WorldWideScience

Sample records for wave loads accuracy

  1. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  2. Wave Load Prediction - a Design Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    of available theoretical methods for determining wave loads on a ship, three have been selected. The criteria areRobustness of the method in as wide a range of applications as possible.Reasonable computational time on a state-of-the art PC.Accuracy within engineering practive.Linear as well as non-linear...... predictions should be available....

  3. Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1985-01-01

    A simple model of the wave load on stender members of offshore structures is described . The wave elevation of the sea stateis modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...

  4. Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    A simple model of the wave load on slender members of offshore structures is described. The wave elevation of the sea state is modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...... velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first-passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results...

  5. Wave Induced Loads on the LEANCON Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Beserra, Eliab Ricarte

    This report is a product of the co-operation agreement between Aalborg University and LEANCON (by Kurt Due Rasmussen) on the evaluation and development of the LEANCON wave energy converter (WEC). The work reported here has focused on evaluation of the wave induced loads on the device, based...... in the laboratory, all under the supervision of the personnel of the Wave Energy Research Group at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  6. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy & Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Murphy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Load Theory (Lavie, 1995; 2005 states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e. the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.

  7. Structural Loads Analysis for Wave Energy Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-03

    This study explores and verifies the generalized body-modes method for evaluating the structural loads on a wave energy converter (WEC). Historically, WEC design methodologies have focused primarily on accurately evaluating hydrodynamic loads, while methodologies for evaluating structural loads have yet to be fully considered and incorporated into the WEC design process. As wave energy technologies continue to advance, however, it has become increasingly evident that an accurate evaluation of the structural loads will enable an optimized structural design, as well as the potential utilization of composites and flexible materials, and hence reduce WEC costs. Although there are many computational fluid dynamics, structural analyses and fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) codes available, the application of these codes is typically too computationally intensive to be practical in the early stages of the WEC design process. The generalized body-modes method, however, is a reduced order, linearized, frequency-domain FSI approach, performed in conjunction with the linear hydrodynamic analysis, with computation times that could realistically be incorporated into the WEC design process.

  8. Damage Accumulation in Vertical Breakwaters due to Combined Impact Loading and Pulsating Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical wall breakwaters used to protect for example an harbour from large waves usually consist of large concrete caissons placed on the seabed. The wave loads can be divided in two types, pulsating and impact loads. For some types of breakwaters especially the impact wave loads can be very large...

  9. Wave induced extreme hull girder loads on containerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Shi, Bill

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides simple but rational procedures for prediction of extreme wave – induced sectional hull girder forces with reasonable engineering accuracy. The procedures take into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient......, forward speed and hull flexibility. The vertical hull girder loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Firstly a quadratic strip theory is presented which can give separate predictions for the hogging and sagging bending moments and shear forces and for hull girder loads. Then this procedure...... is based on rational methods it can be applied for novel single hull ship types not presently covered by the rules of the classification societies or to account for specific operational profiles....

  10. Design Wave Load Prediction by Non-Linear Strip Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    Some methods for predicting global stochastic wave load responses in ships are presented. The methods take into account the elastic behaviour of the ship and at least some of the non-linearities in the wave-induced loadings.Numerical rsults obtained for actual ships are reviewed with special...

  11. Experimental study on the wave loads on a rotor of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Experimental tests have been performed to investigate the wave load on the rotor in design wave conditions. These wave loads should give an indication of the required structural strength around the rotors as well as for other equipment such as the bearings. During the lab tests, the wave loads have...... been measured for the following configurations: • Head and beam seas (wave coming from the front and the side) • For three different submergence levels • For three different dispositions of the rotor (free to rotate, and fixed at 50° and 90°) Based on this results, an estimation of the maximum wave...... loads has been made on the maximum wave loads at the DanWEC test site....

  12. Application of CFD based wave loads in aeroelastic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Two fully nonlinear irregular wave realizations with different significant wave heights are considered. The wave realizations are both calculated in the potential flow solver Ocean-Wave3D and in a coupled domain decomposed potential-flow CFD solver. The surface elevations of the calculated wave...... domain decomposed potentialflow CFD solver result in different dynamic forces in the tower and monopile, despite that the static forces on a fixed monopile are similar. The changes are due to differences in the force profiles and wave steepness in the two solvers. The results indicate that an accurate...... description of the wave loads is very important in aeroelastic calculations especially in cases where the aerodynamic loads and damping are insignificant....

  13. Quantification of thickness loss in a liquid-loaded plate using ultrasonic guided wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jing; Ratassepp, Madis; Fan, Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave tomography (GWT) provides an attractive solution to map thickness changes from remote locations. It is based on the velocity-to-thickness mapping employing the dispersive characteristics of selected guided modes. This study extends the application of GWT on a liquid-loaded plate. It is a more challenging case than the application on a free plate, due to energy of the guided waves leaking into the liquid. In order to ensure the accuracy of thickness reconstruction, advanced forward models are developed to consider attenuation effects using complex velocities. The reconstruction of the thickness map is based on the frequency-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) method, and its accuracy is discussed using different frequencies and defect dimensions. Validation experiments are carried out on a water-loaded plate with an irregularly shaped defect using S0 guided waves, showing excellent performance of the reconstruction algorithm.

  14. Wave loads for ships/marine structures -Stochastic procedures for extreme load predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2008-01-01

    A discussion of useful stochastic procedures for stochastic wave load problems is given, covering the range from slightly linear to strongly non-linear (bifurcation) problems. The methods are: Hermite transformation, Critical wave episodes and the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). The proced......A discussion of useful stochastic procedures for stochastic wave load problems is given, covering the range from slightly linear to strongly non-linear (bifurcation) problems. The methods are: Hermite transformation, Critical wave episodes and the First Order Reliability Method (FORM......). The procedures will be illustrated by results for the wave bending moment in ships, parametric rolling of a ship and the overturning of a jack-up rig....

  15. Wave Loadings Acting on an Innovative Breakwater for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Ciardulli, F.; Buccino, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on 2D small scale experiments conducted to investigate wave loadings acting on a pilot project of device for the conversion of wave energy into electricity. The conversion concept is based on the overtopping principle and the structure is worldwide known with the acronym SSG...

  16. Stochastic Procedures for Extreme Wave Load Predictions- Wave Bending Moment in Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    A discussion of useful stochastic procedures for stochastic wave load problems is given, covering the range from slightly linear to strongly non-linear (bifurcation) problems. The methods are: Hermite transformation, Critical wave episodes and the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). The proced......). The procedures will be illustrated by results for the extreme vertical wave bending moment in ships....

  17. Hydrodynamic loads of sea waves on horizontal elements of berths with wave quenching chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshchenko Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the process of hydraulic structures design, in particular berths with wave cancelling structures, which serve to decrease the wave impact on structures, there appears a problem of vertical wave hydrodynamic loads calculation on floor slabs. In the existing normative documents there are no requirements on calculating vertical wave loads on the horizontal floor slabs of open-type structures (enveloping, mooring, approach trestles, etc. and stairs of sloping-staired open-type structures. A mathematical model is proposed for calculation of the vertical wave loads on the floor slab through moorings. The model is based on the theory of jet impact on a solid surface. The width of the wave crest, striking in the overlap of the pier, and its vertical velocity is determined by the linear wave theory. The coefficient of transmission of waves through wave quenching chambers is calculated according to the previously developed methods. Vertical wave loading is adjusted based on the ratio of the wave length and width of the overlay. Model validation is performed according to the hydraulic modelling interaction of waves with through berths in the port of Tuapse. 7 variants of their design were considered. Data mapping mathematical and hydraulic modeling showed them a close match.

  18. Wave Loads on Rubble Mound Breakwater Crown Walls in Long Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Mads Sønderstrup; Færch Christensen, Nicole; Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the formulae by Nørgaard et al. (2013) for predicting wave loads on rubble mound breakwater crown walls on new model tests. The formulae are tested outside their validation area by means of waves with a low wave steepness and low run-up height compared to the armour freeboard...

  19. Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.

  20. Efficient computations of wave loads on offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Bo Terp

    The present thesis considers numerical computations of fully nonlinear wave impacts on bottom mounted surface piercing circular cylinders at intermediate water depths. The aim of the thesis is to provide new knowledge regarding wave loads on foundations for offshore wind turbines. Hence, the dime......The present thesis considers numerical computations of fully nonlinear wave impacts on bottom mounted surface piercing circular cylinders at intermediate water depths. The aim of the thesis is to provide new knowledge regarding wave loads on foundations for offshore wind turbines. Hence...... is carefully validated against experimental measurements of regular-, irregular- and multi-directional irregular waves. The ability of the numerical model to accurately reproduce experiments is also investigated. Wave impacts on a bottom mounted circular cylinder from steep regular waves are presented. Here......, the inline forces and the motion of the free surface is described as a function of the non-dimensional wave steepness, the relative water depth, the relative cylinder diameter and a co-existing current. From the computations, higher harmonic forces are determined and compared against the Morison equation...

  1. Modal and Wave Load Identification by ARMA Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Kristian Jehrbo; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    In this paper modal parameter as well as wave load identification by calibration of ARMA models is considered for a simple offshore structure. The theory of identification by ARMA calibration is presented as an identification technique in the time domain which can be applied for white noise excited...... systems. The technique is generalized also to include the case of ambient excitation processes such as wave excitation which are non-white processes. Due to those results a simple but effective approach for identification of the load process is proposed. Finally the theoretical presentation is illustrated...

  2. Wave loadings acting on Overtopping Breakwater for Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Contestabile, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Any kind of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) requires information on reliability of technology and on time required for the return of the investment (reasonable payback). The structural response is one of the most important parameters to take in to account for a consistent assessment on innovative...... distributions. Load measurements were compared with the most used prediction method for traditional breakwaters, available in the Coastal Engineering Manual (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2002). These results suggest to use the experimental data as design loadings since the design criteria for the innovative...... the incoming wave to produce electricity. 2D hydraulic model tests were carried out at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark). The analyses of hydraulic model tests have identified the main shapes assumed by wave surfaces at the breakwater and respective spatial and temporal pressure...

  3. Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface......The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...

  4. Extreme Loads on the Mooring Lines and Survivability Mode for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges Wave Energy Converters have to face on the road towards commercialization is to ensure survivability in extreme condition at a reasonable capital costs. For a floating device like the Wave Dragon, a reliable mooring system is essential. The control strategy of the Wave...... Dragon aims at optimizing the power production by adapting the floating level to the incoming waves and by activating the hydro-turbines and regulating their working speed. In extreme conditions though, the control strategy could be changed in order to reduce the forces in the mooring system, lowering...... the design requirements with almost no added cost. The paper presents the result of the tank testing of a 1:51.8 scale model of a North Sea Wave Dragon in extreme wave conditions of up to 100 years of return period. The results show that the extreme loads in the main mooring line can be reduced...

  5. Survivability Mode and Extreme Loads on the Mooring Lines of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the cooperation agreement between Wave Dragon and Aalborg University regarding phase 2 of the development of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter. The research is carried out by testing the 1:51.8 scale model of the Wave Dragon, aiming at the assessment...... of the survivability of the device in extreme waves and evaluation of the design loads for the mooring component. The testing has been carried out in October 2010 by PhD student Stefano Parmeggiani and Master students Giovanna Bevilacqua and Giacomo Girardi Ferruzza at the Hydraulic and Coastal Laboratories...... of the department of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University. The outcome of the research will be used as input for future research work aimed at the design of the mooring system and the certification of the structural design for the full scale Wave Dragon demonstrator....

  6. Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Knudsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. To enable deployment of wind turbines in deep-water locations, structures are being explored, where wind turbines are placed on a floating platform. This combined structure presents a new control problem, due to the partly unconstrained movement of the platform and ocean wave excitation. If this additional complexity is not dealt with properly, this may lead to a significant increase in the structural loads and, potentially, instability of the controlled system. In this paper, the wave excitation is investigated, and we show the influence that both wind speed, wave frequencies and misalignment between wind and waves have on the system dynamics. A new control model is derived that extends standard turbine models to include the hydrodynamics, additional platform degrees of freedom, the platform mooring system and tower side-side motion, including gyroscopic effects. The models support a model-based design that includes estimators for wind speed and wave frequency. The design is applied to a number of examples representing different wind and wave conditions and successfully demonstrates a reduction in the structural oscillations, while improving power performance.

  7. Motion and wave load analyses of large offshore structures and special vessels in waves

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiong-Jian

    1990-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University. Predictions of the environmental loading and induced motional and structural responses are among the most important aspects in the overall design process of offshore structures and ships. In this thesis, attention is focused on the wave loads and excited bodily motion responses of large offshore structures and special vessels. With the aim of improving the existing theoretical methods ...

  8. DeRisk - Accurate prediction of ULS wave loads. Outlook and first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Dixen, Martin; Ghadirian, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Loads from extreme waves can be dimensioning for the substructures of offshore wind turbines. The DeRisk project (2015-2019) aims at an improved load evaluation procedure for extreme waves through application of advanced wave models, laboratory tests of load effects, development of hydrodynamic l...

  9. Wave loadings acting on innovative rubble mound breakwater for overtopping wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contestabile, Pasquale; Iuppa, Claudio; Lauro, Enrico Di

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •An innovative breakwater for overtopping wave energy conversion has been studied. •Physical model tests have been carried out and analysed. •Breakwater design information on loadings acting on various parts of the structure has been presented. •Design formulae and validation of some...

  10. Structural Loads Analysis for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    This study explores and verifies the generalized body-modes method for evaluating the structural loads on a wave energy converter (WEC). Historically, WEC design methodologies have focused primarily on accurately evaluating hydrodynamic loads, while methodologies for evaluating structural loads have yet to be fully considered and incorporated into the WEC design process. As wave energy technologies continue to advance, however, it has become increasingly evident that an accurate evaluation of the structural loads will enable an optimized structural design, as well as the potential utilization of composites and flexible materials, and hence reduce WEC costs. Although there are many computational fluid dynamics, structural analyses and fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) codes available, the application of these codes is typically too computationally intensive to be practical in the early stages of the WEC design process. The generalized body-modes method, however, is a reduced order, linearized, frequency-domain FSI approach, performed in conjunction with the linear hydrodynamic analysis, with computation times that could realistically be incorporated into the WEC design process. The objective of this study is to verify the generalized body-modes approach in comparison to high-fidelity FSI simulations to accurately predict structural deflections and stress loads in a WEC. Two verification cases are considered, a free-floating barge and a fixed-bottom column. Details for both the generalized body-modes models and FSI models are first provided. Results for each of the models are then compared and discussed. Finally, based on the verification results obtained, future plans for incorporating the generalized body-modes method into the WEC simulation tool, WEC-Sim, and the overall WEC design process are discussed.

  11. Balancing Power Absorption and Fatigue Loads in Irregular Waves for an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.; Lawson, Michael

    2016-06-24

    The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of the controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.

  12. An FMM-FFT Accelerated SIE Simulator for Analyzing EM Wave Propagation in Mine Environments Loaded with Conductors

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.

    2018-02-05

    A fast and memory efficient 3D full wave simulator for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in electrically large and realistic mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conductors is proposed. The simulator relies on Muller and combined field surface integral equations (SIEs) to account for scattering from mine walls and conductors, respectively. During the iterative solution of the system of SIEs, the simulator uses a fast multipole method - fast Fourier transform (FMM-FFT) scheme to reduce CPU and memory requirements. The memory requirement is further reduced by compressing large data structures via singular value and Tucker decompositions. The efficiency, accuracy, and real-world applicability of the simulator are demonstrated through characterization of EM wave propagation in electrically large mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conducting cables and mine carts.

  13. TSUNAMI WAVE LOADING ON A BRIDGE DECK WITH PERFORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lukkunaprasit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis have damaged bridges to various extents in the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. This paper reports an experimental investigation of the effect of perforations in the girders and parapets on the horizontal tsunami loads. The results reveal that the maximum pressures impinging on the front face of the pier and deck are 4.5 and 3 times the hydrostatic pressure at 80mm nominal wave heights. The percentage of force reduction of the bridge deck with 10% perforated girders and 60% perforated parapets is found to be close to the percentage of perforation area in the deck. However, it is also noted that perforations in the bridge deck can substantially reduce the tsunami forces acting on it throughout the force time history. Thus, less damage to the bridge is anticipated for the bridge deck with perforations in girders and parapets.

  14. Estimation of Impulsive Wave-induced Loads on a FPSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, Alaa E.

    2005-01-01

    ) and for green water loads from the results of Buchner (1995) and Wang et al. (1998) are applied. The phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and the decay rate are derived mainly from published experimental results, Sikora, (1998). The results are given in closed-form expressions and the required input...... information for the procedure is re-stricted to the main ship dimensions: Length, breadth, draught, block coefficient and bow flare coefficient. The formulas make it simple to obtain quick estimates in the conceptual design phase and to perform a sensi-tivity study of the variation of the ship’s main...... dimensions and operational profile. The procedure is applied to an FPSO and used to investigate the hull girder reliability taking into account structural degradations due to corrosions. The strength of the hull is modeled as a time function of corrosion rate. The hull girder reliability was thus determined...

  15. Higher order wave loads on and response of an articulated tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utne, N.; Fause, S.; Toerum, A. [Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    A theoretical and experimental study has been carried out on the higher order wave load phenomena frequently called ringing. It has been shown that a significant mechanism for the ringing effect is impulse type wave loading around the still water line area on an articulated tower. In this paper the authors report on an experimental and theoretical study undertaken to explore the mechanism for the ringing. Several avenues were followed to explore the phenomenon of ringing like higher order wave theory effects and special wave loads effects in the surf zone. Both regular and irregular waves were used during the tests.

  16. Distribution of Wave Loads for Design of Crown Walls in Deep and Shallow Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new method to determine horizontal wave loads on rubble mound breakwater crown walls with specific exceedance probabilities based on the formulae by Nørgaard et al. (2013) as well as presents a new modified version of the wave run-up formula by Van der Meer & Stam (1992......). Predictions from the method are compared to measured horizontal wave loads from scaled model tests, and the new method provides results which are in agreement with measured values as long as the wave loads on the crown wall are relatively impulsive. Another aim of the paper has been to compare...... the displacements of a crown wall exposed to wave loads with different exceedance probabilities in an overload situation (in this case the loads exceeded by 0.1 % and 1/250 of the incident waves). The comparison is made using the assumption that the Eigenfrequency of the crown wall and breakwater is significantly...

  17. Wave loads on foundations for wind turbines. A literature survey; Vaaglaster paa fundament till vindkraftverk - systemdynamik och utmattning: Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ingemar

    2001-05-01

    This report is an overview of literature covering the influence of wave loads on foundations for wind power plants. Relevant subjects are wave motion, wave forces on slender structures, wave statistics for the Swedish coast together with planning and certification.

  18. Numerical modeling of the load effect on PZT-induced guided wave for load compensation of damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hu; Zhang, Aijia; Wang, Yishou; Qing, Xinlin P.

    2017-04-01

    Guided wave-based structural health monitoring (SHM) has been given considerable attention and widely studied for large-scale aircraft structures. Nevertheless, it is difficult to apply SHM systems on board or online, for which one of the most serious reasons is the environmental influence. Load is one fact that affects not only the host structure, in which guided wave propagates, but also the PZT, by which guided wave is transmitted and received. In this paper, numerical analysis using finite element method is used to study the load effect on guided wave acquired by PZT. The static loads with different grades are considered to analyze its effect on guided wave signals that PZT transmits and receives. Based on the variation trend of guided waves versus load, a load compensation method is developed to eliminate effects of load in the process of damage detection. The probabilistic reconstruction algorithm based on the signal variation of transmitter-receiver path is employed to identify the damage. Numerical tests is conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the given method.

  19. A Critical Analysis and Validation of the Accuracy of Wave Overtopping Prediction Formulae for OWECs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gallach-Sánchez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of wave energy devices is growing in recent years. One type of device is the overtopping wave energy converter (OWEC, for which the knowledge of the wave overtopping rates is a basic and crucial aspect in their design. In particular, the most interesting range to study is for OWECs with steep slopes to vertical walls, and with very small freeboards and zero freeboards where the overtopping rate is maximized, and which can be generalized as steep low-crested structures. Recently, wave overtopping prediction formulae have been published for this type of structures, although their accuracy has not been fully assessed, as the overtopping data available in this range is scarce. We performed a critical analysis of the overtopping prediction formulae for steep low-crested structures and the validation of the accuracy of these formulae, based on new overtopping data for steep low-crested structures obtained at Ghent University. This paper summarizes the existing knowledge about average wave overtopping, describes the physical model tests performed, analyses the results and compares them to existing prediction formulae. The new dataset extends the wave overtopping data towards vertical walls and zero freeboard structures. In general, the new dataset validated the more recent overtopping formulae focused on steep slopes with small freeboards, although the formulae are underpredicting the average overtopping rates for very small and zero relative crest freeboards.

  20. Guided wave propagation as a measure of axial loads in rails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Guided wave propagation has been proposed as a means to monitor the axial loads in continuously welded railway rails although no practical system has been developed. In this paper, the influence of axial load on the guided wave propagation...

  1. Direct Time Domain Numerical Analysis of Transient Behavior of a VLFS during Unsteady External Loads in Wave Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of the VLFS subjected to arbitrary external load is systematically investigated by a direct time domain modal expansion method, in which the BEM solutions based on time domain Kelvin sources are used for hydrodynamic forces. In the analysis, the time domain free-surface Green functions with sufficient accuracy are rapidly evaluated in finite water depth by the interpolation-tabulation method, and the boundary integral equation with a quarter VLFS model is established taking advantage of symmetry of flow field and structure. The validity of the present method is verified by comparing with the time histories of vertical displacements of the VLFS during a mass drop and airplane landing and takeoff in still water conditions, respectively. Then the developed numerical scheme is used in wave conditions to study the combined action taking into account the mass drop/airplane landing/takeoff loads as well as incident wave action. It is found that the elevation of structural waves due to mass drop load can be significantly changed near the impact region, while the vertical motion of runway in wave conditions is dominant as compared with that only generated by airplane.

  2. Preliminary Load Estimations for DEXA Wave Energy Device - Hanstholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    by DEXA Wave Energy ApS, in regular and irregular wave states, as described in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The length scale of the model was 1:20 compared to a full scale device suitable fro the Danish part of the North Sea, according...

  3. Precise measurement and accuracy analysis for determining the fast or slow axis of wave plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guixia; Su, Junhong; Xu, Junqi

    2018-01-01

    A method used for precisely measuring the placement of the fast or slow axis of wave plate is presented. In this method, a test wave plate is placed between a polarizer and an analyzer. With the polarizer and analyzer being rotated to different positions, the intensity of the emergent light is measured and one of the optics principal axes of the test wave plate is marked. Then whether this optics principal axis is a fast or slow axis is measured by checking the state of the emergent light polarization. By taking the method of identifying the intensity value near the inflection point, the error caused by directly searching the extreme value of the light intensity can be avoided and the accuracy of determining axis can also be improved significantly. In addition, the source of the determining axis accuracy, which is +/-0.1° . is also analyzed in detail. With regard to the method, there are no requirements for the wavelength of the light source or the linearity, undercurrent and isotropy of the photoelectric detector. Above all, it can be applied to determining the axis of wave plate with any phase retardation.

  4. Inclusion of Structural Flexibility in Design Load Analysis for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Hydroelastic interactions, caused by ocean wave loading on wave energy devices with deformable structures, are studied in the time domain. A midfidelity, hybrid modeling approach of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics is developed and implemented in an open-source simulation tool for wave energy converters (WEC-Sim) to simulate the dynamic responses of wave energy converter component structural deformations under wave loading. A generalized coordinate system, including degrees of freedom associated with rigid bodies, structural modes, and constraints connecting multiple bodies, is utilized. A simplified method of calculating stress loads and sectional bending moments is implemented, with the purpose of sizing and designing wave energy converters. Results calculated using the method presented are verified with those of high-fidelity fluid-structure interaction simulations, as well as low-fidelity, frequency-domain, boundary element method analysis.

  5. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and pulse wave reflection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Rodriguez, J I; Gomez-Marcos, M A; Patino-Alonso, M-C; Rodrigo-De Pablo, E; Cabrejas-Sánchez, A; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, M S; Repiso-Gento, I; Gonzalez-Viejo, N; Maderuelo-Fernandez, J A; Agudo-Conde, C; Garcia-Ortiz, L

    2015-01-01

    Diets with a high glycemic index (GI), high glycemic load (GL), or both, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study examined the association of GI and GL in a regular diet with the peripheral augmentation index (i.e., a marker of vascular aging) in a sample of adults. Cross-sectional study. The findings presented in this manuscript are a subanalysis of the EVIDENT study whose purpose was to analyze the relationship between lifestyle and arterial aging. For the sample population, 1553 individuals aged 20-80 years were selected through random sampling from the patients of general practitioners at six health centers in Spain. GI and GL for each patient's diet were calculated from a previously validated, semi-quantitative, 137-item food frequency questionnaire. The peripheral augmentation index corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (PAIx75) was measured with pulse-wave application software (A-Pulse CASP). Based on a risk factor adjusted regression model, for every 5 unit increase in GI, the PAIx75 increased by 0.11 units (95% CI: 0.04-0.19). Similarly, for every increase in 10 units in GL, the PAIx75 increased by 1.13 (95% CI: 0.21-2.05). High PAIx75 values were observed in individuals with diets in the third GI tertile (i.e., the highest), and lower PAIx75 values in those with diets in the first tertile (i.e., the lowest), (93.1 vs. 87.5, respectively, p = 0.001). GI and GL were directly associated with PAIx75 values in adults without cardiovascular diseases regardless of age, gender, physical activity, and other confounders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lamb Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring on Composite Bolted Joints under Tensile Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Xiang, Yanxun; Li, Dan; Zhu, Wujun; Tang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jichao; Yang, Kang; Luo, Chengqiang

    2017-06-14

    Online and offline monitoring of composite bolted joints under tensile load were investigated using piezoelectric transducers. The relationships between Lamb wave signals, pre-tightening force, the applied tensile load, as well as the failure modes were investigated. Results indicated that S0/A0 wave amplitudes decrease with the increasing of load. Relationships between damage features and S0/A0 mode were built based on the finite element (FE) simulation and experimental results. The possibility of application of Lamb wave-based structure health monitoring in bolted joint-like composite structures was thus achieved.

  7. Lamb Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring on Composite Bolted Joints under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Online and offline monitoring of composite bolted joints under tensile load were investigated using piezoelectric transducers. The relationships between Lamb wave signals, pre-tightening force, the applied tensile load, as well as the failure modes were investigated. Results indicated that S0/A0 wave amplitudes decrease with the increasing of load. Relationships between damage features and S0/A0 mode were built based on the finite element (FE simulation and experimental results. The possibility of application of Lamb wave-based structure health monitoring in bolted joint-like composite structures was thus achieved.

  8. Nonlinear Waves in Transmission Lines Periodically Loaded with Tunneling Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Narahara, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the pulse propagation characteristics of TD lines.We found that a pulse wave propagates on the line either by theunstable exponential-sinusoidal hybrid mode or stable exponential-exponential mode. Through thesepeculiar wave propagation properties, an input impulse experiences width shortening and an edge of the step pulse oscillates. These provide efficient methods for generating short pulses and continuous waves. Moreover, TD lines can be used to manage pulse amplitude a...

  9. Analytical solutions for transient and steady state beam loading in arbitrary traveling wave accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lunin, Andrei; Grudiev, Alexej

    2011-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for transient and steady state gradient distributions in the travelling wave accelerating structures with arbitrary variation of parameters over the structure length. The results of both the unloaded and beam loaded cases are presented.

  10. Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    and tower side-side motion, including gyroscopic effects. The models support a model-based design that includes estimators for wind speed and wave frequency. The design is applied to a number of examples representing different wind and wave conditions and successfully demonstrates a reduction...

  11. Accurate computation of wave loads on a bottom fixed circular cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2012-01-01

    -dimensional water waves up to the point of breaking. The CFD solver is the open source CFD toolbox OpenFOAMR in combination with the newly developed waves2Foam utility, which in [5] has been successfully applied to calculations of free surface flows. The numerical solution is obtained by solving the incompressible...... on a vertical circular cylinder from steep waves. This partly serves as a validation and further brings insight into third-harmonic wave loads on cylinders which are relevant for ringing. Next, preliminary results for the coupled model are presented in terms of irregular waves propagation and the associated...

  12. Prediction of regular wave loads on a fixed offshore oscillating water column-wave energy converter using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhanafi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hydrodynamic wave loads on an offshore stationary–floating oscillating water column (OWC are investigated via a 2D and 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling based on the RANS equations and the VOF surface capturing scheme. The CFD model is validated against previous experiments for nonlinear regular wave interactions with a surface-piercing stationary barge. Following the validation stage, the numerical model is modified to consider the pneumatic damping effect, and an extensive campaign of numerical tests is carried out to study the wave–OWC interactions for different wave periods, wave heights and pneumatic damping factors. It is found that the horizontal wave force is usually larger than the vertical one. Also, there a direct relationship between the pneumatic and hydrodynamic vertical forces with a maximum vertical force almost at the device natural frequency, whereas the pneumatic damping has a little effect on the horizontal force. Additionally, simulating the turbine damping with an orifice plate induces higher vertical loads than utilizing a slot opening. Furthermore, 3D modeling significantly escalates and declines the predicted hydrodynamic vertical and horizontal wave loads, respectively.

  13. Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic wave loading by a compressible two-phase flow method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wemmenhove, Rik; Luppes, Roelf; Veldman, Arthur; Bunnik, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamic wave loading on and in offshore structures is studied by carrying out numerical simulations. Particular attention is paid to complex hydrodynamic phenomena such as wave breaking and air entrapment. The applied CFD method, ComFLOW, solves the Navier–Stokes equations with an improved

  14. Field measurement of waves for defining loads on marine hydraulic structures

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Kantardgi; K.I. Kuznetsov

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the current Russian normative documents, determining wave loads and impacts on hydraulic structures should be calibrated by field measurements and laboratory studies. However, it is problematic to satisfy this norm, because there are no measured wave parameters for the main coastal areas. Moreover, the equivalent virtually designed waves cannot be compared directly with the measured real ones. The situation may be improved by the method of reanalyzing meteorological con...

  15. Wave Propagation and Dynamic Fracture in Laser Shock-Loaded Solid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rességuier, Thibaut de; Cuq-Lelandais, Jean-Paul; Boustie, Michel; LESCOUTE, Emilien; Berthe, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic fracture in shock-loaded materials is governed by the propagation, reflection and interactions of stress waves. Post-shock analyses of the residual damage observed in samples recovered from laser shock experiments, less destructive than more conventional techniques, can provide valuable insight into key aspects of wave propagation prior to fracture, such as the effects of structural anisotropy, the role of lateral waves associated to edge effects, or the influence of polymorphic phase...

  16. Behaviour of Large Cylindrical Offshore Structures Subjected to Wave Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Yurdanur DAĞLI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spar-type and monopole substructures consisting of a large-diameter, single vertical cylinders have been used as wind turbine towers, oil storage platforms, tankers and wave energy converters at deepwater region in the sea. These towers and platforms are exposed to environmental forces such as wind, wave and current. Wave force is the most effective force in the total environmental force. The body disturbs the incident wave and Diffraction Theory is used for computing the pressure distribution for designing the structure. Therefore, this study aims to present the effect of structural design of towers on dynamic behavior due to wave actions. Two different cases of structural models are selected to employ bidirectional fluid structure interaction (FSI analysis. Diffraction Theory is utilized to investigate wave forces. Solid and fluid domains are modeled in Abaqus finite elements program. Behaviors of various types of offshore structures are evaluated and compared according to the significant stresses and displacements. The hydrodynamic pressure on the cylindrical structure surface and the diffraction forces acting on structures are presented. Mode shapes, first three natural frequencies are comparatively given.

  17. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziukynas V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011 and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023.

  18. An efficient domain decomposition strategy for wave loads on surface piercing circular cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    A fully nonlinear domain decomposed solver is proposed for efficient computations of wave loads on surface piercing structures in the time domain. A fully nonlinear potential flow solver was combined with a fully nonlinear Navier–Stokes/VOF solver via generalized coupling zones of arbitrary shape....... Sensitivity tests of the extent of the inner Navier–Stokes/VOF domain were carried out. Numerical computations of wave loads on surface piercing circular cylinders at intermediate water depths are presented. Four different test cases of increasing complexity were considered; 1) weakly nonlinear regular waves...

  19. Estimation of Design Wave Loads on the SSG WEC Pilot Plant based on 3-D Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Vicinanza, Diego; Osaland, Espen

    2006-01-01

    This paper discuss wave loadings acting on the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). The SSG is a new type of structure for wave energy conversion based on storing the incoming waves in several reservoirs placed one above the other. The wave forces on the main structure can...... be estimated using experiences from coastal protection structures, but the differences between the two types of structures are so large that more reliable knowledge on the wave forces is desired. Model tests were carried out to measure wave loads using realistic random 2D and 3D wave conditions. Pressure cells...

  20. Waves on fluid-loaded shells and their resonance frequency spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, X.L.; Uberall, H.; Raju, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    Technical requirements for elastic (metal) cylindrical shells include the knowledge of their natural frequency spectrum. These shells may be empty and fluid-immersed, or fluid-filled in an ambient medium of air, or doubly fluid-loaded inside and out. They may support circumferential waves......, or axially propagating waves both in the shell material, and in the fluid loading. Previous results by Bao et al. (J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105 (1999) 2704) were obtained for the circumferential-wave dispersion curves on doubly loaded aluminum shells; the present study extends this to fluid-filled shells in air....... For practical applications, steel shells are most important and we have here obtained corresponding results for these. To find the natural frequencies of cylindrical shells, one may invoke the principle of phase matching where resonating standing waves are formed around the circumference, or in the axial...

  1. Asymmetric crack bifurcation under stress wave loading in antiplane strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, J.P. [Clarkson Univ., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Potsdam, New York (United States); Kuo, M.-K. [Northwestern Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Evanston, Illinois (United States); Bentley, D.L. [Clarkson Univ., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Potsdam, New York (United States)

    1985-07-01

    In this paper the transient diffraction of an elastic wave by an extending but branching crack is considered. The incident wave is a plane horizontally-polarized wave. It is assumed that crack division is generated at the instant that the tip of a stationary crack is struck. The original length of the crack is therefore immaterial for small times, and the analytical work can be simplified by considering a semi-infinite crack. Size effects become important for later times. The two new cracks tips are are assumed to propagate at different but constant velocities under different arbitrary angles with the original crack plane. The dependence of the elasto-dynamic stress intensity factors on the crack tip velocities and the angles of branching is examined.

  2. Conditional Stochastic Processes Applied to Wave Load Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    -induced responses. A coupling with Monte Carlo simulations is shown to be able to give uniform accuracy for all exceedance levels with moderate computational time, even for rather complex nonlinear problems. The procedure is illustrated by examples dealing with overturning of jackup rigs, parametric rolling...

  3. Wave Loads on Ships Sailing in Restricted Water Depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2003-01-01

    moment a ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime. Whereas the influence of forward speed and ship heading with respect to the waves usually is accounted for, the effect of water depth is seldom considered, except in non-linear time domain formulations where a confined water domain must...... be specified anyhow. Usually, two-dimensional strip theories, either linear or non-linear, are applied for actual design cases and these theories are normally based on incident deep-water waves and furthermore apply added mass and damping calculations based on infinite water depth. Only a few papers have...... in the past addressed the influence of water depth on the ship response. In an early work Kim (1968) presented results for the variation of the added mass and hydrodynamic damping and for the heave and pitch motion for a Series 60 model using a relative motion strip theory formulation. A significant reduction...

  4. Assessment of First- and Second-Order Wave-Excitation Load Models for Cylindrical Substructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra, Brandon; Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason

    2016-07-01

    The hydrodynamic loads on an offshore wind turbine's support structure present unique engineering challenges for offshore wind. Two typical approaches used for modeling these hydrodynamic loads are potential flow (PF) and strip theory (ST), the latter via Morison's equation. This study examines the first- and second-order wave-excitation surge forces on a fixed cylinder in regular waves computed by the PF and ST approaches to (1) verify their numerical implementations in HydroDyn and (2) understand when the ST approach breaks down. The numerical implementation of PF and ST in HydroDyn, a hydrodynamic time-domain solver implemented as a module in the FAST wind turbine engineering tool, was verified by showing the consistency in the first- and second-order force output between the two methods across a range of wave frequencies. ST is known to be invalid at high frequencies, and this study investigates where the ST solution diverges from the PF solution. Regular waves across a range of frequencies were run in HydroDyn for a monopile substructure. As expected, the solutions for the first-order (linear) wave-excitation loads resulting from these regular waves are similar for PF and ST when the diameter of the cylinder is small compared to the length of the waves (generally when the diameter-to-wavelength ratio is less than 0.2). The same finding applies to the solutions for second-order wave-excitation loads, but for much smaller diameter-to-wavelength ratios (based on wavelengths of first-order waves).

  5. Assessment of First- and Second-Order Wave-Excitation Load Models for Cylindrical Substructures: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra, Brandon; Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason

    2017-03-09

    The hydrodynamic loads on an offshore wind turbine's support structure present unique engineering challenges for offshore wind. Two typical approaches used for modeling these hydrodynamic loads are potential flow (PF) and strip theory (ST), the latter via Morison's equation. This study examines the first- and second-order wave-excitation surge forces on a fixed cylinder in regular waves computed by the PF and ST approaches to (1) verify their numerical implementations in HydroDyn and (2) understand when the ST approach breaks down. The numerical implementation of PF and ST in HydroDyn, a hydrodynamic time-domain solver implemented as a module in the FAST wind turbine engineering tool, was verified by showing the consistency in the first- and second-order force output between the two methods across a range of wave frequencies. ST is known to be invalid at high frequencies, and this study investigates where the ST solution diverges from the PF solution. Regular waves across a range of frequencies were run in HydroDyn for a monopile substructure. As expected, the solutions for the first-order (linear) wave-excitation loads resulting from these regular waves are similar for PF and ST when the diameter of the cylinder is small compared to the length of the waves (generally when the diameter-to-wavelength ratio is less than 0.2). The same finding applies to the solutions for second-order wave-excitation loads, but for much smaller diameter-to-wavelength ratios (based on wavelengths of first-order waves).

  6. Balancing Power Absorption and Fatigue Loads in Irregular Waves for an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.; Lawson, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of the controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.

  7. Slowing and stopping of wave in dispersive metamaterial loaded helical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dushyant K; Pathak, Surya K

    2016-02-08

    We propose a dispersive metamaterial loaded helical waveguide (DMLHG) structure that supports slowing and stopping of Electromagnetic (EM) wave. Analytical and computational characterizations have been done to visualize various modal characteristics in detail using the Drude model as a dispersive parameter. It is observed that metamaterial insertion enhances helical guide slow wave behaviour and it supports both forward wave (FW) and backward wave (BW) as well as mode degeneracy. Obtained mode degeneracy mechanism leads to trapping of EM wave. The proposed guide structure provides a dynamic control of wave velocity by varying its physical parameters. Two possible structures are designed and simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The simulation results verify the presence of similar characteristics as observed in analytical study such as FW, BW, mode-degeneracy, but in slightly shifted frequency spectrum.

  8. Stochastic model for joint wave and wind loads on offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2002-01-01

    description of the wave field itself. In this paper the last issue is in focus. The modeling follows the traditional structure of subdividing the time development of the wind driven wave process into sea states within each of which the wave process is modeled as a stationary process. The wave process of each......_s,T_z)$ from the North Sea a well fitting joint distribution of $(H_s,T_z)$ is obtained as a so-called Nataf model. Since the wave field is wind driven, there is a correlation between the time averaged wind velocity pressure $Q$ and the characteristic wave height in the stationary situation. Using the Poisson...... process model to concentrate on those load events that are of importance for the evaluation of the safety of the structure, that is, events with $Q$ larger than some threshold $q_0$, available information about the wind velocity pressure distributionin high wind situations can be used to formulate a Nataf...

  9. Laser-launched flyer plate and confined laser ablation for shock wave loading: validation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, Dennis L; Luo, Sheng-Nian; Greenfield, Scott R; Koskelo, Aaron C

    2008-02-01

    We present validation and some applications of two laser-driven shock wave loading techniques: laser-launched flyer plate and confined laser ablation. We characterize the flyer plate during flight and the dynamically loaded target with temporally and spatially resolved diagnostics. With transient imaging displacement interferometry, we demonstrate that the planarity (bow and tilt) of the loading induced by a spatially shaped laser pulse is within 2-7 mrad (with an average of 4+/-1 mrad), similar to that in conventional techniques including gas gun loading. Plasma heating of target is negligible, in particular, when a plasma shield is adopted. For flyer plate loading, supported shock waves can be achieved. Temporal shaping of the drive pulse in confined laser ablation allows for flexible loading, e.g., quasi-isentropic, Taylor-wave, and off-Hugoniot loading. These techniques can be utilized to investigate such dynamic responses of materials as Hugoniot elastic limit, plasticity, spall, shock roughness, equation of state, phase transition, and metallurgical characteristics of shock-recovered samples.

  10. U-shaped meander-line slow-wave structure with stub-loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xingwang; Miao, Min; Li, Zhensong; Cui, Xiaole

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a U-shaped meander-line slow-wave structure (SWS) with stub-loading is proposed for applications in Ka-band traveling-wave tube (TWT). This new slow-wave structure, loaded with a stub at the center of the U-turn section, has higher interaction impedance and lower phase velocity compared with conventional U-shaped meander-line SWSs, indicating that the devices based on this structure may have a lower operating voltage and higher output power. The dispersion characteristic, interaction impedance, transmission characteristics, and beam-wave interaction are simulated by utilizing simulation tool. The simulation result predicts that the millimeter-wave traveling-wave tube design based on this slow-wave structure is capable of delivering over 200 W with a gain of 33 dB and interaction efficiency 14.5% at the center frequency 34 GHz. This design, more compact and powerful in comparison with those based on more conventional vacuum electronic mechanisms, is demonstrated as a prospective option for integrated millimeter-wave power modules (MMPMs) empowering a broad spectrum of fields, from target detection, to imaging and telecommunications, among others.

  11. ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL RESEARCH OF WAVE LOADS ON A SHORT VERTICAL WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantarzhi Igor' Grigor'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of wave loads on a relatively short wall is related to the issue of the general design of the structure at the stage of its construction, particularly, if the structure is build offshore. The physical nature of interaction between waves and vertical walls that have different lengths is the subject matter of this paper. It is assumed that the wall is absolutely rigid. The comparison of numerical test results and an analytical calculation based on a short wall model is made. As a result, wave forces identified through the employment of the above two models demonstrate their satisfactory convergence. The difference is substantial for longer walls, and it increases along with the increase of the wall length. The conclusion is that a short wall is exposed to the wave load that is not accompanied by any diffraction, therefore, a related method of design may be recommended. Numerical models may be considered as the universal ones.

  12. Surface and Internal Waves due to a Moving Load on a Very Large Floating Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Kakinuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of surface/internal water waves with a floating platform is discussed with nonlinearity of fluid motion and flexibility of oscillating structure. The set of governing equations based on a variational principle is applied to a one- or two-layer fluid interacting with a horizontally very large and elastic thin plate floating on the water surface. Calculation results of surface displacements are compared with the existing experimental data, where a tsunami, in terms of a solitary wave, propagates across one-layer water with a floating thin plate. We also simulate surface and internal waves due to a point load, such as an airplane, moving on a very large floating structure in shallow water. The wave height of the surface or internal mode is amplified when the velocity of moving point load is equal to the surface- or internal-mode celerity, respectively.

  13. Performance of Pre-Stressed Sandwich Composites Subjected to Shock Wave Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper experimentally studies the dynamic behaviour of prestressed sandwich composites under blast loading. The in-plane static compression loadings are implemented on the sandwich composites before they are subjected to the transverse shock wave loading. Three different pre-stress levels are chosen. 3-D realtime deformation data are captured by two high-speed photography systems: a backview Digital Image Correlation (DIC system and a side-view camera system. The results show that pre-stresses can induce local buckling in the front face-sheet of sandwich composites, consequently reduce the blast resistance of sandwich composites.

  14. Calibration procedures for improved accuracy of wind turbine blade load measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Johansson, Hjalmar [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    External loads acting on wind turbine blades are mainly transferred via the hub to the rest of the structure. It is therefore a normal approach to measure the loads acting on the turbine by load measurements in the blade roots. The load measurement is often accomplished by measurements of strain on the surface of the blade or the hub. The strain signals are converted to loads by applying calibration factors to the measurements. This paper deals with difficulties associated with load measurements on two different wind turbines; one with strain gauges applied to a steel hub where a linear stress-load relationship is expected and the other with strain gauges applied to the GFRP blade close to the bearings where strong non-linearity`s and temperature effects are expected. This paper suggests calibration methods to overcome these problems. 2 refs, 11 figs

  15. Dynamic Response of Offshore Wind Turbines subjected to Joint Wave and Wind Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weiliang; Chen, Jianbing; Liu, Wenfeng

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic response of offshore wind turbine systems subjected joint wind and wave loads. Relying on the finite element model, Kane’s equation is adopted to consider the rotation of blades. Besides, the generator-torque control and blade-pitch control are taken into consi...

  16. Wave Propagation and Dynamic Load Transfer due to Explosive Loading in Heterogenous Granular Media with Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-30

    propagation and load transfer in such materials are strongly dependent on their microstructures. An excellent review article by Deresiewicz (1958) presents...Rodriguez-Ortiz, J. M. (1974) "Estudio del comportamiento de medios granulares hetergeneos mediante modelos discontinuos analogicos matemeticos, Ph.D

  17. Balancing Power Absorption and Structural Loading for an Assymmetric Heave Wave-Energy Converter in Regular Waves: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M.; Madhi, Farshad; Yeung, Ronald W.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to maximize the power-to-load ratio of the Berkeley Wedge: a one-degree-of-freedom, asymmetrical, energy-capturing, floating breakwater of high performance that is relatively free of viscosity effects. Linear hydrodynamic theory was used to calculate bounds on the expected time-averaged power (TAP) and corresponding surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and power take-off (PTO) control force when assuming that the heave motion of the wave energy converter remains sinusoidal. This particular device was documented to be an almost-perfect absorber if one-degree-of-freedom motion is maintained. The success of such or similar future wave energy converter technologies would require the development of control strategies that can adapt device performance to maximize energy generation in operational conditions while mitigating hydrodynamic loads in extreme waves to reduce the structural mass and overall cost. This paper formulates the optimal control problem to incorporate metrics that provide a measure of the surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and PTO control force. The optimizer must now handle an objective function with competing terms in an attempt to maximize power capture while minimizing structural and actuator loads. A penalty weight is placed on the surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and PTO actuation force, thereby allowing the control focus to be placed either on power absorption or load mitigation. Thus, in achieving these goals, a per-unit gain in TAP would not lead to a greater per-unit demand in structural strength, hence yielding a favorable benefit-to-cost ratio. Demonstrative results in the form of TAP, reactive TAP, and the amplitudes of the surge restraining force, pitch restraining torque, and PTO control force are shown for the Berkeley Wedge example.

  18. Increasing accuracy of pulse transit time measurements by automated elimination of distorted photoplethysmography waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Marit H N; Loeve, Arjo J; Niehof, Sjoerd P; Mik, Egbert G

    2017-11-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a widely available non-invasive optical technique to visualize pressure pulse waves (PWs). Pulse transit time (PTT) is a physiological parameter that is often derived from calculations on ECG and PPG signals and is based on tightly defined characteristics of the PW shape. PPG signals are sensitive to artefacts. Coughing or movement of the subject can affect PW shapes that much that the PWs become unsuitable for further analysis. The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm that automatically and objectively eliminates unsuitable PWs. In order to develop a proper algorithm for eliminating unsuitable PWs, a literature study was conducted. Next, a '7Step PW-Filter' algorithm was developed that applies seven criteria to determine whether a PW matches the characteristics required to allow PTT calculation. To validate whether the '7Step PW-Filter' eliminates only and all unsuitable PWs, its elimination results were compared to the outcome of manual elimination of unsuitable PWs. The '7Step PW-Filter' had a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 99.3%. The overall accuracy of the '7Step PW-Filter' for detection of unsuitable PWs was 99.3%. Compared to manual elimination, using the '7Step PW-Filter' reduces PW elimination times from hours to minutes and helps to increase the validity, reliability and reproducibility of PTT data.

  19. The Accuracy of Parameter Estimation in System Identification of Noisy Aircraft Load Measurement. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the subject of the accuracy of parameter estimation and system identification techniques. Motivated by a complicated load measurement from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, advanced system identification techniques are needed. The objective of this problem is to accurately predict the load experienced by the aircraft wing structure during flight determined from a set of calibrated load and gage response relationship. We can then model the problem as a black box input-output system identification from which the system parameter has to be estimated. Traditional LS (Least Square) techniques and the issues of noisy data and model accuracy are addressed. A statistical bound reflecting the change in residual is derived in order to understand the effects of the perturbations on the data. Due to the intrinsic nature of the LS problem, LS solution faces the dilemma of the trade off between model accuracy and noise sensitivity. A method of conflicting performance indices is presented, thus allowing us to improve the noise sensitivity while at the same time configuring the degredation of the model accuracy. SVD techniques for data reduction are studied and the equivalence of the Correspondence Analysis (CA) and Total Least Squares Criteria are proved. We also looked at nonlinear LS problems with NASA F-111 data set as an example. Conventional methods are neither easily applicable nor suitable for the specific load problem since the exact model of the system is unknown. Neural Network (NN) does not require prior information on the model of the system. This robustness motivated us to apply the NN techniques on our load problem. Simulation results for the NN methods used in both the single load and the 'warning signal' problems are both useful and encouraging. The performance of the NN (for single load estimate) is better than the LS approach, whereas no conventional approach was tried for the 'warning signals' problems. The NN design methodology is also

  20. Wind, waves, and wing loading: Morphological specialization may limit range expansion of endangered albatrosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryan, R.M.; Anderson, D.J.; Shaffer, S.A.; Roby, D.D.; Tremblay, Y.; Costa, D.P.; Sievert, P.R.; Sato, F.; Ozaki, K.; Balogh, G.R.; Nakamura, N.

    2008-01-01

    Among the varied adaptations for avian flight, the morphological traits allowing large-bodied albatrosses to capitalize on wind and wave energy for efficient long-distance flight are unparalleled. Consequently, the biogeographic distribution of most albatrosses is limited to the windiest oceanic regions on earth; however, exceptions exist. Species breeding in the North and Central Pacific Ocean (Phoebastria spp.) inhabit regions of lower wind speed and wave height than southern hemisphere genera, and have large intrageneric variation in body size and aerodynamic performance. Here, we test the hypothesis that regional wind and wave regimes explain observed differences in Phoebastria albatross morphology and we compare their aerodynamic performance to representatives from the other three genera of this globally distributed avian family. In the North and Central Pacific, two species (short-tailed P. albatrus and waved P. irrorata) are markedly larger, yet have the smallest breeding ranges near highly productive coastal upwelling systems. Short-tailed albatrosses, however, have 60% higher wing loading (weight per area of lift) compared to waved albatrosses. Indeed, calculated aerodynamic performance of waved albatrosses, the only tropical albatross species, is more similar to those of their smaller congeners (black-footed P. nigripes and Laysan P. immutabilis), which have relatively low wing loading and much larger foraging ranges that include central oceanic gyres of relatively low productivity. Globally, the aerodynamic performance of short-tailed and waved albatrosses are most anomalous for their body sizes, yet consistent with wind regimes within their breeding season foraging ranges. Our results are the first to integrate global wind and wave patterns with albatross aerodynamics, thereby identifying morphological specialization that may explain limited breeding ranges of two endangered albatross species. These results are further relevant to understanding past and

  1. Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representation. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation....... Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...

  2. Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representaton. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation....... Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...

  3. Stohastic Model for Loads on Offshore Structures from Wave, Wind, Current and Water Elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sterndorff, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    For code-based LRFD and for reliability-based assessment of offshore structures such as steel platforms it is essential that consistent stochastic models for the main metocean parameters are available. The most important metocean parameters are the significant wave height, maximum individual wave...... height, maximum crest height, wind speed, current speed and water elevation. In this paper a consistent stochastic model for these parameters is formulated, where the relevant directional dependence is included. For code-based LRFD assessment it is shown how the stochastic models can be used to determine...... characteristic values, partial safety factors, directional factors and load combination factors relevant for Central North Sea conditions....

  4. Study of thin-walled structure behavior under shock-wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, M. N.; Adishchev, V. V.; Fedorova, N. N.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the deformation process of duraluminium plates under the action of a shock wave formed as a result of the explosion of a condensed explosive. The character of the deformation and destruction of the plate fixed along the perimeter is determined. It is shown that the plate is deformed according to the "envelope" scheme. The residual plastic deformation of the plate is determined. The shock wave load is described by semi-empirical dependences. The results of the calculations coincide with the experimental data.

  5. Strength and fracture of uranium, plutonium and several their alloys under shock wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubev V.K.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Results on studying the spall fracture of uranium, plutonium and several their alloys under shock wave loading are presented in the paper. The problems of influence of initial temperature in a range of − 196 – 800∘C and loading time on the spall strength and failure character of uranium and two its alloys with molybdenum and both molybdenum and zirconium were studied. The results for plutonium and its alloy with gallium were obtained at a normal temperature and in a temperature range of 40–315∘C, respectively. The majority of tests were conducted with the samples in the form of disks 4 mm in thickness. They were loaded by the impact of aluminum plates 4 mm thick through a copper screen 12 mm thick serving as the cover or bottom part of a special container. The character of spall failure of materials and the damage degree of samples were observed on the longitudinal metallographic sections of recovered samples. For a concrete test temperature, the impact velocity was sequentially changed and therefore the loading conditions corresponding to the consecutive transition from microdamage nucleation up to complete macroscopic spall fracture were determined. The conditions of shock wave loading were calculated using an elastic-plastic computer program. The comparison of obtained results with the data of other researchers on the spall fracture of examined materials was conducted.

  6. Latching and Declutching Control of the Solo Duck Wave-Energy Converter with Different Load Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The solo duck wave-energy converter (WEC captures power in a point absorber manner, hence it exhibits high power-capture efficiency within only a narrow bandwidth. Passive control is characterized by a unidirectional power flow, and thus its engineering implementation can be simplified. In this paper, two typical passive control strategies, latching and declutching control, are applied to the solo duck WEC to improve its power-capture performance at wave periods larger and smaller than the natural period of the WEC, respectively. Special attention is paid to the peak value of instantaneous WEC performance parameters, including the peak motion excursion, the peak power take-off (PTO moment, and the peak-to-average power ratio, when the captured power is maximized. Performance differences between the linear and coulomb loads are also investigated. Results show that both latching and declutching control can effectively improve captured power, but also incidentally increase the peak motion excursion and peak-to-average power ratio. When under latching and declutching control, the coulomb load leads to the same maximum relative capture width and peak motion excursion as the linear load, but presents smaller peak PTO moment and peak-to-average power ratio than the linear load, hence making the coulomb load the better choice for the solo duck WEC.

  7. Influence of sweeping detonation-wave loading on damage evolution during spallation loading of tantalum in both a planar and curved geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, George Thompson III [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hull, Lawrence Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Faulkner, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Briggs, Matthew E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meyer, Ross Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andrews, Heather Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hare, Steven John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jakulewicz, Micah Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shinas, Michael A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Widespread research over the past five decades has provided a wealth of experimental data and insight concerning the shock hardening, damage evolution, and the spallation response of materials subjected to square-topped shock-wave loading profiles. However, fewer quantitative studies have been conducted on the effect of direct, in-contact, high explosive (HE)-driven Taylor wave (unsupported shocks) loading on the shock hardening, damage evolution, or spallation response of materials. Systematic studies quantifying the effect of sweeping-detonation wave loading are yet sparser. In this study, the damage evolution and spallation response of Ta is shown to be critically dependent on the peak shock stress, the geometry of the sample (flat or curved plate geometry), and the shock obliquity during sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading. Sweepingwave loading in the flat-plate geometry is observed to: a) yield a lower spall strength than previously documented for 1-D supported-shock-wave loading, b) exhibit increased shock hardening as a function of increasing obliquity, and c) lead to an increased incidence of deformation twin formation with increasing shock obliquity. Sweeping-wave loading of a 10 cm radius curved Ta plate is observed to: a) lead to an increase in the shear stress as a function of increasing obliquity, b) display a more developed level of damage evolution, extensive voids and coalescence, and lower spall strength with obliquity in the curved plate than seen in the flat-plate sweeping-detonation wave loading for an equivalent HE loading, and c) no increased propensity for deformation twin formation with increasing obliquity as seen in the flat-plate geometry. The overall observations comparing and contrasting the flat versus curved sweeping-wave spall experiments with 1D loaded spallation behavior suggests a coupled influence of obliquity and geometry on dynamic shock-induced damage evolution and spall strength. Coupled experimental and modeling research

  8. Experimental study on load characteristics in a floating type pendulum wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tengen; Imai, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shuichi

    2014-10-01

    A floating type pendulum wave energy converter (FPWEC) with a rotary vane pump as the power take-off system was proposed by Watabe et al. in 1998. They showed that this device had high energy conversion efficiency. In the previous research, the authors conducted 2D wave tank tests in regular waves to evaluate the generating efficiency of FPWEC with a power take-off system composed of pulleys, belts and a generator. As a result, the influence of the electrical load on the generating efficiency was shown. Continuously, the load characteristics of FPWEC are pursued experimentally by using the servo motors to change the damping coefficient in this paper. In a later part of this paper, the motions of the model with the servo motors are compared with that of the case with the same power take-off system as the previous research. From the above experiment, it may be concluded that the maximum primary conversion efficiency is achieved as high as 98% at the optimal load.

  9. Representative input load of antibiotics to WWTPs: Predictive accuracy and determination of a required sampling quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Conrad; Mühlbauer, Viktoria; Schubert, Sara; Oertel, Reinhard; Ahnert, Markus; Krebs, Peter; Kuehn, Volker

    2015-06-01

    Predicting the input loads of antibiotics to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) using certain input data (e.g. prescriptions) is a reasonable method if no analytical data is available. Besides the spatiotemporal uncertainties of the projection itself, only a few studies exist to confirm the suitability of required excretion data from literature. Prescription data with a comparatively high resolution and a sampling campaign covering 15 months were used to answer the question of applicability of the prediction approach. As a result, macrolides, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were almost fully recovered close to 100% of the expected input loads. Nearly all substances of the beta-lactam family exhibit high elimination rates during the wastewater transport in the sewer system with a low recovery rate at the WWTP. The measured input loads of cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin fluctuated greatly through the year which was not obvious from relatively constant prescribed amounts. The latter substances are an example that available data are not per se sufficient to monitor the actual release into the environment. Furthermore, the extensive data pool of this study was used to calculate the necessary number of samples to determine a representative annual mean load to the WWTP. For antibiotics with low seasonality and low input scattering a minimum of about 10 samples is required. In the case of antibiotics exhibiting fluctuating input loads 30 to 40 evenly distributed samples are necessary for a representative input determination. As a high level estimate, a minimum number of 20-40 samples per year is proposed to reasonably estimate a representative annual input load of antibiotics and other micropollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On mechanism of non-heating sterilization using the underwater shock wave loading and gas formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Takemoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field where the thermal sterilization can’t be applied, the establishment of the sterilization technology with non-heating is strongly requested. The sterilization by pressurizing is one of the sterilization technology. Especially, the underwater shock wave causes scarcely heat in pressurizing because the pressurizing time is extremely short. That is, it is thought that the underwater shock wave enables non-heating sterilization that originates only in pressure. Hence, in this research, the underwater shock wave loading caused by explosive was used for non-heating sterilization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the budding yeast was used for experiments. S. cerevisiae starts fermentation by feeding the glucose, and causes CO2 within its body. There is the great density difference between cells of S. cerevisiae and the gas, hence, the acoustic impedance is different on the underwater shock wave transmission. Therefore, a strong reflected wave is caused on the boundary of the cell and the gas, and a remarkable expansion is caused. Fermented S. cerevisiae are sterilized by this phenomenon, and showed high sterilization rates. The sterilization rate by the underwater shock wave was low for not giving the glucose, that is, S. cerevisiae that had not fermented. The sterilization rate that had been done on three conditions was as follows in the order of higher. 1 Fermenting S. cerevisiae, high pressure. 2 Fermenting S. cerevisiae, low pressure. 3 Non-fermenting S. cerevisiae, high pressure. The detonation fuse was used in this experiment. There was an interesting phenomenon, that is, the sterilization rate was high at the side of detonation beginning, and it was decreased toward the direction. It is thought that this is related to a constant angle of the shock wave caused from the detonation fuse. A corresponding result to the phenomenon was gotten by the numerical analysis between the progress of the detonation and the change of pressure.

  11. Enhancing Accuracy of Sediment Total Load Prediction Using Evolutionary Algorithms (Case Study: Gotoorchay River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Roshangar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exact prediction of transported sediment rate by rivers in water resources projects is of utmost importance. Basically erosion and sediment transport process is one of the most complexes hydrodynamic. Although different studies have been developed on the application of intelligent models based on neural, they are not widely used because of lacking explicitness and complexity governing on choosing and architecting of proper network. In this study, a Genetic expression programming model (as an important branches of evolutionary algorithems for predicting of sediment load is selected and investigated as an intelligent approach along with other known classical and imperical methods such as Larsen´s equation, Engelund-Hansen´s equation and Bagnold´s equation. Materials and Methods: In this study, in order to improve explicit prediction of sediment load of Gotoorchay, located in Aras catchment, Northwestern Iran latitude: 38°24´33.3˝ and longitude: 44°46´13.2˝, genetic programming (GP and Genetic Algorithm (GA were applied. Moreover, the semi-empirical models for predicting of total sediment load and rating curve have been used. Finally all the methods were compared and the best ones were introduced. Two statistical measures were used to compare the performance of the different models, namely root mean square error (RMSE and determination coefficient (DC. RMSE and DC indicate the discrepancy between the observed and computed values. Results and Discussions: The statistical characteristics results obtained from the analysis of genetic programming method for both selected model groups indicated that the model 4 including the only discharge of the river, relative to other studied models had the highest DC and the least RMSE in the testing stage (DC= 0.907, RMSE= 0.067. Although there were several parameters applied in other models, these models were complicated and had weak results of prediction. Our results showed that the model 9

  12. Influence of loading forces on the vertical accuracy of interocclusal records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Muhamad; Kern, Matthias

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of loading forces on the vertical discrepancies caused by interocclusal recording materials. A custom-made apparatus was used to simulate the maxilla and mandible. Eight interocclusal records were made in each of the following groups: G1-Aluwax (aluminum wax; Aluwax), G2-Beauty Pink wax (hydrocarbon wax compound; Miltex), G3-Futar D, G4-Futar D Fast, G5-Futar Scan (polyvinyl siloxanes; Kettenbach), and G6-Ramitec (polyether; 3M ESPE). The vertical discrepancies were measured by an inductive displacement transducer connected to a carrier frequency amplifier after storage of the records for 1 hour at room temperature. Different compressive loading forces up to 1 kg were applied onto the upper part of the apparatus to evaluate the influence on the vertical discrepancies of the records. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. The compressive loading force had a statistically significant influence on the vertical discrepancies (P<.01) (ie, higher forces reduced the vertical discrepancies). When a compressive force of 1 kg was applied to the upper part of the apparatus, the mean vertical discrepancies for G1 (11+/-3 microm) and G2 (12+/-3 microm) were statistically significantly higher than in groups G3 (1+/-1 microm), G4 (2+/-1 microm), G5 (0+/-1 microm), and G6 (-2+/-2 microm). A compressive force of 1 kg could be used to stabilize the cast during mounting procedures in an articulator using an interocclusal record made of polyvinyl siloxane without vertically changing the interocclusal relationships.

  13. Extreme Value Predictions for Wave- and Wind-induced Loads on Floating Offshore Wind Turbines using FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Sunvard; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, Alaa E.

    2007-01-01

    probable wave episodes leading to given re-sponses. As an example the motions of floating foundations for offshore wind turbines are analysed taking into consid-eration both the wave and wind induced loads and con-sidering different mooring systems. The possible large horizontal motions make it important...

  14. 1.5 octave wideband traveling-wave tube with heavily-loaded helical slow-wave structure

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, S S; Han, S T; Jeon, S; Soukhov, A V; Park, G S

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. A 1.5 octave wideband traveling wave tube (TWT) with a helical structure loaded by the thick dielectric support rods has been designed and fabricated for the frequency range of 6-18 GHz. Helical slow-wave structure (SWS) was modeled using three- dimensional HFSS code. The nonresonant perturbation measurement using a thin copper wire with 20 mm diameter was performed to verify the phase velocity and interaction impedance of the helical structure. The performance of TWT was predicted using one-dimensional (1-D) nonlinear theory involving a macro particle beam model. The harmonic effect was considered in this calculation. The measured performance of TWT using a beam voltage 4 kV and a beam current of 120 mA was shown. These results were compared with a 1-D nonlinear theory. The comparison showed that the measured power and gain were less than the predicted one but had a similar trend over the operating frequency range. The 2nd harmonic levels at the low frequency range of 6-8 GHz were ne...

  15. The Effect of Flexible Pavement Mechanics on the Accuracy of Axle Load Sensors in Vehicle Weigh-in-Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-07

    Weigh-in-Motion systems are tools to prevent road pavements from the adverse phenomena of vehicle overloading. However, the effectiveness of these systems can be significantly increased by improving weighing accuracy, which is now insufficient for direct enforcement of overloaded vehicles. Field tests show that the accuracy of Weigh-in-Motion axle load sensors installed in the flexible (asphalt) pavements depends on pavement temperature and vehicle speeds. Although this is a known phenomenon, it has not been explained yet. The aim of our study is to fill this gap in the knowledge. The explanation of this phenomena which is presented in the paper is based on pavement/sensors mechanics and the application of the multilayer elastic half-space theory. We show that differences in the distribution of vertical and horizontal stresses in the pavement structure are the cause of vehicle weight measurement errors. These studies are important in terms of Weigh-in-Motion systems for direct enforcement and will help to improve the weighing results accuracy.

  16. Influence of second-order random wave kinematics on the design loads of offshore wind turbine support structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    The impact of wave model nonlinearities on the design loads of wind turbine monopile foundations is delineated based on a second-order nonlinear randomwave model that satisfies the boundary conditions at the free surface and by including the effects of convective acceleration in the inertial load...

  17. Simulation analysis of rectangular dielectric-loaded traveling wave amplifiers for THz sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbiao Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear simulation results for a 220-GHz rectangular dielectric-loaded traveling-wave amplifier are presented. Simulations are used to check a linear theory that is developed by phenomenological introduction of an effective dielectric parameter for electron beam channel, and it is found that the rf power gains from Pierce three-wave theory and particle simulations are in reasonable agreement. It is shown that the rf power gain during initial beam-wave interaction is positive; the falling on the initial rf power profile, which has been thought to be the rf power transferred to the beam for bunching buildup (negative gain effect, is probably resulting from numerical errors. Beam-wave interaction mechanism is analyzed by examining the evolution of beam bunching centers. Influences of various parameters on amplifier performance are examined, and transverse space-charge effect is analyzed. A symmetric excitation scheme for rf couplers is proposed, and rf field jumps on the common intersection line of vacuum, dielectric, and metal wall, which were found in rf simulations, are explained theoretically.

  18. Low-frequency wave propagation in an elastic plate loaded by a two-layer fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Indeitsev, Dmitrij; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    In several technical applications, for example, in the Arctic off-shore oil industry, it is necessary to predict waveguide properties of floating elastic plates in contact with a relatively thin layer of water, which has a non-uniform density distribution across its depth. The issue of particular...... of salty water. The former one produces fluid loading at the plate, whereas the latter one is bounded by the sea bottom. We employ classical asymptotic methods to identify significant regimes of wave motion in the compound three-component waveguide. The roles of parameters involved in the problem...... concern is propagation of low-frequency waves in such a coupled waveguide. In the present paper, we assume that an inhomogeneous fluid may be modelled as two homogeneous, inviscid and incompressible layers with slightly different densities. The lighter layer of fresh water lies on top of the heavier layer...

  19. An efficient optimization method to improve the measuring accuracy of oxygen saturation by using triangular wave optical signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Cui; Lin, Ling

    2017-09-01

    The oxygen saturation is one of the important parameters to evaluate human health. This paper presents an efficient optimization method that can improve the accuracy of oxygen saturation measurement, which employs an optical frequency division triangular wave signal as the excitation signal to obtain dynamic spectrum and calculate oxygen saturation. In comparison to the traditional method measured RMSE (root mean square error) of SpO2 which is 0.1705, this proposed method significantly reduced the measured RMSE which is 0.0965. It is notable that the accuracy of oxygen saturation measurement has been improved significantly. The method can simplify the circuit and bring down the demand of elements. Furthermore, it has a great reference value on improving the signal to noise ratio of other physiological signals.

  20. Basin Testing of Wave Energy Converters in Trondheim: Investigation of Mooring Loads and Implications for Wider Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Krivtsov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the physical model testing of an array of wave energy devices undertaken in the NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim basin between 8 and 20 October 2008 funded under the EU Hydralabs III initiative, and provides an analysis of the extreme mooring loads. Tests were completed at 1/20 scale on a single oscillating water column device and on close-packed arrays of three and five devices following calibration of instrumentation and the wave and current test environment. One wave energy converter (WEC was fully instrumented with mooring line load cells, optical motion tracker and accelerometers and tested in regular waves, short- and long-crested irregular waves and current. The wave and current test regimes were measured by six wave probes and a current meter. Arrays of three and five similar WECs, with identical mooring systems, were tested under similar environmental loading with partial monitoring of mooring forces and motions. The majority of loads on the mooring lines appeared to be broadly consistent with both logistic and normal distribution; whilst the right tail appeared to conform to the extreme value distribution. Comparison of the loads at different configurations of WEC arrays suggests that the results are broadly consistent with the hypothesis that the mooring loads should differ. In particular; the results from the tests in short crested seas conditions give an indication that peak loads in a multi WEC array may be considerably higher than in 1-WEC configuration. The test campaign has contributed essential data to the development of Simulink™ and Orcaflex™ models of devices, which include mooring system interactions, and data have also been obtained for inter-tank comparisons, studies of scale effects and validation of mooring system numerical models. It is hoped that this paper will help to draw the attention of a wider scientific community to the dataset freely available from the

  1. Operational wave now- and forecast in the German Bight as a basis for the assessment of wave-induced hydrodynamic loads on coastal dikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Norman; Fröhle, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of the wave-induced hydrodynamic loads on coastal dikes including their temporal and spatial resolution on the dike in combination with actual water levels is of crucial importance of any risk-based early warning system. As a basis for the assessment of the wave-induced hydrodynamic loads, an operational wave now- and forecast system is set up that consists of i) available field measurements from the federal and local authorities and ii) data from numerical simulation of waves in the German Bight using the SWAN wave model. In this study, results of the hindcast of deep water wave conditions during the winter storm on 5-6 December, 2013 (German name `Xaver') are shown and compared with available measurements. Moreover field measurements of wave run-up from the local authorities at a sea dike on the German North Sea Island of Pellworm are presented and compared against calculated wave run-up using the EurOtop (2016) approach.

  2. Accuracy and Precision of Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging for Laminar and Complex Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Traberg, Marie Sand; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a comparison between velocity fields for a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is made. VFI estimates are obtained from the scan of a flow phantom, which mimics the complex flow conditions in the carotid artery. Furthe...

  3. Increasing accuracy of pulse transit time measurements by automated elimination of distorted photoplethysmography waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.N. van Velzen (M. H N); A.J. Loeve (Arjo J.); S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd); E.G. Mik (Egbert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPhotoplethysmography (PPG) is a widely available non-invasive optical technique to visualize pressure pulse waves (PWs). Pulse transit time (PTT) is a physiological parameter that is often derived from calculations on ECG and PPG signals and is based on tightly defined characteristics of

  4. Increasing accuracy of pulse transit time measurements by automated elimination of distorted photoplethysmography waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, M.H.N.; Loeve, A.J.; Niehof, S.P.; Mik, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a widely available non-invasive optical technique to visualize pressure pulse waves (PWs). Pulse transit time (PTT) is a physiological parameter that is often derived from calculations on ECG and PPG signals and is based on tightly defined characteristics of the PW

  5. Enhanced Load Power Sharing Accuracy in Droop-Controlled DC Microgrids with Both Mesh and Radial Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rational power sharing among different interface converters should be determined by the converter capacity. In order to guarantee that each converter operates at the ideal condition, considering the radial and mesh configuration, a modified strategy for load power sharing accuracy enhancement in droop-controlled DC microgrid is proposed in this paper. Two compensating terms which include averaging output power control and averaging DC voltage control of neighboring converters are employed. Since only the information of the neighboring converter is used, the complexity of the communication network can be reduced. The rational distribution of load power for different line resistance conditions is realized by using modified droop control that can be regarded as a distributed approach. Low bandwidth communication is used for exchanging sampled information between different converters. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method for different network configurations and line resistances under different communication delay is analyzed in detail. Simulation results derived from a DC microgrid with three converters is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink to verify the proposed approach. Experimental results from a 3 × 10 kW prototype also show the performance of the proposed modified droop control scheme.

  6. Increasing the accuracy of tilted-wave-interferometry by elimination of systematic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Johannes; Pruss, Christof; Osten, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    This work investigates methods to eliminate calibration errors as one of the limiting factors to reduce measurement uncertainty in Tilted-Wave-Interferometry. The correlations between errors in the model parameters and in the measurement result are investigated, taking into account the symmetry of the surface under test. Two schemes for the elimination of such errors are introduced: Rotations around the z-axis allow the removal on non-rotationally symmetric error components. Measurements in lateral shears allow the elimination of calibration errors with higher spatial frequency. The corresponding algorithms and underlying models are explained for both approaches and examples for their application are presented.

  7. Prediction of Vertical-Plane Wave Loading and Ship Responses in High Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Xia, Jinzhu; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2000-01-01

    The non-linearities in wave- and slamming-induced rigid-body motions and structural responses of ships such as heave, pitch and vertical bending moments are consistently investigated based on a rational time-domain strip method. A hydrodynamic model for predicting sectional green water force is a...... for a VLCC. The non-linearities in motions and structural loads of conventional monohull ships seem well predicted by the present non-linear strip theory.......The non-linearities in wave- and slamming-induced rigid-body motions and structural responses of ships such as heave, pitch and vertical bending moments are consistently investigated based on a rational time-domain strip method. A hydrodynamic model for predicting sectional green water force...... is also outlined for the investigation of the effect of green watrer oads on the globalhull girder bending moment. The computational results based on the non-linear time-domain strip theory are compared with those based on the fully non-linear 3-D panel method SWAN-DNW and other published results...

  8. Design of a high-power load for millimetre-wave Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S.; Gandini, F.; Granucci, G.; Mellera, V.; Muzzini, V.; Nardone, A.; Simonetto, A.; Sozzi, C.; Spinicchia, N.

    2003-11-01

    The design of a compact matched load for high-power measurements and testing of gyrotrons and transmission lines in ECRH plants for fusion research applications is currently in an advanced phase. The aim is to provide more than 95% absorption and precise calorimetric measurement of the input power in CW. This work is based on the results of tests at high power and short pulse length (140 GHz, 0.5 MW, 0.5 s) on loads installed on the ECRH plant of the FTU Tokamak in Frascati. The loads consist basically of hollow spheres of copper with the inner wall covered by plasma-sprayed lossy ceramics. Tests at higher power and longer pulses on the ASDEX-Upgrade ECRH plant showed, after a number of successful pulses, progressive damage on the absorbing layer, marked by the appearance of electrical arcs. The absorber degradation, showing specific damage patterns, due to exposure to high-power millimetre waves, has been analysed in detail and strategies are proposed, in order to improve the power-handling capabilities and the energy extraction rate. New measurements of millimetric absorption and thermal conductivity have been performed on samples of different ceramics, for choosing the best absorbing layer. A modified expander mirror surface with a better deposition profile, numerically computed with a multi-reflection model of the sphere, is designed to avoid radiation accumulation close to the entrance port. Improved cooling channels, which in principle can exploit the increased heat transfer rate due to surface boiling, as used in high-performance cooling circuits such as plasma-facing components, will provide 1-MW CW power capability. In this paper, some technical solutions for the construction and the constraints on the allowable deformation during pulses are given.

  9. On the accuracy of density functional theory and wave function methods for calculating vertical ionization energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Booth, George H. [Theory and Simulation of Condensed Matter, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Cohen, Aron J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Cole, Jacqueline M., E-mail: jmc61@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation functionals with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these functionals are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT functionals, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other functionals considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.

  10. Short-term effects of a standardized glucose load on region-specific aortic pulse wave velocity assessed by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; Tjeerdema, Nathanja; Hensen, Liselotte C. R.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; de Roos, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the short-term effects of a standardized oral glucose load on regional aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) using two-directional in-plane velocity encoded MRI. Materials and Methods A randomized, controlled intervention was performed in 16 male subjects (mean +/- standard deviation:

  11. Influence of a boatlanding and j-tubes on wave loads and wall thickness of the monopile support structure design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, M.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Support structures for offshore wind turbines play a significant part in the cost of offshore wind energy. With current access systems a conventional boat landing is not necessary. Secondary steel, such as a boat landing and J-tube, influences wave loads. A way of taking the secondary steel items

  12. Reliability analysis of offshore jacket structures with wave load on deck using the Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Friis-Hansen, P.; Nielsen, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    failure/collapse of jacket type platforms with wave-in-deck loads using the so-called Model Correction Factor Method (MCFM). A simple representative model for the RSR measurement is developed and used in the MCFM technique. A realistic example is evaluated, and it is seen that it is possible to perform...

  13. Design Loads on Platforms on Offshore wind Turbine Foundations with Respect to Vertical Wave Run-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Mathilde L.; Gravesen, Helge; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2007-01-01

    depending on the wave parameters in the area in question. This is approached by a three step calculation routine supported by model tests. Supplementary tests have been made to determine the reduction in loads, when grated platforms are used in preference to a closed surface. This leads to an appreciable...

  14. Balancing the Power-to-Load Ratio for a Novel Variable Geometry Wave Energy Converter with Nonideal Power Take-Off in Regular Waves: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This work attempts to balance power absorption against structural loading for a novel variable geometry wave energy converter. The variable geometry consists of four identical flaps that will be opened in ascending order starting with the flap closest to the seafloor and moving to the free surface. The influence of a pitch motion constraint on power absorption when utilizing a nonideal power take-off (PTO) is examined and found to reduce the losses associated with bidirectional energy flow. The power-to-load ratio is evaluated using pseudo-spectral control to determine the optimum PTO torque based on a multiterm objective function. The pseudo-spectral optimal control problem is extended to include load metrics in the objective function, which may now consist of competing terms. Separate penalty weights are attached to the surge-foundation force and PTO control torque to tune the optimizer performance to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. PTO efficiency is not included in the objective function, but the penalty weights are utilized to limit the force and torque amplitudes, thereby reducing losses associated with bidirectional energy flow. Results from pseudo-spectral control demonstrate that shedding a portion of the available wave energy can provide greater reductions in structural loads and reactive power.

  15. Fundamental Limitations of Resolution And Accuracy of Tomographic Regional Wave Q Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J.; Chen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging lateral variations of seismic Q is much more difficult than imaging those of velocity. The foremost reason for the difficulty is that 1/Q values are measured with "reduced amplitude" data rather than observed ground motion amplitudes. The reduced amplitudes are derived using logarithm of the ground motion amplitudes, after a 1D geometrical spreading term is removed. The reduced amplitudes contain modeling errors arising from the effects of the true 3D geometrical spreading and pre-arrival, ambient and coda noises. Statistical distribution of the modeling error has not been systematically explored, except being assumed to be normally distributed. This assumption brings the convenience of formulating Q tomography as a least-squares problem. Here we develop a statistical treatise of modeling error, which permits the calibration of the probability function, mean and variance of the error using real data. We develop a matrix operation methodology to solve for the inverse, error and resolution matrices associated with the two-station tomographic Q model. We apply this methodology to regional Lg wave data collected from SW China, and compare the resolution and error of the model with those associated with typical tomographic velocity models derived from the much simpler travel time data. Another fundamental limitation in Q tomography is caused by the inherently large variability of Q. In velocity and Q tomography, the laterally varying quantity that is solved for by linear equations is the inverse of velocity (slowness) or Q (attenuation coefficient), respectively. Variations of slowness are a small fraction of the mean slowness, so a tomographic slowness model can be robustly converted to a tomographic velocity model. The Q values in the Earth, on the other hand, vary drastically by up to an order of magnitude. The conversion between the attenuation coefficients and the Q values in such a large range is highly non-linear. High Q values corresponding to small

  16. Balancing Power Absorption and Structural Loading for a Novel Fixed-Bottom Wave Energy Converter with Nonideal Power Take-Off in Regular Waves: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-08

    In this work, the net power delivered to the grid from a nonideal power take-off (PTO) is introduced followed by a review of the pseudo-spectral control theory. A power-to-load ratio, used to evaluate the pseudo-spectral controller performance, is discussed, and the results obtained from optimizing a multiterm objective function are compared against results obtained from maximizing the net output power to the grid. Simulation results are then presented for four different oscillating wave energy converter geometries to highlight the potential of combing both geometry and PTO control to maximize power while minimizing loads.

  17. Flexural edge waves generated by steady-state propagation of a loaded rectilinear crack in an elastically supported thin plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Andrea; Radi, Enrico; Lanzoni, Luca

    2017-08-01

    The problem of a rectilinear crack propagating at constant speed in an elastically supported thin plate and acted upon by an equally moving load is considered. The full-field solution is obtained and the spotlight is set on flexural edge wave generation. Below the critical speed for the appearance of travelling waves, a threshold speed is met which marks the transformation of decaying edge waves into edge waves propagating along the crack and dying away from it. Yet, besides these, and for any propagation speed, a pair of localized edge waves, which rapidly decay behind the crack tip, is also shown to exist. These waves are characterized by a novel dispersion relation and fade off from the crack line in an oscillatory manner, whence they play an important role in the far field behaviour. Dynamic stress intensity factors are obtained and, for speed close to the critical speed, they show a resonant behaviour which expresses the most efficient way to channel external work into the crack. Indeed, this behaviour is justified through energy considerations regarding the work of the applied load and the energy release rate. Results might be useful in a wide array of applications, ranging from fracturing and machining to acoustic emission and defect detection.

  18. Flexural edge waves generated by steady-state propagation of a loaded rectilinear crack in an elastically supported thin plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Andrea; Radi, Enrico; Lanzoni, Luca

    2017-08-01

    The problem of a rectilinear crack propagating at constant speed in an elastically supported thin plate and acted upon by an equally moving load is considered. The full-field solution is obtained and the spotlight is set on flexural edge wave generation. Below the critical speed for the appearance of travelling waves, a threshold speed is met which marks the transformation of decaying edge waves into edge waves propagating along the crack and dying away from it. Yet, besides these, and for any propagation speed, a pair of localized edge waves, which rapidly decay behind the crack tip, is also shown to exist. These waves are characterized by a novel dispersion relation and fade off from the crack line in an oscillatory manner, whence they play an important role in the far field behaviour. Dynamic stress intensity factors are obtained and, for speed close to the critical speed, they show a resonant behaviour which expresses the most efficient way to channel external work into the crack. Indeed, this behaviour is justified through energy considerations regarding the work of the applied load and the energy release rate. Results might be useful in a wide array of applications, ranging from fracturing and machining to acoustic emission and defect detection.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of electrocardiographic P wave related parameters in the assessment of left atrial size in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Bustos, Ángel; Caro-Vadillo, Alicia; Martínez-DE-Merlo, Elena; Alonso-Alegre, Elisa González

    2017-10-07

    The purpose of this research was to compare the accuracy of newly described P wave-related parameters (P wave area, Macruz index and mean electrical axis) with classical P wave-related parameters (voltage and duration of P wave) for the assessment of left atrial (LA) size in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease. One hundred forty-six dogs (37 healthy control dogs and 109 dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease) were prospectively studied. Two-dimensional echocardiography examinations and a 6-lead ECG were performed prospectively in all dogs. Echocardiography parameters, including determination of the ratios LA diameter/aortic root diameter and LA area/aortic root area, were compared to P wave-related parameters: P wave area, Macruz index, mean electrical axis voltage and duration of P wave. The results showed that P wave-related parameters (classical and newly described) had low sensitivity (range=52.3 to 77%; median=60%) and low to moderate specificity (range=47.2 to 82.5%; median 56.3%) for the prediction of left atrial enlargement. The areas under the curve of P wave-related parameters were moderate to low due to poor sensitivity. In conclusion, newly P wave-related parameters do not increase the diagnostic capacity of ECG as a predictor of left atrial enlargement in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease.

  20. Conditional Mean Values of Slightly Non-Gaussian processes with Application to design Wave-Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    Recently, conditional mean wave kinematics have been derived for slightly non-Gaussian waves. The result includes cumulants up to third order and thus the lowest order of the non-Gaussian contribution. This is consistent with application of second order Stokes waves. Here theanalysis is extended...... to include all cumulants and can then be applied if these cumulants are known from a higher order wave theory or frommeasurements....

  1. The M-2 ocean tide loading wave in Alaska: vertical and horizontal displacements, modelled and observed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Scherneck, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    Crustal deformations caused by surface load due to ocean tides are strongly dependent on the surface load closest to the observing site. In order to correctly model this ocean loading effect near irregular coastal areas, a high-resolution coastline is required. A test is carried out using two GPS...

  2. Power-to-Load Balancing for Asymmetric Heave Wave Energy Converters with Nonideal Power Take-Off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Madhi, Farshad [University of California, Berkeley; Yeung, Ronald W. [University of California, Berkeley

    2017-12-11

    The aim of this paper is to maximize the power-to-load ratio for asymmetric heave wave energy converters. Linear hydrodynamic theory was used to calculate bounds of the expected time-averaged power (TAP) and corresponding surge-restraining force, pitch-restraining torque, and power take-off (PTO) control force with the assumption of sinusoidal displacement. This paper formulates an optimal control problem to handle an objective function with competing terms in an attempt to maximize power capture while minimizing structural and actuator loads in regular and irregular waves. Penalty weights are placed on the surge-restraining force, pitch-restraining torque, and PTO actuation force, thereby allowing the control focus to concentrate on either power absorption or load mitigation. The penalty weights are used to control peak structural and actuator loads that were found to curb the additional losses in power absorption associated with a nonideal PTO. Thus, in achieving these goals, a per-unit gain in TAP would not lead to a greater per-unit demand in structural strength, hence yielding a favorable benefit-to-cost ratio. Demonstrative results for 'The Berkeley Wedge' in the form of output TAP, reactive TAP needed to drive WEC motion, and the amplitudes of the surge-restraining force, pitch-restraining torque, and PTO control force are shown.

  3. A 4 MA, 500 ns pulsed power generator CQ-4 for characterization of material behaviors under ramp wave loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiji; Luo, Binqiang; Zhang, Xuping; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei; Tan, Fuli; Chong, Tao; Mo, Jianjun; Wu, Gang; Tao, Yanhui

    2013-01-01

    A pulsed power generator CQ-4 was developed to characterize dynamic behaviors of materials under ramp wave loading, and to launch high velocity flyer plates for shock compression and hypervelocity impact experiments of materials and structures at Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics. CQ-4 is composed of twenty capacitor and primary discharge switch modules with total capacitance of 32 μF and rated charging voltage of 100 kV, and the storage energy is transmitted by two top and bottom parallel aluminum plates insulated by twelve layers of polyester film with total thickness of 1.2 mm. Between capacitor bank and chamber, there are 72 peaking capacitors with total capacitance of 7.2 μF and rated voltage of 120 kV in parallel, which are connected with the capacitor bank in parallel. Before the load, there is a group of seven secondary self-breaking down switches connected with the total circuit in series. The peaking capacitors and secondary switches are used to shape the discharging current waveforms. For short-circuit, the peak current of discharging can be up to 3 ~ 4 MA and rise time varies from 470 ns to 600 ns when the charging voltages of the generator are from 75 kV to 85 kV. With CQ-4 generator, some quasi-isentropic compression experiments under ramp wave loadings are done to demonstrate the ability of CQ-4 generator. And some experiments of launching high velocity flyer plates are also done on CQ-4. The experimental results show that ramp wave loading pressure of several tens of GPa on copper and aluminum samples can be realized and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.35 mm can be accelerated to about 11 km/s and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.6 mm can be up to about 9 km/s, which show that CQ-4 is a good and versatile tool to realize ramp wave loading and shock compression for shock physics.

  4. Full-scale testing of leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room exposed to external air blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.

    2017-06-01

    For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.

  5. Experimental studies on the deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pengwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC. An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of shear wave elastography for prediction of breast malignancy in patients with pathological nipple discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Liu, Ying; Li, Wanhu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pathological nipple discharge (PND) may indicate malignant breast lesions. As the role of shear wave elastography (SWE) in predicting these malignant lesions has not yet been evaluated, we aim to evaluate the diagnostic value of SWE for this condition. Design Prospective diagnostic accuracy study comparing a combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements of SWE (index test) to a ductoscopy and microdochectomy for histological diagnosis (reference test). Setting Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing military command. Participants A total of 379 patients with PND were finally included from January, 2011 to March 2014, after we screened 1084 possible candidates. All participants were evaluated through SWE, with qualitative parameters generated by Virtual Touch tissue imaging (VTI) and quantitative parameters generated by Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ). All the patients were consented to receive a ductoscopy and microdochectomy for histological diagnosis, and the results were set as a reference test. Outcome measures Sensitivity and specificity of the combined VTI and VTQ of the SWE for detection of malignancy in patients with PND. Results The 379 participants presented with 404 lesions. The results of pathological examination showed that 326 (80.7%) of the 404 lesions were benign and the other 78 (19.3%) were malignant. An area under the curve of elasticity score, VTQm and VTQc, were 0.872, 0.825 and 0.857, respectively, with the corresponding cut-off point as 2.50, 2.860 m/s and 3.015 m/s, respectively. After a combination of these measurements, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), were 89.7%, 72.1%, 43.5% and 96.7%, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed 82% of the sensitivity and 96.8% of the specificity, in which patients with no pathological findings in ductoscopy were excluded. Conclusions Ultrasonographic elastography is sensitive for patients with PND and could be used

  7. Breaking phase focused wave group loads on offshore wind turbine monopiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Dixen, M.

    2016-01-01

    OceanWave3D-OpenFOAM solver, against measurements of focused wave group impacts on a monopile. The focused 2D and 3D wave groups are reproduced and the free surface elevation and the in-line forces are compared to the experimental results. In addition, the pressure distribution on the monopile...... is examined at the time of maximum force and discussed in terms of shape and magnitude. Relative pressure time series are also compared between the simulations and experiments and detailed pressure fields for a 2D and 3D impact are discussed in terms of impact type. In general a good match for free surface...

  8. On improving Efficiency and Accuracy of Variable-Fidelity Surrogate Modeling in Aero-data for Loads Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Zhonghua; Zimmermann, Ralf; Goertz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Variable-fidelity surrogate modeling offers an efficient way to generate aerodynamic data for aero-loads prediction based on a set of CFD methods with varying degree of fidelity and computational expense. In this paper, new algorithms, such as a Gradient-Enhanced Kriging method (direct GEK) and a...

  9. The Use of CFD in the Analysis of Wave Loadings Acting on Seawave Slot-Cone Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Buccino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD in reproducing qualitative and quantitative features of loadings exerted by waves on Seawave Slot-cone Generators (SSG has been investigated via 17 numerical experiments, conducted with the suite Flow 3D. The geometry of the Wave Energy Converter (WEC, as well as the characteristics of the foreshore in front of it, were identical to those used by the authors in a laboratory study, carried out on a small scale model of a pilot plant to be located along the West Norwegian coasts; the similitude of the layouts allowed an in depth comparison between the results. A good agreement has been generally found between physical and numerical experiments, apart from some aspects of the wave–structure interaction that, however, can be considered secondary for engineering purposes.

  10. Wave Loading and Overtopping on Caisson Breakwaters in Multidirectional Breaking Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, J.; Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The present paper concerns the results and findings of a physical study on wave impacts on vertical caisson breakwaters situated in irregular, multidirectional breaking seas. The study has taken place as a part of the framework programme "Dynamics of Structures" financially supported by the Danish...... Technical Research Council, during the period of January 97 to July 97. The tests were carried out in 3D wave basin at the Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University....

  11. Wave Loading and Overtopping on Vertical Wall Breakwaters in Multidirectional Breaking Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Grønbech, J.; Hald, Tue

    1998-01-01

    The present paper concerns the results and findings of a physical study on wave impacts on vertical caisson breakwaters situated in irregular, multidirectional breaking seas. The study has taken place as part of the framework programme "Dynamics of Structures" financially supported by the Danish...... Technical Research Council, during the period of January 97 to December 97. The test were carried out in the 3D wave basin at the Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University....

  12. Characterization of loads on a hemispherical point absorber wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten Møller; Beatty, Scott; Iglesias, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Slammingpressure on shell surface of hemisphere and comparison asymptotic theory. •Excitationforces from experiments and comparison with numerical inviscid boundary elementmodel. •Applicationof found coefficients in normal operation conditions for the wave energydevice.......Highlights •Slammingpressure on shell surface of hemisphere and comparison asymptotic theory. •Excitationforces from experiments and comparison with numerical inviscid boundary elementmodel. •Applicationof found coefficients in normal operation conditions for the wave energydevice....

  13. Synergism Analysis of Bedding Slope with Piles and Anchor Cable Support under Sine Wave Vehicle Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Slope instability under dynamic load is the technical difficulty in the engineering; the evaluation of slope stability under dynamic load and the control of dynamic load is particularly important. In this paper, taking the right side slope of K27+140 m~380 m typical section (K27 slope for short in Chongqing Fuling-Fengdu-Shizhu expresses highway as an example to calculate and analyze. The K27 slope is under sinusoidal vehicle load and supported by anchor cable and antislide pile to resist downslide strength; at the same time, the combined effect of them is studied. Three-dimensional finite element methodology (FEM is used to simulate the bedding slope with piles and anchor cable support; furthermore, the eigenvalue can be obtained. In order to reduce error of the elastic boundary conditions caused by the reflection effect of wavelengths, the combination of Lysmer surface viscous boundary and traditional ground support boundaries is utilized to analyze and calculate the time-histories during bedding slope under dynamic load. The dynamic response of pile anchor support to resist sliding force is obtained. The concept of the pile anchor supporting coordinate interval is put forward. Furthermore, it is verified that the pile anchor supporting coordinate interval can be used to evaluate the stability of the slope under dynamic load and provide a new method for the control of the dynamic load.

  14. Does Physical Loading Affect The Speed and Accuracy of Tactical Decision-Making in Elite Junior Soccer Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frýbort, Pavel; Kokštejn, Jakub; Musálek, Martin; Süss, Vladimír

    2016-06-01

    A soccer player's capability to control and manage his behaviour in a game situation is a prerequisite, reflecting not only swift and accurate tactical decision-making, but also prompt implementation of a motor task during intermittent exercise conditions. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between varying exercise intensity and the visual-motor response time and the accuracy of motor response in an offensive game situation in soccer. The participants (n = 42) were male, semi-professional, soccer players (M age 18.0 ± 0.9 years) and trained five times a week. Each player performed four different modes of exercise intensity on the treadmill (motor inactivity, aerobic, intermittent and anaerobic activity). After the end of each exercise, visual-motor response time and accuracy of motor response were assessed. Players' motion was captured by digital video camera. ANOVA indicated no significant difference (p = 0.090) in the accuracy of motor response between the four exercise intensity modes. Practical significance (Z-test = 0.31) was found in visual-motor response time between exercise with dominant involvement of aerobic metabolism, and intense intermittent exercise. A medium size effect (Z-test = 0.34) was also found in visual-motor response time between exercise with dominant involvement of aerobic metabolism and exercise with dominant involvement of anaerobic metabolism, which was confirmed by ANOVA (897.02 ± 57.46 vs. 940.95 ± 71.14; p = 0.002). The results showed that different modes of exercise intensity do not adversely affect the accuracy of motor responses; however, high-intensity exercise has a negative effect on visual-motor response time in comparison to moderate intensity exercise. Key pointsDifferent exercise intensity modes did not affect the accuracy of motor response.Anaerobic, highly intensive short-term exercise significantly decreased the visual-motor response time in comparison with aerobic exercise.Further research

  15. Loads on a 3D body due to second order waves and a current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Jesper; Cheung, K. F.; Bingham, Harry B.

    2000-01-01

    are expanded about the still-water level by Taylor series so that the solution is evaluated on a time-invariant geometry. A formulation correct to second order in the wave steepness and to first order in the current speed is used. Numerical results are obtained for the first-order and the second-order...... oscillatory forces and for the second-order mean force on a fixed vertical circular cylinder in waves and a current. The second-order oscillatory forces on the body in waves and current are new results, while the remaining force components are verified by comparison with established numerical and analytical...... models. It is shown that the current can have a significant influence on the forces, and especially on the amplitude of the second-order oscillatory component....

  16. On Mass Loading and Dissipation Measured with Acoustic Wave Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Voinova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize current trends in the analysis of physical properties (surface mass density, viscosity, elasticity, friction, and charge of various thin films measured with a solid-state sensor oscillating in a gaseous or liquid environment. We cover three different types of mechanically oscillating sensors: the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D monitoring, surface acoustic wave (SAW, resonators and magnetoelastic sensors (MESs. The fourth class of novel acoustic wave (AW mass sensors, namely thin-film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBARs on vibrating membranes is discussed in brief. The paper contains a survey of theoretical results and practical applications of the sensors and includes a comprehensive bibliography.

  17. Load monitoring and compensation strategies for guided-waves based structural health monitoring using piezoelectric transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Surajit; Ladpli, Purim; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2015-09-01

    Accurate interpretation of in-situ piezoelectric sensor signals is a challenging task. This article presents the development of a numerical compensation model based on physical insight to address the influence of structural loads on piezo-sensor signals. The model requires knowledge of in-situ strain and temperature distribution in a structure while acquiring sensor signals. The parameters of the numerical model are obtained using experiments on flat aluminum plate under uniaxial tensile loading. It is shown that the model parameters obtained experimentally can be used for different structures, and sensor layout. Furthermore, the combined effects of load and temperature on the piezo-sensor response are also investigated and it is observed that both of these factors have a coupled effect on the sensor signals. It is proposed to obtain compensation model parameters under a range of operating temperatures to address this coupling effect. An important outcome of this study is a new load monitoring concept using in-situ piezoelectric sensor signals to track changes in the load paths in a structure.

  18. Numerical simulation of wave propagation and snow failure from explosive loading

    CERN Document Server

    Sidler, Rolf; Dual, Jürg; Schweizer, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Avalanche control by explosion is a widely applied method to minimize the avalanche risk to infrastructure in snow-covered mountain areas. However, the mechanisms involved leading from an explosion to the release of an avalanche are not well understood. Here we test the hypothesis that weak layers fail due to the stress caused by propagating acoustic waves. The underlying mechanism is that the stress induced by the acoustic waves exceeds the strength of the snow layers. We compare field measurements to a numerical simulation of acoustic wave propagation in a porous material. The simulation consists of an acoustic domain for the air above the snowpack and a poroelastic domain for the dry snowpack. The two domains are connected by a wave field decomposition and open pore boundary conditions. Empirical relations are used to derive a porous model of the snowpack from density profiles of the field experiment. Biot's equations are solved in the poroelastic domain to obtain simulated accelerations in the snowpack an...

  19. Implication of changing loading conditions on structural health monitoring utilising guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohabuth, Munawwar; Kotousov, Andrei; Ng, Ching-Tai; Rose, L. R. Francis

    2018-02-01

    Structural health monitoring systems based on guided waves typically utilise a network of embedded or permanently attached sensors, allowing for the continuous detection of damage remote from a sensor location. The presence of damage is often diagnosed by analysing the residual signals from the structure after subtracting damage-free reference data. However, variations in environmental and operational conditions such as temperature, humidity, applied or thermally-induced stresses affect the measured residuals. A previously developed acoustoelastic formulation is here extended and employed as the basis for a simplified analytical model to estimate the effect of applied or thermally-induced stresses on the propagation characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes. It is noted that there are special combinations of frequency, biaxial stress ratio and direction of wave propagation for which there is no change in the phase velocity of the fundamental anti-symmetric mode. The implication of these results in devising effective strategies to mitigate the effect of stress induced variations in guided-wave damage diagnostics is briefly discussed.

  20. Determination of truck load by microwave and millimeter-wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Kempf, Timo

    2014-06-01

    Freight transportation service by truck is an extremely growing market all over the world. Consequently, optimization of truck's capacity utilization by in-situ estimation of load distribution with a fast and stand-off monitoring sensor is useful. MWs or MMWs used in radars and radiometers can penetrate thin dielectric walls like synthetic truck canvas. Such systems can deliver also valuable information for security applications, e.g. about illegal transportation attempts. This paper describes the application of DLR's experimental MW radar and MMW radiometers used for estimation of truck load under controlled driving conditions of a test truck. Experimental imaging results of both systems are presented.

  1. Numerical analysis for sea wave loading on the pile foundation of detached structures by using CADMAS-SURF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tatsuya; Miura, Kinya; Sawada, Yayoi

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of wave forces loading on the detached structure that consisted of an upper structure and a pile foundation. In this study, structure stability was also considered on the results obtained from previous studies on the instability of seabed induced by wave force. When a wave force acted on the structure, an external force acted on the pile foundation as if pulling out the foundation on the outer harbor side and pushing it in on the inner harbor. The effective stress in seabed was increase so the pile foundation was considered to maintain sufficient bearing capacity. Subsequently, when the bearing capacity of the ground was decreased because the water pressure in the ground surface layer decreased, the pile foundation will be aggravated settled down. The external force acting on the pile foundation was not same on outer harbor and inner harbor with the form of the upper structure. As a result, we found that the strain will be generated on the structure.

  2. Simulation of the stochastic wave loads using a physical modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.F.; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2013-01-01

    reliability or its uncertainty. Moreover applicability of the probability density evolution method on engineering problems faces critical difficulties when the system embeds too many random variables. Hence it is useful to devise a method which can make realization of the stochastic load processes with low...

  3. Experimental study on the structural and mooring loads of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur Francois Serge; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study that was performed on small scale model that was a replication of the full-scale Weptos WEC intended for DanWEC. During these tests, after optimising the mooring solution, various loads were measured that occur in the structure and mooring...

  4. Initial Investigation of Wave Impact Load Transfer Through Shock Isolation Seats in High Speed Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-31

    NSWCCD-83-TM-2013/35 14 inch non-flotation foam cushion (i.e., unlike those used in the airline industry) was used in the test. Figures 12...can occur [9, 10, 11, 12, 15, and 16]. Relative motions can be minimized by increased foam density and/or reduced foam thickness [17]. Different...layers of viscoelastic and loading-rate-sensitive materials can be used to achieve these goals [12, 13]. Dynamic analyses and/or testing should be

  5. Effect of Protective Devices on Brain Trauma Mechanics Under Idealized Shock Wave Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-29

    outside may be due to the jet wind effect. As the RED head is loaded due to the traversing shockwave, it springs back due to the energy stored in the...05001-001 Submitted to: Dr. Larry Russell, Ph.D. Army Research Office Marina Carboni/Michael Maffeo NATICK ARO/NATICK Final Report on... energy in the anterior of the head. Gathering the peak minimum and maximum values from the first 5ms, the shock tube data better approximates the free

  6. Short-term fatigue analysis for tower base of a spar-type wind turbine under stochastic wind-wave loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to integrated stochastic wind and wave loads, the supporting platform of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT has to bear six Degrees of Freedom (DOF motion, which makes the random cyclic loads acting on the structural components, for instance the tower base, more complicated than those on bottom-fixed or land-based wind turbines. These cyclic loads may cause unexpected fatigue damages on a FOWT. This paper presents a study on short-term fatigue damage at the tower base of a 5 MW FOWT with a spar-type platform. Fully coupled time-domain simulations code FAST is used and realistic environment conditions are considered to obtain the loads and structural stresses at the tower base. Then the cumulative fatigue damage is calculated based on rainflow counting method and Miner's rule. Moreover, the effects of the simulation length, the wind-wave misalignment, the wind-only condition and the wave-only condition on the fatigue damage are investigated. It is found that the wind and wave induced loads affect the tower base's axial stress separately and in a decoupled way, and the wave-induced fatigue damage is greater than that induced by the wind loads. Under the environment conditions with rated wind speed, the tower base experiences the highest fatigue damage when the joint probability of the wind and wave is included in the calculation. Moreover, it is also found that 1 h simulation length is sufficient to give an appropriate fatigue damage estimated life for FOWT.

  7. Technology Development Plan for Design Guidelines for Wave-Induced Hydrodynamic Loading on Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    heated water from coastal sited power plants has the potential to induce patterns of large-scale offshore currents that may alter the nearshore mean...cylinder may be taken equal to 2. For other shapes of Wodies A may be written as A = (C* - C )/(KC d) (65) m m d where C* is the ideal value of the...amounts of cooling water by power plants . This induced current can modify the direction and the magnitude of approaching waves and may change the

  8. Development of a Shipboard Remote Control and Telemetry Experimental System for Large-Scale Model’s Motions and Loads Measurement in Realistic Sea Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wave-induced motion and load responses are important criteria for ship performance evaluation. Physical experiments have long been an indispensable tool in the predictions of ship’s navigation state, speed, motions, accelerations, sectional loads and wave impact pressure. Currently, majority of the experiments are conducted in laboratory tank environment, where the wave environments are different from the realistic sea waves. In this paper, a laboratory tank testing system for ship motions and loads measurement is reviewed and reported first. Then, a novel large-scale model measurement technique is developed based on the laboratory testing foundations to obtain accurate motion and load responses of ships in realistic sea conditions. For this purpose, a suite of advanced remote control and telemetry experimental system was developed in-house to allow for the implementation of large-scale model seakeeping measurement at sea. The experimental system includes a series of technique sensors, e.g., the Global Position System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS module, course top, optical fiber sensors, strain gauges, pressure sensors and accelerometers. The developed measurement system was tested by field experiments in coastal seas, which indicates that the proposed large-scale model testing scheme is capable and feasible. Meaningful data including ocean environment parameters, ship navigation state, motions and loads were obtained through the sea trial campaign.

  9. Development of a Shipboard Remote Control and Telemetry Experimental System for Large-Scale Model's Motions and Loads Measurement in Realistic Sea Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jialong; Ren, Huilong; Adenya, Christiaan Adika; Chen, Chaohe

    2017-10-29

    Wave-induced motion and load responses are important criteria for ship performance evaluation. Physical experiments have long been an indispensable tool in the predictions of ship's navigation state, speed, motions, accelerations, sectional loads and wave impact pressure. Currently, majority of the experiments are conducted in laboratory tank environment, where the wave environments are different from the realistic sea waves. In this paper, a laboratory tank testing system for ship motions and loads measurement is reviewed and reported first. Then, a novel large-scale model measurement technique is developed based on the laboratory testing foundations to obtain accurate motion and load responses of ships in realistic sea conditions. For this purpose, a suite of advanced remote control and telemetry experimental system was developed in-house to allow for the implementation of large-scale model seakeeping measurement at sea. The experimental system includes a series of technique sensors, e.g., the Global Position System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) module, course top, optical fiber sensors, strain gauges, pressure sensors and accelerometers. The developed measurement system was tested by field experiments in coastal seas, which indicates that the proposed large-scale model testing scheme is capable and feasible. Meaningful data including ocean environment parameters, ship navigation state, motions and loads were obtained through the sea trial campaign.

  10. Dispersion analysis of leaky guided waves in fluid-loaded waveguides of generic shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, M; Marzani, A; Bartoli, I

    2014-01-01

    A fully coupled 2.5D formulation is proposed to compute the dispersive parameters of waveguides with arbitrary cross-section immersed in infinite inviscid fluids. The discretization of the waveguide is performed by means of a Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) approach, whereas a 2.5D BEM formulation is used to model the impedance of the surrounding infinite fluid. The kernels of the boundary integrals contain the fundamental solutions of the space Fourier-transformed Helmholtz equation, which governs the wave propagation process in the fluid domain. Numerical difficulties related to the evaluation of singular integrals are avoided by using a regularization procedure. To improve the numerical stability of the discretized boundary integral equations for the external Helmholtz problem, the so called CHIEF method is used. The discrete wave equation results in a nonlinear eigenvalue problem in the complex axial wavenumbers that is solved at the frequencies of interest by means of a contour integral algorithm. In order to separate physical from non-physical solutions and to fulfill the requirement of holomorphicity of the dynamic stiffness matrix inside the complex wavenumber contour, the phase of the radial bulk wavenumber is uniquely defined by enforcing the Snell-Descartes law at the fluid-waveguide interface. Three numerical applications are presented. The computed dispersion curves for a circular bar immersed in oil are in agreement with those extracted using the Global Matrix Method. Novel results are presented for viscoelastic steel bars of square and L-shaped cross-section immersed in water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An FMM-FFT accelerated integral equation solver for characterizing electromagnetic wave propagation in mine tunnels and galleries loaded with conductors

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2014-07-01

    Reliable wireless communication and tracking systems in underground mines are of paramount importance to increase miners\\' productivity while monitoring the environmental conditions and increasing the effectiveness of rescue operations. Key to the design and optimization of such systems are electromagnetic (EM) simulation tools capable of analyzing wave propagation in electromagnetically large mine tunnels and galleries loaded with conducting cables (power, telephone) and mining equipment (trolleys, rails, carts), and potentially partially obstructed by debris from a cave-in. Current tools for simulating EM propagation in mine environments leverage (multi-) modal decompositions (Emslie et. al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 23, 192-205, 1975; Sun and Akyildiz, IEEE Trans. Commun., 58, 1758-1768, 2010), ray-tracing techniques (Zhang, IEEE Tran. Vehic. Tech., 5, 1308-1314, 2003), or full wave methods. Modal approaches and ray-tracing techniques cannot accurately account for the presence of conductors, intricate details of transmitters/receivers, wall roughness, or unstructured debris from a cave-in. Classical full-wave methods do not suffer from such restrictions. However, they require prohibitively large computational resources when applied to the analysis of electromagnetically large tunnels loaded with conductors. Recently, an efficient hybrid method of moment and transmission line solver has been developed to analyze the EM wave propagation inside tunnels loaded with conductors (Brocker et. al., in Proc IEEE AP-S Symp, pp.1,2, 2012). However, the applicability of the solver is limited to the characterization of EM wave propagation at medium frequency band.

  12. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  13. Combining drug-loaded nanobubbles and Extracorporeal Shock Waves for difficult-to-treat cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Roberta; Marano, Francesca; Argenziano, Monica; Varese, Alessandra; Frairia, Roberto; Catalano, Maria Graziella

    2017-10-18

    Despite the general great improvement in cancer therapy, to date, some aggressive tumors are still without an efficient therapy. Therefore, accurate delivery of anti-cancer drugs is a very important goal in order to obtain a successful therapy and reduce systemic side effects. Nanobubbles (NBs) are spherical core/shell vesicles filled by a gas with sizes in the nanometer order of magnitude. They have gained an increasing attention for drug delivery, because they can be versatile multifunctional carriers for the targeted release of gases, drugs and genes. Particularly, NBs can carry loaded drugs to the tumor site through the blood stream, taking advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, due to the defective vascular architecture of the tumor (Fang et al. 2011). Unfortunately, vessel leakage, the absence of a functional lymphatic system and an increased extracellular matrix frictional resistance may limit drug delivery (Azzi et al. 2013, Carmeliet and Jain 2011). To overcome this problem, a better drug release to cancer tissues can be obtained by combining physical triggers (e.g. ultrasounds, US) with NBs (Gao et al. 2008, Collis et al. 2010, Cavalli et al. 2012, Cavalli et al. 2016, Argenziano et al. 2017). Indeed, US causes bubble cavitation resulting in cell sonoporation and allowing the extravasation of molecules (Collis et al. 2010). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Fatigue and extreme wave loads on bottom fixed offshore wind turbines. Effects from fully nonlinear wave forcing on the structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe

    2013-01-01

    will transfer energy to higher frequencies which can be close to the wind turbines eigenfrequency. In the present thesis the response of an offshore wind turbine placed on a monopile foundation is investigated when exposed to linear and fully nonlinear irregular waves. The focus of the investigations...... effects of the wave nonlinearity. In first part of the thesis, the linear and nonlinear wave realizations are compared and the static wave forcing based on the two wave theories analysed. This analysis is followed by dynamic calculations where the effects of wave nonlinearity on the structural dynamics...... response due to the forces based on the potential-flow solver and Morison’s equation. Finally a small study of the effect of including wave directionality in the dynamic analysis is performed. All the analyses in this thesis contribute to the understanding of how important the wave nonlinearity...

  15. On the Use of Coupled Wind, Wave, and Current Fields in the Simulation of Loads on Bottom-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines during Hurricanes: March 2012 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungsoo [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Manuel, Lance [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Curcic, Milan [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Chen, Shuyi S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, potential offshore wind plant sites have been identified along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. It is imperative that we define external conditions associated with hurricanes and severe winter storms and consider load cases for which wind turbines may need to be designed. We selected two hurricanes, Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), and investigated the effect these tropical storms would have on bottom-supported offshore wind turbines that were hypothetically in or close to their path as they made landfall. For realistic turbine loads assessment, it is important that the coupled influences of the changing wind, wave, and current fields are simulated throughout the evolution of the hurricanes. We employed a coupled model--specifically, the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM)--that integrates atmospheric, wave, and ocean components to produce needed wind, wave, and current data. The wind data are used to generate appropriate vertical wind profiles and full wind velocity fields including turbulence; the current field over the water column is obtained by interpolated discrete output current data; and short-crested irregular second-order waves are simulated using output directional wave spectra from the coupled model. We studied two monopile-supported offshore wind turbines sited in 20 meters of water in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate loads during Hurricane Ike, and a jacket space-frame platform-supported offshore wind turbine sited in 50 meters of water in the mid-Atlantic region to estimate loads during Hurricane Sandy. In this report we discuss in detail how the simulated hurricane wind, wave, and current output data are used in turbine loads studies. In addition, important characteristics of the external conditions are studied, including the relative importance of swell versus wind seas, aerodynamic versus hydrodynamic forces, current velocity effects, yaw control options for the turbine, hydrodynamic drag versus inertia forces

  16. Directionality Effects of Aligned Wind and Wave Loads on a Y-Shape Semi-Submersible Floating Wind Turbine under Rated Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtao Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Y-shape (triangular semi-submersible foundation has been adopted by most of the built full-scale floating wind turbines, such as Windfloat, Fukushima Mirai and Shimpuu. Considering the non-fully-symmetrical shape and met-ocean condition, the foundation laying angle relative to wind/wave directions will not only influence the downtime and power efficiency of the floating turbine, but also the strength and fatigue safety of the whole structure. However, the dynamic responses induced by various aligned wind and wave load directions have scarcely been investigated comparatively before. In our study, the directionality effects are investigated by means of combined wind and wave tests and coupled multi-body simulations. By comparing the measured data in three load directions, it is found that the differences of platform motions are mainly derived from the wave loads and larger pitch motion can always be observed in one of the directions. To make certain the mechanism underlying the observed phenomena, a coupled multi-body dynamic model of the floating wind turbine is established and validated. The numerical results demonstrate that the second-order hydrodynamic forces contribute greatly to the directionality distinctions for surge and pitch, and the first-order hydrodynamic forces determine the variations of tower base bending moments and nacelle accelerations. These findings indicate the directionality effects should be predetermined comprehensively before installation at sea, which is important for the operation and maintenance of the Y-shape floating wind turbines.

  17. The Importance of Pressure Sampling Frequency in Models for Determination of Critical Wave Loadings on Monolithic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle

    2008-01-01

    Wave induced pressures on model scale monolithic structures like caissons and concrete superstructures on rubble mound breakwaters show very peaky variations, even in cases without impacts from slamming waves....

  18. Chapter 4: Pulsating Wave Loads Section 4.3: 3D Effects Force Reduction of Short-Crested Non-Breaking Waves on Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou

    1999-01-01

    simultaneously along the caisson, named peak-delay reduction. Model test results indicate that the point-pressure reduction can be predicted by the Goda formula. Based on linear wave theory, Battjes (1982) presented a formula for the peak-delay force reduction of short-crested waves with only one frequency...... ion of peakdelay force reduction factor for oblique long-crested and short-crested non-breaking waves are derived analytically. Theoretical formula for the maximum non-dimensional horizontally turning moment around the center of the caisson by oblique regular waves is also presented. Finally the paper...... gives a summary of the model test results on the force reduction of non-breaking and breaking short-crested waves....

  19. The effect of sampling frequency on the accuracy of nitrogen load estimates from a drained loblolly pine plantation in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; François Birgand; Shiying Tian; Mohamed A. Youssef; Devendra M. Amatya

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient loading in drainage outflow is estimated from measured flows and nutrient concentrations in the drainage water. The loading function is ideally continuous, representing the product of continuously measured outflows and nutrient concentrations in drainage water. However, loading is often estimated as the product of continuously measured outflow and nutrient...

  20. Prospective Assessment of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio to Assess Coronary Stenosis Relevance: Results of ADVISE II International, Multicenter Study (ADenosine Vasodilator Independent Stenosis Evaluation II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escaned, Javier; Echavarría-Pinto, Mauro; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; van de Hoef, Tim P.; de Vries, Ton; Kaul, Prashant; Raveendran, Ganesh; Altman, John D.; Kurz, Howard I.; Brechtken, Johannes; Tulli, Mark; von Birgelen, Clemens; Schneider, Joel E.; Khashaba, Ahmed A.; Jeremias, Allen; Baucum, Jim; Moreno, Raul; Meuwissen, Martijn; Mishkel, Gregory; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Levite, Howard; Lopez-Palop, Ramon; Mayhew, Marc; Serruys, Patrick W.; Samady, Habib; Piek, Jan J.; Lerman, Amir; Khashaba, A.; Lasorda, D.; Meuwissen, M.; Levite, H.; Allaqaband, S.; Roberts, J.; Nseir, G.; Jones, S.; Samady, H.; van Geuns, R.; Raveendran, G.; Preli, R.; Blankenship, J.; Baucum, J.; Orlando, Q.; Escaned, J.; Palop, R.; Moreno, R.; Legutko, J.; Möllman, H.; Tulli, M.; Stables, R.; Gulati, R.; Powers, E.; Gil, R.; Carrabus, B.; Reczuch, K.; Brechtken, J.; Schneider, J.; Della Siega, A.; Mahoney, P.; Altman, J.; Mishkel, G.; Jeremias, A.; von Birgelen, C.; Kaul, P.; Fernandes, V.; Kurz, H.; Mayhew, M.; Tai, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) to characterize, outside of a pre-specified range of values, stenosis severity, as defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR) ≤0.80, in a prospective, independent, controlled, core

  1. Comparison of Mooring Loads in Survivability Mode on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Obtained by a Numerical Model and Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Muliawan, Made Jaya; Gao, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is ready to be up-scaled to commercial size. The design and feasibility analysis of a 1.5 MW pre-commercial unit to be deployed at the DanWEC test center in Hanstholm, Denmark, is currently ongoing. With regard to the mooring system, the design has...... to be carried out numerically, through coupled analyses of alternative solutions. The present study deals with the preliminary hydrodynamic characterization of Wave Dragon needed in order to calibrate the numerical model to be used for the mooring design. A hydrodynamic analysis of the small scale model...

  2. Linear analysis of an X-band backward wave oscillator with a circular-edge disk-loaded cylindrical waveguide driven by an annular electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan Sagor, Rakibul; Ruhul Amin, Md.

    2017-10-01

    An X-band backward wave oscillator (BWO) with a circular-edge disk-loaded periodic metallic slow wave structure (CDSWS) is proposed and studied numerically. The structure is the modified version of our previously modeled semi-circularly corrugated slow wave structure (SCCSWS). The CDSWS is energized by an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) which is directed by a strong magnetic field. The electromagnetic (EM) wave of the slow wave structure (SWS) merges with the space charge wave of the beam under the guidance of the strong axial magnetic field. The inner wall contour of CDSWS is modeled by a finite Fourier series and the dispersion characteristics of different TM modes are solved by utilizing the linear Rayleigh-Fourier (R-F) technique, which is verified by a commercial EM solver. To study the temporal growth rate (TGR) for the fundamental TM01 mode, the dispersion equation is solved for the beam current of 0.1-1.0kA and the beam energy of 205-665kV. For the TM01 mode, the TGR that occurs at the unstable region, which provides a qualitative index of the strength of the microwave generation, is compared with those of the BWOs with sinusoidally corrugated SWS (SCSWS), disk-loaded SWS (DLSWS) and triangularly corrugated SWS (TrCSWS) for different beam parameters. The dimension of the CDSWS is determined by comparing the dispersion characteristics of fundamental TM01 mode with DLSWS and SCSWS. For the same set of beam parameters, an average of 3.5%, 7%, 1.5% and more than 50% higher TGR have been obtained with the proposed CDSWS than that of SCSWS, DLSWS, TrCSWS and SCCSWS respectively. Moreover, the presented structure also provides an advantage in the fabrication process and is less prone to RF breakdown since it has no sharp edges in the inner wall where the electric field intensity can be infinitely high.

  3. Nature-based flood protection: the efficiency of vegetated foreshores for reducing wave loads on coastal dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuik, V.; Jonkman, S.N.; Borsje, Bastiaan Wijnand; Suzuki, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of vegetation on wave damping under severe storm conditions, based on a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling. The field measurements of wave attenuation by vegetation were performed on two salt marshes with two representative but contrasting

  4. Effect of Coupled Non linear Wave Kinematics and Soil Flexibility on the Design Loads of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Natarajan, Anand

    2013-01-01

    The design driving loads on offshore wind turbine monopile support structures at water depths of 35m, which are beyond current monopile installation depths, are derived based on fully coupled aerohydroelastic simulations of the wind turbine in normal operation and in storm conditions in the prese...

  5. Pressure waves in liquid mercury target from pulsed heat loads and the possible way controlling their effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, L.; Skala, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villingen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    In ESS project liquid metals are selected as the main target for the pulsed spallation neutron source. Since the very high instantaneous energy is deposited on the heavy molten target in a very short period time, pressure waves are generated. They travel through the liquid and cause high stress in the container. Also, additional stress should be considered in the wall which is the result of direct heating of the target window. These dynamic processes were simulated with computational codes with the static response being analized first. The total resulting dynamic wall stress has been found to have exceeded the design stress for the selected container material. Adding a small amount of gas bubbles in the liquid could be a possible way to reduce the pressure waves.

  6. Traveling Wave Amplifier Driven by a Large Diameter Annular Electron Beam in a Disk-Loaded Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES OPS-15-9244 14. ABSTRACT This project studies the viability of a high-power traveling wave tube ( TWT ) using a novel...calculated using Pierce classical theory of TWT based on C and QC, and was spot-checked against simulation results from the ICEPIC, MAGIC and...CHRISTINE codes. Fair agreement was observed. The preliminary conclusion is that the disk-on-rod TWT is a viable, high-power extension to the conventional

  7. Effects of internal loading on phosphorus distribution in the Taihu Lake driven by wind waves and lake currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Fang, Hongwei; He, Guojian; Jiang, Helong; Wang, Changhui

    2016-12-01

    Wind-driven sediment resuspension exerts significant effects on the P behavior in shallow lake ecosystems. In this study, a comprehensive dynamic phosphorus (P) model that integrates hydrodynamic, wind wave and sediment transport is proposed to assess the importance of internal P cycling due to sediment resuspension on water column P levels. The primary contribution of the model is detailed modeling and rigorous coupling of sediment and P dynamics. The proposed model is applied to predict the P behavior in the shallow Taihu Lake, which is the third largest lake in China, and quantitatively estimate the effects of wind waves and lake currents on P release and distribution. Both the prevailing southeast winds in summer and northwest winds in winter are applied for the simulation, and different wind speeds of 5 m/s and 10 m/s are also considered. Results show that sediment resuspension and the resulting P release have a dominant effect on P levels in Taihu Lake, and likely similar shallow lakes. Wind-driven waves at higher wind speeds significantly enhance sediment resuspension and suspended sediment concentration (SSC). Total P concentration in the water column is also increased but not in proportion to the SSC. The different lake circulations resulting from the different prevailing wind directions also affect the distribution of suspended sediment and P around the lake ultimately influencing where eutrophication is likely to occur. The proposed model demonstrates that internal cycling in the lake is a dominant factor in the lake P and must be considered when trying to manage water quality in this and similar lakes. The model is used to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of remediation of an area where historical releases have led to P accumulation on overall lake quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of Guinier-Preston zones on the dynamic yield stress of alloys under the shock-wave load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashenko, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The movement of an ensemble of edge dislocations under shock-wave action on an alloy that contains the Guinier-Preston zones has been theoretically studied. The analytical expression for the contribution of the Guinier-Preston zones into the dynamic yield stress has been obtained and it has been shown that this contribution is affected by the density of mobile dislocations. The numerical estimates have shown that the formation of these zones lead to a substantial increase in the dynamic yield stress of alloys.

  9. Mass-loading, pile-up, and mirror-mode waves at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Volwerk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The data from all Rosetta plasma consortium instruments and from the ROSINA COPS instrument are used to study the interaction of the solar wind with the outgassing cometary nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. During 6 and 7 June 2015, the interaction was first dominated by an increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure, caused by a higher solar wind ion density. This pressure compressed the draped magnetic field around the comet, and the increase in solar wind electrons enhanced the ionization of the outflow gas through collisional ionization. The new ions are picked up by the solar wind magnetic field, and create a ring/ring-beam distribution, which, in a high-β plasma, is unstable for mirror mode wave generation. Two different kinds of mirror modes are observed: one of small size generated by locally ionized water and one of large size generated by ionization and pick-up farther away from the comet.

  10. Low-Cost and High-Gain SIW Circularly Polarized Circular-Horn-Loaded Antenna for Broadband Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A wideband, low-cost and high-gain circularly polarized (CP circular-horn-loaded antenna based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technology operating at Ka band is presented. The proposed antenna, which is built on a single-layer substrate, consists of five parts: a short-ended SIW, a centro-symmetric wide slot, an L-shaped probe, a circular horn and a transition from SIW to air-filled rectangular waveguide for measurement. The slot is etched on the upper ground of the SIW, while the L-shaped probe for generating CP wave is printed inside the slot and connected to the SIW. A circular horn is also loaded on the surface of the SIW slot for high gain. Then, the proposed antenna with a dimension of 45×45×24.16 mm3 was fabricated and measured. The measured results show that the antenna has a wide impedance matching bandwidth of 28.6% from 30 to 40 GHz for |S11| ≤10 dB and a wide axial ratio (AR bandwidth of 22.8% from 31.5 to 39.6 GHz for AR ≤ 3 dB. The measured maximum gain is 15.6 dBi at 36 GHz with slight fluctuations over the 30–40-GHz frequency range. This kind of antenna merits low cost and easy integration with common differential circuits at the same time.

  11. Viscothermal wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the accuracy, efficiency and range of applicability of various (approximate) models for viscothermal wave propagation are investigated. Models for viscothermal wave propagation describe thewave behavior of fluids including viscous and thermal effects. Cases where viscothermal effects

  12. A database of virtual healthy subjects to assess the accuracy of foot-to-foot pulse wave velocities for estimation of aortic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemet, Marie; Chowienczyk, Phil; Alastruey, Jordi

    2015-08-15

    While central (carotid-femoral) foot-to-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered to be the gold standard for the estimation of aortic arterial stiffness, peripheral foot-to-foot PWV (brachial-ankle, femoral-ankle, and carotid-radial) are being studied as substitutes of this central measurement. We present a novel methodology to assess theoretically these computed indexes and the hemodynamics mechanisms relating them. We created a database of 3,325 virtual healthy adult subjects using a validated one-dimensional model of the arterial hemodynamics, with cardiac and arterial parameters varied within physiological healthy ranges. For each virtual subject, foot-to-foot PWV was computed from numerical pressure waveforms at the same locations where clinical measurements are commonly taken. Our numerical results confirm clinical observations: 1) carotid-femoral PWV is a good indicator of aortic stiffness and correlates well with aortic PWV; 2) brachial-ankle PWV overestimates aortic PWV and is related to the stiffness and geometry of both elastic and muscular arteries; and 3) muscular PWV (carotid-radial, femoral-ankle) does not capture the stiffening of the aorta and should therefore not be used as a surrogate for aortic stiffness. In addition, our analysis highlights that the foot-to-foot PWV algorithm is sensitive to the presence of reflected waves in late diastole, which introduce errors in the PWV estimates. In this study, we have created a database of virtual healthy subjects, which can be used to assess theoretically the efficiency of physiological indexes based on pulse wave analysis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Vertical elliptic operator for efficient wave propagation in TTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2015-08-19

    Elliptic wave extrapolation operators require significantly less computational cost than the ones for transversely isotropic (TI) media. However, it does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for the prevalent TI media. We propose a new vertical elliptically anisotropic (VEA) wave equation by decomposing the acoustic TI pseudo-differential wave equation. The decomposition results in a vertical elliptic differential equation and a scalar operator. The new VEA-like wave equation shares the same dispersion relation as that of the original acoustic TI wave equation. Therefore, the kinematic contents are correctly matched to the original equation. Moreover, the proposed decomposition yields better amplitude properties than the isotropic decomposition without increasing the computational load. Therefore, it exhibits better cost versus accuracy tradeoff compared to the isotropic or the tilted elliptic decompositions. We demonstrate with numerical examples that the proposed methodology is numerically stable for complex models and is free from shear-wave artifacts.

  14. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects of high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Maenaka, H.; Takada, A. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to examine fatigue behavior of boxing welded joints of anticorrosion aluminum A 5083 P-O alloy, the residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analyses, constant amplitude fatigue tests, and random fatigue tests were conducted. For a load wave in the random loading fatigue tests, a direct current component, a zero-mean narrow band random process, and a high frequency component were combined and superimposed, to examine the effect of the high frequency component and the effect of the stress cycle count method and the mean stress correction on the life estimation. For the fatigue analysis, a reference stress, such as that considering the structural stress concentration, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results and in improving the life estimation accuracy. Accordingly, for the actual scale measurements, it is insufficient only to measure the stress at points far from the crack initiation place. It is required to analyze the fatigue by measuring the reference stress same as the basic data acquisition tests in the laboratory. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Effects of 4 weeks of low-load unilateral resistance training, with and without blood flow restriction, on strength, thickness, V wave, and H reflex of the soleus muscle in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer-Poveda, David; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Vera-Ibáñez, Antonio; Viñuela-García, Manuel; Márquez, Gonzalo

    2017-07-01

    To test the effects of 4 weeks of unilateral low-load resistance training (LLRT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle thickness, volitional wave (V wave), and Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) of the soleus muscle. Twenty-two males were randomly distributed into three groups: a control group (CTR; n = 8); a low-load blood flow restriction resistance training group (BFR-LLRT; n = 7), who were an inflatable cuff to occlude blood flow; and a low-load resistance training group without blood flow restriction (LLRT; n = 7). The training consisted of four sets of unilateral isometric LLRT (25% of MVC) three times a week over 4 weeks. MVC increased 33% (P trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. The soleus thickness increased 9.5% (P trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. However, neither MVC nor thickness changed in either of the legs tested in the CTR group (MVC -1 and -5%, and muscle thickness 1.9 and 1.2%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Moreover, V wave and H reflex did not change significantly in all the groups studied (V wave /M wave ratio -7.9 and -2.6%, and H max /M max ratio -3.8 and -4%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Collectively, the present data suggest that in spite of the changes occurring in soleus strength and thickness, 4 weeks of low-load resistance training, with or without BFR, does not cause any change in neural drive or motoneuronal excitability.

  16. A new multi-domain method based on an analytical control surface for linear and second-order mean drift wave loads on floating bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Chen, Xiaobo

    2017-10-01

    A novel multi-domain method based on an analytical control surface is proposed by combining the use of free-surface Green function and Rankine source function. A cylindrical control surface is introduced to subdivide the fluid domain into external and internal domains. Unlike the traditional domain decomposition strategy or multi-block method, the control surface here is not panelized, on which the velocity potential and normal velocity components are analytically expressed as a series of base functions composed of Laguerre function in vertical coordinate and Fourier series in the circumference. Free-surface Green function is applied in the external domain, and the boundary integral equation is constructed on the control surface in the sense of Galerkin collocation via integrating test functions orthogonal to base functions over the control surface. The external solution gives rise to the so-called Dirichlet-to-Neumann [DN2] and Neumann-to-Dirichlet [ND2] relations on the control surface. Irregular frequencies, which are only dependent on the radius of the control surface, are present in the external solution, and they are removed by extending the boundary integral equation to the interior free surface (circular disc) on which the null normal derivative of potential is imposed, and the dipole distribution is expressed as Fourier-Bessel expansion on the disc. In the internal domain, where the Rankine source function is adopted, new boundary integral equations are formulated. The point collocation is imposed over the body surface and free surface, while the collocation of the Galerkin type is applied on the control surface. The present method is valid in the computation of both linear and second-order mean drift wave loads. Furthermore, the second-order mean drift force based on the middle-field formulation can be calculated analytically by using the coefficients of the Fourier-Laguerre expansion.

  17. Use of ultrasonic back-reflection intensity for predicting the onset of crack growth due to low-cycle fatigue in stainless steel under block loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nurul; Arai, Yoshio; Araki, Wakako

    2015-02-01

    The present study proposes the use of ultrasonic back-reflected waves for evaluating low cycle fatigue crack growth from persistent slip bands (PSBs) of stainless steel under block loading. Fatigue under high-low block loading changes the back-reflected intensity of the ultrasonic wave that emanates from the surface. Measuring the change in ultrasonic intensity can predict the start of crack growth with reasonable accuracy. The present study also proposes a modified constant cumulative plastic strain method and a PSB damage evolution model to predict the onset of crack growth under block loads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  19. Tailoring the Blast Exposure Conditions in the Shock Tube for Generating Pure, Primary Shock Waves: The End Plate Facilitates Elimination of Secondary Loading of the Specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Matthew; Skotak, Maciej; Misistia, Anthony; Kahali, Sudeepto; Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

    2016-01-01

    The end plate mounted at the mouth of the shock tube is a versatile and effective implement to control and mitigate the end effects. We have performed a series of measurements of incident shock wave velocities and overpressures followed by quantification of impulse values (integral of pressure in time domain) for four different end plate configurations (0.625, 2, 4 inches, and an open end). Shock wave characteristics were monitored by high response rate pressure sensors allocated in six positions along the length of 6 meters long 229 mm square cross section shock tube. Tests were performed at three shock wave intensities, which was controlled by varying the Mylar membrane thickness (0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 inch). The end reflector plate installed at the exit of the shock tube allows precise control over the intensity of reflected waves penetrating into the shock tube. At the optimized distance of the tube to end plate gap the secondary waves were entirely eliminated from the test section, which was confirmed by pressure sensor at T4 location. This is pronounced finding for implementation of pure primary blast wave animal model. These data also suggest only deep in the shock tube experimental conditions allow exposure to a single shock wave free of artifacts. Our results provide detailed insight into spatiotemporal dynamics of shock waves with Friedlander waveform generated using helium as a driver gas and propagating in the air inside medium sized tube. Diffusion of driver gas (helium) inside the shock tube was responsible for velocity increase of reflected shock waves. Numerical simulations combined with experimental data suggest the shock wave attenuation mechanism is simply the expansion of the internal pressure. In the absence of any other postulated shock wave decay mechanisms, which were not implemented in the model the agreement between theory and experimental data is excellent.

  20. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Ahyi, A. C.; Raju, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies of acoustic scattering resonances and of the dispersive phase velocities of surface waves that generate them [see, e.g., Talmant et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 278–289 (1989) for spherical aluminum shells] we have demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of obtaining phase......-loaded, evacuated spherical metal shells of aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten carbide. In particular, the characteristic upturn of the dispersion curves of low-order shell-borne circumferential waves (A or A0 waves) which takes place on spherical shells when the frequency tends towards very low values...

  1. Fast Evaluation of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to provide a rational and efficient procedure able to predict the design wave-induced motions, accelerations and loads with sufficient engineering accuracy in the conceptual design phase and in risk assessment. The procedure relies only on the following main parame...... parameters of the ship: Length, breadth, draught, block coefficient and water plane area together with the operational profile. The formulas are semi-analytical and the calculations can be easily done using a standard spreadsheet program....

  2. Prospective evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of dried blood spots from finger prick samples for determination of HIV-1 load with the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 version 2.0 assay in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Emmanuel; Metcalf, Carol A; Chaillet, Pascale; Aleixo, Lucia; Pannus, Pieter; Panunzi, Isabella; Triviño, Laura; Ellman, Tom; Likaka, Andrew; Mwenda, Reuben

    2014-05-01

    HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is not widely available in resource-limited settings. The use of finger prick dried blood spot (FP-DBS) samples could remove barriers related to sample collection and transport. Measurement of VL using DBS from EDTA venous blood (VB-DBS) in place of plasma has previously been validated using the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 v2.0 assay, but information on the accuracy of FP-DBS samples for measuring VL is limited. This prospective study, conducted at Thyolo District Hospital in southern Malawi, compared VL levels measured on FP-DBS samples and plasma using the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 v2.0 assay. Comparability was assessed by means of agreement and correlation (131 patients with VLs of ≥100 copies/ml), sensitivity, and specificity (612 patients on antiretroviral treatment [ART]). Samples of EDTA venous blood and FP-DBS from 1,009 HIV-infected individuals were collected and prepared in the laboratory. Bland-Altman analysis found good agreement between plasma and FP-DBS VL levels, with a mean difference of -0.35 log10, and 95% limits of agreement from -1.26 to 0.55 log10. FP-DBS had a sensitivity of 88.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.1 to 94.4%) and a specificity of 97.8% (95% CI, 96.1 to 98.9%) using a 1,000-copies/ml cut point and a sensitivity of 83.0% (95% CI, 73.4 to 90.1%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99.3 to 100%) using a 5,000-copies/ml cut point. This study shows that FP-DBS is an acceptable alternative to plasma for measuring VL using the NucliSENS Easy-Q HIV-1 v2.0. We are conducting a second study to assess the proficiency of health workers at preparing FP-DBS in primary health care clinics.

  3. Layout of wave gauge array for estimation of 3D waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten Møller; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Wave gauge array are commonly used to estimate significant wave properties of multi-directional waves. The objective of this study is to gain insight into which parameters influence the accuracy of an array. The approach chosen is to determine the accuracy of an array by comparing generated waves...

  4. Wave Star C5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Kristensen, Tom Sten

    Design pile loads in this document are based on the Morison equation. In Chapter 3 and 4 the background for the design loads provided in Chapter 5 are given. In the remaining chapters from Chapter 6 and onward discussions and explanations of the results are given. A historical list of activities ...... to the present revision is given in Appendix A. Calculations of extreme events with wave slamming and plunging wave breaking is included in Appendix B and C....

  5. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... the accuracy in the load estimation. Finally, the results of an experimental program carried out on a simple structure are presented....

  6. Metamaterial Loadings for Waveguide Miniaturization

    CERN Document Server

    Odabasi, H

    2013-01-01

    We show that a rectangular metallic waveguide loaded with metamaterial elements consisting of electric-field coupled (ELC) resonators placed at the side walls can operate well below the cutoff frequency of the respective unloaded waveguide. The dispersion diagrams indicate that propagating modes in ELC-loaded waveguides are of forward-type for both TE and TM modes. We also study the dispersion diagram and transmission characteristics of rectangular metallic waveguides simultaneously loaded with ELCs and split ring resonators (SRRs). Such doubly-loaded waveguides can support both forward wave and backward waves, and provide independent control of the propagation characteristics for the respective modes.

  7. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme, are presented. The method involves the inversion of the FRF matrix partly solving the numerical problems that appear because of the truncation of the modal space. However, the error in the load est...

  8. A Consistent Wave Impact Load Model for Studying Structure, Equipment Ruggedness, Shock Isolation Seats, and Human Comfort in Small High Speed Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 30...of acceleration application (i.e., jerk ), peak amplitude, and pulse duration, Eiband (1959). Consistent Wave Slam Type The time history responses of...systematic research for effects other than vertical, and there is a need for controlled studies to better describe and quantify the bounds of human

  9. Model Test Setup and Program for Experimental Estimation of Surface Loads of the SSG Kvitsøy Pilot Plant from Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Brian Juul

    reservoirs. In the present SSG setup three reservoirs have been used. Model tests are planned using a model (length scale 1:60) of the SSG prototype at the planned location of a pilot plant at the west coast of the island Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The properties of the coastal area surrounding...... the planned pilot plant site is also modeled. The tests will be carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank....

  10. Non-linear Static Analysis of Offshore Steep Wave Riser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Hongdong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new solution combining finite difference method and shooting method is developed to analyze the behavior of steep wave riser suffering from current loading. Based on the large deformation beam theory and mechanics equilibrium principle, a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing the motion of the steep wave riser are obtained. Then, finite difference method and shooting method are adopted and combined to solve the ordinary differential equations with zero moment boundary conditions at both the seabed end and surface end of the steep wave riser. The resulting non-linear finite difference formulations can be solved effectively by Newton-Raphson method. To improve iterative efficiency, shooting method is also employed to obtain the initial value for Newton-Raphson method. Results are compared with that of FEM by OrcaFlex, to verify the accuracy and reliability of the numerical method.

  11. Experimental Study on the WavePiston Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Angelelli, E.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power performance of the WavePiston wave energy converter. It focuses mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device and the effect of the following issues: Scaling ratios PTO loading Wave height and wave period...... dependency Oblique incoming waves Distance between plates During the study, the model supplied by the client, WavePiston, has been rigorously tested as all the anticipated tests have been done thoroughly and during all tests, good quality data has been obtained from all the sensors....

  12. Development of Millimeter-Wave Velocimetry and Acoustic Time-of-Flight Tomography for Measurements in Densely Loaded Gas-Solid Riser Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, James A.; Pfund, David M.; Sheen, David M.; Pappas, Richard A.; Morgen, Gerald P.

    2007-04-01

    The MFDRC was formed in 1998 to advance the state-of-the-art in simulating multiphase turbulent flows by developing advanced computational models for gas-solid flows that are experimentally validated over a wide range of industrially relevant conditions. The goal was to transfer the resulting validated models to interested US commercial CFD software vendors, who would then propagate the models as part of new code versions to their customers in the US chemical industry. Since the lack of detailed data sets at industrially relevant conditions is the major roadblock to developing and validating multiphase turbulence models, a significant component of the work involved flow measurements on an industrial-scale riser contributed by Westinghouse, which was subsequently installed at SNL. Model comparisons were performed against these datasets by LANL. A parallel Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) project within the consortium made similar comparisons between riser measurements and models at NETL. Measured flow quantities of interest included volume fraction, velocity, and velocity-fluctuation profiles for both gas and solid phases at various locations in the riser. Some additional techniques were required for these measurements beyond what was currently available. PNNL’s role on the project was to work with the SNL experimental team to develop and test two new measurement techniques, acoustic tomography and millimeter-wave velocimetry. Acoustic tomography is a promising technique for gas-solid flow measurements in risers and PNNL has substantial related experience in this area. PNNL is also active in developing millimeter wave imaging techniques, and this technology presents an additional approach to make desired measurements. PNNL supported the advanced diagnostics development part of this project by evaluating these techniques and then by adapting and developing the selected technology to bulk gas-solids flows and by implementing them for testing in the SNL riser

  13. Hydrodynamic loading of tensegrity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroldsen, Anders S.; Johansen, Vegar; Skelton, Robert E.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces hydrodynamic loads for tensegrity structures, to examine their behavior in marine environments. Wave compliant structures are of general interest when considering large marine structures, and we are motivated by the aquaculture industry where new concepts are investigated in order to make offshore installations for seafood production. This paper adds to the existing models and software simulations of tensegrity structures exposed to environmental loading from waves and current. A number of simulations are run to show behavior of the structure as a function of pretension level and string stiffness for a given loading condition.

  14. Load Identification of Offshore Platform for Fatigue Life Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Tygesen, Ulf T.

    2014-01-01

    -assessment of offshore platforms. Structural monitoring systems (SMSs) on offshore structures typically consist of a set of sensors such as strain gauges, accelerometers, wave radars and GPSs, however direct measuring of the actual loading is usually not feasible. One approach is to measure the loads indirectly...... on the topside of the offshore structure. The method is validated using simulated data for two wave loading cases: regular and irregular wave loadings....

  15. Review of water wave kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterndorff, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    The present report covers a comprehensive review of water wave kinematics carried out by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI) in connection with the EFP`93 project: Dynamics of Mono Tower Platforms (ref. EFP`93, 1313/93-0009). This project is carried out in cooperation with Ramboell, Hannemann and Hoejlund A/S. The main objectives of the project are to develop and verify a method for the determination of the non-linear wave load and the dynamic response of mono tower platforms. One of the characteristics of mono tower platforms is that due to the small water plane area the hydrodynamic loading will be very concentrated. Such platforms may therefore respond strongly and in a highly dynamic manner to short waves and high order components of extreme waves having periods corresponding to the first natural period of the platform. A key element in the hydrodynamic load process is the wave kinematics. The present report is a comprehensive review of recent literature concerning wave theories, wave-current interaction, laboratory experiments, and field measurements of water wave kinematics. The review has been concentrated on non-breaking waves on deep to intermediate water depths. Papers concerning shallow water waves have only been reviewed if they present methods which may be applied for deep to intermediate water waves. (au) EFP-93; 30 refs.

  16. Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines and application to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure: Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahn, T. [Pahn Ingenieure, Am Seegraben 17b 03051 Cottbus Germany; Rolfes, R. [Institut f?r Statik und Dynamik, Leibniz Universit?t Hannover, Appelstra?e 9A 30167 Hannover Germany; Jonkman, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA

    2017-02-20

    A significant number of wind turbines installed today have reached their designed service life of 20 years, and the number will rise continuously. Most of these turbines promise a more economical performance if they operate for more than 20 years. To assess a continued operation, we have to analyze the load-bearing capacity of the support structure with respect to site-specific conditions. Such an analysis requires the comparison of the loads used for the design of the support structure with the actual loads experienced. This publication presents the application of a so-called inverse load calculation to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure. The inverse load calculation determines external loads derived from a mechanical description of the support structure and from measured structural responses. Using numerical simulations with the software fast, we investigated the influence of wind-turbine-specific effects such as the wind turbine control or the dynamic interaction between the loads and the support structure to the presented inverse load calculation procedure. fast is used to study the inverse calculation of simultaneously acting wind and wave loads, which has not been carried out until now. Furthermore, the application of the inverse load calculation procedure to a real 5-MW wind turbine support structure is demonstrated. In terms of this practical application, setting up the mechanical system for the support structure using measurement data is discussed. The paper presents results for defined load cases and assesses the accuracy of the inversely derived dynamic loads for both the simulations and the practical application.

  17. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1993-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both...

  18. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1994-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both st...

  19. Study of heat-stress levels in naturally ventilated sheep barns during heat waves: development and assessment of regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, D. K.; Bartzanas, T.; Panagakis, P.; Zhang, G.; Kittas, C.

    2016-11-01

    It is well documented that heat-stress burdens sheep welfare and productivity. Peak heat-stress levels are observed when high temperatures prevail, i.e. during heat waves; however, continuous measurements inside livestock buildings are not usually available for long periods so as to study the variation of summer heat-stress levels for several years, especially during extreme hot weather. Α methodology to develop a long time series of summer temperature and relative humidity inside naturally ventilated sheep barns is proposed. The accuracy and the transferability of the developed linear regression models were verified. Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was used to assess sheep's potential heat-stress. Τhe variation of THI inside a barn during heat wave and non-heat wave days was examined, and the results were comparatively assessed. The analysis showed that sheep were exposed to moderate, severe, and extreme severe heat-stress in 10, 21 and 66 % of hours, respectively, during heat wave days, while the corresponding values during non-heat wave days were 14, 33 and 43 %, respectively. The heat load on sheep was much higher during heat wave events than during non-heat wave periods. Additionally, based on the averaged diurnal variation of THI, it was concluded that extreme severe heat-stress conditions were prevailing between 1000 and 2400 hours local time during heat wave days. Cool off night periods were never and extremely rarely detected during heat wave and non-heat wave days, respectively.

  20. Breaking wave impacts on offshore wind turbine foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2010-01-01

    Extreme wave loads from breaking waves on a monopile foundation are computed within a 3D CFD model. The wave impacts are obtained by application of focused wave groups. For a fixed position of the monopile, the focus location of the wave group is varied to produce impacts with front shapes....... Extensions of the study are discussed....

  1. Dynamic loadings of deepwater spar palatform - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Narasimhan, M.C.; Ambulgekar, P.P.

    Various wave loadings are considered separately on the deepwater Spar platform, with the wave propagation along x-axis and dynamic analyses are carried out at 1150m water depth using Newmark- beta approach The dynamic responses along six degrees...

  2. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  3. Multi-directional random wave interaction with an array of cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Xinran; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the linear theory of wave interaction with an array of circular bottom-mounted vertical cylinders, systematic calculations are made to investigate the effects of the wave directionality on wave loads in short-crested seas. The multi-directional waves are specified using a discrete form...... of the Mitsuyasu-type spreading function. The time series of multi-directional wave loads, including both the wave run-up and wave force, can be simulated. The effect of wave directionality on the wave run-up and wave loading on the cylinders is investigated. For multi-directional waves, as the distribution...... of wave spreading becomes wider, the wave run-up at some points around the cylinders is found to increase. This suggests that multi-directional wave run-up tends to be larger than unidirectional wave run-up. In addition, the wave directionality has a significant influence on the transverse force...

  4. Rethinking Empathic Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Meadors, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a methodological examination of the implicit empathic accuracy measure introduced by Zaki, Ochsner, and Bolger (2008). Empathic accuracy (EA) is defined as the ability to understand another person's thoughts and feelings (Ickes, 1993). Because this definition is similar to definitions of cognitive empathy (e.g., Shamay-Tsoory, 2011) and because affective empathy does not appear to be related to empathic accuracy (Zaki et al., 2008), the Basic Empathy Scale--which measures...

  5. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  6. Dual Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Kallosh, Renata

    1994-01-01

    We study the gravitational waves in the 10-dimensional target space of the superstring theory. Some of these waves have unbroken supersymmetries. They consist of Brinkmann metric and of a 2-form field. Sigma-model duality is applied to such waves. The corresponding solutions we call dual partners of gravitational waves, or dual waves. Some of these dual waves upon Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction to 4 dimensions become equivalent to the conformo-stationary solutions of axion-dilaton gravity...

  7. Wave Star - Preliminary study of float geometry; Wave Star - Indledende undersoegelse af flydegeometri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, M.; Brorsen, M.; Frigaard, P.

    2004-06-01

    The wave energy converter Wave Star converts the waves' energy power content to electrical energy through a series of floats. For plants of this type it is outmost important that the vertical loads from the waves are maximized in order to reach optimal energy exploitation. At the same time the horizontal loads from the waves must be minimized in order to obtain the slightest and cheapest construction possible. A detailed analysis of the floats form will demand expense heavy CFD calculations. Therefore, the Wave Star project has decided to use potential theoretical calculations which will help formulate the problems. This report describes a preliminary study of the float geometry. (BA)

  8. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme...... estimation. In the experimental program a small structure subjected to vibration was used to estimate the loading from the measurements and the experimental modal space. The modal parameters were estimated by Natural Input Modal Analysis and the scaling factors of the mode shapes obtained by the mass change...

  9. Gabor Wave Packet Method to Solve Plasma Wave Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Pletzer; C.K. Phillips; D.N. Smithe

    2003-06-18

    A numerical method for solving plasma wave equations arising in the context of mode conversion between the fast magnetosonic and the slow (e.g ion Bernstein) wave is presented. The numerical algorithm relies on the expansion of the solution in Gaussian wave packets known as Gabor functions, which have good resolution properties in both real and Fourier space. The wave packets are ideally suited to capture both the large and small wavelength features that characterize mode conversion problems. The accuracy of the scheme is compared with a standard finite element approach.

  10. Shock wave loading of a magnetic guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, L.

    2011-01-01

    The atom laser has long been a holy grail within atom physics and with the creation of an atom laser we hope to bring a similar revolution in to the field of atom optics. With the creation of the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) in 1995 the path to an atom laser was initiated. An atom laser is

  11. Transient Monotonic and Cyclic Load Effects on Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam

    and when hitting the foundation they induce high impact loads with a short duration. It is important that the foundation is able to resists these huge loads. Fortunately, the conducted research showed that the capacity of the mono bucket foundation is high to impact loads. When exposed to a huge wave load...

  12. Verification of Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Measurement Method Based on Pulse Wave Signal Detected by FBG Sensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasawa, Shintaro; Koyama, Shouhei; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Chino, Shun

    2017-11-23

    This paper describes and verifies a non-invasive blood glucose measurement method using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. The FBG sensor is installed on the radial artery, and the strain (pulse wave) that is propagated from the heartbeat is measured. The measured pulse wave signal was used as a collection of feature vectors for multivariate analysis aiming to determine the blood glucose level. The time axis of the pulse wave signal was normalized by two signal processing methods: the shortest-time-cut process and 1-s-normalization process. The measurement accuracy of the calculated blood glucose level was compared with the accuracy of these signal processing methods. It was impossible to calculate a blood glucose level exceeding 200 mg/dL in the calibration curve that was constructed by the shortest-time-cut process. In the 1-s-normalization process, the measurement accuracy of the blood glucose level was improved, and a blood glucose level exceeding 200 mg/dL could be calculated. By verifying the loading vector of each calibration curve to calculate the blood glucose level with a high measurement accuracy, we found the gradient of the peak of the pulse wave at the acceleration plethysmogram greatly affected.

  13. Neural Network-based Load Forecasting and Error Implication for Short-term Horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuntia, S.R.; Rueda Torres, José L.; van der Meijden, M.A.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Load forecasting is considered vital along with many other important entities required for assessing the reliability of power system. Thus, the primary concern is not to forecast load with a novel model, rather to forecast load with the highest accuracy. Short-term load forecast accuracy is often

  14. Load forecasting method considering temperature effect for distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiao Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, the temperature factor was introduced into the load forecasting in this paper. This paper analyzed the characteristics of power load variation, and researched the rule of the load with the temperature change. Based on the linear regression analysis, the mathematical model of load forecasting was presented with considering the temperature effect, and the steps of load forecasting were given. Used MATLAB, the temperature regression coefficient was calculated. Using the load forecasting model, the full-day load forecasting and time-sharing load forecasting were carried out. By comparing and analyzing the forecast error, the results showed that the error of time-sharing load forecasting method was small in this paper. The forecasting method is an effective method to improve the accuracy of load forecasting.

  15. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...... surface. NS3 is used to simulate the wave run-up due to a regular wave to calculate the maximum wave run-up around a cylinder. The aim of this paper is shown the calculations of NS3 code and compared with the data obtained from the large scale test performed in Grossen Wellenkanal (GWK...

  16. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  17. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  18. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  19. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  20. Evaluating Measurement Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2010-01-01

    The goal of Evaluating Measurement Accuracy: A Practical Approach is to present methods for estimating the accuracy of measurements performed in industry, trade, and scientific research. Although multiple measurements are the focus of current theory, single measurements are the ones most commonly used. This book answers fundamental questions not addressed by present theory, such as how to discover the complete uncertainty of a measurement result. In developing a general theory of processing experimental data, this book, for the first time, presents the postulates of the theory of measurements. It introduces several new terms and definitions about the relationship between the accuracy of measuring instruments and measurements utilizing these instruments. It also offers well-grounded and practical methods for combining the components of measurement inaccuracy. From developing the theory of indirect measurements to proposing new methods of reduction in place of the traditional ones, this work encompasses the ful...

  1. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies......, concerning a hydraulic evaluation and optimisation of the geometry of the Wave Dragon, is presented. Furthermore, the plans for the future development projects are sketched....

  2. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  3. Electromagnetic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, H.; van den Berg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc.

  4. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...

  5. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  6. Direct modeling of coda wave interferometry: comparison of numerical and experimental approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzola, Jérôme; Masson, Frédéric; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The sensitivity of coda waves to small changes of the propagation medium is the principle of the coda waves interferometry, a technique which has been found to have a large range of applications over the past years. It exploits the evolution of strongly scattered waves in a limited region of space, to estimate slight changes like the wave velocity of the medium but also the location of scatterer positions or the stress field. Because of the sensitivity of the method, it is of a great value for the monitoring of geothermal EGS reservoir in order to detect fine changes. The aim of this work is thus to monitor the impact of different scatterer distributions and of the loading condition evolution using coda wave interferometry in the laboratory and numerically by modelling the scatter wavefield. In the laboratory, we analyze the scattering of an acoustic wave through a perforated loaded plate of DURAL. Indeed, the localized damages introduced behave as a scatter source. Coda wave interferometry is performed computing correlations of waveforms under different loading conditions, for different scatter distributions. Numerically, we used SPECFEM2D (a 2D spectral element code, (Komatitsch and Vilotte (1998)) to perform 2D simulations of acoustic and elastic seismic wave propagation and enables a direct comparison with laboratory and field results. An unstructured mesh is thus used to simulate the propagation of a wavelet in a loaded plate, before and after introduction of localized damages. The linear elastic deformation of the plate is simulated using Code Aster. The coda wave interferometry is performed similarly to experimental measurements. The accuracy of the comparison of the numerically and laboratory obtained results is strongly depending on the capacity to adapt the laboratory and numerical simulation conditions. In laboratory, the capacity to illuminate the medium in a similar way to that used in the numerical simulation deeply conditions among others the

  7. Estimation of Peak Wave Stresses in Slender Complex Concrete Armor Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, G.L.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rhee, Joon R

    1991-01-01

    Recent methods for the structural design of concrete armor units divide the forces into static loads, impact loads, and wave or pulsating loads. Physical model technology is being developed at several laboratories to measure wave loads on model armor units. While this technology represents...... significant progress, structural designers require a maximum stress value to design armor units....

  8. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  9. A scalable method for computing quadruplet wave-wave interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vledder, Gerbrant

    2017-04-01

    Non-linear four-wave interactions are a key physical process in the evolution of wind generated ocean waves. The present generation operational wave models use the Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA), but it accuracy is poor. It is now generally acknowledged that the DIA should be replaced with a more accurate method to improve predicted spectral shapes and derived parameters. The search for such a method is challenging as one should find a balance between accuracy and computational requirements. Such a method is presented here in the form of a scalable and adaptive method that can mimic both the time consuming exact Snl4 approach and the fast but inaccurate DIA, and everything in between. The method provides an elegant approach to improve the DIA, not by including more arbitrarily shaped wave number configurations, but by a mathematically consistent reduction of an exact method, viz. the WRT method. The adaptiveness is to adapt the abscissa of the locus integrand in relation to the magnitude of the known terms. The adaptiveness is extended to the highest level of the WRT method to select interacting wavenumber configurations in a hierarchical way in relation to their importance. This adaptiveness results in a speed-up of one to three orders of magnitude depending on the measure of accuracy. This definition of accuracy should not be expressed in terms of the quality of the transfer integral for academic spectra but rather in terms of wave model performance in a dynamic run. This has consequences for the balance between the required accuracy and the computational workload for evaluating these interactions. The performance of the scalable method on different scales is illustrated with results from academic spectra, simple growth curves to more complicated field cases using a 3G-wave model.

  10. Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Alexandra [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Haller, Merrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Civil & Construction Engineering; Walker, David [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lynett, Pat [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    This project addressed Topic 3: “Wave Measurement Instrumentation for Feed Forward Controls” under the FOA number DE-FOA-0000971. The overall goal of the program was to develop a phase-resolving wave forecasting technique for application to the active control of Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) devices. We have developed an approach that couples a wave imaging marine radar with a phase-resolving linear wave model for real-time wave field reconstruction and forward propagation of the wave field in space and time. The scope of the project was to develop and assess the performance of this novel forecasting system. Specific project goals were as follows: Develop and verify a fast, GPU-based (Graphical Processing Unit) wave propagation model suitable for phase-resolved computation of nearshore wave transformation over variable bathymetry; Compare the accuracy and speed of performance of the wave model against a deep water model in their ability to predict wave field transformation in the intermediate water depths (50 to 70 m) typical of planned WEC sites; Develop and implement a variational assimilation algorithm that can ingest wave imaging radar observations and estimate the time-varying wave conditions offshore of the domain of interest such that the observed wave field is best reconstructed throughout the domain and then use this to produce model forecasts for a given WEC location; Collect wave-resolving marine radar data, along with relevant in situ wave data, at a suitable wave energy test site, apply the algorithm to the field data, assess performance, and identify any necessary improvements; and Develop a production cost estimate that addresses the affordability of the wave forecasting technology and include in the Final Report. The developed forecasting algorithm (“Wavecast”) was evaluated for both speed and accuracy against a substantial synthetic dataset. Early in the project, performance tests definitively demonstrated that the system was capable of

  11. Method of Calculation of Crown Wall Stability in Oblique Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    2007-01-01

    The wave loading along a structure exposed to oblique waves varies in time and space. Despite of this, the wave generated pressures are usually recorded by gauges only in one position of the wall (more gauges densily spaced is regarded as one position).......The wave loading along a structure exposed to oblique waves varies in time and space. Despite of this, the wave generated pressures are usually recorded by gauges only in one position of the wall (more gauges densily spaced is regarded as one position)....

  12. Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-02-08

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  13. Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-08-17

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  14. Pulse wave analysis with diffusing-wave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belau, Markus; Scheffer, Wolfgang; Maret, Georg

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thus at the origin of many deaths by e.g. heart attack or stroke. Hypertension is caused by many factors including an increase in arterial stiffness which leads to changes in pulse wave velocity and wave reflections. Those often result in an increased left ventricular load which may result in heart failure as well as an increased pulsatile pressure in the microcirculation l to damage to blood vessels. In order to specifically treat the different causes of hypertension it is desirable to perform a pulse wave analysis as a complement to measurements of systolic and diastolic pressure by brachial cuff sphygmomanometry. Here we show that Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive portable tool, is able to monitor blood flow changes with a high temporal resolution. The measured pulse travel times give detailed information of the pulse wave blood flow profile.

  15. The Structural Response of Cylindrical Shells to Internal Shock Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, W.M.; Burcsu, E.N.; Shepherd, J.E.; Zuhal, L.

    The internal shock loading of cylindrical shells can be represented as a step load advancing at constant speed. Several analytical models are available to calculate the structural response of shells to this type of loading. These models show that the speed of the shock wave is an important

  16. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  17. AR-based Algorithms for Short Term Load Forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhairi Baharudin; Mohd. Azman Zakariya; Mohd. HarisMdKhir; Perumal Nallagownden; Muhammad Qamar Raza

    2014-01-01

    Short-term load forecast plays an important role in planning and operation of power systems. The accuracy of the forecast value is necessary for economically efficient operation and effective control of the plant. This study describes the methods of Autoregressive (AR) Burg’s and Modified Covariance (MCOV) in solving the short term load forecast. Both algorithms are tested with power load data from Malaysian grid and New South Wales, Australia. The forecast accuracy is assessed in terms of th...

  18. Computation of Nonlinear Hydrodynamic Loads on Floating Wind Turbines Using Fluid-Impulse Theory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok Yan Chan, G.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Jonkman, J.; Hayman, G.

    2015-04-02

    A hydrodynamics computer module was developed for the evaluation of the linear and nonlinear loads on floating wind turbines using a new fluid-impulse formulation for coupling with the FAST program. The recently developed formulation allows the computation of linear and nonlinear loads on floating bodies in the time domain and avoids the computationally intensive evaluation of temporal and nonlinear free-surface problems and efficient methods are derived for its computation. The body instantaneous wetted surface is approximated by a panel mesh and the discretization of the free surface is circumvented by using the Green function. The evaluation of the nonlinear loads is based on explicit expressions derived by the fluid-impulse theory, which can be computed efficiently. Computations are presented of the linear and nonlinear loads on the MIT/NREL tension-leg platform. Comparisons were carried out with frequency-domain linear and second-order methods. Emphasis was placed on modeling accuracy of the magnitude of nonlinear low- and high-frequency wave loads in a sea state. Although fluid-impulse theory is applied to floating wind turbines in this paper, the theory is applicable to other offshore platforms as well.

  19. Application of WIM to pavement design. Effect of WIM accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Leal Bermejo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Weigh-in-motion (WIM techniques can provide data on vehicle and axle weights when they are travelling at full highway speeds. In this paper, the application of WIM data to the design of road pavements is described and the effect of WIM load data accuracy on the estimate of pavement service life is analysed. Thus, the main factors affecting WIM accuracy are explained, especially those related to vehicle-pavement interaction. Afterwards, a trial that has been conducted to evaluate the effect of WIM load data accuracy on pavement life prediction will be presented. The results obtained show that the errors in axle load measurements can lead to higher errors in pavement life estimates.

  20. Janus Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Papazoglou, Dimitris G.; Fedorov, Vladimir Yu.; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a family of waves that share a common interesting property affecting the way they propagate and focus. These waves are a superposition of twin waves, which are conjugate to each other under inversion of the propagation direction. In analogy to holography, these twin "real" and "virtual" waves are related respectively to the converging and the diverging part of the beam and can be clearly visualized in real space at two distinct foci under the action of a focusing lens...

  1. Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils During Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...... wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean...

  2. Buoy-Rope-Drum Wave Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsen Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A buoy-rope-drum wave power system is a new type of floating oscillating buoy wave power device, which absorbs energy from waves by buoy-rope-drum device. Based on the linear deep water wave theory and pure resistive load, with cylinder buoy as an example, the research sets up the theoretical model of direct-drive buoy-rope-drum wave power efficiency and analyzes the influence of the mass and load of the system on its generating efficiency. It points out the two main categories of the efficient buoy-rope-drum wave power system: light thin type and resonance type, and optimal designs of their major parameters are carried out on the basis of the above theoretical model of generating efficiency.

  3. Modelling waves and their impact on moored ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    Ships that are moored at a berth in coastal waters are subject to various external forcings, including the hydrodynamic loads that are induced by the local wave field.
    If the ship motions resulting from these wave-induced loads become too large, they may hamper safe operations (e.g., the

  4. Wave Simulation in Truncated Domains for Offshore Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a desire to assess extreme wave loads on offshore structures like Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels, either for design, or for evaluation when circumstances near the structure change. Design formulae for extreme wave loads are scarce and

  5. Rossby Waves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut quiz Tutorial Quiz Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial reviews the mechanisms of Rossby waves. Rossby waves in both the northern and southern hemispheres are considered. The interactions involve answering simple fill-in-the-blank questions. Diagrams are used to illustrate some of the concepts reviewed. MR4322 Dynamic Meteorology

  6. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  7. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  8. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  9. Reliability of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon

    There are many different working principles for wave energy converters (WECs) which are used to produce electricity from waves. In order for WECs to become successful and more competitive to other renewable electricity sources, the consideration of the structural reliability of WECs is essential...... WEPTOS. Calibration of safety factors are performed for welded structures at theWavestar device including different control systems for harvesting energy from waves. In addition, a case study of different O&M strategies for WECs is discussed, and an example of reliability-based structural optimization....... Structural reliability considerations and optimizations impact operation and maintenance (O&M) costs as well as the initial investment costs. Furthermore, there is a control system for WEC applications which defines the harvested energy but also the loads onto the structure. Therefore, extreme loads but also...

  10. Reliability of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon

    There are many different working principles for wave energy converters (WECs) which are used to produce electricity from waves. In order for WECs tobecome successful and more competitive to other renewable electricity sources,the consideration of the structural reliability of WECs is essential...... for welded structures at the Wavestar device includingdifferent control systems for harvesting energy from waves. In addition, a casestudy of different O&M strategies for WECs is discussed, and an example ofreliability-based structural optimization of the Wavestar foundation ispresented. The work performed.......Structural reliability considerations and optimizations impact operation andmaintenance (O&M) costs as well as the initial investment costs.Furthermore, there is a control system for WEC applications which defines theharvested energy but also the loads onto the structure. Therefore, extremeloads but also fatigue loads...

  11. Improving the accuracy of dynamic mass calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr F. Dashchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the acceleration of goods transporting, cargo accounting plays an important role in today's global and complex environment. Weight is the most reliable indicator of the materials control. Unlike many other variables that can be measured indirectly, the weight can be measured directly and accurately. Using strain-gauge transducers, weight value can be obtained within a few milliseconds; such values correspond to the momentary load, which acts on the sensor. Determination of the weight of moving transport is only possible by appropriate processing of the sensor signal. The aim of the research is to develop a methodology for weighing freight rolling stock, which increases the accuracy of the measurement of dynamic mass, in particular wagon that moves. Apart from time-series methods, preliminary filtration for improving the accuracy of calculation is used. The results of the simulation are presented.

  12. Extreme load predictions for floating offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    An effective stochastic procedure for extreme value predictions related to wave and wind induced stochastic loads is applied to a tension-leg concept for floating offshore wind turbines. The method is based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and as the procedure makes use of only short...... time-domain simulations all kinds of non-linearities can be included. The procedure has been used previously for wave induced loads and is in this note extended to combined wave and wind loads....

  13. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shock Analysis codes. In the long run, this deflection and stress data will assist in examining the structural arrangement of the submarine pressure hull.

  14. Stochastic Extreme Load Predictions for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1999-01-01

    Development of rational design criteria for marine structures requires reliable estimates for the maximum wave-induced loads the structure may encounter during its operational lifetime. The paper discusses various methods for extreme value predictions taking into account the non-linearity of the ......Development of rational design criteria for marine structures requires reliable estimates for the maximum wave-induced loads the structure may encounter during its operational lifetime. The paper discusses various methods for extreme value predictions taking into account the non...

  15. Shock-induced spall in copper: the effects of anisotropy, temperature, loading pulse and defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; An, Qi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Li - Bo [USTC

    2009-07-28

    Shock-induced spall in Cu is investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. We examine spallation in initially perfect crystals and defective solids with grain boundaries (columnar bicrystals), stacking faults or vacancies, as well as the effect of temperature and loading pulses. Spall in single crystal Cu is anisotropic, and defects and high temperature may reduce the spall strength. Taylor-wave (triangular shock-release wave) loading is explored in comparison with square wave shock loading.

  16. Wave Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helm-Petersen, J.; Frigaard, Peter

    1994-01-01

    This report is Aalborg University's first contribution to the MAS2-CT92 project: Full scale dynamic load monitoring of rubble mound breakwaters.......This report is Aalborg University's first contribution to the MAS2-CT92 project: Full scale dynamic load monitoring of rubble mound breakwaters....

  17. Further progress in control of localized nonlinear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubov, A. V.; Antonov, I. D.; Fradkov, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Previously found mechanical system is studied which consists of the nonlinearly elastic layer subjected to external loading. The last is assumed to be a distributive control which causes in particular, localization of longitudinal nonlinear strain waves. Various types of localized nonlinear waves are achieved due to a suitable choice of the external loading. Wave profiles arising at variations around this optimal choice of the control are studied.

  18. Mechanism for Mechanical Wave Break in the Heart Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, L. D.; Panfilov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Using a reaction-diffusion-mechanics model we identify a mechanism for mechanical wave break in the heart muscle. For a wide range of strengths and durations an external mechanical load causes wave front dissipation leading to formation and breakup of spiral waves. We explain the mechanism, and discuss under which conditions it can cause or abolish cardiac arrhythmias.

  19. Fast Plane Wave 2-D Vector Flow Imaging Using Transverse Oscillation and Directional Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques can estimate the 2-D velocity vector in ultrasound. Directional beamforming (DB) estimates blood flow velocities with a higher precision and accuracy than transverse oscillation (TO), but at the cost of a high beamforming load when estimating the flow angle. In this paper......, it is proposed to use TO to estimate an initial flow angle, which is then refined in a DB step. Velocity magnitude is estimated along the flow direction using cross-correlation. It is shown that the suggested TO-DB method can improve the performance of velocity estimates compared to TO, and with a beamforming...... load, which is 4.6 times larger than for TO and seven times smaller than for conventional DB. Steered plane wave transmissions are employed for high frame rate imaging, and parabolic flow with a peak velocity of 0.5 m/s is simulated in straight vessels at beamto- flow angles from 45 to 90. The TO...

  20. Wave power absorption: Experiments in open sea and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, M.; Waters, R.; Svensson, O.; Isberg, J.; Leijon, M.

    2007-10-01

    A full scale prototype of a wave power plant based on a direct drive linear generator driven by a point absorber has been installed at the west coast of Sweden. In this paper, experimentally collected data of energy absorption for different electrical loads are used to verify a model of the wave power plant including the interactions of wave, buoy, generator, and external load circuit. The wave-buoy interaction is modeled with linear potential wave theory. The generator is modeled as a nonlinear mechanical damping function that is dependent on piston velocity and electric load. The results show good agreement between experiments and simulations. Potential wave theory is well suited for the modeling of a point absorber in normal operation and for the design of future converters. Moreover, the simulations are fast, which opens up for simulations of wave farms.

  1. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  2. Consolidation Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Ward; Smit, Han

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explains why consolidation acquisitions occur in waves and it predicts the differing role each firm is likely to play in the consolidation game. We propose that whether a firm assumes the role of rival consolidator, target, or passive observer depends on the position of the firm relative to the entity that merges first. Our model predicts that an initial acquisition triggers a wave of follow-on acquisitions, where the process of asset accumulation by the consolidator is...

  3. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  4. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  5. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  6. Turbulence beneath finite amplitude water waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beya, J.F. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Oceanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valparaiso (Chile); The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peirson, W.L. [The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Banner, M.L. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Babanin and Haus (J Phys Oceanogr 39:2675-2679, 2009) recently presented evidence of near-surface turbulence generated below steep non-breaking deep-water waves. They proposed a threshold wave parameter a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 3,000 for the spontaneous occurrence of turbulence beneath surface waves. This is in contrast to conventional understanding that irrotational wave theories provide a good approximation of non-wind-forced wave behaviour as validated by classical experiments. Many laboratory wave experiments were carried out in the early 1960s (e.g. Wiegel 1964). In those experiments, no evidence of turbulence was reported, and steep waves behaved as predicted by the high-order irrotational wave theories within the accuracy of the theories and experimental techniques at the time. This contribution describes flow visualisation experiments for steep non-breaking waves using conventional dye techniques in the wave boundary layer extending above the wave trough level. The measurements showed no evidence of turbulent mixing up to a value of a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 7,000 at which breaking commenced in these experiments. These present findings are in accord with the conventional understandings of wave behaviour. (orig.)

  7. S-Band Doppler Wave Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezong Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel shore-based S-band microwave Doppler coherent wave radar (Microwave Ocean Remote SEnsor (MORSE is designed to improve wave measurements. Marine radars, which operate in the X band, have been widely used for ocean monitoring because of their low cost, small size and flexibility. However, because of the non-coherent measurements and strong absorption of X-band radio waves by rain, these radar systems suffer considerable performance loss in moist weather. Furthermore, frequent calibrations to modify the modulation transfer function are required. To overcome these shortcomings, MORSE, which operates in the S band, was developed by Wuhan University. Because of the coherent measurements of this sensor, it is able to measure the radial velocity of water particles via the Doppler effect. Then the relation between the velocity spectrum and wave height spectrum can be used to obtain the wave height spectra. Finally, wave parameters are estimated from the wave height spectra by the spectrum moment method. Comparisons between MORSE and Waverider MKIII are conducted in this study, and the results, including the non-directional wave height spectra, significant wave height and average wave period, are calculated and displayed. The correlation coefficient of the significant wave height is larger than 0.9, whereas that of the average wave period is approximately 0.4, demonstrating the effectiveness of MORSE for the continuous monitoring of ocean areas with high accuracy.

  8. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  9. Solving Nonlinear Euler Equations with Arbitrary Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2005-01-01

    A computer program that efficiently solves the time-dependent, nonlinear Euler equations in two dimensions to an arbitrarily high order of accuracy has been developed. The program implements a modified form of a prior arbitrary- accuracy simulation algorithm that is a member of the class of algorithms known in the art as modified expansion solution approximation (MESA) schemes. Whereas millions of lines of code were needed to implement the prior MESA algorithm, it is possible to implement the present MESA algorithm by use of one or a few pages of Fortran code, the exact amount depending on the specific application. The ability to solve the Euler equations to arbitrarily high accuracy is especially beneficial in simulations of aeroacoustic effects in settings in which fully nonlinear behavior is expected - for example, at stagnation points of fan blades, where linearizing assumptions break down. At these locations, it is necessary to solve the full nonlinear Euler equations, and inasmuch as the acoustical energy is of the order of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude below that of the mean flow, it is necessary to achieve an overall fractional error of less than 10-6 in order to faithfully simulate entropy, vortical, and acoustical waves.

  10. High accuracy electromagnetic field solvers for cylindrical waveguides and axisymmetric structures using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Eric Michael [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Some two-dimensional finite element electromagnetic field solvers are described and tested. For TE and TM modes in homogeneous cylindrical waveguides and monopole modes in homogeneous axisymmetric structures, the solvers find approximate solutions to a weak formulation of the wave equation. Second-order isoparametric lagrangian triangular elements represent the field. For multipole modes in axisymmetric structures, the solver finds approximate solutions to a weak form of the curl-curl formulation of Maxwell`s equations. Second-order triangular edge elements represent the radial (ρ) and axial (z) components of the field, while a second-order lagrangian basis represents the azimuthal (Φ) component of the field weighted by the radius ρ. A reduced set of basis functions is employed for elements touching the axis. With this basis the spurious modes of the curl-curl formulation have zero frequency, so spurious modes are easily distinguished from non-static physical modes. Tests on an annular ring, a pillbox and a sphere indicate the solutions converge rapidly as the mesh is refined. Computed eigenvalues with relative errors of less than a few parts per million are obtained. Boundary conditions for symmetric, periodic and symmetric-periodic structures are discussed and included in the field solver. Boundary conditions for structures with inversion symmetry are also discussed. Special corner elements are described and employed to improve the accuracy of cylindrical waveguide and monopole modes with singular fields at sharp corners. The field solver is applied to three problems: (1) cross-field amplifier slow-wave circuits, (2) a detuned disk-loaded waveguide linear accelerator structure and (3) a 90° overmoded waveguide bend. The detuned accelerator structure is a critical application of this high accuracy field solver. To maintain low long-range wakefields, tight design and manufacturing tolerances are required.

  11. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of multi-model ensemble forecasting of typhoon waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-qi Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurately forecasting ocean waves during typhoon events is extremely important in aiding the mitigation and minimization of their potential damage to the coastal infrastructure, and the protection of coastal communities. However, due to the complex hydrological and meteorological interaction and uncertainties arising from different modeling systems, quantifying the uncertainties and improving the forecasting accuracy of modeled typhoon-induced waves remain challenging. This paper presents a practical approach to optimizing model-ensemble wave heights in an attempt to improve the accuracy of real-time typhoon wave forecasting. A locally weighted learning algorithm is used to obtain the weights for the wave heights computed by the WAVEWATCH III wave model driven by winds from four different weather models (model-ensembles. The optimized weights are subsequently used to calculate the resulting wave heights from the model-ensembles. The results show that the Optimization is capable of capturing the different behavioral effects of the different weather models on wave generation. Comparison with the measurements at the selected wave buoy locations shows that the optimized weights, obtained through a training process, can significantly improve the accuracy of the forecasted wave heights over the standard mean values, particularly for typhoon-induced peak waves. The results also indicate that the algorithm is easy to implement and practical for real-time wave forecasting.

  13. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified ...

  14. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  15. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (2). Hence, small amplitude waves are also called linear waves. Most of the aspects of the ocean waves can be explained by the small amplitude wave theory. Let us now see the water particle motion due to waves. While wave energy is carried by the wave as it progresses forward, the water particles oscillate up and down.

  16. Theoretical prediction and experimental verification of light-load ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anirudh Guha

    Inverter dead-time is known to cause an error voltage pulse in each switching cycle, the polarity of which depends on the load current polarity [12, 13]. The switching-cycle average of this error voltage is seen to be a square wave over a fundamental cycle; the polarity of this square wave depends on the sign or polarity of the.

  17. Conditional Short-crested second order waves in shallow water and with superimposed current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    For bottom-supported offshore structures like oil drilling rigs and oil production platforms, a deterministic design wave approach is often applied using a regular non-linear Stokes' wave. Thereby, the procedure accounts for non-linear effects in the wave loading but the randomness of the ocean...... approach as design waves is given....

  18. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Hereman, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  19. Wave groups in unidirectional surface wave models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1998-01-01

    Uni-directional wave models are used to study wave groups that appear in wave tanks of hydrodynamic laboratories; characteristic for waves in such tanks is that the wave length is rather small, comparable to the depth of the layer. In second-order theory, the resulting Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS)

  20. Wave Climate Resource Analysis Based on a Revised Gamma Spectrum for Wave Energy Conversion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Pastor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to correctly predict and evaluate the response of wave energy converters (WECs, an accurate representation of wave climate resource is crucial. This paper gives an overview of wave resource modeling techniques and applies a methodology to estimate the naturally available and technically recoverable resource in a given deployment site. The methodology was initially developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, which uses a modified gamma spectrum to interpret sea state hindcast parameter data produced by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s WaveWatch III. This gamma spectrum is dependent on the calibration of two variables relating to the spectral width parameter and spectral peakedness parameter. In this study, this methodology was revised by the authors to increase its accuracy in formulating wavelength. The revised methodology shows how to assess a given geographic area’s wave resource based on its wave power density and total annual wave energy flux.

  1. Breaking Wave on a Slender Cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    a detailed investigation of the effect of 2D waves on the run-up height. The focused wave is designed by choosing the phases of the linear harmonic components such that they are in phase at a certain target location. The aim of this paper is the approach on the ability of NS3 model to reproduce these focused......CFD models are promising in predicting non-linear wave loads on fixed and floating offshore structures. The NS3 model is described in this paper and it has been validated by means of model test such as wave run-up on monopiles in regular waves. The goal for the use of the NS3 model is to make...... wave groups and compare with the results of the experimental tests carried out at Grossen WellenKanal (GWK)....

  2. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  3. A Fatigue Crack Size Evaluation Method Based on Lamb Wave Simulation and Limited Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic and general method for Lamb wave-based crack size quantification using finite element simulations and Bayesian updating. The method consists of construction of a baseline quantification model using finite element simulation data and Bayesian updating with limited Lamb wave data from target structure. The baseline model correlates two proposed damage sensitive features, namely the normalized amplitude and phase change, with the crack length through a response surface model. The two damage sensitive features are extracted from the first received S0 mode wave package. The model parameters of the baseline model are estimated using finite element simulation data. To account for uncertainties from numerical modeling, geometry, material and manufacturing between the baseline model and the target model, Bayesian method is employed to update the baseline model with a few measurements acquired from the actual target structure. A rigorous validation is made using in-situ fatigue testing and Lamb wave data from coupon specimens and realistic lap-joint components. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated under different loading and damage conditions.

  4. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  5. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeini-Jazani, Mehrad; Knoeferle, Klemens; de Moliere, Laura; Gatti, Elia; Warlop, Luk

    2017-01-01

    Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental

  6. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for 1D wave propagation in a nonlinear heterogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, S.; Glinsky, N.; Mercerat, E. D.; Bonilla Hidalgo, L. F.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a nodal high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for 1D wave propagation in nonlinear media. We solve the elastodynamic equations written in the velocity-strain formulation and apply an upwind flux adapted to heterogeneous media with nonlinear constitutive behavior coupling stress and strain. Accuracy, convergence and stability of the method are studied through several numerical applications. Hysteresis loops distinguishing loading and unloading-reloading paths are also taken into account. We investigate several effects of nonlinearity in wave propagation, such as the generation of high frequencies and the frequency shift of resonant peaks to lower frequencies. Finally, we compare the results for both nonlinear models, with and without hysteresis, and highlight the effects of the former on the stabilization of the numerical scheme.

  7. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  8. Simulation of Wave Overtopping of Maritime Structures in a Numerical Wave Flume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago C. A. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical wave flume based on the particle finite element method (PFEM is applied to simulate wave overtopping for impermeable maritime structures. An assessment of the performance and robustness of the numerical wave flume is carried out for two different cases comparing numerical results with experimental data. In the first case, a well-defined benchmark test of a simple low-crested structure overtopped by regular nonbreaking waves is presented, tested in the lab, and simulated in the numerical wave flume. In the second case, state-of-the-art physical experiments of a trapezoidal structure placed on a sloping beach overtopped by regular breaking waves are simulated in the numerical wave flume. For both cases, main overtopping events are well detected by the numerical wave flume. However, nonlinear processes controlling the tests proposed, such as nonlinear wave generation, energy losses along the wave propagation track, wave reflection, and overtopping events, are reproduced with more accuracy in the first case. Results indicate that a numerical wave flume based on the PFEM can be applied as an efficient tool to supplement physical models, semiempirical formulations, and other numerical techniques to deal with overtopping of maritime structures.

  9. Combined Loadings and Cross-Dimensional Loadings Timeliness of Presentation of Financial Statements of Local Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, I.; Dharsuky, A.; Siregar, H. S.; Sadalia, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the pattern of readiness dimensional accuracy of financial statements of local government in North Sumatra with a routine pattern of two (2) months after the fiscal year ends and patterns of at least 3 (three) months after the fiscal year ends. This type of research is explanatory survey with quantitative methods. The population and the sample used is of local government officials serving local government financial reports. Combined Analysis And Cross-Loadings Loadings are used with statistical tools WarpPLS. The results showed that there was a pattern that varies above dimensional accuracy of the financial statements of local government in North Sumatra.

  10. Wave Induced Stresses Measured at the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, L.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the wave induced loading on the overtopping based wave energy converter Wave Dragon. Focus is put on the junction between the main body and the reflector, also called the "shoulder part", where large cross sectional forces and bending moments acts. There are two main objectives...... for this paper, first to verify the FEM results obtained by Niras, Danish society in charge of the finite element modelling and structural design, and then to make a first experimental fatigue analysis of a particular part of the Wave Dragon. This last part shall be considered as an exercise for the further work...

  11. Meditation Experience Predicts Introspective Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kieran C. R.; Zakarauskas, Pierre; Dixon, Matt; Ellamil, Melissa; Thompson, Evan; Christoff, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1–15,000 hrs experience). Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a ‘body-scanning’ meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold) as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices. PMID:23049790

  12. Investigation into stress wave propagation in metal foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate stress wave propagation in metal foams under high-speed impact loading. Three-dimensional Voronoi model is established to represent real closed-cell foam. Based on the one-dimensional stress wave theory and Voronoi model, a numerical model is developed to calculate the velocity of elastic wave and shock wave in metal foam. The effects of impact velocity and relative density of metal foam on the stress wave propagation in metal foams are explored respectively. The results show that both elastic wave and shock wave propagate faster in metal foams with larger relative density; with increasing the impact velocity, the shock wave propagation velocity increase, but the elastic wave propagation is not sensitive to the impact velocity.

  13. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Weisz, A.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Langlee wave energy converter (WEC). It focused mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device, including investigations of the following issues: Scaling ratiosPTO loadingWave...... height and wave period dependencyOblique incoming waves and directional spreading of waves (3D waves)Damping platesMooring forces and fixed structure setupPitch, surge and heave motion During the study the model supplied by the client (Langlee Wave Power AS) has been heavily instrumented - up to 23...... different instruments was deployed to measure and record data. Tests were performed at scales of 1:30 and 1:20 based on the realized reference wave states....

  14. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  15. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  16. Wave Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarese, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics

  17. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  18. Directional Properties of Surface Waves Observed With HF Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wyatt, Lucy

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the work at Sheffield is to demonstrate that wave measurements obtained using HF radars are of sufficient accuracy and availability for them to contribute to the investigation of changes...

  19. Extreme Hurricane-Generated Waves in Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberto, Carlos; Fernandes, Santos

    2005-01-01

    .... Although WaveWatchIII (WW3) is used by many operational forecasting centers around the world, there is a lack of field studies to evaluate its accuracy in regional applications and under extreme conditions, such as Hurricanes...

  20. Calculation of wave resistance by using Kochin function in the Rankine source method; Rankinsosuho ni okeru kochin kansu wo mochiita zoha teiko keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to avoid negative wave resistance (which is physically incomprehensible) generated in calculating wave resistance by using the Rankine source method, a proposal was made on a wave resistance calculation method using the Kochin function which describes behavior of speed potential in regions far apart from a hull. The Baba`s condition was used as a free surface condition for the speed potential which expresses wave motions around a hull. This has allowed a new Kochin function which uses as unknown the speed potential on the hull surface and the free surface near the hull to be defined and combined with the Rankine source method. A comparison was made between the calculated values for wave resistance, hull subsidence and trim change of an ore transporting vessel (SR107 type of ship) in a fully loaded condition and the result of water tank tests. The wave resistance values derived from pressure integration have all become negative when the Froude number is from 0.1 to 0.2, while no negative resistance has appeared in the calculations by using the Kochin function, but the result has agreed with that of the water tank tests. Accuracy of the calculations at low speeds was improved. The trim change in the calculations was slightly smaller than that in the water tank tests. The subsidence showed a good agreement. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  2. On accuracy problems for semi-analytical sensitivity analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P.; Cheng, G.; Rasmussen, John

    1989-01-01

    The semi-analytical method of sensitivity analysis combines ease of implementation with computational efficiency. A major drawback to this method, however, is that severe accuracy problems have recently been reported. A complete error analysis for a beam problem with changing length is carried ou...... pseudo loads in order to obtain general load equilibrium with rigid body motions. Such a method would be readily applicable for any element type, whether analytical expressions for the element stiffnesses are available or not. This topic is postponed for a future study....

  3. Hurricane waves on Storm Surges in Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.

    2005-05-01

    During a tropical storm, high winds and low pressure generate abnormal sea water levels and currents. We present a time series of 48 hours water levels combining wave effects on surges during hurricane Opal (1995). The offshore hurricane ocean wave is modeled by a recent parametric ocean wave model using the best track data. The post-storm meteorological input data are applied to the calculation of surges and storm waves. A scheme is used to simulate the effects of wave-surges near the coast: the time varying surges is obtained first and then the modified mean water level is used for coastal wave calculations. The high water levels at the gauge station and on-site debris line are collected for model comparison. The hurricane waves and coastal waves are calculated near the eye center and on the beach slope, where the waves break and produce a mean free surface wave set-up. We examined the maximum wave set-ups at the shoreline, the wave run-up on the beach, adding up the storm surges and predicted tides at the station. It was found that the inland flooding is the combined results of storm surges elevating the water level, causing the wave breaking further landward and a higher wave run-up. The accuracy of hurricane waves is significant to the determination of inundation zone.

  4. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrad Moeini-Jazani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental condition outperformed those in the control and low-power conditions in the Schandry heartbeat-detection task. We demonstrate that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is not explained by participants’ physiological arousal, affective state, or general intention for accuracy. Rather, consistent with our reasoning that experiencing power shifts attentional resources inward, we show that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is dependent on individuals’ chronic tendency to focus on their internal sensations. Moreover, we demonstrate that individuals’ chronic sense of power also predicts interoceptive accuracy similar to, and independent of, how their situationally induced feeling of power does. We therefore provide further support on the relation between power and enhanced perception of bodily signals. Our findings offer a novel perspective–a psychophysiological account–on how power might affect judgments and behavior. We highlight and discuss some of these intriguing possibilities for future research.

  5. Identification of dynamic load for prosthetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dequan; Han, Xu; Zhang, Zhongpu; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Chao; Yoda, Nobuhiro; Meng, Xianghua; Li, Qing

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic load exists in numerous biomechanical systems, and its identification signifies a critical issue for characterizing dynamic behaviors and studying biomechanical consequence of the systems. This study aims to identify dynamic load in the dental prosthetic structures, namely, 3-unit implant-supported fixed partial denture (I-FPD) and teeth-supported fixed partial denture. The 3-dimensional finite element models were constructed through specific patient's computerized tomography images. A forward algorithm and regularization technique were developed for identifying dynamic load. To verify the effectiveness of the identification method proposed, the I-FPD and teeth-supported fixed partial denture structures were investigated to determine the dynamic loads. For validating the results of inverse identification, an experimental force-measuring system was developed by using a 3-dimensional piezoelectric transducer to measure the dynamic load in the I-FPD structure in vivo. The computationally identified loads were presented with different noise levels to determine their influence on the identification accuracy. The errors between the measured load and identified counterpart were calculated for evaluating the practical applicability of the proposed procedure in biomechanical engineering. This study is expected to serve as a demonstrative role in identifying dynamic loading in biomedical systems, where a direct in vivo measurement may be rather demanding in some areas of interest clinically. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Navier-Stokes wave models for investigations of breakwater characteristics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cannoo, BR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available observations, including turbulence in surging and plunging waves, is encouraging, but quantitative comparisons are still to be made. Loads on a semi-submerged beam are modelled in preparation for studies of the dolos geometry...

  7. Effects of Ultraviolet (UV) Radiations at Different Wave Lengths on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    biotechsocietynigeria.org. Short Communication. Effects of Ultraviolet (UV) Radiations at Different Wave Lengths on the Microbial Load ... stained blue while the living cells reduced the stain and remained colourless. The viability of the yeast ...

  8. Response of surface buoy moorings in steady and wave flows

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.

    A numerical model has been developed to evaluate the dynamics of surface buoy mooring systems under wave and current loading. System tension response and variation of tension in the mooring line at various depths have been evaluated for deep water...

  9. REFLECTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES FROM SOUND WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reflection of electromagnetic waves normally incident on the wavefronts of a semi-infinite standing sound wave is discussed. By analogy with the...with the sound frequency. An experiment is described in which the Bragg reflection of 3 cm electromagnetic waves from a standing sound wave beneath a water surface is observed.

  10. Impact of Wave Dragon on Wave Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Tedd, James; Kramer, Morten

    This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator....

  11. Experimental Study of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study on the power conversion capabilities and structural loads of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly at identifying the performance of the WEPTOS prototype in a wide range of production wave states...... and at the mooring forces and structural bending moments in extreme wave conditions, in order to estimate the performance and structural loads of larger WEPTOS machines being located at various offshore locations of interest. The following aspects were the main subjects of investigation: Performance of the prototype...... under a constant and linear PTO loading, the opening angle of the device, the effect of alterations to the wave conditions, and mooring forces and structural bending moments in production and extreme wave states. During the study, a highly realistic scale model was supplied by the client, WEPTOS, which...

  12. Wave energy potential in Galicia (NW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; López, Mario; Carballo, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Wave power presents significant advantages with regard to other CO2-free energy sources, among which the predictability, high load factor and low visual and environmental impact stand out. Galicia, facing the Atlantic on the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, is subjected to a very...... harsh wave climate; in this work its potential for energy production is assessed based on three-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (WAM) covering the period 1996 - 2005. Taking into account the results of this assessment along with other relevant considerations such as the location...

  13. Innovative Breakwaters Design for Wave Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Stagonas, D.; Müller, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends contributing to an economically and environmentally sustainable development of coastal infrastructures by investigating the possibility of combining together breakwaters and Wave Energy Converters (WEC). The latter change the wave energy to electricity, which may serve both...... the rubble mound breakwaters and seawalls related activity and the energy demand of small human communities. Wave loadings and overtopping on a seawall and rubble mound breakwater with front reservoir are discussed on the basis of physical 2-D model tests carried out at University of Southampton (UK...

  14. Behaviour of glass plates under wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanski, Eri

    Glazing damage during strong windstorms has been considered to result mainly from windborne debris. However, recent windstorm damage reports have revealed the necessity of studying fluctuating wind loads, which appear to be another factor contributing to this damage. From an experimental point of view, studies on this topic have been limited to the application of rather simple loading patterns. Moreover, there is an uncertainty surrounding both load resistance and design load used in the current North American window glass design codes. It is of concern that these regulations may not offer sufficient accuracy on account of the limited understanding of time-dependent glass strength derived from the technology available at the time of codification. Unprecedented full-scale glass breakage tests under realistic wind pressure loading were conducted to investigate these issues. The obtained results revealed significant new information about the behavior of glass plates under fluctuating loads. Along with these tests, a numerical simulation using the Monte-Carlo technique was also performed with a subtle modification of the initial glass strength. This adjustment resulted in better correspondence with test results. Using the test and numerical simulation results, the current window glass design method was examined. The calculation methods of LR, and the reference time conversion used in the codes, were found to require further investigation. By creating a particular wind pressure time history, the practice of using peak pressures from ASCE7-05 as the design load was investigated. The results showed that there are cases when the current practice may underestimate the design load because of the duration of windstorms. KEYWORDS: Glass, Fluctuating load, Full-scale test, Load resistance, Design load, Static fatigue, Numerical simulation, Monte-Carlo technique, Brown's integral.

  15. Wave Propagation in Bimodular Geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Maria; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-04-01

    Observations and laboratory experiments show that fragmented or layered geomaterials have the mechanical response dependent on the sign of the load. The most adequate model accounting for this effect is the theory of bimodular (bilinear) elasticity - a hyperelastic model with different elastic moduli for tension and compression. For most of geo- and structural materials (cohesionless soils, rocks, concrete, etc.) the difference between elastic moduli is such that their modulus in compression is considerably higher than that in tension. This feature has a profound effect on oscillations [1]; however, its effect on wave propagation has not been comprehensively investigated. It is believed that incorporation of bilinear elastic constitutive equations within theory of wave dynamics will bring a deeper insight to the study of mechanical behaviour of many geomaterials. The aim of this paper is to construct a mathematical model and develop analytical methods and numerical algorithms for analysing wave propagation in bimodular materials. Geophysical and exploration applications and applications in structural engineering are envisaged. The FEM modelling of wave propagation in a 1D semi-infinite bimodular material has been performed with the use of Marlow potential [2]. In the case of the initial load expressed by a harmonic pulse loading strong dependence on the pulse sign is observed: when tension is applied before compression, the phenomenon of disappearance of negative (compressive) strains takes place. References 1. Dyskin, A., Pasternak, E., & Pelinovsky, E. (2012). Periodic motions and resonances of impact oscillators. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331(12), 2856-2873. 2. Marlow, R. S. (2008). A Second-Invariant Extension of the Marlow Model: Representing Tension and Compression Data Exactly. In ABAQUS Users' Conference.

  16. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of

  17. Augmented chaos-multiple linear regression approach for prediction of wave parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ghorbani

    2017-06-01

    The inter-comparisons demonstrated that the Chaos-MLR and pure MLR models yield almost the same accuracy in predicting the significant wave heights and the zero-up-crossing wave periods. Whereas, the augmented Chaos-MLR model is performed better results in term of the prediction accuracy vis-a-vis the previous prediction applications of the same case study.

  18. Predictability of the Power Output of Three Wave Energy Technologies in the Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Jensen, N. E. Helstrup; Sørensen, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    , during a very energetic time period. Results show that for the 12 to 36 hours time horizon forecast, the accuracy in the predictions (in terms of scatter index) of the significant wave height, zero crossing period and wave power are 22%, 11% and 68%, respectively; and the accuracy in the predictions...

  19. Effect of Vertically Propagating Shear Waves on Seismic Behavior of Circular Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohid Akhlaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic design loads for tunnels are characterized in terms of the deformations imposed on the structure by surrounding ground. The free-field ground deformations due to a seismic event are estimated, and the tunnel is designed to accommodate these deformations. Vertically propagating shear waves are the predominant form of earthquake loading that causes the ovaling deformations of circular tunnels to develop, resulting in a distortion of the cross sectional shape of the tunnel lining. In this paper, seismic behavior of circular tunnels has been investigated due to propagation of shear waves in the vertical direction using quasi-static analytical approaches as well as numerical methods. Analytical approaches are based on the closed-form solutions which compute the forces in the lining due to equivalent static ovaling deformations, while the numerical method carries out dynamic, nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis. Based on comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the analytical solutions are evaluated and discussed. The results show that the axial forces determined using the analytical approaches are in acceptable agreement with numerical analysis results, while the computed bending moments are less comparable and show significant discrepancies. The differences between the analytical approaches are also investigated and addressed.

  20. Effect of vertically propagating shear waves on seismic behavior of circular tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Tohid; Nikkar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Seismic design loads for tunnels are characterized in terms of the deformations imposed on the structure by surrounding ground. The free-field ground deformations due to a seismic event are estimated, and the tunnel is designed to accommodate these deformations. Vertically propagating shear waves are the predominant form of earthquake loading that causes the ovaling deformations of circular tunnels to develop, resulting in a distortion of the cross sectional shape of the tunnel lining. In this paper, seismic behavior of circular tunnels has been investigated due to propagation of shear waves in the vertical direction using quasi-static analytical approaches as well as numerical methods. Analytical approaches are based on the closed-form solutions which compute the forces in the lining due to equivalent static ovaling deformations, while the numerical method carries out dynamic, nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis. Based on comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the analytical solutions are evaluated and discussed. The results show that the axial forces determined using the analytical approaches are in acceptable agreement with numerical analysis results, while the computed bending moments are less comparable and show significant discrepancies. The differences between the analytical approaches are also investigated and addressed.

  1. Load and Global Response of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primary written as a textbook for students with an introductionary background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials. The subjects are treated in details starting from...... first principles. The aim has been to derive and present the necessary theoretical framework for predicting the extreme loads and the corresponding hull girder stresses the ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime.Although some account is given to reliabiity analysis, the present...

  2. Shock wave compression of condensed matter a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Jerry W

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces the core concepts of the shock wave physics of condensed matter, taking a continuum mechanics approach to examine liquids and isotropic solids. The text primarily focuses on one-dimensional uniaxial compression in order to show the key features of condensed matter’s response to shock wave loading. The first four chapters are specifically designed to quickly familiarize physical scientists and engineers with how shock waves interact with other shock waves or material boundaries, as well as to allow readers to better understand shock wave literature, use basic data analysis techniques, and design simple 1-D shock wave experiments. This is achieved by first presenting the steady one-dimensional strain conservation laws using shock wave impedance matching, which insures conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Here, the initial emphasis is on the meaning of shock wave and mass velocities in a laboratory coordinate system. An overview of basic experimental techniques for measuring pressure...

  3. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is used for teaching medical students and residents and for in-training and certification examinations in the United States. However, no existing studies compare diagnostic accuracy using virtual slides and photomicrographs. The objective of this study was to compare...... diagnostic accuracy of dermatopathologists and pathologists using photomicrographs vs. digitized images, through a self-assessment examination, and to elucidate assessment of virtual dermatopathology. Methods Forty-five dermatopathologists and pathologists received a randomized combination of 15 virtual...... slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology...

  4. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  5. Simplified Design Procedures for Moorings of Wave-Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, Lars; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The goal of the report is that the reader shall be able to self-dependently make a first, preliminary analysis of wave-induced horizontal loads, motions and mooring forces for a moored floating wave energy device. Necessary prerequisites to attain that goal are the understanding of the physical...

  6. Hydrodynamic coefficients for water-wave diffraction by spherical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The work presented here is the result of water-wave interaction with submerged spheres. Analytical expressions for various hydrodynamic coefficients and loads due to the diffraction of water waves by a submerged sphere are obtained. The exciting force components due to surge and heave motions are derived by solving ...

  7. Determination of current loads of floating platform for special purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang-ying; Yao, Yun-long; Zhao, Chen-yao

    2017-08-01

    This article studied a new floating offshore platform for special purposes, which was assembled by standard floating modules. The environmental load calculation of the platform is an important part of the research of the ocean platform, which has always been paid attention to by engineers. In addition to wave loads, the wind loads and current loads are also important environmental factors that affect the dynamic response of the offshore platform. The current loads on the bottom structure should not be ignored. By Fluent software, the hydrostatic conditions and external current loads of the platform were calculated in this paper. The coefficient which is independent of the current velocity, namely, current force coefficient, can be fitted through current loads, which can be used for the consequent hydrodynamic and mooring analyses.

  8. Limits and Accuracy in Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ososkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Methods of determination of the limit attainable accuracy in measurements are expounded on the basis of the probability theory and the mathematical statistics. Distribution-free and parametric methods, point and interval estimations of the unknown parameters are discussed. The connection between maximum likelihood method and least squares method is shown. A special section is devoted to robust estimations and to resolution of digital signals. It is demonstrated how the Cramer-Rao inequality determines the lower-bound for the accuracy of measurements.

  9. Extreme wave and wind response predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Olsen, Anders S.; Mansour, Alaa E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to advocate effective stochastic procedures, based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCS), for extreme value predictions related to wave and wind-induced loads.Due to the efficient optimization procedures implemented in standard FORM...

  10. An experimental and numerical investigation on wave-mud interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, W. Y.; Hwung, H. H.; Hsu, T. J.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Yang, R. Y.

    2013-03-01

    Wave attenuation over a mud (kaolinite) layer is investigated via laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. The rheological behavior of kaolinite exhibits hybrid properties of a Bingham and pseudoplastic fluid. Moreover, the measured time-dependent velocity profiles in the mud layer reveal that the shear rate under wave loading is highly phase dependent. The measured shear rate and rheological data allow us to back-calculate the time-dependent viscosity of the mud layer under various wave loadings, which is also shown to fluctuate up to 1 order of magnitude during one wave period. However, the resulting time-dependent bottom stress is shown to only fluctuate within 25% of its mean. The back-calculated wave-averaged bottom stress is well correlated with the wave damping rate in the intermediate-wave energy condition. The commonly adopted constant viscosity assumption is then evaluated via linear and nonlinear wave-mud interaction models. When driving the models with measured wave-averaged mud viscosity (forward modeling), the wave damping rate is generally overpredicted under the low wave energy condition. On the other hand, when a constant viscosity is chosen to match the observed wave damping rate (inverse modeling), the predicted velocity profiles in the mud layer are not satisfactory and the corresponding viscosity is lower than the measured value. These discrepancies are less pronounced when waves become more energetic. Differences between the linear and nonlinear model results become significant under low-energy conditions, suggesting an amplification of wave nonlinearity due to non-Newtonian rheology. In general, the constant viscosity assumption for modeling wave-mud interaction is only appropriate for more energetic wave conditions.

  11. A Preliminary Study on Bucket Foundations under Transient Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behaviour of monopod bucket foundations through a physical model. The foundation is installed in dense water-saturated sand and is subjected to lateral load applied at different rates. The different loading rates allow for exploring the patterns of response...... of bucket foundations in different drainage conditions. Particular focus is given to the rapid loading response of the foundation (simulating a 50 year wave or emergency stop of a wind turbine). Important knowledge on the pore pressure development within and around the foundation during loading is achieved....

  12. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  13. Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  14. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your calories from carbohydrates. The role of carbohydrates Carbohydrates, also known as starches and sugars, are ... to consume some energy sources during your event. Carbohydrate loading Carbohydrate loading is done the week before ...

  15. Short-term load forecasting of power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    In order to ensure the scientific nature of optimization about power system, it is necessary to improve the load forecasting accuracy. Power system load forecasting is based on accurate statistical data and survey data, starting from the history and current situation of electricity consumption, with a scientific method to predict the future development trend of power load and change the law of science. Short-term load forecasting is the basis of power system operation and analysis, which is of great significance to unit combination, economic dispatch and safety check. Therefore, the load forecasting of the power system is explained in detail in this paper. First, we use the data from 2012 to 2014 to establish the partial least squares model to regression analysis the relationship between daily maximum load, daily minimum load, daily average load and each meteorological factor, and select the highest peak by observing the regression coefficient histogram Day maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature and daily average temperature as the meteorological factors to improve the accuracy of load forecasting indicators. Secondly, in the case of uncertain climate impact, we use the time series model to predict the load data for 2015, respectively, the 2009-2014 load data were sorted out, through the previous six years of the data to forecast the data for this time in 2015. The criterion for the accuracy of the prediction is the average of the standard deviations for the prediction results and average load for the previous six years. Finally, considering the climate effect, we use the BP neural network model to predict the data in 2015, and optimize the forecast results on the basis of the time series model.

  16. Spectral BEM for the Analysis of Wave Propagation and Fracture Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Khodaei, Zahra Sharif; Aliabadi, M. H.

    This paper presents a spectral boundary element formulation for analysis of structures subjected to dynamic loading. Two types of spectral elements based on Lobatto polynomials and Legendre polynomials are used. Two-dimensional analyses of elastic wave propagation in solids with and without cracks are carried out in the Laplace frequency domain with both conventional BEM and the spectral BEM. By imposing the requirement of the same level of accuracy, it was found that the use of spectral elements, compared with conventional quadratic elements, reduced the total number of nodes required for modeling high-frequency wave propagation. Benchmark examples included a simple one-dimensional bar for which analytical solution is available and a more complex crack problem where stress intensity factors were evaluated. Special crack tip elements are developed for the first time for the spectral elements to accurately model the crack tip fields. Although more integration points were used for the integrals associated with spectral elements than the conventional quadratic elements, shorter computation times were achieved through the application of the spectral BEM. This indicates that the spectral BEM is a more efficient method for the numerical modeling of structural health monitoring (SHM) processes, in which high-frequency waves are commonly used to detect damage, such as cracks, in structures.

  17. Wave measurements using GPS velocity signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doong, Dong-Jiing; Lee, Beng-Chun; Kao, Chia Chuen

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the idea of using GPS-output velocity signals to obtain wave measurement data. The application of the transformation from a velocity spectrum to a displacement spectrum in conjunction with the directional wave spectral theory are the core concepts in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the accuracy of the inversed displacement of the surface of the sea. A GPS device was installed on a moored accelerometer buoy to verify the GPS-derived wave parameters. It was determined that loss or drifting of the GPS signal, as well as energy spikes occurring in the low frequency band led to erroneous measurements. Through the application of moving average skill and a process of frequency cut-off to the GPS output velocity, correlations between GPS-derived, and accelerometer buoy-measured significant wave heights and periods were both improved to 0.95. The GPS-derived one-dimensional and directional wave spectra were in agreement with the measurements. Despite the direction verification showing a 10° bias, this exercise still provided useful information with sufficient accuracy for a number of specific purposes. The results presented in this study indicate that using GPS output velocity is a reasonable alternative for the measurement of ocean waves.

  18. Classification Accuracy Is Not Enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A recent review of the research literature evaluating music genre recognition (MGR) systems over the past two decades shows that most works (81\\%) measure the capacity of a system to recognize genre by its classification accuracy. We show here, by implementing and testing three categorically...

  19. Improving Speaking Accuracy through Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormer, Jan Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Increased English learner accuracy can be achieved by leading students through six stages of awareness. The first three awareness stages build up students' motivation to improve, and the second three provide learners with crucial input for change. The final result is "sustained language awareness," resulting in ongoing…

  20. Accuracy Enhancement in Optical Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-25

    ELEMENT NO NO. NO ACCESSION NO Bolling AFB, DC 20332 //"l•- 2305 DS 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Accuracy Enhacement in Optical Computing...Associate Editor, IEEE Trans. On Neural Networks, (Dr. T.F. Krile). 2. Service as Topical Editor for Optical Processing and Image Science, Journal of the

  1. Cadastral Database Positional Accuracy Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. M.; Omar, A. H.; Ramli, S. N. M.; Omar, K. M.; Din, N.

    2017-10-01

    Positional Accuracy Improvement (PAI) is the refining process of the geometry feature in a geospatial dataset to improve its actual position. This actual position relates to the absolute position in specific coordinate system and the relation to the neighborhood features. With the growth of spatial based technology especially Geographical Information System (GIS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the PAI campaign is inevitable especially to the legacy cadastral database. Integration of legacy dataset and higher accuracy dataset like GNSS observation is a potential solution for improving the legacy dataset. However, by merely integrating both datasets will lead to a distortion of the relative geometry. The improved dataset should be further treated to minimize inherent errors and fitting to the new accurate dataset. The main focus of this study is to describe a method of angular based Least Square Adjustment (LSA) for PAI process of legacy dataset. The existing high accuracy dataset known as National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) is then used as bench mark to validate the results. It was found that the propose technique is highly possible for positional accuracy improvement of legacy spatial datasets.

  2. Estimating load weights with Huber's Cubic Volume formula: a field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Waddell

    1989-01-01

    Log weights were estimated from the product of Huber's cubic volume formula and green density. Tags showing estimated log weights were attached to logs in the field, and the weights were tallied into a single load weight as logs were assembled for aerial yarding. Accuracy of the estimated load weights was evaluated by comparing the predicted with the actual load...

  3. Improvement of Accuracy in Damage Localization Using Frequency Slice Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage localization is a primary objective of damage identification. This paper presents damage localization in beam structure using impact-induced Lamb wave and Frequency Slice Wavelet Transform (FSWT. FSWT is a new time-frequency analysis method and has the adaptive resolution feature. The time-frequency resolution is a vital factor affecting the accuracy of damage localization. In FSWT there is a unique parameter controlling the time-frequency resolution. To improve the accuracy of damage localization, a generalized criterion is proposed to determine the parameter value for achieving a suitable time-frequency resolution. For damage localization, the group velocity dispersion curve (GVDC of A0 Lamb waves in beam is first accurately estimated using FSWT, and then the arrival times of reflection wave from the crack for some individual frequency components are determined. An average operation on the calculated propagation distance is then performed to further improve the accuracy of damage localization.

  4. Staggered-Grid Finite Difference Method with Variable-Order Accuracy for Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghuai Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical modeling of wave field in porous media generally requires more computation time than that of acoustic or elastic media. Usually used finite difference methods adopt finite difference operators with fixed-order accuracy to calculate space derivatives for a heterogeneous medium. A finite difference scheme with variable-order accuracy for acoustic wave equation has been proposed to reduce the computation time. In this paper, we develop this scheme for wave equations in porous media based on dispersion relation with high-order staggered-grid finite difference (SFD method. High-order finite difference operators are adopted for low-velocity regions, and low-order finite difference operators are adopted for high-velocity regions. Dispersion analysis and modeling results demonstrate that the proposed SFD method can decrease computational costs without reducing accuracy.

  5. Light output distribution in scintillator strips with wave length shifting fibers of DANSS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelov, N.; Aleksev, I.; Kalinkin, D.; Makhichkulyan, I.; Nesterov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Starostin, A.; Svirida, D.; Tarkovsky, E.

    2017-12-01

    DANSS is a highly segmented plastic scintillator detector, which uses scintillator strips with a Gd-loaded reflective cover to detect reactor antineutrino by inverse beta-decay. Light is collected with wave length shifting fibers (3 per strip) placed in grooves. Therefore the distribution of light output could be significantly non-uniform. Transverse profile of light output was studied in ITEP at a test bench consisting of proportional chambers and scintillator strips. Tracks of cosmic particles, which crossed chambers, were reconstructed with high accuracy, whereby transverse profiles of light output were built with step 1 mm for six scintillator strips. This result is important for calibration of DANSS and the method could be useful in constructing similar detectors.

  6. Fatigue life prediction under service load considering strengthening effect of loads below fatigue limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihui; Zheng, Songlin; Feng, Jinzhi

    2014-11-01

    Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are -3.78% and -1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.

  7. The physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Georgi, Howard

    1993-01-01

    The first complete introduction to waves and wave phenomena by a renowned theorist. Covers damping, forced oscillations and resonance; normal modes; symmetries; traveling waves; signals and Fourier analysis; polarization; diffraction.

  8. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  9. SUPERLUMINAL WAVES IN PULSAR WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arka, Ioanna [Current address: Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble, UMR 5274, BP 53 F-38041 Grenoble, France. (France); Kirk, John G., E-mail: ioanna.arka@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: john.kirk@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 10 39 80, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-02-01

    The energy lost by a rotation-powered pulsar is carried by a relativistic flow containing a mixture of electromagnetic fields and particles. In the inner regions, this is thought to be a magnetically dominated, cold, electron-positron wind that is well described by the MHD equations. However, beyond a critical radius r{sub cr}, the same particle, energy, and momentum fluxes can be transported by a strong, transverse electromagnetic wave with superluminal phase speed. We analyze the nonlinear dispersion relation of these waves for linear and circular polarization, and find the dependence of r{sub cr} on the mass-loading, magnetization, and luminosity of the flow, as well as on the net magnetic flux. We show that, for most isolated pulsars, the wind lies well outside r{sub cr} and speculate that superluminal modes play an important role in the dissipation of electromagnetic energy into nonthermal particles at the termination shock.

  10. Assessing the feasibility and accuracy of digitizing edentulous jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Sebastian B M; Vonau, Sebastian; Stampf, Susanne; Att, Wael

    2013-08-01

    Despite the accuracy of intraoral scanners (IOSs) in producing single-unit scans and the possibility of generating complete dentures digitally, little is known about their feasibility and accuracy in digitizing edentulous jaws. The purpose of this in vitro investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of digitizing edentulous jaw models with IOSs. The authors used an industrial laser scanner (reference scanner) and four IOSs to digitize two representative edentulous jaw models. They loaded the data sets obtained into three-dimensional evaluation software, superimposed the data sets and compared them for accuracy. The authors used a one-way analysis of variance to compute differences within groups (precision), as well as to compare values with those of the reference scanner (trueness) (statistical significance, P .05). Digitizing edentulous jaw models with the use of IOSs appears to be feasible, although the accuracy of the scanners differs significantly. The results of this study showed that only one scanner was sufficiently accurate to warrant further intraoral investigations. Further enhancements are necessary to recommend these IOSs for this particular indication. Practical Implications. On the basis of the results of this study, the authors cannot recommend these four IOSs for digitization of edentulous jaws in vivo.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Wave Pressures on Seawave Slot-Cone Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results on loading acting on an innovative caisson breakwater for electricity production. The work reported here is part of the European Union Sixth Framework programme priority 6.1 (Sustainable Energy System), contract 019831, titled "Full-scale demonstration of robust and high......-efficiency wave energy converter" (WAVESSG). Information on wave loadings acting on Wave Energy Convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) exposed to extreme wave conditions are reported. The SSG concept is based on the principle of overtopping and storing the wave energy in several reservoirs placed one...

  12. Conditional short-crested waves in shallow water and with superimposed current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2002-01-01

    For bottom-supported offshore structures like oil drilling rigs and oil production platforms, a deterministic design wave approach is often applied using a regular non-linear Stokes´ wave. Thereby, the procedure accounts for non-linear effects in the wave loading but the randomness of the ocean...

  13. Wave induced coastal cliff top ground motions and infragravity wave dissipation under high energy wave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlie, C. S.; le Dantec, N.; Young, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal cliff erosion is a widespread problem that threatens property and infrastructure globally. The prediction of this risk calls for robust understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in causing coastal cliff failure. Over the last decade, a number of geomorphological studies have highlighted the importance of the relationship between the offshore wave climate and cliff-toe water levels, and the resultant coastal response in terms of cliff-top ground motion and erosion. Field-based studies of instantaneous cliff response to direct wave impact have shown that wave-induced loading of the foreshore leads to cliff-top ground motions that may have the potential to weaken the integrity of the rocks and prepare them for failure. In order to understand wave-cliff interaction and how beach morphodynamics influences cliff-top ground motion and cliff erosion, two field experiments were carried out simultaneously at two locations in Northern Brittany (France). This three-month long winter field campaign (Jan-Mar 2016) included, for the first time, a comparison of cliff-top ground motion and cliff erosion at sites fronted by different beach morphologies (reflective/dissipative), along with monitoring of hydrodynamic forcing and beach topography. The magnitude of cliff-top displacements at both sites were dependent on tidal stage and free water surface elevation at the cliff toe, with the greatest contributions of cliff-top ground motions found at infragravity frequencies (0.05-0.005 Hz). Vertical displacements at infragravity and incident sea-swell (0.1-0.5 Hz) frequencies were greater at the dissipative site, apart from during spring high tide and energetic wave conditions, where displacements were two times that at the reflective site. Combining these wave-cliff interaction data with beach morphology and nearshore bathymetry will be key to understanding the spatial variability in cliff erosion under a variety of environmental settings and forcing conditions.

  14. Steepening of Waves at the Duskside Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, F.; Kahr, N.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Magnes, W.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Surface waves at the magnetopause flanks typically feature steeper, i.e., more inclined leading (antisunward facing) than trailing (sunward facing) edges. This is expected for Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) amplified waves. Very rarely, during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, anomalous inverse steepening has been observed. The small-scale tetrahedral configuration of the Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft and their high time resolution measurements enable us to routinely ascertain magnetopause boundary inclinations during surface wave passage with high accuracy by four-spacecraft timing analysis. At the dusk flank magnetopause, 77%/23% of the analyzed wave intervals exhibit regular inverse steepening. Inverse steepening happens during northward IMF conditions, as previously reported and, in addition, during intervals of dominant equatorial IMF. Inverse steepening observed under the latter conditions may be due to the absence of KHI or due to instabilities arising from the alignment of flow and magnetic fields in the magnetosheath.

  15. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Freeman, K.; Chen, X.; Salmassi, T. [Center for Risk Studies and Safety, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sienicki, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is `physically unreasonable`. (author)

  16. Ocean Wave Separation Using CEEMD-Wavelet in GPS Wave Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring ocean waves plays a crucial role in, for example, coastal environmental and protection studies. Traditional methods for measuring ocean waves are based on ultrasonic sensors and accelerometers. However, the Global Positioning System (GPS has been introduced recently and has the advantage of being smaller, less expensive, and not requiring calibration in comparison with the traditional methods. Therefore, for accurately measuring ocean waves using GPS, further research on the separation of the wave signals from the vertical GPS-mounted carrier displacements is still necessary. In order to contribute to this topic, we present a novel method that combines complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD with a wavelet threshold denoising model (i.e., CEEMD-Wavelet. This method seeks to extract wave signals with less residual noise and without losing useful information. Compared with the wave parameters derived from the moving average skill, high pass filter and wave gauge, the results show that the accuracy of the wave parameters for the proposed method was improved with errors of about 2 cm and 0.2 s for mean wave height and mean period, respectively, verifying the validity of the proposed method.

  17. Analysing Interplanetary Probe Guidance Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sukhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a guidance accuracy analysis and estimates delta-v budget required to provide the trajectory correction maneuvers for direct interplanetary flights (without midcourse gravity assists. The analysis takes into consideration the orbital hyperbolic injection errors (depend on a selected launch vehicle and ascent trajectory and the uncertainties of midcourse correction maneuvers.The calculation algorithm is based on Monte Carlo simulation and Danby’s matrix methods (the matrizant of keplerian motion. Danby’s method establishes a link between the errors of the spacecraft state vectors at different flight times using the reference keplerian orbit matrizant. Utilizing the nominal trajectory parameters and the covariance matrix of launch vehicle injection errors the random perturbed orbits are generated and required velocity corrections are calculated. The next step is to simulate midcourse maneuver performance uncertainty using the midcourse maneuver covariance matrix. The obtained trajectory correction impulses and spacecraft position errors are statistically processed to compute required delta-v budget and dispersions ellipse parameters for different prediction intervals.As an example, a guidance accuracy analysis has been conducted for a 2022 mission to Mars and a Venus mission in 2026. The paper considers one and two midcourse correction options, as well as utilization of two different launch vehicles.The presented algorithm based on Monte Carlo simulation and Danby’s methods provides preliminary evaluation for midcourse corrections delta-v budget and spacecraft position error. The only data required for this guidance accuracy analysis are a reference keplerian trajectory and a covariance matrix of the injection errors. Danby’s matrix method allows us to take into account also the other factors affecting the trajectory thereby increasing the accuracy of analysis.

  18. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  19. Durability of Adhesive Bonded Structures Subjected to Acoustic Loads,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    performed on such structures in progressive-wave tubes (PWT) [5]. These tests have involved various adhesives having widely varying peel strengths and lap...loading augmented by selective progressive-wave tube tests appear to be the best approach. Riveted technology prediction methods in general are not...foematiommstum am[*l, Deopo do Servigo de Mateial Fy.Madhmatik GmibH 4a Porn Awne KeeaoemeiapmtmumRue da Eacols Pollticalca 42 D-7314 UgmunLeopdisafen 2 Lim Atn

  20. Numerical modelling of extreme waves by Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Dao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of extreme/rogue waves can lead to serious damage of vessels as well as marine and coastal structures. Such extreme waves in deep water are characterized by steep wave fronts and an energetic wave crest. The process of wave breaking is highly complex and, apart from the general knowledge that impact loadings are highly impulsive, the dynamics of the breaking and impact are still poorly understood. Using an advanced numerical method, the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics enhanced with parallel computing is able to reproduce well the extreme waves and their breaking process. Once the waves and their breaking process are modelled successfully, the dynamics of the breaking and the characteristics of their impact on offshore structures could be studied. The computational methodology and numerical results are presented in this paper.

  1. Experimental Study of the Weptos Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the power performance results of the experimental study of the WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC). This novel device combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with an adjustable structure that can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce...... loads in extreme wave conditions. This A-shaped floating structure absorbs the energy in the waves through a multitude of rotors, the shape of which is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. These rotors pivot around a common axle, one for each leg of the structure, to which the rotors transfer...... the absorbed wave energy and which is connected to a common power take off system (one for each leg). The study investigates the performance of the device in a large range of wave states and estimates the performance in terms of mechanical power available to the power take off system of the WEPTOS WEC for two...

  2. Wave-induced Ship Hull Vibrations in Stochastic Seaways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Dogliani, M.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical Study is undertaken on the determination of wave-induced loads in flexible ship hulls. The calculations are performed within the framework of a non-linear, quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. Included are non-linear effects due to changes in added mass......, hydrodynamic damping and water line breadth with sectional immersion in waves. The study is limited to continuous excitations from the waves and thus transient so-called whipping vibrations due to slamming loads are not considered.Because of the non-linearities the ship hull responses become non...... to the large separation between dominating wave frequencies and the lowest two-node frequency of the hull beam. Both extreme value predictions and fatigue damage are considered.For a fast container ship the rigid body and two-node (springing) vertical wave-induced bending moments amidship are calculated...

  3. ELECTRON CYCLOTRON WAVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  4. Electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  5. Electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture gives an overview of heating and current drive with electron cyclotron waves. We present the main theoretical aspects of wave propagation, wave absorption, and non-inductive current drive, as well as important technical aspects for the application of high power electron cyclotron waves,

  6. Waves in inhomogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we study wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. Examples of the classical (massless) waves we consider are acoustic waves (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light, for example). Interaction with inhomogeneities embedded in a reference medium alter the propagation direction, velocity

  7. Wave Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alikhani, Amir; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1998-01-01

    The data collected over the course of the experiment must be analysed and converted into a form suitable for its intended use. Type of analyses range from simple to sophisticated. Depending on the particular experiment and the needs of the researcher. In this study three main part of irregular wave...... data analyses are presented e.g. Time Domain (Statistical) Analyses, Frequency Domain (Spectral) Analyses and Wave Reflection Analyses. Random wave profile and definitions of representative waves, distributions of individual wave height and wave periods and spectra of sea waves are presented....

  8. On the Influence of Weather Forecast Errors in Short-Term Load Forecasting Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, D.; Ringwood, John; Condon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Weather information is an important factor in load forecasting models. This weather information usually takes the form of actual weather readings. However, online operation of load forecasting models requires the use of weather forecasts, with associated weather forecast errors. A technique is proposed to model weather forecast errors to reflect current accuracy. A load forecasting model is then proposed which combines the forecasts of several load forecasting models. This approach allows the...

  9. Dynamic Response of Coarse Granular Material to Wave Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1998-01-01

    . These factors include the relative density, the minor principal stress, the intermediate principal stress, the stress path, and the effects of nonhomogeneous and localized strains. The relation of the characteristic line to other features of static, cyclic and dynamic (rate dependent) soil behaviour...

  10. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  11. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  12. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  13. Upper Bound Limit Load Solutions for Welded Joints with Cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The present short monograph concerns analytic and semi-analytic techniques for finding an approximate value of the limit load. The limit load is an essential input parameter of flaw assessment procedures. In most cases, finding the limit load involves some numerical calculations of different levels of complexity, including numerical minimization of functions of one or several arguments, the slip-line technique and the finite element method. This book shows in particular how to use singular behavior of the real velocity field in the vicinity of bi-material interfaces in kinematically admissible velocity fields to increase the accuracy of upper bound solutions. An approach to recalculate the limit load for a class of structures with defects with the use of its value for the corresponding structure with no defect is discussed. The upper bound technique is applied to evaluate the limit load of overmatched and undermatched welded joints with cracks subject to various loading conditions of practical importance in c...

  14. An improved wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Cannata, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a recently developed wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling is improved and verified by numerical simulations and underwater experiments. Higher order numeric schemes are proposed that significantly increase the modeling accuracy, thereby allowing for a larger step size and shorter computation time. The improved algorithms replace the left-point Riemann sum in the original algorithm by the trapezoidal or Simpson's integration. Plane waves and a phased array were first studied to numerically validate the model. It is shown that the left-point Riemann sum, trapezoidal, and Simpson's integration have first-, second-, and third-order global accuracy, respectively. A highly focused therapeutic transducer was then used for experimental verifications. Short high-intensity pulses were generated. 2-D scans were conducted at a prefocal plane, which were later used as the input to the numerical model to predict the acoustic field at other planes. Good agreement is observed between simulations and experiments.

  15. Wave disc engine apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  16. Efficiency Analysis of a Wave Power Generation System by Using Multibody Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Sohn, Jeong Hyun [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hee; Sung, Yong Jun [INGINE Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The energy absorption efficiency of a wave power generation system is calculated as the ratio of the wave power to the power of the system. Because absorption efficiency depends on the dynamic behavior of the wave power generation system, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system is required to estimate the energy absorption efficiency of the system. In this study, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system under wave loads is performed to estimate the energy absorption efficiency. RecurDyn is employed to carry out the dynamic analysis of the system, and the Morison equation is used for the wave load model. According to the results, the lower the wave height and the shorter the period, the higher is the absorption efficiency of the system.

  17. Design of a biaxial mechanical loading bioreactor for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgen, Bahar; Chu, Danielle; Stefani, Robert; Aaron, Roy K

    2013-04-25

    We designed a loading device that is capable of applying uniaxial or biaxial mechanical strain to a tissue engineered biocomposites fabricated for transplantation. While the device primarily functions as a bioreactor that mimics the native mechanical strains, it is also outfitted with a load cell for providing force feedback or mechanical testing of the constructs. The device subjects engineered cartilage constructs to biaxial mechanical loading with great precision of loading dose (amplitude and frequency) and is compact enough to fit inside a standard tissue culture incubator. It loads samples directly in a tissue culture plate, and multiple plate sizes are compatible with the system. The device has been designed using components manufactured for precision-guided laser applications. Bi-axial loading is accomplished by two orthogonal stages. The stages have a 50 mm travel range and are driven independently by stepper motor actuators, controlled by a closed-loop stepper motor driver that features micro-stepping capabilities, enabling step sizes of less than 50 nm. A polysulfone loading platen is coupled to the bi-axial moving platform. Movements of the stages are controlled by Thor-labs Advanced Positioning Technology (APT) software. The stepper motor driver is used with the software to adjust load parameters of frequency and amplitude of both shear and compression independently and simultaneously. Positional feedback is provided by linear optical encoders that have a bidirectional repeatability of 0.1 μm and a resolution of 20 nm, translating to a positional accuracy of less than 3 μm over the full 50 mm of travel. These encoders provide the necessary position feedback to the drive electronics to ensure true nanopositioning capabilities. In order to provide the force feedback to detect contact and evaluate loading responses, a precision miniature load cell is positioned between the loading platen and the moving platform. The load cell has high accuracies of 0

  18. One-step lowrank wave extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Sindi, Ghada Atif

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a modified one-step lowrank wave extrapolation using Shanks transform in isotropic, and anisotropic media. Specifically, we utilize a velocity gradient term to add to the accuracy of the phase approximation function in the spectral implementation. With the higher accuracy, we can utilize larger time steps and make the extrapolation more efficient. Applications to models with strong inhomogeneity and considerable anisotropy demonstrates the utility of the approach.

  19. Improved HPC method for nonlinear wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wenbo; Greco, Marilena; Shao, Yanlin

    2017-01-01

    The recently developed Harmonic Polynomial Cell (HPC) method has been proved to be a promising choice for solving potential-flow Boundary Value Problem (BVP). In this paper, a flux method is proposed to consistently deal with the Neumann boundary condition of the original HPC method and enhance t...... nonlinear 2D numerical wave tank is developed using the improved HPCmethod as a verification....... the accuracy. Moreover, fixed mesh algorithm with free surface immersed is developed to improve the computational efficiency. Finally, a two dimensional (2D) multi-block strategy coupling boundary-fitted mesh and fixed mesh is proposed. Itlimits the computational costs and preserves the accuracy. A fully...

  20. SIMULATION ERRORS OF HIGH-LOADED SYSTEMS IN GPSS WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Aliev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research results of random number generators (RNG influence on simulation accuracy of high-loaded queuing systems in the GPSS World simulation system. It is shown that for certain combinations of RNGs, called problem generators, the inaccuracy of the simulation results of highly loaded systems may reach tens of percent. The analysis of problem combinations revealed factors causing high level of inaccuracy in simulation results.

  1. Methods of localization of Lamb wave sources on thin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Kvalheim Eriksen, Fredrik; Daniel, Guillaume; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2015-04-01

    Signal localization techniques are ubiquitous in both industry and academic communities. We propose a new localization method on plates which is based on energy amplitude attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison. This inversion is tested on synthetic data using Lamb wave propagation direct model and on experimental dataset (recorded with 4 Brüel & Kjær Type 4374 miniature piezoelectric shock accelerometers (1-26 kHz frequency range)). We compare the performance of the technique to the classical source localization algorithms, arrival time localization, time reversal localization, localization based on energy amplitude. Furthermore, we measure and compare the accuracy of these techniques as function of sampling rate, dynamic range, geometry, Signal to Noise Ratio, and we show that this very versatile technique works better than classical ones over the sampling rates 100kHz - 1MHz. Experimental phase consists of a glass plate having dimensions of 80cmx40cm with a thickness of 1cm. Generated signals due to a wooden hammer hit or a steel ball hit are captured by sensors placed on the plate on different locations with the mentioned sensors. Numerical simulations are done using dispersive far field approximation of plate waves. Signals are generated using a hertzian loading over the plate. Using imaginary sources outside the plate boundaries the effect of reflections is also included. This proposed method, can be modified to be implemented on 3d environments, monitor industrial activities (e.g boreholes drilling/production activities) or natural brittle systems (e.g earthquakes, volcanoes, avalanches).

  2. Concrete structures under impact loading: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Baeră

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic loading conditions distress the structural integrity of a structure differently than the static ones. Such actions transfer high rate strains and instant energy waves to the structure, inducing the possibility of imminent collapse and casualties as a direct consequence. In the latest years, considering the dramatic increase of terrorist threats and global warming, the structural safety criteria imply more than ever the need to withstand this kind of loading (e.g., missiles and blast, projectiles, strong winds, tornados and earthquakes in addition to the static ones. The aim of this paper is to provide a general overview with regard to impact loading in terms of defining the phenomenon from physical and mechanical perspective, its complex local or global effect on the targeted structure, relevant material characteristics, main research approaches, namely theoretical studies and experimental procedures developed for improving the predictability of the dynamic loads and their effects. New directions in developing superior cementitious composites, with better characteristics in terms of dynamic loading performance are also emphasized.

  3. Experimental Investigations of Tension Piles in Sand Subjected to Static and Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The present thesis regards the behavior of the piles in jacket pile foundations used for offshore wind turbines. The piles are often loaded in tension because of the combination of wind and wave conditions and the low self-weight of the wind turbine. The repeated cyclic loading can lead...... to accumulated upwards displacement of the piles and, thus, undesired deflection of the wind turbine structure. This study concerns the effect of cyclic loading on a pile installed in dense sand and loaded in tension. A new laboratory test setup was constructed to make these pile load tests. The thesis discusses...... the advantages and disadvantages of the test setup. The results of cyclic loading tests showed that the loading conditions are very important for the behavior of piles. Some wind and wave conditions can be beneficial and increase the pile capacity while other conditions can be damaging and reduce the pile...

  4. Non-perturbational surface-wave inversion: A Dix-type relation for surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matt; Tsai, Victor C.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the approach underlying the well-known Dix equation in reflection seismology to surface waves. Within the context of surface wave inversion, the Dix-type relation we derive for surface waves allows accurate depth profiles of shear-wave velocity to be constructed directly from phase velocity data, in contrast to perturbational methods. The depth profiles can subsequently be used as an initial model for nonlinear inversion. We provide examples of the Dix-type relation for under-parameterized and over-parameterized cases. In the under-parameterized case, we use the theory to estimate crustal thickness, crustal shear-wave velocity, and mantle shear-wave velocity across the Western U.S. from phase velocity maps measured at 8-, 20-, and 40-s periods. By adopting a thin-layer formalism and an over-parameterized model, we show how a regularized inversion based on the Dix-type relation yields smooth depth profiles of shear-wave velocity. In the process, we quantitatively demonstrate the depth sensitivity of surface-wave phase velocity as a function of frequency and the accuracy of the Dix-type relation. We apply the over-parameterized approach to a near-surface data set within the frequency band from 5 to 40 Hz and find overall agreement between the inverted model and the result of full nonlinear inversion.

  5. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  6. Accuracy of full-arch scans using intraoral scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Sebastian B M; Emmanouilidi, Archontia; Stampf, Susanne; Strub, Joerg R; Att, Wael

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of intraoral scanners in full-arch scans. A representative model with 14 prepared abutments was digitized using an industrial scanner (reference scanner) as well as four intraoral scanners (iTero, CEREC AC Bluecam, Lava C.O.S., and Zfx IntraScan). Datasets obtained from different scans were loaded into 3D evaluation software, superimposed, and compared for accuracy. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was implemented to compute differences within groups (precision) as well as comparisons with the reference scan (trueness). A level of statistical significance of p < 0.05 was set. Mean trueness values ranged from 38 to 332.9 μm. Data analysis yielded statistically significant differences between CEREC AC Bluecam and other scanners as well as between Zfx IntraScan and Lava C.O.S. Mean precision values ranged from 37.9 to 99.1 μm. Statistically significant differences were found between CEREC AC Bluecam and Lava C.O.S., CEREC AC Bluecam and iTero, Zfx Intra Scan and Lava C.O.S., and Zfx Intra Scan and iTero (p < 0.05). Except for one intraoral scanner system, all tested systems showed a comparable level of accuracy for full-arch scans of prepared teeth. Further studies are needed to validate the accuracy of these scanners under clinical conditions. Despite excellent accuracy in single-unit scans having been demonstrated, little is known about the accuracy of intraoral scanners in simultaneous scans of multiple abutments. Although most of the tested scanners showed comparable values, the results suggest that the inaccuracies of the obtained datasets may contribute to inaccuracies in the final restorations.

  7. BEHAVIOUR OF ELECTRONIC BLOCKS AND DEVICES UNDER ACTION OF IMPACT LOADS AT ROAD ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Torlin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of impact loads action on vehicle’s design elements that contain electronic devices intended for maintenance of its passive safety is considered. The action time is compared to the speed of shock wave propagation.

  8. Wave-equation Q tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2016-10-12

    Strong subsurface attenuation leads to distortion of amplitudes and phases of seismic waves propagating inside the earth. The amplitude and the dispersion losses from attenuation are often compensated for during prestack depth migration. However, most attenuation compensation or Qcompensation migration algorithms require an estimate of the background Q model. We have developed a wave-equation gradient optimization method that inverts for the subsurface Q distribution by minimizing a skeletonized misfit function ∈, where ∈ is the sum of the squared differences between the observed and the predicted peak/centroid-frequency shifts of the early arrivals. The gradient is computed by migrating the observed traces weighted by the frequency shift residuals. The background Q model is perturbed until the predicted and the observed traces have the same peak frequencies or the same centroid frequencies. Numerical tests determined that an improved accuracy of the Q model by wave-equation Q tomography leads to a noticeable improvement in migration image quality. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  9. Robust Wave Resource Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the wave energy resource at the location of the Danish Wave Energy test Centre (DanWEC) is presented in this paper. The Wave Energy Converter (WEC) test centre is located at Hanstholm in the of North West Denmark. Information about the long term wave statistics of the resource...... is necessary for WEC developers, both to optimise the WEC for the site, and to estimate its average yearly power production using a power matrix. The wave height and wave period sea states parameters are commonly characterized with a bivariate histogram. This paper presents bivariate histograms and kernel...... density estimates of the PDF as a function both of Hm0 and Tp, and Hm0 and T0;2, together with the mean wave power per unit crest length, Pw, as a function of Hm0 and T0;2. The wave elevation parameters, from which the wave parameters are calculated, are filtered to correct or remove spurious data...

  10. Internal Wave Generation by Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoanet, Daniel Michael

    internal gravity wave spectrum, using the Lighthill theory of wave excitation by turbulence. We use a Green's function approach, in which we convolve a convective source term with the Green's function of different internal gravity waves. The remainder of the thesis is a circuitous attempt to verify these analytical predictions. I test the predictions of Chapter 2 via numerical simulation. The first step is to identify a code suitable for this study. I helped develop the Dedalus code framework to study internal wave generation by convection. Dedalus can solve many different partial differential equations using the pseudo-spectral numerical method. In Chapter 3, I demonstrate Dedalus' ability to solve different equations used to model convection in astrophysics. I consider both the propagation and damping of internal waves, and the properties of low Rayleigh number convective steady states, in six different equation sets used in the astrophysics literature. This shows that Dedalus can be used to solve the equations of interest. Next, in Chapter 4, I verify the high accuracy of Dedalus by comparing it to the popular astrophysics code Athena in a standard Kelvin-Helmholtz instability test problem. Dedalus performs admirably in comparison to Athena, and provides a high standard for other codes solving the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Chapter 5 demonstrates that Dedalus can simulate convective adjacent to a stably stratified region, by studying convective mixing near carbon flames. The convective overshoot and mixing is well-resolved, and is able to generate internal waves. Confident in Dedalus' ability to study the problem at hand, Chapter 6 describes simulations inspired by water experiments of internal wave generation by convection. The experiments exploit water's unusual property that its density maximum is at 4°C, rather than at 0°C. We use a similar equation of state in Dedalus, and study internal gravity waves generation by convection in a water

  11. Stress wave propagation in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, D.E

    1977-01-01

    Earth penetration, design and hardening of structures to explosive or earthquake-induced ground shock effects, rapid excavation, and in situ preparation of coal, shale, or geothermal deposits are representative problems in which accurate constitutive descriptions of the geological medium are required to provide meaningful predictions. The rock or rock masses involved undergo complex, finite amplitude deformation during the process of transient dynamic loading, and quasi-static experimental compression techniques are normally used to provide much of the necessary data base. Strain rates typically range between 10/sup 1//s and 10/sup 5//s in the problems of interest, however, and further studies are required to determine the importance of rate dependence in the mechanical constitutive behavior of rock. Material response at the higher strain rates can be investigated with impact generated stress waves where controlled strain rates between about 10/sup 4//s to 10/sup 7//s can be achieved. Experimental methods have been developed to conduct and analyze impact-induced shock wave, ramp wave, and tensile fracture studies. Experimental results on some select crustal silicate and carbonate rocks show that strain rate dependence and the processes of phase transformation, compressive yielding, and fracture are important features in the dynamic constitutive response.

  12. The stress-induced surface wave velocity variations in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvier, Agustin; Bittner, James; Evani, Sai Kalyan; Popovics, John S.

    2017-02-01

    This investigation studies the behavior of surface wave velocity in concrete specimens subjected to low levels of compressive and tensile stress in beams from applied flexural loads. Beam specimen is loaded in a 4-point-load bending configuration, generating uniaxial compression and tension stress fields at the top and bottom surfaces of the beam, respectively. Surface waves are generated through contactless air-coupled transducers and received through contact accelerometers. Results show a clear distinction in responses from compression and tension zones, where velocity increases in the former and decreases in the latter, with increasing load levels. These trends agree with existing acoustoelastic literature. Surface wave velocity tends to decrease more under tension than it tends to increase under compression, for equal load levels. It is observed that even at low stress levels, surface wave velocity is affected by acoustoelastic effects, coupled with plastic effects (stress-induced damage). The acoustoelastic effect is isolated by means of considering the Kaiser effect and by experimentally mitigating the viscoelastic effects of concrete. Results of this ongoing investigation contribute to the overall knowledge of the acoustoelastic behavior of concrete. Applications of this knowledge may include structural health monitoring of members under flexural loads, improved high order modelling of materials, and validation of results seen in dynamic acoustoelasticity testing.

  13. Scattering of sound waves by a compressible vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonius, Tim; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz

    1991-01-01

    Scattering of plane sound waves by a compressible vortex is investigated by direct computation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Nonreflecting boundary conditions are utilized, and their accuracy is established by comparing results on different sized domains. Scattered waves are directly measured from the computations. The resulting amplitude and directivity pattern of the scattered waves is discussed, and compared to various theoretical predictions. For compact vortices (zero circulation), the scattered waves directly computed are in good agreement with predictions based on an acoustic analogy. Strong scattering at about + or - 30 degrees from the direction of incident wave propagation is observed. Back scattering is an order of magnitude smaller than forward scattering. For vortices with finite circulation refraction of the sound by the mean flow field outside the vortex core is found to be important in determining the amplitude and directivity of the scattered wave field.

  14. Mechanism isolates load weighing cell during lifting of load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigler, J. S.

    1966-01-01

    Load weighing cell used in conjuction with a hoist is isolated during lifting and manipulation of the load. A simple mechanism, attached to a crane hook, provides a screw adjustment for engaging the load cell during weighing of the load and isolating it from lift forces during hoisting of the load.

  15. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The conventional load flow methods like Newton-Raphson load flow (NRLF), Fast Decoupled load flow (FDLF) provide poor performance under critical conditions such as high R/X ratio, heavily loading condition etc. Exploiting the decoupling properties of power system, reliable fuzzy load flow is developed to overcome the ...

  16. Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    In the offshore wind turbine industry the most widely used foundation type is the monopile. Due to the wave and wind forces the monopile is subjected to a strong cyclic loading with varying amplitude, maximum loading level, and varying loading period. In this paper the soil–pile interaction...

  17. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  18. Data accuracy assessment using enterprise architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närman, Per; Holm, Hannes; Johnson, Pontus; König, Johan; Chenine, Moustafa; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2011-02-01

    Errors in business processes result in poor data accuracy. This article proposes an architecture analysis method which utilises ArchiMate and the Probabilistic Relational Model formalism to model and analyse data accuracy. Since the resources available for architecture analysis are usually quite scarce, the method advocates interviews as the primary data collection technique. A case study demonstrates that the method yields correct data accuracy estimates and is more resource-efficient than a competing sampling-based data accuracy estimation method.

  19. Uncertainty analysis of wind-wave predictions in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouee, Navid; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Hamidi, Sajad Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    With all the improvement in wave and hydrodynamics numerical models, the question rises in our mind that how the accuracy of the forcing functions and their input can affect the results. In this paper, a commonly used numerical third-generation wave model, SWAN is applied to predict waves in Lake Michigan. Wind data are analyzed to determine wind variation frequency over Lake Michigan. Wave predictions uncertainty due to wind local effects are compared during a period where wind has a fairly constant speed and direction over the northern and southern basins. The study shows that despite model calibration in Lake Michigan area, the model deficiency arises from ignoring wind effects in small scales. Wave prediction also emphasizes that small scale turbulence in meteorological forces can increase prediction errors by 38%. Wave frequency and coherence analysis show that both models can predict the wave variation time scale with the same accuracy. Insufficient number of meteorological stations can result in neglecting local wind effects and discrepancies in current predictions. The uncertainty of wave numerical models due to input uncertainties and model principals should be taken into account for design risk factors.

  20. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  1. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  2. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  3. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  4. Detonation Wave Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Research on Cylindrical Tubes under Outer Cylindrical Explosive Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Sui Yaguang; Zhang Dezhi; Tang Shiying; Chen Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cylindrical explosive loading has an important application in explosive working, researching on weapon damage, and explosive-driving load. This study uses experimental and numerical methods to study the response of long and thin tubes when subjected to cylindrical explosive loading. The flake-like charge and multipoint initiation technique were adopted to load cylindrical explosive waves. Experimental results showed that the method could produce uniform deformation in certain parts of the lon...

  6. Use of Pollutant Load Regression Models with Various Sampling Frequencies for Annual Load Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Shik Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water quality data are collected by various sampling frequencies, and the data may not be collected at a high frequency nor over the range of streamflow conditions. Therefore, regression models are used to estimate pollutant data for days on which water quality data were not measured. Pollutant load regression models were evaluated with six sampling frequencies for daily nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment data. Annual pollutant load estimates exhibited various behaviors by sampling frequency and also by the regression model used. Several distinct sampling frequency features were observed in the study. The first was that more frequent sampling did not necessarily lead to more accurate and precise annual pollutant load estimates. The second was that use of water quality data collected from storm events improved both accuracy and precision in annual pollutant load estimates for all water quality parameters. The third was that the pollutant regression model automatically selected by LOADEST did not necessarily lead to more accurate and precise annual pollutant load estimates. The fourth was that pollutant regression models displayed different behaviors for different water quality parameters in annual pollutant load estimation.

  7. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  8. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  9. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  10. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... used each time. Will exercise, nutrition, and other lifestyle modifications help decrease my HIV viral load? There ...

  11. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  12. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  13. Determination of the Ocean Tide Constituents Loading Based on GPS Measurements in the Chinese Offshore Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Wu, Z.; He, X.; Peng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean tide loading largely affects the accuracy of GPS positioning. In turn, GPS measurements could be used to monitor the ocean tide loading effect. In this paper, 67-days GPS observations from two island GPS stations, respectively located in the East China Sea and the South China Sea, were collected and calculated in 30s sampling rate using the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) algorithm. The variation of GPS observed position time series are 2cm in the horizontal and 7cm in the vertical generated by the ocean tide loading effect and other error sources. With the power spectra analysis by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), the eigenvalues of the semidiurnal constituents and the diurnal constituents are obtained from the GPS estimates time series. The calculated frequencies are well agreements to the known within the error less than 1.5% for K1,Q1, O1, K2,S2, M2,N2, but P1 within 4.2%. The calculated amplitudes are also well consistent with the results from the global tide models FES2004,NAO.99 and GOT4.7. Their difference in the amplitude are mostly less than 5mm in the horizontal and the vertical direction, except K1 and M2. The maximum amplitude difference occurs in K1 and M2 up to 1.5cm in the vertical direction. In additional, two islands locate at the different transmission Channel, but they give the same calculated frequency in the horizontal and the vertical directional, respectively for 8 tidal constituents. This exhibits they belongs to the same tide wave system as in fact.

  14. Applicability of various wave movement theories for calculating hydrobiotechnical constructions in the conditions of relative shoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyaev Sergey Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological features of cultural reproduction of seafood presuppose the use of hydrobiotechnical constructions. Calculations of the loadings and impacts on sea hydrobiotechnical constructions demand a reasonable choice of a hydromechanical theory of wave movement. In the article the theories of two-dimensional regular linear and nonlinear waves are considered: the theory of small amplitude waves; Stokes' wave theory (the second order of approximation; the theory of final height waves of the first, second and third order of approximation. The dependences for determining speeds and accelerations of liquid particles are given. The comparison results of various theories of regular waves and fields of their application are stated. The authors offer the expressions for engineering calculations of kinematic characteristics of regular waves at a final depth. In recent years, cage culture fishery has received the predominant development in marine aquaculture, because its creation do not require large investments. Calculation of loads and impacts of waves on the shore hydraulic structures under extreme conditions require justified choice of hydro-mechanical theory of wave motions. This article gives a comparison of the various theories of regular waves, both linear and nonlinear and evaluates the applicability of them from the point of view of engineering use and actual conditions. However, the theory of small amplitude waves is widespread both in theoretical studies and engineering application, due to its sufficient simplicity and the fact that the linearity of the theory of small amplitude waves allows using the method of summing elementary solutions in the process of finding potential wave motion. The choice of one or another wave theory in marine facilities calculations of regular waves impact depends on the type of design, ease of using wave theory in calculations, type of the considered impact, applicability of the different wave theories in order

  15. Condensation of long-term wave climates for the fatigue design of hydrodynamically sensitive offshore wind turbine support structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim

    2016-01-01

    of the marginal wind and wave distribution. This is achieved by condensation of the site-specific wave climate in terms of wave period or wave height lumping, subsequently used as input for a correlation with the corresponding wind climate. The quality of this resulting wind–wave correlation is especially...... important for hydrodynamically sensitive structures since the applied met-ocean parameters have a non-linear influence on calculated fatigue design loads. The present article introduces a new wave lumping method for condensation of the wave climate. The novelty is predominantly based on refined equivalence...

  16. Ultrasonic metal sheet thickness measurement without prior wave speed calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, S.; Petcher, P. A.; Fan, Y.; Maisey, D.; Nickolds, P.

    2013-11-01

    Conventional ultrasonic mensuration of sample thickness from one side only requires the bulk wave reverberation time and a calibration speed. This speed changes with temperature, stress, and microstructure, limiting thickness measurement accuracy. Often, only one side of a sample is accessible, making in situ calibration impossible. Non-contact ultrasound can generate multiple shear horizontal guided wave modes on one side of a metal plate. Measuring propagation times of each mode at different transducer separations, allows sheet thickness to be calculated to better than 1% accuracy for sheets of at least 1.5 mm thickness, without any calibration.

  17. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Models for Multiple-Diffraction Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Barış TABAKCIOĞLU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic wave propagation models have been used for coverage estimation and field prediction at the receiver to make more reliable and efficient digital broadcasting systems. Propagation models can be classified into two groups as numerical and ray tracing based models. There is a tradeoff between computation time and accuracy of field prediction among electromagnetic wave propagation models. Although numerical models predict accurately, it requires more computation times. Ray tracing based models predicts the field strength less accurately with lower computation time. Many propagation models have been developed to provide optimum solution for accuracy and computation time

  18. Contact-Free Cognitive Load Recognition Based on Eye Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive overload not only affects the physical and mental diseases, but also affects the work efficiency and safety. Hence, the research of measuring cognitive load has been an important part of cognitive load theory. In this paper, we proposed a method to identify the state of cognitive load by using eye movement data in a noncontact manner. We designed a visual experiment to elicit human’s cognitive load as high and low state in two light intense environments and recorded the eye movement data in this whole process. Twelve salient features of the eye movement were selected by using statistic test. Algorithms for processing some features are proposed for increasing the recognition rate. Finally we used the support vector machine (SVM to classify high and low cognitive load. The experimental results show that the method can achieve 90.25% accuracy in light controlled condition.

  19. Modelling sand wave variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke

    2009-01-01

    The sea floor of shallow seas is rarely flat and often dynamic. A widely occurring bedform type is the sand wave. Sand waves form more or less regular wavelike patterns on the seabed with crests up to one third of the water depth, wave lengths of hundreds of metres and a migration rate of metres up

  20. Wave Dragon MW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the experience gained a full scale, multi MW prototype...

  1. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...... wave overtopping was studied as well....

  2. Modeling Regional Seismic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-25

    Shear waves are almost always observed from underground explosions. One can visualize many ways to convert explosion P waves into SV waves. An ob- vious...of the observed moment to the input source moment, Moba /Mo, as a function of the compressional velocities a, of the embedded sphere for different whole

  3. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  4. B-waves revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spiegelberg

    2016-12-01

    With the still unmet need for a clinically acceptable method for acquiring intracranial compliance, and the revival of ICP waveform analysis, B-waves are moving back into the research focus. Herein we provide a concise review of the literature on B-waves, including a critical assessment of non-invasive methods for obtaining B-wave surrogates.

  5. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a broad overview of the emerging field of gravitational-wave astronomy. Although gravitational waves have not been directly de- tected yet, the worldwide scientific community is engaged in an exciting search for these elusive waves. Once detected, they will open up a new observational window to the Universe.

  6. Extension of the modal wave-front reconstruction algorithm to non-uniform illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyu; Mu, Jie; Rao, ChangHui; Yang, Jinsheng; Rao, XueJun; Tian, Yu

    2014-06-30

    Attempts are made to eliminate the effects of non-uniform illumination on the precision of wave-front measurement. To achieve this, the relationship between the wave-front slope at a single sub-aperture and the distributions of the phase and light intensity of the wave-front were first analyzed to obtain the relevant theoretical formulae. Then, based on the principle of modal wave-front reconstruction, the influence of the light intensity distribution on the wave-front slope is introduced into the calculation of the reconstruction matrix. Experiments were conducted to prove that the corrected modal wave-front reconstruction algorithm improved the accuracy of wave-front reconstruction. Moreover, the correction is conducive to high-precision wave-front measurement using a Hartmann wave-front sensor in the presence of non-uniform illumination.

  7. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

    2007-09-30

    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  8. Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Trend Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Rebecca; Le Compte, Aaron; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are being increasingly used to monitor glycemia in people with diabetes. One advantage with CGM is the ability to monitor the trend of sensor glucose (SG) over time. However, there are few metrics available for assessing the trend accuracy of CGM devices. The aim of this study was to develop an easy to interpret tool for assessing trend accuracy of CGM data. SG data from CGM were compared to hourly blood glucose (BG) measurements and trend accuracy was quantified using the dot product. Trend accuracy results are displayed on the Trend Compass, which depicts trend accuracy as a function of BG. A trend performance table and Trend Index (TI) metric are also proposed. The Trend Compass was tested using simulated CGM data with varying levels of error and variability, as well as real clinical CGM data. The results show that the Trend Compass is an effective tool for differentiating good trend accuracy from poor trend accuracy, independent of glycemic variability. Furthermore, the real clinical data show that the Trend Compass assesses trend accuracy independent of point bias error. Finally, the importance of assessing trend accuracy as a function of BG level is highlighted in a case example of low and falling BG data, with corresponding rising SG data. This study developed a simple to use tool for quantifying trend accuracy. The resulting trend accuracy is easily interpreted on the Trend Compass plot, and if required, performance table and TI metric. PMID:24876437

  9. Impacts of the 2015 Heat Waves on Mortality in the Czech Republic—A Comparison with Previous Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Hanzlíková, Hana; Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impacts of heat waves during the summer of 2015 on mortality in the Czech Republic and to compare them with those of heat waves back to the previous record-breaking summer of 1994. We analyzed daily natural-cause mortality across the country’s entire population. A mortality baseline was determined using generalized additive models adjusted for long-term trends, seasonal and weekly cycles, and identified heat waves. Mortality deviations from the baseline were calculated to quantify excess mortality during heat waves, defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with mean daily temperature higher than the 95th percentile of annual distribution. The summer of 2015 was record-breaking in the total duration of heat waves as well as their total heat load. Consequently, the impact of the major heat wave in 2015 on the increase in excess mortality relative to the baseline was greater than during the previous record-breaking heat wave in 1994 (265% vs. 240%). Excess mortality was comparable among the younger age group (0–64 years) and the elderly (65+ years) in the 1994 major heat wave while it was significantly larger among the elderly in 2015. The results suggest that the total heat load of a heat wave needs to be considered when assessing its impact on mortality, as the cumulative excess heat factor explains the magnitude of excess mortality during a heat wave better than other characteristics such as duration or average daily mean temperature during the heat wave. Comparison of the mortality impacts of the 2015 and 1994 major heat waves suggests that the recently reported decline in overall heat-related mortality in Central Europe has abated and simple extrapolation of the trend would lead to biased conclusions even for the near future. Further research is needed toward understanding the additional mitigation measures required to prevent heat-related mortality in the Czech Republic and elsewhere. PMID:29236040

  10. Impacts of the 2015 Heat Waves on Mortality in the Czech Republic-A Comparison with Previous Heat Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Hanzlíková, Hana; Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2017-12-13

    This study aimed to assess the impacts of heat waves during the summer of 2015 on mortality in the Czech Republic and to compare them with those of heat waves back to the previous record-breaking summer of 1994. We analyzed daily natural-cause mortality across the country's entire population. A mortality baseline was determined using generalized additive models adjusted for long-term trends, seasonal and weekly cycles, and identified heat waves. Mortality deviations from the baseline were calculated to quantify excess mortality during heat waves, defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with mean daily temperature higher than the 95th percentile of annual distribution. The summer of 2015 was record-breaking in the total duration of heat waves as well as their total heat load. Consequently, the impact of the major heat wave in 2015 on the increase in excess mortality relative to the baseline was greater than during the previous record-breaking heat wave in 1994 (265% vs. 240%). Excess mortality was comparable among the younger age group (0-64 years) and the elderly (65+ years) in the 1994 major heat wave while it was significantly larger among the elderly in 2015. The results suggest that the total heat load of a heat wave needs to be considered when assessing its impact on mortality, as the cumulative excess heat factor explains the magnitude of excess mortality during a heat wave better than other characteristics such as duration or average daily mean temperature during the heat wave. Comparison of the mortality impacts of the 2015 and 1994 major heat waves suggests that the recently reported decline in overall heat-related mortality in Central Europe has abated and simple extrapolation of the trend would lead to biased conclusions even for the near future. Further research is needed toward understanding the additional mitigation measures required to prevent heat-related mortality in the Czech Republic and elsewhere.

  11. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  12. Effects of obliquely opposing and following currents on wave propagation in a new 3D wave-current basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, Mike; Schlurmann, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION & MOTIVATION The design of structures in coastal and offshore areas and their maintenance are key components of coastal protection. Usually, assessments of processes and loads on coastal structures are derived from experiments with flow and wave parameters in separate physical models. However, Peregrin (1976) already points out that processes in natural shallow coastal waters flow and sea state processes do not occur separately, but influence each other nonlinearly. Kemp & Simons (1982) perform 2D laboratory tests and study the interactions between a turbulent flow and following waves. They highlight the significance of wave-induced changes in the current properties, especially in the mean flow profiles, and draw attention to turbulent fluctuations and bottom shear stresses. Kemp & Simons (1983) also study these processes and features with opposing waves. Studies on the wave-current interaction in three-dimensional space for a certain wave height, wave period and water depth were conducted by MacIver et al. (2006). The research focus is set on the investigation of long-crested waves on obliquely opposing and following currents in the new 3D wave-current basin. METHODOLOGY In a first step the flow analysis without waves is carried out and includes measurements of flow profiles in the sweet spot of the basin at predefined measurement positions. Five measuring points in the water column have been delineated in different water depths in order to obtain vertical flow profiles. For the characterization of the undisturbed flow properties in the basin, an uniformly distributed flow was generated in the wave basin. In the second step wave analysis without current, the unidirectional wave propagation and wave height were investigated for long-crested waves in intermediate wave conditions. In the sweet spot of the wave basin waves with three different wave directions, three wave periods and uniform wave steepness were examined. For evaluation, we applied a common

  13. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  14. Combining forecasts in short term load forecasting: Empirical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present an empirical analysis to show that combination of short term load forecasts leads to better accuracy. We also discuss other aspects of combination, i.e.,distribution of weights, effect of variation in the historical window and distribution of forecast errors. The distribution of forecast errors is analyzed in order to get a ...

  15. Development of a method to estimate coal pillar loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DP

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this project was to determine the accuracy and validity of the Tributary Area Theory (TAT) and to provide better estimates of pillar load using numerical modelling and other tools. Literature review highlighted that previous work...

  16. Spin wave generation by surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Labanowski, Dominic; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2017-07-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAW) on piezoelectric substrates can excite spin wave resonance (SWR) in magnetostrictive films through magnetoelastic coupling. This acoustically driven SWR enables the excitation of a single spin wave mode with an in-plane wave vector k matched to the magnetoelastic wave vector. A 2D frequency domain finite element model is presented that fully couples elastodynamics, micromagnetics, and piezoelectricity with interface spin pumping effects taken into account. It is used to simulate SAW driven SWR on a ferromagnetic and piezoelectric heterostructure device with an interdigital transducer configuration. These results, for the first time, present the spatial distribution of magnetization components that, together with elastic wave, exponentially decays along the propagation direction due to magnetic damping. The results also show that the system transmission rate S21(dB) can be tuned by both an external bias field and the SAW wavevector. Acoustic spin pumping at magnetic film/normal metal interface leads to damping enhancement in magnetic films that decreases the energy absorption rate from elastic energy. This weakened interaction between the magnetic energy and elastic energy leads to a lower evanescence rate of the SAW that results in a longer distance propagation. With strong magnetoelastic coupling, the SAW driven spin wave is able to propagate up to 1200 μm. The results give a quantitative indication of the acoustic spin pumping contribution to linewidth broadening.

  17. Astrophysics with Microarcsecond Accuracy Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-based astrometry promises to provide a powerful new tool for astrophysics. At a precision level of a few microarcsonds, a wide range of phenomena are opened up for study. In this paper we discuss the capabilities of the SIM Lite mission, the first space-based long-baseline optical interferometer, which will deliver parallaxes to 4 microarcsec. A companion paper in this volume will cover the development and operation of this instrument. At the level that SIM Lite will reach, better than 1 microarcsec in a single measurement, planets as small as one Earth can be detected around many dozen of the nearest stars. Not only can planet masses be definitely measured, but also the full orbital parameters determined, allowing study of system stability in multiple planet systems. This capability to survey our nearby stellar neighbors for terrestrial planets will be a unique contribution to our understanding of the local universe. SIM Lite will be able to tackle a wide range of interesting problems in stellar and Galactic astrophysics. By tracing the motions of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies orbiting our Milky Way, SIM Lite will probe the shape of the galactic potential history of the formation of the galaxy, and the nature of dark matter. Because it is flexibly scheduled, the instrument can dwell on faint targets, maintaining its full accuracy on objects as faint as V=19. This paper is a brief survey of the diverse problems in modern astrophysics that SIM Lite will be able to address.

  18. IGS polar motion measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate an error budget for the long-term accuracy of IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service polar motion estimates, concluding that it is probably about 25–30 μas (1-sigma overall, although it is not possible to quantify possible contributions (mainly annual that might transfer directly from aliases of subdaily rotational tide errors. The leading sources are biases arising from the need to align daily, observed terrestrial frames, within which the pole coordinates are expressed and which are continuously deforming, to the secular, linear international reference frame. Such biases are largest over spans longer than about a year. Thanks to the very large number of IGS tracking stations, the formal covariance errors are much smaller, around 5 to 10 μas. Large networks also permit the systematic frame-related errors to be more effectively minimized but not eliminated. A number of periodic errors probably also influence polar motion results, mainly at annual, GPS (Global Positioning System draconitic, and fortnightly periods, but their impact on the overall error budget is unlikely to be significant except possibly for annual tidal aliases. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised in interpreting geophysical excitations near any of the suspect periods.

  19. Shock wave structure in heterogeneous reactive media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.R.

    1997-06-01

    Continuum mixture theory and mesoscale modeling are applied to describe the behavior of shock-loaded heterogeneous media. One-dimensional simulations of gas-gun experiments demonstrate that the wave features are well described by mixture theory, including reflected wave behavior and conditions where significant reaction is initiated. Detailed wave fields are resolved in numerical simulations of impact on a lattice of discrete explosive {open_quotes}crystals{close_quotes}. It is shown that rapid distortion first occurs at material contact points; the nature of the dispersive fields includes large amplitude fluctuations of stress over several particle pathlengths. Localization of energy causes {open_quotes}hot-spots{close_quotes} due to shock focusing and plastic work as material flows into interstitial regions.

  20. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  1. An algorithm for the calculation of the partial wave expansion of the Coulomb-distorted plane wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, I.; Kruppa, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The partial wave expansion of the Coulomb-distorted plane wave is determined by the help of the complex generalized hypergeometric function 2F2(a , a ; a + l + 1 , a - l ; z) . An algorithm for the calculation of 2F2(a , a ; a + l + 1 , a - l ; z) is created and it is implemented as a FORTRAN-90 code. The code is fast and its accuracy is 14 significant decimal digits.

  2. Review of Long Wave Dynamics over Reefs and into Ports with Implication for Port Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ap van Dongeren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the dynamics of infragravity (long-period waves over reef systems and the consequences of these waves for operations in ports located behind reefs with particular attention to Western Australia. Swells which originate in the Southern Ocean generate long (infragravity waves, which propagate to the coast. On the reef edge, the swell waves are largely dissipated, transferring energy to turbulence and heat but also in that process generating long wave energy. The remaining swell waves are dominated by the infragravity waves and propagate towards the mainland and into port basins where they cause moored ship motions with consequences for the operational downtime of the port’s operations. When contemplating solutions to mitigate the impact of the long wave problems, these may be addressed from two sides: from the load side (waves and the strength side (mooring. The former will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  4. Exothermic waves in continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyi, G. G.

    Theoretical and experimental research related to the generation and propagation of exothermic waves in combustible gas mixtures as well as solid and liquid combustible media is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to detonation phenomena, the stationary structure of chemical detonation waves for various gas and condensed explosive models, discontinuous solutions for motions with exothermic discontinuities, and heat release in thermonuclear reactions. The discussion also covers frontal polymerization and crystallization waves, stationary combustion waves in systems with high-temperature self-propagating synthesis, and initiation of exothermic waves in continua with allowance for transfer processes.

  5. The Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Hansen, R.; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type, utilizing a patented wave reflector design to focus the waves towards a ramp, and the overtopping is used for electricity production through a set of Kaplan/propeller hydro turbines. During the last 2 years, excessive...... design an testing has been performed on a scale 1:50 model of the Wave Dragon, and on a scale 1:3:5 model turbine. Thus survivability, overtopping, hydraulic response, turbine performance and feasibility have been verified....

  6. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......'s first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype...

  7. Pulsars and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. J.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between pulsar-like compact stars and gravitational waves is briefly reviewed. Due to regular spins, pulsars could be useful tools for us to detect ~nano-Hz low-frequency gravitational waves by pulsar-timing array technique; besides, they would also be ~kilo-Hz high-frequency gravitational wave radiators because of their compactness. The wave strain of an isolated pulsar depends on the equation state of cold matter at supra-nuclear densities. Therefore, a real detection of gravitational wave should be very meaningful in gravity physics, micro-theory of elementary strong interaction, and astronomy.

  8. Physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, William C

    1985-01-01

    Because of the increasing demands and complexity of undergraduate physics courses (atomic, quantum, solid state, nuclear, etc.), it is often impossible to devote separate courses to the classic wave phenomena of optics, acoustics, and electromagnetic radiation. This brief comprehensive text helps alleviate the problem with a unique overview of classical wave theory in one volume.By examining a sequence of concrete and specific examples (emphasizing the physics of wave motion), the authors unify the study of waves, developing abstract and general features common to all wave motion. The fundam

  9. On the Effect of Green Water on Deck on the Wave Bending Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Xia, Jinzhu

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate whether green water on deck in severe sea states have a notable effect on the maximum wave bending moments. The analysis is carried out for an S175 container ship for which results from model experiments are available. The static water head...... and a momentum term, using an effective relative motion calibrated with the model tests, model the green water load. The resulting loads are of the same magnitude as the slamming loads. The results show only a marginal influence of the green water load on the maximum wave bending moment, although the time signal...

  10. Wave Run-up on Slender Piles in Design Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Damsgaard, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    in the design of Horns Reef 1. As a consequence damage was observed on the platforms. This has been the situation for several sites and design tools for platform loads are lacking. As a consequence a physical model test study was initiated at Aalborg University to clarify wave run-up on cylindrical piles...... to the pile an empirical factor is included on the velocity head. The evaluation of the calculation model shows that an accurate design rule can be established even in breaking wave conditions. However, calibration of a load model showed that it was necessary to increase the run-up factor on the velocity head...

  11. Ozone depletion and chlorine loading potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, John A.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Solomon, Susan; Zvenigorodsky, Sergei; Connell, Peter; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Fisher, Donald A.; Stordal, Frode; Weisenstein, Debra

    1991-01-01

    The recognition of the roles of chlorine and bromine compounds in ozone depletion has led to the regulation or their source gases. Some source gases are expected to be more damaging to the ozone layer than others, so that scientific guidance regarding their relative impacts is needed for regulatory purposes. Parameters used for this purpose include the steady-state and time-dependent chlorine loading potential (CLP) and the ozone depletion potential (ODP). Chlorine loading potentials depend upon the estimated value and accuracy of atmospheric lifetimes and are subject to significant (approximately 20-50 percent) uncertainties for many gases. Ozone depletion potentials depend on the same factors, as well as the evaluation of the release of reactive chlorine and bromine from each source gas and corresponding ozone destruction within the stratosphere.

  12. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy for practical...

  13. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  14. Accuracy of nimodipine gel extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler, Douglas R; Stump, Sarah E; Cook, Aaron M

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, use of nimodipine in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients unable to swallow required extraction of gel from inside the commercially available capsule. Despite the Black-Box warning against inadvertent intravenous administration, bedside extraction of the gel from the capsule continues to be a common practice in some institutions. The accuracy of bedside extraction has not been formally evaluated. Twenty-eight nurses from the neurology and neurosurgical ICUs at a single center attempted to extract nimodipine gel from 2 capsules, each using the method currently approved by the US FDA. The primary outcome was mean weight of extracted gel per capsule, which was compared to both gel weight from batch compounded pharmacy syringes and a pre-calculated appropriate weight for 30 mg nimodipine gel. Simulated bedside extraction provided lower yield than pharmacy-compounded syringes (22.6 ± 4.6 mg vs 30.4 ± 0.59 mg, p = 0.001). Bedside extraction provided inconsistent and low yield (75.4 ± 15.32 % of possible dose extracted, p = 0.0001 for comparison of means between bedside extraction syringes and predicted gel weight). Pharmacy-compounded syringes provided consistent high yield (101.3 ± 2.0 % of possible dose extracted, p = 0.14 for comparison of means between pharmacy syringes and predicted gel weight). Combined with reports of significant patient harm and death with inadvertent intravenous administration, this study suggests that there is no role for bedside extraction of nimodipine in clinical practice.

  15. Non-intrusive Load Disaggregation Based on Kernel Density Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Wang; Dongsheng, Yang; Chuchen, Guo; Shengxian, Du

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem of high cost and difficult implementation of high frequency non-intrusive load decomposition method, this paper proposes a new method based on kernel density estimation(KDE) for low frequency NILM (Non-intrusive load monitoring). The method establishes power reference model of electricity load in different working conditions and appliance’s possible combinations first, then probability distribution is calculated as appliances features by kernel density estimation. After that, target power data is divided by step changes, whose distributions will be compared with reference models, and the most similar reference model will be chosen as the decomposed consequence. The proposed approach was tested with data from the GREEND public data set, it showed better performance in terms of energy disaggregation accuracy compared with many traditional NILM approaches. Our results show good performance which can achieve more than 93% accuracy in simulation.

  16. 4-wave dynamics in kinetic wave turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-01-01

    A general Hamiltonian wave system with quartic resonances is considered, in the standard kinetic limit of a continuum of weakly interacting dispersive waves with random phases. The evolution equation for the multimode characteristic function $Z$ is obtained within an "interaction representation" and a perturbation expansion in the small nonlinearity parameter. A frequency renormalization is performed to remove linear terms that do not appear in the 3-wave case. Feynman-Wyld diagrams are used to average over phases, leading to a first order differential evolution equation for $Z$. A hierarchy of equations, analogous to the Boltzmann hierarchy for low density gases is derived, which preserves in time the property of random phases and amplitudes. This amounts to a general formalism for both the $N$-mode and the 1-mode PDF equations for 4-wave turbulent systems, suitable for numerical simulations and for investigating intermittency.

  17. Update on the Comparison of Second-Order Loads on a Tension Leg Platform for Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueydon, Sebastien; Jonkman, Jason

    2016-08-01

    In comparison to other kinds of floaters (like a spar or a semisubmersible), the tension leg platform has several notable advantages: its vertical motions are negligible, its weight is lighter, and its mooring system's footprint is smaller. Although a tension leg platform has a negligible response to first-order vertical wave loads, the second-order wave loads need to be addressed. This paper follows up on a verification study of second-order wave loads on a tension leg platform for wind turbines done by the Maritime Research Institute of The Netherlands and National Renewable Energy Laboratory and it brings some corrections to its conclusions.

  18. Rogue waves in the ocean - review and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Kharif, Christian; Slunyaev, Alexey

    2010-05-01

    Rogue waves in the ocean and physical mechanisms of their appearance are discussed. Theyse waves are among waves naturally observed by people on the sea surface that represent inseparable feature of the Ocean. Rogue waves appear from nowhere, cause danger and disappear at once. They may occur at the surface of a relatively calm sea, reach not very high amplitudes, but be fatal for ships and crew due to their unexpectedness and abnormal features. The billows appear suddenly exceeding the surrounding waves twice and more, and obtained many names: abnormal, exceptional, extreme, giant, huge, sudden, episodic, freak, monster, rogue, vicious, killer, mad- or rabid-dog waves; cape rollers, holes in the sea, walls of water, three sisters… Freak monsters, though living for seconds, were able to arouse superstitious fear of the crew, cause damage, death of heedless sailors or the whole ship. All these epithets are full of human fear and feebleness. The serious studies of the phenomenon started about 20-30 years ago and have been intensified during the recent decade. The research is being conducted in different fields: in physics (search of physical mechanisms and adequate models of wave enhancement and statistics), in geoscience (determining the regions and weather conditions when rogue waves are most probable), and in ocean and coastal engineering (estimations of the wave loads on fixed and drifting floating structures). Thus, scientists and engineers specializing in different subject areas are involved in the solution of the problem. The state-of-art of the rogue wave study is summarized in our book [Kharif, Ch., Pelinovsky, E., and Slunyaev, A. Rogue Waves in the Ocean. Springer, 2009] and presented in given review. Firstly, we start with a brief introduction to the problem of freak waves aiming at formulating what is understood as rogue or freak waves, what consequences their existence imply in our life, why people are so worried about them. Then we discuss existing

  19. Computational modeling of unsteady loads in tidal boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Spencer R.

    As ocean current turbines move from the design stage into production and installation, a better understanding of oceanic turbulent flows and localized loading is required to more accurately predict turbine performance and durability. In the present study, large eddy simulations (LES) are used to measure the unsteady loads and bending moments that would be experienced by an ocean current turbine placed in a tidal channel. The LES model captures currents due to winds, waves, thermal convection, and tides, thereby providing a high degree of physical realism. Probability density functions, means, and variances of unsteady loads are calculated, and further statistical measures of the turbulent environment are also examined, including vertical profiles of Reynolds stresses, two-point correlations, and velocity structure functions. The simulations show that waves and tidal velocity had the largest impact on the strength of off-axis turbine loads. By contrast, boundary layer stability and wind speeds were shown to have minimal impact on the strength of off- axis turbine loads. It is shown both analytically and using simulation results that either transverse velocity structure functions or two-point transverse velocity spatial correlations are good predictors of unsteady loading in tidal channels.

  20. Wave Overtopping Characteristics of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Simulation work has been used extensively with the Wave dragon and other overtopping devices to analyse the power production performance of them and to optimise the structural design and the control strategy. A time domain approach to this is well documented in Jakobsen & Frigaard 1999. Using...... measurements taken from the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning prototype, some of the previous assumptions have been slightly modified and improved upon, so that the simulation method better represents the reality of what is occurring....

  1. Analysis of Wave Reflection from Wave Energy Converters Installed as Breakwaters in Harbour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, B.; Margheritini, Lucia; Gambles, L.

    2009-01-01

    loads on the structure, i.e. better survivability. Nevertheless these devices must comply with the requirements of harbour protection structures and thus cope with problems due to reflection of incoming waves, i.e. dangerous sea states close to harbors entrances and intensified sediment scour, which can...... lead to structure destabilization. The present paper aims to analyse wave reflection from OWC and Sea Slot-cone Generator (SSG) converters, based on experimental results obtained in 2D and 3D facilities. The applicability of formulae available in the literature and derived from costal structures...

  2. Effects of Ultraviolet (UV) Radiations at Different Wave Lengths on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Abstract. The effects of UV-radiation on the bacterial load and yeast viability of palm wine were investigated. In the studies 500ml of fresh palm wine sample each with initial yeast viability of 100% and bacterial load of 8.0 x 1015 Cfu/ml was exposed to UV-radiation at various wave lengths and time of 0 to 7hrs.

  3. Three-wave electron vortex lattices for measuring nanofields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C; Boothroyd, C B; Chang, S L Y; Dunin-Borkowski, R E

    2015-01-01

    It is demonstrated how an electron-optical arrangement consisting of two electron biprisms can be used to generate three-wave vortex lattices with effective lattice spacings between 0.1 and 1 nm. The presence of vortices in these lattices was verified by using a third biprism to perform direct phase measurements via off-axis electron holography. The use of three-wave lattices for nanoscale electromagnetic field measurements via vortex interferometry is discussed, including the accuracy of vortex position measurements and the interpretation of three-wave vortex lattices in the presence of partial spatial coherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on Control Strategy of Electro-Hydraulic Servo Loading System

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Tian

    2013-01-01

    Since extraneous torque is the key factor to affect the accuracy of electro-hydraulic servo loading system, the forming mechanism of extraneous torque was discussed in this work. And then several design methods of loading system controller based on modern control theory were introduced, such as internal model control, Cerebella model articulation control and adaptive backstepping control.

  5. Measuring training load in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael Ian; Borresen, Jill

    2010-09-01

    The principle of training can be reduced to a simple "dose-response" relationship. The "response" in this relationship can be measured as a change in performance or the adaptation of a physiological system. The "dose" of training, or physiological stress associated with the training load, is more difficult to measure as there is no absolute "gold standard" which can be used in the field, making it difficult to validate procedures. Attempts have been made to use heart rate as a marker of intensity during training, but the theoretical attractiveness of this method is not supported by the accuracy and the practicality of using this method during training or competition. The session RPE, based on the product of training duration and perceived intensity is more practical and can be used in a variety of sports. However, the score depends on a subjective assessment, and the intersubject comparisons may be inaccurate. The demands of different sports vary and therefore the methods of assessing training need to vary accordingly. The time has come to reach consensus on assessing training accurately in different sports. There is a precedent for this consensus approach with scientists having already done so for the assessment of physical activity, and for defining injuries in rugby, football and cricket. Standardizing these methods has resulted in the quality of research in these areas increasing exponentially.

  6. Wave modelling for the North Indian Ocean using MSMR analysed winds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Rupali, S.P.; Babu, M.T.; Jayakumar, S.; Saran, A.K.; Basu, S.K.; Kumar, R.; Sarkar, A.

    are very essential for activities such as exploitation of natural resources, ship-routing, design of harbors, breakwaters and jetties, loading and unloading of ship?s cargo and estimation of sediment transport. Adequate reliable wind and wave data has...

  7. Layering Concept for Wave Shaping and Lateral Distribution of Stresses During Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ding, J

    2001-01-01

    .... Numerical simulations were carried out to address the research objectives. To explore the layering concept, we first used numerical simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of load spreading and wave shaping by layered structures...

  8. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  9. Wave Forecasting Using Neuro Wavelet Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Dixit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a hybrid Neuro-Wavelet Technique is used for forecasting waves up to 6 hr, 12 hr, 18 hr and 24 hr in advance using hourly measured significant wave heights at an NDBC station 41004 near the east coast of USA. The NW Technique is employed by combining two methods, Discrete Wavelet Transform and Artificial Neural Networks. The hourly data of previously measured significant wave heights spanning over 2 years from 2010 and 2011 is used to calibrate and test the models. The discrete wavelet transform of NWT analyzes frequency of signal with respect to time at different scales. It decomposes time series into low (approximate and high (detail frequency components. The decomposition of approximate can be carried out up to desired multiple levels in order to provide more detail and approximate components which provides relatively smooth varying amplitude series. The neural network is trained with decorrelated approximate and detail wavelet coefficients. The outputs of networks during testing are reconstructed back using inverse DWT. The results were judged by drawing the wave plots, scatter plots and other error measures. The developed models show reasonable accuracy in prediction of significant wave heights from 6 to 24 hours. To compare the results traditional ANN models were also developed at the same location using the same data and for same time interval.

  10. Dielectrically Loaded Biconical Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseibeh, Fouad Ahmed

    1995-01-01

    Biconical antennas are of great interest to those who deal with broadband applications including the transmission/reception of pulses. In particular, wide-angle conical antennas are an attractive choice in many applications including Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and the measurements of transient surface currents and charge densities on aircraft. Dielectric loading in the interior region of a conical antenna can be used to reduce the size of the antenna especially at low frequencies and/or for structural strength. Therefore, having an analytical solution for the input impedance and the frequency response is very helpful in optimizing the design and understanding the behavior of the antenna. From the quasi-analytical solution for the input impedance and the electric field of a wide-angle conical antenna, it can be seen that the dielectric loading in the antenna region improves the input impedance at low frequencies, but increases the number of resonance points and the magnitude of these peaks. When an inhomogeneous dielectric load is used, the magnitude of the resonance peaks is decreased (depending on the way the load is distributed), improving the input impedance of the antenna significantly. Introducing a dielectric load in the interior region of an electrically short receiving cone makes the antenna behave as an electrically longer antenna. However, this is not true for the case for electrical1y long antennas. For the case of pulse transmission, the dielectric load affects only the amplitude. Of course, if the dielectric fills the whole space, both transmitting and receiving antennas behave as electrically longer antennas.

  11. Rotating solitary wave at the wall of a cylindrical container

    KAUST Repository

    Amaouche, Mustapha

    2013-04-30

    This paper deals with the theoretical modeling of a rotating solitary surface wave that was observed during water drainage from a cylindrical reservoir, when shallow water conditions were reached. It represents an improvement of our previous study, where the radial flow perturbation was neglected. This assumption led to the classical planar Korteweg–de Vries equation for the wall wave profile, which did not account for the rotational character of the base flow. The present formulation is based on a less restricting condition and consequently corrects the last shortcoming. Now the influence of the background flow appears in the wave characteristics. The theory provides a better physical depiction of the unique experiment by predicting fairly well the wave profile at least in the first half of its lifetime and estimating the speed of the observed wave with good accuracy.

  12. Fidelity of a Finite Element Model for Longitudinal Wave Propagation in Thick Cylindrical Wave Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, Anthony D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2000-09-01

    The ability to model wave propagation in circular cylindrical bars of finite length numerically or analytically has many applications. In this thesis the capability of an explicit finite element method to model longitudinal waves in cylindrical rods with circular cross-sections is explored. Dispersion curves for the first four modes are compared to the analytical solution to determine the accuracy of various element sizes and time steps. Values for the time step and element size are determined that retain accuracy while minimizing computational time. The modeling parameters are validated by calculating a signal propagated with a broadband input force. Limitations on the applicability are considered along with modeling parameters that should be applicable to more general geometries.

  13. Overview of High Power Vacuum Dry RF Load Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    A specific feature of RF linacs based on the pulsed traveling wave (TW) mode of operation is that only a portion of the RF energy is used for the beam acceleration. The residual RF energy has to be terminated into an RF load. Higher accelerating gradients require higher RF sources and RF loads, which can stably terminate the residual RF power. RF feeders (from the RF source though the accelerating section to the load) are vacuumed to transmit multi-megawatt high power RF. This overview will outline vacuumed RF loads only. A common method to terminate multi-MW RF power is to use circulated water (or other liquid) as an absorbing medium. A solid dielectric interface (a high quality ceramic) is required to separate vacuum and liquid RF absorber mediums. Using such RF load approaches in TW linacs is troubling because there is a fragile ceramic window barrier and a failure could become catastrophic for linac vacuum and RF systems. Traditional loads comprising of a ceramic disk have limited peak and average power handling capability and are therefore not suitable for high gradient TW linacs. This overview will focus on ''vacuum dry'' or ''all-metal'' loads that do not employ any dielectric interface between vacuum and absorber. The first prototype is an original design of RF loads for the Stanford Two-Mile Accelerator.

  14. Rock Directed Breaking Under the Impulse Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomeriki, Sergo; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Losaberidze, Marine; Khomeriki, Davit; Shatberashvili, Grigol

    2016-10-01

    In the work the problem of directed chipping of facing stone material by means of managing of explosion process is considered. The technology of the mining of decorative stone by the use of explosion energy means the very rapid transfer of potential energy of elastic deformations to kinetic energy. As a result, the explosion impulse, in the expanse of the inertia of rock massive, does not cause the increase of existing cracks. In the course of explosion, the shock wave is propagated by ultrasonic velocity and in this case the medium parameters (pressure, density, temperature, velocity) increase in spurts. In spite of this fact the all three conservation laws of mechanics remain valid on basis of three laws the equations are derived by which the parameters of shock wave may be defined by means of the rock physical-mechanical properties. The load on the body volume at breaking under explosion acts over very small period of the time. Therefore, stressed-deformed state of the rock was studied when the impulse load acts on the boundary. It was considered that the mining of the blocks of facing stone is performed from the hard rocks. This means that the breaking proceeds in the zone of elastic deformation. In the conditions of mentioned assumptions, the expression of the stress tensor and displacement of vector components initiated by stressed-deformed state in the rock are written.

  15. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  16. Study on unsteady hydrodynamic performance of propeller in waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingxin; Guo, Chunyu; Su, Yumin; Liu, Tian; Meng, Xiangyin

    2017-09-01

    The speed of a ship sailing in waves always slows down due to the decrease in efficiency of the propeller. So it is necessary and essential to analyze the unsteady hydrodynamic performance of propeller in waves. This paper is based on the numerical simulation and experimental research of hydrodynamics performance when the propeller is under wave conditions. Open-water propeller performance in calm water is calculated by commercial codes and the results are compared to experimental values to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical simulation method. The first-order Volume of Fluid (VOF) wave method in STAR CCM+ is utilized to simulate the three-dimensional numerical wave. According to the above prerequisite, the numerical calculation of hydrodynamic performance of the propeller under wave conditions is conducted, and the results reveal that both thrust and torque of the propeller under wave conditions reveal intense unsteady behavior. With the periodic variation of waves, ventilation, and even an effluent phenomenon appears on the propeller. Calculation results indicate, when ventilation or effluent appears, the numerical calculation model can capture the dynamic characteristics of the propeller accurately, thus providing a significant theory foundation for further studying the hydrodynamic performance of a propeller in waves.

  17. A Numerical Method for Blast Shock Wave Analysis of Missile Launch from Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient empirical approach was developed to accurately represent the blast shock wave loading resulting from the launch of a missile from a military aircraft to be used in numerical analyses. Based on experimental test series of missile launches in laboratory environment and from a helicopter, equations were derived to predict the time- and position-dependent overpressure. The method was finally applied and validated in a structural analysis of a helicopter tail boom under missile launch shock wave loading.

  18. A new shock wave assisted sandalwood oil extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, A. N.; Srinivasa, Y. B.; Ravikumar, G.; Shankaranarayana, K. H.; Rao, K. S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    A new shock wave assisted oil extraction technique from sandalwood has been developed in the Shock Waves Lab, IISc, Bangalore. The fragrant oil extracted from sandalwood finds variety of applications in medicine and perfumery industries. In the present method sandal wood specimens (2.5mm diameter and 25mm in length)are subjected to shock wave loading (over pressure 15 bar)in a constant area shock tube, before extracting the sandal oil using non-destructive oil extraction technique. The results from the study indicates that both the rate of extraction as well as the quantity of oil obtained from sandal wood samples exposed to shock waves are higher (15-40 percent) compared to non-destructive oil extraction technique. The compressive squeezing of the interior oil pockets in the sandalwood specimen due to shock wave loading appears to be the main reason for enhancement in the oil extraction rate. This is confirmed by the presence of warty structures in the cross-section and micro-fissures in the radial direction of the wood samples exposed to shock waves in the scanning electron microscopic investigation. In addition the gas chromatographic studies do not show any change in the q uality of sandal oil extracted from samples exposed to shock waves.

  19. Dipping-interface mapping using mode-separated Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is a non-invasive geophysical technique that uses the dispersive characteristic of Rayleigh waves to estimate a vertical shear (S)-wave velocity profile. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section is constructed by aligning 1D S-wave velocity profiles at the midpoint of each receiver spread that are contoured using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. Based on the assumption that a dipping-layer model can be regarded as stepped flat layers, high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) has been proposed to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate modes of Rayleigh waves from a multichannel record. With the mode-separation technique, therefore, a dispersion curve that possesses satisfactory accuracy can be calculated using a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. In this study, using synthetic models containing a dipping layer with a slope of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 degrees and a real-world example, we assess the ability of using high-resolution LRT to image and separate fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves from raw surface-wave data and accuracy of dispersion curves generated by a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that a dipping interface with a slope smaller than 15 degrees can be successfully mapped by separated fundamental waves using high-resolution LRT. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  20. Load research and load estimation in electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    The topics introduced in this thesis are: the Finnish load research project, a simple form customer class load model, analysis of the origins of customers load distribution, a method for the estimation of the confidence interval of customer loads and Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) which utilises both the load models and measurements from distribution networks. The Finnish load research project started in 1983. The project was initially coordinated by the Association of Finnish Electric Utilities and 40 utilities joined the project. Now there are over 1000 customer hourly load recordings in a database. A simple form customer class load model is introduced. The model is designed to be practical for most utility applications and has been used by the Finnish utilities for several years. The only variable of the model is the customers annual energy consumption. The model gives the customers average hourly load and standard deviation for a selected month, day and hour. The statistical distribution of customer loads is studied and a model for customer electric load variation is developed. The model results in a lognormal distribution as an extreme case. Using the `simple form load model`, a method for estimating confidence intervals (confidence limits) of customer hourly load is developed. The two methods selected for final analysis are based on normal and lognormal distribution estimated in a simplified manner. The estimation of several cumulated customer class loads is also analysed. Customer class load estimation which combines the information from load models and distribution network load measurements is developed. This method, called Distribution Load Estimation (DLE), utilises information already available in the utilities databases and is thus easy to apply

  1. Breaking Wave Impact Pressure on a Vertical Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rajasekaran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Offshore and coastal structures experience wave impact loads particularly due to breaking waves throughout its design period. In the present paper, an experimental program has been devised to improve our perceptive of the physics and the characteristics of impact pressures due to breaking waves on a vertical wall. The salient features of the study such as model details, breaking wave simulation, the impact and dynamic pressure variation along the depth of the wall are presented. The maximum impact pressure magnitude is found to be of the order of ten times that of the non-breaking dynamic pressure and it always occurred above the still water level for different intensities of breaking waves considered. The minimum pressure rise time is observed to be 0.235 ms.

  2. Design Specifications for the Hanstholm WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    The WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel device that combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with a smart structure, which can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce loads in extreme wave conditions. This adjustable A-shaped slack......-moored and floating structure absorbs the energy of the waves through a multitude of rotors. The shape of the rotors is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. On each leg, the rotors pivot around a common axle, through which the rotors transfer the absorbed power to a common power take off system. The study...... the rotational speed and transmitted torque (and hereby power) to the PTO system using different PTO control strategies, the impact of fluctuations of the available mechanical power and the effect of limiting the PTO capacity on the annual energy production. Acquisition of structural forces includes mooring...

  3. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  4. Analysis of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present book describes the most important aspects of wave analysis techniques applied to physical model tests. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave analysis software WaveLab 3, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In that respect it should be mentioned that supplementary...... to the present technical documentation exists also the online help document describing the WaveLab software in detail including all the inputs and output fields. In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald, Jacob Helm-Petersen and Morten Møller Jakobsen have contributed to the note. Their input is highly...... acknowledged. The outline of the book is as follows: • Chapter 2 and 3 describes analysis of waves in time and frequency domain. • Chapter 4 and 5 describes the separation of incident and reflected waves for the two-dimensional case. • Chapter 6 describes the estimation of the directional spectra which also...

  5. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  6. Discrete Element Simulation of Elastoplastic Shock Wave Propagation in Spherical Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shoaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastoplastic shock wave propagation in a one-dimensional assembly of spherical metal particles is presented by extending well-established quasistatic compaction models. The compaction process is modeled by a discrete element method while using elastic and plastic loading, elastic unloading, and adhesion at contacts with typical dynamic loading parameters. Of particular interest is to study the development of the elastoplastic shock wave, its propagation, and reflection during entire loading process. Simulation results yield information on contact behavior, velocity, and deformation of particles during dynamic loading. Effects of shock wave propagation on loading parameters are also discussed. The elastoplastic shock propagation in granular material has many practical applications including the high-velocity compaction of particulate material.

  7. Improved surface?wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by multi?dimensional deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Ruigrok, E.N.; Van der Neut, J.R.; Draganov, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The methodology of surface?wave retrieval from ambient seismic noise by crosscorrelation relies on the assumption that the noise field is equipartitioned. Deviations from equipartitioning degrade the accuracy of the retrieved surface?wave Green's function. A point?spread function, derived from the

  8. The finite product method in the theory of linear wave propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey; Chapman, John

    2012-01-01

    of the method are presented for several non-trivial examples, that of symmetric/anti-symmetric elastic waves in a layer and in a thin plate. In each case, the method gives a sequence of polynomial approximations to the dispersion relation of remarkable accuracy over a broad range of frequencies and wave numbers...

  9. A critical survey of wave propagation and impact in composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the field of stress waves in composite materials is presented covering the period up to December 1972. The major properties of waves in composites are discussed and a summary is made of the major experimental results in this field. Various theoretical models for analysis of wave propagation in laminated, fiber and particle reinforced composites are surveyed. The anisotropic, dispersive and dissipative properties of stress pulses and shock waves in such materials are reviewed. A review of the behavior of composites under impact loading is presented along with the application of wave propagation concepts to the determination of impact stresses in composite plates.

  10. Experimental Update of the Overtopping Model Used for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Friis-Madsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An overtopping model specifically suited for Wave Dragon is needed in order to improve the reliability of its performance estimates. The model shall be comprehensive of all relevant physical processes that affect overtopping and flexible to adapt to any local conditions and device configuration. An experimental investigation is carried out to update an existing formulation suited for 2D draft-limited, low-crested structures, in order to include the effects on the overtopping flow of the wave steepness, the 3D geometry of Wave Dragon, the wing reflectors, the device motions and the non-rigid connection between platform and reflectors. The study is carried out in four phases, each of them specifically targeted at quantifying one of these effects through a sensitivity analysis and at modeling it through custom-made parameters. These are depending on features of the wave or the device configuration, all of which can be measured in real-time. Instead of using new fitting coefficients, this approach allows a broader applicability of the model beyond the Wave Dragon case, to any overtopping WEC or structure within the range of tested conditions. Predictions reliability of overtopping over Wave Dragon increased, as the updated model allows improved accuracy and precision respect to the former version.

  11. Application of Hybrid Quantum Tabu Search with Support Vector Regression (SVR for Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybridizing chaotic evolutionary algorithms with support vector regression (SVR to improve forecasting accuracy is a hot topic in electricity load forecasting. Trapping at local optima and premature convergence are critical shortcomings of the tabu search (TS algorithm. This paper investigates potential improvements of the TS algorithm by applying quantum computing mechanics to enhance the search information sharing mechanism (tabu memory to improve the forecasting accuracy. This article presents an SVR-based load forecasting model that integrates quantum behaviors and the TS algorithm with the support vector regression model (namely SVRQTS to obtain a more satisfactory forecasting accuracy. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the alternatives.

  12. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  13. Fuel Load (FL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  14. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  15. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert

    2008-01-01

    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  16. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  17. SHOCKLESS LOADING WITH RECOVERY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIAL RESPONSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNaney, J M; Torralva, B; Lorenz, K T; Remington, B A; Wall, M; Kumar, M

    2009-07-20

    A new recovery based method for investigating material response to non-Hugoniot loading paths is described. The work makes use of a laser generated plasma piston that produces ramped loading at high strain rates (> {approx} 10{sup 7}/s). Large sample sizes are utilized to prevent reflected wave interactions. The overall deformation path is characterized by two transients: one at very high strain rate on the 5-10 nanosecond time scale and one at a lower strain rate occurring over a 1-2 microsecond timescale. It was found that a sufficiently large region of material experiences shockless loading conditions such that recovery based characterization is feasible. The presence of two strain transients makes the method more applicable to comparative assessments between shockless and shock loading conditions.

  18. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    of component waves of various periods and heights. This is the most commonly used theory for practical applications like design of ships, oil rigs and coastal structures such as jetties, ports, and sea walls. This theory also provides sufficient intellectual... of wind waves in the sea is a wide and interesting field with ap- plications in marine exploration ac- tivities, underwater pipe laying, pol- lution control, ports and shipping in- volving billions of dollars worth of transactions. Not all sea waves look...

  19. Spheroidal wave functions

    CERN Document Server

    Flammer, Carson

    2005-01-01

    Intended to facilitate the use and calculation of spheroidal wave functions, this applications-oriented text features a detailed and unified account of the properties of these functions. Addressed to applied mathematicians, mathematical physicists, and mathematical engineers, it presents tables that provide a convenient means for handling wave problems in spheroidal coordinates.Topics include separation of the scalar wave equation in spheroidal coordinates, angle and radial functions, integral representations and relations, and expansions in spherical Bessel function products. Additional subje

  20. Dyakonov surface waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær

    2008-01-01

    The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special......, the existence of these surface waves in specific material examples is analyzed, discussing the challenge posed by their experimental observation....