K. F.; Ghofrani, H.; Atkinson, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present a simple and fast method for magnitude determination technique for earthquake and tsunami early warning systems based on strong ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) in Japan. This method incorporates borehole strong motion records provided by the Kiban Kyoshin network (KiK-net) stations. We analyzed strong ground motion data from large magnitude earthquakes (5.0 ≤ M ≤ 8.1) with focal depths < 50 km and epicentral distances of up to 400 km from 1996 to 2010. Using both peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) we derived GMPEs in Japan. These GMPEs are used as the basis for regional magnitude determination. Predicted magnitudes from PGA values (Mpga) and predicted magnitudes from PGV values (Mpgv) were defined. Mpga and Mpgv strongly correlate with the moment magnitude of the event, provided sufficient records for each event are available. The results show that Mpgv has a smaller standard deviation in comparison to Mpga when compared with the estimated magnitudes and provides a more accurate early assessment of earthquake magnitude. We test this new method to estimate the magnitude of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and we present the results of this estimation. PGA and PGV from borehole recordings allow us to estimate the magnitude of this event 156 s and 105 s after the earthquake onset, respectively. We demonstrate that the incorporation of borehole strong ground-motion records immediately available after the occurrence of large earthquakes significantly increases the accuracy of earthquake magnitude estimation and the associated improvement in earthquake and tsunami early warning systems performance. Moment magnitude versus predicted magnitude (Mpga and Mpgv).

  5. Determination of Love- and Rayleigh-Wave Magnitudes for Earthquakes and Explosions and Other Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-30

    09-C-0012 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) Jessie L. Bonner, Anastasia Stroujkova, Dale Anderson, Jonathan...AND RAYLEIGH-WAVE MAGNITUDES FOR EARTHQUAKES AND EXPLOSIONS Jessie L. Bonner, Anastasia Stroujkova, and Dale Anderson INTRODUCTION Since...MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION: APPLICATION TO MIDDLE EAST EARTHQUAKE DATA Anastasia Stroujkova and Jessie Bonner Weston Geophysical Corporation

  6. Rapid estimation of the moment magnitude of large earthquake from static strain changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaba, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, of moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0, occurred on March 11, 2011. Based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9, and it was considerably smaller than an actual value. On the other hand, using nine borehole strainmeters of Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, we estimated a fault model with Mw 8.7 for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. This model can be estimated about seven minutes after the origin time, and five minute after wave arrival. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami (e.g., Ohta et al., 2012). Our simple method of using strain steps is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of great earthquakes.

  7. Rapid Moment Magnitude Estimation Using Strong Motion Derived Static Displacements

    OpenAIRE

    Muzli, Muzli; Asch, Guenter; Saul, Joachim; Murjaya, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    The static surface deformation can be recovered from strong motion records. Compared to satellite-based measurements such as GPS or InSAR, the advantage of strong motion records is that they have the potential to provide real-time coseismic static displacements. The use of these valuable data was optimized for the moment magnitude estimation. A centroid grid search method was introduced to calculate the moment magnitude by using1 model. The method to data sets was applied of the 2011...

  8. Estimation of the Magnitude of Excavation Damaged Zone at KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Jin Sub; Lee, Changsoo; Cho, Heui Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In the EDZ, the permeability of the rock increases. The annular EDZ surrounding the tunnel may act as a continuous and high-permeable pathway for the groundwater flow, which accelerates the intrusion of groundwater into the repository and increases the release of radionuclide into the biosphere from the repository. Therefore an investigation on the magnitude of the EDZ has been important from the viewpoint of mechanical stability and radiological safety for a geological repository. In this study, two in-situ measurements were performed at the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) to investigate the magnitude of the EDZ. The magnitude of EDZ was estimated to be 0.6 to 1.8 m from the tunnel wall on the basis of the deformation modulus, and the value of deformation modulus in the EDZ is about 40% of those in undisturbed zone. The magnitude of EDZ can be estimated to be about 2 m from the viewpoint of permeability, and the permeabilities in the EDZ seem to be increased at up to 2 orders of magnitude compared with those in the intact rock. The magnitude of EDZ estimated based on the permeability is larger than that from the Goodman jack test.

  9. Quasi real-time estimation of the moment magnitude of large earthquake from static strain changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaba, S.

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki (off the Pacific coast of Tohoku) earthquake, of moment magnitude 9.0, was accompanied by large static strain changes (10-7), as measured by borehole strainmeters operated by the Geological Survey of Japan in the Tokai, Kii Peninsula, and Shikoku regions. A fault model for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates, based on these borehole strainmeter data, yielded a moment magnitude of 8.7. On the other hand, based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9. Such geodetic moment magnitudes, derived from static strain changes, can be estimated almost as rapidly as determinations using seismic waves. I have to verify the validity of this method in some cases. In the case of this earthquake's largest aftershock, which occurred 29 minutes after the mainshock. The prompt report issued by JMA assigned this aftershock a magnitude of 7.3, whereas the moment magnitude derived from borehole strain data is 7.6, which is much closer to the actual moment magnitude of 7.7. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami. Our simple method of using static strain changes is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of large earthquakes, and useful to improve the accuracy of Earthquake Early Warning.

  10. Sequential sampling, magnitude estimation, and the wisdom of crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik W.

    2017-01-01

    in the wisdom of crowds indicated by judgment distribution skewness. The present study reports findings from an experiment on magnitude estimation and supports these predictions. The study moreover demonstrates that systematic errors by groups of people can be corrected using information about the judgment...

  11. Estimating the magnitude of food waste generated in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between one third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted...

  12. Conversion of Local and Surface-Wave Magnitudes to Moment Magnitude for Earthquakes in the Chinese Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Gao, M.

    2017-12-01

    The magnitude of an earthquake is one of its basic parameters and is a measure of its scale. It plays a significant role in seismology and earthquake engineering research, particularly in the calculations of the seismic rate and b value in earthquake prediction and seismic hazard analysis. However, several current types of magnitudes used in seismology research, such as local magnitude (ML), surface wave magnitude (MS), and body-wave magnitude (MB), have a common limitation, which is the magnitude saturation phenomenon. Fortunately, the problem of magnitude saturation was solved by a formula for calculating the seismic moment magnitude (MW) based on the seismic moment, which describes the seismic source strength. Now the moment magnitude is very commonly used in seismology research. However, in China, the earthquake scale is primarily based on local and surface-wave magnitudes. In the present work, we studied the empirical relationships between moment magnitude (MW) and local magnitude (ML) as well as surface wave magnitude (MS) in the Chinese Mainland. The China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) ML catalog, China Seismograph Network (CSN) MS catalog, ANSS Comprehensive Earthquake Catalog (ComCat), and Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) are adopted to regress the relationships using the orthogonal regression method. The obtained relationships are as follows: MW=0.64+0.87MS; MW=1.16+0.75ML. Therefore, in China, if the moment magnitude of an earthquake is not reported by any agency in the world, we can use the equations mentioned above for converting ML to MW and MS to MW. These relationships are very important, because they will allow the China earthquake catalogs to be used more effectively for seismic hazard analysis, earthquake prediction, and other seismology research. We also computed the relationships of and (where Mo is the seismic moment) by linear regression using the Global Centroid Moment Tensor. The obtained relationships are as follows: logMo=18

  13. Rapid estimation of the moment magnitude of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake from coseismic strain steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaba, S.; Matsumoto, N.; Kitagawa, Y.; Koizumi, N.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, of moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0, occurred at 14:46 Japan Standard Time (JST) on March 11, 2011. The coseismic strain steps caused by the fault slip of this earthquake were observed in the Tokai, Kii Peninsula and Shikoku by the borehole strainmeters which were carefully set by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. Using these strain steps, we estimated a fault model for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Our model, which is estimated only from several minutes' strain data, is largely consistent with the final fault models estimated from GPS and seismic wave data. The moment magnitude can be estimated about 6 minutes after the origin time, and 4 minutes after wave arrival. According to the fault model, the moment magnitude of the earthquake is 8.7. On the other hand, based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9. Generally coseismic strain steps are considered to be less reliable than seismic waves and GPS data. However our results show that the coseismic strain steps observed by the borehole strainmeters, which were carefully set and monitored, can be relied enough to decide the earthquake magnitude precisely and rapidly. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami. Our simple method of using strain steps is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of great earthquakes.

  14. Passive seismic monitoring at the ketzin CCS site -Magnitude estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, B.F.; Steeghs, T.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to allow quantification of the strength of local micro-seismic events recorded at the CCS pilot site in Ketzin in terms of local magnitude, earthquake data recorded by standardized seismometers were used. Earthquakes were selected that occurred in Poland and Czech Republic and that were

  15. Rapid estimation of earthquake magnitude from the arrival time of the peak high‐frequency amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shunta; Yamamoto, Shunroku; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple approach to measure earthquake magnitude M using the time difference (Top) between the body‐wave onset and the arrival time of the peak high‐frequency amplitude in an accelerogram. Measured in this manner, we find that Mw is proportional to 2logTop for earthquakes 5≤Mw≤7, which is the theoretical proportionality if Top is proportional to source dimension and stress drop is scale invariant. Using high‐frequency (>2  Hz) data, the root mean square (rms) residual between Mw and MTop(M estimated from Top) is approximately 0.5 magnitude units. The rms residuals of the high‐frequency data in passbands between 2 and 16 Hz are uniformly smaller than those obtained from the lower‐frequency data. Top depends weakly on epicentral distance, and this dependence can be ignored for distances earthquake produces a final magnitude estimate of M 9.0 at 120 s after the origin time. We conclude that Top of high‐frequency (>2  Hz) accelerograms has value in the context of earthquake early warning for extremely large events.

  16. Continuous estimates on the earthquake early warning magnitude by use of the near-field acceleration records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Jin, Xing; Wei, Yongxiang; Zhang, Hongcai

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the seismic records of Japan's Kik-net are selected to measure the acceleration, displacement, and effective peak acceleration of each seismic record within a certain time after P wave, then a continuous estimation is given on earthquake early warning magnitude through statistical analysis method, and Wenchuan earthquake record is utilized to check the method. The results show that the reliability of earthquake early warning magnitude continuously increases with the increase of the seismic information, the biggest residual happens if the acceleration is adopted to fit earthquake magnitude, which may be caused by rich high-frequency components and large dispersion of peak value in acceleration record, the influence caused by the high-frequency components can be effectively reduced if the effective peak acceleration and peak displacement is adopted, it is estimated that the dispersion of earthquake magnitude obviously reduces, but it is easy for peak displacement to be affected by long-period drifting. In various components, the residual enlargement phenomenon at vertical direction is almost unobvious, thus it is recommended in this article that the effective peak acceleration at vertical direction is preferred to estimate earthquake early warning magnitude. Through adopting Wenchuan strong earthquake record to check the method mentioned in this article, it is found that this method can be used to quickly, stably, and accurately estimate the early warning magnitude of this earthquake, which shows that this method is completely applicable for earthquake early warning.

  17. A New Empirical Relation between Surface Wave Magnitude and Rupture Length for Turkey Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many practical problems encountered in quantitative oriented disciplines entail finding the best approximate solution to an over determined system of linear equations. In this study, it is investigated the usage of different regression methods as a theoretical, practical and correct estimation tool in order to obtain the best empirical relationship between surface wave magnitude and rupture length for Turkey earthquakes. For this purpose, a detailed comparison is made among four different regression norms: (1 Least Squares, (2 Least Sum of Absolute Deviations, (3 Total Least Squares or Orthogonal and, (4 Robust Regressions. In order to assess the quality of the fit in a linear regression and to select the best empirical relationship for data sets, the correlation coefficient as a quite simple and very practicable tool is used. A list of all earthquakes where the surface wave magnitude (Ms and surface rupture length (L are available is compiled. In order to estimate the empirical relationships between these parameters for Turkey earthquakes, log-linear fit is used and following equations are derived from different norms: for L2 Norm regression (R2=0.71, for L1 Norm regression (R2=0.92, for Robust regression (R2=0.75, for Orthogonal regression (R2=0.68,                            Consequently, the empirical equation given by the Least Sum of Absolute Deviations regression as  with a strong correlation coefficient (R2=0.92 can be thought as more suitable and more reliable for Turkey earthquakes. Also, local differences in rupture length for a given magnitude can be interpreted in terms of local variation in geologic and seismic efficiencies.  Furthermore, this result suggests that seismic efficiency in a region is dependent on rupture length or magnitude.    Resumen Muchos problemas prácticos encontrados en las disciplinas de orientación cuantitativa implican encontrar la mejor solución aproximada para un sistema

  18. Missing texture reconstruction method based on error reduction algorithm using Fourier transform magnitude estimation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki

    2013-03-01

    A missing texture reconstruction method based on an error reduction (ER) algorithm, including a novel estimation scheme of Fourier transform magnitudes is presented in this brief. In our method, Fourier transform magnitude is estimated for a target patch including missing areas, and the missing intensities are estimated by retrieving its phase based on the ER algorithm. Specifically, by monitoring errors converged in the ER algorithm, known patches whose Fourier transform magnitudes are similar to that of the target patch are selected from the target image. In the second approach, the Fourier transform magnitude of the target patch is estimated from those of the selected known patches and their corresponding errors. Consequently, by using the ER algorithm, we can estimate both the Fourier transform magnitudes and phases to reconstruct the missing areas.

  19. Estimation of directional wave spreading

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Bhat, S.S.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.

    Directional properties of ocean waves are of great economic interest. The knowledge of wave directionality is important for the design of maritime structures and offshore operations. Two main aspects are considered for this study for the data...

  20. An evolutionary approach to real-time moment magnitude estimation via inversion of displacement spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M.; Lancieri, M.; Cua, G. B.; Zollo, A.; Wiemer, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present an evolutionary approach for magnitude estimation for earthquake early warning based on real-time inversion of displacement spectra. The Spectrum Inversion (SI) method estimates magnitude and its uncertainty by inferring the shape of the entire displacement spectral curve based on the part of the spectra constrained by available data. The method consists of two components: 1) estimating seismic moment by finding the low frequency plateau Ω0, the corner frequency fc and attenuation factor (Q) that best fit the observed displacement spectra assuming a Brune ω2 model, and 2) estimating magnitude and its uncertainty based on the estimate of seismic moment. A novel characteristic of this method is that is does not rely on empirically derived relationships, but rather involves direct estimation of quantities related to the moment magnitude. SI magnitude and uncertainty estimates are updated each second following the initial P detection. We tested the SI approach on broadband and strong motion waveforms data from 158 Southern California events, and 25 Japanese events for a combined magnitude range of 3 ≤ M ≤ 7. Based on the performance evaluated on this dataset, the SI approach can potentially provide stable estimates of magnitude within 10 seconds from the initial earthquake detection.

  1. Noise measurement from magnitude MRI using local estimates of variance and skewness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Jeny; Poot, Dirk; Juntu, Jaber; Sijbers, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we address the estimation of the noise level in magnitude magnetic resonance (MR) images in the absence of background data. Most of the methods proposed earlier exploit the Rayleigh distributed background region in MR images to estimate the noise level. These methods, however, cannot be used for images where no background information is available. In this note, we propose two different approaches for noise level estimation in the absence of the image background. The first method is based on the local estimation of the noise variance using maximum likelihood estimation and the second method is based on the local estimation of the skewness of the magnitude data distribution. Experimental results on synthetic and real MR image datasets show that the proposed estimators accurately estimate the noise level in a magnitude MR image, even without background data. (note)

  2. Do Indonesian Children's Experiences with Large Currency Units Facilitate Magnitude Estimation of Long Temporal Periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Kim A.

    2017-08-01

    Ideas about temporal (and spatial) scale impact students' understanding across science disciplines. Learners have difficulty comprehending the long time periods associated with natural processes because they have no referent for the magnitudes involved. When people have a good "feel" for quantity, they estimate cardinal number magnitude linearly. Magnitude estimation errors can be explained by confusion about the structure of the decimal number system, particularly in terms of how powers of ten are related to one another. Indonesian children regularly use large currency units. This study investigated if they estimate long time periods accurately and if they estimate those time periods the same way they estimate analogous currency units. Thirty-nine children from a private International Baccalaureate school estimated temporal magnitudes up to 10,000,000,000 years in a two-part study. Artifacts children created were compared to theoretical model predictions previously used in number magnitude estimation studies as reported by Landy et al. (Cognitive Science 37:775-799, 2013). Over one third estimated the magnitude of time periods up to 10,000,000,000 years linearly, exceeding what would be expected based upon prior research with children this age who lack daily experience with large quantities. About half treated successive powers of ten as a count sequence instead of multiplicatively related when estimating magnitudes of time periods. Children generally estimated the magnitudes of long time periods and familiar, analogous currency units the same way. Implications for ways to improve the teaching and learning of this crosscutting concept/overarching idea are discussed.

  3. Estimation of wave directional spreading

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deo, M.C.; Gondane, D.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    One of the useful measures of waves directional spreading at a given location is the directional spreading parameter. This paper presents a new approach to arrive at its characteristic value using the computational technique of Artificial Neural...

  4. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Simon A.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5 μ m in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.

  5. The wave buoy analogy - estimating high-frequency wave excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2008-01-01

    of sea state parameters — influence of filtering. Ocean Engineering 2007;34:1797–810.], where time series of ship responses were generated from a known wave spectrum for the purpose of the inverse process — the estimation of the underlying wave excitations. Similar response generations and vice versa...

  6. Design wave estimation considering directional distribution of waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C

    .elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng Technical Note Design wave estimation considering directional distribution of waves V. Sanil Kumar a,C3 , M.C. Deo b a OceanEngineeringDivision,NationalInstituteofOceanography,Donapaula,Goa-403004,India b Civil... of Physical Oceanography Norway, Report method for the routine 18, 1020–1034. ocean waves. Division of No. UR-80-09, 187 p. analysis of pitch and roll Conference on Coastal Engineering, 1. ASCE, Taiwan, pp. 136–149. Deo, M.C., Burrows, R., 1986. Extreme wave...

  7. Scaling relation between earthquake magnitude and the departure time from P wave similar growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shunta; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new scaling relation between earthquake magnitude (M) and a characteristic of initial P wave displacement. By examining Japanese K-NET data averaged in bins partitioned by Mw and hypocentral distance, we demonstrate that the P wave displacement briefly displays similar growth at the onset of rupture and that the departure time (Tdp), which is defined as the time of departure from similarity of the absolute displacement after applying a band-pass filter, correlates with the final M in a range of 4.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7. The scaling relation between Mw and Tdp implies that useful information on the final M can be derived while the event is still in progress because Tdp occurs before the completion of rupture. We conclude that the scaling relation is important not only for earthquake early warning but also for the source physics of earthquakes.

  8. Very Fast Estimation of Epicentral Distance and Magnitude from a Single Three Component Seismic Station Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Gutierrez, L. H.; Niño Vasquez, L. F.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    To minimize adverse effects originated by high magnitude earthquakes, early warning has become a powerful tool to anticipate a seismic wave arrival to an specific location and lets to bring people and government agencies opportune information to initiate a fast response. To do this, a very fast and accurate characterization of the event must be done but this process is often made using seismograms recorded in at least 4 stations where processing time is usually greater than the wave travel time to the interest area, mainly in coarse networks. A faster process can be done if only one three component seismic station is used that is the closest unsaturated station respect to the epicenter. Here we present a Support Vector Regression algorithm which calculates Magnitude and Epicentral Distance using only 5 seconds of signal since P wave onset. This algorithm was trained with 36 records of historical earthquakes where the input were regression parameters of an exponential function estimated by least squares, corresponding to the waveform envelope and the maximum value of the observed waveform for each component in one single station. A 10 fold Cross Validation was applied for a Normalized Polynomial Kernel obtaining the mean absolute error for different exponents and complexity parameters. Magnitude could be estimated with 0.16 of mean absolute error and the distance with an error of 7.5 km for distances within 60 to 120 km. This kind of algorithm is easy to implement in hardware and can be used directly in the field station to make possible the broadcast of estimations of this values to generate fast decisions at seismological control centers, increasing the possibility to have an effective reactiontribute and Descriptors calculator for SVR model training and test

  9. Fast Estimation of Epicentral Distance and Magnitude from a Single Three Component Seismic Station Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Gutierrez, L. H.; Niño, L. F.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    To minimize adverse effects originated by high magnitude earthquakes, early warning has become a powerful tool to anticipate a seismic wave arrival to an specific location, bringing opportune information to people and government agencies to initiate a fast response. To do this, a very fast and accurate characterization of the event must be done but this process is often made using seismograms recorded in at least four stations where processing time is usually greater than the wave arrival time to the interest area, mainly in seismological coarse networks. A faster process can be done if only one three component seismic station, the closest unsaturated station with respect to the epicenter, is used. Here, we present a Support Vector Regression algorithm which calculates Magnitude and Epicentral Distance using only five seconds of signal since P wave onset. This algorithm was trained with 36 records of historical earthquakes, where the input included regression parameters of an exponential function estimated by least squares, of the waveform envelope and the maximum value of the observed waveform for each component in a single station. A ten-fold Cross Validation was applied for a Normalized Polynomial Kernel obtaining the mean absolute error for different exponents and complexity parameters. The Magnitude could be estimated with 0.16 units of mean absolute error and the distance with an error of 7.5 km for distances within 60 to 120 km. This kind of algorithm is easy to implement in hardware and can be used directly in the field seismological sensor to make the broadcast of estimations of these values possible to generate fast decisions at seismological control centers, increasing the possibility of having an effective reaction.

  10. A General Method to Estimate Earthquake Moment and Magnitude using Regional Phase Amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M E

    2009-11-19

    This paper presents a general method of estimating earthquake magnitude using regional phase amplitudes, called regional M{sub o} or regional M{sub w}. Conceptually, this method uses an earthquake source model along with an attenuation model and geometrical spreading which accounts for the propagation to utilize regional phase amplitudes of any phase and frequency. Amplitudes are corrected to yield a source term from which one can estimate the seismic moment. Moment magnitudes can then be reliably determined with sets of observed phase amplitudes rather than predetermined ones, and afterwards averaged to robustly determine this parameter. We first examine in detail several events to demonstrate the methodology. We then look at various ensembles of phases and frequencies, and compare results to existing regional methods. We find regional M{sub o} to be a stable estimator of earthquake size that has several advantages over other methods. Because of its versatility, it is applicable to many more events, particularly smaller events. We make moment estimates for earthquakes ranging from magnitude 2 to as large as 7. Even with diverse input amplitude sources, we find magnitude estimates to be more robust than typical magnitudes and existing regional methods and might be tuned further to improve upon them. The method yields a more meaningful quantity of seismic moment, which can be recast as M{sub w}. Lastly, it is applied here to the Middle East region using an existing calibration model, but it would be easy to transport to any region with suitable attenuation calibration.

  11. Wave Velocity Estimation in Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space-time dependent unknown velocity in the wave equation. The proposed method simplifies the identification problem into a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical

  12. State estimation for wave energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelli, Giorgio; Coe, Ryan Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    This report gives a brief discussion and examples on the topic of state estimation for wave energy converters (WECs). These methods are intended for use to enable real-time closed loop control of WECs.

  13. Estimation of Wave Disturbance in Harbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helm-Petersen, Jacob

    . Information on how the sponge layers perform with respect to reflection of short-crested waves are presented mainly in terms of overall reflection coefficients and main directions as functions of incident main direction relative to the structure. The influence of a irregular structure front has also been......The motivation for the present study has been to improve the reliability in using numerical wave propagation models as a tool for estimating wave disturbance in harbours. Attention has been directed towards the importance of the modelling of reflection in the applied mild-slope model. Methods have...... been presented for the analysis of reflected wave fields in 2D and 3D. The Bayesian Directional Wave Spectrum Estimation Method has been applied throughout the study. Reflection characteristics have been investigated by use of physical models for three types of coastal structures with vertical fronts...

  14. Earthquake magnitude estimation using the τ c and P d method for earthquake early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xing; Zhang, Hongcai; Li, Jun; Wei, Yongxiang; Ma, Qiang

    2013-10-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are one of the most effective ways to reduce earthquake disaster. Earthquake magnitude estimation is one of the most important and also the most difficult parts of the entire EEW system. In this paper, based on 142 earthquake events and 253 seismic records that were recorded by the KiK-net in Japan, and aftershocks of the large Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, we obtained earthquake magnitude estimation relationships using the τ c and P d methods. The standard variances of magnitude calculation of these two formulas are ±0.65 and ±0.56, respectively. The P d value can also be used to estimate the peak ground motion of velocity, then warning information can be released to the public rapidly, according to the estimation results. In order to insure the stability and reliability of magnitude estimation results, we propose a compatibility test according to the natures of these two parameters. The reliability of the early warning information is significantly improved though this test.

  15. Online wave estimation using vessel motion measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Brodtkorb, Astrid; Nielsen, Ulrik D.; J. Sørensen, Asgeir

    2018-01-01

    parameters and motion transfer functions are required as input. Apart from this the method is signal-based, with no assumptions on the wave spectrum shape, and as a result it is computationally efficient. The algorithm is implemented in a dynamic positioning (DP)control system, and tested through simulations......In this paper, a computationally efficient online sea state estimation algorithm isproposed for estimation of the on site sea state. The algorithm finds the wave spectrum estimate from motion measurements in heave, roll and pitch by iteratively solving a set of linear equations. The main vessel...

  16. Applying coda envelope measurements to local and regional waveforms for stable estimates of magnitude, source spectra and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, R.; Mayeda, K.; Rodgers, A.; Walter, W.

    1999-01-01

    Magnitude estimation forms an integral part in any seismic monitoring endeavor. For monitoring compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, regional seismic discriminants are often functions of magnitude such as m(sub b):M(sub 0) high-to-low spectral ratios, and nuclear yield estimation. For small-to-moderate magnitude events that cannot be studied by a large regional or global network of stations, there is a need for stable magnitudes that can be obtained from as few as one station. To date, magnitudes based on coda envelopes are by far the most stable because of the coda's averaging properties. Unlike conventional magnitudes which utilize the direct phases such as P (P(sub n), P(sub g)) or S (S(sub n), L(sub g)), or M(sub g), a coda envelope magnitude is not as sensitive to the undesirable effects of source radiation pattern, 3-D path heterogeneity, and constructive/destructive interference near the recording site. The stability of the coda comes from a time-domain measurement made over a large portion of the seismogram thereby averaging over the scattered wavefield. This approach has been applied to earthquakes in the western United States where it was found that a single-station coda magnitude was approximately equivalent to an average over a 64 station network which used only the direct waves such as L(sub g) (Mayeda and Walter, JGR, 1996). In this paper we describe in detail our calibration procedure starting with a broadband recording, correlation with independent moment estimates, formation of narrowband envelopes, coda envelope fitting with synthetics, and finally the resultant moment-rate spectra. Our procedure accounts for all propagation, site, and S-to-coda transfer function effects. The resultant coda-derived moment-rate spectra are then used to estimate seismic moment (M(sub o)), narrowband magnitudes such as m(sub b) or M(sub L), and total seismic energy. For the eastern Mediterranean region a preliminary study was completed for

  17. The Relationship between Spatial and Temporal Magnitude Estimation of Scientific Concepts at Extreme Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Lee, H.

    2010-01-01

    Many astronomical objects, processes, and events exist and occur at extreme scales of spatial and temporal magnitudes. Our research draws upon the psychological literature, replete with evidence of linguistic and metaphorical links between the spatial and temporal domains, to compare how students estimate spatial and temporal magnitudes associated with objects and processes typically taught in science class.. We administered spatial and temporal scale estimation tests, with many astronomical items, to 417 students enrolled in 12 undergraduate science courses. Results show that while the temporal test was more difficult, students’ overall performance patterns between the two tests were mostly similar. However, asymmetrical correlations between the two tests indicate that students think of the extreme ranges of spatial and temporal scales in different ways, which is likely influenced by their classroom experience. When making incorrect estimations, students tended to underestimate the difference between the everyday scale and the extreme scales on both tests. This suggests the use of a common logarithmic mental number line for both spatial and temporal magnitude estimation. However, there are differences between the two tests in the errors student make in the everyday range. Among the implications discussed is the use of spatio-temporal reference frames, instead of smooth bootstrapping, to help students maneuver between scales of magnitude and the use of logarithmic transformations between reference frames. Implications for astronomy range from learning about spectra to large scale galaxy structure.

  18. Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation Using Quadratic Interpolation around Power-Scaled Magnitude Spectrum Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt James Werner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT of a discrete-time signal has a limited frequency definition. Quadratic interpolation over the three DFT samples surrounding magnitude peaks improves the estimation of parameters (frequency and amplitude of resolved sinusoids beyond that limit. Interpolating on a rescaled magnitude spectrum using a logarithmic scale has been shown to improve those estimates. In this article, we show how to heuristically tune a power scaling parameter to outperform linear and logarithmic scaling at an equivalent computational cost. Although this power scaling factor is computed heuristically rather than analytically, it is shown to depend in a structured way on window parameters. Invariance properties of this family of estimators are studied and the existence of a bias due to noise is shown. Comparing to two state-of-the-art estimators, we show that an optimized power scaling has a lower systematic bias and lower mean-squared-error in noisy conditions for ten out of twelve common windowing functions.

  19. Historical estimates of national accounts magnitudes in Greece: 1830-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Κωστελένος, Γεώργιος Κ.

    2007-01-01

    The study of long run economic development is facilitated immensely by the existence of relevant data. In this context, long run national accounts magnitudes are probably the most important. This has been realized since the early 1950s by economists of the stature of Kuznets, Friedman and North and relevant time series have been estimated, originally for countries like the U.S.A. and Great Britain and subsequently for other developed and less developed countries. In Greece, how...

  20. Combining Neural Networks with Existing Methods to Estimate 1 in 100-Year Flood Event Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, A.; See, L.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last fifteen years artificial neural networks (ANN) have been shown to be advantageous for the solution of many hydrological modelling problems. The use of ANNs for flood magnitude estimation in ungauged catchments, however, is a relatively new and under researched area. In this paper ANNs are used to make estimates of the magnitude of the 100-year flood event (Q100) for a number of ungauged catchments. The data used in this study were provided by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH), which contains information on catchments across the UK. Sixteen catchment descriptors for 719 catchments were used to train an ANN, which was split into a training, validation and test data set. The goodness-of-fit statistics on the test data set indicated good model performance, with an r-squared value of 0.8 and a coefficient of efficiency of 79 percent. Data for twelve ungauged catchments were then put through the trained ANN to produce estimates of Q100. Two other accepted methodologies were also employed: the FEH statistical method and the FSR (Flood Studies Report) design storm technique, both of which are used to produce flood frequency estimates. The advantage of developing an ANN model is that it provides a third figure to aid a hydrologist in making an accurate estimate. For six of the twelve catchments, there was a relatively low spread between estimates. In these instances, an estimate of Q100 could be made with a fair degree of certainty. Of the remaining six catchments, three had areas greater than 1000km2, which means the FSR design storm estimate cannot be used. Armed with the ANN model and the FEH statistical method the hydrologist still has two possible estimates to consider. For these three catchments, the estimates were also fairly similar, providing additional confidence to the estimation. In summary, the findings of this study have shown that an accurate estimation of Q100 can be made using the catchment descriptors of

  1. Wave Velocity Estimation in Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2016-03-21

    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space-time dependent unknown velocity in the wave equation. The proposed method simplifies the identification problem into a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical simulations on noise-free and noisy cases are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A Novel Method for Age Estimation in Solar-Type Stars Through GALEX FUV Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kelly; Subramonian, Arjun; Smith, Graeme; Shouru Shieh

    2018-01-01

    Utilizing an inverse association known to exist between Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far ultraviolet (FUV) magnitudes and the chromospheric activity of F, G, and K dwarfs, we explored a method of age estimation in solar-type stars through GALEX FUV magnitudes. Sample solar-type star data were collected from refereed publications and filtered by B-V and absolute visual magnitude to ensure similarities in temperature and luminosity to the Sun. We determined FUV-B and calculated a residual index Q for all the stars, using the temperature-induced upper bound on FUV-B as the fiducial. Plotting current age estimates for the stars against Q, we discovered a strong and significant association between the variables. By applying a log-linear transformation to the data to produce a strong correlation between Q and loge Age, we confirmed the association between Q and age to be exponential. Thus, least-squares regression was used to generate an exponential model relating Q to age in solar-type stars, which can be used by astronomers. The Q-method of stellar age estimation is simple and more efficient than existing spectroscopic methods and has applications to galactic archaeology and stellar chemical composition analysis.

  3. Source Estimation by Full Wave Form Inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjögreen, Björn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing; Petersson, N. Anders [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing

    2013-08-07

    Given time-dependent ground motion recordings at a number of receiver stations, we solve the inverse problem for estimating the parameters of the seismic source. The source is modeled as a point moment tensor source, characterized by its location, moment tensor components, the start time, and frequency parameter (rise time) of its source time function. In total, there are 11 unknown parameters. We use a non-linear conjugate gradient algorithm to minimize the full waveform misfit between observed and computed ground motions at the receiver stations. An important underlying assumption of the minimization problem is that the wave propagation is accurately described by the elastic wave equation in a heterogeneous isotropic material. We use a fourth order accurate finite difference method, developed in [12], to evolve the waves forwards in time. The adjoint wave equation corresponding to the discretized elastic wave equation is used to compute the gradient of the misfit, which is needed by the non-linear conjugated minimization algorithm. A new source point moment source discretization is derived that guarantees that the Hessian of the misfit is a continuous function of the source location. An efficient approach for calculating the Hessian is also presented. We show how the Hessian can be used to scale the problem to improve the convergence of the non-linear conjugated gradient algorithm. Numerical experiments are presented for estimating the source parameters from synthetic data in a layer over half-space problem (LOH.1), illustrating rapid convergence of the proposed approach.

  4. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  5. The Effect of Amplifier Bias Drift on Differential Magnitude Estimation in Multiple-Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, David W.; Muralimanohar, Hariharan; Borelli, Kathy J.

    2007-02-01

    We show how the temporal drift of CCD amplifier bias can cause significant relative magnitude estimation error in speckle interferometric observations of multiple-star systems. When amplifier bias varies over time, the estimation error arises if the time between acquisition of dark-frame calibration data and science data is long relative to the timescale over which the bias changes. Using analysis, we show that while detector-temperature drift over time causes a variation in accumulated dark current and a residual bias in calibrated imagery, only amplifier bias variations cause a residual bias in the estimated energy spectrum. We then use telescope data taken specifically to investigate this phenomenon to show that for the detector used, temporal bias drift can cause residual energy spectrum bias as large or larger than the mean value of the noise energy spectrum. Finally, we use a computer simulation to demonstrate the effect of residual bias on differential magnitude estimation. A supplemental calibration technique is described in the appendices.

  6. A comparison of moment magnitude estimates for the European-Mediterranean and Italian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Paolo; Lolli, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco; Boschi, Enzo

    2012-09-01

    With the goal of constructing a homogeneous data set of moment magnitudes (Mw) to be used for seismic hazard assessment, we compared Mw estimates from moment tensor catalogues available online. We found an apparent scaling disagreement between Mw estimates from the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the US Geological Survey and from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) project. We suspect that this is the effect of an underestimation of Mw > 7.0 (M0 > 4.0 × 1019 Nm) computed by NEIC owing to the limitations of their computational approach. We also found an apparent scaling disagreement between GCMT and two regional moment tensor catalogues provided by the 'Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich' (ETHZ) and by the European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) project of the Italian 'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia' (INGV). This is probably the effect of the overestimation of Mw < 5.5 (M0 < 2.2 × 1017 Nm), up to year 2002, and of Mw < 5.0 (M0 < 4.0 × 1016 Nm), since year 2003, owing to the physical limitations of the standard CMT inversion method used by GCMT for the earthquakes of relatively low magnitude. If the discrepant data are excluded from the comparisons, the scaling disagreements become insignificant in all cases. We observed instead small absolute offsets (≤0.1 units) for NEIC and ETHZ catalogues with respect to GCMT whereas there is an almost perfect correspondence between RCMT and GCMT. Finally, we found a clear underestimation of about 0.2 units of Mw magnitudes computed at the INGV using the time-domain moment tensor (TDMT) method with respect to those reported by GCMT and RCMT. According to our results, we suggest appropriate offset corrections to be applied to Mw estimates from NEIC, ETHZ and TDMT catalogues before merging their data with GCMT and RCMT catalogues. We suggest as well to discard the probably discrepant data from NEIC and GCMT if other Mw estimates from different sources are

  7. A Bayesian framework for estimating moment magnitude and its uncertainty from macroseismic intensity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, E.; Main, I. G.; Naylor, M.; Chandler, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    In moderate to low seismicity areas such as the UK, earthquakes represent a small but not negligible risk to sensitive structures such as nuclear power plants. As a part of the safety case in the planning and regulation of such structures, seismic activity must first be monitored and quantified to form a catalogue of past events. In a low or moderate seismicity zone, most of our knowledge of the most significant events comes from macroseismic intensity measures from the pre-instrumental period (before 1900). These historical records must then be combined and calibrated with modern analogue and digitally-recorded instrumental data on a common source magnitude scale, the most useful of which is the moment magnitude. The result is a unified catalogue that can be used for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. An isoseismal map involves a set of contours that enclose the areas at which the event was felt at particular intensity values or higher, called felt areas. It has been common practice to draw these contours by hand with varying degrees of subjectivity. Here, we demonstrate a Bayesian method for constructing such maps objectively from macroseismic intensity measures and their observed locations. It involves using mathematical expressions to represent concentric ellipses and estimating their optimal parameters and uncertainties in a Bayesian framework. Inferred fault orientations in the UK are predominantly vertical, so the elliptical assumption is reasonable at least to first order or as a null hypothesis. Relevant physical constraints are used as priors where available. The resulting posterior distributions are used to calculate felt area at a given intensity, as well as a probability density function for the inferred epicentre. We then describe another Bayesian approach for deriving moment magnitude from felt areas based on their relationship and known constraints such as the frequency-magnitude distribution. The use of Bayesian inference allows us to quantify

  8. Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Steven M.

    2016-10-01

    Procedures introduced here make it possible, first, to show that background (piecemeal) extinction is recorded throughout geologic stages and substages (not all extinction has occurred suddenly at the ends of such intervals); second, to separate out background extinction from mass extinction for a major crisis in earth history; and third, to correct for clustering of extinctions when using the rarefaction method to estimate the percentage of species lost in a mass extinction. Also presented here is a method for estimating the magnitude of the Signor-Lipps effect, which is the incorrect assignment of extinctions that occurred during a crisis to an interval preceding the crisis because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Estimates for the magnitudes of mass extinctions presented here are in most cases lower than those previously published. They indicate that only ˜81% of marine species died out in the great terminal Permian crisis, whereas levels of 90-96% have frequently been quoted in the literature. Calculations of the latter numbers were incorrectly based on combined data for the Middle and Late Permian mass extinctions. About 90 orders and more than 220 families of marine animals survived the terminal Permian crisis, and they embodied an enormous amount of morphological, physiological, and ecological diversity. Life did not nearly disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been claimed.

  9. Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Steven M

    2016-10-18

    Procedures introduced here make it possible, first, to show that background (piecemeal) extinction is recorded throughout geologic stages and substages (not all extinction has occurred suddenly at the ends of such intervals); second, to separate out background extinction from mass extinction for a major crisis in earth history; and third, to correct for clustering of extinctions when using the rarefaction method to estimate the percentage of species lost in a mass extinction. Also presented here is a method for estimating the magnitude of the Signor-Lipps effect, which is the incorrect assignment of extinctions that occurred during a crisis to an interval preceding the crisis because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Estimates for the magnitudes of mass extinctions presented here are in most cases lower than those previously published. They indicate that only ∼81% of marine species died out in the great terminal Permian crisis, whereas levels of 90-96% have frequently been quoted in the literature. Calculations of the latter numbers were incorrectly based on combined data for the Middle and Late Permian mass extinctions. About 90 orders and more than 220 families of marine animals survived the terminal Permian crisis, and they embodied an enormous amount of morphological, physiological, and ecological diversity. Life did not nearly disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been claimed.

  10. Yield estimation for nuclear explosions of semipalatinsk using rayleigh waves recorded at SRO, Mashhad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghizadeh, M.; Javaherian, A.; Sadidkhooy, A.

    2005-01-01

    Surface wave amplitudes from explosion sources show less variation for a given event than body wave amplitudes, so it is natural to expect that yield estimation derived from surface waves will be more accurate than yield estimation derived from body waves. However yield estimation from surface waves is complicated by the presence of tectonic strain release, which acts like one or more earthquake sources superimposed on the explosion. Explosions on an island or near a mountain slope can exhibit anomalous surface waves similar to those caused by tectonic strain release. One of the methods in estimating the yield of nuclear explosions is to determine a relationship between the magnitude and the yield of an explosion. The kind of magnitude employed has an important role in this regard. In this paper, vertical component of long period seismograms at SRO, Mashhad from explosions occurred in semipalatinsk test site, semipalatinsk test site east of Kazakhstan) are considered. First, by using the relationships of IASPEI and Rezapour and Pearce (1998), we determined surface wave magnitude (MS) which is defined as the logarithm of the amplitude plus a distance correction. Then we derived a relation for M S versus yield for a data set which includes a 15 long period seismograms recorded at SRO Mashhad station from semipalatinsk test site nuclear explosions. Furthermore, by digitizing the vertical component of seismograms and transforming them to the frequency domain, the mean amplitude of records at frequency ranges of 0.04-0.06 Hz were calculated. Then, surface wave magnitudes in the frequency domain (M Sf ) and their corresponding yield-magnitude relationship were obtained. By comparing correlation coefficients of these two yield-magnitude relationships, following relationship M S = 1.079 log(Y) + 1.714, was chosen for estimating the yield of semipalatinsk test site nuclear explosion from seismograms of SRO

  11. Fundamental aspects of seismic event detection, magnitude estimation and their interrelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringdal, F.

    1977-01-01

    The main common subject of the papers forming this thesis is statistical model development within the seismological disciplines of seismic event detection and event magnitude estimation. As more high quality seismic data become available as a result of recent seismic network developments, the opportunity will exist for large scale application and further refinement of these models. It is hoped that the work presented here will facilitate improved understanding of the basic issues, both within earthquake-explosion discrimination, in the framework of which most of this work originated, and in seismology in general. (Auth.)

  12. Evaluating Annual Maximum and Partial Duration Series for Estimating Frequency of Small Magnitude Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlul Karim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of frequent floods is important for characterising channel morphology, riparian and aquatic habitat, and informing river restoration efforts. This paper presents results from an analysis on frequency estimates of low magnitude floods using the annual maximum and partial series data compared to actual flood series. Five frequency distribution models were fitted to data from 24 gauging stations in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR lagoon catchments in north-eastern Australia. Based on the goodness of fit test, Generalised Extreme Value, Generalised Pareto and Log Pearson Type 3 models were used to estimate flood frequencies across the study region. Results suggest frequency estimates based on a partial series are better, compared to an annual series, for small to medium floods, while both methods produce similar results for large floods. Although both methods converge at a higher recurrence interval, the convergence recurrence interval varies between catchments. Results also suggest frequency estimates vary slightly between two or more partial series, depending on flood threshold, and the differences are large for the catchments that experience less frequent floods. While a partial series produces better frequency estimates, it can underestimate or overestimate the frequency if the flood threshold differs largely compared to bankfull discharge. These results have significant implications in calculating the dependency of floodplain ecosystems on the frequency of flooding and their subsequent management.

  13. Absolute magnitude estimation and relative judgement approaches to subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Tsang, Pamela S.

    1987-01-01

    Two rating scale techniques employing an absolute magnitude estimation method, were compared to a relative judgment method for assessing subjective workload. One of the absolute estimation techniques used was an unidimensional overall workload scale and the other was the multidimensional NASA-Task Load Index technique. Thomas Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process was the unidimensional relative judgment method used. These techniques were used to assess the subjective workload of various single- and dual-tracking conditions. The validity of the techniques was defined as their ability to detect the same phenomena observed in the tracking performance. Reliability was assessed by calculating test-retest correlations. Within the context of the experiment, the Saaty Analytic Hierarchy Process was found to be superior in validity and reliability. These findings suggest that the relative judgment method would be an effective addition to the currently available subjective workload assessment techniques.

  14. Methodology for Estimation of Flood Magnitude and Frequency for New Jersey Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kara M.; Schopp, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Methodologies were developed for estimating flood magnitudes at the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence intervals for unregulated or slightly regulated streams in New Jersey. Regression equations that incorporate basin characteristics were developed to estimate flood magnitude and frequency for streams throughout the State by use of a generalized least squares regression analysis. Relations between flood-frequency estimates based on streamflow-gaging-station discharge and basin characteristics were determined by multiple regression analysis, and weighted by effective years of record. The State was divided into five hydrologically similar regions to refine the regression equations. The regression analysis indicated that flood discharge, as determined by the streamflow-gaging-station annual peak flows, is related to the drainage area, main channel slope, percentage of lake and wetland areas in the basin, population density, and the flood-frequency region, at the 95-percent confidence level. The standard errors of estimate for the various recurrence-interval floods ranged from 48.1 to 62.7 percent. Annual-maximum peak flows observed at streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2007 and basin characteristics determined using geographic information system techniques for 254 streamflow-gaging stations were used for the regression analysis. Drainage areas of the streamflow-gaging stations range from 0.18 to 779 mi2. Peak-flow data and basin characteristics for 191 streamflow-gaging stations located in New Jersey were used, along with peak-flow data for stations located in adjoining States, including 25 stations in Pennsylvania, 17 stations in New York, 16 stations in Delaware, and 5 stations in Maryland. Streamflow records for selected stations outside of New Jersey were included in the present study because hydrologic, physiographic, and geologic boundaries commonly extend beyond political boundaries. The StreamStats web application was developed

  15. 2011 Van earthquake (Mw=7.2) aftershocks using the source spectra an approach to real-time estimation of moment magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, N.; Kusmezer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Converging Grid Search (CGS) algorithm was tested on broadband waveforms data from large aftershocks of the October 23, Van earthquake with the hypocentral distances within 0-300 km over a magnitude range of 4.0≤M≤5.6.Observed displacement spectra were virtually well adapted to the Brune's source model in the whole frequency range for many waveforms.The estimated Mw solutions were compared to global CMT catalogue solutions, and were seen to be in good agreement. To estimate Mw from a shear-wave displacement spectrum, an automatic routine named as CGS was applied to attempt to test and develop a method for stable moment magnitude estimation to be used as a real-time operation.The spectra were corrected for average an elastic attenuation and geometrical spreading factors and then were scaled to compute moment at the long period asymptote where the spectral plateau for 0 Hz is flat.For this aim, an automatic procedure was utilized: 1)calculating the displacement spectra for vertical components at a given station, 2)estimating corner frequency and seismic moment using CGS which is based on minimizing the differences between observed and synthetic source spectra, 3)calculating moment magnitude from seismic moment for each station separately, and then are averaged to give the mean values of each event. The best fitting iteration of these parameters was obtained after a few seconds. The noise spectrum was also computed to suggest a comparison between signals to noise ratio before performing the inversion.Weak events with low SNR were excluded from the computations. The method examined on the Van earthquake aftershock dataset proved that it is applicable to have stable and reliable estimates of magnitude for the routine processing within a few seconds from the initial P wave detection though the location estimation is necessary.This allows a fast determination of Mw magnitude and assist to measure physical quantities of the source available for the real time

  16. Estimating flexural rigidity and load magnitude required for formation of Ross Island flexure moat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S.; Harry, D. L.; Wenman, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    rigidity estimate of 6.9 x 1019 Nm. The load magnitudes determined from these flexure models lie in the range of 4.6 x 1015 N - 4.3 x 1016 N. This is less than the topographic load (6.9 x 1017 N estimated from BEDMAP2) produced by the island by one to two orders of magnitude. The difference in load magnitudes suggest anomalously low densities caused by high lower crust and mantle temperatures in the region.

  17. Reevaluation of the macroseismic effects of the 1887 Sonora, Mexico earthquake and its magnitude estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Hough, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    The Sonora, Mexico, earthquake of 3 May 1887 occurred a few years before the start of the instrumental era in seismology. We revisit all available accounts of the earthquake and assign Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI), interpreting and analyzing macroseismic information using the best available modern methods. We find that earlier intensity assignments for this important earthquake were unjustifiably high in many cases. High intensity values were assigned based on accounts of rock falls, soil failure or changes in the water table, which are now known to be very poor indicators of shaking severity and intensity. Nonetheless, reliable accounts reveal that light damage (intensity VI) occurred at distances of up to ~200 km in both Mexico and the United States. The resulting set of 98 reevaluated intensity values is used to draw an isoseismal map of this event. Using the attenuation relation proposed by Bakun (2006b), we estimate an optimal moment magnitude of Mw7.6. Assuming this magnitude is correct, a fact supported independently by documented rupture parameters assuming standard scaling relations, our results support the conclusion that northern Sonora as well as the Basin and Range province are characterized by lower attenuation of intensities than California. However, this appears to be at odds with recent results that Lg attenuation in the Basin and Range province is comparable to that in California.

  18. Estimation of wave directional spreading in shallow water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; Chandramohan, P.

    loads on offshore structures, long- term estimation of waves and estimation of sediment transport. According to the principle of superposition of linear waves, the sea state is com- posed of a large number of individual wave components, each having a..., who were involved in the data collection programme. NIO Contribution number 2569. References Benoit, M., 1992. Practical comparative performance survey of methods used for estimating directional wave spectra from heave–pitch–roll data. Proceedings...

  19. Pain from the life cycle perspective: Evaluation and Measurement through psychophysical methods of category estimation and magnitude estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Silva, Talita de Cássia Raminelli da; Siqueira, Hilze Benigno de Oliveira Moura; Saltareli, Simone; Gomez, Rodrigo Ramon Falconi; Hortense, Priscilla

    2016-08-18

    to describe acute and chronic pain from the perspective of the life cycle. participants: 861 people in pain. The Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (MPES) was used. in the category estimation method the highest descriptors of chronic pain for children/ adolescents were "Annoying" and for adults "Uncomfortable". The highest descriptors of acute pain for children/adolescents was "Complicated"; and for adults was "Unbearable". In magnitude estimation method, the highest descriptors of chronic pain was "Desperate" and for descriptors of acute pain was "Terrible". the MPES is a reliable scale it can be applied during different stages of development. descrever a dor aguda e a crônica na perspectiva do ciclo vital. Métodos: participaram 861 pessoas com dor. Foi utilizada a Escala Multidimensional de Avaliação da Dor (EMADOR). Resultados: no método da estimação de categoria o descritor da dor crônica de maior atribuição para crianças e adolescentes foi "Chata" e para adultos foi "Desconfortável". Os descritores de maior atribuição para dor aguda em crianças e adolescentes foram "Complicada" e em adultos "Insuportável". No método de estimação de magnitude, o descritor de maior atribuição na dor crônica foi "Atormentadora" e na dor aguda foi "Terrível". a EMADOR é uma escala confiável e pode ser utilizada nas diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento humano. la descripción del dolor agudo y crónico desde las perspectiva del ciclo de vida. participaron 861 personas con dolor. Se utilizó la Escala Multidimensional de Evaluación del Dolor (EMEDOR). en el método de estimación de categoría el descriptor de dolor crónico más alto para niños y adolescentes fue de Molesto y para adultos fue Incómodo. Los descriptores mayores de dolor agudo para niños y adolescentes fueron Complejo y para adultos Insoportable. En el método de estimación de magnitud, el mayor descriptor de dolor crónico fueron Atormentador y el mayor de dolor agudo fue Terrible

  20. Magnitude scaling relationship from the first P-wave arrivals on Canada's west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, A.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2011-12-01

    The empirical magnitude scaling relationship from ground-motion period parameter τc is derived using vertical waveforms recorded in the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) along Canada's west coast. A high-pass filtered displacement amplitude parameter, Pd, is calculated from the initial 3 s of the P waveforms and the empirical relationship between Pd and peak ground velocity, PGV, is derived using the same data set. We selected earthquakes of M >3.0 recorded during 1996-2009 by the seismic network stations in the region operated by National Resources Canada (NRCan). In total, 90 events were selected and the vertical components of the earthquakes signals were converted to ground velocity and displacement. The displacements were filtered with a one-way Butterworth high-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 0.075 Hz. Pd and τc are computed from the vertical seismogram components. While the average magnitude error was approximately 0.70 magnitude units when using the individual record, the error dropped to approximately 0.5 magnitude units when using the average τc for each event. In case of PGV, the average error is approximately 0.3. These relationships may be used for initial steps in establishing an earthquake early warning system for the CSZ.

  1. Direct magnitude estimates of speech intelligibility in dysarthria: effects of a chosen standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismer, Gary; Laures, Jacqueline S

    2002-06-01

    Direct magnitude estimation (DME) has been used frequently as a perceptual scaling technique in studies of the speech intelligibility of persons with speech disorders. The technique is typically used with a standard, or reference stimulus, chosen as a good exemplar of "midrange" intelligibility. In several published studies, the standard has been chosen subjectively, usually on the basis of the expertise of the investigators. The current experiment demonstrates that a fixed set of sentence-level utterances, obtained from 4 individuals with dysarthria (2 with Parkinson disease, 2 with traumatic brain injury) as well as 3 neurologically normal speakers, is scaled differently depending on the identity of the standard. Four different standards were used in the main experiment, three of which were judged qualitatively in two independent evaluations to be good exemplars of midrange intelligibility. Acoustic analyses did not reveal obvious differences between these four standards but suggested that the standard with the worst-scaled intelligibility had much poorer voice source characteristics compared to the other three standards. Results are discussed in terms of possible standardization of midrange intelligibility exemplars for DME experiments.

  2. Dominant wave frequency and amplitude estimation for adaptive control of wave energy converters

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen , Hoai-Nam; Tona , Paolino; Sabiron , Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Adaptive control is of great interest for wave energy converters (WEC) due to the inherent time-varying nature of sea conditions. Robust and accurate estimation algorithms are required to improve the knowledge of the current sea state on a wave-to-wave basis in order to ensure power harvesting as close as possible to optimal behavior. In this paper, we present a simple but innovative approach for estimating the wave force dominant frequency and wave force dominant ampl...

  3. PROBLEMAS DE ESTIMACIÓN DE MAGNITUDES NO ALCANZABLES: ESTRATEGIAS Y ÉXITO EN LA RESOLUCIÓN (Unreachable Magnitude Estimation Problems: Strategies and Solving Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Gorgorió

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Llamamos problemas de Fermi a aquellos problemas que, siendo de difícil resolución, admiten una aproximación a su solución a base de romper el problema en partes más pequeñas y resolverlas por separado. En este artículo presentamos los problemas de estimación de magnitudes no alcanzables (PEMNA como un subconjunto de los problemas de Fermi. A partir de los datos recopilados en un estudio hecho con alumnos de 12 a 16 años, caracterizamos las distintas estrategias de resolución propuestas por estos y discutimos sobre la potencialidad de estas estrategias para resolver los problemas con éxito. Fermi problems are problems that, being difficult to solve, can be satisfactorily solved if they are broken down into smaller pieces that are solved separately. In this article, we present inconceivable magnitude estimation problems as a subset of Fermi problems. Based on data collected from a study carried out with 12 to 16 years old students, we describe the different strategies for solving the problems that were proposed by the students, and discuss the potential of these strategies to successfully solve the problems.

  4. Layout of wave gauge array for estimation of 3D waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten Møller; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Wave gauge array are commonly used to estimate significant wave properties of multi-directional waves. The objective of this study is to gain insight into which parameters influence the accuracy of an array. The approach chosen is to determine the accuracy of an array by comparing generated waves...

  5. Magnitude, distribution, and estimated level of underreporting of acute gastroenteritis in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie M; Lewis-Fuller, Eva; Williams, Hank; Miller, Zahra; Scarlett, Henroy P; Cooper, Collin; Gordon-Johnson, Kelly-Ann; Vickers, Ivan; Shaw, Karen; Wellington, Iyanna; Thame, Jennifer; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean. The epidemiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is important to Jamaica, particularly in the areas of health, tourism, and because of the potential impact on the local workforce and the economy. Data collected by the National Surveillance Unit on the prevalence of AGE transmitted by food are not accurate. To determine the true magnitude, risk factors, and the extent of underreporting of AGE in Jamaica, we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based retrospective survey during the periods of 21 February-7 March and 14-27 June 2009, corresponding to high- and low-AGE season respectively. Of the total 1,920 persons selected randomly by a multistage cluster-sampling process, 1,264 responded (response rate 65.8%). Trained interviewers administered a standardized, validated questionnaire during face-to-face interviews. The overall prevalence of self-reported AGE was 4.0% (95% CI 2.9-5.1) at a rate of 0.5 episodes/per person-year. The highest monthly prevalence of AGE (14.6%) was found among the 1-4 year(s) age-group and the lowest (2.1%) among the 25-44 years age-group. Of the 18 cases (36%) who sought medical care, 11% were hospitalized, 33% were treated with antibiotics, and 66.7% received oral rehydration fluids. Only 2 cases who sought medical care reportedly submitted stool specimens. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 3.1 days, which resulted in a mean loss of 4 productive days, with over half of the cases requiring someone to care for them. The burden of syndromic AGE for 2009 was extrapolated to be 122,711 cases, showing an underreporting factor of 58.9. For every laboratory-confirmed AGE case, it was estimated that 383 more cases were occurring in the population. This research confirms that the prevalence of AGE is underreported in Jamaica and not being adequately detected by the current surveillance system. The components of the integrated surveillance system for AGE in Jamaica, particularly the laboratory

  6. The Cognitive Estimation Task Is Nonunitary: Evidence for Multiple Magnitude Representation Mechanisms Among Normative and ADHD College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Ashkenazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a current debate on whether the cognitive system has a shared representation for all magnitudes or whether there are unique representations. To investigate this question, we used the Biber cognitive estimation task. In this task, participants were asked to provide estimates for questions such as, “How many sticks of spaghetti are in a package?” The task uses different estimation categories (e.g., time, numerical quantity, distance, and weight to look at real-life magnitude representations. Experiment 1 assessed (N = 95 a Hebrew version of the Biber Cognitive Estimation Task and found that different estimation categories had different relations, for example, weight, time, and distance shared variance, but numerical estimation did not. We suggest that numerical estimation does not require the use of measurement in units, hence, it represents a more “pure” numerical estimation. Experiment 2 found that different factors explain individual abilities in different estimation categories. For example, numerical estimation was predicted by preverbal innate quantity understanding (approximate number sense and working memory, whereas time estimations were supported by IQ. These results demonstrate that cognitive estimation is not a unified construct.

  7. Testing and comparison of three frequency-based magnitude estimating parameters for earthquake early warning based events in the Yunnan region, China in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjing; Li, Hongjie

    2018-06-01

    To mitigate potential seismic disasters in the Yunnan region, China, building up suitable magnitude estimation scaling laws for an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) is in high demand. In this paper, the records from the main and after-shocks of the Yingjiang earthquake (M W 5.9), the Ludian earthquake (M W 6.2) and the Jinggu earthquake (M W 6.1), which occurred in Yunnan in 2014, were used to develop three estimators, including the maximum of the predominant period ({{τ }{{p}}}\\max ), the characteristic period (τ c) and the log-average period (τ log), for estimating earthquake magnitude. The correlations between these three frequency-based parameters and catalog magnitudes were developed, compared and evaluated against previous studies. The amplitude and period of seismic waves might be amplified in the Ludian mountain-canyon area by multiple reflections and resonance, leading to excessive values of the calculated parameters, which are consistent with Sichuan’s scaling. As a result, τ log was best correlated with magnitude and τ c had the highest slope of regression equation, while {{τ }{{p}}}\\max performed worst with large scatter and less sensitivity for the change of magnitude. No evident saturation occurred in the case of M 6.1 and M 6.2 in this study. Even though both τ c and τ log performed similarly and can well reflect the size of the Earthquake, τ log has slightly fewer prediction errors for small scale earthquakes (M ≤ 4.5), which was also observed by previous research. Our work offers an insight into the feasibility of a EEWS in Yunnan, China, and this study shows that it is necessary to build up an appropriate scaling law suitable for the warning region.

  8. Estimation of wave conditions at Liseleje location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgarino, Bruno; Brorsen, Michael

    This report present the near-shore waves conditions at Liseleje. This study has been carried out as a first step to evaluate the possibility of installing an overtopping wave energy converter at Liseleje. The offshore conditions have first been calculated, using 30 years recorded wind data. Then ...

  9. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  10. Grizzly Bear Noninvasive Genetic Tagging Surveys: Estimating the Magnitude of Missed Detections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Fisher

    Full Text Available Sound wildlife conservation decisions require sound information, and scientists increasingly rely on remotely collected data over large spatial scales, such as noninvasive genetic tagging (NGT. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos, for example, are difficult to study at population scales except with noninvasive data, and NGT via hair trapping informs management over much of grizzly bears' range. Considerable statistical effort has gone into estimating sources of heterogeneity, but detection error-arising when a visiting bear fails to leave a hair sample-has not been independently estimated. We used camera traps to survey grizzly bear occurrence at fixed hair traps and multi-method hierarchical occupancy models to estimate the probability that a visiting bear actually leaves a hair sample with viable DNA. We surveyed grizzly bears via hair trapping and camera trapping for 8 monthly surveys at 50 (2012 and 76 (2013 sites in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. We used multi-method occupancy models to estimate site occupancy, probability of detection, and conditional occupancy at a hair trap. We tested the prediction that detection error in NGT studies could be induced by temporal variability within season, leading to underestimation of occupancy. NGT via hair trapping consistently underestimated grizzly bear occupancy at a site when compared to camera trapping. At best occupancy was underestimated by 50%; at worst, by 95%. Probability of false absence was reduced through successive surveys, but this mainly accounts for error imparted by movement among repeated surveys, not necessarily missed detections by extant bears. The implications of missed detections and biased occupancy estimates for density estimation-which form the crux of management plans-require consideration. We suggest hair-trap NGT studies should estimate and correct detection error using independent survey methods such as cameras, to ensure the reliability of the data upon which species

  11. Grizzly Bear Noninvasive Genetic Tagging Surveys: Estimating the Magnitude of Missed Detections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason T; Heim, Nicole; Code, Sandra; Paczkowski, John

    2016-01-01

    Sound wildlife conservation decisions require sound information, and scientists increasingly rely on remotely collected data over large spatial scales, such as noninvasive genetic tagging (NGT). Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), for example, are difficult to study at population scales except with noninvasive data, and NGT via hair trapping informs management over much of grizzly bears' range. Considerable statistical effort has gone into estimating sources of heterogeneity, but detection error-arising when a visiting bear fails to leave a hair sample-has not been independently estimated. We used camera traps to survey grizzly bear occurrence at fixed hair traps and multi-method hierarchical occupancy models to estimate the probability that a visiting bear actually leaves a hair sample with viable DNA. We surveyed grizzly bears via hair trapping and camera trapping for 8 monthly surveys at 50 (2012) and 76 (2013) sites in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. We used multi-method occupancy models to estimate site occupancy, probability of detection, and conditional occupancy at a hair trap. We tested the prediction that detection error in NGT studies could be induced by temporal variability within season, leading to underestimation of occupancy. NGT via hair trapping consistently underestimated grizzly bear occupancy at a site when compared to camera trapping. At best occupancy was underestimated by 50%; at worst, by 95%. Probability of false absence was reduced through successive surveys, but this mainly accounts for error imparted by movement among repeated surveys, not necessarily missed detections by extant bears. The implications of missed detections and biased occupancy estimates for density estimation-which form the crux of management plans-require consideration. We suggest hair-trap NGT studies should estimate and correct detection error using independent survey methods such as cameras, to ensure the reliability of the data upon which species management and

  12. Bayesian Estimation of Wave Spectra – Proper Formulation of ABIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2007-01-01

    It is possible to estimate on-site wave spectra using measured ship responses applied to Bayesian Modelling based on two prior information: the wave spectrum must be smooth both directional-wise and frequency-wise. This paper introduces two hyperparameters into Bayesian Modelling and, hence, a pr...

  13. Estimating the magnitude of female genital mutilation/cutting in Norway: an extrapolation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyada, Mai M; Norberg-Schulz, Marthe; Johansen, R Elise B

    2016-02-02

    With emphasis on policy implications, the main objective of this study was to estimate the numbers of two main groups affected by FGM/C in Norway: 1) those already subjected to FGM/C and therefore potentially in need for health care and 2) those at risk of FGM/C and consequently the target of preventive and protective measures. Special attention has been paid to type III as it is associated with more severe complications. Register data from Statistics Norway (SSB) was combined with population-based survey data on FGM/C in the women/girls' countries of origin. As of January 1(st) 2013, there were 44,467 first and second-generation female immigrants residing in Norway whose country of origin is one of the 29 countries where FGM/C is well documented. About 40 pct. of these women and girls are estimated to have already been subjected to FGM/C prior to immigration to Norway. Type III is estimated in around 50 pct. of those already subjected to FGM/C. Further, a total of 15,500 girls are identified as potentially at risk, out of which an approximate number of girls ranging between 3000 and 7900 are estimated to be at risk of FGM/C. Reliable estimates on FGM/C are important for evidence-based policies. The study findings indicate that about 17,300 women and girls in Norway can be in need of health care, in particular the 9100 who are estimated to have type III. Preventive and protective measures are also needed to protect girls at risk (3000 to 7900) from being subjected to FGM/C. Nevertheless, as there are no appropriate tools at the moment that can single these girls out of all who are potentially at risk, all girls in the potentially at risk group (15,500) should be targeted with preventive measures.

  14. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  15. Quantitative Estimation of Transmitted and Reflected Lamb Waves at Discontinuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    For the application of Lamb wave to structural health monitoring(SHM), understanding its physical characteristic and interaction between Lamb wave and defect of the host structure is an important issue. In this study, reflected, transmitted and mode converted Lamb waves at discontinuity of a plate structure were simulated and the amplitude ratios are calculated theoretically using Modal decomposition method. The predicted results were verified comparing with finite element method(FEM) and experimental results simulating attached PZTs. The result shows that the theoretical prediction is close to the FEM and the experimental verification. Moreover, quantitative estimation method was suggested using amplitude ratio of Lamb wave at discontinuity

  16. Order-of-magnitude physics of neutron stars. Estimating their properties from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisenegger, Andreas; Zepeda, Felipe S. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Macul (Chile)

    2016-03-15

    We use basic physics and simple mathematics accessible to advanced undergraduate students to estimate the main properties of neutron stars. We set the stage and introduce relevant concepts by discussing the properties of ''everyday'' matter on Earth, degenerate Fermi gases, white dwarfs, and scaling relations of stellar properties with polytropic equations of state. Then, we discuss various physical ingredients relevant for neutron stars and how they can be combined in order to obtain a couple of different simple estimates of their maximum mass, beyond which they would collapse, turning into black holes. Finally, we use the basic structural parameters of neutron stars to briefly discuss their rotational and electromagnetic properties. (orig.)

  17. Examination of the site amplification factor of OBS and their application to magnitude estimation and ground-motion prediction for EEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashimoto, N.; Hoshiba, M.

    2013-12-01

    1. Introduction Ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) is useful for making Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) earlier. However, careful handling of these data is required because the installation environment of OBSs may be different from that of land stations. Site amplification factor is an important factor to estimate the magnitudes, and to predict ground motions (e.g. seismic intensity) in EEW. In this presentation, we discuss the site amplification factor of OBS in the Tonankai area of Japan from these two points of view. 2. Examination of magnitude correction of OBS In the EEW of JMA, the magnitude is estimated from the maximum amplitude of the displacement in real time. To provide the fast magnitude estimation, the magnitude-estimation algorithm switches from the P to S formula (Meew(P) to Meew(S)) depending on the expected S-phase arrival (Kamigaichi,2004). To estimate the magnitude correction for OBS, we determine Meew(P) and Meew(S) at OBSs and compare them with JMA magnitude (Mjma). We find Meew(S) at OBS is generally larger than Mjma by approximately 0.6. The slight differences of spatial distribution of Meew(S) amplification are also found among other OBSs. From the numerical simulations, Nakamura et al. (MGR,submitted) pointed out that the oceanic layer and the low-velocity sediment layers causes the large amplifications in low frequency range (0.1-0.2Hz) at OBSs. We conclude that the site effect of OBS characterized by such a low velocity sediment layers causes those amplification of Magnitude. 3. The frequency-dependent site factor of OBS estimated from Fourier spectrum ratio and their application for prediction of seismic intensity of land station We compare Fourier spectra of S-wave portion on OBSs with those on adjacent land stations. Station pair whose distance is smaller than 50 km is analyzed, and we obtain that spectral ratio of land station (MIEH05 of the KiK-net/NIED) to OBS (KMA01 of the DONET/JAMSTEC) is 5-20 for frequencies 10-20Hz for both

  18. Estimation of waves and ship responses using onboard measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh

    This thesis focuses on estimation of waves and ship responses using ship-board measurements. This is useful for development of operational safety and performance efficiency in connection with the broader concept of onboard decision support systems. Estimation of sea state is studied using a set...... of measured ship responses, a parametric description of directional wave spectra (a generalised JONSWAP model) and the transfer functions of the ship responses. The difference between the spectral moments of the measured ship responses and the corresponding theoretically calculated moments formulates a cost...... information. The model is tested on simulated data based on known unimodal and bimodal wave scenarios. The wave parameters in the output are then compared with the true wave parameters. In addition to the numerical experiments, two sets of full-scale measurements from container ships are analysed. Herein...

  19. Estimation of the Demand for Hospital Care After a Possible High-Magnitude Earthquake in the City of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambarén, Celso; Uyen, Angela; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Introduction A model prepared by National Civil Defense (INDECI; Lima, Peru) estimated that an earthquake with an intensity of 8.0 Mw in front of the central coast of Peru would result in 51,019 deaths and 686,105 injured in districts of Metropolitan Lima and Callao. Using this information as a base, a study was designed to determine the characteristics of the demand for treatment in public hospitals and to estimate gaps in care in the hours immediately after such an event. A probabilistic model was designed that included the following variables: demand for hospital care; time of arrival at the hospitals; type of medical treatment; reason for hospital admission; and the need for specialized care like hemodialysis, blood transfusions, and surgical procedures. The values for these variables were obtained through a literature search of the databases of the MEDLINE medical bibliography, the Cochrane and SciELO libraries, and Google Scholar for information on earthquakes over the last 30 years of over magnitude 6.0 on the moment magnitude scale. If a high-magnitude earthquake were to occur in Lima, it was estimated that between 23,328 and 178,387 injured would go to hospitals, of which between 4,666 and 121,303 would require inpatient care, while between 18,662 and 57,084 could be treated as outpatients. It was estimated that there would be an average of 8,768 cases of crush syndrome and 54,217 cases of other health problems. Enough blood would be required for 8,761 wounded in the first 24 hours. Furthermore, it was expected that there would be a deficit of hospital beds and operating theaters due to the high demand. Sudden and violent disasters, such as earthquakes, represent significant challenges for health systems and services. This study shows the deficit of preparation and capacity to respond to a possible high-magnitude earthquake. The study also showed there are not enough resources to face mega-disasters, especially in large cities. Bambarén C , Uyen A

  20. CALIBRATION OF THE MEARTH PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM: OPTICAL MAGNITUDES AND PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR 1802 NEARBY M-DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, Jason A.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    The MEarth Project is a photometric survey systematically searching the smallest stars near the Sun for transiting rocky planets. Since 2008, MEarth has taken approximately two million images of 1844 stars suspected to be mid-to-late M dwarfs. We have augmented this survey by taking nightly exposures of photometric standard stars and have utilized this data to photometrically calibrate the MEarth system, identify photometric nights, and obtain an optical magnitude with 1.5% precision for each M dwarf system. Each optical magnitude is an average over many years of data, and therefore should be largely immune to stellar variability and flaring. We combine this with trigonometric distance measurements, spectroscopic metallicity measurements, and 2MASS infrared magnitude measurements in order to derive a color–magnitude–metallicity relation across the mid-to-late M dwarf spectral sequence that can reproduce spectroscopic metallicity determinations to a precision of 0.1 dex. We release optical magnitudes and metallicity estimates for 1567 M dwarfs, many of which did not have an accurate determination of either prior to this work. For an additional 277 stars without a trigonometric parallax, we provide an estimate of the distance, assuming solar neighborhood metallicity. We find that the median metallicity for a volume-limited sample of stars within 20 pc of the Sun is [Fe/H] = −0.03 ± 0.008, and that 29/565 of these stars have a metallicity of [Fe/H] = −0.5 or lower, similar to the low-metallicity distribution of nearby G dwarfs. When combined with the results of ongoing and future planet surveys targeting these objects, the metallicity estimates presented here will be important for assessing the significance of any putative planet–metallicity correlation

  1. CALIBRATION OF THE MEARTH PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM: OPTICAL MAGNITUDES AND PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR 1802 NEARBY M-DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, Jason A.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The MEarth Project is a photometric survey systematically searching the smallest stars near the Sun for transiting rocky planets. Since 2008, MEarth has taken approximately two million images of 1844 stars suspected to be mid-to-late M dwarfs. We have augmented this survey by taking nightly exposures of photometric standard stars and have utilized this data to photometrically calibrate the MEarth system, identify photometric nights, and obtain an optical magnitude with 1.5% precision for each M dwarf system. Each optical magnitude is an average over many years of data, and therefore should be largely immune to stellar variability and flaring. We combine this with trigonometric distance measurements, spectroscopic metallicity measurements, and 2MASS infrared magnitude measurements in order to derive a color–magnitude–metallicity relation across the mid-to-late M dwarf spectral sequence that can reproduce spectroscopic metallicity determinations to a precision of 0.1 dex. We release optical magnitudes and metallicity estimates for 1567 M dwarfs, many of which did not have an accurate determination of either prior to this work. For an additional 277 stars without a trigonometric parallax, we provide an estimate of the distance, assuming solar neighborhood metallicity. We find that the median metallicity for a volume-limited sample of stars within 20 pc of the Sun is [Fe/H] = −0.03 ± 0.008, and that 29/565 of these stars have a metallicity of [Fe/H] = −0.5 or lower, similar to the low-metallicity distribution of nearby G dwarfs. When combined with the results of ongoing and future planet surveys targeting these objects, the metallicity estimates presented here will be important for assessing the significance of any putative planet–metallicity correlation.

  2. Estimating the magnitude of near-membrane PDE4 activity in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenkuan; Feinstein, Wei P; Britain, Andrea L; Ochoa, Cristhiaan D; Zhu, Bing; Richter, Wito; Leavesley, Silas J; Rich, Thomas C

    2015-09-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated that functionally discrete pools of phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity regulate distinct cellular functions. While the importance of localized pools of enzyme activity has become apparent, few studies have estimated enzyme activity within discrete subcellular compartments. Here we present an approach to estimate near-membrane PDE activity. First, total PDE activity is measured using traditional PDE activity assays. Second, known cAMP concentrations are dialyzed into single cells and the spatial spread of cAMP is monitored using cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Third, mathematical models are used to estimate the spatial distribution of PDE activity within cells. Using this three-tiered approach, we observed two pharmacologically distinct pools of PDE activity, a rolipram-sensitive pool and an 8-methoxymethyl IBMX (8MM-IBMX)-sensitive pool. We observed that the rolipram-sensitive PDE (PDE4) was primarily responsible for cAMP hydrolysis near the plasma membrane. Finally, we observed that PDE4 was capable of blunting cAMP levels near the plasma membrane even when 100 μM cAMP were introduced into the cell via a patch pipette. Two compartment models predict that PDE activity near the plasma membrane, near cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, was significantly lower than total cellular PDE activity and that a slow spatial spread of cAMP allowed PDE activity to effectively hydrolyze near-membrane cAMP. These results imply that cAMP levels near the plasma membrane are distinct from those in other subcellular compartments; PDE activity is not uniform within cells; and localized pools of AC and PDE activities are responsible for controlling cAMP levels within distinct subcellular compartments. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Estimating magnitude and frequency of peak discharges for rural, unregulated, streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.; Atkins, John T.; Tasker, Gary D.

    2000-01-01

    Multiple and simple least-squares regression models for the log10-transformed 100-year discharge with independent variables describing the basin characteristics (log10-transformed and untransformed) for 267 streamflow-gaging stations were evaluated, and the regression residuals were plotted as areal distributions that defined three regions of the State, designated East, North, and South. Exploratory data analysis procedures identified 31 gaging stations at which discharges are different than would be expected for West Virginia. Regional equations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year peak discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression using data from 236 gaging stations. Log10-transformed drainage area was the most significant independent variable for all regions.Equations developed in this study are applicable only to rural, unregulated, streams within the boundaries of West Virginia. The accuracy of estimating equations is quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 27.7 to 44.7 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 1.6 to 20.0 years).

  4. Walk on the wild side: estimating the global magnitude of visits to protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Balmford

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available How often do people visit the world's protected areas (PAs? Despite PAs covering one-eighth of the land and being a major focus of nature-based recreation and tourism, we don't know. To address this, we compiled a globally-representative database of visits to PAs and built region-specific models predicting visit rates from PA size, local population size, remoteness, natural attractiveness, and national income. Applying these models to all but the very smallest of the world's terrestrial PAs suggests that together they receive roughly 8 billion (8 x 109 visits/y-of which more than 80% are in Europe and North America. Linking our region-specific visit estimates to valuation studies indicates that these visits generate approximately US $600 billion/y in direct in-country expenditure and US $250 billion/y in consumer surplus. These figures dwarf current, typically inadequate spending on conserving PAs. Thus, even without considering the many other ecosystem services that PAs provide to people, our findings underscore calls for greatly increased investment in their conservation.

  5. Estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are essential for such things as the design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, Flood Insurance Studies, and flood-plain management. The flood-frequency estimates are particularly important in densely populated urban areas. A multistate approach was used to update methods for determining the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban and small, rural streams that are not substantially affected by regulation or tidal fluctuations in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The multistate approach has the advantage over a single state approach of increasing the number of stations available for analysis, expanding the geographical coverage that would allow for application of regional regression equations across state boundaries, and building on a previous flood-frequency investigation of rural streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) in the Southeastern United States. In addition, streamgages from the inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey were included in the analysis. Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to generate predictive equations for estimating the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flows for urban and small, rural ungaged basins for three hydrologic regions; the Piedmont-Ridge and Valley, Sand Hills, and Coastal Plain. Incorporation of urban streamgages from New Jersey also allowed for the expansion of the applicability of the predictive equations in the Coastal Plain from 2.1 to 53.5 square miles. Explanatory variables in the regression equations included drainage area (DA) and percent of impervious area (IA) for the Piedmont-Ridge and Valley region; DA and percent of developed land for the Sand Hills; and DA, IA, and 24-hour, 50-year maximum precipitation for the Coastal Plain. An application spreadsheet also was developed that can be used to compute the flood-frequency estimates along with the 95-percent prediction

  6. Scaling relations of moment magnitude, local magnitude, and duration magnitude for earthquakes originated in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Dipok K.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aim to improve the scaling between the moment magnitude ( M W), local magnitude ( M L), and the duration magnitude ( M D) for 162 earthquakes in Shillong-Mikir plateau and its adjoining region of northeast India by extending the M W estimates to lower magnitude earthquakes using spectral analysis of P-waves from vertical component seismograms. The M W- M L and M W- M D relationships are determined by linear regression analysis. It is found that, M W values can be considered consistent with M L and M D, within 0.1 and 0.2 magnitude units respectively, in 90 % of the cases. The scaling relationships investigated comply well with similar relationships in other regions in the world and in other seismogenic areas in the northeast India region.

  7. Cost estimates to guide manufacturing of composite waved beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jinrui; Zhang Boming; Qi Haiming

    2009-01-01

    A cost estimation model on the basis of manufacturing process has been presented. In the model, the effects of the material, labor, tool and equipment were discussed, and the corresponding formulas were provided. A method of selecting estimation variables has been provided based on a case study of composite waved beam using autoclave cure. The model parameters related to the process time estimation of the lay-up procedure were analyzed and modified for different part configurations. The result shows that there is little error while comparing the estimated process time with the practical one. The model is verified to be applicable to guide the design and manufacturing of the composite material

  8. Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in Arizona, developed with unregulated and rural peak-flow data through water year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretti, Nicholas V.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Turney, Lovina A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is among the worst natural disasters responsible for loss of life and property in Arizona, underscoring the importance of accurate estimation of flood magnitude for proper structural design and floodplain mapping. Twenty-four years of additional peak-flow data have been recorded since the last comprehensive regional flood frequency analysis conducted in Arizona. Periodically, flood frequency estimates and regional regression equations must be revised to maintain the accurate estimation of flood frequency and magnitude.

  9. The effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation-scaling behavior in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucci, D; Petrosino, L; Banks, M; Zaums, K; Wilcox, C

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation scaling behavior in young adults. Three groups of college students, 10 who liked rock music, 10 who liked big band music, and 10 who liked classical music were tested. Subjects were instructed to assign numerical values to a random series of nine suprathreshold intensity levels of 10-sec, samples of rock music, big band music, and classical music. Analysis indicated that subjects who liked rock music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked big band and classical music. Subjects who liked big band music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked rock music and classical music. All subjects scaled classical music similarly regardless of their musical preferences. Results are discussed in reference to the literature concerned with personality and preference as well as spectrographic analyses of the three different types of music used in this study.

  10. Blind estimation of a ship's relative wave heading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a method to estimate a ship’s relative heading against the waves. The procedure relies purely on ship- board measurements of global responses such as motion components, accelerations and the bending moment amidships. There is no particular (mathematical) model connected to t...... to the estimate, and therefore it is called a ’blind estimate’. The approach is in this introductory study tested by analysing simulated data. The analysis reveals that it is possible to estimate a ship’s relative heading on the basis of shipboard measurements only....

  11. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.

  12. Phase-Based Adaptive Estimation of Magnitude-Squared Coherence Between Turbofan Internal Sensors and Far-Field Microphone Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2015-01-01

    A cross-power spectrum phase based adaptive technique is discussed which iteratively determines the time delay between two digitized signals that are coherent. The adaptive delay algorithm belongs to a class of algorithms that identifies a minimum of a pattern matching function. The algorithm uses a gradient technique to find the value of the adaptive delay that minimizes a cost function based in part on the slope of a linear function that fits the measured cross power spectrum phase and in part on the standard error of the curve fit. This procedure is applied to data from a Honeywell TECH977 static-engine test. Data was obtained using a combustor probe, two turbine exit probes, and far-field microphones. Signals from this instrumentation are used estimate the post-combustion residence time in the combustor. Comparison with previous studies of the post-combustion residence time validates this approach. In addition, the procedure removes the bias due to misalignment of signals in the calculation of coherence which is a first step in applying array processing methods to the magnitude squared coherence data. The procedure also provides an estimate of the cross-spectrum phase-offset.

  13. A contribution to improved flood magnitude estimation in base of palaeoflood record and climatic implications – Guadiana River (Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ortega

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Guadiana River has a significant record of historical floods, but the systematic data record is only 59 years. From layers left by ancient floods we know about we can add new data to the record, and we can estimate maximum discharges of other floods only known by the moment of occurrence and by the damages caused. A hydraulic model has been performed in the area of Pulo de Lobo and calibrated by means of the rating curve of Pulo do Lobo Station. The palaeofloods have been dated by means of 14C y 137Cs. As non-systematic information has been used in order to calculate distribution functions, the quantiles have changed with respect to the same function when using systematic information. The results show a variation in the curves that can be blamed on the human transformations responsible for changing the hydrologic conditions as well as on the latest climate changes. High magnitude floods are related to cold periods, especially at transitional moments of change from cold to warm periods. This tendency has changed from the last medium-high magnitude flood, which took place in a systematic period. Both reasons seem to justify a change in the frequency curves indicating a recent decrease in the return period of big floods over 8000 m3 s−1. The palaeofloods indicate a bigger return period for the same water level discharge thus showing the river basin reference values in its natural condition previous to the transformation of the basin caused by anthropic action.

  14. Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The central purpose of this report is to present methods : for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on : urban and small, rural streams in the Southeast United States : with particular focus on Georgia, South Carolina, and North : Carolin...

  15. SCARDEC: a new technique for the rapid determination of seismic moment magnitude, focal mechanism and source time functions for large earthquakes using body-wave deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, M.; Charléty, J.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Delouis, B.; Vergoz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and fast magnitude determination for large, shallow earthquakes is of key importance for post-seismic response and tsumami alert purposes. When no local real-time data are available, which is today the case for most subduction earthquakes, the first information comes from teleseismic body waves. Standard body-wave methods give accurate magnitudes for earthquakes up to Mw= 7-7.5. For larger earthquakes, the analysis is more complex, because of the non-validity of the point-source approximation and of the interaction between direct and surface-reflected phases. The latter effect acts as a strong high-pass filter, which complicates the magnitude determination. We here propose an automated deconvolutive approach, which does not impose any simplifying assumptions about the rupture process, thus being well adapted to large earthquakes. We first determine the source duration based on the length of the high frequency (1-3 Hz) signal content. The deconvolution of synthetic double-couple point source signals—depending on the four earthquake parameters strike, dip, rake and depth—from the windowed real data body-wave signals (including P, PcP, PP, SH and ScS waves) gives the apparent source time function (STF). We search the optimal combination of these four parameters that respects the physical features of any STF: causality, positivity and stability of the seismic moment at all stations. Once this combination is retrieved, the integration of the STFs gives directly the moment magnitude. We apply this new approach, referred as the SCARDEC method, to most of the major subduction earthquakes in the period 1990-2010. Magnitude differences between the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) and the SCARDEC method may reach 0.2, but values are found consistent if we take into account that the Global CMT solutions for large, shallow earthquakes suffer from a known trade-off between dip and seismic moment. We show by modelling long-period surface waves of these events that

  16. Physics of ultrasonic wave propagation in bone and heart characterized using Bayesian parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian Carl

    This Dissertation explores the physics underlying the propagation of ultrasonic waves in bone and in heart tissue through the use of Bayesian probability theory. Quantitative ultrasound is a noninvasive modality used for clinical detection, characterization, and evaluation of bone quality and cardiovascular disease. Approaches that extend the state of knowledge of the physics underpinning the interaction of ultrasound with inherently inhomogeneous and isotropic tissue have the potential to enhance its clinical utility. Simulations of fast and slow compressional wave propagation in cancellous bone were carried out to demonstrate the plausibility of a proposed explanation for the widely reported anomalous negative dispersion in cancellous bone. The results showed that negative dispersion could arise from analysis that proceeded under the assumption that the data consist of only a single ultrasonic wave, when in fact two overlapping and interfering waves are present. The confounding effect of overlapping fast and slow waves was addressed by applying Bayesian parameter estimation to simulated data, to experimental data acquired on bone-mimicking phantoms, and to data acquired in vitro on cancellous bone. The Bayesian approach successfully estimated the properties of the individual fast and slow waves even when they strongly overlapped in the acquired data. The Bayesian parameter estimation technique was further applied to an investigation of the anisotropy of ultrasonic properties in cancellous bone. The degree to which fast and slow waves overlap is partially determined by the angle of insonation of ultrasound relative to the predominant direction of trabecular orientation. In the past, studies of anisotropy have been limited by interference between fast and slow waves over a portion of the range of insonation angles. Bayesian analysis estimated attenuation, velocity, and amplitude parameters over the entire range of insonation angles, allowing a more complete

  17. Cosmological perturbation effects on gravitational-wave luminosity distance estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacca, Daniele; Raccanelli, Alvise; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino

    2018-06-01

    Waveforms of gravitational waves provide information about a variety of parameters for the binary system merging. However, standard calculations have been performed assuming a FLRW universe with no perturbations. In reality this assumption should be dropped: we show that the inclusion of cosmological perturbations translates into corrections to the estimate of astrophysical parameters derived for the merging binary systems. We compute corrections to the estimate of the luminosity distance due to velocity, volume, lensing and gravitational potential effects. Our results show that the amplitude of the corrections will be negligible for current instruments, mildly important for experiments like the planned DECIGO, and very important for future ones such as the Big Bang Observer.

  18. Estimation of the gravitational wave polarizations from a nontemplate search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Irene; Drago, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is just beginning, after the recent success of the four direct detections of binary black hole (BBH) mergers and the first observation from a binary neutron star inspiral, with the expectation of many more events to come. Given the possibility to detect waves from not exactly modeled astrophysical processes, it is fundamental to be ready to calculate the polarization waveforms in the case of searches using nontemplate algorithms. In such a case, the waveform polarizations are the only quantities that contain direct information about the generating process. We present the performance of a new valuable tool to estimate the inverse solution of gravitational wave transient signals, starting from the analysis of the signal properties of a nontemplate algorithm that is open to a wider class of gravitational signals not covered by template algorithms. We highlight the contributions to the wave polarization associated with the detector response, the sky localization, and the polarization angle of the source. In this paper we present the performances of such a method and its implications by using two main classes of transient signals, resembling the limiting case for most simple and complicated morphologies. The performances are encouraging for the tested waveforms: the correlation between the original and the reconstructed waveforms spans from better than 80% for simple morphologies to better than 50% for complicated ones. For a nontemplate search these results can be considered satisfactory to reconstruct the astrophysical progenitor.

  19. Teleseismic magnitude relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Båth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Using available sets of magnitude determinations, primarily from Uppsala seismological bulletin, various extensions are made of the Zurich magnitude recommendations of 1967. Thus, body-wave magnitude (m and surface-wave magnitudes (M are related to each other for 12 different earthquake regions as well as world-wide. Depth corrections for M are derived for all focal depths. Formulas are developed which permit calculation of M also from vertical component long-period seismographs. Body-wave magnitudes from broad-band and narrow-band short-period seismographs are compared and relations deduced. Applications are made both to underground nuclear explosions and to earthquakes. The possibilities of explosion-earthquake discrimination on the basis of magnitudes are examined, as well as the determination of explosive yield from magnitudes. For earthquakes, relations between magnitudes of main earthquakes and largest aftershocks are investigated. A world-wide station network for more homogeneous magnitude determinations is suggested in order to provide the necessary reference system.

  20. New Frontiers in Characterization of Sub-Catalog Microseismicity: Utilizing Inter-Event Waveform Cross Correlation for Estimating Precise Locations, Magnitudes, and Focal Mechanisms of Tiny Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Shelly, D. R.; Hardebeck, J.; Hill, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Microseismicity often conveys the most direct information about active processes in the earth's subsurface. However, routine network processing typically leaves most earthquakes uncharacterized. These "sub-catalog" events can provide critical clues to ongoing processes in the source region. To address this issue, we have developed waveform-based processing that leverages the existing routine catalog of earthquakes to detect and characterize "sub-catalog" events (those absent in routine catalogs). By correlating waveforms of cataloged events with the continuous data stream, we 1) identify events with similar waveform signatures in the continuous data across multiple stations, 2) precisely measure relative time lags across these stations for both P- and S-wave time windows, and 3) estimate the relative polarity between events by the sign of the peak absolute value correlations and its height above the secondary peak. When combined, these inter-event comparisons yield robust measurements, which enable sensitive event detection, relative relocation, and relative magnitude estimation. The most recent addition, focal mechanisms derived from correlation-based relative polarities, addresses a significant shortcoming in microseismicity analyses (see Shelly et al., JGR, 2016). Depending on the application, we can characterize 2-10 times as many events as included in the initial catalog. This technique is particularly well suited for compact zones of active seismicity such as seismic swarms. Application to a 2014 swarm in Long Valley Caldera, California, illuminates complex patterns of faulting that would have otherwise remained obscured. The prevalence of such features in other environments remains an important, as yet unresolved, question.

  1. Multi-color light curves of type Ia supernovae on the color-magnitude diagram: A novel step toward more precise distance and extinction estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lifan; Goldhaber, Gerson; Aldering, Greg; Perlmutter, Saul

    2003-01-01

    We show empirically that fits to the color-magnitude relation of Type Ia supernovae after optical maximum can provide accurate relative extragalactic distances. We report the discovery of an empirical color relation for Type Ia light curves: During much of the first month past maximum, the magnitudes of Type Ia supernovae defined at a given value of color index have a very small magnitude dispersion; moreover, during this period the relation between B magnitude and B-V color (or B-Ror B-I color) is strikingly linear, to the accuracy of existing well-measured data. These linear relations can provide robust distance estimates, in particular, by using the magnitudes when the supernova reaches a given color. After correction for light curve stretch factor or decline rate, the dispersion of the magnitudes taken at the intercept of the linear color-magnitude relation are found to be around 0 m .08 for the sub-sample of supernovae with (B max - V max ) (le) 0 m 0.5, and around 0 m .11 for the sub-sample with (B max - V max ) (le) 0 m .2. This small dispersion is consistent with being mostly due to observational errors. The method presented here and the conventional light curve fitting methods can be combined to further improve statistical dispersions of distance estimates. It can be combined with the magnitude at maximum to deduce dust extinction. The slopes of the color-magnitude relation may also be used to identify intrinsically different SN Ia systems. The method provides a tool that is fundamental to using SN Ia to estimate cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant and the mass and dark energy content of the universe

  2. Mesospheric gravity wave momentum flux estimation using hybrid Doppler interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Spargo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesospheric gravity wave (GW momentum flux estimates using data from multibeam Buckland Park MF radar (34.6° S, 138.5° E experiments (conducted from July 1997 to June 1998 are presented. On transmission, five Doppler beams were symmetrically steered about the zenith (one zenith beam and four off-zenith beams in the cardinal directions. The received beams were analysed with hybrid Doppler interferometry (HDI (Holdsworth and Reid, 1998, principally to determine the radial velocities of the effective scattering centres illuminated by the radar. The methodology of Thorsen et al. (1997, later re-introduced by Hocking (2005 and since extensively applied to meteor radar returns, was used to estimate components of Reynolds stress due to propagating GWs and/or turbulence in the radar resolution volume. Physically reasonable momentum flux estimates are derived from the Reynolds stress components, which are also verified using a simple radar model incorporating GW-induced wind perturbations. On the basis of these results, we recommend the intercomparison of momentum flux estimates between co-located meteor radars and vertical-beam interferometric MF radars. It is envisaged that such intercomparisons will assist with the clarification of recent concerns (e.g. Vincent et al., 2010 of the accuracy of the meteor radar technique.

  3. Mesospheric gravity wave momentum flux estimation using hybrid Doppler interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spargo, Andrew J.; Reid, Iain M.; MacKinnon, Andrew D.; Holdsworth, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Mesospheric gravity wave (GW) momentum flux estimates using data from multibeam Buckland Park MF radar (34.6° S, 138.5° E) experiments (conducted from July 1997 to June 1998) are presented. On transmission, five Doppler beams were symmetrically steered about the zenith (one zenith beam and four off-zenith beams in the cardinal directions). The received beams were analysed with hybrid Doppler interferometry (HDI) (Holdsworth and Reid, 1998), principally to determine the radial velocities of the effective scattering centres illuminated by the radar. The methodology of Thorsen et al. (1997), later re-introduced by Hocking (2005) and since extensively applied to meteor radar returns, was used to estimate components of Reynolds stress due to propagating GWs and/or turbulence in the radar resolution volume. Physically reasonable momentum flux estimates are derived from the Reynolds stress components, which are also verified using a simple radar model incorporating GW-induced wind perturbations. On the basis of these results, we recommend the intercomparison of momentum flux estimates between co-located meteor radars and vertical-beam interferometric MF radars. It is envisaged that such intercomparisons will assist with the clarification of recent concerns (e.g. Vincent et al., 2010) of the accuracy of the meteor radar technique.

  4. Estimation of shear wave speed in the human uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, L C; Feltovich, H; Palmeri, M L; Dahl, J J; Munoz del Rio, A; Hall, T J

    2014-04-01

    To explore spatial variability within the cervix and the sensitivity of shear wave speed (SWS) to assess softness/stiffness differences in ripened (softened) vs unripened tissue. We obtained SWS estimates from hysterectomy specimens (n = 22), a subset of which were ripened (n = 13). Multiple measurements were made longitudinally along the cervical canal on both the anterior and posterior sides of the cervix. Statistical tests of differences in the proximal vs distal, anterior vs posterior and ripened vs unripened cervix were performed with individual two-sample t-tests and a linear mixed model. Estimates of SWS increase monotonically from distal to proximal longitudinally along the cervix, they vary in the anterior compared to the posterior cervix and they are significantly different in ripened vs unripened cervical tissue. Specifically, the mid position SWS estimates for the unripened group were 3.45 ± 0.95 m/s (anterior; mean ± SD) and 3.56 ± 0.92 m/s (posterior), and 2.11 ± 0.45 m/s (anterior) and 2.68 ± 0.57 m/s (posterior) for the ripened group (P < 0.001). We propose that SWS estimation may be a valuable research and, ultimately, diagnostic tool for objective quantification of cervical stiffness/softness. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Is 27 a Big Number? Correlational and Causal Connections among Numerical Categorization, Number Line Estimation, and Numerical Magnitude Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Elida V.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the generality of the logarithmic to linear transition in children's representations of numerical magnitudes and the role of subjective categorization of numbers in the acquisition of more advanced understanding. Experiment 1 (49 girls and 41 boys, ages 5-8 years) suggested parallel transitions from kindergarten to second grade…

  6. Multi-color light curves of type Ia supernovae on thecolor-magnitude diagram: A novel step toward more precise distance andextinction estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lifan; Goldhaber, Gerson; Aldering, Greg; Perlmutter, Saul

    2003-01-31

    We show empirically that fits to the color-magnituderelation of Type Ia supernovae after optical maximum can provide accuraterelative extragalactic distances. We report the discovery of an empiricalcolor relation for Type Ia light curves: During much of the first monthpast maximum, the magnitudes of Type Ia supernovae defined at a givenvalue of color index have a very small magnitude dispersion; moreover,during this period the relation between B magnitude and B-V color (or B-Ror B-I color) is strikingly linear, to the accuracy of existingwell-measured data. These linear relations can provide robust distanceestimates, in particular, by using the magnitudes when the supernovareaches a given color. After correction for light curve stretch factor ordecline rate, the dispersion of the magnitudes taken at the intercept ofthe linear color-magnitude relation are found to be around 0^m .08 forthe sub-sample of supernovae with (B_max - V_max) ?= 0^m 0.5, andaround 0^m.11 for the sub-sample with (B_max - V_max) ?= 0^m .2.This small dispersion is consistent with being mostly due toobservational errors. The method presented here and the conventionallight curve fitting methods can be combined to further improvestatistical dispersions of distance estimates. It can be combined withthe magnitude at maximum to deduce dust extinction. Theslopes of thecolor-magnitude relation may also be used to identify intrinsicallydifferent SN Ia systems. The method provides a tool that is fundamentalto using SN Ia to estimate cosmological parameters such as the Hubbleconstant and the mass and dark energy content of theuniverse.

  7. Source Estimation for the Damped Wave Equation Using Modulating Functions Method: Application to the Estimation of the Cerebral Blood Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a method based on modulating functions is proposed to estimate the Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF). The problem is written in an input estimation problem for a damped wave equation which is used to model the spatiotemporal variations

  8. Magnitude of Neck-Surface Vibration as an Estimate of Subglottal Pressure during Modulations of Vocal Effort and Intensity in Healthy Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Victoria S.; Llico, Andres F.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between the magnitude of neck-surface vibration (NSV[subscript Mag]; transduced with an accelerometer) and intraoral estimates of subglottal pressure (P'[subscript sg]) during variations in vocal effort at 3 intensity levels. Method: Twelve vocally healthy adults produced strings of /p?/ syllables in 3…

  9. A Comparative Test of the Interval-Scale Properties of Magnitude Estimation and Case III Scaling and Recommendations for Equal-Interval Frequency Response Anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriesheim, Chester A.; Novelli, Luke, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Differences between recommended sets of equal-interval response anchors derived from scaling techniques using magnitude estimations and Thurstone Case III pair-comparison treatment of complete ranks were compared. Differences in results for 205 undergraduates reflected differences in the samples as well as in the tasks and computational…

  10. The estimated magnitude of AIDS in Brazil: a delay correction applied to cases with lost dates Estimativa da magnitude da AIDS no Brasil: uma correção de atraso aplicada aos casos com data perdida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza S. Barbosa

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of HIV-infected people is an important measure of the magnitude of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil and allows for comparison with epidemic patterns in other countries. This quantity can be estimated from the number of reported AIDS cases, which in turn needs to be corrected for the distribution of reporting delays and under-recording of cases. These distributions are unknown and must also be estimated from the recorded dates, which were missed to the Brazilian National AIDS registry. This paper estimates the number of AIDS cases diagnosed by imputing the lost information based on an estimate of the pattern in registration delay until 1996. We first fitted a non-stationary bivariate Poisson regression model to estimate the pattern in reporting delay. In the subsequent steps these models were applied to impute new data, thus replacing the missing information, and to estimate the magnitude of the AIDS epidemic in the country. Model estimates ranged from 36,000 to 50,000 AIDS cases diagnosed in Brazil and still unreported. Therefore, the epidemic was 20 to 30% greater than known from the available information as of February 1999. To be useful to health policy-makers, the surveillance system based on officially reported AIDS cases must be continuously improved.O número de pessoas infectadas pelo HIV é uma importante medida da magnitude da epidemia de AIDS no Brasil, e permite a comparação com o padrão epidêmico de outros países. Essa quantidade pode ser estimada a partir do número de casos notificados de AIDS, que necessita ser corrigido pela distribuição do atraso da notificação e pelas sub-notificações. Essas distribuições são desconhecidas e devem ser estimadas a partir das datas registradas, que no Brasil foram perdidas. Neste artigo, estima-se o número de diagnósticos de AIDS, imputando as informações perdidas a partir da estimativa do padrão de atraso até 1996. Primeiro, ajustou-se uma regressão de Poisson

  11. Magnitude conversion to unified moment magnitude using orthogonal regression relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit; Wason, H. R.; Sharma, M. L.

    2012-05-01

    Homogenization of earthquake catalog being a pre-requisite for seismic hazard assessment requires region based magnitude conversion relationships. Linear Standard Regression (SR) relations fail when both the magnitudes have measurement errors. To accomplish homogenization, techniques like Orthogonal Standard Regression (OSR) are thus used. In this paper a technique is proposed for using such OSR for preparation of homogenized earthquake catalog in moment magnitude Mw. For derivation of orthogonal regression relation between mb and Mw, a data set consisting of 171 events with observed body wave magnitudes (mb,obs) and moment magnitude (Mw,obs) values has been taken from ISC and GCMT databases for Northeast India and adjoining region for the period 1978-2006. Firstly, an OSR relation given below has been developed using mb,obs and Mw,obs values corresponding to 150 events from this data set. M=1.3(±0.004)m-1.4(±0.130), where mb,proxy are body wave magnitude values of the points on the OSR line given by the orthogonality criterion, for observed (mb,obs, Mw,obs) points. A linear relation is then developed between these 150 mb,obs values and corresponding mb,proxy values given by the OSR line using orthogonality criterion. The relation obtained is m=0.878(±0.03)m+0.653(±0.15). The accuracy of the above procedure has been checked with the rest of the data i.e., 21 events values. The improvement in the correlation coefficient value between mb,obs and Mw estimated using the proposed procedure compared to the correlation coefficient value between mb,obs and Mw,obs shows the advantage of OSR relationship for homogenization. The OSR procedure developed in this study can be used to homogenize any catalog containing various magnitudes (e.g., ML, mb, MS) with measurement errors, by their conversion to unified moment magnitude Mw. The proposed procedure also remains valid in case the magnitudes have measurement errors of different orders, i.e. the error variance ratio is

  12. Accuracy of visual wave observation from merchant ships and estimated wave loads; Accuracy of visual wave observation from merchant ships and estimated wave loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabe, H. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan); Masaoka, K. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-06-01

    There is a large number of studies on discussions concerning accuracy of visual observation of waves and the correction method thereon. This paper give considerations on observation accuracy placing a viewpoint on that by merchant ships. Based on ship meteorological observation tables reported to the Meteorological Agency of Japan on meteorology in North Pacific during 14 years from 1976 to1989, wave observation values taken by merchant ships and observation ships were compared statistically to investigate the accuracy of visual wave observations carried out by merchant ships. With regard to wave heights, the observation values taken by the observation ships and the merchant ships have strong correlation, where the merchant ships evaluate them somewhat higher than the observation ships. Regarding wave cycles of wind waves, the merchant ships tend to have the observation values on longer cycle side. Correlation between the observations values by the merchant ships and the observation ships is weak both in wind waves and swells. There is not much of variation in accuracy of observations during daytime and at night performed by the merchant ships. It will be necessary in the future to give considerations on a method to correct the observation values on wave cycles taken by the merchant ship, and on a correction method in which both of the wave cycles and the wave heights are corrected simultaneously to make the observation values of the merchant ship equal to those of the observation ships. Thus, the observation values reported by general merchant ships in a large number every year will have to be utilized more effectively. 11 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Estimations of On-site Directional Wave Spectra from Measured Ship Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2006-01-01

    include an quivalence of energy in the governing equations and, as regards the parametric concept, a frequency dependent spreading of the waves is introduced. The paper includes an extensive analysis of full-scale measurements for which the directional wave spectra are estimated by the two ship response......In general, two main concepts can be applied to estimate the on-site directional wave spectrum on the basis of ship response measurements: 1) a parametric method which assumes the wave spectrum to be composed by parameterised wave spectra, or 2) a non-parametric method where the directional wave...

  14. Guided wave crack detection and size estimation in stiffened structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Md Yeasin; Faisal Haider, Mohammad; Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) deals with the nondestructive inspection of defects, corrosion, leaks in engineering structures by using ultrasonic guided waves. In the past, simplistic structures were often considered for analyzing the guided wave interaction with the defects. In this study, we focused on more realistic and relatively complicated structure for detecting any defect by using a non-contact sensing approach. A plate with a stiffener was considered for analyzing the guided wave interactions. Piezoelectric wafer active transducers were used to produce excitation in the structures. The excitation generated the multimodal guided waves (aka Lamb waves) that propagate in the plate with stiffener. The presence of stiffener in the plate generated scattered waves. The direct wave and the additional scattered waves from the stiffener were experimentally recorded and studied. These waves were considered as a pristine case in this research. A fine horizontal semi-circular crack was manufactured by using electric discharge machining in the same stiffener. The presence of crack in the stiffener produces additional scattered waves as well as trapped waves. These scattered waves and trapped wave modes from the cracked stiffener were experimentally measured by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). These waves were analyzed and compared with that from the pristine case. The analyses suggested that both size and shape of the horizontal crack may be predicted from the pattern of the scattered waves. Different features (reflection, transmission, and mode-conversion) of the scattered wave signals are analyzed. We found direct transmission feature for incident A0 wave mode and modeconversion feature for incident S0 mode are most suitable for detecting the crack in the stiffener. The reflection feature may give a better idea of sizing the crack.

  15. Spatial Variation of Diapycnal Diffusivity Estimated From Seismic Imaging of Internal Wave Field, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Alex; White, N. J.; Caulfield, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Bright reflections are observed within the upper 1,000 m of the water column along a seismic reflection profile that traverses the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Independent hydrographic calibration demonstrates that these reflections are primarily caused by temperature changes associated with different water masses that are entrained into the Gulf along the Loop Current. The internal wave field is analyzed by automatically tracking 1,171 reflections, each of which is greater than 2 km in length. Power spectra of the horizontal gradient of isopycnal displacement, ϕξx, are calculated from these tracked reflections. At low horizontal wave numbers (kxcpm), ϕξx∝kx-0.2±0.6, in agreement with hydrographic observations of the internal wave field. The turbulent spectral subrange is rarely observed. Diapycnal diffusivity, K, is estimated from the observed internal wave spectral subrange of each tracked reflection using a fine-scale parametrization of turbulent mixing. Calculated values of K vary between 10-8 and 10-4 m2 s-1 with a mean value of K˜4×10-6 m2 s-1. The spatial distribution of turbulent mixing shows that K˜10-7 m2 s-1 away from the shelf edge in the upper 300 m where stratification is strong. Mixing is enhanced by up to 4 orders of magnitude adjacent to the shoaling bathymetry of the continental slope. This overall pattern matches that determined by analyzing nearby suites of CTD casts. However, the range of values recovered by spectral analysis of the seismic image is greater as a consequence of significantly better horizontal resolution.

  16. Estimates of wave decay rates in the presence of turbulent currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thais, L. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, URA-CNRS 1441, Villenauve d' Ascq (France). Lab. de Mecanique; Chapalain, G. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, URA-CNRS 8577, Villenauve d' Ascq (France). Sedimentologie et Geodynamique; Klopman, G. [Albatros Flow Research, Vollenhove (Netherlands); Simons, R.R. [University College, London (United Kingdom). Civil and Environmental Engineering; Thomas, G.P. [University College, Cork (Ireland). Dept. of Mathematical Physics

    2001-06-01

    A full-depth numerical model solving the free surface flow induced by linear water waves propagating with collinear vertically sheared turbulent currents is presented. The model is used to estimate the wave amplitude decay rate in combined wave current flows. The decay rates are compared with data collected in wave flumes by Kemp and Simons [J Fluid Mech, 116 (1982) 227; 130 (1983) 73] and Mathisen and Madsen [J Geophys Res, 101 (C7) (1996) 16,533]. We confirm the main experimental finding of Kemp and Simons that waves propagating downstream are less damped, and waves propagating upstream significantly more damped than waves on fluid at rest. A satisfactory quantitative agreement is found for the decay rates of waves propagating upstream, whereas not more than a qualitative agreement has been observed for waves propagating downstream. Finally, some wave decay rates in the presence of favourable and adverse currents are provided in typical field conditions. (Author)

  17. Electromechanical wave imaging and electromechanical wave velocity estimation in a large animal model of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costet, Alexandre; Melki, Lea; Sayseng, Vincent; Hamid, Nadira; Nakanishi, Koki; Wan, Elaine; Hahn, Rebecca; Homma, Shunichi; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    Echocardiography is often used in the clinic for detection and characterization of myocardial infarction. Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is a non-invasive ultrasound-based imaging technique based on time-domain incremental motion and strain estimation that can evaluate changes in contractility in the heart. In this study, electromechanical activation is assessed in infarcted heart to determine whether EWI is capable of detecting and monitoring infarct formation. Additionally, methods for estimating electromechanical wave (EW) velocity are presented, and changes in the EW propagation velocity after infarct formation are studied. Five (n  =  5) adult mongrels were used in this study. Successful infarct formation was achieved in three animals by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Dogs were survived for a few days after LAD ligation and monitored daily with EWI. At the end of the survival period, dogs were sacrificed and TTC (tetrazolium chloride) staining confirmed the formation and location of the infarct. In all three dogs, as soon as day 1 EWI was capable of detecting late-activated and non-activated regions, which grew over the next few days. On final day images, the extent of these regions corresponded to the location of infarct as confirmed by staining. EW velocities in border zones of infarct were significantly lower post-infarct formation when compared to baseline, whereas velocities in healthy tissues were not. These results indicate that EWI and EW velocity might help with the detection of infarcts and their border zones, which may be useful for characterizing arrhythmogenic substrate.

  18. Loss tangent and complex modulus estimated by acoustic radiation force creep and shear wave dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew W; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F

    2012-03-07

    Elasticity imaging methods have been used to study tissue mechanical properties and have demonstrated that tissue elasticity changes with disease state. In current shear wave elasticity imaging methods typically only shear wave speed is measured and rheological models, e.g. Kelvin-Voigt, Maxwell and Standard Linear Solid, are used to solve for tissue mechanical properties such as the shear viscoelastic complex modulus. This paper presents a method to quantify viscoelastic material properties in a model-independent way by estimating the complex shear elastic modulus over a wide frequency range using time-dependent creep response induced by acoustic radiation force. This radiation force induced creep method uses a conversion formula that is the analytic solution of a constitutive equation. The proposed method in combination with shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry is used to measure the complex modulus so that knowledge of the applied radiation force magnitude is not necessary. The conversion formula is shown to be sensitive to sampling frequency and the first reliable measure in time according to numerical simulations using the Kelvin-Voigt model creep strain and compliance. Representative model-free shear complex moduli from homogeneous tissue mimicking phantoms and one excised swine kidney were obtained. This work proposes a novel model-free ultrasound-based elasticity method that does not require a rheological model with associated fitting requirements.

  19. Estimation of Wave Conditions at Svåheia SSG Pilot Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Margheritini, Lucia; Stratigaki, V.

    The purpose of the project described in the present report is to estimate the local wave conditions at the proposed location for a SSG pilot at the Svåheia site in the south western part of Norway. Focus is put on estimating the everyday conditions to enable an evaluation of the power production...... potential for the SSG pilot at the proposed location. The work in the project has been performed in three parts: 1. Establishing the offshore wave conditions and bathymetry of the area. 2. Transformation of offshore waves to near shore, through numerical wave modeling. 3. Evaluation of the transformed...... (local) wave conditions and its implications....

  20. Preliminary Load Estimations for DEXA Wave Energy Device - Hanstholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    by DEXA Wave Energy ApS, in regular and irregular wave states, as described in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The length scale of the model was 1:20 compared to a full scale device suitable fro the Danish part of the North Sea, according...... to DEXA Wave Energy ApS. The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by DEXA Wave Energy ApS, were measured and used for calculation of power available...... to the power take-off....

  1. How Choice of Depth Horizon Influences the Estimated Spatial Patterns and Global Magnitude of Ocean Carbon Export Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palevsky, Hilary I.; Doney, Scott C.

    2018-05-01

    Estimated rates and efficiency of ocean carbon export flux are sensitive to differences in the depth horizons used to define export, which often vary across methodological approaches. We evaluate sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) flux rates and efficiency (e-ratios) in a global earth system model, using a range of commonly used depth horizons: the seasonal mixed layer depth, the particle compensation depth, the base of the euphotic zone, a fixed depth horizon of 100 m, and the maximum annual mixed layer depth. Within this single dynamically consistent model framework, global POC flux rates vary by 30% and global e-ratios by 21% across different depth horizon choices. Zonal variability in POC flux and e-ratio also depends on the export depth horizon due to pronounced influence of deep winter mixing in subpolar regions. Efforts to reconcile conflicting estimates of export need to account for these systematic discrepancies created by differing depth horizon choices.

  2. A Study on Parametric Wave Estimation Based on Measured Ship Motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics of the param......The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics...... of the parametric model are discussed by considering the results of a similar estimation concept based on Bayesian modelling. The purpose of the latter comparison is not to favour the one estimation approach to the other but rather to highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches....

  3. Dynamic selection of ship responses for estimation of on-site directional wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Storhaug, Gaute

    2012-01-01

    -estimate of the wave spectrum is suggested. The selection method needs to be robust for what reason a parameterised uni-directional, two-parameter wave spectrum is treated. The parameters included are the zero up-crossing period, the significant wave height and the main wave direction relative to the ship’s heading...... with the best overall agreement are selected for the actual estimation of the directional wave spectrum. The transfer functions for the ship responses can be determined using different computational methods such as striptheory, 3D panel codes, closed form expressions or model tests. The uncertainty associated......Knowledge of the wave environment in which a ship is operating is crucial for most on-board decision support systems. Previous research has shown that the directional wave spectrum can be estimated by the use of measured global ship responses and a set of transfer functions determined...

  4. The Single Cigarette Economy in India--a Back of the Envelope Survey to Estimate its Magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Pranay; Kumar, Ravinder; Ray, Shreelekha; Sharma, Narinder; Bhattarcharya, Bhaktimay; Mishra, Deepak; Sinha, Mukesh K; Christian, Anant; Rathinam, Arul; Singh, Gurbinder

    2015-01-01

    Sale of single cigarettes is an important factor for early experimentation, initiation and persistence of tobacco use and a vital factor in the smoking epidemic in India as it is globally. Single cigarettes also promote the sale of illicit cigarettes and neutralises the effect of pack warnings and effective taxation, making tobacco more accessible and affordable to minors. This is the first study to our knowledge which estimates the size of the single stick market in India. In February 2014, a 10 jurisdiction survey was conducted across India to estimate the sale of cigarettes in packs and sticks, by brands and price over a full business day. We estimate that nearly 75% of all cigarettes are sold as single sticks annually, which translates to nearly half a billion US dollars or 30 percent of the India's excise revenues from all cigarettes. This is the price which the consumers pay but is not captured through tax and therefore pervades into an informal economy. Tracking the retail price of single cigarettes is an efficient way to determine the willingness to pay by cigarette smokers and is a possible method to determine the tax rates in the absence of any other rationale.

  5. Estimating the magnitude of morphoscapes: how to measure the morphological component of biodiversity in relation to habitats using geometric morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaneto, Diego; Panisi, Martina; Mandrioli, Mauro; Montardi, Dario; Pavesi, Maurizio; Cardini, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Ecological indicators are currently developed to account for the different facets of loss of biological diversity due to direct or indirect effects of human activities. Most ecological indicators include species richness as a metric. Others, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity, account for differences in species, even when species richness is the same. Here, we describe and apply a different indicator, called morphoscape dimension, accounting for morphological variability across habitats in a geographical region. We use the case of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in four different habitats in the Po Plain in Northern Italy to exemplify how to quantify the magnitude of the morphological space (i.e. the dimension of the morphoscape) occupied by the species in each habitat using geometric morphometrics. To this aim, we employed a variety of metrics of morphological disparity related to univariate size, and more complex multivariate shape and form. Our `proof of concept' suggests that metrics assessing size and form might largely tend to simply mirror the information provided by species richness, whereas shape morphoscape disparity may be able to account for non-trivial differences in species traits amongst habitats. This is indicated by the woodland morphoscape being on average bigger than that of crops, the most species-rich habitat, despite having almost 20% less species. We conclude suggesting that the analysis of morphoscape dimension has the potential to become a new additional and complimentary tool in the hands of conservation biologists and ecologists to explore and quantify habitat complexity and inform decisions on management and conservation based on a wide set of ecological indicators.

  6. The Magnitude of Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease Attributed to Occupational Factors in Korea - Attributable Fraction Estimation Using Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jaehyeok; Kim, Soo-Geun; Paek, Domyung; Park, Jungsun

    2011-03-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a major cause of death in Korea and known to result from several occupational factors. This study attempted to estimate the current magnitude of IHD mortality due to occupational factors in Korea. After selecting occupational risk factors by literature investigation, we calculated attributable fractions (AFs) from relative risks and exposure data for each factor. Relative risks were estimated using meta-analysis based on published research. Exposure data were collected from the 2006 Survey of Korean Working Conditions. Finally, we estimated 2006 occupation-related IHD mortality. FOR THE FACTORS CONSIDERED, WE ESTIMATED THE FOLLOWING RELATIVE RISKS: noise 1.06, environmental tobacco smoke 1.19 (men) and 1.22 (women), shift work 1.12, and low job control 1.15 (men) and 1.08 (women). Combined AFs of those factors in the IHD were estimated at 9.29% (0.3-18.51%) in men and 5.78% (-7.05-19.15%) in women. Based on these fractions, Korea's 2006 death toll from occupational IHD between the age of 15 and 69 was calculated at 353 in men (total 3,804) and 72 in women (total 1,246). We estimated occupational IHD mortality of Korea with updated data and more relevant evidence. Despite the efforts to obtain reliable estimates, there were many assumptions and limitations that must be overcome. Future research based on more precise design and reliable evidence is required for more accurate estimates.

  7. Hydraulic Geometry, GIS and Remote Sensing, Techniques against Rainfall-Runoff Models for Estimating Flood Magnitude in Ephemeral Fluvial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garcia-Lorenzo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the combined use of remotely sensed data and hydraulic geometry methods as an alternative to rainfall-runoff models. Hydraulic geometric data and boolean images of water sheets obtained from satellite images after storm events were integrated in a Geographical Information System. Channel cross-sections were extracted from a high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM and superimposed on the image cover to estimate the peak flow using HEC-RAS. The proposed methodology has been tested in ephemeral channels (ramblas on the coastal zone in south-eastern Spain. These fluvial systems constitute an important natural hazard due to their high discharges and sediment loads. In particular, different areas affected by floods during the period 1997 to 2009 were delimited through HEC-GeoRAs from hydraulic geometry data and Landsat images of these floods (Landsat‑TM5 and Landsat-ETM+7. Such an approach has been validated against rainfall-surface runoff models (SCS Dimensionless Unit Hydrograph, SCSD, Témez gamma HU Tγ and the Modified Rational method, MRM comparing their results with flood hydrographs of the Automatic Hydrologic Information System (AHIS in several ephemeral channels in the Murcia Region. The results obtained from the method providing a better fit were used to calculate different hydraulic geometry parameters, especially in residual flood areas.

  8. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  9. Observations and estimates of wave-driven water level extremes at the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, M. A.; Becker, J. M.; Ford, M.; Yao, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Wave-driven extreme water levels are examined for coastlines protected by fringing reefs using field observations obtained in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The 2% exceedence water level near the shoreline due to waves is estimated empirically for the study sites from breaking wave height at the outer reef and by combining separate contributions from setup, sea and swell, and infragravity waves, which are estimated based on breaking wave height and water level over the reef flat. Although each component exhibits a tidal dependence, they sum to yield a 2% exceedence level that does not. A hindcast based on the breaking wave height parameterization is used to assess factors leading to flooding at Roi-Namur caused by an energetic swell event during December 2008. Extreme water levels similar to December 2008 are projected to increase significantly with rising sea level as more wave and tide events combine to exceed inundation threshold levels.

  10. Estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has similar predictive value as measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Kruger, Ruan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) adds significantly to traditional cardiovascular risk prediction, but is not widely available. Therefore, it would be helpful if cfPWV could be replaced by an estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV) using age and mean blood pres...... that these traditional risk scores have underestimated the complicated impact of age and blood pressure on arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk....

  11. Estimation of viscoelastic parameters in Prony series from shear wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae-Wook; Hong, Jung-Wuk, E-mail: j.hong@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: jwhong@alum.mit.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 291 Deahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung-Ki; Choi, Kiwan [Health and Medical Equipment, Samsung Electronics, 1003 Daechi-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-280 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-21

    When acquiring accurate ultrasonic images, we must precisely estimate the mechanical properties of the soft tissue. This study investigates and estimates the viscoelastic properties of the tissue by analyzing shear waves generated through an acoustic radiation force. The shear waves are sourced from a localized pushing force acting for a certain duration, and the generated waves travel horizontally. The wave velocities depend on the mechanical properties of the tissue such as the shear modulus and viscoelastic properties; therefore, we can inversely calculate the properties of the tissue through parametric studies.

  12. Improving techniques to estimate the magnitude and frequency of floods on urban streams in South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia, 2011 (ver. 1.1, March 2014) : U.S. Geological Survey scientific investigations report 2014-5030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency : of floods are essential for the design of transportation and : water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, and : flood-plain management. Such estimates are particularly : important in dens...

  13. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Rupnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the  cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree.

  14. Magnitude corrections for attenuation in the upper mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1969, a consistent discrepancy in seismic magnitudes of nuclear detonations at NTS compared with magnitudes of detonations elsewhere in the world has been observed. This discrepancy can be explained in terms of a relatively high seismic attenuation for compressional waves in the upper mantle beneath the NTS and in certain other locations. A correction has been developed for this attenuation based on a relationship between the velocity of compressional waves at the top of the earth's mantle (just beneath the Mohorovicic discontinuity) and the seismic attenuation further down in the upper mantle. Our new definition of body-wave magnitude includes corrections for attenuation in the upper mantle at both ends of the teleseismic body-wave path. These corrections bring the NTS oservations into line with measurements of foreign events, and enable one to make more reliable estimates of yields of underground nuclear explosions, wherever the explosion occurs

  15. Study on Rayleigh Wave Inversion for Estimating Shear-wave Velocity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Sanny

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh wave or ground roll is a noise in seismic body waves. However, how to use this noise for soil characterization is very interesting since Rayleigh wave phase velocity is a function of compression-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity, density and layer thickness. In layered-medium Rayleigh wave velocity also depends on wavelength or frequency, and this phenomenon is called dispersion. Inversion procedure to get shear-wave velocity profile needs a priori information about the solution of the problem to limit the unknown parameters. The Lagrange multiplier method was used to solve the constrained optimization problems or well known as a smoothing parameter in inversion problems. The advantage of our inversion procedure is that it can guarantee the convergence of solution even though the field data is incomplete, insufficient, and inconsistent. The addition of smoothing parameter can reduce the time to converge. Beside numerical stability, the statistical stability is also involved in inversion procedure. In field experiment we extracted ground roll data from seismic refraction record. The dispersion curves had been constructed by applying f-k analysis and f-k dip filtering. The dispersion curves show the dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in layered media to frequency. The synthetic models also demonstrate the stability and the speed of inversion procedure.

  16. The physical basis for estimating wave-energy spectra with the radar ocean-wave spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Frederick C.

    1987-01-01

    The derivation of the reflectivity modulation spectrum of the sea surface for near-nadir-viewing microwave radars using geometrical optics is described. The equations required for the derivation are presented. The derived reflectivity modulation spectrum provides data on the physical basis of the radar ocean-wave spectrometer measurements of ocean-wave directional spectra.

  17. Empirical Guidelines for Use of Irregular Wave Model to Estimate Nearshore Wave Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    height, the easier to use tech- nique presented by McClenan (1975) was employed. The McClenan technique uti- lizes a monogram which was constructed from...the SPM equations and gives the same results. The inputs to the monogram technique are the period, the deep- water wave height, the deepwater wave

  18. Rapid earthquake magnitude determination for Vrancea early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    Due to the huge amount of recorded data, an automatic procedure was developed and used to test different methods to rapidly evaluate earthquake magnitude from the first seconds of the P wave. In order to test all the algorithms involved in detection and rapid earthquake magnitude estimation, several tests were performed, in order to avoid false alarms. A special detection algorithm was developed, that is based on the classical STA/LTA algorithm and tuned for early warning purpose. A method to rapidly estimate magnitude in 4 seconds from detection of P wave in the epicenter is proposed. The method was tested on al recorded data, and the magnitude error determination is acceptable taking into account that it is computed from only 3 stations in a very short time interval. (author)

  19. Ocean wave parameters estimation using backpropagation neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; SubbaRao; Raju, D.H.

    : the RPROP algorithm. San Francisco: ICNN; 1993. p. 586–591. [15] Demuth H, Beale M. Neural network toolbox for use with MATLAB, user guide. USA: The Math Works Inc.; 2000 (http://www.mathworks.com). [16] Baba M, Dattatri J. Ocean wave spectra off cochin...

  20. Estimation of Impulsive Wave-induced Loads on a FPSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, Alaa E.

    2005-01-01

    ) and for green water loads from the results of Buchner (1995) and Wang et al. (1998) are applied. The phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and the decay rate are derived mainly from published experimental results, Sikora, (1998). The results are given in closed-form expressions and the required input...

  1. Comparison of Regression Analysis and Transfer Function in Estimating the Parameters of Central Pulse Waves from Brachial Pulse Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Rui; Xu, Li-Sheng; Yao, Yang; Hao, Li-Ling; Qi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed ascending branch slope (A_slope), dicrotic notch height (Hn), diastolic area (Ad) and systolic area (As) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), waveform parameter (k), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and peripheral resistance (RS) of central pulse wave invasively and non-invasively measured. Invasively measured parameters were compared with parameters measured from brachial pulse waves by regression model and transfer function model. Accuracy of parameters estimated by regression and transfer function model, was compared too. Findings showed that k value, central pulse wave and brachial pulse wave parameters invasively measured, correlated positively. Regression model parameters including A_slope, DBP, SEVR, and transfer function model parameters had good consistency with parameters invasively measured. They had same effect of consistency. SBP, PP, SV, and CO could be calculated through the regression model, but their accuracies were worse than that of transfer function model.

  2. Feasibility of Residual Stress Nondestructive Estimation Using the Nonlinear Property of Critical Refraction Longitudinal Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual stress has significant influence on the performance of mechanical components, and the nondestructive estimation of residual stress is always a difficult problem. This study applies the relative nonlinear coefficient of critical refraction longitudinal (LCR wave to nondestructively characterize the stress state of materials; the feasibility of residual stress estimation using the nonlinear property of LCR wave is verified. The nonlinear ultrasonic measurements based on LCR wave are conducted on components with known stress state to calculate the relative nonlinear coefficient. Experimental results indicate that the relative nonlinear coefficient monotonically increases with prestress and the increment of relative nonlinear coefficient is about 80%, while the wave velocity only decreases about 0.2%. The sensitivity of the relative nonlinear coefficient for stress is much higher than wave velocity. Furthermore, the dependence between the relative nonlinear coefficient and deformation state of components is found. The stress detection resolution based on the nonlinear property of LCR wave is 10 MPa, which has higher resolution than wave velocity. These results demonstrate that the nonlinear property of LCR wave is more suitable for stress characterization than wave velocity, and this quantitative information could be used for residual stress estimation.

  3. Ship motion-based wave estimation using a spectral residual-calculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik D.; H. Brodtkorb, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study focused on a newly developed procedure for wave spectrum estimation using wave-induced motion recordings from a ship. The particular procedure stands out from other existing, similar ship motion-based pro-cedures by its computational efficiency and - at the same time- ...

  4. A brute-force spectral approach for wave estimation using measured vessel motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik D.; Brodtkorb, Astrid H.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.

    2018-01-01

    , and the procedure is simple in its mathematical formulation. The actual formulation is extending another recent work by including vessel advance speed and short-crested seas. Due to its simplicity, the procedure is computationally efficient, providing wave spectrum estimates in the order of a few seconds......The article introduces a spectral procedure for sea state estimation based on measurements of motion responses of a ship in a short-crested seaway. The procedure relies fundamentally on the wave buoy analogy, but the wave spectrum estimate is obtained in a direct - brute-force - approach......, and the estimation procedure will therefore be appealing to applications related to realtime, onboard control and decision support systems for safe and efficient marine operations. The procedure's performance is evaluated by use of numerical simulation of motion measurements, and it is shown that accurate wave...

  5. Estimating net short-wave radiation with the Bellani pyranometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Y.; Plamondon, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two methods were developed by which daily net short-wave radiation (K∗) can be evaluated from Bellani pyranometer readings. The first method involves a simple regression equation. The second method uses a physical approach taking into account the effect of the Bellani's geometry on its response to direct and diffuse radiation throughout the day. Both methods, when tested on experimental data, tended to underestimate the measured K∗, the regression approach exhibiting a higher variance of the error [fr

  6. Regression analysis and transfer function in estimating the parameters of central pulse waves from brachial pulse wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai Rui; Li Si-Man; Xu Li-Sheng; Yao Yang; Hao Li-Ling

    2017-07-01

    This study mainly analyzed the parameters such as ascending branch slope (A_slope), dicrotic notch height (Hn), diastolic area (Ad) and systolic area (As) diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), waveform parameter (k), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance (RS) of central pulse wave invasively and non-invasively measured. These parameters extracted from the central pulse wave invasively measured were compared with the parameters measured from the brachial pulse waves by a regression model and a transfer function model. The accuracy of the parameters which were estimated by the regression model and the transfer function model was compared too. Our findings showed that in addition to the k value, the above parameters of the central pulse wave and the brachial pulse wave invasively measured had positive correlation. Both the regression model parameters including A_slope, DBP, SEVR and the transfer function model parameters had good consistency with the parameters invasively measured, and they had the same effect of consistency. The regression equations of the three parameters were expressed by Y'=a+bx. The SBP, PP, SV, CO of central pulse wave could be calculated through the regression model, but their accuracies were worse than that of transfer function model.

  7. Estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has similar predictive value as measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael; Greve, Sara; Blicher, Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) adds significantly to traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk prediction, but is not widely available. Therefore, it would be helpful if cfPWV could be replaced by an estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV) using age and mean blood...... pressure and previously published equations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ePWV could predict CV events independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and/or cfPWV. DESIGN AND METHOD: cfPWV was measured and ePWV calculated in 2366 apparently healthy subjects from four age...

  8. Electromagnetic Energy Released in the Subduction (Benioff) Zone in Weeks Previous to Earthquake Occurrence in Central Peru and the Estimation of Earthquake Magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraud, J. A.; Centa, V. A.; Bleier, T.

    2017-12-01

    During the past four years, magnetometers deployed in the Peruvian coast have been providing evidence that the ULF pulses received are indeed generated at the subduction or Benioff zone and are connected with the occurrence of earthquakes within a few kilometers of the source of such pulses. This evidence was presented at the AGU 2015 Fall meeting, showing the results of triangulation of pulses from two magnetometers located in the central area of Peru, using data collected during a two-year period. Additional work has been done and the method has now been expanded to provide the instantaneous energy released at the stress areas on the Benioff zone during the precursory stage, before an earthquake occurs. Collected data from several events and in other parts of the country will be shown in a sequential animated form that illustrates the way energy is released in the ULF part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The process has been extended in time and geographical places. Only pulses associated with the occurrence of earthquakes are taken into account in an area which is highly associated with subduction-zone seismic events and several pulse parameters have been used to estimate a function relating the magnitude of the earthquake with the value of a function generated with those parameters. The results shown, including the animated data video, constitute additional work towards the estimation of the magnitude of an earthquake about to occur, based on electromagnetic pulses that originated at the subduction zone. The method is providing clearer evidence that electromagnetic precursors in effect conveys physical and useful information prior to the advent of a seismic event

  9. Extreme water level and wave estimation for nearshore of Ningde City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. D.; Wang, E. K.; Xu, G. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The high and low design water levels are calculated by observation tidal data in sea areas of Ningde offshore wind power project from September 2010 to August 2011, with the value 318 cm and -246 cm, respectively. The extreme high and low levels are also calculated using synchronous difference ratio method based on station data from 1973 to 2005 at Sansha station. The value is 431 cm and -378 cm respectively. The design wave elements are estimated using the wave data from Beishuang Station and Pingtan station. On this basis, the SWAN wave model is applied to calculating the design wave elements in the engineering sea areas. The results show that the southern sea area is mainly affected by the wave effect on ESE, and the northern is mainly affected by the E waves. This paper is helpful and useful for design and construction of offshore and coastal engineering.

  10. Source Estimation for the Damped Wave Equation Using Modulating Functions Method: Application to the Estimation of the Cerebral Blood Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2017-10-19

    In this paper, a method based on modulating functions is proposed to estimate the Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF). The problem is written in an input estimation problem for a damped wave equation which is used to model the spatiotemporal variations of blood mass density. The method is described and its performance is assessed through some numerical simulations. The robustness of the method in presence of noise is also studied.

  11. Accuracy of multiecho magnitude-based MRI (M-MRI) for estimation of hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Kevin A; Shah, Amol; Heba, Elhamy; Wolfson, Tanya; Hamilton, Gavin; Lam, Jessica; Chen, Joshua; Hooker, Jonathan C; Gamst, Anthony C; Middleton, Michael S; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Sirlin, Claude B

    2015-11-01

    To assess accuracy of magnitude-based magnetic resonance imaging (M-MRI) in children to estimate hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) using two to six echoes, with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) -measured PDFF as a reference standard. This was an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, single-center, cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively between 2008 and 2013 in children with known or suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Two hundred eighty-six children (8-20 [mean 14.2 ± 2.5] years; 182 boys) underwent same-day MRS and M-MRI. Unenhanced two-dimensional axial spoiled gradient-recalled-echo images at six echo times were obtained at 3T after a single low-flip-angle (10°) excitation with ≥ 120-ms recovery time. Hepatic PDFF was estimated using the first two, three, four, five, and all six echoes. For each number of echoes, accuracy of M-MRI to estimate PDFF was assessed by linear regression with MRS-PDFF as reference standard. Accuracy metrics were regression intercept, slope, average bias, and R(2) . MRS-PDFF ranged from 0.2-40.4% (mean 13.1 ± 9.8%). Using three to six echoes, regression intercept, slope, and average bias were 0.46-0.96%, 0.99-1.01, and 0.57-0.89%, respectively. Using two echoes, these values were 2.98%, 0.97, and 2.72%, respectively. R(2) ranged 0.98-0.99 for all methods. Using three to six echoes, M-MRI has high accuracy for hepatic PDFF estimation in children. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Estimation of Coda Wave Attenuation in Northern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanouar, Abderrahim; Moudnib, Lahcen El; Padhy, Simanchal; Harnafi, Mimoun; Villaseñor, Antonio; Gallart, Josep; Pazos, Antonio; Rahmouni, Abdelaali; Boukalouch, Mohamed; Sebbani, Jamal

    2018-03-01

    We studied the attenuation of coda waves and its frequency and lapse-time dependence in northern Morocco. We analysed coda waves of 66 earthquakes recorded in this region during 2008 for four lapse time windows of length 30, 40, 50, and 60 s, and at five frequency bands with central frequency in the range of 0.75-12 Hz. We determined the frequency dependent Q c relation for the horizontal (NS and EW) and vertical (Z) component seismograms. We analyzed three-component broadband seismograms of 66 local earthquakes for determining coda-Q based on the single back-scattering model. The Q c values show strong frequency dependence in 1.5-12 Hz that is related to high degree of heterogeneity of the medium. The lapse time dependence of Q c shows that Q 0 ( Q c at 1 Hz) significantly increases with lapse time that is related to the depth dependence of attenuation and hence of the level of heterogeneity of the medium. The average frequency-dependent Q c( f) values are Qc = (143.75 ± 1.09)f^{(0.864 ± 0.006)}, Qc = (149.12 ± 1.08)f^{(0.85 ± 0.005)} and Qc = (140.42 ± 1.81)f^{(0.902 ± 0.004)} for the vertical, north-south and east-west components of motion, respectively. The frequency-dependent Q c(f) relations are useful for evaluating source parameters (Singh et al. 2001), which are the key inputs for seismic hazard assessment of the region.

  13. Source signature estimation from multimode surface waves via mode-separated virtual real source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingli; Pan, Yudi

    2018-05-01

    The correct estimation of the seismic source signature is crucial to exploration geophysics. Based on seismic interferometry, the virtual real source (VRS) method provides a model-independent way for source signature estimation. However, when encountering multimode surface waves, which are commonly seen in the shallow seismic survey, strong spurious events appear in seismic interferometric results. These spurious events introduce errors in the virtual-source recordings and reduce the accuracy of the source signature estimated by the VRS method. In order to estimate a correct source signature from multimode surface waves, we propose a mode-separated VRS method. In this method, multimode surface waves are mode separated before seismic interferometry. Virtual-source recordings are then obtained by applying seismic interferometry to each mode individually. Therefore, artefacts caused by cross-mode correlation are excluded in the virtual-source recordings and the estimated source signatures. A synthetic example showed that a correct source signature can be estimated with the proposed method, while strong spurious oscillation occurs in the estimated source signature if we do not apply mode separation first. We also applied the proposed method to a field example, which verified its validity and effectiveness in estimating seismic source signature from shallow seismic shot gathers containing multimode surface waves.

  14. Experimental Verification of a Global Exponentially Stable Nonlinear Wave Encounter Frequency Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belleter, Dennis J.W.; Galeazzi, Roberto; Fossen, Thor Inge

    2015-01-01

    towing tank experiments using a container ship scale model. The estimates for both regular and irregular waves confirm the results. Finally, the estimator is applied to full-scale data gathered from a container ship operating in the Atlantic Ocean during a storm. Again the theoretical results...

  15. Parametric estimation in the wave buoy analogy - an elaborated approach based on energy considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2014-01-01

    the ship’s wave-induced responses based on different statistical inferences including parametric and non-parametric approaches. This paper considers a concept to improve the estimate obtained by the parametric method for sea state estimation. The idea is illustrated by an analysis made on full-scale...

  16. Human motion estimation with multiple frequency modulated continuous wave radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, P.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Human motion estimation is an important issue in automotive, security or home automation applications. Radar systems are well suited for this because they are robust, are independent of day or night conditions and have accurate range and speed domain. The human response in a radar range-speed-time

  17. Reduced order ARMA spectral estimation of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Witz, J.A.; Lyons, G.J.

    . After selecting the initial model order based on the Akaike Information Criterion method, a novel model order reduction technique is applied to obtain the final reduced order ARMA model. First estimates of the higher order autoregressive coefficients... of the reduced order ARMA model is obtained. The moving average part is determined based on partial fraction and recursive methods. The above system identification models and model order reduction technique are shown here to be successfully applied...

  18. ASTROPHYSICAL PRIOR INFORMATION AND GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankow, Chris; Sampson, Laura; Perri, Leah; Chase, Eve; Coughlin, Scott; Zevin, Michael; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    The detection of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) has great promise for the investigation of many scientific questions. While it is well known that certain orientation parameters can reduce uncertainty in other related parameters, it was also hoped that the detection of an electromagnetic signal in conjunction with a GW could augment the measurement precision of the mass and spin from the gravitational signal itself. That is, knowledge of the sky location, inclination, and redshift of a binary could break degeneracies between these extrinsic, coordinate-dependent parameters and the physical parameters that are intrinsic to the binary. In this paper, we investigate this issue by assuming perfect knowledge of extrinsic parameters, and assessing the maximal impact of this knowledge on our ability to extract intrinsic parameters. We recover similar gains in extrinsic recovery to earlier work; however, we find only modest improvements in a few intrinsic parameters—namely the primary component’s spin. We thus conclude that, even in the best case, the use of additional information from electromagnetic observations does not improve the measurement of the intrinsic parameters significantly.

  19. ASTROPHYSICAL PRIOR INFORMATION AND GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, Chris; Sampson, Laura; Perri, Leah; Chase, Eve; Coughlin, Scott; Zevin, Michael; Kalogera, Vassiliki [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    The detection of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) has great promise for the investigation of many scientific questions. While it is well known that certain orientation parameters can reduce uncertainty in other related parameters, it was also hoped that the detection of an electromagnetic signal in conjunction with a GW could augment the measurement precision of the mass and spin from the gravitational signal itself. That is, knowledge of the sky location, inclination, and redshift of a binary could break degeneracies between these extrinsic, coordinate-dependent parameters and the physical parameters that are intrinsic to the binary. In this paper, we investigate this issue by assuming perfect knowledge of extrinsic parameters, and assessing the maximal impact of this knowledge on our ability to extract intrinsic parameters. We recover similar gains in extrinsic recovery to earlier work; however, we find only modest improvements in a few intrinsic parameters—namely the primary component’s spin. We thus conclude that, even in the best case, the use of additional information from electromagnetic observations does not improve the measurement of the intrinsic parameters significantly.

  20. A statistical methodology for the estimation of extreme wave conditions for offshore renewable applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kalogeri, Christina; Galanis, George

    2015-01-01

    and post-process outputs from a high resolution numerical wave modeling system for extreme wave estimation based on the significant wave height. This approach is demonstrated through the data analysis at a relatively deep water site, FINO 1, as well as a relatively shallow water area, coastal site Horns...... as a characteristic index of extreme wave conditions. The results from the proposed methodology seem to be in a good agreement with the measurements at both the relatively deep, open water and the shallow, coastal water sites, providing a potentially useful tool for offshore renewable energy applications. © 2015...... Rev, which is located in the North Sea, west of Denmark. The post-processing targets at correcting the modeled time series of the significant wave height, in order to match the statistics of the corresponding measurements, including not only the conventional parameters such as the mean and standard...

  1. Estimation of Ship Long-term Wave-induced Bending Moment using Closed-Form Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2002-01-01

    A semi-analytical approach is used to derive frequency response functions and standard deviations for the wave-induced bending moment amidships for mono-hull ships. The results are given as closed-form expressions and the required input information for the procedure is restricted to the main......-empirical closed-form expression for the skewness. The effect of whipping is included by assuming that whipping and wave-induced responses are conditionally independent given Hs. The procedure is simple and can be used to make quick estimates of the design wave bending moment at the conceptual design phase...

  2. Study of the method to estimate the hydraulic characteristics in rock masses by using elastic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsu, Kenta; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Yano, Takao; Ando, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka

    2008-01-01

    In the area of radioactive waste repository, estimating radionuclide migration through the rock mass is an important factor for assessment of the repository. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to estimate hydraulic characteristics of rock masses by using elastic wave velocity dispersion. This method is based on dynamics poroelastic relations such as Biot and BISQ theories. These theories indicate relations between velocity dispersion and hydraulic characteristics. In order to verify the validity of these theories in crystalline rocks, we performed laboratory experiments. The results of experiments show the dependency of elastic wave velocity on its frequency. To test the applicability of this method to real rock masses, we performed in-situ experiment for tuff rock masses. The results of in-situ experiment show the possibility as a practical method to estimate the hydraulic characteristics by using elastic wave velocity dispersion. (author)

  3. Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are essential for the design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, and flood-plain management. Such estimates are particularly important in densely populated urban areas. In order to increase the number of streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) available for analysis, expand the geographical coverage that would allow for application of regional regression equations across State boundaries, and build on a previous flood-frequency investigation of rural U.S Geological Survey streamgages in the Southeast United States, a multistate approach was used to update methods for determining the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban and small, rural streams that are not substantially affected by regulation or tidal fluctuations in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The at-site flood-frequency analysis of annual peak-flow data for urban and small, rural streams (through September 30, 2011) included 116 urban streamgages and 32 small, rural streamgages, defined in this report as basins draining less than 1 square mile. The regional regression analysis included annual peak-flow data from an additional 338 rural streamgages previously included in U.S. Geological Survey flood-frequency reports and 2 additional rural streamgages in North Carolina that were not included in the previous Southeast rural flood-frequency investigation for a total of 488 streamgages included in the urban and small, rural regression analysis. The at-site flood-frequency analyses for the urban and small, rural streamgages included the expected moments algorithm, which is a modification of the Bulletin 17B log-Pearson type III method for fitting the statistical distribution to the logarithms of the annual peak flows. Where applicable, the flood-frequency analysis also included low-outlier and historic information. Additionally, the application of a generalized Grubbs-Becks test allowed for the

  4. The use of multiwavelets for uncertainty estimation in seismic surface wave dispersion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppeliers, Christian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report describes a new single-station analysis method to estimate the dispersion and uncer- tainty of seismic surface waves using the multiwavelet transform. Typically, when estimating the dispersion of a surface wave using only a single seismic station, the seismogram is decomposed into a series of narrow-band realizations using a bank of narrow-band filters. By then enveloping and normalizing the filtered seismograms and identifying the maximum power as a function of frequency, the group velocity can be estimated if the source-receiver distance is known. However, using the filter bank method, there is no robust way to estimate uncertainty. In this report, I in- troduce a new method of estimating the group velocity that includes an estimate of uncertainty. The method is similar to the conventional filter bank method, but uses a class of functions, called Slepian wavelets, to compute a series of wavelet transforms of the data. Each wavelet transform is mathematically similar to a filter bank, however, the time-frequency tradeoff is optimized. By taking multiple wavelet transforms, I form a population of dispersion estimates from which stan- dard statistical methods can be used to estimate uncertainty. I demonstrate the utility of this new method by applying it to synthetic data as well as ambient-noise surface-wave cross-correlelograms recorded by the University of Nevada Seismic Network.

  5. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used

  6. Topography Estimation of the Core Mantle Boundary with ScS Reverberations and Diffraction Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, B. E.; Nakata, N.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we use the propagation of global seismic waves to study the Core Mantle Boundary (CMB). We focus on the use of S-wave reflections at the CMB (ScS reverberations) and outer-core diffracted waves. It is difficult imaging the CMB with the ScS wave because the complexity of the structure in the near surface ( 50 km); the complex structure degrades the signal-to-noise ratio of of the ScS. To avoid estimating the structure in the crust, we rely on the concept of seismic interferometry to extract wave propagation through mantle, but not through the crust. Our approach is compute the deconvolution between the ScS (and its reverberation) and direct S waves generated by intermediate to deep earthquakes (>50 km depth). Through this deconvolution, we have the ability to filter out the direct S wave and retrieve the wave field propagating from only the hypocenter to the outer core, but not between the hypocenter to the receiver. After the deconvolution, we can isolate the CMB reflected waves from the complicated wave phenomena because of the near-surface structure. Utilizing intermediate and deep earthquakes is key since we can suppress the near-surface effect from the surface to the hypocenter of the earthquakes. The variation of such waves (e.g., travel-time perturbation and/or wavefield decorrelation) at different receivers and earthquakes provides the information of the topography of the CMB. In order to get a more detailed image of the topography of the CMB we use diffracted seismic waves such as Pdiff , Sdiff, and P'P'. By using two intermediate to deep earthquakes on a great circle path with a station we can extract the wave propagation between the two earthquakes to simplify the waveform, similar to how it is preformed using the ScS wave. We generate more illumination of the CMB by using diffracted waves rather than only using ScS reverberations. The accurate topography of CMB obtained by these deconvolution analyses may provide new insight of the

  7. Estimation of excitation forces for wave energy converters control using pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalik, O.; Zou, S.; Robinett, R.; Bacelli, G.; Wilson, D.

    2017-08-01

    Most control algorithms of wave energy converters require prediction of wave elevation or excitation force for a short future horizon, to compute the control in an optimal sense. This paper presents an approach that requires the estimation of the excitation force and its derivatives at present time with no need for prediction. An extended Kalman filter is implemented to estimate the excitation force. The measurements in this approach are selected to be the pressures at discrete points on the buoy surface, in addition to the buoy heave position. The pressures on the buoy surface are more directly related to the excitation force on the buoy as opposed to wave elevation in front of the buoy. These pressure measurements are also more accurate and easier to obtain. A singular arc control is implemented to compute the steady-state control using the estimated excitation force. The estimated excitation force is expressed in the Laplace domain and substituted in the control, before the latter is transformed to the time domain. Numerical simulations are presented for a Bretschneider wave case study.

  8. Tool to estimate optical metrics from summary wave-front analysis data in the human eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Purpose Studies in the field of cataract and refractive surgery often report only summary wave-front analysis data data that are too condensed to allow for a retrospective calculation of metrics relevant to visual perception. The aim of this study was to develop a tool that can be used to estimate

  9. Variations in wave direction estimated using first and second order Fourier coefficients

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.

    to the peak frequency are used in practice. In the present study, comparison is made on wave directions estimated based on first and second order Fourier coefficients using data collected at four locations in the west and east coasts of India. Study shows...

  10. An Off-Grid Turbo Channel Estimation Algorithm for Millimeter Wave Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyi Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth shortage has motivated the exploration of the millimeter wave (mmWave frequency spectrum for future communication networks. To compensate for the severe propagation attenuation in the mmWave band, massive antenna arrays can be adopted at both the transmitter and receiver to provide large array gains via directional beamforming. To achieve such array gains, channel estimation (CE with high resolution and low latency is of great importance for mmWave communications. However, classic super-resolution subspace CE methods such as multiple signal classification (MUSIC and estimation of signal parameters via rotation invariant technique (ESPRIT cannot be applied here due to RF chain constraints. In this paper, an enhanced CE algorithm is developed for the off-grid problem when quantizing the angles of mmWave channel in the spatial domain where off-grid problem refers to the scenario that angles do not lie on the quantization grids with high probability, and it results in power leakage and severe reduction of the CE performance. A new model is first proposed to formulate the off-grid problem. The new model divides the continuously-distributed angle into a quantized discrete grid part, referred to as the integral grid angle, and an offset part, termed fractional off-grid angle. Accordingly, an iterative off-grid turbo CE (IOTCE algorithm is proposed to renew and upgrade the CE between the integral grid part and the fractional off-grid part under the Turbo principle. By fully exploiting the sparse structure of mmWave channels, the integral grid part is estimated by a soft-decoding based compressed sensing (CS method called improved turbo compressed channel sensing (ITCCS. It iteratively updates the soft information between the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE estimator and the sparsity combiner. Monte Carlo simulations are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, and the results show that it enhances the angle

  11. Moment Magnitude discussion in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    We implemented and tested the Moment Magnitude estimation „dbmw" from the University of Trieste in our Antelope near real-time System. It is used to get a fast Moment Magnitude solutions and Ground Motion Parameter (PGA, PGV, PSA 0.3, PSA 1.0 and PSA 3.0) to calculate Shake and Interactive maps. A Moment Magnitude Catalogue was generated and compared with the Austrian Earthquake Catalogue and all available Magnitude solution of the neighbouring agencies. Relations of Mw to Ml and Ground Motion to Intensity are presented.

  12. Corona magnetic field over sunspots estimated by m-wave observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Masahiro

    1974-01-01

    The shape of the magnetic field in corona was estimated from the observation of the type I storm occurred in the last decade of August, 1971. It was found from the observation with a 160 MHz interferometer at Mt. Nobeyama that at most three storm sources, which are called radio wave source, were produced. The radio wave sources were fixed above sunspots. The height of the radio wave sources was estimated to be 0.45 R from the photosphere. The sunspots under the radio wave sources can be classified to four sub-groups. Weakening of the magnetic field on the photosphere was found from the reduction of the area of some sub-group. The relation between the activity of type I storm and the intensity of the magnetic field of sunspots is qualitatively suggested. It is considered that the radio wave sources and the sunspots were connected by common magnetic force lines. The probable magnetic field in corona was presumed and is shown in a figure. An interesting point is that the direction of magnetic force lines inclined by about 30 0 outward to the vertical line to the photosphere surface. (Kato, T.)

  13. Estimation of coronary wave intensity analysis using noninvasive techniques and its application to exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyd, Christopher J; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo; Jones, Siana; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Foin, Nicolas; Al-Bustami, Mahmud; Sethi, Amarjit; Kaprielian, Raffi; Ramrakha, Punit; Khan, Masood; Malik, Iqbal S; Francis, Darrel P; Parker, Kim; Hughes, Alun D; Mikhail, Ghada W; Mayet, Jamil; Davies, Justin E

    2016-03-01

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) has found particular applicability in the coronary circulation where it can quantify traveling waves that accelerate and decelerate blood flow. The most important wave for the regulation of flow is the backward-traveling decompression wave (BDW). Coronary WIA has hitherto always been calculated from invasive measures of pressure and flow. However, recently it has become feasible to obtain estimates of these waveforms noninvasively. In this study we set out to assess the agreement between invasive and noninvasive coronary WIA at rest and measure the effect of exercise. Twenty-two patients (mean age 60) with unobstructed coronaries underwent invasive WIA in the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Immediately afterwards, noninvasive LAD flow and pressure were recorded and WIA calculated from pulsed-wave Doppler coronary flow velocity and central blood pressure waveforms measured using a cuff-based technique. Nine of these patients underwent noninvasive coronary WIA assessment during exercise. A pattern of six waves were observed in both modalities. The BDW was similar between invasive and noninvasive measures [peak: 14.9 ± 7.8 vs. -13.8 ± 7.1 × 10(4) W·m(-2)·s(-2), concordance correlation coefficient (CCC): 0.73, P Exercise increased the BDW: at maximum exercise peak BDW was -47.0 ± 29.5 × 10(4) W·m(-2)·s(-2) (P Physiological Society.

  14. On the background estimation by time slides in a network of gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, Michal; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Leroy, Nicolas; Robinet, Florent; Vavoulidis, Miltiadis

    2010-01-01

    Time shifting the outputs of gravitational wave detectors operating in coincidence is a convenient way to estimate the background in a search for short-duration signals. However, this procedure is limited as increasing indefinitely the number of time shifts does not provide better estimates. We show that the false alarm rate estimation error saturates with the number of time shifts. In particular, for detectors with very different trigger rates, this error saturates at a large value. Explicit computations are done for two detectors, and for three detectors where the detection statistic relies on the logical 'OR' of the coincidences of the three couples in the network.

  15. On the background estimation by time slides in a network of gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, Michal; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Leroy, Nicolas; Robinet, Florent; Vavoulidis, Miltiadis, E-mail: mwas@lal.in2p3.f [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2010-01-07

    Time shifting the outputs of gravitational wave detectors operating in coincidence is a convenient way to estimate the background in a search for short-duration signals. However, this procedure is limited as increasing indefinitely the number of time shifts does not provide better estimates. We show that the false alarm rate estimation error saturates with the number of time shifts. In particular, for detectors with very different trigger rates, this error saturates at a large value. Explicit computations are done for two detectors, and for three detectors where the detection statistic relies on the logical 'OR' of the coincidences of the three couples in the network.

  16. Estimating Wind and Wave Induced Forces On a Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Natarajan, Anand; Kim, Taeseong

    2013-01-01

    -principles derived state space model of the floating wind turbine. The ability to estimate aero- and hydrodynamic states could prove crucial for the performance of model-based control methods applied on floating wind turbines. Furthermore, two types of water kinematics have been compared two determine whether......In this work, the basic model for a spar buoy floating wind turbine [1], used by an extended Kalman filter, is presented and results concerning wind speed and wave force estimations are shown. The wind speed and aerodynamic forces are estimated using an extended Kalman filter based on a first...... or not linear and nonlinear water kinematics lead to significantly different loads....

  17. The physical basis for estimating wave energy spectra from SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzenga, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Ocean surface waves are imaged by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) through a combination of the effects of changes in the surface slope, surface roughness, and surface motion. Over a limited range of conditions, each of these effects can be described in terms of a linear modulation-transfer function. In such cases, the wave-height spectrum can be estimated in a straightforward manner from the SAR image-intensity spectrum. The range of conditions over which this assumption of linearity is valid is investigated using a numerical simulation model, and the implications of various departures from linearity are discussed.

  18. Evaluation and adjustment of altimeter measurement and numerical hindcast in wave height trend estimation in China's coastal seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuiqing; Guan, Shoude; Hou, Yijun; Liu, Yahao; Bi, Fan

    2018-05-01

    A long-term trend of significant wave height (SWH) in China's coastal seas was examined based on three datasets derived from satellite measurements and numerical hindcasts. One set of altimeter data were obtained from the GlobWave, while the other two datasets of numerical hindcasts were obtained from the third-generation wind wave model, WAVEWATCH III, forced by wind fields from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) and NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). The mean and extreme wave trends were estimated for the period 1992-2010 with respect to the annual mean and the 99th-percentile values of SWH, respectively. The altimeter wave trend estimates feature considerable uncertainties owing to the sparse sampling rate. Furthermore, the extreme wave trend tends to be overestimated because of the increasing sampling rate over time. Numerical wave trends strongly depend on the quality of the wind fields, as the CCMP waves significantly overestimate the wave trend, whereas the CFSR waves tend to underestimate the trend. Corresponding adjustments were applied which effectively improved the trend estimates from the altimeter and numerical data. The adjusted results show generally increasing mean wave trends, while the extreme wave trends are more spatially-varied, from decreasing trends prevailing in the South China Sea to significant increasing trends mainly in the East China Sea.

  19. Estimation of in-situ stresses in concrete members using polarized ultrasonic shear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew; Schumacher, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic testing is commonly used to detect flaws, estimate geometries, and characterize properties of materials and structures. Acoustoelasticity refers to the dependency of stress wave velocity with applied stresses and is a phenomenon that has been known by geophysicists since the 1960s. A way to capitalize on this effect for concrete applications is by using ultrasonic shear waves which are particularly sensitive to applied stresses when polarized in the direction of the applied stress. The authors conducted an experiment on a 150 mm (6 in.) diameter concrete cylinder specimen with a length of 305 mm (12 in.) that was loaded in discrete load steps to failure. At each load step two ultrasonic shear waves were transmitted through the specimen, one with the polarization perpendicular and the other transverse to the applied stress. The velocity difference between the two sets of polarized shear waves was found to correlate with the applied stress in the specimen. Two potential applications for this methodology include estimation of stresses in pre-stressed concrete bridge girders and investigation of load redistribution in structural support elements after extreme events. This paper introduces the background of the methodology, presents an analysis of the collected data, and discusses the relationship between the recorded signals and the applied stress.

  20. Spiral-shaped piezoelectric sensors for Lamb waves direction of arrival (DoA) estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, L.; Testoni, N.; Marzani, A.

    2018-04-01

    A novel strategy to design piezoelectric sensors suited for direction of arrival (DoA) estimation of incoming Lamb waves is presented in this work. The designed sensor is composed by two piezoelectric patches (P1, P2) bonded on the structure to be inspected. In particular, by exploiting the Radon transform, the proposed procedure computes the shape of P2 given the shape of P1 so that the difference in time of arrival (DToA) of the Lamb waves at the two patches is linearly related to the DoA while being agnostic of the waveguide dispersion curves. With a dedicated processing procedure, the waveforms acquired from the two electrodes and digitized can be used to retrieve the DoA information. Numerical and experimental results show that DoA estimation performed by means of the proposed shaped transducers is extremely robust.

  1. Gravitational Waves: Search Results, Data Analysis and Parameter Estimation. Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astone, Pia; Weinstein, Alan; Agathos, Michalis; Bejger, Michal; Christensen, Nelson; Dent, Thomas; Graff, Philip; Klimenko, Sergey; Mazzolo, Giulio; Nishizawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 on gravitational wave(GW) search results, data analysis and parameter estimation included three lively sessions of lectures by 13 presenters, and 34 posters. The talks and posters covered a huge range of material, including results and analysis techniques for ground-based GW detectors, targeting anticipated signals from different astrophysical sources: compact binary inspiral, merger and ringdown; GW bursts from intermediate mass binary black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, core-collapse supernovae, and other unmodeled sources; continuous waves from spinning neutron stars; and a stochastic GW background. There was considerable emphasis on Bayesian techniques for estimating the parameters of coalescing compact binary systems from the gravitational waveforms extracted from the data from the advanced detector network. This included methods to distinguish deviations of the signals from what is expected in the context of General Relativity.

  2. Gravitational waves: search results, data analysis and parameter estimation: Amaldi 10 Parallel session C2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astone, Pia; Weinstein, Alan; Agathos, Michalis; Bejger, Michał; Christensen, Nelson; Dent, Thomas; Graff, Philip; Klimenko, Sergey; Mazzolo, Giulio; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Robinet, Florent; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; Veitch, John; Wade, Madeline; Aoudia, Sofiane; Bose, Sukanta; Calderon Bustillo, Juan; Canizares, Priscilla; Capano, Colin; Clark, James; Colla, Alberto; Cuoco, Elena; Da Silva Costa, Carlos; Dal Canton, Tito; Evangelista, Edgar; Goetz, Evan; Gupta, Anuradha; Hannam, Mark; Keitel, David; Lackey, Benjamin; Logue, Joshua; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan; Piergiovanni, Francesco; Privitera, Stephen; Prix, Reinhard; Pürrer, Michael; Re, Virginia; Serafinelli, Roberto; Wade, Leslie; Wen, Linqing; Wette, Karl; Whelan, John; Palomba, C; Prodi, G

    The Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 on gravitational wave (GW) search results, data analysis and parameter estimation included three lively sessions of lectures by 13 presenters, and 34 posters. The talks and posters covered a huge range of material, including results and analysis techniques for ground-based GW detectors, targeting anticipated signals from different astrophysical sources: compact binary inspiral, merger and ringdown; GW bursts from intermediate mass binary black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, core-collapse supernovae, and other unmodeled sources; continuous waves from spinning neutron stars; and a stochastic GW background. There was considerable emphasis on Bayesian techniques for estimating the parameters of coalescing compact binary systems from the gravitational waveforms extracted from the data from the advanced detector network. This included methods to distinguish deviations of the signals from what is expected in the context of General Relativity.

  3. Estimates of ocean wave heights and attenuation in sea ice using the SAR wave mode on Sentinel-1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Chapron, Bertrand; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Guitton, Gilles; Mouche, Alexis; Stopa, Justin E.

    2015-04-01

    Swell evolution from the open ocean into sea ice is poorly understood, in particular the amplitude attenuation expected from scattering and dissipation. New synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from Sentinel-1A wave mode reveal intriguing patterns of bright oscillating lines shaped like instant noodles. We investigate cases in which the oscillations are in the azimuth direction, around a straight line in the range direction. This observation is interpreted as the distortion by the SAR processing of crests from a first swell, due to the presence of a second swell. Since deviations from a straight line should be proportional to the orbital velocity toward the satellite, swell height can be estimated, from 1.5 to 5 m in the present case. The evolution of this 13 s period swell across the ice pack is consistent with an exponential attenuation on a length scale of 200 km.

  4. The Magnitude of Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease Attributed to Occupational Factors in Korea - Attributable Fraction Estimation Using Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyeok Ha

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: We estimated occupational IHD mortality of Korea with updated data and more relevant evidence. Despite the efforts to obtain reliable estimates, there were many assumptions and limitations that must be overcome. Future research based on more precise design and reliable evidence is required for more accurate estimates.

  5. Statistical significant change versus relevant or important change in (quasi) experimental design : some conceptual and methodological problems in estimating magnitude of intervention-related change in health services research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, Berrie; van Sonderen, Eric

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to identify problems in estimating and the interpretation of the magnitude of intervention-related change over time or responsiveness assessed with health outcome measures. Responsiveness is a problematic construct and there is no consensus on how to quantify the appropriate index to

  6. Estimation of Delta Wave by Mutual Information of Heartbeat During Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kajiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    The quality of sleep is evaluated based on the sleep stages judged by R-K method or the manual of American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The brainwaves, eye movements, and chin EMG of sleeping subjects are used for the judgment. These methods above, however, require some electrodes to be attached to the head and the face to obtain the brainwaves, eye movements, and chin EMG, thus making the measurements troublesome to be held on a daily basis. If non-invasive measurements of brainwaves, eye movements, and chin EMG are feasible, or their equivalent data can be estimated through other bio-signals, the monitoring of the quality of daily sleeps, which influences the health condition, will be easy. In this paper, we discuss the appearance rate of delta wave occurrences, which is deeply related with the depth of sleep, can be estimated based on the average amount of mutual information calculated by pulse wave signals and body movements measured non-invasively by the pneumatic method. As a result, the root mean square error between the appearance rate of delta wave occurrences measured with a polysomnography and the estimated delta pulse was 14.93%.

  7. A continuous wave fan beam tomography system having a best estimating filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    A continuous wave fan beam tomographic system is described which continuously samples X-ray absorption values and a means of providing a best-estimate of the X-ray absorption values at discrete points in time determined by sampling signal s(t). The means to provide the best-estimate include a continuous filter having a frequency range defined by the geometry of the mechanical system. Errors due to the statistical variation in photon emissions of the X-ray source are thereby minimized and the effective signal-to-noise ratio of signals is enhanced, which in turn allows a significant reduction in radiation dosage. (author)

  8. Estimating the Wet-Rock P-Wave Velocity from the Dry-Rock P-Wave Velocity for Pyroclastic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Sair; Fener, Mustafa; Kilic, Cumhur Ozcan

    2017-07-01

    Seismic methods are widely used for the geotechnical investigations in volcanic areas or for the determination of the engineering properties of pyroclastic rocks in laboratory. Therefore, developing a relation between the wet- and dry-rock P-wave velocities will be helpful for engineers when evaluating the formation characteristics of pyroclastic rocks. To investigate the predictability of the wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity for pyroclastic rocks P-wave velocity measurements were conducted on 27 different pyroclastic rocks. In addition, dry-rock S-wave velocity measurements were conducted. The test results were modeled using Gassmann's and Wood's theories and it was seen that estimates for saturated P-wave velocity from the theories fit well measured data. For samples having values of less and greater than 20%, practical equations were derived for reliably estimating wet-rock P-wave velocity as function of dry-rock P-wave velocity.

  9. Parametric validations of analytical lifetime estimates for radiation belt electron diffusion by whistler waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifetimes of electrons trapped in Earth's radiation belts can be calculated from quasi-linear pitch-angle diffusion by whistler-mode waves, provided that their frequency spectrum is broad enough and/or their average amplitude is not too large. Extensive comparisons between improved analytical lifetime estimates and full numerical calculations have been performed in a broad parameter range representative of a large part of the magnetosphere from L ~ 2 to 6. The effects of observed very oblique whistler waves are taken into account in both numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical lifetimes (and pitch-angle diffusion coefficients are found to be in good agreement with full numerical calculations based on CRRES and Cluster hiss and lightning-generated wave measurements inside the plasmasphere and Cluster lower-band chorus waves measurements in the outer belt for electron energies ranging from 100 keV to 5 MeV. Comparisons with lifetimes recently obtained from electron flux measurements on SAMPEX, SCATHA, SAC-C and DEMETER also show reasonable agreement.

  10. Artificial Intelligence Estimation of Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity using Carotid Waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Peyman; Razavi, Marianne; Pahlevan, Niema M

    2018-01-17

    In this article, we offer an artificial intelligence method to estimate the carotid-femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) non-invasively from one uncalibrated carotid waveform measured by tonometry and few routine clinical variables. Since the signal processing inputs to this machine learning algorithm are sensor agnostic, the presented method can accompany any medical instrument that provides a calibrated or uncalibrated carotid pressure waveform. Our results show that, for an unseen hold back test set population in the age range of 20 to 69, our model can estimate PWV with a Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of 1.12 m/sec compared to the reference method. The results convey the fact that this model is a reliable surrogate of PWV. Our study also showed that estimated PWV was significantly associated with an increased risk of CVDs.

  11. Estimation of the anisotropy parameters from imaging moveout of diving wave in a factorized anisotropic medium

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shibo

    2016-06-10

    The importance of diving waves is being realized because they provide long-wavelength model information, which can be used to help invert for the reflection information in full-waveform inversion. The factorized model is defined here as a combination of vertical heterogeneity and constant anisotropy, and it admits closed-form description of the traveltime. We have used these resulting analytical formulas to describe the behavior of diving waves in a factorized anisotropic medium, and we used an approximate imaging moveout formulation (residual moveout after imaging) to update the velocity model when the wrong model parameters (isotropic assumption) were used for imaging. We then used these analytical representations of the image moveout to establish a semblance analysis framework to search for the optimal anisotropic parameters. We have also discussed different parameterizations of the factorized medium to find the one that gave the best accuracy in anisotropy parameters estimation.

  12. Medium change based image estimation from application of inverse algorithms to coda wave measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hanyu; Jiang, Hanwan; Jiang, Ruinian

    2018-03-01

    Perturbations worked as extra scatters will cause coda waveform distortions; thus, coda wave with long propagation time and traveling path are sensitive to micro-defects in strongly heterogeneous media such as concretes. In this paper, we conduct varied external loads on a life-size concrete slab which contains multiple existing micro-cracks, and a couple of sources and receivers are installed to collect coda wave signals. The waveform decorrelation coefficients (DC) at different loads are calculated for all available source-receiver pair measurements. Then inversions of the DC results are applied to estimate the associated distribution density values in three-dimensional regions through kernel sensitivity model and least-square algorithms, which leads to the images indicating the micro-cracks positions. This work provides an efficiently non-destructive approach to detect internal defects and damages of large-size concrete structures.

  13. Estimation of the anisotropy parameters from imaging moveout of diving wave in a factorized anisotropic medium

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shibo; Stovas, Alexey; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    The importance of diving waves is being realized because they provide long-wavelength model information, which can be used to help invert for the reflection information in full-waveform inversion. The factorized model is defined here as a combination of vertical heterogeneity and constant anisotropy, and it admits closed-form description of the traveltime. We have used these resulting analytical formulas to describe the behavior of diving waves in a factorized anisotropic medium, and we used an approximate imaging moveout formulation (residual moveout after imaging) to update the velocity model when the wrong model parameters (isotropic assumption) were used for imaging. We then used these analytical representations of the image moveout to establish a semblance analysis framework to search for the optimal anisotropic parameters. We have also discussed different parameterizations of the factorized medium to find the one that gave the best accuracy in anisotropy parameters estimation.

  14. Bed Evolution under Rapidly Varying Flows by a New Method for Wave Speed Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawar Rehman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sediment-transport model based on coupled Saint-Venant and Exner equations. A finite volume method of Godunov type with predictor-corrector steps is used to solve a set of coupled equations. An efficient combination of approximate Riemann solvers is proposed to compute fluxes associated with sediment-laden flow. In addition, a new method is proposed for computing the water depth and velocity values along the shear wave. This method ensures smooth solutions, even for flows with high discontinuities, and on domains with highly distorted grids. The numerical model is tested for channel aggradation on a sloping bottom, dam-break cases at flume-scale and reach-scale with flat bottom configurations and varying downstream water depths. The proposed model is tested for predicting the position of hydraulic jump, wave front propagation, and for predicting magnitude of bed erosion. The comparison between results based on the proposed scheme and analytical, experimental, and published numerical results shows good agreement. Sensitivity analysis shows that the model is computationally efficient and virtually independent of mesh refinement.

  15. Distribution of base rock depth estimated from Rayleigh wave measurement by forced vibration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Hibino; Toshiro Maeda; Chiaki Yoshimura; Yasuo Uchiyama

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows an application of Rayleigh wave methods to a real site, which was performed to determine spatial distribution of base rock depth from the ground surface. At a certain site in Sagami Plain in Japan, the base rock depth from surface is assumed to be distributed up to 10 m according to boring investigation. Possible accuracy of the base rock depth distribution has been needed for the pile design and construction. In order to measure Rayleigh wave phase velocity, forced vibration tests were conducted with a 500 N vertical shaker and linear arrays of three vertical sensors situated at several points in two zones around the edges of the site. Then, inversion analysis was carried out for soil profile by genetic algorithm, simulating measured Rayleigh wave phase velocity with the computed counterpart. Distribution of the base rock depth inverted from the analysis was consistent with the roughly estimated inclination of the base rock obtained from the boring tests, that is, the base rock is shallow around edge of the site and gradually inclines towards the center of the site. By the inversion analysis, the depth of base rock was determined as from 5 m to 6 m in the edge of the site, 10 m in the center of the site. The determined distribution of the base rock depth by this method showed good agreement on most of the points where boring investigation were performed. As a result, it was confirmed that the forced vibration tests on the ground by Rayleigh wave methods can be useful as the practical technique for estimating surface soil profiles to a depth of up to 10 m. (authors)

  16. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50MT of plutonium using new facilities at the Savannah River site: alternative 12A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons of plutonium using ceramic in a new facility at Savannah River Site (SRS)

  17. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternative 12B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons of plutonium using ceramic in an existing facility (221-F) at an Savannah River Site (SRS)

  18. Adaptive observer for the joint estimation of parameters and input for a coupled wave PDE and infinite dimensional ODE system

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Mechhoud, Sarra; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with joint parameters and input estimation for coupled PDE-ODE system. The system consists of a damped wave equation and an infinite dimensional ODE. This model describes the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response in the brain

  19. Uncertainty Estimation of Shear-wave Velocity Structure from Bayesian Inversion of Microtremor Array Dispersion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosso, S. E.; Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J.

    2010-12-01

    Bayesian inversion of microtremor array dispersion data is applied, with evaluation of data errors and model parameterization, to produce the most-probable shear-wave velocity (VS) profile together with quantitative uncertainty estimates. Generally, the most important property characterizing earthquake site response is the subsurface VS structure. The microtremor array method determines phase velocity dispersion of Rayleigh surface waves from multi-instrument recordings of urban noise. Inversion of dispersion curves for VS structure is a non-unique and nonlinear problem such that meaningful evaluation of confidence intervals is required. Quantitative uncertainty estimation requires not only a nonlinear inversion approach that samples models proportional to their probability, but also rigorous estimation of the data error statistics and an appropriate model parameterization. A Bayesian formulation represents the solution of the inverse problem in terms of the posterior probability density (PPD) of the geophysical model parameters. Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods are used with an efficient implementation of Metropolis-Hastings sampling to provide an unbiased sample from the PPD to compute parameter uncertainties and inter-relationships. Nonparametric estimation of a data error covariance matrix from residual analysis is applied with rigorous a posteriori statistical tests to validate the covariance estimate and the assumption of a Gaussian error distribution. The most appropriate model parameterization is determined using the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), which provides the simplest model consistent with the resolving power of the data. Parameter uncertainties are found to be under-estimated when data error correlations are neglected and when compressional-wave velocity and/or density (nuisance) parameters are fixed in the inversion. Bayesian inversion of microtremor array data is applied at two sites in British Columbia, the area of highest seismic risk in

  20. Estimating seismic moment magnitude (Mw) of tremor bursts in northern Cascadia: Implications for the “seismic efficiency” of episodic tremor and slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Honn; Wang, Kelin; Dragert, Herb; Kao, Jason Y.; Rogers, Garry

    2010-10-01

    We develop a method to estimate the seismic moments of deep non-volcanic tremor bursts observed in northern Cascadia. For each tremor burst, the maximum amplitudes at individual stations within a time window ±5 s around the predicted arrivals of the S phase are measured and compared to the maximum S amplitudes measured from synthetic seismograms. The proposed method is thoroughly calibrated using 464 local earthquakes and the results show excellent consistency between the reported ML and the estimated Mw. We apply the method to northern Cascadia tremors and infer that most bursts have Mw˜1.0-1.7. The corresponding b value appears to be 1, consistent with that of ordinary earthquakes but over a narrower Mw range. Comparison of cumulative tremor Mw and the Mw estimated from the accompanying slow slip suggests that the “seismic efficiency” of the Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) is of the order of 0.1% or less.

  1. Automated Determination of Magnitude and Source Length of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Kawakatsu, H.; Zhuang, J.; Mori, J. J.; Maeda, T.; Tsuruoka, H.; Zhao, X.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid determination of earthquake magnitude is of importance for estimating shaking damages, and tsunami hazards. However, due to the complexity of source process, accurately estimating magnitude for great earthquakes in minutes after origin time is still a challenge. Mw is an accurate estimate for large earthquakes. However, calculating Mw requires the whole wave trains including P, S, and surface phases, which takes tens of minutes to reach stations at tele-seismic distances. To speed up the calculation, methods using W phase and body wave are developed for fast estimating earthquake sizes. Besides these methods that involve Green's Functions and inversions, there are other approaches that use empirically simulated relations to estimate earthquake magnitudes, usually for large earthquakes. The nature of simple implementation and straightforward calculation made these approaches widely applied at many institutions such as the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, the Japan Meteorological Agency, and the USGS. Here we developed an approach that was originated from Hara [2007], estimating magnitude by considering P-wave displacement and source duration. We introduced a back-projection technique [Wang et al., 2016] instead to estimate source duration using array data from a high-sensitive seismograph network (Hi-net). The introduction of back-projection improves the method in two ways. Firstly, the source duration could be accurately determined by seismic array. Secondly, the results can be more rapidly calculated, and data derived from farther stations are not required. We purpose to develop an automated system for determining fast and reliable source information of large shallow seismic events based on real time data of a dense regional array and global data, for earthquakes that occur at distance of roughly 30°- 85° from the array center. This system can offer fast and robust estimates of magnitudes and rupture extensions of large earthquakes in 6 to 13 min (plus

  2. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at Hanford: alternatives 4A/8/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), at Hanford

  3. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at Hanford: alternative 11B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF)

  4. Estimates of azimuthal numbers associated with elementary elliptic cylinder wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V. A.; Radaev, Yu. N.

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with issues related to the construction of solutions, 2 π-periodic in the angular variable, of the Mathieu differential equation for the circular elliptic cylinder harmonics, the associated characteristic values, and the azimuthal numbers needed to form the elementary elliptic cylinder wave functions. A superposition of the latter is one possible form for representing the analytic solution of the thermoelastic wave propagation problem in long waveguides with elliptic cross-section contour. The classical Sturm-Liouville problem for the Mathieu equation is reduced to a spectral problem for a linear self-adjoint operator in the Hilbert space of infinite square summable two-sided sequences. An approach is proposed that permits one to derive rather simple algorithms for computing the characteristic values of the angular Mathieu equation with real parameters and the corresponding eigenfunctions. Priority is given to the application of the most symmetric forms and equations that have not yet been used in the theory of the Mathieu equation. These algorithms amount to constructing a matrix diagonalizing an infinite symmetric pentadiagonal matrix. The problem of generalizing the notion of azimuthal number of a wave propagating in a cylindrical waveguide to the case of elliptic geometry is considered. Two-sided mutually refining estimates are constructed for the spectral values of the Mathieu differential operator with periodic and half-periodic (antiperiodic) boundary conditions.

  5. Estimation of directional sea wave spectra from radar images. A Mediterranean Sea case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsini, G.; Grasso, R.; Manara, G.; Monorchio, A.

    2001-01-01

    An inversion technique for estimating sea wave directional spectra from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is applied to a set of ERS-1 data relevant to selected Mediterranean areas. The approach followed is based on the analytical definition of the transform which maps the sea wave spectrum onto the corresponding SAR image spectrum. The solution of the inverse problem is determined through a numerical procedure which minimises a proper functional. A suitable iterative scheme is adopted, involving the use of the above transform. Although widely applied to the ocean case, the method has not been yet extensively tested widely applied to the ocean case, the method has not been yet extensively tested in smaller scale basins, as for instance the Mediterranean sea. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical procedure discussed for retrieving the sea wave spectrum from SAR images. This work provides new experimental data relevant to the Mediterranean Sea, discusses the results obtained by the above inversion technique and compares them with buoy derived sea truth measurements

  6. Mantle Attenuation Estimated from Regional and Teleseismic P-waves of Deep Earthquakes and Surface Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, G.; Woods, M.; Dwyer, J.

    2014-03-01

    We estimated the network-averaged mantle attenuation t*(total) of 0.5 s beneath the North Korea test site (NKTS) by use of P-wave spectra and normalized spectral stacks from the 25 May 2009 declared nuclear test (mb 4.5; IDC). This value was checked using P-waves from seven deep (580-600 km) earthquakes (4.8 test, which confirms the equality with the sum of t*(u) and t*(d). We included constraints on seismic moment, depth, and radiation pattern by using results from a moment tensor analysis and corner frequencies from modeling of P-wave spectra recorded at local distances. We also avoided finite-faulting effects by excluding earthquakes with complex source time functions. We assumed ω2 source models for earthquakes and explosions. The mantle attenuation beneath the NKTS is clearly different when compared with the network-averaged t* of 0.75 s for the western US and is similar to values of approximately 0.5 s for the Semipalatinsk test site within the 0.5-2 Hz range.

  7. New moment magnitude scale, evidence of stress drop magnitude scaling and stochastic ground motion model for the French West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouet, Stéphane; Bouin, Marie-Paule; Cotton, Fabrice

    2011-12-01

    In this study we analyse records from the 'Les Saintes' seismic sequence following the Mw= 6.3 earthquake of 2004 November 11, which occurred close to Guadeloupe (French West Indies). 485 earthquakes with magnitudes from 2 to 6, recorded at distances between 5 and 150 km are used. S-waves Fourier spectra are analysed to simultaneously determine source, path and site terms. The results show that the duration magnitude routinely estimated for the events that occurred in the region underestimate moment magnitude by 0.5 magnitude units over the whole magnitude range. From the inverted seismic moments and corner frequencies, we compute Brune's stress drops. We show that stress drops increase with increasing magnitude. The same pattern is observed on apparent stresses (i.e. the seismic energy-to-moment ratio). However, the rate of increase diminishes at high magnitudes, which is consistent with a constant stress drop model for large events. Using the results of the inversions, we perform ground motion simulations for the entire data set using the SMSIM stochastic simulation tool. The results show that a good fit (σ= 0.25) with observed data is achieved when the source is properly described by its moment magnitude and stress drop, and when site effects are taken into account. Although the magnitude-dependent stress drop model is giving better results than the constant stress drop model, the interevent variability remains high, which could suggest that stress drop depends on other parameters such as the depth of the hypocentre. In any case, the overall variability is of the same order of magnitude as usually observed in empirical ground motion prediction equations.

  8. Estimation of power feedback parameters of the IBR-2M reactor by square wave reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelyshev, Yu.N.; Popov, A.K.; Sumkhuu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Parameters of the IBR-2M reactor power feedback (PFB) are estimated based on the analysis of power transients caused by deliberate square wave reactivity when the pulsed reactor operates in the self-regulation mode. The PFB of the IBR-2M is described by three linear first-order differential equations. Two components of the PFB are responsible for the negative feedback and one, for the positive. The overall feedback is negative, i.e., it has a stabilizing effect for the operation of the reactor. The slowest negative component of the PFB is probably caused by heating of the fuel. Periodically repeated in the process of exploitation, estimation of the PFB parameters is one of the methods to ensure safety operation of the reactor. [ru

  9. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium sharing existing facilities at Hanford with MOX fuel fabrication facility: alternative 4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), which is being costed in a separate report, will also be located in the FMEF in this co-location option

  10. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium sharing existing facilities at Hanford with pit disassembly and conversion facility: alternative 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), which is being costed in a separate report by LANL, will also be located in the FMEF in this co-location option

  11. Parameter estimation method that directly compares gravitational wave observations to numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, J.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Boyle, M.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, T.; Clark, J. A.; Demos, N.; Fong, H.; Healy, J.; Hemberger, D. A.; Hinder, I.; Jani, K.; Khamesra, B.; Kidder, L. E.; Kumar, P.; Laguna, P.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Pfeiffer, H.; Scheel, M. A.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Zlochower, Y.

    2017-11-01

    We present and assess a Bayesian method to interpret gravitational wave signals from binary black holes. Our method directly compares gravitational wave data to numerical relativity (NR) simulations. In this study, we present a detailed investigation of the systematic and statistical parameter estimation errors of this method. This procedure bypasses approximations used in semianalytical models for compact binary coalescence. In this work, we use the full posterior parameter distribution for only generic nonprecessing binaries, drawing inferences away from the set of NR simulations used, via interpolation of a single scalar quantity (the marginalized log likelihood, ln L ) evaluated by comparing data to nonprecessing binary black hole simulations. We also compare the data to generic simulations, and discuss the effectiveness of this procedure for generic sources. We specifically assess the impact of higher order modes, repeating our interpretation with both l ≤2 as well as l ≤3 harmonic modes. Using the l ≤3 higher modes, we gain more information from the signal and can better constrain the parameters of the gravitational wave signal. We assess and quantify several sources of systematic error that our procedure could introduce, including simulation resolution and duration; most are negligible. We show through examples that our method can recover the parameters for equal mass, zero spin, GW150914-like, and unequal mass, precessing spin sources. Our study of this new parameter estimation method demonstrates that we can quantify and understand the systematic and statistical error. This method allows us to use higher order modes from numerical relativity simulations to better constrain the black hole binary parameters.

  12. The importance of record length in estimating the magnitude of climatic changes: an example using 175 years of lake ice-out dates in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that lake ice-out (break-up) dates in the Northern Hemisphere are useful indicators of late winter/early spring climate change. Trends in lake ice-out dates in New England, USA, were analyzed for 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 year periods ending in 2008. More than 100 years of ice-out data were available for 19 of the 28 lakes in this study. The magnitude of trends over time depends on the length of the period considered. For the recent 25-year period, there was a mix of earlier and later ice-out dates. Lake ice-outs during the last 50 years became earlier by 1.8 days/decade (median change for all lakes with adequate data). This is a much higher rate than for longer historical periods; ice-outs became earlier by 0.6 days/decade during the last 75 years, 0.4 days/ decade during the last 100 years, and 0.6 days/decade during the last 125 years. The significance of trends was assessed under the assumption of serial independence of historical ice-out dates and under the assumption of short and long term persistence. Hypolimnion dissolved oxygen (DO) levels are an important factor in lake eutrophication and coldwater fish survival. Based on historical data available at three lakes, 32 to 46 % of the interannual variability of late summer hypolimnion DO levels was related to ice-out dates; earlier ice-outs were associated with lower DO levels.

  13. Comparison of different statistical methods for estimation of extreme sea levels with wave set-up contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergadallan, Xavier; Bernardara, Pietro; Benoit, Michel; Andreewsky, Marc; Weiss, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    Estimating the probability of occurrence of extreme sea levels is a central issue for the protection of the coast. Return periods of sea level with wave set-up contribution are estimated here in one site : Cherbourg in France in the English Channel. The methodology follows two steps : the first one is computation of joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level, the second one is interpretation of that joint probabilities to assess a sea level for a given return period. Two different approaches were evaluated to compute joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level : the first one is multivariate extreme values distributions of logistic type in which all components of the variables become large simultaneously, the second one is conditional approach for multivariate extreme values in which only one component of the variables have to be large. Two different methods were applied to estimate sea level with wave set-up contribution for a given return period : Monte-Carlo simulation in which estimation is more accurate but needs higher calculation time and classical ocean engineering design contours of type inverse-FORM in which the method is simpler and allows more complex estimation of wave setup part (wave propagation to the coast for example). We compare results from the two different approaches with the two different methods. To be able to use both Monte-Carlo simulation and design contours methods, wave setup is estimated with an simple empirical formula. We show advantages of the conditional approach compared to the multivariate extreme values approach when extreme sea-level occurs when either surge or wave height is large. We discuss the validity of the ocean engineering design contours method which is an alternative when computation of sea levels is too complex to use Monte-Carlo simulation method.

  14. Nonparametric estimation of the heterogeneity of a random medium using compound Poisson process modeling of wave multiple scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Nicolas; Margerin, Ludovic

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present a nonparametric method to estimate the heterogeneity of a random medium from the angular distribution of intensity of waves transmitted through a slab of random material. Our approach is based on the modeling of forward multiple scattering using compound Poisson processes on compact Lie groups. The estimation technique is validated through numerical simulations based on radiative transfer theory.

  15. Estimating the two-particle $K$-matrix for multiple partial waves and decay channels from finite-volume energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morningstar, Colin; Bulava, John; Singha, Bijit

    2017-01-01

    An implementation of estimating the two-to-two $K$-matrix from finite-volume energies based on the L\\"uscher formalism and involving a Hermitian matrix known as the "box matrix" is described. The method includes higher partial waves and multiple decay channels. Two fitting procedures for estimating...

  16. Two-component wind fields over ocean waves using atmospheric lidar and motion estimation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical models, such as large eddy simulations, are capable of providing stunning visualizations of the air-sea interface. One reason for this is the inherent spatial nature of such models. As compute power grows, models are able to provide higher resolution visualizations over larger domains revealing intricate details of the interactions of ocean waves and the airflow over them. Spatial observations on the other hand, which are necessary to validate the simulations, appear to lag behind models. The rough ocean environment of the real world is an additional challenge. One method of providing spatial observations of fluid flow is that of particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV has been successfully applied to many problems in engineering and the geosciences. This presentation will show recent research results that demonstate that a PIV-style approach using pulsed-fiber atmospheric elastic backscatter lidar hardware and wavelet-based optical flow motion estimation software can reveal two-component wind fields over rough ocean surfaces. Namely, a recently-developed compact lidar was deployed for 10 days in March of 2015 in the Eureka, California area. It scanned over the ocean. Imagery reveal that breaking ocean waves provide copius amounts of particulate matter for the lidar to detect and for the motion estimation algorithms to retrieve wind vectors from. The image below shows two examples of results from the experiment. The left panel shows the elastic backscatter intensity (copper shades) under a field of vectors that was retrieved by the wavelet-based optical flow algorithm from two scans that took about 15 s each to acquire. The vectors, that reveal offshore flow toward the NW, were decimated for clarity. The bright aerosol features along the right edge of the sector scan were caused by ocean waves breaking on the beach. The right panel is the result of scanning over the ocean on a day when wave amplitudes ranged from 8-12 feet and whitecaps offshore beyond the

  17. Background estimation in short-wave region during determination of total sample composition by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, V.A.; Kordyukov, S.V.; Petrov, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    Method of background estimation in short-wave spectral region during determination of total sample composition by X-ray fluorescence method is described. 13 types of different rocks with considerable variations of base composition and Zr, Nb, Th, U content below 7x10 -3 % are investigated. The suggested method of background accounting provides for a less statistical error of the background estimation than direct isolated measurement and reliability of its determination in a short-wave region independent on the sample base. Possibilities of suggested method for artificial mixtures conforming by the content of main component to technological concemtrates - niobium, zirconium, tantalum are estimated

  18. Electromagnetic modelling of Raman enhancement from nanoscale substrates: a route to estimation of the magnitude of the chemical enhancement mechanism in SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J C; Wang, Jian; Tantra, Ratna; Yardley, Rachel E; Milton, Martin J T

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread use for more than two decades, the SERS phenomenon has defied accurate physical and chemical explanation. The relative contributions from electronic and chemical mechanisms are difficult to quantify and are often not reproduced under nominally similar experimental conditions. This work has used electromagnetic modelling to predict the Raman enhancement expected from three configurations: metal nanoparticles, structured metal surfaces, and sharp metal tips interacting with metal surfaces. In each case, parameters such as artefact size, artefact separation and incident radiation wavelength have been varied and the resulting electromagnetic field modelled. This has yielded an electromagnetic description of these configurations with predictions of the maximum expected Raman enhancement, and hence a prediction of the optimum substrate configuration for the SERS process. When combined with experimental observations of the dependence of Raman enhancement with changing ionic strength, the modelling results have allowed a novel estimate of the size of the chemical enhancement mechanism to be produced.

  19. Estimation of S-wave Velocity Structures by Using Microtremor Array Measurements for Subsurface Modeling in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ridwan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta is located on a thick sedimentary layer that potentially has a very high seismic wave amplification. However, the available information concerning the subsurface model and bedrock depth is insufficient for a seismic hazard analysis. In this study, a microtremor array method was applied to estimate the geometry and S-wave velocity of the sedimentary layer. The spatial autocorrelation (SPAC method was applied to estimate the dispersion curve, while the S-wave velocity was estimated using a genetic algorithm approach. The analysis of the 1D and 2D S-wave velocity profiles shows that along a north-south line, the sedimentary layer is thicker towards the north. It has a positive correlation with a geological cross section derived from a borehole down to a depth of about 300 m. The SPT data from the BMKG site were used to verify the 1D S-wave velocity profile. They show a good agreement. The microtremor analysis reached the engineering bedrock in a range from 359 to 608 m as depicted by a cross section in the north-south direction. The site class was also estimated at each site, based on the average S-wave velocity until 30 m depth. The sites UI to ISTN belong to class D (medium soil, while BMKG and ANCL belong to class E (soft soil.

  20. Arterial wave reflections and kidney function decline among persons with preserved estimated glomerular filtration rate: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeffrey J; Katz, Ronit; Chirinos, Julio A; Jacobs, David R; Duprez, Daniel A; Peralta, Carmen A

    2016-05-01

    Differences in arterial wave reflections have been associated with increased risk for heart failure and mortality. Whether these measures are also associated with kidney function decline is not well established. Reflection magnitude (RM, defined as the ratio of the backward wave [Pb] to that of the forward wave [Pf]), augmentation index (AIx), and pulse pressure amplification (PPA) were derived from radial tonometry measures among 5232 participants free of cardiovascular disease who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Kidney function was estimated by creatinine and cystatin C measurements, as well as albumin-to-creatinine ratio. We evaluated the associations of Pb, Pf, RM, AIx, and PPA with annualized estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change and rapid kidney function decline over 5 years, using generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression, respectively. Of the study participants, 48% were male, mean age was 62 years, mean eGFR and median albumin-to-creatinine ratio at baseline were 84 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 5.3 mg/g, respectively. In demographically adjusted models, both Pb and Pf had similarly strong associations with kidney function decline; compared to those in the lowest tertiles, the persons in the highest tertiles of Pb and Pf had a 1.01 and 0.99 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year faster eGFR decline, respectively (P function decline. In conclusion, the reflected and forward wave components were similarly associated with kidney function decline, and these associations were explained by differences in systolic blood pressure. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating the magnitude of annual peak discharges with recurrence intervals between 1.1 and 3.0 years for rural, unregulated streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Atkins, John T.; Newell, Dawn A.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple and simple least-squares regression models for the log10-transformed 1.5- and 2-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges with independent variables describing the basin characteristics (log10-transformed and untransformed) for 236 streamflow-gaging stations were evaluated, and the regression residuals were plotted as areal distributions that defined three regions in West Virginia designated as East, North, and South. Regional equations for the 1.1-, 1.2-, 1.3-, 1.4-, 1.5-, 1.6-, 1.7-, 1.8-, 1.9-, 2.0-, 2.5-, and 3-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression. Log10-transformed drainage area was the most significant independent variable for all regions. Equations developed in this study are applicable only to rural, unregulated streams within the boundaries of West Virginia. The accuracies of estimating equations are quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 27.4 to 52.4 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 1.1 to 3.4 years).

  2. Four-dimensional parameter estimation of plane waves using swarming intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman Fawad; Munir Fahad; Khan Zafar Ullah; Qureshi Ijaz Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient approach for four-dimensional (4D) parameter estimation of plane waves impinging on a 2-L shape array. The 4D parameters include amplitude, frequency and the two-dimensional (2D) direction of arrival, namely, azimuth and elevation angles. The proposed approach is based on memetic computation, in which the global optimizer, particle swarm optimization is hybridized with a rapid local search technique, pattern search. For this purpose, a new multi-objective fitness function is used. This fitness function is the combination of mean square error and the correlation between the normalized desired and estimated vectors. The proposed hybrid scheme is not only compared with individual performances of particle swarm optimization and pattern search, but also with the performance of the hybrid genetic algorithm and that of the traditional approach. A large number of Monte—Carlo simulations are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed scheme. It gives promising results in terms of estimation accuracy, convergence rate, proximity effect and robustness against noise. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. A new code for parameter estimation in searches for gravitational waves from known pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkin, M; Gill, C; Macdonald, E; Woan, G; Veitch, J

    2012-01-01

    We describe the consistency testing of a new code for gravitational wave signal parameter estimation in known pulsar searches. The code uses an implementation of nested sampling to explore the likelihood volume. Using fake signals and simulated noise we compare this to a previous code that calculated the signal parameter posterior distributions on both a grid and using a crude Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. We define a new parameterisation of two orientation angles of neutron stars used in the signal model (the initial phase and polarisation angle), which breaks a degeneracy between them and allows more efficient exploration of those parameters. Finally, we briefly describe potential areas for further study and the uses of this code in the future.

  4. Tracking shocked dust: State estimation for a complex plasma during a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxtoby, Neil P.; Ralph, Jason F.; Durniak, Celine; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma crystal excited by an electrostatically-induced shock wave. Dust particle kinematics in such a system are usually determined using particle tracking velocimetry. In this work we present a particle tracking algorithm which determines the dust particle kinematics with significantly higher accuracy than particle tracking velocimetry. The algorithm uses multiple extended Kalman filters to estimate the particle states and an interacting multiple model to assign probabilities to the different filters. This enables the determination of relevant physical properties of the dust, such as kinetic energy and kinetic temperature, with high precision. We use a Hugoniot shock-jump relation to calculate a pressure-volume diagram from the shocked dust kinematics. Calculation of the full pressure-volume diagram was possible with our tracking algorithm, but not with particle tracking velocimetry.

  5. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  6. 2D Unitary ESPRIT Based Super-Resolution Channel Estimation for Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO with Hybrid Precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Anwen

    2017-11-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) with hybrid precoding is a promising technique for the future 5G wireless communications. Due to a large number of antennas but a much smaller number of radio frequency (RF) chains, estimating the high-dimensional mmWave massive MIMO channel will bring the large pilot overhead. To overcome this challenge, this paper proposes a super-resolution channel estimation scheme based on two-dimensional (2D) unitary ESPRIT algorithm. By exploiting the angular sparsity of mmWave channels, the continuously distributed angle of arrivals/departures (AoAs/AoDs) can be jointly estimated with high accuracy. Specifically, by designing the uplink training signals at both base station (BS) and mobile station (MS), we first use low pilot overhead to estimate a low-dimensional effective channel, which has the same shift-invariance of array response as the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel to be estimated. From the low-dimensional effective channel, the superresolution estimates of AoAs and AoDs can be jointly obtained by exploiting the 2D unitary ESPRIT channel estimation algorithm. Furthermore, the associated path gains can be acquired based on the least squares (LS) criterion. Finally, we can reconstruct the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel according to the obtained AoAs, AoDs, and path gains. Simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme is superior to conventional schemes with a much lower pilot overhead.

  7. 2D Unitary ESPRIT Based Super-Resolution Channel Estimation for Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO with Hybrid Precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Anwen; Gao, Zhen; Wu, Yongpeng; Wang, Hua; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) with hybrid precoding is a promising technique for the future 5G wireless communications. Due to a large number of antennas but a much smaller number of radio frequency (RF) chains, estimating the high-dimensional mmWave massive MIMO channel will bring the large pilot overhead. To overcome this challenge, this paper proposes a super-resolution channel estimation scheme based on two-dimensional (2D) unitary ESPRIT algorithm. By exploiting the angular sparsity of mmWave channels, the continuously distributed angle of arrivals/departures (AoAs/AoDs) can be jointly estimated with high accuracy. Specifically, by designing the uplink training signals at both base station (BS) and mobile station (MS), we first use low pilot overhead to estimate a low-dimensional effective channel, which has the same shift-invariance of array response as the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel to be estimated. From the low-dimensional effective channel, the superresolution estimates of AoAs and AoDs can be jointly obtained by exploiting the 2D unitary ESPRIT channel estimation algorithm. Furthermore, the associated path gains can be acquired based on the least squares (LS) criterion. Finally, we can reconstruct the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel according to the obtained AoAs, AoDs, and path gains. Simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme is superior to conventional schemes with a much lower pilot overhead.

  8. Rank-defective millimeter-wave channel estimation based on subspace-compressive sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shakhsi Dastgahian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter-wave communication (mmWC is considered as one of the pioneer candidates for 5G indoor and outdoor systems in E-band. To subdue the channel propagation characteristics in this band, high dimensional antenna arrays need to be deployed at both the base station (BS and mobile sets (MS. Unlike the conventional MIMO systems, Millimeter-wave (mmW systems lay away to employ the power predatory equipment such as ADC or RF chain in each branch of MIMO system because of hardware constraints. Such systems leverage to the hybrid precoding (combining architecture for downlink deployment. Because there is a large array at the transceiver, it is impossible to estimate the channel by conventional methods. This paper develops a new algorithm to estimate the mmW channel by exploiting the sparse nature of the channel. The main contribution is the representation of a sparse channel model and the exploitation of a modified approach based on Multiple Measurement Vector (MMV greedy sparse framework and subspace method of Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC which work together to recover the indices of non-zero elements of an unknown channel matrix when the rank of the channel matrix is defected. In practical rank-defective channels, MUSIC fails, and we need to propose new extended MUSIC approaches based on subspace enhancement to compensate the limitation of MUSIC. Simulation results indicate that our proposed extended MUSIC algorithms will have proper performances and moderate computational speeds, and that they are even able to work in channels with an unknown sparsity level.

  9. Pilot Study: Estimation of Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output from Pulse Wave Velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Obata

    Full Text Available Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is increasingly replacing thermodilution pulmonary artery catheters to assess hemodynamics in patients at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity. However, one of the drawbacks of TEE compared to pulmonary artery catheters is the inability to measure real time stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO continuously. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to validate a novel method of SV estimation, based on pulse wave velocity (PWV in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.This is a retrospective observational study. We measured pulse transit time by superimposing the radial arterial waveform onto the continuous wave Doppler waveform of the left ventricular outflow tract, and calculated SV (SVPWV using the transformed Bramwell-Hill equation. The SV measured by TEE (SVTEE was used as a reference.A total of 190 paired SV were measured from 28 patients. A strong correlation was observed between SVPWV and SVTEE with the coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.71. A mean difference between the two (bias was 3.70 ml with the limits of agreement ranging from -20.33 to 27.73 ml and a percentage error of 27.4% based on a Bland-Altman analysis. The concordance rate of two methods was 85.0% based on a four-quadrant plot. The angular concordance rate was 85.9% with radial limits of agreement (the radial sector that contained 95% of the data points of ± 41.5 degrees based on a polar plot.PWV based SV estimation yields reasonable agreement with SV measured by TEE. Further studies are required to assess its utility in different clinical situations.

  10. Estimation of Shear Wave Speed in the Rhesus Macaques Uterine Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Drehfal, Lindsey C.; Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Guerrero, Quinton W.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Simmons, Heather A.; Feltovich, Helen; Hall, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical softness is a critical parameter in pregnancy. Clinically, preterm birth is associated with premature cervical softening and post-dates birth is associated with delayed cervical softening. In practice, the assessment of softness is subjective, based on digital examination. Fortunately, objective, quantitative techniques to assess softness and other parameters associated with microstructural cervical change are emerging. One of these is shear wave speed (SWS) estimation. In principle, this allows objective characterization of stiffness because waves travel more slowly in softer tissue. We are studying SWS in humans and rhesus macaques, the latter in order to accelerate translation from bench to bedside. For the current study, we estimated SWS in ex vivo cervices of rhesus macaques, n=24 nulliparous (never given birth) and n=9 multiparous (delivered at least 1 baby). Misoprostol (a prostaglandin used to soften human cervices prior to gynecological procedures) was administered to 13 macaques prior to necropsy (nulliparous: 7, multiparous: 6). SWS measurements were made at predetermined locations from the distal to proximal end of the cervix on both the anterior and posterior cervix, with 5 repeat measures at each location. The intent was to explore macaque cervical microstructure, including biological and spatial variability, to elucidate the similarities and differences between the macaque and the human cervix in order to facilitate future in vivo studies. We found that SWS is dependent on location in the normal nonpregnant macaque cervix, as in the human cervix. Unlike the human cervix, we detected no difference between ripened and unripened rhesus macaque cervix samples, nor nulliparous versus multiparous samples, although we observed a trend toward stiffer tissue in nulliparous samples. We found rhesus macaque cervix to be much stiffer than human, which is important for technique refinement. These findings are useful for guiding study of cervical

  11. Pulse-wave propagation in straight-geometry vessels for stiffness estimation: theory, simulations, phantoms and in vitro findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Li, Ronny X; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2012-11-01

    Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method for noninvasive characterization of arterial stiffness based on pulse wave propagation. Reliable numerical models of pulse wave propagation in normal and pathological aortas could serve as powerful tools for local pulse wave analysis and a guideline for PWI measurements in vivo. The objectives of this paper are to (1) apply a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation of a straight-geometry aorta to confirm the Moens-Korteweg relationship between the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the wall modulus, and (2) validate the simulation findings against phantom and in vitro results. PWI depicted and tracked the pulse wave propagation along the abdominal wall of canine aorta in vitro in sequential Radio-Frequency (RF) ultrasound frames and estimates the PWV in the imaged wall. The same system was also used to image multiple polyacrylamide phantoms, mimicking the canine measurements as well as modeling softer and stiffer walls. Finally, the model parameters from the canine and phantom studies were used to perform 3D two-way coupled FSI simulations of pulse wave propagation and estimate the PWV. The simulation results were found to correlate well with the corresponding Moens-Korteweg equation. A high linear correlation was also established between PWV² and E measurements using the combined simulation and experimental findings (R² =  0.98) confirming the relationship established by the aforementioned equation.

  12. Estimação de magnitude do estresse, pelos alunos de graduação, quanto ao cuidado de enfermagem Estimación de magnitud de estrés frente a los cuidados de enfermería Magnitude estimation of stress in view of nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alessandra Evangelista

    2004-12-01

    úmero para cada cuidado que fuese proporcional a la cantidad de estrés proporcionada en su ejecución. Se obtuvo como resultado que el sondaje vesical permanente es considerado el cuidado más estresante, seguido del sondaje vesical temporal, y que la verificación de la temperatura fue considerada el cuidado menos estresante. Es necesaria la continuidad de los estudios, ofreciendo otras comparaciones y con otras muestras de población.Stress is defined as the physiological, psychological and behavioral response of an individual attempting to adapt to internal and external pressure. This study aimed at observing how nursing students perceive stress in view of the care delivered in hospitals. Direct psychophysical methods, ratio scale and cross-modality matching were used. The sample consisted of 15 students registered in the third term of a nursing program. The ratio scale for nursing care was subject to psychophysical validation through the cross-modality matching method. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire containing 15 types of nursing care delivered at hospitals, in which the task consisted in estimating a number for each type, which would be proportional to the amount of stress caused during its performance. Results showed that permanent vesical probing is considered the most stressful type of care, followed by relief vesical probing, and that temperature taking was regarded as the least stressful technique. There is a need for further study, through other comparisons and with other population samples.

  13. Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for OCD metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Liu, Shiyuan; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2011-12-01

    In most cases of optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology, when applying rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) to optical modeling, a high order of Fourier harmonics is usually set up to guarantee the convergence of the final results. However, the total number of floating point operations grows dramatically as the truncation order increases. Therefore, it is critical to choose an appropriate order to obtain high computational efficiency without losing much accuracy in the meantime. In this paper, the convergence order associated with the structural and optical parameters has been estimated through simulation. The results indicate that the convergence order is linear with the period of the sample when fixing the other parameters, both for planar diffraction and conical diffraction. The illuminated wavelength also affects the convergence of a final result. With further investigations concentrated on the ratio of illuminated wavelength to period, it is discovered that the convergence order decreases with the growth of the ratio, and when the ratio is fixed, convergence order jumps slightly, especially in a specific range of wavelength. This characteristic could be applied to estimate the optimum convergence order of given samples to obtain high computational efficiency.

  14. The moment magnitude M w and the energy magnitude M e: common roots and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Peter; di Giacomo, Domenico

    2011-04-01

    Starting from the classical empirical magnitude-energy relationships, in this article, the derivation of the modern scales for moment magnitude M w and energy magnitude M e is outlined and critically discussed. The formulas for M w and M e calculation are presented in a way that reveals, besides the contributions of the physically defined measurement parameters seismic moment M 0 and radiated seismic energy E S, the role of the constants in the classical Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-energy relationship. Further, it is shown that M w and M e are linked via the parameter Θ = log( E S/ M 0), and the formula for M e can be written as M e = M w + (Θ + 4.7)/1.5. This relationship directly links M e with M w via their common scaling to classical magnitudes and, at the same time, highlights the reason why M w and M e can significantly differ. In fact, Θ is assumed to be constant when calculating M w. However, variations over three to four orders of magnitude in stress drop Δ σ (as well as related variations in rupture velocity V R and seismic wave radiation efficiency η R) are responsible for the large variability of actual Θ values of earthquakes. As a result, for the same earthquake, M e may sometimes differ by more than one magnitude unit from M w. Such a difference is highly relevant when assessing the actual damage potential associated with a given earthquake, because it expresses rather different static and dynamic source properties. While M w is most appropriate for estimating the earthquake size (i.e., the product of rupture area times average displacement) and thus the potential tsunami hazard posed by strong and great earthquakes in marine environs, M e is more suitable than M w for assessing the potential hazard of damage due to strong ground shaking, i.e., the earthquake strength. Therefore, whenever possible, these two magnitudes should be both independently determined and jointly considered. Usually, only M w is taken as a unified magnitude in many

  15. Moment magnitude scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, T.C.; Kanamori, H.

    1979-05-10

    The nearly conincident forms of the relations between seismic moment M/sub o/ and the magnitudes M/sub L/, M/sub s/, and M/sub w/ imply a moment magnitude scale M=2/3 log M/sub o/-10.7 which is uniformly valid for 3< or approx. =M/sub L/< or approx. = 7, 5 < or approx. =M/sub s/< or approx. =7 1/2 and M/sub w/> or approx. = 7 1/2.

  16. Statistical parameters of random heterogeneity estimated by analysing coda waves based on finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, K.; Saito, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Short-period (2 s) seismograms. We found that the energy of the coda of long-period seismograms shows a spatially flat distribution. This phenomenon is well known in short-period seismograms and results from the scattering by small-scale heterogeneities. We estimate the statistical parameters that characterize the small-scale random heterogeneity by modelling the spatiotemporal energy distribution of long-period seismograms. We analyse three moderate-size earthquakes that occurred in southwest Japan. We calculate the spatial distribution of the energy density recorded by a dense seismograph network in Japan at the period bands of 8-16 s, 4-8 s and 2-4 s and model them by using 3-D finite difference (FD) simulations. Compared to conventional methods based on statistical theories, we can calculate more realistic synthetics by using the FD simulation. It is not necessary to assume a uniform background velocity, body or surface waves and scattering properties considered in general scattering theories. By taking the ratio of the energy of the coda area to that of the entire area, we can separately estimate the scattering and the intrinsic absorption effects. Our result reveals the spectrum of the random inhomogeneity in a wide wavenumber range including the intensity around the corner wavenumber as P(m) = 8πε2a3/(1 + a2m2)2, where ε = 0.05 and a = 3.1 km, even though past studies analysing higher-frequency records could not detect the corner. Finally, we estimate the intrinsic attenuation by modelling the decay rate of the energy. The method proposed in this study is suitable for quantifying the statistical properties of long-wavelength subsurface random inhomogeneity, which leads the way to characterizing a wider wavenumber range of spectra, including the corner wavenumber.

  17. Application of short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy in quantitative estimation of clay mineral contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jinfeng; Xing, Lixin; Pan, Jun; Meng, Tao; Liang, Liheng

    2014-01-01

    Clay minerals are significant constituents of soil which are necessary for life. This paper studied three types of clay minerals, kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, for they are not only the most common soil forming materials, but also important indicators of soil expansion and shrinkage potential. These clay minerals showed diagnostic absorption bands resulting from vibrations of hydroxyl groups and structural water molecules in the SWIR wavelength region. The short-wave infrared reflectance spectra of the soil was obtained from a Portable Near Infrared Spectrometer (PNIS, spectrum range: 1300∼2500 nm, interval: 2 nm). Due to the simplicity, quickness, and the non-destructiveness analysis, SWIR spectroscopy has been widely used in geological prospecting, chemical engineering and many other fields. The aim of this study was to use multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression to establish the optimizing quantitative estimation models of the kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents from soil reflectance spectra. Here, the soil reflectance spectra mainly refers to the spectral reflectivity of soil (SRS) corresponding to the absorption-band position (AP) of kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite representative spectra from USGS spectral library, the SRS corresponding to the AP of soil spectral and soil overall spectrum reflectance values. The optimal estimation models of three kinds of clay mineral contents showed that the retrieval accuracy was satisfactory (Kaolinite content: a Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC) of 1.671 with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.791; Illite content: a RMSEC of 1.126 with a R 2 of 0.616; Montmorillonite content: a RMSEC of 1.814 with a R 2 of 0.707). Thus, the reflectance spectra of soil obtained form PNIS could be used for quantitative estimation of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents in soil

  18. Estimation of design wave heights based on exterme value statistics for Kakinada coast, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    Statistical analyses for longterm distribution of significant wave heights were performed using Lognormal, Weibull, Gumbel and Fretcher distributions for waves measured off Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India from June 1983 to May 1984. Fretcher...

  19. Combined estimation of kappa and shear-wave velocity profile of the Japanese rock reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Valerio; Edwards, Benjamin; Fäh, Donat

    2013-04-01

    The definition of a common soil or rock reference is a key issue in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), microzonation studies, local site-response analysis and, more generally, when predicted or observed ground motion is compared for sites of different characteristics. A scaling procedure, which accounts for a common reference, is then necessary to avoid bias induced by the differences in the local geology. Nowadays methods requiring the definition of a reference condition generally prescribe the characteristic of a rock reference, calibrated using indirect estimation methods based on geology or on surface proxies. In most cases, a unique average shear-wave velocity value is prescribed (e.g. Vs30 = 800m/s as for class A of the EUROCODE8). Some attempts at defining the whole shape of a reference rock velocity profile have been described, often without a clear physical justification of how such a selection was performed. Moreover, in spite of its relevance in affecting the high-frequency part of the spectrum, the definition of the associated reference attenuation is in most cases missing or, when present, still remains quite uncertain. In this study we propose an approach that is based on the comparison between empirical anelastic amplification functions from spectral modeling of earthquakes and average S-wave velocities computed using the quarter-wavelength approach. The method is an extension of the approach originally proposed by Poggi et al. (2011) for Switzerland, and is here applied to Japan. For the analysis we make use of a selection of 36 stiff-soil and rock sites from the Japanese KiK-net network, for which a measured velocity profile is available. With respect to the previous study, however, we now analyze separately the elastic and anelastic contributions of the estimated empirical amplification. In a first step - which is consistent with the original work - only the elastic part of the amplification spectrum is considered. This procedure allows

  20. Estimation of Downtime and of Missed Energy Associated with a Wave Energy Converter by the Equivalent Power Storm Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Arena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of any wave energy converter involves the determination of relevant statistical data on the wave energy resource oriented to the evaluation of the structural reliability and energy performance of the device. Currently, limited discussions concern the estimation of parameters connected to the energy performance of a device. Thus, this paper proposes a methodology for determining average downtime and average missed energy, which is the energy that is not harvested because of device deactivations during severe sea storms. These quantities are fundamental for evaluating the expected inactivity of a device during a year or during its lifetime and are relevant for assessing the effectiveness of a device working at a certain site. For this purpose, the equivalent power storm method is used for their derivation, starting from concepts pertaining to long-term statistical analysis. The paper shows that the proposed solutions provide reliable estimations via comparison with results obtained by processing long wave data.

  1. Estimating the two-particle K-matrix for multiple partial waves and decay channels from finite-volume energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Morningstar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An implementation of estimating the two-to-two K-matrix from finite-volume energies based on the Lüscher formalism and involving a Hermitian matrix known as the “box matrix” is described. The method includes higher partial waves and multiple decay channels. Two fitting procedures for estimating the K-matrix parameters, which properly incorporate all statistical covariances, are discussed. Formulas and software for handling total spins up to S=2 and orbital angular momenta up to L=6 are obtained for total momenta in several directions. First tests involving ρ-meson decay to two pions include the L=3 and L=5 partial waves, and the contributions from these higher waves are found to be negligible in the elastic energy range.

  2. Shear-wave elastography contributes to accurate tumour size estimation when assessing small breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.; Thompson, J.M.; Moussa, O.; Vinnicombe, S.; Evans, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether the size of peritumoural stiffness (PTS) on shear-wave elastography (SWE) for small primary breast cancers (≤15 mm) was associated with size discrepancies between grey-scale ultrasound (GSUS) and final histological size and whether the addition of PTS size to GSUS size might result in more accurate tumour size estimation when compared to final histological size. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 86 consecutive patients between August 2011 and February 2013 who underwent breast-conserving surgery for tumours of size ≤15 mm at ultrasound was carried out. The size of PTS stiffness was compared to mean GSUS size, mean histological size, and the extent of size discrepancy between GSUS and histology. PTS size and GSUS were combined and compared to the final histological size. Results: PTS of >3 mm was associated with a larger mean final histological size (16 versus 11.3 mm, p < 0.001). PTS size of >3 mm was associated with a higher frequency of underestimation of final histological size by GSUS of >5 mm (63% versus 18%, p < 0.001). The combination of PTS and GSUS size led to accurate estimation of the final histological size (p = 0.03). The size of PTS was not associated with margin involvement (p = 0.27). Conclusion: PTS extending beyond 3 mm from the grey-scale abnormality is significantly associated with underestimation of tumour size of >5 mm for small invasive breast cancers. Taking into account the size of PTS also led to accurate estimation of the final histological size. Further studies are required to assess the relationship of the extent of SWE stiffness and margin status. - Highlights: • Peritumoural stiffness of greater than 3 mm was associated with larger tumour size. • Underestimation of tumour size by ultrasound was associated with peri-tumoural stiffness size. • Combining peri-tumoural stiffness size to ultrasound produced accurate tumour size estimation

  3. Exploration of deep S-wave velocity structure using microtremor array technique to estimate long-period ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Higashi, Sadanori; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2007-01-01

    In this study, microtremor array measurements were conducted at 9 sites in the Niigata plain to explore deep S-wave velocity structures for estimation of long-period earthquake ground motion. The 1D S-wave velocity profiles in the Niigata plain are characterized by 5 layers with S-wave velocities of 0.4, 0.8, 1.5, 2.1 and 3.0 km/s, respectively. The depth to the basement layer is deeper in the Niigata port area located at the Japan sea side of the Niigata plain. In this area, the basement depth is about 4.8 km around the Seirou town and about 4.1 km around the Niigata city, respectively. These features about the basement depth in the Niigata plain are consistent with the previous surveys. In order to verify the profiles derived from microtremor array exploration, we estimate the group velocities of Love wave for four propagation paths of long-period earthquake ground motion during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake by multiple filter technique, which were compared with the theoretical ones calculated from the derived profiles. As a result, it was confirmed that the group velocities from the derived profiles were in good agreement with the ones from long-period earthquake ground motion records during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake. Furthermore, we applied the estimation method of design basis earthquake input for seismically isolated nuclear power facilities by using normal mode solution to estimate long-period earthquake ground motion during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake. As a result, it was demonstrated that the applicability of the above method for the estimation of long-period earthquake ground motion were improved by using the derived 1D S-wave velocity profile. (author)

  4. Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness for homogenized moment magnitude catalogue for northeast India. Ranjit Das H R ... Orthogonal regression relations for conversion of body and surface wave magnitudes to w,HRVD based on events data for the period 1978–2006 have been derived.

  5. Deep Learning for real-time gravitational wave detection and parameter estimation: Results with Advanced LIGO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel; Huerta, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The recent Nobel-prize-winning detections of gravitational waves from merging black holes and the subsequent detection of the collision of two neutron stars in coincidence with electromagnetic observations have inaugurated a new era of multimessenger astrophysics. To enhance the scope of this emergent field of science, we pioneered the use of deep learning with convolutional neural networks, that take time-series inputs, for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational wave signals. This approach, Deep Filtering, was initially demonstrated using simulated LIGO noise. In this article, we present the extension of Deep Filtering using real data from LIGO, for both detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers using continuous data streams from multiple LIGO detectors. We demonstrate for the first time that machine learning can detect and estimate the true parameters of real events observed by LIGO. Our results show that Deep Filtering achieves similar sensitivities and lower errors compared to matched-filtering while being far more computationally efficient and more resilient to glitches, allowing real-time processing of weak time-series signals in non-stationary non-Gaussian noise with minimal resources, and also enables the detection of new classes of gravitational wave sources that may go unnoticed with existing detection algorithms. This unified framework for data analysis is ideally suited to enable coincident detection campaigns of gravitational waves and their multimessenger counterparts in real-time.

  6. Examples of invasive and non-invasive methods for estimation of shear-wave velocity profile in Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldea, A.; Albota, E.; Yamanaka, H.; Fukumoto, S.; Poiata, N.

    2007-01-01

    The estimation of subsurface shear-wave velocity is of major importance for understanding and modelling site-response and surface ground motion. The shear-wave velocity profile strongly influence the shear-wave part of the seismic motion that proved to be the most damaging one. The improvement of input seismic ground motion for design is one of the long-term objectives within the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Project in Romania. Two approaches were used: installation of a digital seismic network and soil investigations (in situ and in laboratory). National Center for Seismic Risk Reduction (NCSRR, Romania), the implementing agency of JICA Project, performed these activities in cooperation with Japanese partner institutions, and an efficient know-how transfer was achieved. Between the soil investigation activities, a special importance was given to the estimation of shear-wave velocity profile. The present paper presents results from PS logging tests at NCSRR seismic station sites, and from single-station and array microtremor measurements. Other results from PS logging tests, surface-wave method and in situ and laboratory geotechnical investigations are presented in other papers in these proceedings. In future, a joint-collaborative effort of Romanian institutions may allow an improved characterisation of the soil profile beneath Bucharest. (authors)

  7. Relative Wave Energy based Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System model for the Estimation of Depth of Anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzy, V K; Jasmin, E A; Koshy, Rachel Cherian; Amal, Frank; Indiradevi, K P

    2018-01-01

    The advancement in medical research and intelligent modeling techniques has lead to the developments in anaesthesia management. The present study is targeted to estimate the depth of anaesthesia using cognitive signal processing and intelligent modeling techniques. The neurophysiological signal that reflects cognitive state of anaesthetic drugs is the electroencephalogram signal. The information available on electroencephalogram signals during anaesthesia are drawn by extracting relative wave energy features from the anaesthetic electroencephalogram signals. Discrete wavelet transform is used to decomposes the electroencephalogram signals into four levels and then relative wave energy is computed from approximate and detail coefficients of sub-band signals. Relative wave energy is extracted to find out the degree of importance of different electroencephalogram frequency bands associated with different anaesthetic phases awake, induction, maintenance and recovery. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test is applied on the relative wave energy features to check the discriminating capability of relative wave energy features as awake, light anaesthesia, moderate anaesthesia and deep anaesthesia. A novel depth of anaesthesia index is generated by implementing a Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm which uses relative wave energy features as inputs. Finally, the generated depth of anaesthesia index is compared with a commercially available depth of anaesthesia monitor Bispectral index.

  8. Wave Height Estimation from Shadowing Based on the Acquired X-Band Marine Radar Images in Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the retrieving significant wave height from X-band marine radar images based on shadow statistics is investigated, since the retrieving accuracy can not be seriously affected by environmental factors and the method has the advantage of without any external reference to calibrate. However, the accuracy of the significant wave height estimated from the radar image acquired at the near-shore area is not ideal. To solve this problem, the effect of water depth is considered in the theoretical derivation of estimated wave height based on the sea surface slope. And then, an improved retrieving algorithm which is suitable for both in deep water area and shallow water area is developed. In addition, the radar data are sparsely processed in advance in order to achieve high quality edge image for the requirement of shadow statistic algorithm, since the high resolution radar images will lead to angle-blurred for the image edge detection and time-consuming in the estimation of sea surface slope. The data acquired from Pingtan Test Base in Fujian Province were used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the improved method which takes into account the water depth is more efficient and effective and has better performance for retrieving significant wave height in the shallow water area, compared to the in situ buoy data as the ground truth and that of the existing shadow statistic method.

  9. Magnitude determination for large underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Lawrence D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    A method is presented for determining the local magnitudes for large underground nuclear explosions. The Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is applied to the peak amplitudes for 24 large underground nuclear explosions that took place in Nevada. The amplitudes were measured at 18 California Wood-Anderson stations located 150-810 km from the explosion epicenter. The variation of the individual station magnitudes and magnitude corrections and the variation of the average and rms error estimates in the magnitude determinations are examined with respect to distance, azimuth, and event location. The magnitude prediction capability of the Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is examined on the basis of these two criteria, and certain corrections are suggested. The azimuthal dependence of the individual station magnitudes is investigated, and corrections for the California stations are calculated. Statistical weighting schemes for two-component data are employed, and the assumptions and limitations in the use of peak amplitudes are discussed. (author)

  10. Extreme value distribution of earthquake magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Jun Gan; Tung, C. C.

    1983-07-01

    Probability distribution of maximum earthquake magnitude is first derived for an unspecified probability distribution of earthquake magnitude. A model for energy release of large earthquakes, similar to that of Adler-Lomnitz and Lomnitz, is introduced from which the probability distribution of earthquake magnitude is obtained. An extensive set of world data for shallow earthquakes, covering the period from 1904 to 1980, is used to determine the parameters of the probability distribution of maximum earthquake magnitude. Because of the special form of probability distribution of earthquake magnitude, a simple iterative scheme is devised to facilitate the estimation of these parameters by the method of least-squares. The agreement between the empirical and derived probability distributions of maximum earthquake magnitude is excellent.

  11. Estimation of seismic velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan by using guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T.; Nakajima, J.; Toyokuni, G.; Kita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    A subducting crust contains a large amount of water as a form of hydrous minerals (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003), and the crust plays important roles for water transportation and seismogenesis in subduction zones at intermediate depths (e.g., Kirby et al., 1996; Iwamori, 2007). Therefore, the investigation of seismic structure in the crust is important to understand ongoing physical processes with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A guided wave which propagates in the subducting crust is recorded in seismograms at Hokkaido, northern Japan (Shiina et al., 2014). Here, we estimated P- and S-wave velocity in the crust with guided waves, and obtained P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.3 km/s and S-wave velocity of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-90 km. Moreover, Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is calculated to be 1.80-1.85 in that depth range. The obtained P-wave velocity about 6.6km/s at depths of 50-70 km is consistent with those estimated in Tohoku, northeast Japan (Shiina et al., 2013), and this the P-wave velocity is lower than those expected from models of subducting crustal compositions, such as metamorphosed MORB model (Hacker et al., 2003). In contrast, at greater depths (>80 km), the P-wave velocity marks higher velocity than the case of NE Japan and the velocity is roughly comparable to those of the MORB model. The obtained S-wave velocity distribution also shows characteristics similar to P waves. This regional variation may be caused by a small variation in thermal regime of the Pacific slab beneath the two regions as a result of the normal subduction in Tohoku and oblique subduction in Hokkaido. In addition, the effect of seismic anisotropy in the subducting crust would not be ruled out because rays used in the analysis in Hokkaido propagate mostly in the trench-parallel direction, while those in Tohoku are sufficiently criss-crossed.

  12. Local magnitude, duration magnitude and seismic moment of Dahshour 1992 earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Abdelwahed

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Local magnitudes ML have been calculated for 56 earthquakes of the Dahshour 1992 sequence using simulated records of the KEG broadband station and the estimated calibration function of the Dahshour area. These were compared with their corresponding values of duration magnitudes obtained from the analog short period seismograms of the HLW station. The local magnitudes M L and the duration magnitudes M D for this region imply a linear relation as follows: M L = 1.2988 (± 0.04 M D – 0.9032 (± 0.14. Seismic moment has also been estimated for these events using simple measurements from the time domain records. These measurements based on the simulated Wood Anderson seismograms are used for the local magnitude (ML estimation. The derived relationship between seismic moment (M 0 and magnitude (M L is: log (M 0 = 0.954 (± 0.019 M L + 17.258 (± 0.075.

  13. Estimation of Overtopping Rates on Slopes in Wave Power Devices and Other Low Crested Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Burcharth, Hans Falk

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by questions raised by developers of wave energy devices based on wave overtopping concepts, model tests have been performed to study overtopping of structures with limited draught, low crest freeboards and slope geometries designed to increase overtopping and thereby also the captured...

  14. Estimation of numerical uncertainty in computational fluid dynamics simulations of a passively controlled wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Weizhi; Wu, Minghao; Palm, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    for almost linear incident waves. First, we show that the computational fluid dynamics simulations have acceptable agreement to experimental data. We then present a verification and validation study focusing on the solution verification covering spatial and temporal discretization, iterative and domain......The wave loads and the resulting motions of floating wave energy converters are traditionally computed using linear radiation–diffraction methods. Yet for certain cases such as survival conditions, phase control and wave energy converters operating in the resonance region, more complete...... dynamics simulations have largely been overlooked in the wave energy sector. In this article, we apply formal verification and validation techniques to computational fluid dynamics simulations of a passively controlled point absorber. The phase control causes the motion response to be highly nonlinear even...

  15. Radio Capacity Estimation for Millimeter Wave 5G Cellular Networks Using Narrow Beamwidth Antennas at the Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlMuthanna Turki Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents radio frequency (RF capacity estimation for millimeter wave (mm-wave based fifth-generation (5G cellular networks using field-level simulations. It is shown that, by reducing antenna beamwidth from 65° to 30°, we can enhance the capacity of mm-wave cellular networks roughly by 3.0 times at a distance of 220 m from the base station (BS. This enhancement is far much higher than the corresponding enhancement of 1.2 times observed for 900 MHz and 2.6 GHz microwave networks at the same distance from the BS. Thus the use of narrow beamwidth transmitting antennas has more pronounced benefits in mm-wave networks. Deployment trials performed on an LTE TDD site operating on 2.6 GHz show that 6-sector site with 27° antenna beamwidth enhances the quality of service (QoS roughly by 40% and more than doubles the overall BS throughput (while enhancing the per sector throughput 1.1 times on average compared to a 3-sector site using 65° antenna beamwidth. This agrees well with our capacity simulations. Since mm-wave 5G networks will use arbitrary number of beams, with beamwidth much less than 30°, the capacity enhancement expected in 5G system when using narrow beamwidth antennas would be much more than three times observed in our simulations.

  16. Estimation of sea surface wave height from Bhaskara II SAMIR data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.V.; Viswambharan, N.K.; Rao, L.V.G.

    from R V Gaveshani and visual observations from other ships as reported in IDWR) are available. Using this, an attempt has been made to obtain an empirical relation between brightness temperature and significant wave height. Linear correlation between...

  17. The Strain Energy, Seismic Moment and Magnitudes of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaru, G.

    2004-12-01

    The strain energy Est, as potential energy, released by an earthquake and the seismic moment Mo are two fundamental physical earthquake parameters. The earthquake rupture process ``represents'' the release of the accumulated Est. The moment Mo, first obtained in 1966 by Aki, revolutioned the quantification of earthquake size and led to the elimination of the limitations of the conventional magnitudes (originally ML, Richter, 1930) mb, Ms, m, MGR. Both Mo and Est, not in a 1-to-1 correspondence, are uniform measures of the size, although Est is presently less accurate than Mo. Est is partitioned in seismic- (Es), fracture- (Eg) and frictional-energy Ef, and Ef is lost as frictional heat energy. The available Est = Es + Eg (Aki and Richards (1980), Kostrov and Das, (1988) for fundamentals on Mo and Est). Related to Mo, Est and Es, several modern magnitudes were defined under various assumptions: the moment magnitude Mw (Kanamori, 1977), strain energy magnitude ME (Purcaru and Berckhemer, 1978), tsunami magnitude Mt (Abe, 1979), mantle magnitude Mm (Okal and Talandier, 1987), seismic energy magnitude Me (Choy and Boatright, 1995, Yanovskaya et al, 1996), body-wave magnitude Mpw (Tsuboi et al, 1998). The available Est = (1/2μ )Δ σ Mo, Δ σ ~=~average stress drop, and ME is % \\[M_E = 2/3(\\log M_o + \\log(\\Delta\\sigma/\\mu)-12.1) ,\\] % and log Est = 11.8 + 1.5 ME. The estimation of Est was modified to include Mo, Δ and μ of predominant high slip zones (asperities) to account for multiple events (Purcaru, 1997): % \\[E_{st} = \\frac{1}{2} \\sum_i {\\frac{1}{\\mu_i} M_{o,i} \\Delta\\sigma_i} , \\sum_i M_{o,i} = M_o \\] % We derived the energy balance of Est, Es and Eg as: % \\[ E_{st}/M_o = (1+e(g,s)) E_s/M_o , e(g,s) = E_g/E_s \\] % We analyzed a set of about 90 large earthquakes and found that, depending on the goal these magnitudes quantify differently the rupture process, thus providing complementary means of earthquake characterization. Results for some

  18. In Situ Estimation of Applied Biaxial Loads with Lamb Waves (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    be correct. IV. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS Fatigue tests were conducted for an array of six surface-bonded PZT transducers permanently attached to...because of their cumulative effects on the fatigue life of the structures. Waves propagating between array elements are directly affected by applied loads...their cumulative effects on the fatigue life of the structures. Waves propagating between array elements are directly affected by applied loads

  19. Yield Estimation for Semipalatinsk Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Seismic Surface-wave Observations at Near-regional Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.

    - A statistical procedure is described for estimating the yields of underground nuclear tests at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site using the peak amplitudes of short-period surface waves observed at near-regional distances (Δ Semipalatinsk explosions, including the Soviet JVE explosion of September 14, 1988, and it is demonstrated that it provides seismic estimates of explosion yield which are typically within 20% of the yields determined for these same explosions using more accurate, non-seismic techniques based on near-source observations.

  20. Adaptive observer for the joint estimation of parameters and input for a coupled wave PDE and infinite dimensional ODE system

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2016-08-05

    This paper deals with joint parameters and input estimation for coupled PDE-ODE system. The system consists of a damped wave equation and an infinite dimensional ODE. This model describes the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response in the brain and the objective is to characterize brain regions using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data. For this reason, we propose an adaptive estimator and prove the asymptotic convergence of the state, the unknown input and the unknown parameters. The proof is based on a Lyapunov approach combined with a priori identifiability assumptions. The performance of the proposed observer is illustrated through some simulation results.

  1. Variational estimate of the vacuum state of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a disordered trial wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heys, D.W.; Stump, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The variational principle is used to estimate the ground state of the Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory, with a trial wave function for which the magnetic fields on different plaquettes are uncorrelated. This trial function describes a disordered state. The energy expectation value is evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. The variational results are compared to similar results for a related Abelian gauge theory. Also, the expectation value of the Wilson loop operator is computed for the trial state, and the resulting estimate of the string tension is compared to the prediction of asymptotic freedom

  2. Estimation of the four-wave mixing noise probability-density function by the multicanonical Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokosmidis, Ioannis; Kamalakis, Thomas; Chipouras, Aristides; Sphicopoulos, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The performance of high-powered wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) optical networks can be severely degraded by four-wave-mixing- (FWM-) induced distortion. The multicanonical Monte Carlo method (MCMC) is used to calculate the probability-density function (PDF) of the decision variable of a receiver, limited by FWM noise. Compared with the conventional Monte Carlo method previously used to estimate this PDF, the MCMC method is much faster and can accurately estimate smaller error probabilities. The method takes into account the correlation between the components of the FWM noise, unlike the Gaussian model, which is shown not to provide accurate results.

  3. Comparação entre os métodos psicofísicos escalares de estimação de magnitudes e de estimação de categorias da gravidade de quadros clínicos Comparación entre los métodos psicofísicos escalares de estimación de magnitudes y de estimación de categorías de la gravedad de cuadros clínicos Comparison between the psychophysical methods of magnitude and categories estimation of illness seriousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kamizaki

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, 15 diagnósticos foram selecionados e avaliados pelo método de estimação de magnitude e de categoria. Os instrumentos foram aplicados em 46 participantes (20 enfermeiros, 16 psicólogos e 10 médicos. Os resultados indicam que a escala psicofísica dos quadros clínicos é um contínuo protético, além da confirmação da validade da lei de Ekman também para contínuos não métricos.En este estudio, 15 diagnósticos, fueron seleccionados y evaluados por el método de estimación de magnitud y de categoría. Los instrumentos fueron aplicados a 46 participantes (20 enfermeros, 16 psicólogos y 10 médicos. Los resultados indican que la escala psicofísica de los cuadros clínicos es un continuo protético, además de la confirmación de la validez de la Ley de Ekman también para continuos no métricos.In this study, 15 diagnoses were selected and evaluated by the methods of estimation of magnitudes and estimation of categories. These methods were performed by 46 subjects (10 physicians, 20 nurses and 16 psychologists. The results show that the non-metric continuum of seriousness of an illness exhibits prothetic characteristics and the variability of estimates is a linear function of the magnitude estimation, thus confirming that Ekman's law is also valid for non-metric continua.

  4. Gas-hydrate concentration estimated from P- and S-wave velocities at the Mallik 2L-38 research well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, José M.; Gei, Davide

    2004-05-01

    We estimate the concentration of gas hydrate at the Mallik 2L-38 research site using P- and S-wave velocities obtained from well logging and vertical seismic profiles (VSP). The theoretical velocities are obtained from a generalization of Gassmann's modulus to three phases (rock frame, gas hydrate and fluid). The dry-rock moduli are estimated from the log profiles, in sections where the rock is assumed to be fully saturated with water. We obtain hydrate concentrations up to 75%, average values of 37% and 21% from the VSP P- and S-wave velocities, respectively, and 60% and 57% from the sonic-log P- and S-wave velocities, respectively. The above averages are similar to estimations obtained from hydrate dissociation modeling and Archie methods. The estimations based on the P-wave velocities are more reliable than those based on the S-wave velocities.

  5. Stochastic Modeling of Long-Term and Extreme Value Estimation of Wind and Sea Conditions for Probabilistic Reliability Assessments of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Wave energy power plants are expected to become one of the major future contribution to the sustainable electricity production. Optimal design of wave energy power plants is associated with modeling of physical, statistical, measurement and model uncertainties. This paper presents stochastic models...... for the significant wave height, the mean zero-crossing wave period and the wind speed for long-term and extreme estimations. The long-term estimation focuses on annual statistical distributions, the inter-annual variation of distribution parameters and the statistical uncertainty due to limited amount of data...

  6. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  7. The efficacy of support vector machines (SVM) in robust determination of earthquake early warning magnitudes in central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ramakrushna; Nair, Rajesh R.

    2013-10-01

    This work deals with a methodology applied to seismic early warning systems which are designed to provide real-time estimation of the magnitude of an event. We will reappraise the work of Simons et al. (2006), who on the basis of wavelet approach predicted a magnitude error of ±1. We will verify and improve upon the methodology of Simons et al. (2006) by applying an SVM statistical learning machine on the time-scale wavelet decomposition methods. We used the data of 108 events in central Japan with magnitude ranging from 3 to 7.4 recorded at KiK-net network stations, for a source-receiver distance of up to 150 km during the period 1998-2011. We applied a wavelet transform on the seismogram data and calculating scale-dependent threshold wavelet coefficients. These coefficients were then classified into low magnitude and high magnitude events by constructing a maximum margin hyperplane between the two classes, which forms the essence of SVMs. Further, the classified events from both the classes were picked up and linear regressions were plotted to determine the relationship between wavelet coefficient magnitude and earthquake magnitude, which in turn helped us to estimate the earthquake magnitude of an event given its threshold wavelet coefficient. At wavelet scale number 7, we predicted the earthquake magnitude of an event within 2.7 seconds. This means that a magnitude determination is available within 2.7 s after the initial onset of the P-wave. These results shed light on the application of SVM as a way to choose the optimal regression function to estimate the magnitude from a few seconds of an incoming seismogram. This would improve the approaches from Simons et al. (2006) which use an average of the two regression functions to estimate the magnitude.

  8. Estimation of oceanic subsurface mixing under a severe cyclonic storm using a coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Kumar Ravi; Nigam, Tanuja; Pant, Vimlesh

    2018-04-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model was used to examine mixing in the upper-oceanic layers under the influence of a very severe cyclonic storm Phailin over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during 10-14 October 2013. The coupled model was found to improve the sea surface temperature over the uncoupled model. Model simulations highlight the prominent role of cyclone-induced near-inertial oscillations in subsurface mixing up to the thermocline depth. The inertial mixing introduced by the cyclone played a central role in the deepening of the thermocline and mixed layer depth by 40 and 15 m, respectively. For the first time over the BoB, a detailed analysis of inertial oscillation kinetic energy generation, propagation, and dissipation was carried out using an atmosphere-ocean-wave coupled model during a cyclone. A quantitative estimate of kinetic energy in the oceanic water column, its propagation, and its dissipation mechanisms were explained using the coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model. The large shear generated by the inertial oscillations was found to overcome the stratification and initiate mixing at the base of the mixed layer. Greater mixing was found at the depths where the eddy kinetic diffusivity was large. The baroclinic current, holding a larger fraction of kinetic energy than the barotropic current, weakened rapidly after the passage of the cyclone. The shear induced by inertial oscillations was found to decrease rapidly with increasing depth below the thermocline. The dampening of the mixing process below the thermocline was explained through the enhanced dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy upon approaching the thermocline layer. The wave-current interaction and nonlinear wave-wave interaction were found to affect the process of downward mixing and cause the dissipation of inertial oscillations.

  9. Instantaneous local wave vector estimation from multi-spacecraft measurements using few spatial points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Carozzi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a technique to determine instantaneous local properties of waves based on discrete-time sampled, real-valued measurements from 4 or more spatial points. The technique is a generalisation to the spatial domain of the notion of instantaneous frequency used in signal processing. The quantities derived by our technique are closely related to those used in geometrical optics, namely the local wave vector and instantaneous phase velocity. Thus, this experimental technique complements ray-tracing. We provide example applications of the technique to electric field and potential data from the EFW instrument on Cluster. Cluster is the first space mission for which direct determination of the full 3-dimensional local wave vector is possible, as described here.

  10. An Estimation of Wave Attenuation Factor in Ultrasonic Assisted Gravity Drainage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that ultrasonic energy can considerably increase the amount of oil recovery in an immiscible displacement process. Although many studies have been performed on investigating the roles of ultrasonic waves, based on the best of our knowledge, little attention has been paid to evaluate wave attenuation parameter, which is an important parameter in the determination of the energy delivered to the porous medium. In this study, free fall gravity drainage process is investigated in a glass bead porous medium. Kerosene and Dorud crude oil are used as the wetting phases and air is used as the non-wetting phase. A piston-like displacement model with considering constant capillary pressure and applying Corey type approximation for relative permeabilities of both wetting and nonwetting phases is applied. A pressure term is considered to describe the presence of ultrasonic waves and the attenuation factor of ultrasonic waves is calculated by evaluating the value of external pressure applied to enhance the flow using the history matching of the data in the presence and absence of ultrasonic waves. The results introduce the attenuation factor as an important parameter in the process of ultrasonic assisted gravity drainage. The results show that only a low percentage of the ultrasonic energy (5.8% for Dorud crude oil and 3.3% for kerosene is delivered to the flow of the fluid; however, a high increase in oil recovery enhancement (15% for Dorud crude oil and 12% for Kerosene is observed in the experiments. This proves that the ultrasonic waves, even when the contribution is not substantial, can be a significantly efficient method for flow enhancement.

  11. Estimates of Lagrangian particle transport by wave groups: forward transport by Stokes drift and backward transport by the return flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bremer, Ton S.; Taylor, Paul H.

    2014-11-01

    Although the literature has examined Stokes drift, the net Lagrangian transport by particles due to of surface gravity waves, in great detail, the motion of fluid particles transported by surface gravity wave groups has received considerably less attention. In practice nevertheless, the wave field on the open sea often has a group-like structure. The motion of particles is different, as particles at sufficient depth are transported backwards by the Eulerian return current that was first described by Longuet-Higgins & Stewart (1962) and forms an inseparable counterpart of Stokes drift for wave groups ensuring the (irrotational) mass balance holds. We use WKB theory to study the variation of the Lagrangian transport by the return current with depth distinguishing two-dimensional seas, three-dimensional seas, infinite depth and finite depth. We then provide dimensional estimates of the net horizontal Lagrangian transport by the Stokes drift on the one hand and the return flow on the other hand for realistic sea states in all four cases. Finally we propose a simple scaling relationship for the transition depth: the depth above which Lagrangian particles are transported forwards by the Stokes drift and below which such particles are transported backwards by the return current.

  12. Non-invasive aortic systolic pressure and pulse wave velocity estimation in a primary care setting: An in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, Andrea; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca; Mesin, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Everyday clinical cardiovascular evaluation is still largely based on brachial systolic and diastolic pressures. However, several clinical studies have demonstrated the higher diagnostic capacities of the aortic pressure, as well as the need to assess the aortic mechanical properties (e.g., by measuring the aortic pulse wave velocity). In order to fill this gap, we propose to exploit a set of easy-to-obtain physical characteristics to estimate the aortic pressure and pulse wave velocity. To this aim, a large population of virtual subjects is created by a validated mathematical model of the cardiovascular system. Quadratic regressive models are then fitted and statistically selected in order to obtain reliable estimations of the aortic pressure and pulse wave velocity starting from the knowledge of the subject age, height, weight, brachial pressure, photoplethysmographic measures and either electrocardiogram or phonocardiogram. The results are very encouraging and foster clinical studies aiming to apply a similar technique to a real population. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A coherent method for the detection and parameter estimation of continuous gravitational wave signals using a pulsar timing array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of a high precision pulsar timing array is a promising approach to detecting gravitational waves in the very low frequency regime (10 –6 -10 –9 Hz) that is complementary to ground-based efforts (e.g., LIGO, Virgo) at high frequencies (∼10-10 3 Hz) and space-based ones (e.g., LISA) at low frequencies (10 –4 -10 –1 Hz). One of the target sources for pulsar timing arrays is individual supermassive black hole binaries which are expected to form in galactic mergers. In this paper, a likelihood-based method for detection and parameter estimation is presented for a monochromatic continuous gravitational wave signal emitted by such a source. The so-called pulsar terms in the signal that arise due to the breakdown of the long-wavelength approximation are explicitly taken into account in this method. In addition, the method accounts for equality and inequality constraints involved in the semi-analytical maximization of the likelihood over a subset of the parameters. The remaining parameters are maximized over numerically using Particle Swarm Optimization. Thus, the method presented here solves the monochromatic continuous wave detection and parameter estimation problem without invoking some of the approximations that have been used in earlier studies.

  14. A coherent method for the detection and parameter estimation of continuous gravitational wave signals using a pulsar timing array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, 1 West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The use of a high precision pulsar timing array is a promising approach to detecting gravitational waves in the very low frequency regime (10{sup –6}-10{sup –9} Hz) that is complementary to ground-based efforts (e.g., LIGO, Virgo) at high frequencies (∼10-10{sup 3} Hz) and space-based ones (e.g., LISA) at low frequencies (10{sup –4}-10{sup –1} Hz). One of the target sources for pulsar timing arrays is individual supermassive black hole binaries which are expected to form in galactic mergers. In this paper, a likelihood-based method for detection and parameter estimation is presented for a monochromatic continuous gravitational wave signal emitted by such a source. The so-called pulsar terms in the signal that arise due to the breakdown of the long-wavelength approximation are explicitly taken into account in this method. In addition, the method accounts for equality and inequality constraints involved in the semi-analytical maximization of the likelihood over a subset of the parameters. The remaining parameters are maximized over numerically using Particle Swarm Optimization. Thus, the method presented here solves the monochromatic continuous wave detection and parameter estimation problem without invoking some of the approximations that have been used in earlier studies.

  15. Local magnitude, duration magnitude and seismic moment of Dahshour 1992 earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Abdelwahed; E. M. Abdelrahman; H. M. Hussein; M. M. Dessokey

    2000-01-01

    Local magnitudes ML have been calculated for 56 earthquakes of the Dahshour 1992 sequence using simulated records of the KEG broadband station and the estimated calibration function of the Dahshour area. These were compared with their corresponding values of duration magnitudes obtained from the analog short period seismograms of the HLW station. The local magnitudes M L and the duration magnitudes M D for this region imply a linear relation as follows: M L = 1.2988 (± 0.04) M D – 0.9032 (± 0...

  16. An estimate of the magnitude and trend of HIV/AIDS epidemic using data from the routine VCT services as an alternative data source to ANC sentinel surveillance in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Yehenew; Gotu, Butte; Enquselassie, Fikre

    2010-10-01

    Since early 1980s when AIDS was first recognized, there has been uncertainty about the future trend and the ultimate dimensions of the pandemic. This uncertainty persists because of difficulties in measuring HIV incidence and prevalence with a substantial degree of precision in a given population. One of the many factors for the lack of precision is the problem of obtaining representative data sources that can be extrapolated to the general population. National and regional HIV estimates for Ethiopia are derived from ANC based HIV surveillance data. Alternative data sources have not been exhaustively explored as potential tools to monitor the trend of HIV/ AIDS epidemic in the country. To estimate the magnitude and trend of HIV/AIDS epidemic using data from the routine VCT services as an alternative data source to ANC sentinel surveillance data. The study used secondary data sources from all government, private and NGO VCT centers, of the period of 2003-2005 in Addis Ababa. For the purpose of making comparative analysis of the VCT based estimations and projections, records of all five sentinel sites in Addis Ababa for the period 1983-2003 were reviewed. Both ANC and VCT data sources showed similar and regular trends from the beginning of the HIV epidemic till the year 1995 where the ANC showed a relatively higher prevalence rates than VCT data, with a maximum difference in HIV prevalence of 1.06% in 1993. However, a higher HIV prevalence was noted for the VCT than the ANC data source for the period of 1996-2002, with a maximum difference of 1.4% in 1998, the year when both the ANC and VCT modeled HIV prevalence reached the highest peak in Addis Ababa. On the contrary, the ANC based prevalence was higher than the VCT data for the period 2004-2010, with a maximum difference of 2.2%. This study suggests that VCT based HIV prevalence data closely approximates the ANC based data. Therefore VCT data source can be valuable to complement the ANC data in monitoring the HIV

  17. Right idea, wrong magnitude system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Stella F; Aulet, Lauren S; Ayzenberg, Vladislav; Cheung, Chi-Ngai; Holmes, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Leibovich et al. claim that number representations are non-existent early in life and that the associations between number and continuous magnitudes reside in stimulus confounds. We challenge both claims - positing, instead, that number is represented independently of continuous magnitudes already in infancy, but is nonetheless more deeply connected to other magnitudes through adulthood than acknowledged by the "sense of magnitude" theory.

  18. Spatial Variation of Diapycnal Diffusivity Estimated From Seismic Imaging of Internal Wave Field, Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Nicholas; White, Nicholas Jeremiah; Caulfield, Colm-cille Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Bright reflections are observed within the upper 1000~m of the water column along a seismic reflection profile that traverses the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Independent hydrographic calibration demonstrates that these reflections are primarily caused by temperature changes associated with different water masses that are entrained into the Gulf along the Loop Current. The internal wave field is analyzed by automatically tracking 1171 reflections, each of which is greater th...

  19. Accuracy of Estimating Highly Eccentric Binary Black Hole Parameters with Gravitational-wave Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondán, László; Kocsis, Bence; Raffai, Péter; Frei, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes on highly eccentric orbits are among the targets for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, including LIGO, VIRGO, and KAGRA. These sources may commonly form through gravitational-wave emission in high-velocity dispersion systems or through the secular Kozai–Lidov mechanism in triple systems. Gravitational waves carry information about the binaries’ orbital parameters and source location. Using the Fisher matrix technique, we determine the measurement accuracy with which the LIGO–VIRGO–KAGRA network could measure the source parameters of eccentric binaries using a matched filtering search of the repeated burst and eccentric inspiral phases of the waveform. We account for general relativistic precession and the evolution of the orbital eccentricity and frequency during the inspiral. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio and the parameter measurement accuracy may be significantly higher for eccentric sources than for circular sources. This increase is sensitive to the initial pericenter distance, the initial eccentricity, and the component masses. For instance, compared to a 30 {M}ȯ –30 {M}ȯ non-spinning circular binary, the chirp mass and sky-localization accuracy can improve by a factor of ∼129 (38) and ∼2 (11) for an initially highly eccentric binary assuming an initial pericenter distance of 20 M tot (10 M tot).

  20. The cause of larger local magnitude (Mj) in western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, H.; Furumura, T.

    2017-12-01

    The local magnitude of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale (Mj) in Japan sometimes show a significant discrepancy between Mw. The Mj is calculated using the amplitude of the horizontal component of ground displacement recorded by seismometers with the natural period of T0=5 s using Katsumata et al. (2004). A typical example of such a discrepancy in estimating Mj was an overestimation of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mj=7.3, Mw=6.7; hereafter referred to as event T). In this study, we examined the discrepancy between Mj and Mw for recent large earthquakes occurring in Japan.We found that the most earthquakes with larger Mj (>Mw) occur in western Japan while the earthquakes in northern Japan show reasonable Mj (=Mw). To understand the cause of such larger Mj for western Japan earthquakes we examined the strong motion record from the K-NET and KiK-net network for the event T and other earthquakes for reference. The observed ground displacement record from the event T shows a distinctive Love wave packet in tangential motion with a dominant period of about T=5 s which propagates long distances without showing strong dispersions. On the other hand, the ground motions from the earthquakes in northeastern Japan do not have such surface wave packet, and attenuation of ground motion is significant. Therefore, the overestimation of the Mj for earthquakes in western Japan may be attributed to efficient generation and propagation properties of Love wave probably relating to the crustal structure of western Japan. To explain this, we then conducted a numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation using 3D sedimentary layer model (JIVSM; Koketsu et al., 2012) and the source model of the event T. The result demonstrated the efficient generation of Love wave from the shallow strike-slip source which propagates long distances in western Japan without significant dispersions. On the other hand, the generation of surface wave was not so efficient when using a

  1. Moment Magnitudes of Small to Moderate Size Regional Events from Coda in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, R.; Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E.; Mayeda, K. M.; Walter, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    The uneven distribution of stations and heterogeneous structure of the Middle East makes it difficult to calculate reliable moment magnitudes in the region. Such magnitudes are important for event characterization, and for yield estimation applications. The complex structure of the lithosphere in the region causes significant variation in the recorded amplitude of body and surface waves that travel along different paths. These 2-D effects are most significant for small and moderate magnitude events, which are most observable at periods 4.5) at low frequencies ( < 0.5 Hz). But even using coda waves, high frequency spectra show considerable scatter. Next, we applied tomographic inversion to the geometrical spreading corrected coda amplitudes to calculate 2-D coda Q. Coda Q results agree well with direct Lg and tectonics of the region. We observe low Q in Anatolian and Iranian plateaus and high Q in Arabian Plate. Applying the 2-D correction reduced the inter-station scatter of the higher frequency spectra, allowing us to obtain reliable moment magnitude estimates for smaller events (Mw < 4.5).

  2. Parameter estimation of inspiralling compact binaries using 3.5 post-Newtonian gravitational wave phasing: The nonspinning case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, K.G.; Iyer, Bala R; Sathyaprakash, B.S.; Sundararajan, Pranesh A

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the problem of parameter estimation of gravitational-wave chirp signals from inspiralling nonspinning compact binaries in the light of the recent extension of the post-Newtonian (PN) phasing formula to order (v/c) 7 beyond the leading Newtonian order. We study in detail the implications of higher post-Newtonian orders from 1PN up to 3.5PN in steps of 0.5PN (∼v/c), and examine their convergence. In both initial and advanced detectors the estimation of the chirp mass (M) and symmetric mass ratio (η) improve at higher PN orders but oscillate with every half-a-PN order. In initial LIGO, for a 10M · -10M · binary at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10, the improvement in the estimation of M (η) at 3.5PN relative to 2PN is ∼19% (52%). We compare parameter estimation in different detectors and assess their relative performance in two different ways: at a fixed SNR, with the aim of understanding how the bandwidth improves parameter estimation, and for a fixed source, to gauge the importance of sensitivity. Errors in parameter estimation at a fixed SNR are smaller for VIRGO than for both initial and advanced LIGO. This is because of the larger bandwidth over which it observes the signals. However, for sources at a fixed distance it is advanced LIGO that achieves the lowest errors owing to its greater sensitivity. Finally, we compute the amplitude corrections due to the 'frequency-sweep' in the Fourier domain representation of the waveform within the stationary phase approximation and discuss its implication on parameter estimation. We find that the amplitude corrections change the errors in M and η by less than 10% for initial LIGO at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. Our analysis makes explicit the significance of higher PN order modeling of the inspiralling compact binary on parameter estimation

  3. Temporal and spatial variations in the magnitude of completeness for homogenized moment magnitude catalogue for northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit; Wason, H. R.; Sharma, M. L.

    2012-02-01

    Northeast India region is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. Events data for the period 1897-2010, used in this study has been largely compiled from global ISC, NEIC and GCMT databases. Historical seismicity catalogue of Gupta et al (1986) and some events data from the bulletins of India Meteorological Department are also used. Orthogonal regression relations for conversion of body and surface wave magnitudes to M w,HRVD based on events data for the period 1978-2006 have been derived. An Orthogonal Standard Regression (OSR) relationship has also been obtained for scaling of intensity estimates to M w,NEIC using 126 global intensity events with intensity VI or greater during the period 1975-2010. Magnitude of completeness and Gutenberg-Richter (GR) recurrence parameter values have been determined for the declustered homogenized catalogue pertaining to four different time periods namely, 1897-1963, 1964-1990, 1964-2000 and 1964-2010. The M c and ` b' values are observed to decrease and increase, respectively, with addition of newer data with time. The study region has been subdivided into nine seismogenic zones keeping in view the spatial variations in earthquake occurrence and prevalent tectonics. M c, ` b' and ` a' values have been estimated with respect to each zone, and the variations in the values of these parameters have been analysed.

  4. Estimating cosmological parameters by the simulated data of gravitational waves from the Einstein Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the constraint ability of the gravitational wave (GW) as the standard siren on the cosmological parameters by using the third-generation gravitational wave detector: the Einstein Telescope. The binary merger of a neutron with either a neutron or black hole is hypothesized to be the progenitor of a short and intense burst of γ rays; some fraction of those binary mergers could be detected both through electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves. Thus we can determine both the luminosity distance and redshift of the source separately. We simulate the luminosity distances and redshift measurements from 100 to 1000 GW events. We use two different algorithms to constrain the cosmological parameters. For the Hubble constant H0 and dark matter density parameter Ωm, we adopt the Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. We find that with about 500-600 GW events we can constrain the Hubble constant with an accuracy comparable to Planck temperature data and Planck lensing combined results, while for the dark matter density, GWs alone seem not able to provide the constraints as good as for the Hubble constant; the sensitivity of 1000 GW events is a little lower than that of Planck data. It should require more than 1000 events to match the Planck sensitivity. Yet, for analyzing the more complex dynamical property of dark energy, i.e., the equation of state w , we adopt a new powerful nonparametric method: the Gaussian process. We can reconstruct w directly from the observational luminosity distance at every redshift. In the low redshift region, we find that about 700 GW events can give the constraints of w (z ) comparable to the constraints of a constant w by Planck data with type-Ia supernovae. Those results show that GWs as the standard sirens to probe the cosmological parameters can provide an independent and complementary alternative to current experiments.

  5. Estimation of oceanic subsurface mixing under a severe cyclonic storm using a coupled atmosphere–ocean–wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A coupled atmosphere–ocean–wave model was used to examine mixing in the upper-oceanic layers under the influence of a very severe cyclonic storm Phailin over the Bay of Bengal (BoB during 10–14 October 2013. The coupled model was found to improve the sea surface temperature over the uncoupled model. Model simulations highlight the prominent role of cyclone-induced near-inertial oscillations in subsurface mixing up to the thermocline depth. The inertial mixing introduced by the cyclone played a central role in the deepening of the thermocline and mixed layer depth by 40 and 15 m, respectively. For the first time over the BoB, a detailed analysis of inertial oscillation kinetic energy generation, propagation, and dissipation was carried out using an atmosphere–ocean–wave coupled model during a cyclone. A quantitative estimate of kinetic energy in the oceanic water column, its propagation, and its dissipation mechanisms were explained using the coupled atmosphere–ocean–wave model. The large shear generated by the inertial oscillations was found to overcome the stratification and initiate mixing at the base of the mixed layer. Greater mixing was found at the depths where the eddy kinetic diffusivity was large. The baroclinic current, holding a larger fraction of kinetic energy than the barotropic current, weakened rapidly after the passage of the cyclone. The shear induced by inertial oscillations was found to decrease rapidly with increasing depth below the thermocline. The dampening of the mixing process below the thermocline was explained through the enhanced dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy upon approaching the thermocline layer. The wave–current interaction and nonlinear wave–wave interaction were found to affect the process of downward mixing and cause the dissipation of inertial oscillations.

  6. Functional estimation of kidneys after extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWL) by clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydow, K.; Kirschner, P.; Brien, G.; Buchali, K.; Frenzel, R.

    1991-01-01

    35 patients were scintiscanned with 99m-Tc-DTPA to determine the effects of extracorporeal shock waves used to desintegrate renal concrements may have on the patients renal function. The therapy was conducted using a standard Lithostar unit (Siemens) (20 patients) and an additional overtable module (15 patients). Functional scintigraphy was performed using a gamma camera before lithotripsy, and on the first day after it. Further control investigations were performed one or two weeks later and two till six months later. In both groups most of the patients developed temporary restrictions in renal function, some of them irreversible restrictions. Functional losses were found to be less severe with the use of the overtable module than with the standard Lithostar unit. (orig.) [de

  7. Amount of gas hydrate estimated from compressional- and shear-wave velocities at the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.W.

    1999-01-01

    The amount of in situ gas hydrate concentrated in the sediment pore space at the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well was estimated by using compressional-wave (P-wave) and shear-wave (S-wave) downhole log measurements. A weighted equation developed for relating the amount of gas hydrate concentrated in the pore space of unconsolidated sediments to the increase of seismic velocities was applied to the acoustic logs with porosities derived from the formation density log. A weight of 1.56 (W=1.56) and the exponent of 1 (n=1) provided consistent estimates of gas hydrate concentration from the S-wave and the P-wave logs. Gas hydrate concentration is as much as 80% in the pore spaces, and the average gas hydrate concentration within the gas-hydrate-bearing section from 897 m to 1110 m (excluding zones where there is no gas hydrate) was calculated at 39.0% when using P-wave data and 37.8% when using S-wave data.

  8. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  9. Asymmetry in power-law magnitude correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Tenenbaum, Joel N; Stanley, H Eugene

    2009-07-01

    Time series of increments can be created in a number of different ways from a variety of physical phenomena. For example, in the phenomenon of volatility clustering-well-known in finance-magnitudes of adjacent increments are correlated. Moreover, in some time series, magnitude correlations display asymmetry with respect to an increment's sign: the magnitude of |x_{i}| depends on the sign of the previous increment x_{i-1} . Here we define a model-independent test to measure the statistical significance of any observed asymmetry. We propose a simple stochastic process characterized by a an asymmetry parameter lambda and a method for estimating lambda . We illustrate both the test and process by analyzing physiological data.

  10. Use and abuse of the Fisher information matrix in the assessment of gravitational-wave parameter-estimation prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The Fisher-matrix formalism is used routinely in the literature on gravitational-wave detection to characterize the parameter-estimation performance of gravitational-wave measurements, given parametrized models of the waveforms, and assuming detector noise of known colored Gaussian distribution. Unfortunately, the Fisher matrix can be a poor predictor of the amount of information obtained from typical observations, especially for waveforms with several parameters and relatively low expected signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), or for waveforms depending weakly on one or more parameters, when their priors are not taken into proper consideration. In this paper I discuss these pitfalls; show how they occur, even for relatively strong signals, with a commonly used template family for binary-inspiral waveforms; and describe practical recipes to recognize them and cope with them. Specifically, I answer the following questions: (i) What is the significance of (quasi-)singular Fisher matrices, and how must we deal with them? (ii) When is it necessary to take into account prior probability distributions for the source parameters? (iii) When is the signal-to-noise ratio high enough to believe the Fisher-matrix result? In addition, I provide general expressions for the higher-order, beyond-Fisher-matrix terms in the 1/SNR expansions for the expected parameter accuracies

  11. Evaluation of pipeline defect's characteristic axial length via model-based parameter estimation in ultrasonic guided wave-based inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tse, Peter W; Dordjevich, Alexandar

    2011-01-01

    The reflection signal from a defect in the process of guided wave-based pipeline inspection usually includes sufficient information to detect and define the defect. In previous research, it has been found that the reflection of guided waves from even a complex defect primarily results from the interference between reflection components generated at the front and the back edges of the defect. The respective contribution of different parameters of a defect to the overall reflection can be affected by the features of the two primary reflection components. The identification of these components embedded in the reflection signal is therefore useful in characterizing the concerned defect. In this research, we propose a method of model-based parameter estimation with the aid of the Hilbert–Huang transform technique for the purpose of decomposition of a reflection signal to enable characterization of the pipeline defect. Once two primary edge reflection components are decomposed and identified, the distance between the reflection positions, which closely relates to the axial length of the defect, could be easily and accurately determined. Considering the irregular profiles of complex pipeline defects at their two edges, which is often the case in real situations, the average of varied axial lengths of such a defect along the circumference of the pipeline is used in this paper as the characteristic value of actual axial length for comparison purpose. The experimental results of artificial defects and real corrosion in sample pipes were considered in this paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method

  12. Improving Children's Knowledge of Fraction Magnitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K Fazio

    Full Text Available We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played Catch the Monster with Fractions, a game in which they estimated fraction locations on a number line and received feedback on the accuracy of their estimates. The intervention lasted less than 15 minutes. In our initial study, children showed large gains from pretest to posttest in their fraction number line estimates, magnitude comparisons, and recall accuracy. In a more rigorous second study, the experimental group showed similarly large improvements, whereas a control group showed no improvement from practicing fraction number line estimates without feedback. The results provide evidence for the effectiveness of interventions emphasizing fraction magnitudes and indicate how psychological theories and research can be used to evaluate specific recommendations of the Common Core State Standards.

  13. Estimating front-wave velocity of infectious diseases: a simple, efficient method applied to bluetongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioz, Maryline; Guis, Hélène; Calavas, Didier; Durand, Benoît; Abrial, David; Ducrot, Christian

    2011-04-20

    Understanding the spatial dynamics of an infectious disease is critical when attempting to predict where and how fast the disease will spread. We illustrate an approach using a trend-surface analysis (TSA) model combined with a spatial error simultaneous autoregressive model (SAR(err) model) to estimate the speed of diffusion of bluetongue (BT), an infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides. In a first step to gain further insight into the spatial transmission characteristics of BTV serotype 8, we used 2007-2008 clinical case reports in France and TSA modelling to identify the major directions and speed of disease diffusion. We accounted for spatial autocorrelation by combining TSA with a SAR(err) model, which led to a trend SAR(err) model. Overall, BT spread from north-eastern to south-western France. The average trend SAR(err)-estimated velocity across the country was 5.6 km/day. However, velocities differed between areas and time periods, varying between 2.1 and 9.3 km/day. For more than 83% of the contaminated municipalities, the trend SAR(err)-estimated velocity was less than 7 km/day. Our study was a first step in describing the diffusion process for BT in France. To our knowledge, it is the first to show that BT spread in France was primarily local and consistent with the active flight of Culicoides and local movements of farm animals. Models such as the trend SAR(err) models are powerful tools to provide information on direction and speed of disease diffusion when the only data available are date and location of cases.

  14. Radiation Dose Assesment And Risk Estimation During Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Ibrahim, A.A.; Osman, H.; Yousef, M.

    2011-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is considered the gold standard for calculi fragmentation. The aims of this study are to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD) using thermo-luminescence dosimeter (TLDs) and to estimate the probability of carcinogenesis during ESWL procedure. The study was carried out at two centers (Group A, 50 patients) and (Group B, 25 patients). The mean ESD and effective doses were 36 mGy and 34 mSv. The results show that the probability of carcinogenesis is a tiny value 100 per million patients) but the main biological effect is occurring due to the accumulative impact of radiation.

  15. Magnitudes and frequencies of earthquakes in relation to seismic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Estimating the frequencies of occurrence of earthquakes of different magnitudes on a regional basis is an important task in estimating seismic risk at a construction site. Analysis of global earthquake data provides an insight into the magnitudes frequency relationship in a statistical manner. It turns out that, whereas a linear relationship between the logarithm of earthquake occurrence rates and the corresponding earthquake magnitudes fits well in the magnitude range between 5 and 7, a second degree polynomial in M, the earthquake magnitude provides a better description of the frequencies of earthquakes in a much wider range of magnitudes. It may be possible to adopt magnitude frequency relation for regions, for which adequate earthquake data are not available, to carry out seismic risk calculations. (author). 32 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  16. Brain waves-based index for workload estimation and mental effort engagement recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammouri, A.; Chraa-Mesbahi, S.; Ait Moussa, A.; Zerouali, S.; Sahnoun, M.; Tairi, H.; Mahraz, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The advent of the communication systems and considering the complexity that some impose in their use, it is necessary to incorporate and equip these systems with a certain intelligence which takes into account the cognitive and mental capacities of the human operator. In this work, we address the issue of estimating the mental effort of an operator according to the cognitive tasks difficulty levels. Based on the Electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements, the proposed approach analyzes the user’s brain activity from different brain regions while performing cognitive tasks with several levels of difficulty. At a first time, we propose a variances comparison-based classifier (VCC) that makes use of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the EEG signal. The aim of using such a classifier is to highlight the brain regions that enter into interaction according to the cognitive task difficulty. In a second time, we present and describe a new EEG-based index for the estimation of mental efforts. The designed index is based on information recorded from two EEG channels. Results from the VCC demonstrate that powers of the Theta [4-7 Hz] (θ) and Alpha [8-12 Hz] (α) oscillations decrease while increasing the cognitive task difficulty. These decreases are mainly located in parietal and temporal brain regions. Based on the Kappa coefficients, decisions of the introduced index are compared to those obtained from an existing index. This performance assessment method revealed strong agreements. Hence the efficiency of the introduced index.

  17. EOP Current Magnitude and Direction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain shipboard current magnitudes and directions collected in the Pacific, both pelagic and near shore environments. Data is collected using an RD...

  18. Estimation of volt second saving by application of lower hybrid waves on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Houtte, D.

    1987-12-01

    Volt-second saving by application of lower hybrid current discharges on JET is assessed and the extent of the duration time of the flat top current is estimated. A data base obtained mainly on PETULA is compared with theory. Together with an optimization of LH and plasma parameters, a hybrid (OH-LH) current drive operating scenario for volt-second saving is proposed for JET. An RF-assisted ohmic heating current rises up on JET enables volt-second to be saved enough to achieve a longer plasma current flat top than could be achieved by ohmic heating alone. This plasma current, up to I p = 7MA, should last as long as the toroidal and equilibrium field allows it

  19. Application of asymptotic expansions for maximum likelihood estimators' errors to gravitational waves from inspiraling binary systems: The network case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitale, Salvatore; Zanolin, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the most accurate analytical frequentist assessment to date of the uncertainties in the estimation of physical parameters from gravitational waves generated by nonspinning binary systems and Earth-based networks of laser interferometers. The paper quantifies how the accuracy in estimating the intrinsic parameters mostly depends on the network signal to noise ratio (SNR), but the resolution in the direction of arrival also strongly depends on the network geometry. We compare results for six different existing and possible global networks and two different choices of the parameter space. We show how the fraction of the sky where the one sigma angular resolution is below 2 square degrees increases about 3 times when transitioning from the Hanford (USA), Livingston (USA) and Cascina (Italy) network to a network made of five interferometers (while keeping the network SNR fixed). The technique adopted here is an asymptotic expansion of the uncertainties in inverse powers of the SNR where the first order is the inverse Fisher information matrix. We show that the commonly employed approach of using a simplified parameter spaces and only the Fisher information matrix can largely underestimate the uncertainties (the combined effect would lead to a factor 7 for the one sigma sky uncertainty in square degrees at a network SNR of 15).

  20. Earthquake Magnitude Relationships for the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Equatorial Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Guilherme W. S.; do Nascimento, Aderson F.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated several relationships between ML, M(NEIC) and Mw for the earthquakes locally recorded in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Equatorial Atlantic. Because we only have one station in the area, we could not derive attenuation relations for events recorded at different distances at different stations. Our approach was then to compare our ML estimates with magnitudes reported by NEIC. This approach produced acceptable results particularly for epicentral distance smaller than 100 km. For distances greater that 100 km, there is a systematic increase in the residuals probable due to the lack of station correction and our inability to accurately estimate Q. We also investigate the Mw—M(NEIC) relationship. We find that Mw estimates using S-wave produce smaller residuals when compared with both M(NEIC). Finally, we also investigate the ML—Mw relationship and observe that given the data set we have, the 1:1 holds. We believe that the use of the present methodologies provide consistent magnitude estimates between all the magnitudes investigated that could be used to better assess seismic hazard in the region.

  1. Greenhouse gas emission rate estimates from airborne remote sensing in the short-wave infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Thomas

    2013-01-30

    The quantification of emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) is essential for attributing the roles of anthropogenic activity and natural phenomena in global climate change. The current measurement systems and networks, whilst having improved during the last decades, are deficient in many respects. For example, the emissions from localised and point sources such as fossil fuel exploration sites are not readily assessed. A tool developed to better understand point sources of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is the optical remote sensing instrument MAMAP, operated from aircraft. With a ground scene size of the order of 50m and a relative accuracy of the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of about 0.3% for XCO{sub 2} and less than 0.4% for XCH{sub 4}, MAMAP can make a significant contribution in this respect. Detailed sensitivity studies showed that the modified WFM-DOAS retrieval algorithm used for MAMAP has an approximate accuracy of about 0.24% for XCH{sub 4} and XCO{sub 2} in typical atmospheric conditions. At the example of CO{sub 2} plumes from two different power plants and CH{sub 4} plumes from coal mine ventilation shafts, two inversion approaches to obtain emission rates were developed and tested. One is based on an optimal estimation scheme to fit Gaussian plume models from multiple sources to the data and the other is based on a simple Gaussian integral method. Compared to CO{sub 2} emission estimates as reported by the power plants' operator within the framework of emission databases (24 and 13 MtCO{sub 2} yr{sup -1}), the results of the individual inversion techniques were within ±10% with uncertainties of ±20-30% mainly due to insufficient wind information and non-stationary atmospheric conditions. Measurements at the coal mine included on-site wind observations by an aircraft turbulence probe that could be utilised to calibrate the wind model. In this case, the inversion results have a bias of less than 1

  2. Scaling Relations of Local Magnitude versus Moment Magnitude for Sequences of Similar Earthquakes in Switzerland

    KAUST Repository

    Bethmann, F.

    2011-03-22

    Theoretical considerations and empirical regressions show that, in the magnitude range between 3 and 5, local magnitude, ML, and moment magnitude, Mw, scale 1:1. Previous studies suggest that for smaller magnitudes this 1:1 scaling breaks down. However, the scatter between ML and Mw at small magnitudes is usually large and the resulting scaling relations are therefore uncertain. In an attempt to reduce these uncertainties, we first analyze the ML versus Mw relation based on 195 events, induced by the stimulation of a geothermal reservoir below the city of Basel, Switzerland. Values of ML range from 0.7 to 3.4. From these data we derive a scaling of ML ~ 1:5Mw over the given magnitude range. We then compare peak Wood-Anderson amplitudes to the low-frequency plateau of the displacement spectra for six sequences of similar earthquakes in Switzerland in the range of 0:5 ≤ ML ≤ 4:1. Because effects due to the radiation pattern and to the propagation path between source and receiver are nearly identical at a particular station for all events in a given sequence, the scatter in the data is substantially reduced. Again we obtain a scaling equivalent to ML ~ 1:5Mw. Based on simulations using synthetic source time functions for different magnitudes and Q values estimated from spectral ratios between downhole and surface recordings, we conclude that the observed scaling can be explained by attenuation and scattering along the path. Other effects that could explain the observed magnitude scaling, such as a possible systematic increase of stress drop or rupture velocity with moment magnitude, are masked by attenuation along the path.

  3. Local magnitude, duration magnitude and seismic moment of Dahshour 1992 earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessokey, M.M.; Abdelwahed, M.F. [National research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Seismology; Hussein, H.M.; Abdelrahman, El. M. [Cairo Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Geophysics

    2000-02-01

    Local magnitude M{sub L} have been calculated for 56 earthquakes of the Dahshour 1992 sequence using simulated records of the KEG broadband station and estimated calibration function of the area. The measurements, derived by the simulated Wood Anderson seismograms, are analysed and discussed.

  4. Defining Tsunami Magnitude as Measure of Potential Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. V.; Tang, L.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of tsunami forecast, as a system for predicting potential impact of a tsunami at coastlines, requires quick estimate of a tsunami magnitude. This goal has been recognized since the beginning of tsunami research. The work of Kajiura, Soloviev, Abe, Murty, and many others discussed several scales for tsunami magnitude based on estimates of tsunami energy. However, difficulties of estimating tsunami energy based on available tsunami measurements at coastal sea-level stations has carried significant uncertainties and has been virtually impossible in real time, before tsunami impacts coastlines. The slow process of tsunami magnitude estimates, including collection of vast amount of available coastal sea-level data from affected coastlines, made it impractical to use any tsunami magnitude scales in tsunami warning operations. Uncertainties of estimates made tsunami magnitudes difficult to use as universal scale for tsunami analysis. Historically, the earthquake magnitude has been used as a proxy of tsunami impact estimates, since real-time seismic data is available of real-time processing and ample amount of seismic data is available for an elaborate post event analysis. This measure of tsunami impact carries significant uncertainties in quantitative tsunami impact estimates, since the relation between the earthquake and generated tsunami energy varies from case to case. In this work, we argue that current tsunami measurement capabilities and real-time modeling tools allow for establishing robust tsunami magnitude that will be useful for tsunami warning as a quick estimate for tsunami impact and for post-event analysis as a universal scale for tsunamis inter-comparison. We present a method for estimating the tsunami magnitude based on tsunami energy and present application of the magnitude analysis for several historical events for inter-comparison with existing methods.

  5. A Bayesian model averaging approach for estimating the relative risk of mortality associated with heat waves in 105 U.S. cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobb, Jennifer F; Dominici, Francesca; Peng, Roger D

    2011-12-01

    Estimating the risks heat waves pose to human health is a critical part of assessing the future impact of climate change. In this article, we propose a flexible class of time series models to estimate the relative risk of mortality associated with heat waves and conduct Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to account for the multiplicity of potential models. Applying these methods to data from 105 U.S. cities for the period 1987-2005, we identify those cities having a high posterior probability of increased mortality risk during heat waves, examine the heterogeneity of the posterior distributions of mortality risk across cities, assess sensitivity of the results to the selection of prior distributions, and compare our BMA results to a model selection approach. Our results show that no single model best predicts risk across the majority of cities, and that for some cities heat-wave risk estimation is sensitive to model choice. Although model averaging leads to posterior distributions with increased variance as compared to statistical inference conditional on a model obtained through model selection, we find that the posterior mean of heat wave mortality risk is robust to accounting for model uncertainty over a broad class of models. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  6. Absolute magnitudes by statistical parallaxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, A.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes an algorithm for stellar luminosity calibrations (based on the principle of maximum likelihood) which allows the calibration of relations of the type: Msub(i)=sup(N)sub(j=1)Σqsub(j)Csub(ij), i=1,...,n, where n is the size of the sample at hand, Msub(i) are the individual absolute magnitudes, Csub(ij) are observational quantities (j=1,...,N), and qsub(j) are the coefficients to be determined. If one puts N=1 and Csub(iN)=1, one has q 1 =M(mean), the mean absolute magnitude of the sample. As additional output, the algorithm provides one also with the dispersion in magnitude of the sample sigmasub(M), the mean solar motion (U,V,W) and the corresponding velocity ellipsoid (sigmasub(u), sigmasub(v), sigmasub(w). The use of this algorithm is illustrated. (Auth.)

  7. Estimation of Design Wave Loads on the SSG WEC Pilot Plant based on 3-D Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Vicinanza, Diego; Osaland, Espen

    2006-01-01

    This paper discuss wave loadings acting on the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). The SSG is a new type of structure for wave energy conversion based on storing the incoming waves in several reservoirs placed one above the other. The wave forces on the main structure c...... to be of direct use to engineers analyzing design and stability of the pilot plant under construction at Kvitsøy island, partly funded by the EU 6th framework program (WAVESSG)....

  8. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium using new facilities at the Savannah River site: alternatives 3A/5A/6A/6B/7A/9A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium using ceramic in a new facility at Savannah River Site (SRS)

  9. Comparação entre os métodos psicofísicos escalares de estimação de magnitudes e de estimação de categorias da percepção social do enfermeiro Comparación entre los métodos psicofísicos escalares de estimación de magnitudes y de estimación de categorias de la percepción social del enfermero Comparison between the psychophysical scale methods for magnitude stimation and category estimation of nurses' social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros Sousa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi escalonar a percepção social do enfermeiro pelos métodos de estimação de magnitudes e de categorias. Participaram estudantes do 2º grau e universitários, profissionais atuantes e aposentados em medicina, psicologia, enfermagem e odontologia. Os resultados mostraram: (1 os traços asseado, responsável, limpo, cuidadoso e eficaz ocupam as primeiras posições em termos da percepção social do enfermeiro, enquanto os traços inútil, desonroso, desonesto, irresponsável e odioso ocupam as últimas posições nas escalas obtidas pelos dois métodos psicofísicos diretos e (2 o contínuo não-métrico de percepção social possui características protéticas.El objetivo de este experimento fue escalonar la percepción social del enfermero por los métodos de estimación de magnitudes y de categorías. Participaron alumnos de la enseñanza fundamental y de universidades, profesionales actuantes y jubilados en medicina, psicología, enfermería y odontología. Los resultados mostraron que (1 las características aseado, responsable, limpio, cuidadoso y eficaz ocupan las primeras posiciones en términos de la percepción social del enfermero, como las características inútil, deshonroso, deshonesto, irresponsable y odioso ocupan las últimas posiciones en las escalas obtenidas por los dos métodos psicofísicos directos y (2 el continuo no métrico de percepción social tiene características protéticas.This experiment aimed to rank nurses' social perception through the magnitude and category estimation methods. Study participants were high school and university students, active and retired professionals in the areas of medicine, psychology, nursing and dentistry. The results showed: (1 the characteristics neat, responsible, clean, careful and efficacious occupied the first positions in terms of nurses' social perception; whereas the characteristics useless, dishonorable, irresponsible and hateful occupied the

  10. Representational Change and Children's Numerical Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    We applied overlapping waves theory and microgenetic methods to examine how children improve their estimation proficiency, and in particular how they shift from reliance on immature to mature representations of numerical magnitude. We also tested the theoretical prediction that feedback on problems on which the discrepancy between two…

  11. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  12. Spin-wave damping in ferromagnets in the ordered regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, T.L.; Stinchcombe, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical results based on a high-density approach are compared with experimental measurements for the damping of long-wavelength spin waves in the nearly isotropic ferromagnet for temperatures up to the critical regime. The theory, which has no adjustable parameters, is shown to account well for the overall magnitude of the spin-wave widths measured in recent neutron scattering experiments on EuO, and it is also in satisfactory agreement with the measured wave vector and temperature dependence of these widths. An estimate is also given for the contribution of dipolar coupling to the spin-wave widths

  13. A Novel Application of the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Method for Estimating the Critical Zone Thicknes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.; Yaede, J.; McBride, J. H.; Park, C.; Turnbull, S. J.; Tingey, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    MASW approaches are suitable for the accurate measurement of variably thick weathering profiles by producing shear-wave (Vs) profiles. The critical zone (CZ) base is usually a transitional boundary, which is captured by MASW but not by conventional seismic reflection techniques. Modified MASW methods were used in Hawaii, USA to extend the investigative depth of saprolite (kaolin clays, Fe-oxides) thickness calibrated against wells with geologic logs. Active-source ± passive dispersion curves produced improved low-frequency fundamental modes by combining records with varying source-receiver offsets, enabling the generation of Vs profiles to >50 m depth. The top of unaltered bedrock occurs at a Vs of >~500 m/s. Intra-saprolite high Vs zones probably represent aa flow interiors with fewer primary discontinuities (vesicles and fractures), therefore imparting higher secondary stiffness than altered pahoehoe and pyroclastic material. The MASW approach permits measuring CZ thicknesses at discrete locations rapidly, inexpensively, and without drilling. For example, employed on slopes of the Koolau Volcano (neither aggrading nor degrading), the downward rate of advance of the weathering front of the CZ varies from 0.02 to 0.03 mm/yr in wet and ~0.01 mm/yr in dry areas. This compares well with recent work based on solute mass fluxes averaged over large areas. MASW can be deployed in a variety of settings where rapid estimation of the CZ thickness at particular locations is desired.

  14. Analyses of surface motions caused by the magnitude 9.0 2004 Sumatra earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Gudmundsson, Ó.

    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on December 26th was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of Mw = 9.0 it is the forth largest earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about one hundred kilometers off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively thin...... of years. The result was a devastating tsunami hitting coastlines across the Indian Ocean killing more than 225,000 people in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. An earthquake of this magnitude is expected to involve a displacement on the fault on the order of 10 meters. But, what...... was the actual amplitude of the surface motions that triggered the tsunami? This can be constrained using the amplitudes of elastic waves radiated from the earthquake, or by direct measurements of deformation. Here we present estimates of the deformation based on continuous Global Positioning System (GPS...

  15. Evidence accumulation in the magnitude system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lambrechts

    Full Text Available Perceptual interferences in the estimation of quantities (time, space and numbers have been interpreted as evidence for a common magnitude system. However, if duration estimation has appears sensitive to spatial and numerical interferences, space and number estimation tend to be resilient to temporal manipulations. These observations question the relative contribution of each quantity in the elaboration of a representation in a common mental metric. Here, we elaborated a task in which perceptual evidence accumulated over time for all tested quantities (space, time and number in order to match the natural requirement for building a duration percept. For this, we used a bisection task. Experimental trials consisted of dynamic dots of different sizes appearing progressively on the screen. Participants were asked to judge the duration, the cumulative surface or the number of dots in the display while the two non-target dimensions varied independently. In a prospective experiment, participants were informed before the trial which dimension was the target; in a retrospective experiment, participants had to attend to all dimensions and were informed only after a given trial which dimension was the target. Surprisingly, we found that duration was resilient to spatial and numerical interferences whereas space and number estimation were affected by time. Specifically, and counter-intuitively, results revealed that longer durations lead to smaller number and space estimates whether participants knew before (prospectively or after (retrospectively a given trial which quantity they had to estimate. Altogether, our results support a magnitude system in which perceptual evidence for time, space and numbers integrate following Bayesian cue-combination rules.

  16. Estimation of subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement; Kiretsuha sanjiku keisoku ni yoru chika kiretsumen no hoko suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, K; Sato, K [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports experiments carried out to estimate subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement. The experiments were performed by using existing subsurface cracks and two wells in the experimental field. An air gun as a sound source was installed directly above a subsurface crack intersection in one of the wells, and a three-component elastic wave detector was fixed in the vicinity of a subsurface crack intersection in the other well. Crack waves from the sound source were measured in a frequency bandwidth from 150 to 300 Hz. A coherence matrix was constituted relative to triaxial components of vibration in the crack waves; a coherent vector was sought that corresponds to a maximum coherent value of the matrix; and the direction of the longer axis in an ellipse (the direction being perpendicular to the crack face) was approximated in particle motions of the crack waves by using the vector. The normal line direction of the crack face estimated by using the above method was found to agree nearly well with the direction of the minimum crust compression stress measured in the normal line direction of the crack face existed in core samples collected from the wells, and measured at nearly the same position as the subsurface crack. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Generalized Pareto Distribution to Estimate Extreme Significant Wave Height in The Banda Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursamsiah; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Suprijanto, Jusup; Munasik; Yulianto, Bambang

    2018-02-01

    The information of extreme wave height return level was required for maritime planning and management. The recommendation methods in analyzing extreme wave were better distributed by Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). Seasonal variation was often considered in the extreme wave model. This research aims to identify the best model of GPD by considering a seasonal variation of the extreme wave. By using percentile 95 % as the threshold of extreme significant wave height, the seasonal GPD and non-seasonal GPD fitted. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to identify the goodness of fit of the GPD model. The return value from seasonal and non-seasonal GPD was compared with the definition of return value as criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test result shows that GPD fits data very well both seasonal and non-seasonal model. The seasonal return value gives better information about the wave height characteristics.

  18. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternatives 3B/5B/6C/6D/7B/9B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium using ceramic in an existing facility (221-F) at Savannah River Site (SRS)

  19. Prediction of Compressional Wave Velocity Using Regression and Neural Network Modeling and Estimation of Stress Orientation in Bokaro Coalfield, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Suman; Ali, Muhammad; Chatterjee, Rima

    2018-01-01

    Velocity of compressional wave ( V P) of coal and non-coal lithology is predicted from five wells from the Bokaro coalfield (CF), India. Shear sonic travel time logs are not recorded for all wells under the study area. Shear wave velocity ( Vs) is available only for two wells: one from east and other from west Bokaro CF. The major lithologies of this CF are dominated by coal, shaly coal of Barakar formation. This paper focuses on the (a) relationship between Vp and Vs, (b) prediction of Vp using regression and neural network modeling and (c) estimation of maximum horizontal stress from image log. Coal characterizes with low acoustic impedance (AI) as compared to the overlying and underlying strata. The cross-plot between AI and Vp/ Vs is able to identify coal, shaly coal, shale and sandstone from wells in Bokaro CF. The relationship between Vp and Vs is obtained with excellent goodness of fit ( R 2) ranging from 0.90 to 0.93. Linear multiple regression and multi-layered feed-forward neural network (MLFN) models are developed for prediction Vp from two wells using four input log parameters: gamma ray, resistivity, bulk density and neutron porosity. Regression model predicted Vp shows poor fit (from R 2 = 0.28) to good fit ( R 2 = 0.79) with the observed velocity. MLFN model predicted Vp indicates satisfactory to good R2 values varying from 0.62 to 0.92 with the observed velocity. Maximum horizontal stress orientation from a well at west Bokaro CF is studied from Formation Micro-Imager (FMI) log. Breakouts and drilling-induced fractures (DIFs) are identified from the FMI log. Breakout length of 4.5 m is oriented towards N60°W whereas the orientation of DIFs for a cumulative length of 26.5 m is varying from N15°E to N35°E. The mean maximum horizontal stress in this CF is towards N28°E.

  20. On the problem of negative dissipation of fast waves at the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance and the accuracy of absorption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon, F.; Pavlov, S.S.; Swanson, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    Negative dissipation appears when ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) heating at first harmonic in a thermal plasma is estimated using some numerical schemes. The causes of the appearance of such a problem are investigated analytically and numerically in this work showing that the problem is connected with the accuracy with which the absorption coefficient at the first ICR harmonic is estimated. The corrections for the absorption estimation are presented for the case of quasiperpendicular propagation of fast wave in this frequency range. A method to solve the problem of negative dissipation is presented and, as a result, an enhancement of absorption is found for reactor-size plasmas

  1. The language of magnitude comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, William John; Dylman, Alexandra S

    2014-01-01

    When two objects differ in magnitude, their relation can be described with a "smaller" comparative (e.g., "less", "shorter", "lower") or a "larger" comparative (e.g., "more", "taller", "higher"). We show that, across multiple dimensions and tasks, English speakers preferentially use the latter. In sentence-completion tasks, this higher use of larger comparatives (HULC) effect is more pronounced when the larger item is presented on the left (for simultaneous presentation) or second (for sequen...

  2. Radiation doses - maps and magnitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' Series presents information on the numerous sources and magnitude of exposure of man to radiation. These include the medical use of radiation, radioactive discharges to the environment, cosmic rays, gamma rays from the ground and buildings, radon gas and food and drink. A Pie chart represents the percentage contribution of each of those sources. Finally, the terms becquerel, microsievert and millisievert are explained. (U.K.)

  3. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  4. Improving seismic crustal models in the Corinth Gulf, Greece and estimating source depth using PL-waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vackář, Jiří; Zahradník, Jiří

    2013-04-01

    A recent shallow earthquake in the Corinth Gulf, Greece (Mw 5.3, January 18, 2010; Sokos et al., Tectonophysics 2012) generated unusual long-period waves (periods > 5 seconds), well recorded at several near-regional stations between the P - and S-wave arrival. The 5-second period, being significantly longer than the source duration, indicates a structural effect. The wave is similar to PL-wave or Pnl-wave, but with shorter periods and observed in much closer distances (ranging from 30 to 200 km). For theoretical description of the observed wave, structural model is required. No existing regional crustal model generates that wave, so we need to find another model, better in terms of the PL-wave existence and strength. We find such models by full waveform inversion using the subset of stations with strong PL-wave. The Discrete Wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981; Coutant 1989) is used for forward problem and the Neighborhood Algorithm (Sambridge, 1999) for stochastic search (more details in poster by V. Plicka and J. Zahradník). We obtain a suite of models well fitting synthetic seismograms and use some of these models to evaluate dependence of the studied waves on receiver distance and azimuth as well as dependence on source depth. We compare real and synthetic dispersion curves (derived from synthetic seismograms) as an independent validation of found model and discuss limitations of using dispersion curves for these cases. We also relocated the event in the new model. Then we calculate the wavefield by two other methods: modal summation and ray theory to better understand the nature of the PL-wave. Finally, we discuss agreement of found models with published crustal models in the region. The full waveform inversion for structural parameters seems to be powerful tool for improving seismic source modeling in cases we do not have accurate structure model of studied area. We also show that the PL-wave strength has a potential to precise the earthquake depth

  5. Estimating state of charge and health of lithium-ion batteries with guided waves using built-in piezoelectric sensors/actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladpli, Purim; Kopsaftopoulos, Fotis; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the feasibility of monitoring state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of lithium-ion pouch batteries with acousto-ultrasonic guided waves. The guided waves are propagated and sensed using low-profile, built-in piezoelectric disc transducers that can be retrofitted onto off-the-shelf batteries. Both experimental and analytical studies are performed to understand the relationship between guided waves generated in a pitch-catch mode and battery SoC/SoH. The preliminary experiments on representative pouch cells show that the changes in time of flight (ToF) and signal amplitude (SA) resulting from shifts in the guided wave signals correlate strongly with the electrochemical charge-discharge cycling and aging. An analytical acoustic model is developed to simulate the variations in electrode moduli and densities during cycling, which correctly validates the absolute values and range of experimental ToF. It is further illustrated via a statistical study that ToF and SA can be used in a prediction model to accurately estimate SoC/SoH. Additionally, by using multiple sensors in a network configuration on the same battery, a significantly more reliable and accurate SoC/SoH prediction is achieved. The indicative results from this study can be extended to develop a unified guided-wave-based framework for SoC/SoH monitoring of many lithium-ion battery applications.

  6. Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project : Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Haikonen, Kalle; Sundberg, Jan; Leijon, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Wave energy conversion is a clean electric power production technology. During operation there are no emissions in the form of harmful gases. However there are unsolved issues considering environmental impacts such as: electromagnetism; the artificial reef effect and underwater noise. Anthropogenic noise is increasing in the oceans worldwide and wave power will contribute to this sound pollution in the oceans; but to what extent? The main purpose of this study was to examine the noise emitted...

  7. Gravitational Waves - New Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesiada, M.

    1999-01-01

    Laser interferometric experiments planned for 2002 will open up a new window onto the Universe. The first part of the paper gives a brief intuitive introduction to gravity waves, detection techniques and enumeration of main astrophysical sources and frequency bands to which they contribute. Then two more specific issues are discussed concerning cosmological perspectives of gravity waves detection. First one is the problem of gravitational lensing of the signal from inspiralling NS-NS binaries. The magnitude of the so called magnification bias is estimated and found non-negligible for some quite realistic lens models, but strongly model-dependent. The second problem is connected with estimates of galactic and extragalactic parts of the stochastic background. The main conclusion from these two examples is that in so far as the cosmological payoff of gravitational wave detection would be high, we should substantially deepen our understanding of basic astrophysical properties of galaxies and their clusters (in terms of mass distribution) in order to draw clear cosmological conclusions. (author)

  8. Estimating the Magnitude and Field-Size Dependence of Radiotherapy-Induced Mortality and Tumor Control After Postoperative Radiotherapy For Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Calculations From Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, Edward F.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To create, on the basis of available data, a mathematical model to describe the tumor stage- and field size-dependent risks/benefits of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to assess whether this simple model can accurately describe the reported changes in overall survival. Methods and Materials: The increase in overall survival afforded by PORT is assumed equal to the increase in cancer-specific survival minus the rate of RT-induced mortality. The increase in cancer-specific survival is the product of the probabilities of (residual local disease) x (sterilization of residual disease with PORT) x (absence of metastatic disease). Data were extracted from the literature to estimate these probabilities. Different models were considered to relate the RT-induced mortality to field size. Results: The rate of RT-induced mortality seems to be proportional to the cube of the field size. When these mortality rates are included in the model, the predicted changes in overall survival approximate the literature values. Conclusion: Clinical data can be explained by a simple model that suggests that RT-induced mortality is strongly dependent on field size and at least partly offsets the benefit afforded by PORT. Smaller RT fields, tailored to treat the areas most at risk for recurrence, provide the highest therapeutic ratio. The data used do not reflect the impact of chemotherapy, which will reduce the rate of distant metastases and enhance the efficacy of RT

  9. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  10. Solar Variability Magnitudes and Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to many millennia. The former are directly observed as part of the on-going 37-year long total solar irradiance climate data record, while the latter are inferred from solar proxy and stellar evolution models. Since the Sun provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system, changes in the sunlight reaching our planet can have - and have had - significant impacts on life and civilizations.Total solar irradiance has been measured from space since 1978 by a series of overlapping instruments. These have shown changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere from timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. The Sun’s ~0.01% variations over a few minutes are caused by the superposition of convection and oscillations, and even occasionally by a large flare. Over days to weeks, changing surface activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle has comparable irradiance variations with peaks near solar maxima.Secular variations are harder to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Proxy models of the Sun based on cosmogenic isotope records and inferred from Earth climate signatures indicate solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitude of these variations depends on many assumptions. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities.In this talk I will summarize the Sun’s variability magnitudes over different temporal ranges, showing examples relevant for climate studies as well as detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  11. Integration and magnitude homogenization of the Egyptian earthquake catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.M.; Abou Elenean, K.A.; Marzouk, I.A.; Abu El-Nader, E.; Peresan, A.; Korrat, I.M.; Panza, G.F.; El-Gabry, M.N.

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to compile and update a catalogue of the instrumentally recorded earthquakes in Egypt, with uniform and homogeneous source parameters as required for the analysis of seismicity and seismic hazard assessment. This in turn requires a detailed analysis and comparison of the properties of different available sources, including the distribution of events with time, the magnitude completeness and the scaling relations between different kinds of magnitude reported by different agencies. The observational data cover the time interval 1900- 2004 and an area between 22--33.5 deg N and 25--3 6 deg. E. The linear regressions between various magnitude types have been evaluated for different magnitude ranges. Using the best linear relationship determined for each available pair of magnitudes, as well as those identified between the magnitudes and the seismic moment, we convert the different magnitude types into moment magnitudes M W , through a multi-step conversion process. Analysis of the catalogue completeness, based on the MW thus estimated, allows us to identify two different time intervals with homogeneous properties. The first one (1900- 1984) appears to be complete for M W ≥ 4.5, while the second one (1985-2004) can be considered complete for magnitudes M W ≥ 3. (author)

  12. The sea surface currents as a potential factor in the estimation and monitoring of wave energy potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianoy, Stavros; Liakatas, Aristotelis

    2015-04-01

    The use of wave energy as an alternative renewable is receiving attention the last years under the shadow of the economic crisis in Europe and in the light of the promising corresponding potential especially for countries with extended coastline. Monitoring and studying the corresponding resources is further supported by a number of critical advantages of wave energy compared to other renewable forms, like the reduced variability and the easier adaptation to the general grid, especially when is jointly approached with wind power. Within the framework, a number of countries worldwide have launched research and development projects and a significant number of corresponding studies have been presented the last decades. However, in most of them the impact of wave-sea surface currents interaction on the wave energy potential has not been taken into account neglecting in this way a factor of potential importance. The present work aims at filling this gap for a sea area with increased scientific and economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Based on a combination of high resolution numerical modeling approach with advanced statistical tools, a detailed analysis is proposed for the quantification of the impact of sea surface currents, which produced from downscaling the MyOcean-FO regional data, to wave energy potential. The results although spatially sensitive, as expected, prove beyond any doubt that the wave- sea surface currents interaction should be taken into account for similar resource analysis and site selection approaches since the percentage of impact to the available wave power may reach or even exceed 20% at selected areas.

  13. Estimate of Small Stiffness and Damping Ratio in Residual Soil Using Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawadi Nor Faizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the important parameters for modeling the dynamic behavior of soils has led to rapid development of the small strain stiffness and damping ratio for use in the seismic method. It is because, the experimental determination of the damping ratio is problematic, especially for hard soils sample. Many researchers have proved that the surface wave method is a reliable tool to determine shear wave velocity and damping ratio profiles at a site with very small strains level. Surface wave methods based on Rayleigh waves propagation and the resulting attenuation curve can become erroneous when higher modes contribute to the soil’s response. In this study, two approaches has been used to determine the shear strain amplitude and damping ratio of residual soils at small strain level using Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW method. One is to derive shear strain amplitude from the frequency-response curve and the other is to derive damping ratio from travel-time data. Then, the results are compared to the conventional method.

  14. Convenient method for estimating underground s-wave velocity structure utilizing horizontal and vertical components microtremor spectral ratio; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi wo riyoshita kan`i chika s ha sokudo kozo suiteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Yoshioka, M; Saito, T [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Studies were conducted about the method of estimating the underground S-wave velocity structure by inversion making use of the horizontal/vertical motion spectral ratio of microtremors. For this purpose, a dynamo-electric velocity type seismograph was used, capable of processing the east-west, north-south, and vertical components integratedly. For the purpose of sampling the Rayleigh wave spectral ratio, one out of all the azimuths was chosen, whose horizontal motion had a high Fourier frequency component coherency with the vertical motions. For the estimation of the underground S-wave velocity structure, parameters (P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and layer thickness) were determined from the minimum residual sum of squares involving the observed microtremor spectral ratio and the theoretical value calculated by use of a model structure. The known boring data was utilized for the study of the S-wave velocity in the top layer, and it was determined using an S-wave velocity estimation formula for the Morioka area constructed using the N-value, depth, and geological classification. It was found that the optimum S-wave velocity structure even below the top layer well reflects the S-wave velocity obtained by the estimation formula. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Scaling Relations of Local Magnitude versus Moment Magnitude for Sequences of Similar Earthquakes in Switzerland

    KAUST Repository

    Bethmann, F.; Deichmann, N.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical regressions show that, in the magnitude range between 3 and 5, local magnitude, ML, and moment magnitude, Mw, scale 1:1. Previous studies suggest that for smaller magnitudes this 1:1 scaling breaks down

  16. Moment Magnitudes and Local Magnitudes for Small Earthquakes: Implications for Ground-Motion Prediction and b-values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltay, A.; Hanks, T. C.; Vernon, F.

    2016-12-01

    We illustrate two essential consequences of the systematic difference between moment magnitude and local magnitude for small earthquakes, illuminating the underlying earthquake physics. Moment magnitude, M 2/3 log M0, is uniformly valid for all earthquake sizes [Hanks and Kanamori, 1979]. However, the relationship between local magnitude ML and moment is itself magnitude dependent. For moderate events, 3> fmax. Just as importantly, if this relation is overlooked, prediction of large-magnitude ground motion from small earthquakes will be misguided. We also consider the effect of this magnitude scale difference on b-value. The oft-cited b-value of 1 should hold for small magnitudes, given M. Use of ML necessitates b=2/3 for the same data set; use of mixed, or unknown, magnitudes complicates the matter further. This is of particular import when estimating the rate of large earthquakes when one has limited data on their recurrence, as is the case for induced earthquakes in the central US.

  17. Impact of turbulence induced loads and wave kinematic models on fatigue reliability estimates of offshore wind turbine monopiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colone, Lorenzo; Natarajan, Anand; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2018-01-01

    of fatigue loads. Subsequently, the research focuses on studying the effects of uncertain marine environments on the fatigue load distribution, showing that the latter is insensitive to the random variability of the hydrodynamic coefficients. With respect to the wave kinematic model, a comparison between...... nonlinear and linear waves clearly suggests that hydrodynamic forces depend significantly on the kinematic model adopted and the operational conditions of the turbine. Furthermore, a term is derived to correct the error introduced by Wheeler stretching at finite water depths. The respective model...

  18. Childhood Cataract: Magnitude, Management, Economics and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BR Shamanna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of blindness among children in different regions varies from 0.2/1000 children to over 1.5/1000 children with a global figure estimated at 0.7/1000. This means that there are an estimated 1.4 million blind children worldwide.1 The proportion of blindness in children due to cataract varies considerably between regions from 10%-30% with a global average estimated at 14%, giving 190,000 children blind from cataract. 2 While the magnitude of childhood cataracts varies from place to place, it is a priority within all blindness control programmes for children. Children who are blind have to overcome a lifetime of emotional, social and economic difficulties which affect the child, the family and society.3 Loss of vision in children influences their education, employment and social life. The numbers blind with cataract do not reflect the years of disability and lost quality of life. Childhood blindness is second only to adult cataract as a cause of blind-person years. Approximately 70 million blind-person years are caused by childhood blindness of which about 10 million blind-person years (14% is due to childhood cataract. Timely recognition and intervention can eliminate blind-years due to childhood cataract, as the condition is treatable.

  19. The bolometric, infrared and visual absolute magnitudes of Mira variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, B.S.C.; Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    Statistical parallaxes, as well as stars with individually known distances are used to derive bolometric and infrared absolute magnitudes of Mira (Me) variables. The derived bolometric magnitudes are in the mean about 0.75 mag fainter than recent estimates. The problem of determining the pulsation constant is discussed. Miras with periods greater than 150 days probably pulsate in the first overtone. Those of shorter periods are anomalous and may be fundamental pulsators. It is shown that the absolute visual magnitudes at mean light of Miras with individually determined distances are consistent with values derived by Clayton and Feast from statistical parallaxes. (author)

  20. Estimating model parameters for an impact-produced shock-wave simulation: Optimal use of partial data with the extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Jim; Flicker, Dawn; Ide, Kayo; Ghil, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper builds upon our recent data assimilation work with the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method [J. Kao, D. Flicker, R. Henninger, S. Frey, M. Ghil, K. Ide, Data assimilation with an extended Kalman filter for an impact-produced shock-wave study, J. Comp. Phys. 196 (2004) 705-723.]. The purpose is to test the capability of EKF in optimizing a model's physical parameters. The problem is to simulate the evolution of a shock produced through a high-speed flyer plate. In the earlier work, we have showed that the EKF allows one to estimate the evolving state of the shock wave from a single pressure measurement, assuming that all model parameters are known. In the present paper, we show that imperfectly known model parameters can also be estimated accordingly, along with the evolving model state, from the same single measurement. The model parameter optimization using the EKF can be achieved through a simple modification of the original EKF formalism by including the model parameters into an augmented state variable vector. While the regular state variables are governed by both deterministic and stochastic forcing mechanisms, the parameters are only subject to the latter. The optimally estimated model parameters are thus obtained through a unified assimilation operation. We show that improving the accuracy of the model parameters also improves the state estimate. The time variation of the optimized model parameters results from blending the data and the corresponding values generated from the model and lies within a small range, of less than 2%, from the parameter values of the original model. The solution computed with the optimized parameters performs considerably better and has a smaller total variance than its counterpart using the original time-constant parameters. These results indicate that the model parameters play a dominant role in the performance of the shock-wave hydrodynamic code at hand

  1. Estimating detection rates for the LIGO-Virgo search for gravitational-wave burst counterparts to gamma-ray bursts using inferred local GRB rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonor, I; Frey, R; Sutton, P J; Jones, G; Marka, S; Marka, Z

    2009-01-01

    One of the ongoing searches performed using the LIGO-Virgo network of gravitational-wave interferometers is the search for gravitational-wave burst (GWB) counterparts to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). This type of analysis makes use of GRB time and position information from gamma-ray satellite detectors to trigger the GWB search, and the GWB detection rates possible for such an analysis thus strongly depend on the GRB detection efficiencies of the satellite detectors. Using local GRB rate densities inferred from observations which are found in the science literature, we calculate estimates of the GWB detection rates for different configurations of the LIGO-Virgo network for this type of analysis.

  2. Measurement and imaging of infragravity waves in sea ice using InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Andrew R.; Dammann, Dyre O.; Johnson, Mark A.; Eicken, Hajo; Meyer, Franz J.

    2016-06-01

    Using short-temporal baseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar, we capture instantaneous images of a persistent field of infragravity waves propagating through sea ice near Barrow, Alaska, during January 2015. We estimate wave amplitudes to be between 1.2 and 1.8 mm. Curvature of wavefronts is consistent with refraction of waves entering shallow water from a source region north of Barrow. A shallow water wave model indicates that the geometry of the wavefronts is relatively insensitive to the source location, but other evidence suggests the waves may have originated in the North Atlantic, making this perhaps the longest observed propagation path for waves through ice. We also note that steepening of the waves entering shallow water can increase the peak strain by an order of magnitude, suggesting that infragravity waves may play a role in determining the location of the landfast ice edge with respect to water depth.

  3. Impact of magnitude uncertainties on seismic catalogue properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptokaropoulos, K. M.; Adamaki, A. K.; Roberts, R. G.; Gkarlaouni, C. G.; Paradisopoulou, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    Catalogue-based studies are of central importance in seismological research, to investigate the temporal, spatial and size distribution of earthquakes in specified study areas. Methods for estimating the fundamental catalogue parameters like the Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) b-value and the completeness magnitude (Mc) are well established and routinely applied. However, the magnitudes reported in seismicity catalogues contain measurement uncertainties which may significantly distort the estimation of the derived parameters. In this study, we use numerical simulations of synthetic data sets to assess the reliability of different methods for determining b-value and Mc, assuming the G-R law validity. After contaminating the synthetic catalogues with Gaussian noise (with selected standard deviations), the analysis is performed for numerous data sets of different sample size (N). The noise introduced to the data generally leads to a systematic overestimation of magnitudes close to and above Mc. This fact causes an increase of the average number of events above Mc, which in turn leads to an apparent decrease of the b-value. This may result to a significant overestimation of seismicity rate even well above the actual completeness level. The b-value can in general be reliably estimated even for relatively small data sets (N < 1000) when only magnitudes higher than the actual completeness level are used. Nevertheless, a correction of the total number of events belonging in each magnitude class (i.e. 0.1 unit) should be considered, to deal with the magnitude uncertainty effect. Because magnitude uncertainties (here with the form of Gaussian noise) are inevitable in all instrumental catalogues, this finding is fundamental for seismicity rate and seismic hazard assessment analyses. Also important is that for some data analyses significant bias cannot necessarily be avoided by choosing a high Mc value for analysis. In such cases, there may be a risk of severe miscalculation of

  4. A Fast Multimodal Ectopic Beat Detection Method Applied for Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements in Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugradt, Maik; Geissdoerfer, Kai; Goernig, Matthias; Orglmeister, Reinhold

    2017-01-14

    Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depends on careful fiducial point extraction and is therefore seriously affected during periods of increased occurring extrasystoles. In the scope of this work, a novel ectopic beat discriminator with low computational complexity has been developed, which takes advantage of multimodal features derived from ECG and pulse wave relating measurements, thereby providing additional information on the underlying cardiac activity. Moreover, the blood pressure estimations' vulnerability towards ectopic beats is closely examined on records drawn from the Physionet database as well as signals recorded in a small field study conducted in a geriatric facility for the elderly. It turns out that a reliable extrasystole identification is essential to unsupervised blood pressure estimation, having a significant impact on the overall accuracy. The proposed method further convinces by its applicability to battery driven hardware systems with limited processing power and is a favorable choice when access to multimodal signal features is given anyway.

  5. Empirical Global Relations Converting M S and m b to Moment Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordilis, E. M.

    2006-04-01

    The existence of several magnitude scales used by seismological centers all over the world and the compilation of earthquake catalogs by many authors have rendered globally valid relations connecting magnitude scales a necessity. This would allow the creation of a homogeneous global earthquake catalog, a useful tool for earthquake research. Of special interest is the definition of global relations converting different magnitude scales to the most reliable and useful scale of magnitude, the moment magnitude, M W. In order to accomplish this, a very large sample of data from international seismological sources (ISC, NEIC, HRVD, etc.) has been collected and processed. The magnitude scales tested against M W are the surface wave magnitude, M S, the body wave magnitude, m b, and the local magnitude, M L. The moment magnitudes adopted have been taken from the CMT solutions of HRVD and USGS. The data set used in this study contains 20,407 earthquakes, which occurred all over the world during the time period 1.1.1976-31.5.2003, for which moment magnitudes are available. It is shown that well-defined relations hold between M W and m b and M S and that these relations can be reliably used for compiling homogeneous, with respect to magnitude, earthquake catalogs.

  6. Slow-wave sleep estimation on a load-cell-installed bed: a non-constrained method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Hun; Chung, Gih Sung; Lee, Jin-Seong; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) involves simultaneous and continuous monitoring of relevant normal and abnormal physiological activity during sleep. At present, an electroencephalography-based rule is generally used for classifying sleep stages. However, scoring the PSG record is quite laborious and time consuming. In this paper, movement and cardiac activity were measured unobtrusively by a load-cell-installed bed, and sleep was classified into two stages: slow-wave sleep and non-slow-wave sleep. From the measured cardiac activity, we extracted heartbeat data and calculated heart rate variability parameters: standard deviation of R–R intervals SDNN, low frequency-to-high frequency ratio, alpha of detrended fluctuation analysis and correlation coefficient of R–R interval. The developed system showed a substantial concordance with PSG results when compared using a contingency test. The mean epoch-by-epoch agreement between the proposed method and PSG was 92.5% and Cohen's kappa was 0.62

  7. Measurements of P- and S wave velocities in a rock massif and its use in estimating elastic moduli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Živor, Roman; Vilhelm, J.; Rudajev, Vladimír; Lokajíček, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2011), s. 157-167 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : seismic source * seismic waves velocity * elastic constants * geophone * piezo -electric transducer Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/02_11/6_Zivor.pdf

  8. What controls the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Three different approaches for estimation of maximum magnitude are considered here, along with their implications for managing risk. The first approach is based on a deterministic limit for seismic moment proposed by McGarr (1976), which was originally designed for application to mining-induced seismicity. This approach has since been reformulated for earthquakes induced by fluid injection (McGarr, 2014). In essence, this method assumes that the upper limit for seismic moment release is constrained by the pressure-induced stress change. A deterministic limit is given by the product of shear modulus and the net injected fluid volume. This method is based on the assumptions that the medium is fully saturated and in a state of incipient failure. An alternative geometrical approach was proposed by Shapiro et al. (2011), who postulated that the rupture area for an induced earthquake falls entirely within the stimulated volume. This assumption reduces the maximum-magnitude problem to one of estimating the largest potential slip surface area within a given stimulated volume. Finally, van der Elst et al. (2016) proposed that the maximum observed magnitude, statistically speaking, is the expected maximum value for a finite sample drawn from an unbounded Gutenberg-Richter distribution. These three models imply different approaches for risk management. The deterministic method proposed by McGarr (2014) implies that a ceiling on the maximum magnitude can be imposed by limiting the net injected volume, whereas the approach developed by Shapiro et al. (2011) implies that the time-dependent maximum magnitude is governed by the spatial size of the microseismic event cloud. Finally, the sample-size hypothesis of Van der Elst et al. (2016) implies that the best available estimate of the maximum magnitude is based upon observed seismicity rate. The latter two approaches suggest that real-time monitoring is essential for effective management of risk. A reliable estimate of maximum

  9. Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Leijon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy conversion is a clean electric power production technology. During operation there are no emissions in the form of harmful gases. However there are unsolved issues considering environmental impacts such as: electromagnetism; the artificial reef effect and underwater noise. Anthropogenic noise is increasing in the oceans worldwide and wave power will contribute to this sound pollution in the oceans; but to what extent? The main purpose of this study was to examine the noise emitted by a full scale operating Wave Energy Converter (WEC in the Lysekil project at Uppsala University in Sweden. A minor review of the hearing capabilities of fish and marine mammals is presented to aid in the conclusions of impact from anthropogenic sound. A hydrophone was deployed to the seabed in the Lysekil research site park at distance of 20 and 40 m away from two operational WECs. The measurements were performed in the spring of 2011. The results showed that the main noise was a transient noise with most of its energy in frequencies below 1 kHz. These results indicate that several marine organisms (fish and mammals will be able to hear the operating WECs of a distance of at least 20 m.

  10. Probable Maximum Earthquake Magnitudes for the Cascadia Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Magistrale, H.; Goldfinger, C.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of maximum earthquake magnitude (mx) is widely used in seismic hazard and risk analysis. However, absolute mx lacks a precise definition and cannot be determined from a finite earthquake history. The surprising magnitudes of the 2004 Sumatra and the 2011 Tohoku earthquakes showed that most methods for estimating mx underestimate the true maximum if it exists. Thus, we introduced the alternate concept of mp(T), probable maximum magnitude within a time interval T. The mp(T) can be solved using theoretical magnitude-frequency distributions such as Tapered Gutenberg-Richter (TGR) distribution. The two TGR parameters, β-value (which equals 2/3 b-value in the GR distribution) and corner magnitude (mc), can be obtained by applying maximum likelihood method to earthquake catalogs with additional constraint from tectonic moment rate. Here, we integrate the paleoseismic data in the Cascadia subduction zone to estimate mp. The Cascadia subduction zone has been seismically quiescent since at least 1900. Fortunately, turbidite studies have unearthed a 10,000 year record of great earthquakes along the subduction zone. We thoroughly investigate the earthquake magnitude-frequency distribution of the region by combining instrumental and paleoseismic data, and using the tectonic moment rate information. To use the paleoseismic data, we first estimate event magnitudes, which we achieve by using the time interval between events, rupture extent of the events, and turbidite thickness. We estimate three sets of TGR parameters: for the first two sets, we consider a geographically large Cascadia region that includes the subduction zone, and the Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda plates; for the third set, we consider a narrow geographic region straddling the subduction zone. In the first set, the β-value is derived using the GCMT catalog. In the second and third sets, the β-value is derived using both the GCMT and paleoseismic data. Next, we calculate the corresponding mc

  11. The relationship between local and moment magnitude in Greece during the period 2008-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, K. I.; Melis, N. S.

    2018-03-01

    We perform a systematic comparison between local and moment magnitudes in Greece for the period 2008-2016 when both magnitudes have been determined using waveform data recorded by the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN). Differences between the two magnitudes scales on average do not exceed ± 0.2 units as has been found in other regions worldwide. A recalculation of local magnitude using magnitude residuals for each HUSN station shows that station site conditions have very little influence on the difference between local and moment magnitude. It is therefore more likely that wave propagation effects and in rare cases, anomalous source properties are dominant factors in shaping this difference. General orthogonal regression is applied to the whole dataset and also to subsets covering different areas of Greece or different time period to calibrate the one magnitude scale against the other using a linear model. The resulting relationships differ very little, suggesting that there is no significant regional/temporal variation between local and moment magnitudes. While these relationships predict that local magnitude is very close to moment magnitude if both are determined using HUSN data, the comparison with Global CMT moment magnitude (with M w in the range 4.5-6.2) shows that it is larger than local magnitude by 0.18 units. These results are particularly important for converting local magnitudes to equivalent moment magnitudes and thus homogenize the Greek earthquake catalog.

  12. Underestimation of Microearthquake Size by the Magnitude Scale of the Japan Meteorological Agency: Influence on Earthquake Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchide, Takahiko; Imanishi, Kazutoshi

    2018-01-01

    Magnitude scales based on the amplitude of seismic waves, including the Japan Meteorological Agency magnitude scale (Mj), are commonly used in routine processes. The moment magnitude scale (Mw), however, is more physics based and is able to evaluate any type and size of earthquake. This paper addresses the relation between Mj and Mw for microearthquakes. The relative moment magnitudes among earthquakes are well constrained by multiple spectral ratio analyses. The results for the events in the Fukushima Hamadori and northern Ibaraki prefecture areas of Japan imply that Mj is significantly and systematically smaller than Mw for microearthquakes. The Mj-Mw curve has slopes of 1/2 and 1 for small and large values of Mj, respectively; for example, Mj = 1.0 corresponds to Mw = 2.0. A simple numerical simulation implies that this is due to anelastic attenuation and the recording using a finite sampling interval. The underestimation affects earthquake statistics. The completeness magnitude, Mc, for magnitudes lower than which the magnitude-frequency distribution deviates from the Gutenberg-Richter law, is effectively lower for Mw than that for Mj, by taking into account the systematic difference between Mj and Mw. The b values of the Gutenberg-Richter law are larger for Mw than for Mj. As the b values for Mj and Mw are well correlated, qualitative argument using b values is not affected. While the estimated b values for Mj are below 1.5, those for Mw often exceed 1.5. This may affect the physical implication of the seismicity.

  13. Embedded Artificial Neuval Network-Based Real-Time Half-Wave Dynamic Resistance Estimation during the A.C. Resistance Spot Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Gong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Online monitoring of the instantaneous resistance variation during the A.C. resistance spot welding is of paramount importance for the weld quality control. On the basis of the welding transformer circuit model, a new method is proposed to measure the transformer primary-side signal for estimating the secondary-side resistance in each 1/4 cycle. The tailored computing system ensures that the measuring method possesses a real-time computational capacity with satisfying accuracy. Since the dynamic resistance cannot be represented via an explicit function with respect to measurable parameters from the primary side of the welding transformer, an offline trained embedded artificial neural network (ANN successfully realizes the real-time implicit function calculation or estimation. A DSP-based resistance spot welding monitoring system is developed to perform ANN computation. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is applicable for measuring the dynamic resistance in single-phase, half-wave controlled rectifier circuits.

  14. Estimation of S-wave velocity structure of deep sedimentary layers using geophysical data and earthquake ground motion records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Haruhiko

    2014-01-01

    The preliminary results with an outline of array observation for micro-tremor and natural earthquakes around the NIIT site were explained. Phase velocity estimated from a horizontal array of strong motion observation agrees with that from the micro-tremor survey. Estimation results are consistent with other literature, such as PS-logging data and gravity maps. Further improvement of the three-dimensional modeling by using micro-tremor surveys and horizontal array observation is planned for the future. (author)

  15. The Effects of Numerical Magnitude, Size, and Color Saturation on Perceived Interval Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alards-Tomalin, Doug; Leboe-McGowan, Jason P.; Shaw, Joshua D. M.; Leboe-McGowan, Launa C.

    2014-01-01

    The relative magnitude (or intensity) of an event can have direct implications on timing estimation. Previous studies have found that greater magnitude stimuli are often reported as longer in duration than lesser magnitudes, including Arabic digits (Xuan, Zhang, He, & Chen, 2007). One explanation for these findings is that different…

  16. Variations in return value estimate of ocean surface waves - a study based on measured buoy data and ERA-Interim reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed Naseef, T.; Sanil Kumar, V.

    2017-10-01

    An assessment of extreme wave characteristics during the design of marine facilities not only helps to ensure their safety but also assess the economic aspects. In this study, return levels of significant wave height (Hs) for different periods are estimated using the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) based on the Waverider buoy data spanning 8 years and the ERA-Interim reanalysis data spanning 38 years. The analysis is carried out for wind-sea, swell and total Hs separately for buoy data. Seasonality of the prevailing wave climate is also considered in the analysis to provide return levels for short-term activities in the location. The study shows that the initial distribution method (IDM) underestimates return levels compared to GPD. The maximum return levels estimated by the GPD corresponding to 100 years are 5.10 m for the monsoon season (JJAS), 2.66 m for the pre-monsoon season (FMAM) and 4.28 m for the post-monsoon season (ONDJ). The intercomparison of return levels by block maxima (annual, seasonal and monthly maxima) and the r-largest method for GEV theory shows that the maximum return level for 100 years is 7.20 m in the r-largest series followed by monthly maxima (6.02 m) and annual maxima (AM) (5.66 m) series. The analysis is also carried out to understand the sensitivity of the number of observations for the GEV annual maxima estimates. It indicates that the variations in the standard deviation of the series caused by changes in the number of observations are positively correlated with the return level estimates. The 100-year return level results of Hs using the GEV method are comparable for short-term (2008 to 2016) buoy data (4.18 m) and long-term (1979 to 2016) ERA-Interim shallow data (4.39 m). The 6 h interval data tend to miss high values of Hs, and hence there is a significant difference in the 100-year return level Hs obtained using 6 h interval data compared to data at 0.5 h interval. The

  17. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  18. Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.

  19. Scaling relationship between corner frequencies and seismic moments of ultra micro earthquakes estimated with coda-wave spectral ratio -the Mponeng mine in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, N.; Kawakata, H.; Murakami, O.; Doi, I.; Yoshimitsu, N.; Nakatani, M.; Yabe, Y.; Naoi, M. M.; Miyakawa, K.; Miyake, H.; Ide, S.; Igarashi, T.; Morema, G.; Pinder, E.; Ogasawara, H.

    2011-12-01

    Scaling relationship between corner frequencies, fc, and seismic moments, Mo is an important clue to understand the seismic source characteristics. Aki (1967) showed that Mo is proportional to fc-3 for large earthquakes (cubic law). Iio (1986) claimed breakdown of the cubic law between fc and Mo for smaller earthquakes (Mw law holds even for micro earthquakes (-1 4) by using high quality data observed at a deep borehole (Abercrombie, 1995; Ogasawara et al., 2001; Hiramatsu et al., 2002; Yamada et al., 2007). In order to clarify the scaling relationship for smaller earthquakes (Mw Africa. We used 4 tri-axial accelerometers of three-component that have a flat response up to 25 kHz. They were installed to be 10 to 30 meters apart from each other at 3,300 meters deep. During the period from 2008/10/14 to 2008/10/30 (17 days), 8,927 events were recorded. We estimated fc and Mo for 60 events (-3 Common practice is using direct waves from adjacent events. However, there were only 5 event pairs with the distance between them less than 20 meters and Mw difference over one. In addition, the observation array is very small (radius less than 30 m), which means that effects of directivity and radiation pattern on direct waves are similar at all stations. Hence, we used spectral ratio of coda waves, since these effects are averaged and will be effectively reduced (Mayeda et al., 2007; Somei et al., 2010). Coda analysis was attempted only for relatively large 20 events (we call "coda events" hereafter) that have coda energy large enough for analysis. The results agree with those of the direct S-wave analysis for the same events, though the latter showed more scattering in fc-Mo trend. So, we combine the results from the both analyses to examine the fc-Mo trend down to very small events. Therefore, we adopted fc and (relative) Mo estimated from coda spectral ratios for coda events, while we adopted them from direct spectra for other events despite of their lower reliability. We

  20. Characteristics of North Korea nuclear test and KMA magnitude scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Y. S.; Lee, D.; Min, K.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, J.; Park, E.; Jo, E.; Lee, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Democratic People's Republic of Korea(DPRK) carried out 6th nuclear test on 3 Sep. 2017 at 03:30 UTC. Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA) announced to the public that the event took place in the DPRK's test site, Punggye-ri with the magnitude 5.7. This event is larger than previous one in terms of magnitude and showed that measured magnitude strongly depends on the frequency band of data. After we applied several magnitude scales such as Everdon(1967), Nuttli(1967), and Hong & Lee(2012) to this event, we found that magnitude ranges from 5.3 to 6.7 which depends on frequency band and epicentral distance of signal. 6th DPRK test experiment indicated that spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th near 2.37 Hz shows similar amplification compatible to relative spectral magnitude 5.7, while spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th near 1.0 Hz marks relative spectral magnitude about 6.1. Relative spectral magnitude varies with frequencies and decreases as frequency increase. We found that systematic non-linearity exists for spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th from 1.0 to 10.0 Hz, while it's characteristic is not found at 5th/4th and 4th/3th. A methodology is presented for determining mb(Pn) magnitude of underground nuclear explosions from local Pn phase. 582 waveforms from vertical component of broadband and acceleration seismographs at 120 stations in the epicenter distance from 340 to 800 km are used to calibrate mb(Pn) magnitude scaling for DPRK's nuclear tests. The mb(Pn) estimates of regional events for Korean Peninsula are determined to be mb(Pn) ? = log10(A) + 2.1164×log10(d) - 0.2721, where A is the peak-to-peak Pn amplitude in μm and d is the epicentral distance in km. Systematic non-linearity does not observed at frequency band from 0.1 to 1.0 Hz. The magnitude of 6th event is mb(Pn) 6.08 and mb(Pn) 4.52, 4.92, 4.84 and 5.03 for 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th respectively. Further research of applicable mb(Pn) magnitude scaling is required for all frequency band and

  1. Scenario based tsunami wave height estimation towards hazard evaluation for the Hellenic coastline and examples of extreme inundation zones in South Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Nikolaos S.; Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Frentzos, Elias; Krassanakis, Vassilios

    2016-04-01

    A scenario based methodology for tsunami hazard assessment is used, by incorporating earthquake sources with the potential to produce extreme tsunamis (measured through their capacity to cause maximum wave height and inundation extent). In the present study we follow a two phase approach. In the first phase, existing earthquake hazard zoning in the greater Aegean region is used to derive representative maximum expected earthquake magnitude events, with realistic seismotectonic source characteristics, and of greatest tsunamigenic potential within each zone. By stacking the scenario produced maximum wave heights a global maximum map is constructed for the entire Hellenic coastline, corresponding to all expected extreme offshore earthquake sources. Further evaluation of the produced coastline categories based on the maximum expected wave heights emphasizes the tsunami hazard in selected coastal zones with important functions (i.e. touristic crowded zones, industrial zones, airports, power plants etc). Owing to its proximity to the Hellenic Arc, many urban centres and being a popular tourist destination, Crete Island and the South Aegean region are given a top priority to define extreme inundation zoning. In the second phase, a set of four large coastal cities (Kalamata, Chania, Heraklion and Rethymno), important for tsunami hazard, due i.e. to the crowded beaches during the summer season or industrial facilities, are explored towards preparedness and resilience for tsunami hazard in Greece. To simulate tsunamis in the Aegean region (generation, propagation and runup) the MOST - ComMIT NOAA code was used. High resolution DEMs for bathymetry and topography were joined via an interface, specifically developed for the inundation maps in this study and with similar products in mind. For the examples explored in the present study, we used 5m resolution for the topography and 30m resolution for the bathymetry, respectively. Although this study can be considered as

  2. Coastal Amplification Laws for the French Tsunami Warning Center: Numerical Modeling and Fast Estimate of Tsunami Wave Heights Along the French Riviera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Reymond, D.

    2018-04-01

    Tsunami modeling tools in the French tsunami Warning Center operational context provide rapidly derived warning levels with a dimensionless variable at basin scale. A new forecast method based on coastal amplification laws has been tested to estimate the tsunami onshore height, with a focus on the French Riviera test-site (Nice area). This fast prediction tool provides a coastal tsunami height distribution, calculated from the numerical simulation of the deep ocean tsunami amplitude and using a transfer function derived from the Green's law. Due to a lack of tsunami observations in the western Mediterranean basin, coastal amplification parameters are here defined regarding high resolution nested grids simulations. The preliminary results for the Nice test site on the basis of nine historical and synthetic sources show a good agreement with the time-consuming high resolution modeling: the linear approximation is obtained within 1 min in general and provides estimates within a factor of two in amplitude, although the resonance effects in harbors and bays are not reproduced. In Nice harbor especially, variation in tsunami amplitude is something that cannot be really assessed because of the magnitude range and maximum energy azimuth of possible events to account for. However, this method is well suited for a fast first estimate of the coastal tsunami threat forecast.

  3. Non conventional empirical relations for estimating compressional-wave sonic logs; Relacoes empiricas nao-convencionais para estimativa de perfis sonicos de ondas compressionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Fabricio de O.A. [Observatorio Nacional (ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Geofisica; Martins, Jorge L. [Observatorio Nacional (ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao da Area de Geofisica

    2008-07-01

    We apply least-squares regression using non-conventional empirical relations for estimating compressional-wave sonic logs (DTP). We investigate the applicability of five expressions which involve exponential functions, with arguments representing effective porosity ({phi}e) estimated from density logs, shaliness (V{sub clay}) estimated from gamma-ray logs (GR) and electrical resistivity (R{sub ILD}) measured by the deep-induction logging tool (ILD). First, we use such physical properties individually, i.e., as the dependence parameter of compressional-wave velocities (V{sub P}), in the argument of the exponential function; then, we combine some of these properties in order to simulate the known interdependency among them. In order to test our methodology, we adopt two vertical wells - hereafter named Poco-A and Poco-B - from 'Campo Escola Namorado', with information of all geophysical well logs necessary to our study in the turbiditic interval from 2950 e 3150 m. In Poco-A, the best fit obtained through least squares for compressional-wave velocities was V{sub P} = 4.657 exp[.1.488 {phi}e - 0.986 V{sub clay} + 5.022 {phi}e V{sub clay} ], with correlation coefficient r = 0.81; in Poco-B, we found V{sub P} 4.209 exp[- 0.658 {phi}e - 0.430 V{sub clay} + 6.620 x 10.4 R{sub ILD} - 0.035 {phi}e V{sub clay} R{sub ILD}], with correlation coefficient r = 0.52. These two non-conventional empirical models take into account the effects of the interdependence between effective porosity, shaliness and electrical resistivity of the rock on Vp (i.e., they incorporate non-linear effects), becoming alternative models for predicting the sonic logs that are incomplete and/or absent in the data set 'Campo Escola Namorado'. (author)

  4. Estimation of High-Frequency Earth-Space Radio Wave Signals via Ground-Based Polarimetric Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.

    2002-01-01

    Expanding human presence in space, and enabling the commercialization of this frontier, is part of the strategic goals for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. Future near-Earth and planetary missions will support the use of high-frequency Earth-space communication systems. Additionally, increased commercial demand on low-frequency Earth-space links in the S- and C-band spectra have led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like Ku and Ka-band. Attenuation of high-frequency signals, due to a precipitating medium, can be quite severe and can cause considerable disruptions in a communications link that traverses such a medium. Previously, ground radar measurements were made along the Earth-space path and compared to satellite beacon data that was transmitted to a ground station. In this paper, quantitative estimation of the attenuation along the propagation path is made via inter-comparisons of radar data taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and ground-based polarimetric radar observations. Theoretical relationships between the expected specific attenuation (k) of spaceborne measurements with ground-based measurements of reflectivity (Zh) and differential propagation phase shift (Kdp) are developed for various hydrometeors that could be present along the propagation path, which are used to estimate the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on the PR return echo. Resolution volume matching and alignment of the radar systems is performed, and a direct comparison of PR return echo with ground radar attenuation estimates is made directly on a beam-by-beam basis. The technique is validated using data collected from the TExas and Florida UNderflights (TEFLUN-B) experiment and the TRMM large Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) campaign. Attenuation estimation derived from this method can be used for strategiC planning of communication systems for

  5. Numerical Magnitude Representations Influence Arithmetic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Julie L.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the quality of first graders' (mean age = 7.2 years) numerical magnitude representations is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to their arithmetic learning. The children's pretest numerical magnitude representations were found to be correlated with their pretest arithmetic knowledge and to be…

  6. Representations of the Magnitudes of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether adults can use integrated, analog, magnitude representations to compare the values of fractions. The only previous study on this question concluded that even college students cannot form such representations and instead compare fraction magnitudes by representing numerators and denominators as separate whole numbers. However,…

  7. Magnitude of localized magnetic moments in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwi, M.; Pestana, E.; Ramirez, R.

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude of the localized magnetic moment of a transition or rare earth element impurity in a metal is evaluated within the framework of the Anderson model. Rotational invariance is preserved throughout. Graphs of the magnitude of the magnetization as a function of the relevant parameters of the model are provided and discussed. (author)

  8. A Study of Small Magnitude Seismic Events During 1961-1989 on and near the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalturin, V. I.; Rautian, T. G.; Richards, P. G.

    - Official Russian sources in 1996 and 1997 have stated that 340 underground nuclear tests (UNTs) were conducted during 1961-1989 at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in Eastern Kazakhstan. Only 271 of these nuclear tests appear to have been described with well-determined origin time, coordinates and magnitudes in the openly available technical literature. Thus, good open documentation has been lacking for 69 UNTs at STS.The main goal of our study was to provide detections, estimates of origin time and location, and magnitudes, for as many of these previously undocumented events as possible. We used data from temporary and permanent seismographic stations in the former USSR at distances from 500km to about 1500km from STS. As a result, we have been able to assign magnitude for eight previously located UNTs whose magnitude was not previously known. For 31 UNTs, we have estimated origin time an d assigned magnitude - and for 19 of these 31 we have obtained locations based on seismic signals. Of the remaining 30 poorly documented UNTs, 15 had announced yields that were less than one ton, and 13 occurred simultaneously with another test which was detected. There are only two UNTs, for which the announced yield exceeds one ton and we have been unable to find seismic signals.Most of the newly detected and located events were sub-kiloton. Their magnitudes range from 2.7 up to 5.1 (a multi-kiloton event on 1965 Feb. 4 that was often obscured at teleseismic stations by signals from an earthquake swarm in the Aleutians).For 17 small UNTs at STS, we compare the locations (with their uncertainties) that we had earlier determined in 1994 from analysis of regional seismic waves, with ground-truth information obtained in 1998. The average error of the seismically-determined locations is only about 5km. The ground-truth location is almost alw ays within the predicted small uncertainty of the seismically-determined location.Seismically-determined yield estimates are in good

  9. Improving Children’s Knowledge of Fraction Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Kennedy, Casey A.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards’ suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children’s fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played Catch the Monster with Fractions, a game in which they estimated fraction locations on a number line and received feedback on the accuracy of their estimates. The intervention lasted less than 15 minutes. In our initial study, children showed large gains from pretest to posttest in their fraction number line estimates, magnitude comparisons, and recall accuracy. In a more rigorous second study, the experimental group showed similarly large improvements, whereas a control group showed no improvement from practicing fraction number line estimates without feedback. The results provide evidence for the effectiveness of interventions emphasizing fraction magnitudes and indicate how psychological theories and research can be used to evaluate specific recommendations of the Common Core State Standards. PMID:27768756

  10. Coda-derived source spectra, moment magnitudes and energy-moment scaling in the western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasca, P.; Mayeda, K.; Malagnini, L.; Walter, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A stable estimate of the earthquake source spectra in the western Alps is obtained using an empirical method based on coda envelope amplitude measurements described by Mayeda et al. for events ranging between MW~ 1.0 and ~5.0. Path corrections for consecutive narrow frequency bands ranging between 0.3 and 25.0 Hz were included using a simple 1-D model for five three-component stations of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The 1-D assumption performs well, even though the region is characterized by a complex structural setting involving strong lateral variations in the Moho depth. For frequencies less than 1.0 Hz, we tied our dimensionless, distance-corrected coda amplitudes to an absolute scale in units of dyne cm by using independent moment magnitudes from long-period waveform modelling for three moderate magnitude events in the region. For the higher frequencies, we used small events as empirical Green's functions, with corner frequencies above 25.0 Hz. For each station, the procedure yields frequency-dependent corrections that account for site effects, including those related to fmax, as well as to S-to-coda transfer function effects. After the calibration was completed, the corrections were applied to the entire data set composed of 957 events. Our findings using the coda-derived source spectra are summarized as follows: (i) we derived stable estimates of seismic moment, M0, (and hence MW) as well as radiated S-wave energy, (ES), from waveforms recorded by as few as one station, for events that were too small to be waveform modelled (i.e. events less than MW~ 3.5); (ii) the source spectra were used to derive an equivalent local magnitude, ML(coda), that is in excellent agreement with the network averaged values using direct S waves; (iii) scaled energy, , where ER, the radiated seismic energy, is comparable to results from other tectonically active regions (e.g. western USA, Japan) and supports the idea that there is a fundamental

  11. Diffusive Wave Approximation to the Shallow Water Equations: Computational Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2011-05-14

    We discuss the use of time adaptivity applied to the one dimensional diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations. A simple and computationally economical error estimator is discussed which enables time-step size adaptivity. This robust adaptive time discretization corrects the initial time step size to achieve a user specified bound on the discretization error and allows time step size variations of several orders of magnitude. In particular, in the one dimensional results presented in this work feature a change of four orders of magnitudes for the time step over the entire simulation.

  12. Estimation of Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio from microtremors using a three-component single-station seismograph; Itten sanseibun bido kansoku ni motozuita Rayleigh ha shinpukuhi no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Mizutani, K; Saito, t [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on the possibility of estimating Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio utilizing phase difference between horizontal movements and vertical movements by using a three-component single-station seismograph. The test has selected as an observation point a location in the city of Kushiro where a pulp and paper mill generating microtremors is the focal point, and the underground structure at that point has been estimated by using the vertical array observation method. The observation system has used three components of a velocity type seismograph having a natural period of one second, an amplifier and an analog data recorder. As a result of the discussions, the following matters were made clear: the spectral ratio with a phase difference of 90 degrees agrees with the frequency at a peak trough of the theoretical Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio; the values of the spectral ratio at the phase difference of 90 degrees and the values of the theoretical Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio correspond well excepting in frequency bands of the peak trough; and these results suggest that the Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio may be estimated by utilizing the phase difference between horizontal movements and vertical movements. Estimation of the underground structure by using the inverse analysis of this Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio is expected in the future. 6 refs., 5 figs., tab.

  13. Comment on "Rovibrational quantum interferometers and gravitational waves"

    OpenAIRE

    Khriplovich, I. B.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Sushkov, A. O.; Sushkov, O. P.

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, Wicht, L\\"ammerzahl, Lorek, and Dittus [Phys. Rev. {\\bf A 78}, 013610 (2008)] come to the conclusion that a molecular rotational-vibrational quantum interferometer may possess the sensitivity necessary to detect gravitational waves. We do not agree with their results and demonstrate here that the true sensitivity of such interferometer is many orders of magnitude worse than that claimed in the mentioned paper. In the present comment we estimate the expected energy shifts an...

  14. Discounting Behaviour and the Magnitude Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the claim that individuals exhibit a magnitude effect in their discounting behaviour, where higher discount rates are inferred from choices made with lower principals, all else being equal. If the magnitude effect is quantitatively significant, it is not appropriate to use one discount...... rate that is independent of the scale of the project for cost–benefit analysis and capital budgeting. Using data from a field experiment in Denmark, we find statistically significant evidence of a magnitude effect that is much smaller than is claimed. This evidence surfaces only if one controls...

  15. Determination of the Meteor Limiting Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, A.; Blaauw, R.; Cooke, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The limiting meteor magnitude of a meteor camera system will depend on the camera hardware and software, sky conditions, and the location of the meteor radiant. Some of these factors are constants for a given meteor camera system, but many change between meteor shower or sporadic source and on both long and short timescales. Since the limiting meteor magnitude ultimately gets used to calculate the limiting meteor mass for a given data set, it is important to have an understanding of these factors and to monitor how they change throughout the night, as a 0.5 magnitude uncertainty in limiting magnitude translates to a uncertainty in limiting mass by a factor of two.

  16. The Magnitude of Atherogenic Dyslipidaemia among Geriatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Magnitude of Atherogenic Dyslipidaemia among Geriatric Nigerians with ... June 2011 on 122 consecutive geriatric patients with systemic hypertension ... of dyslipidaemia and a marker of dyslipidaemic cardiometabolic risk among them.

  17. Measuring radon source magnitude in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Nero, A.V.

    1981-08-01

    A description is given of procedures used in residences for rapid grab-sample and time-dependent measurements of the air-exchange rate and radon concentration. The radon source magnitude is calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements of these parameters. Grab-sample measurements in three survey groups comprising 101 US houses showed the radon source magnitude to vary approximately log-normally with a geometric mean of 0.37 and a range of 0.01 to 6.0 pCi 1 -1 h -1 . Successive measurements in six houses in the northeastern United States showed considerable variability in source magnitude within a given house. In two of these houses the source magnitude showed a strong correlation with the air-exchange rate, suggesting that soil gas influx can be an important transport process for indoor radon

  18. Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Present day knowledge of the magnitude of the strain levels in the ground associated with geotechnical structures, together with an increasing number of projects requiring the best estimates of ground movements around excavations, has led to, inter alia, increased interest in measuring the very......-small-strain stiffness of the ground Gmax. Continuous surface wave geophysics offers a quick, non-intrusive and economical way of making such measurements. This paper reviews the continuous surface wave techniques and evaluates, in engineering terms, the applicability of the method to the site investigation industry....

  19. Multiple Spectral Ratio Analyses Reveal Earthquake Source Spectra of Small Earthquakes and Moment Magnitudes of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchide, T.; Imanishi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Spectral studies for macroscopic earthquake source parameters are helpful for characterizing earthquake rupture process and hence understanding earthquake source physics and fault properties. Those studies require us mute wave propagation path and site effects in spectra of seismograms to accentuate source effect. We have recently developed the multiple spectral ratio method [Uchide and Imanishi, BSSA, 2016] employing many empirical Green's function (EGF) events to reduce errors from the choice of EGF events. This method helps us estimate source spectra more accurately as well as moment ratios among reference and EGF events, which are useful to constrain the seismic moment of microearthquakes. First, we focus on earthquake source spectra. The source spectra have generally been thought to obey the omega-square model with single corner-frequency. However recent studies imply the existence of another corner frequency for some earthquakes. We analyzed small shallow inland earthquakes (3.5 multiple spectral ratio analyses. For 20000 microearthquakes in Fukushima Hamadori and northern Ibaraki prefecture area, we found that the JMA magnitudes (Mj) based on displacement or velocity amplitude are systematically below Mw. The slope of the Mj-Mw relation is 0.5 for Mj 5. We propose a fitting curve for the obtained relationship as Mw = (1/2)Mj + (1/2)(Mjγ + Mcorγ)1/γ+ c, where Mcor is a corner magnitude, γ determines the sharpness of the corner, and c denotes an offset. We obtained Mcor = 4.1, γ = 5.6, and c = -0.47 to fit the observation. The parameters are useful for characterizing the Mj-Mw relationship. This non-linear relationship affects the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Quantitative discussions on b-values are affected by the definition of magnitude to use.

  20. Range of wavelengths possible to estimate phase velocities of surface waves in microtremors; Bido tansaho ni okeru suitei kanona bidochu no hyomenha iso sokudo no hacho han`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K; Okada, H; Ling, S [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    To specify the maximum wavelength of the phase velocities that can be estimated by the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method or F-K method in microtremor exploration, investigations were conducted using numerical simulation. In view of feasibility, an equilateral triangle array was employed, the maximum radius of the array having 7 observation points being 0.10km. The dispersion curve of the Rayleigh wave basic mode was calculated from an underground structure model. White noise was used as the incident wave, and, in case the waves came in from multiple directions, a different phase spectrum was assigned to each direction. In searching for the maximum wave length of phase velocities that could be estimated, a limit was imposed upon estimation, and it was prescribed that the wavelength be the limit if the difference between the theoretical value and estimated phase velocity was 5% or higher. As the result, it was found that it is possible to estimate the phase velocity when the wavelength is up to approximately 10 times longer than the array maximum radius in the SPAC method, and up to approximately 5 times longer in case of the F-K method. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Prospects for Observing Ultracompact Binaries with Space-Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers and Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, T. B.; Larson, S. L.; Nelemans, G.; Cornish, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based gravitational wave interferometers are sensitive to the galactic population of ultracompact binaries. An important subset of the ultracompact binary population are those stars that can be individually resolved by both gravitational wave interferometers and electromagnetic telescopes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the multimessenger potential of space-based interferometers with arm-lengths between 1 and 5 Gm. The Fisher information matrix is used to estimate the number of binaries from a model of the Milky Way which are localized on the sky by the gravitational wave detector to within 1 and 10 deg(exp 2) and bright enough to be detected by a magnitude-limited survey.We find, depending on the choice ofGW detector characteristics, limiting magnitude and observing strategy, that up to several hundred gravitational wave sources could be detected in electromagnetic follow-up observations.

  2. On Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship, Its Extension, and the Quantum Issue of Wave-Particle Duality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the path integral Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics, the fundamental Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationship (HUR is analyzed in terms of the quantum fluctuation influence on coordinate and momentum estimations. While introducing specific particle and wave representations, as well as their ratio, in quantifying the wave-to-particle quantum information, the basic HUR is recovered in a close analytical manner for a large range of observable particle-wave Copenhagen duality, although with the dominant wave manifestation, while registering its progressive modification with the factor √1-n2, in terms of magnitude n ε [0,1] of the quantum fluctuation, for the free quantum evolution around the exact wave-particle equivalence. The practical implications of the present particle-to-wave ratio as well as of the free-evolution quantum picture are discussed for experimental implementation, broken symmetry and the electronic localization function.

  3. Analysis of seismic waves and strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, I.C.; Sutton, R.

    1976-10-01

    A number of Western USA earthquake acceleration-time histories concerning events of magnitude less than 6 are considered and their Fourier spectra calculated. An analysis of some of the simpler types of seismic wave is given in order to consider the generation of a spatially dependent acceleration-time history suitable for input into a soil-structure program of analysis. Such an acceleration-time history is required by a comprehensive analysis of soil-structure interaction since the conventionally assumed model of vertically propagating seismic waves, which give rise to three spatially independent ground motions, can lead to over-conservative estimates of the building response in the high frequency range. The possible application is discussed of a given component of a recorded acceleration-time history to the base of structure under the assumption of surface Rayleigh waves or obliquely incident P and SV bulk waves. (author)

  4. Mass determination of moment magnitudes M w and establishing the relationship between M w and M L for moderate and small Kamchatka earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakirov, I. R.; Gusev, A. A.; Guseva, E. M.; Pavlov, V. M.; Skorkina, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The average relationship is established between the basic magnitude for the Kamchatka regional catalog, M L , and modern moment magnitude M w. The latter is firmly tied to the value of the source seismic moment M 0 which has a direct physical meaning. M L magnitude is not self-reliant but is obtained through the conversion of the traditional Fedotov's S-wave energy class, K S1,2 F68 . Installation of the digital seismographic network in Kamchatka in 2006-2010 permitted mass estimates of M 0 and M w to be obtained from the regional data. In this paper we outline a number of techniques to estimate M 0 for the Kamchatka earthquakes using the waveforms of regional stations, and then compare the obtained M w estimates with each other and with M L , based on several hundred earthquakes that took place in 2010-2014. On the average, for M w = 3.0-6.0, M w = M L -0.40; this relationship allows obtaining M w estimates (proxy- M w) for a large part of the regional earthquake catalog with M L = 3.4-6.4 ( M w = 3.0-6.0).

  5. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  6. Relationship between ultrasonic Rayleigh waves and surface residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Dewey, B.R.; King, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Local variations of Rayleigh (surface) circumferential ultrasonic wave velocity near a pipe-girth weld in large-diameter thin-wall type 316H stainless steel pipe were measured. The weldment was similar to those anticipated for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) piping systems. The residual stress distribution was estimated independently from shell theory for an elastic, infinite, thin shell with circumferential line loading. An upper bound on the magnitude of the residual stresses was estimated assuming the deformation of the shell was entirely elastic. The pattern of surface wave velocity variations matches the theoretical residual stress pattern closely. It is suggested that the monitoring of surface wave velocity variations might be used for characterizing residual stress patterns near critical welds in piping, aiding in design calculations, and for in-service monitoring of the state of stress of weldments

  7. Analyses and Simulation of 3D Scattering Due to Heterogeneous Crustal Structure and Surface Topography on Regional Phases, Magnitude Discrimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pitarka, Arban; Helmberger, Don V; Ni, Sidao

    2008-01-01

    ... into ongoing research for the development of simple empirical models of scattering that can be used in reducing the scatter in measures of Lg and coda wave magnitude and for discrimination purposes as well...

  8. Determining on-fault earthquake magnitude distributions from integer programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake magnitude distributions among faults within a fault system are determined from regional seismicity and fault slip rates using binary integer programming. A synthetic earthquake catalog (i.e., list of randomly sampled magnitudes) that spans millennia is first formed, assuming that regional seismicity follows a Gutenberg-Richter relation. Each earthquake in the synthetic catalog can occur on any fault and at any location. The objective is to minimize misfits in the target slip rate for each fault, where slip for each earthquake is scaled from its magnitude. The decision vector consists of binary variables indicating which locations are optimal among all possibilities. Uncertainty estimates in fault slip rates provide explicit upper and lower bounding constraints to the problem. An implicit constraint is that an earthquake can only be located on a fault if it is long enough to contain that earthquake. A general mixed-integer programming solver, consisting of a number of different algorithms, is used to determine the optimal decision vector. A case study is presented for the State of California, where a 4 kyr synthetic earthquake catalog is created and faults with slip ≥3 mm/yr are considered, resulting in >106  variables. The optimal magnitude distributions for each of the faults in the system span a rich diversity of shapes, ranging from characteristic to power-law distributions. 

  9. Magnitude, precision, and realism of depth perception in stereoscopic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Paul B; Haines, Alice E; Hornsey, Rebecca L

    2017-01-01

    Our perception of depth is substantially enhanced by the fact that we have binocular vision. This provides us with more precise and accurate estimates of depth and an improved qualitative appreciation of the three-dimensional (3D) shapes and positions of objects. We assessed the link between these quantitative and qualitative aspects of 3D vision. Specifically, we wished to determine whether the realism of apparent depth from binocular cues is associated with the magnitude or precision of perceived depth and the degree of binocular fusion. We presented participants with stereograms containing randomly positioned circles and measured how the magnitude, realism, and precision of depth perception varied with the size of the disparities presented. We found that as the size of the disparity increased, the magnitude of perceived depth increased, while the precision with which observers could make depth discrimination judgments decreased. Beyond an initial increase, depth realism decreased with increasing disparity magnitude. This decrease occurred well below the disparity limit required to ensure comfortable viewing.

  10. On the interaction of Rayleigh surface waves with structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, I.C.

    1976-12-01

    A two-dimensional soil-structure interaction analysis is carried out for transient Rayleigh surface waves that are incident on a structure. The structure is modelled by a three-degree of freedom rigid basemat to which is attached a flexible superstructure, modelled by a single mass-spring system. The structural responses to a given Rayleigh wave train are compared with those that would have been obtained if the free-field acceleration-time history had been applied as a normally incident body wave. The results clearly exhibit the 'frequency filtering' effects of the rigid basemat on the incident Rayleigh waves. It is shown that, if seismic excitation of a structure is, in fact, due to Rayleigh surface waves, then an analysis assuming normally incident body waves can considerably over-estimate structural response, both at basemat level for horizontal and vertical oscillations of the superstructure. However, in the examples considered here, relatively large rocking effects were induced by the Rayleigh waves, thus giving maximum horizontal accelerations in the superstructure that were of comparable magnitude for Rayleigh and normally incident body waves. (author)

  11. Wind-waves interactions in the Gulf of Eilat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani-Zerbib, Almog; Liberzon, Dan; T-SAIL Team

    2017-11-01

    The Gulf of Eilat, at the southern tip of Israel, with its elongated rectangular shape and unique diurnal wind pattern is an appealing location for wind-waves interactions research. Results of experimental work will be reported analyzing a continuous, 50 hour long, data. Using a combined array of wind and waves sensing instruments, the wave field statistics and its response to variations of wind forcing were investigated. Correlations between diurnal fluctuations in wind magnitude and direction and the wave field response will be discussed. The directional spread of waves' energy, as estimated by the Wavelet Directional Method, showed a strong response to small variations in wind flow direction attributed to the unique topography of the gulf surroundings and its bathymetry. Influenced by relatively strong winds during the light hours, the wave field was dominated by a significant amount of breakings that are well pronounced in the saturation range of waves spectra. Temporal growth and decay behavior of the waves during the morning and evening wind transition periods was examined. Sea state induced roughness, as experienced by the wind flow turbulent boundary layer, is examined in view of the critical layer theory. Israel Science Foundation Grant # 1521/15.

  12. A moment-tensor catalog for intermediate magnitude earthquakes in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Martínez-Peláez, Liliana; Franco, Sara; Iglesias Mendoza, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Located among five tectonic plates, Mexico is one of the world's most seismically active regions. The earthquake focal mechanisms provide important information on the active tectonics. A widespread technique for estimating the earthquake magnitud and focal mechanism is the inversion for the moment tensor, obtained by minimizing a misfit function that estimates the difference between synthetic and observed seismograms. An important element in the estimation of the moment tensor is an appropriate velocity model, which allows for the calculation of accurate Green's Functions so that the differences between observed and synthetics seismograms are due to the source of the earthquake rather than the velocity model. However, calculating accurate synthetic seismograms gets progressively more difficult as the magnitude of the earthquakes decreases. Large earthquakes (M>5.0) excite waves of longer periods that interact weakly with lateral heterogeneities in the crust. For these events, using 1D velocity models to compute Greens functions works well and they are well characterized by seismic moment tensors reported in global catalogs (eg. USGS fast moment tensor solutions and GCMT). The opposite occurs for small and intermediate sized events, where the relatively shorter periods excited interact strongly with lateral heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle. To accurately model the Green's functions for the smaller events in a large heterogeneous area, requires 3D or regionalized 1D models. To obtain a rapid estimate of earthquake magnitude, the National Seismological Survey in Mexico (Servicio Sismológico Nacional, SSN) automatically calculates seismic moment tensors for events in the Mexican Territory (Franco et al., 2002; Nolasco-Carteño, 2006). However, for intermediate-magnitude and small earthquakes the signal-to-noise ratio could is low for many of the seismic stations, and without careful selection and filtering of the data, obtaining a stable focal mechanism

  13. The moment magnitude Mw and the energy magnitude Me: common roots and differences

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Starting from the classical empirical magnitude-energy relationships, in this article, the derivation of the modern scales for moment magnitude Mw and energy magnitude Me is outlined and critically discussed. The formulas for Mw and Me calculation are presented in a way that reveals, besides the contributions of the physically defined measurement parameters seismic moment M0 and radiated seismic energy ES, the role of the constants in the classical Gutenberg?Richter magnit...

  14. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  15. Colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 5053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M F; Pike, C D [California Univ., Santa Cruz (USA). Lick Observatory; McGee, J D

    1976-06-01

    The colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 5053 has been derived to V = 21.1 from photographic and electronographic observations. The electronographic observations were obtained with an experimental Spectracon image-converter, having photocathode and exit window dimensions of 20 x 30 mm, mounted at the prime-focus of the 120-in. Lick reflector. The photographic observations were obtained with the 20-in. Carnegie astrograph and the 36-in. Crossley reflector. The colour-magnitude diagram resembles that of M92, with the difference that a red horizontal branch is more pronounced than the asymptotic branch in NGC 5053. The topology of the horizontal branch is that of clusters with an intermediate metal content and is thus at variance with the mean period of the RR Lyr stars and the unreddened colour of the subgiant branch read at the magnitude level of the horizontal branch, both of which would indicate an extremely low metal content. If comparison of the colour-magnitude diagrams of NGC 5053 and M92 is valid, then the reddening of NGC 5053 is Esub(B-V) = 0.02 and the apparent distance modulus is m-M = 16.08 +- 0.08.

  16. Historical revision of the exposure magnitude and the dosimetric magnitudes used in radiological protection; Revision historica de la magnitud exposicion y las magnitudes dosimetricas empleadas en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work a historical revision of the exposure magnitude development and their roentgen unit (1905 - 2011) is made, noting that it had their origin in the electric methods for the detection of the ionizing radiation in the period of 1895 at 1937. However, the ionization is not who better characterizes the physical, chemical and biological effects of the ionizing radiations, but is the energy deposited by this radiation in the interest bodies, which led historically to the development of dosimetric magnitudes in energy terms like they are: the absorbed dose D (1950), the kerma K (1958) and the equivalent dose H (1962). These dosimetric magnitudes culminated with the definition of the effective equivalent dose or effective dose which is not measurable and should be considered with the operative magnitudes ICRU: H environmental equivalent dose and/or H directional equivalent dose, which can be determined by means of a conversion coefficient that is applied to the exposure, kerma in air, fluence, etc. (Author)

  17. Interaction of Number Magnitude and Auditory Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Jungilligens, Johannes; Getzmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The interplay of perception and memory is very evident when we perceive and then recognize familiar stimuli. Conversely, information in long-term memory may also influence how a stimulus is perceived. Prior work on number cognition in the visual modality has shown that in Western number systems long-term memory for the magnitude of smaller numbers can influence performance involving the left side of space, while larger numbers have an influence toward the right. Here, we investigated in the auditory modality whether a related effect may bias the perception of sound location. Subjects (n = 28) used a swivel pointer to localize noise bursts presented from various azimuth positions. The noise bursts were preceded by a spoken number (1-9) or, as a nonsemantic control condition, numbers that were played in reverse. The relative constant error in noise localization (forward minus reversed speech) indicated a systematic shift in localization toward more central locations when the number was smaller and toward more peripheral positions when the preceding number magnitude was larger. These findings do not support the traditional left-right number mapping. Instead, the results may reflect an overlap between codes for number magnitude and codes for sound location as implemented by two channel models of sound localization, or possibly a categorical mapping stage of small versus large magnitudes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Incentive theory: IV. Magnitude of reward

    OpenAIRE

    Killeen, Peter R.

    1985-01-01

    Incentive theory is successfully applied to data from experiments in which the amount of food reward is varied. This is accomplished by assuming that incentive value is a negatively accelerated function of reward duration. The interaction of the magnitude of a reward with its delay is confirmed, and the causes and implications of this interaction are discussed.

  19. Bubbles and breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The physical processes which control the transfer of gases between the atmosphere and oceans or lakes are poorly understood. Clouds of micro-bubbles have been detected below the surface of Loch Ness when the wind is strong enough to cause the waves to break. The rate of transfer of gas into solution from these bubbles is estimated to be significant if repeated on a global scale. We present here further evidence that the bubbles are caused by breaking waves, and discuss the relationship between the mean frequency of wave breaking at a fixed point and the average distance between breaking waves, as might be estimated from an aerial photograph.

  20. Utilization of statistical table for waves in North-west Pacific Ocean and a long-term estimation on hull responses; Seihoku Taiheiyo haro tokeihyo no riyo to sentai oto choki yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Designing a vessel to sail oceans for an extended period of time requires statistical estimation on different hull responses to waves. To meet the requirement, it is necessary to accurately identify hydrographic conditions (particularly waves) which are considered to be encountered by the vessel. This paper makes clear the statistical characteristics of the wave statistics table presented by Fang et al, and compares them with other processes for discussion. This statistics collection is based on data collected in China, Hong Kong and Japan, including those collected in the Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea, the North Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea. It was found that these data provide results slightly lower than the long-term estimation values derived from data of the global wave statistics (GWS) prepared by Hogben et al. The cause for this was found attributable to the format of the statistical data, especially setting of wave height classes. However, since the data provided by Fang et al include items of detailed information on small sea areas near the Chinese coast lines, the data are thought to provide useful information source in investigating long-term hull response characteristics relative to spatial spread of the sea areas in the North-west Pacific Ocean. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Experiment for estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave from three component microtremor array observation in Morioka area; Moriokashiiki deno bido no sanseibun array kansoku ni yoru love ha no iso sokudo oyobi power hi suitei no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Yakuwa, A; Saito, T [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-22

    Three component microtremor array observations were carried out in two locations in the city of Morioka for an attempt of estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave by applying the expanded three component spatial self-correlation method. The microtremors were observed by using a seismograph with a natural period of one second. The arrays were so arranged as to form an equilateral triangle consisted of seven points. The maximum radii were 100 m, 50 m, 25 m and 12.5 m for vertical movements, and 100 m and 30 m for horizontal movements at the Iwate University, and 80 m, 40 m, 20 m and 10 m for vertical movements and 90 m for horizontal movements at the Morioka Technical Highschool. The analysis has used three sections, each with relatively steady state of about 40 seconds as selected from records of observations for about 30 minutes. The result of the discussions revealed that it is possible to derive phase velocity of not only Rayleigh waves but also Love waves by applying the expanded spatial self-correlation method to the observation record. Thus, estimation of underground structures with higher accuracy has become possible by using simultaneously the Rayleigh waves and Love waves. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DEFORMATION STRUCTURES AND RELATED TO EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  3. Real time monitoring of moment magnitude by waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2012-01-01

    An instantaneous measure of the moment magnitude (Mw) of an ongoing earthquake is estimated from the moment rate function (MRF) determined in real-time from available seismic data using waveform inversion. Integration of the MRF gives the moment function from which an instantaneous Mw is derived. By repeating the inversion procedure at regular intervals while seismic data are coming in we can monitor the evolution of seismic moment and Mw with time. The final size and duration of a strong earthquake can be obtained within 12 to 15 minutes after the origin time. We show examples of Mw monitoring for three large earthquakes at regional distances. The estimated Mw is only weakly sensitive to changes in the assumed source parameters. Depending on the availability of seismic stations close to the epicenter, a rapid estimation of the Mw as a prerequisite for the assessment of earthquake damage potential appears to be feasible.

  4. Magnitude of the current in 2D interlayer tunneling devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Randall M; de la Barrera, Sergio C; Li, Jun; Nie, Yifan; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2018-01-15

    Using the Bardeen tunneling method with first-principles wave functions, computations are made of the tunneling current in graphene/hexagonal-boron-nitride/graphene (G/h-BN/G) vertical structures. Detailed comparison with prior experimental results is made, focusing on the magnitude of the achievable tunnel current. With inclusion of the effects of translational and rotational misalignment of the graphene and the h-BN, predicted currents are found to be about 15×  larger than experimental values. A reduction in this discrepancy, to a factor of 2.5×, is achieved by utilizing a realistic size for the band gap of the h-BN, hence affecting the exponential decay constant for the tunneling.

  5. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  6. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John [Department of Physics, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States); Jenkins III, Robert L. [Applied Physics Department, Richard Stockton College, Galloway, NJ 08205 (United States); Maddox, Larry, E-mail: drichar7@xula.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  7. Magnitudes and units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This sheet provides definition and information on the ionizing radiations, the measurement of a ionizing radiation magnitude by a radioactive source (the becquerel), the measurement of the ionizing radiation energy absorbed by the organism (the gray), the biological impact evaluation of ionizing radiations in function of their nature (the sievert) and the evaluation and comparison of biological risks bond to little doses (dose efficiency). (A.L.B.)

  8. Electrochemical behavior of the antituberculosis drug isoniazid and its square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric estimation in bulk form, tablets and biological fluids at a mercury electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, M M; el-Baradie, K Y; Tawfik, A

    2003-11-24

    Isoniazid, pyridine-4-carboxylic acid hydrazide, is an antituberculosis-agent, which is used to prevent the development of clinical tuberculosis. A validated square-wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetric procedure for the trace determination of the bulk drug at the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) has been developed. Under the optimized conditions, (accumulation potential=-0.9 V, accumulation time=50-300 s, scan increment=8 mV, pulse-amplitude=25 mV, frequency=120 Hz and acetate buffer at pH 5.5) isoniazed generated two irreversible cathodic peaks. The first peak current showed a linear dependence with the drug concentration over the range 5 x 10(-10)-21 x 0(-6) M. The mean percentage recoveries, based on the average of five replicate measurements, for 7 x 10(-9) and 5 x 10(-8) M isoniazid were 97.71+/-2.93 and 99.76+/-0.77, respectively. The achieved limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1.18 x 10(-10) and 3.93 x 10(-10) M isoniazid, respectively. The procedure was applied to the assay of the drug in tablets (Isocid and T.B. Zide), spiked human serum and urine with mean percentage recoveries of 97.81+/-1.49, 97.45+/-2.09, and 97.08+/-1.06, respectively. The limits of detection of 1.47 x 10(-9) and 2.4 x 10(-8) M, and quantitation of 4.9 x 10(-9) and 8 x 10(-8) M drug in human serum and urine, respectively, were achieved. The mean values of the various pharmackinetic parameters of isoniazid (C(max), T(max), t(1/2), AUC, and K(e)), estimated from analysis of plasma of two volunteers by means of the proposed procedure were similar to literature values.

  9. Application of a planetary wave breaking parameterization to stratospheric circulation statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, William J.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1994-01-01

    The planetary wave parameterization scheme developed recently by Garcia is applied to statospheric circulation statistics derived from 12 years of National Meteorological Center operational stratospheric analyses. From the data a planetary wave breaking criterion (based on the ratio of the eddy to zonal mean meridional potential vorticity (PV) gradients), a wave damping rate, and a meridional diffusion coefficient are calculated. The equatorward flank of the polar night jet during winter is identified as a wave breaking region from the observed PV gradients; the region moves poleward with season, covering all high latitudes in spring. Derived damping rates maximize in the subtropical upper stratosphere (the 'surf zone'), with damping time scales of 3-4 days. Maximum diffusion coefficients follow the spatial patterns of the wave breaking criterion, with magnitudes comparable to prior published estimates. Overall, the observed results agree well with the parameterized calculations of Garcia.

  10. Magnitude of bacteraemia predicts one-year mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Søgaard, Mette

    Objectives: All hospitals in our region use the BacT/Alert® blood culture (BC) system with a 3-bottle BC set for adults. We hypothesized that the magnitude of bacteremia (i.e., number of positive bottles in the initial BC set) predicted one-year mortality. Methods In a population-based study we...... with a BC index of 1 (i.e., one positive bottle) were chosen as the reference group. We computed Kaplan-Meier curves and performed Cox regression analyses to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with 95 % confidence intervals [CIs] 30 and 365 days after the initial BC sampling date, first in crude analyses...... mortality....

  11. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  12. Temporal change in shallow subsurface P- and S-wave velocities and S-wave anisotropy inferred from coda wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Nishida, K.; Takeda, T.

    2012-12-01

    logarithm of the lapse time. At some stations, the estimated P-wave velocity also shows co-seismic velocity decrease and subsequent gradual recovery. However, the magnitude of estimated P-wave velocity change is much smaller than that of S-wave, and at the other stations, the magnitude of P-wave velocity change is smaller than the resolution of our analysis. Using the CCFs computed from horizontal components, we also determine the seismic anisotropy in subsurface structure, and examine its temporal change. The estimated strength of anisotropy strength shows co-seismic increase at most of stations where co-seismic velocity change is detected. Nevertheless, the direction of anisotropy after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake stays about the same as before. These results suggest that, in addition to the change in pore pressure and corresponding decrease in the rigidity, the change in the aspect ratio of pre-existing subsurface fractures/micro-crack may be another key mechanism causing the co-seismic velocity change in shallow subsurface structures.

  13. Estimates of the Attenuation Rates of Baroclinic Tidal Energy Caused by Resonant Interactions Among Internal Waves based on the Weak Turbulence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Y.; Hibiya, T.

    2016-02-01

    The baroclinic tides are thought to be the dominant energy source for turbulent mixing in the ocean interior. In contrast to the geography of the energy conversion rates from the barotropic to baroclinic tides, which has been clarified in recent numerical studies, the global distribution of the energy sink for the resulting low-mode baroclinic tides remains obscure. A key to resolve this issue is the resonant wave-wave interactions, which transfer part of the baroclinic tidal energy to the background internal wave field enhancing the local energy dissipation rates. Recent field observations and numerical studies have pointed out that parametric subharmonic instability (PSI), one of the resonant interactions, causes significant energy sink of baroclinic tidal energy at mid-latitudes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the quantitative aspect of PSI to demonstrate the global distribution of the intensity of resonant wave interactions, namely, the attenuation rate of low-mode baroclinic tidal energy. Our approach is basically following the weak turbulence theory, which is the standard theory for resonant wave-wave interactions, where techniques of singular perturbation and statistical physics are employed. This study is, however, different from the classical theory in some points; we have reformulated the weak turbulence theory to be applicable to low-mode internal waves and also developed its numerical calculation method so that the effects of stratification profile and oceanic total depth can be taken into account. We have calculated the attenuation rate of low-mode baroclinic tidal waves interacting with the background Garrett-Munk internal wave field. The calculated results clearly show the rapid attenuation of baroclinic tidal energy at mid-latitudes, in agreement with the results from field observations and also show the zonal inhomogeneity of the attenuation rate caused by the density structures associated with the subtropical gyre. This study is expected

  14. Interfacial instability induced by a shock wave in a gas-liquid horizontal stratified system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutradhar, S.C.; Chang, J.S.; Yoshida, H.

    1987-01-01

    The experiments are performed in a rectangular lucite duct equipped with the facility of generating shock waves. Piezo-type pressure transducers are used to monitor the strength and propagation velocity of the shock wave. As the liquid phase has high sound velocity, a prepulse wave system of flow amplitude travels in this phase at a speed faster than the principal shock wave. The magnitude of the transmitted wave in the liquid phase is estimated using a transmission coefficient for gas-liquid system. From the initial pressure ratio of the shock wave, the amplitude of the prepulse as well as the induced interfacial fluid velocity are calculated. The wave length and height of the ripples during the passage of the shock wave are estimated for a specific strength of shock wave moving through the phases. From the high speed photographs, the wave length of the ripples can be assessed. The interfacial friction factor is calculated using colebrook's equation for high speed flow. At least five distinct phenomena are observed to exist during the propagation of a shock wave. These are - (1) the energy carried by the pre-pulse is utilized in perturbing the interface; (2) shock wave induces a mass velocity at the interface; (3) the wavelength of the ripples at the interface is the product of induced interfacial mass velocity and the time period of the prepulse; (4) a portion of the liquid mass of the perturbed interface is entrained in the gas phase may be due to the hydrodynamic lift in that phase; and finally (5) waves with long wavelength are established at the interface

  15. DRI internal Wave Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Stephen A; Levine, Murray D

    2005-01-01

    .... A processing module is developed that takes profile estimates as input and uses numerically simulated linear internal wave displacements to create two-dimensional range-dependent sound speed fields...

  16. On the Real Magnitude of Psychological Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Del Giudice

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive evolutionary theory of sex differences will benefit from an accurate assessment of their magnitude across different psychological domains. This article shows that mainstream research has severely underestimated the magnitude of psychological sex differences; the reason lies in the common practice of measuring multidimensional differences one dimension at a time, without integrating them into a proper multivariate effect size (ES. Employing the Mahalanobis distance D (the multivariate generalization of Cohen's d results in more accurate, and predictably larger, estimates of overall sex differences in multidimensional constructs. Two real-world examples are presented: (1 In a published dataset on Big Five personality traits, sex differences on individual scales averaged d = .27, a typical ES conventionally regarded as “small.” However, the overall difference was D = .84 (disattenuated D = .98, implying considerable statistical separation between male and female distributions. (2 In a recent meta-analytic summary of sex differences in aggression, the individual ESs averaged d = .34. However, the overall difference was estimated at D = .75 – .80 (disattenuated D = .89–1.01. In many psychological domains, sex differences may be substantially larger than previously acknowledged.

  17. On radio frequency wave induced radial transport and wave helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1992-09-01

    Expressions for wave induced radial transport are derived allowing simple estimates. The transport is enhanced due to the presence of poloidal magnetostatic field and in the vicinity of the ion cyclotron resonance. The direction of the wave induced transport depends also on the wave polarization. (author) 19 refs

  18. Sequential dependencies in magnitude scaling of loudness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Jesteadt, Walt

    2013-01-01

    Ten normally hearing listeners used a programmable sone-potentiometer knob to adjust the level of a 1000-Hz sinusoid to match the loudness of numbers presented to them in a magnitude production task. Three different power-law exponents (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60) and a log-law with equal steps in d......B were used to program the sone-potentiometer. The knob settings systematically influenced the form of the loudness function. Time series analysis was used to assess the sequential dependencies in the data, which increased with increasing exponent and were greatest for the log-law. It would be possible......, therefore, to choose knob properties that minimized these dependencies. When the sequential dependencies were removed from the data, the slope of the loudness functions did not change, but the variability decreased. Sequential dependencies were only present when the level of the tone on the previous trial...

  19. Erratum: Sloan Magnitudes for the Brightest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallama, A.

    2018-06-01

    In the article "Sloan Magnitudes for the Brightest Stars" (JAAVSO, 2014, 42, 443), Equation 3 in section A.1. of the Appendix is incorrect; the coefficient of ((R-I) - C1) should be 0.935, rather than 0.953. The mean differences between the new and old results are 0.00 in all cases, and the standard deviations are all 0.00 or 0.01, which is less than the photometric uncertainties of the Johnson or Sloan values. A revised version of the catalog has been published at https://arxiv.org/abs/1805.09324. The revision is proposed as a bright star extension to the APASS database.

  20. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-06

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences.

  1. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  2. Size matters: Perceived depth magnitude varies with stimulus height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Both the upper and lower disparity limits for stereopsis vary with the size of the targets. Recently, Tsirlin, Wilcox, and Allison (2012) suggested that perceived depth magnitude from stereopsis might also depend on the vertical extent of a stimulus. To test this hypothesis we compared apparent depth in small discs to depth in long bars with equivalent width and disparity. We used three estimation techniques: a virtual ruler, a touch-sensor (for haptic estimates) and a disparity probe. We found that depth estimates were significantly larger for the bar stimuli than for the disc stimuli for all methods of estimation and different configurations. In a second experiment, we measured perceived depth as a function of the height of the bar and the radius of the disc. Perceived depth increased with increasing bar height and disc radius suggesting that disparity is integrated along the vertical edges. We discuss size-disparity correlation and inter-neural excitatory connections as potential mechanisms that could account for these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanohertz gravitational wave searches with interferometric pulsar timing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo

    2011-05-13

    We estimate the sensitivity to nano-Hertz gravitational waves of pulsar timing experiments in which two highly stable millisecond pulsars are tracked simultaneously with two neighboring radio telescopes that are referenced to the same timekeeping subsystem (i.e., "the clock"). By taking the difference of the two time-of-arrival residual data streams we can exactly cancel the clock noise in the combined data set, thereby enhancing the sensitivity to gravitational waves. We estimate that, in the band (10(-9)-10(-8))  Hz, this "interferometric" pulsar timing technique can potentially improve the sensitivity to gravitational radiation by almost 2 orders of magnitude over that of single-telescopes. Interferometric pulsar timing experiments could be performed with neighboring pairs of antennas of the NASA's Deep Space Network and the forthcoming large arraying projects.

  4. Limiting the effects of earthquakes on gravitational-wave interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael; Earle, Paul; Harms, Jan; Biscans, Sebastien; Buchanan, Christopher; Coughlin, Eric; Donovan, Fred; Fee, Jeremy; Gabbard, Hunter; Guy, Michelle; Mukund, Nikhil; Perry, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based gravitational wave interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) are susceptible to ground shaking from high-magnitude teleseismic events, which can interrupt their operation in science mode and significantly reduce their duty cycle. It can take several hours for a detector to stabilize enough to return to its nominal state for scientific observations. The down time can be reduced if advance warning of impending shaking is received and the impact is suppressed in the isolation system with the goal of maintaining stable operation even at the expense of increased instrumental noise. Here, we describe an early warning system for modern gravitational-wave observatories. The system relies on near real-time earthquake alerts provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Preliminary low latency hypocenter and magnitude information is generally available in 5 to 20 min of a significant earthquake depending on its magnitude and location. The alerts are used to estimate arrival times and ground velocities at the gravitational-wave detectors. In general, 90% of the predictions for ground-motion amplitude are within a factor of 5 of measured values. The error in both arrival time and ground-motion prediction introduced by using preliminary, rather than final, hypocenter and magnitude information is minimal. By using a machine learning algorithm, we develop a prediction model that calculates the probability that a given earthquake will prevent a detector from taking data. Our initial results indicate that by using detector control configuration changes, we could prevent interruption of operation from 40 to 100 earthquake events in a 6-month time-period.

  5. Limiting the effects of earthquakes on gravitational-wave interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, Michael; Earle, Paul; Harms, Jan; Biscans, Sebastien; Donovan, Fred; Buchanan, Christopher; Coughlin, Eric; Fee, Jeremy; Guy, Michelle; Gabbard, Hunter; Mukund, Nikhil; Perry, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based gravitational wave interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) are susceptible to ground shaking from high-magnitude teleseismic events, which can interrupt their operation in science mode and significantly reduce their duty cycle. It can take several hours for a detector to stabilize enough to return to its nominal state for scientific observations. The down time can be reduced if advance warning of impending shaking is received and the impact is suppressed in the isolation system with the goal of maintaining stable operation even at the expense of increased instrumental noise. Here, we describe an early warning system for modern gravitational-wave observatories. The system relies on near real-time earthquake alerts provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Preliminary low latency hypocenter and magnitude information is generally available in 5 to 20 min of a significant earthquake depending on its magnitude and location. The alerts are used to estimate arrival times and ground velocities at the gravitational-wave detectors. In general, 90% of the predictions for ground-motion amplitude are within a factor of 5 of measured values. The error in both arrival time and ground-motion prediction introduced by using preliminary, rather than final, hypocenter and magnitude information is minimal. By using a machine learning algorithm, we develop a prediction model that calculates the probability that a given earthquake will prevent a detector from taking data. Our initial results indicate that by using detector control configuration changes, we could prevent interruption of operation from 40 to 100 earthquake events in a 6-month time-period. (paper)

  6. Analysis of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present book describes the most important aspects of wave analysis techniques applied to physical model tests. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave analysis software WaveLab 3, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In that respect it should be mentioned that supplementary...... to the present technical documentation exists also the online help document describing the WaveLab software in detail including all the inputs and output fields. In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald, Jacob Helm-Petersen and Morten Møller Jakobsen have contributed to the note. Their input is highly...... acknowledged. The outline of the book is as follows: • Chapter 2 and 3 describes analysis of waves in time and frequency domain. • Chapter 4 and 5 describes the separation of incident and reflected waves for the two-dimensional case. • Chapter 6 describes the estimation of the directional spectra which also...

  7. Time adaptivity in the diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan; Radwan, Hany; Dalcí n, Lisandro D.; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the use of time adaptivity applied to the one dimensional diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations. A simple and computationally economical error estimator is discussed which enables time-step size adaptivity. This robust adaptive time discretization corrects the initial time step size to achieve a user specified bound on the discretization error and allows time step size variations of several orders of magnitude. In particular, the one dimensional results presented in this work feature a change of four orders of magnitudes for the time step over the entire simulation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Time adaptivity in the diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2013-05-01

    We discuss the use of time adaptivity applied to the one dimensional diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations. A simple and computationally economical error estimator is discussed which enables time-step size adaptivity. This robust adaptive time discretization corrects the initial time step size to achieve a user specified bound on the discretization error and allows time step size variations of several orders of magnitude. In particular, the one dimensional results presented in this work feature a change of four orders of magnitudes for the time step over the entire simulation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Child prostitution: magnitude and related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, T; Berhane, Y

    2000-07-01

    In Ethiopia, very little is known about prostitution in general and about child prostitution in particular. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of child prostitution and to identify problems associated with it. A cross-sectional study design was utilized. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. A total of 650 commercial sex workers were interviewed. Eighty eight (13.5%) were below the age of 18 years at the time of data collection. At the time of joining prostitution 268 (41.2%) were under 18 years of age. Poverty, disagreement with family, and peer influence were the major reasons leading to prostitution. Child prostitutes were likely to be victim of physical violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 1.93(1.18,3.15)] and sexual violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 2.20(1.36,3.35)] compared to adult prostitutes. Child prostitutes were about five times more likely to desire rejoining their family than the adult prostitutes [OR = (95% C.I) = 5.47(3.01;9.93)]. Strategies need to be developed to rescue child prostitutes from on-job violence, and to establish a rehabilitation program for those interested to discontinue prostitution along with efforts to minimize entry into prostitution.

  10. How fault geometry controls earthquake magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Q.; Thomas, A.; Karlstrom, L.; Rempel, A. W.; Sladen, A.; De Barros, L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent large megathrust earthquakes, such as the Mw9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in 2004 and the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011, astonished the scientific community. The first event occurred in a relatively low-convergence-rate subduction zone where events of its size were unexpected. The second event involved 60 m of shallow slip in a region thought to be aseismicaly creeping and hence incapable of hosting very large magnitude earthquakes. These earthquakes highlight gaps in our understanding of mega-earthquake rupture processes and the factors controlling their global distribution. Here we show that gradients in dip angle exert a primary control on mega-earthquake occurrence. We calculate the curvature along the major subduction zones of the world and show that past mega-earthquakes occurred on flat (low-curvature) interfaces. A simplified analytic model demonstrates that shear strength heterogeneity increases with curvature. Stress loading on flat megathrusts is more homogeneous and hence more likely to be released simultaneously over large areas than on highly-curved faults. Therefore, the absence of asperities on large faults might counter-intuitively be a source of higher hazard.

  11. Maximum credible earthquake (MCE) magnitude of structures affecting the Ujung Lemahabang site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerjodibroto, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report analyse the geological structures in/around Muria Peninsula that might originating potential earthquake hazard toward the selected site for NPP, Ujung Lemahabang (ULA). Analysis was focused on the Lasem fault and AF-1/AF-4 offshore faults that are considered as the determinant structures affecting the seismicity of ULA (Nira, 1979, Newjec, 1994). Methods for estimating the MCE of the structures include maximum historical earthquake, and relationship between the length of the fault and the magnitude of earthquake originating from the known structure (Tocher, Iida, Matsuda, Wells and Coopersmith). The MCE magnitude estimating by these method for earthquake originating along the Lasem and AF-1/AF-4 faults vary from 2,1M to 7,0M. Comparison between the result of historical data and fault-magnitude relationship, however, suggest a MCE magnitude of Ms=7,0M for both fault zones. (author)

  12. The global magnitude-frequency relationship for large explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Jonathan; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Brown, Sarah K.

    2018-01-01

    For volcanoes, as for other natural hazards, the frequency of large events diminishes with their magnitude, as captured by the magnitude-frequency relationship. Assessing this relationship is valuable both for the insights it provides about volcanism, and for the practical challenge of risk management. We derive a global magnitude-frequency relationship for explosive volcanic eruptions of at least 300Mt of erupted mass (or M4.5). Our approach is essentially empirical, based on the eruptions recorded in the LaMEVE database. It differs from previous approaches mainly in our conservative treatment of magnitude-rounding and under-recording. Our estimate for the return period of 'super-eruptions' (1000Gt, or M8) is 17ka (95% CI: 5.2ka, 48ka), which is substantially shorter than previous estimates, indicating that volcanoes pose a larger risk to human civilisation than previously thought.

  13. Maximum credible earthquake (MCE) magnitude of structures affecting the Ujung Lemahabang site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerjodibroto, M [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-03-01

    This report analyse the geological structures in/around Muria Peninsula that might originating potential earthquake hazard toward the selected site for NPP, Ujung Lemahabang (ULA). Analysis was focused on the Lasem fault and AF-1/AF-4 offshore faults that are considered as the determinant structures affecting the seismicity of ULA (Nira, 1979, Newjec, 1994). Methods for estimating the MCE of the structures include maximum historical earthquake, and relationship between the length of the fault and the magnitude of earthquake originating from the known structure (Tocher, Iida, Matsuda, Wells and Coopersmith). The MCE magnitude estimating by these method for earthquake originating along the Lasem and AF-1/AF-4 faults vary from 2,1M to 7,0M. Comparison between the result of historical data and fault-magnitude relationship, however, suggest a MCE magnitude of Ms=7,0M for both fault zones. (author)

  14. A new M w estimation parameter for use in earthquake early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijun; Zhao, Boming

    2018-01-01

    We propose a method that employs the squared displacement integral ( ID2) to estimate earthquake magnitudes in real time for use in earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. Moreover, using τ c and P d for comparison, we establish formulas for estimating the moment magnitudes of these three parameters based on the selected aftershocks (4.0 ≤ M s ≤ 6.5) of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. In this comparison, the proposed ID2 method displays the highest accuracy. Furthermore, we investigate the applicability of the initial parameters to large earthquakes by estimating the magnitude of the Wenchuan M s 8.0 mainshock using a 3-s time window. Although these three parameters all display problems with saturation, the proposed ID2 parameter is relatively accurate. The evolutionary estimation of ID2 as a function of the time window shows that the estimation equation established with ID2 Ref determined from the first 8-s of P wave data can be directly applicable to predicate the magnitudes of 8.0. Therefore, the proposed ID2 parameter provides a robust estimator of earthquake moment magnitudes and can be used for EEW purposes.

  15. Historical revision of the exposure magnitude and the dosimetric magnitudes used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, F.; Alvarez R, J. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work a historical revision of the exposure magnitude development and their roentgen unit (1905 - 2011) is made, noting that it had their origin in the electric methods for the detection of the ionizing radiation in the period of 1895 at 1937. However, the ionization is not who better characterizes the physical, chemical and biological effects of the ionizing radiations, but is the energy deposited by this radiation in the interest bodies, which led historically to the development of dosimetric magnitudes in energy terms like they are: the absorbed dose D (1950), the kerma K (1958) and the equivalent dose H (1962). These dosimetric magnitudes culminated with the definition of the effective equivalent dose or effective dose which is not measurable and should be considered with the operative magnitudes ICRU: H environmental equivalent dose and/or H directional equivalent dose, which can be determined by means of a conversion coefficient that is applied to the exposure, kerma in air, fluence, etc. (Author)

  16. Influence of the excitation force estimator methodology within a predictive controller framework on the overall cost of energy minimisation of a wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of energy is freely roaming around the world each day, without us being able to exploit it: wave energy is a largely untapped source of renewable energy, which can have a substantial influence in the future energy mix. The reason behind the inability of using this free resource is ...

  17. Estimation of the Effect of Green Water and Bow Flare Slamming on the Wave-Induced Vertical Bending Moment Using Closed-Form Ex-pressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    (1993) and for green water loads the results from Buchner (1995) and Wang et al .(1998) are applied. The phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and the decay rate are derived mainly from published experimental results, Sikora, (1998). The results are given in closed-form expressions...

  18. Particle transport model sensitivity on wave-induced processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Ricker, Marcel; Krüger, Oliver; Breivik, Oyvind; Stanev, Emil; Schrum, Corinna

    2017-04-01

    Different effects of wind waves on the hydrodynamics in the North Sea are investigated using a coupled wave (WAM) and circulation (NEMO) model system. The terms accounting for the wave-current interaction are: the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state dependent momentum and energy flux. The role of the different Stokes drift parameterizations is investigated using a particle-drift model. Those particles can be considered as simple representations of either oil fractions, or fish larvae. In the ocean circulation models the momentum flux from the atmosphere, which is related to the wind speed, is passed directly to the ocean and this is controlled by the drag coefficient. However, in the real ocean, the waves play also the role of a reservoir for momentum and energy because different amounts of the momentum flux from the atmosphere is taken up by the waves. In the coupled model system the momentum transferred into the ocean model is estimated as the fraction of the total flux that goes directly to the currents plus the momentum lost from wave dissipation. Additionally, we demonstrate that the wave-induced Stokes-Coriolis force leads to a deflection of the current. During the extreme events the Stokes velocity is comparable in magnitude to the current velocity. The resulting wave-induced drift is crucial for the transport of particles in the upper ocean. The performed sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the model skill depends on the chosen processes. The results are validated using surface drifters, ADCP, HF radar data and other in-situ measurements in different regions of the North Sea with a focus on the coastal areas. The using of a coupled model system reveals that the newly introduced wave effects are important for the drift-model performance, especially during extremes. Those effects cannot be neglected by search and rescue, oil-spill, transport of biological material, or larva drift modelling.

  19. Hindcasting cyclonic waves using neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Chakravarty, N.V.

    for computing extreme wave conditions or design wave statistics. As far as Indian seas are concerned recorded wave data are available for short periods for some places along the coasts. Estimation of wave parameters by numerical wave forecasting schemes... is useful and attractive in many applications. It not only involves an enormous amount of computational effort but also needs elaborate meteorological and oceanographic data. Hindcasting waves using past storm wind fields can overcome this deficiency...

  20. Theoretical comparison of light scattering and guided wave coupling in multilayer coated optical components with random interface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, we use first-order perturbation theory to calculate and then compare the (1) angular distribution of incident light scattered from a multilayer-coated optical component and (2) the angular distribution of incident light coupled into guided waves supported by the multilayer component. The incident beam is assumed to be a monochromatic plane wave and the scattering/coupling is assumed to be caused by roughness at the interfaces of the optical component. Numerical results show that for high quality (low root mean square roughness) optical components, comparison of the relative amounts of incident energy (1) scattered out of the specular beam and (2) coupled into guided waves are comparable. It follows that the guided wave energy will further contribute to the scattered field via radiative decay or be converted to heat. Thus, this work can help provide an estimation of when guided wave coupling can occur along with the expected magnitude. (orig.)

  1. Upper atmospheric planetary-wave and gravity-wave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Previously collected data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 25 and 200 km from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others were analyzed by a daily-difference method, and results on the magnitude of atmospheric perturbations interpreted as gravity waves and planetary waves are presented. Traveling planetary-wave contributions in the 25-85 km range were found to have significant height and latitudinal variation. It was found that observed gravity-wave density perturbations and wind are related to one another in the manner predicted by gravity-wave theory. It was determined that, on the average, gravity-wave energy deposition or reflection occurs at all altitudes except the 55-75 km region of the mesosphere.

  2. The Near-IR TRGB Magnitude and Distance Modulus to NGC 185

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-J. Sohn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined values of distance modulus to nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 185 from the Tip of Red-Giant Branch (TRGB method. Apparent magnitudes of the TRGB are estimated from the near-infrared JHK luminosity functions (LFs of the resolved giant branch stars. Theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB in near-infrared bands have been extracted from the Yonsei-Yale isochrones. The observed apparent and theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB provide values of distance modulus to NGC 185 as (m - M.

  3. The Leo I color-magnitude diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, N.; Mould, J.

    1991-01-01

    The R-and I-band photometry of the Leo I dwarf galaxy is presented. A relatively narrow giant branch is found, Implying an abundance range of no more than Fe/H/= - 0.7 to - 1.3. This is in contrast to the results is found by Fox and Pritchet (1987) from BV CCD photometry. The distance modulus is estimated as (m - M) = 21.85 + or - 0.15, based on the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch. 15 refs

  4. Numerical investigation of freak waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikov, D.

    2009-04-01

    Paper describes the results of more than 4,000 long-term (up to thousands of peak-wave periods) numerical simulations of nonlinear gravity surface waves performed for investigation of properties and estimation of statistics of extreme (‘freak') waves. The method of solution of 2-D potential wave's equations based on conformal mapping is applied to the simulation of wave behavior assigned by different initial conditions, defined by JONSWAP and Pierson-Moskowitz spectra. It is shown that nonlinear wave evolution sometimes results in appearance of very big waves. The shape of freak waves varies within a wide range: some of them are sharp-crested, others are asymmetric, with a strong forward inclination. Some of them can be very big, but not steep enough to create dangerous conditions for vessels (but not for fixed objects). Initial generation of extreme waves can occur merely as a result of group effects, but in some cases the largest wave suddenly starts to grow. The growth is followed sometimes by strong concentration of wave energy around a peak vertical. It is taking place in the course of a few peak wave periods. The process starts with an individual wave in a physical space without significant exchange of energy with surrounding waves. Sometimes, a crest-to-trough wave height can be as large as nearly three significant wave heights. On the average, only one third of all freak waves come to breaking, creating extreme conditions, however, if a wave height approaches the value of three significant wave heights, all of the freak waves break. The most surprising result was discovery that probability of non-dimensional freak waves (normalized by significant wave height) is actually independent of density of wave energy. It does not mean that statistics of extreme waves does not depend on wave energy. It just proves that normalization of wave heights by significant wave height is so effective, that statistics of non-dimensional extreme waves tends to be independent

  5. Theoretical estimation and experimental design of high-intensity far-infrared to MM-wave coherent synchrotron radiation generated by short electron bunches at BFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Junbiao; Li Yonggui; Xie Jialin

    2000-01-01

    Broadband continuous and high-intensity coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted from 4 ps electron bunches provided by the 30 MeV RF linac of Beijing FEL is analyzed and numerically calculated using an exact series expansion for the infinite integral of fractional modified Bessel function. CSR in the mm-wave and far-IR to mm-wave regions can be respectively generated by directly using these bunches and by applying those ones compressed to ≤=1 ps. The CSR powers, approximately as 10 8 -10 9 times as the SR ones, in the range from several hundred microwatts to milliwatts are dependent on chosen electron density distribution, wavelength range, and gathering angle. The power produced by rectangular bunches is greater than that generated by Gaussian ones. The shorter the bunch, the stronger the produced CSR, the greater the energy concentrated to the far-IR end. Experiments to generate CSR and measure the bunch length are designed

  6. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  7. Future risk assessment by estimating historical heat wave trends with projected heat accumulation using SimCLIM climate model in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Wajid; Amin, Asad; Fahad, Shah; Awais, Muhammad; Khan, Naeem; Mubeen, Muhammad; Wahid, Abdul; Turan, Veysel; Rehman, Muhammad Habibur; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Ahmad, Shakeel; Hussain, Sajjad; Mian, Ishaq Ahmad; Khan, Bushra; Jamal, Yousaf

    2018-06-01

    Climate change has adverse effects at global, regional and local level. Heat wave events have serious contribution for global warming and natural hazards in Pakistan. Historical (1997-2015) heat wave were analyzed over different provinces (Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan) of Pakistan to identify the maximum temperature trend. Heat accumulation in Pakistan were simulated by the General Circulation Model (GCM) combined with 3 GHG (Green House Gases) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) (RCP-4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) by using SimCLIM model (statistical downscaling model for future trend projections). Heat accumulation was projected for year 2030, 2060, and 2090 for seasonal and annual analysis in Pakistan. Heat accumulation were projected to increase by the baseline year (1995) was represented in percentage change. Projection shows that Sindh and southern Punjab was mostly affected by heat accumulation. This study identified the rising trend of heat wave over the period (1997-2015) for Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan (provinces of Pakistan), which identified that most of the meteorological stations in Punjab and Sindh are highly prone to heat waves. According to model projection; future trend of annual heat accumulation, in 2030 was increased 17%, 26%, and 32% but for 2060 the trends were reported by 54%, 49%, and 86% for 2090 showed highest upto 62%, 75%, and 140% for RCP-4.5, RCP-6.0, and RCP-8.5, respectively. While seasonal trends of heat accumulation were projected to maximum values for monsoon and followed by pre-monsoon and post monsoon. Heat accumulation in monsoon may affect the agricultural activities in the region under study.

  8. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  9. Regional relationships among earthquake magnitude scales. Seismic safety margins research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    The seismic body-wave magnitude m b of an earthquake is strongly affected by regional variations in the Q structure, composition, and physical state within the earth. Therefore, because of differences in attenuation of P-waves between the western and eastern United States, a problem arises when comparing m b 's for the two regions. A regional m b magnitude bias exists which, depending on where the earthquake occurs and where the P-waves are recorded, can lead to magnitude errors as large as one-third unit. There is also a significant difference between m b and M L values for earthquakes in the western United States. An empirical link between the m b of an eastern U.S. earthquake and the M L of an equivalent western earthquake is given y M L = 0.57 + 0.92(m b ) East . This result is important when comparing ground motion between the two regions and for choosing a set of real western U.S. earthquake records to represent eastern earthquakes. (author)

  10. Automatic computation of moment magnitudes for small earthquakes and the scaling of local to moment magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Allmann, Bettina; Fäh, Donat; Clinton, John

    2010-10-01

    Moment magnitudes (MW) are computed for small and moderate earthquakes using a spectral fitting method. 40 of the resulting values are compared with those from broadband moment tensor solutions and found to match with negligible offset and scatter for available MW values of between 2.8 and 5.0. Using the presented method, MW are computed for 679 earthquakes in Switzerland with a minimum ML = 1.3. A combined bootstrap and orthogonal L1 minimization is then used to produce a scaling relation between ML and MW. The scaling relation has a polynomial form and is shown to reduce the dependence of the predicted MW residual on magnitude relative to an existing linear scaling relation. The computation of MW using the presented spectral technique is fully automated at the Swiss Seismological Service, providing real-time solutions within 10 minutes of an event through a web-based XML database. The scaling between ML and MW is explored using synthetic data computed with a stochastic simulation method. It is shown that the scaling relation can be explained by the interaction of attenuation, the stress-drop and the Wood-Anderson filter. For instance, it is shown that the stress-drop controls the saturation of the ML scale, with low-stress drops (e.g. 0.1-1.0 MPa) leading to saturation at magnitudes as low as ML = 4.

  11. Moment Magnitude ( M W) and Local Magnitude ( M L) Relationship for Earthquakes in Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Bora, P. K.; Duarah, R.; Kalita, Aditya; Biswas, Rajib; Gogoi, N.; Kayal, J. R.

    2012-11-01

    An attempt has been made to examine an empirical relationship between moment magnitude ( M W) and local magnitude ( M L) for the earthquakes in the northeast Indian region. Some 364 earthquakes that were recorded during 1950-2009 are used in this study. Focal mechanism solutions of these earthquakes include 189 Harvard-CMT solutions ( M W ≥ 4.0) for the period 1976-2009, 61 published solutions and 114 solutions obtained for the local earthquakes (2.0 ≤ M L ≤ 5.0) recorded by a 27-station permanent broadband network during 2001-2009 in the region. The M W- M L relationships in seven selected zones of the region are determined by linear regression analysis. A significant variation in the M W- M L relationship and its zone specific dependence are reported here. It is found that M W is equivalent to M L with an average uncertainty of about 0.13 magnitude units. A single relationship is, however, not adequate to scale the entire northeast Indian region because of heterogeneous geologic and geotectonic environments where earthquakes occur due to collisions, subduction and complex intra-plate tectonics.

  12. Numerical experiments to investigate the accuracy of broad-band moment magnitude, Mwp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Naoki

    2011-12-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the accuracy of broad-band moment magnitude, Mwp. We conduct these experiments by measuring Mwp from synthetic seismograms and comparing the resulting values to the moment magnitudes used in the calculation of synthetic seismograms. In the numerical experiments using point sources, we have found that there is a significant dependence of Mwp on focal mechanisms, and that depths phases have a large impact on Mwp estimates, especially for large shallow earthquakes. Numerical experiments using line sources suggest that the effects of source finiteness and rupture propagation on Mwp estimates are on the order of 0.2 magnitude units for vertical fault planes with pure dip-slip mechanisms and 45° dipping fault planes with pure dip-slip (thrust) mechanisms, but that the dependence is small for strike-slip events on a vertical fault plane. Numerical experiments for huge thrust faulting earthquakes on a fault plane with a shallow dip angle suggest that the Mwp estimates do not saturate in the moment magnitude range between 8 and 9, although they are underestimates. Our results are consistent with previous studies that compared Mwp estimates to moment magnitudes calculated from seismic moment tensors obtained by analyses of observed data.

  13. Large Contrast Between the Moment Magnitude of Tremor and the Moment Magnitude of Slip in ETS Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H.; Wang, K.; Dragert, H.; Rogers, G. C.; Kao, J. Y.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed an algorithm to estimate the moment magnitudes (Mw) of seismic tremors that are recorded during episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events beneath the northern Cascadia margin. The tremor “cloud” during an ETS episode consists of numerous individual tremor bursts. For each tremor burst, the hypocenter is first determined by the Source-Scanning Algorithm [Kao and Shan, 2004]. From the derived source location, we calculate a set of synthetic seismograms for each station based on a fixed seismic moment but different focal mechanisms. The maximum tremor amplitude observed at each station is then compared to that of the synthetics to give an estimate of the corresponding seismic moment of the tremor burst. The seismic moment averaged over all stations is used to calculate the final tremor burst Mw. We have applied this method to local earthquakes for calibration and the results are very consistent with the magnitudes listed in the catalogue. For each of the 8 northern Cascadia ETS episodes whose GPS coverage is sufficient for slip distribution inversion, the cumulative tremor Mw for the entire tremor cloud, determined from the combined moments of all individual tremor bursts in the ETS episode, is ~3 orders less than the corresponding slip Mw in the same episode (e.g., 3.7 vs. 6.7). This result suggests that aseismic slip is the predominant mode of deformation during ETS. The majority of individual tremor bursts in northern Cascadia have Mw ranging between 1.0 and 1.7 with the mean of 1.34. Only 5% of all tremors are larger than 2.0 with the largest being ~2.5.

  14. On helicon wave induced radial plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1993-04-01

    Estimates of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented. The wave induced transport grows or decreases in dependence on the sign of the azimuthal wave number; these changes in transport may play an important role in helicon wave plasma sources. (author) 5 figs., 18 refs

  15. A local earthquake coda magnitude and its relation to duration, moment M sub O, and local Richter magnitude M sub L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suteau, A. M.; Whitcomb, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A relationship was found between the seismic moment, M sub O, of shallow local earthquakes and the total duration of the signal, t, in seconds, measured from the earthquakes origin time, assuming that the end of the coda is composed of backscattering surface waves due to lateral heterogenity in the shallow crust following Aki. Using the linear relationship between the logarithm of M sub O and the local Richter magnitude M sub L, a relationship between M sub L and t, was found. This relationship was used to calculate a coda magnitude M sub C which was compared to M sub L for Southern California earthquakes which occurred during the period from 1972 to 1975.

  16. Attributing anthropogenic impact on regional heat wave events using CAM5 model large ensemble simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, S. H.; Chen, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme heat waves have serious impacts on society. It was argued that the anthropogenic forcing might substantially increase the risk of extreme heat wave events (e.g. over western Europe in 2003 and over Russia in 2010). However, the regional dependence of such anthropogenic impact and the sensitivity of the attributed risk to the definition of heat wave still require further studies. In our research framework, the change in the frequency and severity of a heat wave event under current conditions is calculated and compared with the probability and magnitude of the event if the effects of particular external forcing, such as due to human influence, had been absent. In our research, we use the CAM5 large ensemble simulation from the CLIVAR C20C+ Detection and Attribution project (http://portal.nersc.gov/c20c/main.html, Folland et al. 2014) to detect the heat wave events occurred in both historical all forcing run and natural forcing only run. The heat wave events are identified by partial duration series method (Huth et al., 2000). We test the sensitivity of heat wave thresholds from daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in warm season (from May to September) between 1959 and 2013. We consider the anthropogenic effect on the later period (2000-2013) when the warming due to human impact is more evident. Using Taiwan and surrounding area as our preliminary research target, We found the anthropogenic effect will increase the heat wave day per year from 30 days to 75 days and make the mean starting(ending) day for heat waves events about 15-30 days earlier(later). Using the Fraction of Attribution Risk analysis to estimate the risk of frequency of heat wave day, our results show the anthropogenic forcing very likely increase the heat wave days over Taiwan by more than 50%. Further regional differences and sensitivity of the attributed risk to the definition of heat wave will be compared and discussed.

  17. COMPARISON STUDY OF EXPERIMENTS AND PREDICTIONS OF WAVE KINEMATICS FOR ROGUE WAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Jin Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the wave kinematics under the rogue wave crest, a series of experiments were performed in 2-D wave tank with the application of PIV technique to measure the velocities under the free surface. Three different prediction methods of linear extrapolation, Wheeler stretching, and modified stretching were applied to estimate water wave kinematics and compared with PIV experimental results under the highest wave crest of irregular wave trains satisfying with rogue wave criteria. Also, the cut-off frequency dependence for three prediction methods was investigated with varying spectral peak frequencies to estimate wave kinematics including velocities and accelerations in horizontal and vertical directions. It was suggested that the cut-off frequency for the reasonable prediction of the wave kinematics under the rogue wave crest could be chosen three times of spectral peak wave frequency for the linear extrapolation and higher frequency than four times of spectral peak wave frequency for Wheeler stretching and modified stretching method.

  18. Estimation of spin contamination error in dissociative adsorption of Au2 onto MgO(0 0 1) surface: First application of approximate spin projection (AP) method to plane wave basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kohei; Koga, Hiroaki; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Tanaka, Shingo

    2018-06-01

    Spin contamination error in the total energy of the Au2/MgO system was estimated using the density functional theory/plane-wave scheme and approximate spin projection methods. This is the first investigation in which the errors in chemical phenomena on a periodic surface are estimated. The spin contamination error of the system was 0.06 eV. This value is smaller than that of the dissociation of Au2 in the gas phase (0.10 eV). This is because of the destabilization of the singlet spin state due to the weakening of the Au-Au interaction caused by the Au-MgO interaction.

  19. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  20. Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  1. Automatic computation of moment magnitudes for small earthquakes and the scaling of local to moment magnitude

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Benjamin; Allmann, Bettina; Fäh, Donat; Clinton, John

    2017-01-01

    Moment magnitudes (MW) are computed for small and moderate earthquakes using a spectral fitting method. 40 of the resulting values are compared with those from broadband moment tensor solutions and found to match with negligible offset and scatter for available MW values of between 2.8 and 5.0. Using the presented method, MW are computed for 679 earthquakes in Switzerland with a minimum ML= 1.3. A combined bootstrap and orthogonal L1 minimization is then used to produce a scaling relation bet...

  2. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward; Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew; Sneden, Christopher; Dong, Subo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M V,RRc = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M V,RRab = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M V,RRc = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W π , W θ , W z ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s –1 in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ W π ,σ W θ ,σ W z ) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s -1 . For the disk, we find (W π , W θ , W z ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s –1 relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ W π ,σ W θ ,σ W z ) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s -1 . Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4

  3. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Brown, Michael E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France); Parker, Alex [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: wesley.fraser@nrc.ca [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α{sub 1}=1.5{sub −0.2}{sup +0.4}, and break magnitude, H{sub B}=6.9{sub −0.2}{sup +0.1} (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α{sub 1}=0.87{sub −0.2}{sup +0.07}, and break magnitude H{sub B}=7.7{sub −0.5}{sup +1.0}. Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α{sub 2} ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ⊕}. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α{sub 1} = 1.0 ± 0.2, α{sub 2} = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H {sub B} = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H{sub r{sup ′}}≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  4. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Parker, Alex; Batygin, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α 1 =1.5 −0.2 +0.4 , and break magnitude, H B =6.9 −0.2 +0.1 (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α 1 =0.87 −0.2 +0.07 , and break magnitude H B =7.7 −0.5 +1.0 . Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α 2 ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10 –4 M ⊕ . The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α 1 = 1.0 ± 0.2, α 2 = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H B = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H r ′ ≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  5. Seismic experience in power and industrial facilities as it relates to small magnitude earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swan, S.W.; Horstman, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    The data base on the performance of power and industrial facilities in small magnitude earthquakes (M = 4.0 - 5.5) is potentially very large. In California alone many earthquakes in this magnitude range occur every year, often near industrial areas. In 1986 for example, in northern California alone, there were 76 earthquakes between Richter magnitude 4.0 and 5.5. Experience has shown that the effects of small magnitude earthquakes are seldom significant to well-engineered facilities. (The term well-engineered is here defined to include most modern industrial installations, as well as power plants and substations.) Therefore detailed investigations of small magnitude earthquakes are normally not considered worthwhile. The purpose of this paper is to review the tendency toward seismic damage of equipment installations representative of nuclear power plant safety systems. Estimates are made of the thresholds of seismic damage to certain types of equipment in terms of conventional means of measuring the damage potential of an earthquake. The objective is to define thresholds of damage that can be correlated with Richter magnitude. In this manner an earthquake magnitude might be chosen below which damage to nuclear plant safety systems is not considered credible

  6. A multi-feature integration method for fatigue crack detection and crack length estimation in riveted lap joints using Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Peng, Tishun; Liu, Yongming; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Goebel, Kai

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of damage detection and quantification in riveted lap joints. Embedded lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic wafer-type sensors are employed to perform in situ non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during fatigue cyclical loading. PZT wafers are used to monitor the wave reflection from the boundaries of the fatigue crack at the edge of bolt joints. The group velocity of the guided wave is calculated to select a proper time window in which the received signal contains the damage information. It is found that the fatigue crack lengths are correlated with three main features of the signal, i.e., correlation coefficient, amplitude change, and phase change. It was also observed that a single feature cannot be used to quantify the damage among different specimens since a considerable variability was observed in the response from different specimens. A multi-feature integration method based on a second-order multivariate regression analysis is proposed for the prediction of fatigue crack lengths using sensor measurements. The model parameters are obtained using training datasets from five specimens. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using several lap joint specimens from different manufactures and under different loading conditions.

  7. A multi-feature integration method for fatigue crack detection and crack length estimation in riveted lap joints using Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Peng, Tishun; Liu, Yongming; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of damage detection and quantification in riveted lap joints. Embedded lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic wafer-type sensors are employed to perform in situ non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during fatigue cyclical loading. PZT wafers are used to monitor the wave reflection from the boundaries of the fatigue crack at the edge of bolt joints. The group velocity of the guided wave is calculated to select a proper time window in which the received signal contains the damage information. It is found that the fatigue crack lengths are correlated with three main features of the signal, i.e., correlation coefficient, amplitude change, and phase change. It was also observed that a single feature cannot be used to quantify the damage among different specimens since a considerable variability was observed in the response from different specimens. A multi-feature integration method based on a second-order multivariate regression analysis is proposed for the prediction of fatigue crack lengths using sensor measurements. The model parameters are obtained using training datasets from five specimens. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using several lap joint specimens from different manufactures and under different loading conditions. (paper)

  8. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-08-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations.

  9. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations

  10. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  11. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  12. User's Manual for the Simulating Waves Nearshore Model (SWAN)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model is a numerical wave model used to obtain realistic estimates of wave parameters in coastal areas, lakes, and estuaries from given wind, bottom, and current conditions...

  13. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  14. Nearshore Wave and Current Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-30

    bottom perturbation and an " influence function ". This influence function has its maximum at the shoreline and decays away from the shore. Also, the...magnitude of the influence function increases with edge-wave mode. These results show that the dispersion relationship is more sensitive to the

  15. Color-magnitude diagrams for six metal-rich, low-latitude globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandroff, Taft E.

    1988-01-01

    Colors and magnitudes for stars on CCD frames for six metal-rich, low-latitude, previously unstudied globular clusters and one well-studied, metal-rich cluster (47 Tuc) have been derived and color-magnitude diagrams have been constructed. The photometry for stars in 47 Tuc are in good agreement with previous studies, while the V magnitudes of the horizontal-branch stars in the six program clusters do not agree with estimates based on secondary methods. The distances to these clusters are different from prior estimates. Redding values are derived for each program cluster. The horizontal branches of the program clusters all appear to lie entirely redwards of the red edge of the instability strip, as is normal for their metallicities.

  16. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  17. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  18. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies, co...

  19. Functional estimation of kidneys after extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWL) by clearance. Funktionsbeurteilung der Nieren nach extrakorporaler Stosswellenlithotripsie (ESWL) mittels Nieren-Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydow, K.; Kirschner, P.; Brien, G.; Buchali, K.; Frenzel, R. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet)

    1991-10-01

    35 patients were scintiscanned with 99m-Tc-DTPA to determine the effects of extracorporeal shock waves used to desintegrate renal concrements may have on the patients renal function. The therapy was conducted using a standard Lithostar unit (Siemens) (20 patients) and an additional overtable module (15 patients). Functional scintigraphy was performed using a gamma camera before lithotripsy, and on the first day after it. Further control investigations were performed one or two weeks later and two till six months later. In both groups most of the patients developed temporary restrictions in renal function, some of them irreversible restrictions. Functional losses were found to be less severe with the use of the overtable module than with the standard Lithostar unit. (orig.).

  20. Moment Magnitude Determination for Marmara Region-Turkey Using Displacement Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoǧlu Küsmezer, Ayşegül; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Barış, Å.žErif; Üçer, S. Balamir; Ottemöller, Lars

    2010-05-01

    The main purpose of the study is to determine moment magnitude Mω using displacement source spectra of earthquakes occurred in Marmara Region. The region is the most densely populated and fast-developing part of Turkey, bounded by 39.0°N to 42.0°N and 26.0°E to 32.0°E, and have experienced major earthquake disasters during the last four centuries with destructive earthquakes and probabilistic seismic hazard studies shows that the region have significant probability of producing M>7 earthquake within the next years. Seismic moment is a direct measurement of earthquake size (rupture area and static displacement) and does not saturate, spectral analysis at local distances is a very useful method which allows the reliable determination of seismic moment and moment magnitude. We have used converging grid search method developed by L. Ottemöller, and J. Havskov, 2008 for the automatic determination of moment magnitude for local distances. For data preperation; the time domain signal of S waves were extracted from the vertical component seismograms.Data was transformed from time to frequency domain by applying the standart fast fourier transform (fft). Source parameters and moment magnitudes of earthquakes are determined by applying spectral fitting procedure to classical Brune's model. The method is first manually and then automatically performed on the source spectrum of S waves within 20 sec. Mo and fc (Aki;1967, and Brune;1970) were determined by using the method which the model space is divided into a grid and the error function detected for all grid points. A smaller grid with denser spacing around the best solution is generated with an iterative procedure. The moment magnitudes of the earthquakes have been calculated according to the scale of Kanamori (1977) and Hanks and Kanamori (1979). A data set of 279 events recorded on broadband velocity seismograms extracted from KOERI (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute) seismic network were

  1. Wave energy and its possibilities in the Danish power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traeholt Madsen, N.; Lorenzen, S.; Haunstrup Christensen, T.

    1997-06-01

    Mathematical theory of wave forces (wave height, spectrua, energy distribution and effect) is summarized. An attempt to estimate the Danish wave power potential on the basis of previous investigations og wave effect in various regions is presented. A brief review of wave energy applications and research constitutes basis for two scenarios of wave power adjustment into the 'Green society'. Power quality, environment, economics and supply reliability are estimated. (EG) 42 refs

  2. Detrital carbon pools in temperate forests: magnitude and potential for landscape-scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bradford; Peter Weishampel; Marie-Louise Smith; Randall Kolka; Richard A. Birdsey; Scott V. Ollinger; Michael G. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Reliably estimating carbon storage and cycling in detrital biomass is an obstacle to carbon accounting. We examined carbon pools and fluxes in three small temperate forest landscapes to assess the magnitude of carbon stored in detrital biomass and determine whether detrital carbon storage is related to stand structural properties (leaf area, aboveground biomass,...

  3. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  4. Wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)

  5. Observations and modeling of the elastogravity signals preceding direct seismic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Martin; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Juhel, Kévin; Bernard, Pascal; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Barsuglia, Matteo

    2017-12-01

    After an earthquake, the earliest deformation signals are not expected to be carried by the fastest (P) elastic waves but by the speed-of-light changes of the gravitational field. However, these perturbations are weak and, so far, their detection has not been accurate enough to fully understand their origins and to use them for a highly valuable rapid estimate of the earthquake magnitude. We show that gravity perturbations are particularly well observed with broadband seismometers at distances between 1000 and 2000 kilometers from the source of the 2011, moment magnitude 9.1, Tohoku earthquake. We can accurately model them by a new formalism, taking into account both the gravity changes and the gravity-induced motion. These prompt elastogravity signals open the window for minute time-scale magnitude determination for great earthquakes.

  6. Fast Plane Wave 2-D Vector Flow Imaging Using Transverse Oscillation and Directional Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2017-01-01

    load, which is 4.6 times larger than for TO and seven times smaller than for conventional DB. Steered plane wave transmissions are employed for high frame rate imaging, and parabolic flow with a peak velocity of 0.5 m/s is simulated in straight vessels at beamto- flow angles from 45 to 90. The TO......-DB method estimates the angle with a bias and standard deviation (SD) less than 2, and the SD of the velocity magnitude is less than 2%. When using only TO, the SD of the angle ranges from 2 to 17 and for the velocity magnitude up to 7%. Bias of the velocity magnitude is within 2% for TO and slightly larger...

  7. Fraction magnitude understanding and its unique role in predicting general mathematics achievement at two early stages of fraction instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingyi

    2017-09-08

    Prior studies on fraction magnitude understanding focused mainly on students with relatively sufficient formal instruction on fractions whose fraction magnitude understanding is relatively mature. This study fills a research gap by investigating fraction magnitude understanding in the early stages of fraction instruction. It extends previous findings to children with limited and primary formal fraction instruction. Thirty-five fourth graders with limited fraction instruction and forty fourth graders with primary fraction instruction were recruited from a Chinese primary school. Children's fraction magnitude understanding was assessed with a fraction number line estimation task. Approximate number system (ANS) acuity was assessed with a dot discrimination task. Whole number knowledge was assessed with a whole number line estimation task. General reading and mathematics achievements were collected concurrently and 1 year later. In children with limited fraction instruction, fraction representation was linear and fraction magnitude understanding was concurrently related to both ANS and whole number knowledge. In children with primary fraction instruction, fraction magnitude understanding appeared to (marginally) significantly predict general mathematics achievement 1 year later. Fraction magnitude understanding emerged early during formal instruction of fractions. ANS and whole number knowledge were related to fraction magnitude understanding when children first began to learn about fractions in school. The predictive value of fraction magnitude understanding is likely constrained by its sophistication level. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. THE AGE OF ELLIPTICALS AND THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schombert, James; Rakos, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Using new narrowband color observations of early-type galaxies in clusters, we reconstruct the color-magnitude relation (CMR) with a higher degree of accuracy than previous work. We then use the spectroscopically determined ages and metallicities from three samples, combined with multimetallicity spectral energy distribution models, to compare predicted colors for galaxies with young ages (less than 8 Gyr) with the known CMR. We find that the CMR cannot by reproduced by the spectroscopically determined ages and metallicities in any of the samples despite the high internal accuracies to the spectroscopic indices. In contrast, using only the (Fe) index to determine [Fe/H], and assuming a mean age of 12 Gyr for a galaxy's stellar population, we derive colors that exactly match not only the color zero point of the CMR but also its slope. We consider the source of young age estimates, the Hβ index, and examine the conflict between red continuum colors and large Hβ values in galaxy spectra. We conclude that our current understanding of stellar populations is insufficient to correctly interpret Hβ values.

  9. Floods in the United States: Magnitude and frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Clarence S.; ,

    1936-01-01

    From time immemorial floods have transformed beneficent river waters into a menace to humanity. Man's progress toward economic stability has been repeatedly halted or even thrown backward by the interruption of his efforts to make effective use of rivers and of valley lands. This handicap is not imposed by the destructiveness of large rivers alone, or of rivers in widely separated areas, for there are few if any streams, brooks, or rivulets that are not subject to flows beyond their channel capacities. Yet, though man for ages has suffered seriously from recurring floods, he has not been deterred from continuing to extend his activities in areas that are virtually foredoomed to flood damage.Today in the United States serious floods may occur in any section in any year, and even, in some regions, several times a year. Many of these floods leave behind them the tragedy of death and disease and of property irreparably damaged. The aggregate direct property damage caused by floods in this country has been estimated roughly to average $35,000,000 a year. In addition there are serious indirect and intangible losses of great but not precisely calculable magnitude.

  10. Viscoelastic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.

  11. Developmental Dyscalculia in Adults: Beyond Numerical Magnitude Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Pesenti, Mauro; Dormal, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have tried to identify the core deficit of developmental dyscalculia (DD), mainly by assessing a possible deficit of the mental representation of numerical magnitude. Research in healthy adults has shown that numerosity, duration, and space share a partly common system of magnitude processing and representation. However, in DD, numerosity processing has until now received much more attention than the processing of other non-numerical magnitudes. To assess whether or not the processing of non-numerical magnitudes is impaired in DD, the performance of 15 adults with DD and 15 control participants was compared in four categorization tasks using numerosities, lengths, durations, and faces (as non-magnitude-based control stimuli). Results showed that adults with DD were impaired in processing numerosity and duration, while their performance in length and face categorization did not differ from controls' performance. Our findings support the idea of a nonsymbolic magnitude deficit in DD, affecting numerosity and duration processing but not length processing.

  12. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimenta...

  13. Developmental Dyscalculia and Automatic Magnitudes Processing: Investigating Interference Effects between Area and Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hili Eidlin-Levy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between numbers and other magnitudes has been extensively investigated in the scientific literature. Here, the objectives were to examine whether two continuous magnitudes, area and perimeter, are automatically processed and whether adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD are deficient in their ability to automatically process one or both of these magnitudes. Fifty-seven students (30 with DD and 27 with typical development performed a novel Stroop-like task requiring estimation of one aspect (area or perimeter while ignoring the other. In order to track possible changes in automaticity due to practice, we measured performance after initial and continuous exposure to stimuli. Similar to previous findings, current results show a significant group × congruency interaction, evident beyond exposure level or magnitude type. That is, the DD group systematically showed larger Stroop effects. However, analysis of each exposure period showed that during initial exposure to stimuli the DD group showed larger Stroop effects in the perimeter and not in the area task. In contrast, during continuous exposure to stimuli no triple interaction was evident. It is concluded that both magnitudes are automatically processed. Nevertheless, individuals with DD are deficient in inhibiting irrelevant magnitude information in general and, specifically, struggle to inhibit salient area information after initial exposure to a perimeter comparison task. Accordingly, the findings support the assumption that DD involves a deficiency in multiple cognitive components, which include domain-specific and domain-general cognitive functions.

  14. Developmental Dyscalculia and Automatic Magnitudes Processing: Investigating Interference Effects between Area and Perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlin-Levy, Hili; Rubinsten, Orly

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between numbers and other magnitudes has been extensively investigated in the scientific literature. Here, the objectives were to examine whether two continuous magnitudes, area and perimeter, are automatically processed and whether adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD) are deficient in their ability to automatically process one or both of these magnitudes. Fifty-seven students (30 with DD and 27 with typical development) performed a novel Stroop-like task requiring estimation of one aspect (area or perimeter) while ignoring the other. In order to track possible changes in automaticity due to practice, we measured performance after initial and continuous exposure to stimuli. Similar to previous findings, current results show a significant group × congruency interaction, evident beyond exposure level or magnitude type. That is, the DD group systematically showed larger Stroop effects. However, analysis of each exposure period showed that during initial exposure to stimuli the DD group showed larger Stroop effects in the perimeter and not in the area task. In contrast, during continuous exposure to stimuli no triple interaction was evident. It is concluded that both magnitudes are automatically processed. Nevertheless, individuals with DD are deficient in inhibiting irrelevant magnitude information in general and, specifically, struggle to inhibit salient area information after initial exposure to a perimeter comparison task. Accordingly, the findings support the assumption that DD involves a deficiency in multiple cognitive components, which include domain-specific and domain-general cognitive functions.

  15. Fast Plane Wave Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas

    This PhD project investigates and further develops methods for ultrasound plane wave imaging and blood flow estimation with the objective of overcoming some of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems, which are related to low frame rates and only estimation of velocities along...... the ultrasound beam. The first part of the contribution investigates the compromise between frame rate and plane wave image quality including the influence of grating lobes from a λ-pitch transducer. A method for optimizing the image quality is suggested, and it is shown that the frame rate can be increased...... healthy volunteers. Complex flow patterns were measured in an anthropomorphic flow phantom and showed good agreement with the velocity field simulated using computational fluid dynamics. The last part of the contribution investigates two clinical applications. Plane wave imaging was used for slow velocity...

  16. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P. [ITB, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Tecnology (Indonesia); BMKG (Indonesia)

    2012-06-20

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance ({Delta}) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log {Delta}+ 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  17. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P.

    2012-06-01

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance (Δ) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log Δ + 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  18. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance (Δ) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log Δ+ 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  19. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dong, Subo [Institute for Advanced Study, 500 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M{sub V,RRc} = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M{sub V,RRab} = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M{sub V,RRc} = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s{sup –1} in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s{sup -1}. For the disk, we find (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s{sup -1}. Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4.

  20. Moment Magnitude Calibration for the Eastern Mediterranean Region from Broadband Regional Coda Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayeda, K; Eken, T; Hofstetter, A; Turkelli, N; O' Boyle, J; Orgulu, G; Gok, R

    2003-07-17

    The following is an overview of results from ROA01-32 that focuses on an empirical method of calibrating stable seismic source moment-rate spectra derived from regional coda envelopes using broadband stations. The main goal was to develop a regional magnitude methodology that had the following properties: (1) it is tied to an absolute scale and is thus unbiased and transportable; (2) it can be tied seamlessly to the well-established teleseismic and regional catalogs; (3) it is applicable to small events using a sparse network of regional stations; (4) it is flexible enough to utilize S{sub n}-coda, L{sub g}-coda, or P-coda, whichever phase has the best signal-to-noise ratio. The results of this calibration yield source spectra and derived magnitudes that were more stable than any other direct-phase measure to date. Our empirical procedure accounted for all propagation, site, and S-to-coda transfer function effects. The resultant coda-derived moment-rate spectra were used to provide traditional band-limited magnitude (e.g., M{sub L}, m{sub b} etc.) as well as an unbiased, unsaturated magnitude (moment magnitude, M{sub w}) that is tied to a physical measure of earthquake size (i.e., seismic moment). We validated our results by comparing our coda-derived moment estimates with those obtained from long-period waveform modeling. We first tested and validated the method using events distributed along the Dead Sea Rift (e.g., Mayeda et al., 2003). Next, we tested the transportability of the method to earthquakes distributed across the entire country of Turkey and validated our results using seismic moments of over 50 events that had been previously waveform modeled using the method of Dreger and Helmberger, (1993). In both regions we demonstrated that the interstation magnitude scatter was significantly reduced when using the coda-based magnitudes (i.e., M{sub w}(coda) and m{sub b}(coda)). Once calibrated, the coda-derived source spectra provided stable, unbiased magnitude