WorldWideScience

Sample records for wave envelope formulation

  1. Evolution of envelope solitons of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, K.; Hashimoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    The time evolution of a particle-like envelope soliton of ionization waves in plasma was investigated theoretically. The hydrodynamic equations of one spatial dimension were solved and the nonlinear dispersion relation was derived. For the amplitude of the wave the nonlinear Schroedinger equation was derived. Its soliton solution was interpreted as the envelope soliton which was experimentally found. The damping rate of the envelope soliton was estimated. (D.Gy.)

  2. Solitary Alfven wave envelopes and the modulational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.

    1987-06-01

    The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the modulational instability of circularly polarized dispersive Alfven wave envelopes. It also may be used to determine the properties of finite amplitude localized stationary wave envelopes. Such envelope solitons exist only in conditions of modulational stability. This leaves open the question of whether, and if so, how, the modulational instability produces envelope solitons. 12 refs

  3. Induced wave propagation from a vibrating containment envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.; Thigpen, L.; Rambo, J.T.

    1985-09-01

    Low frequency wave forms are observed in the particle velocity measurements around the cavity and containment envelope formed by an underground nuclear test. The vibration solution for a spherical shell is used to formulate a model for the low frequency wave that propagates outward from this region. In this model the containment envelope is the zone of material that is crushed by the compressive shock wave of the nuclear explosion. The containment envelope is approximated by a spherical shell of material. The material in the spherical shell is densified and is given a relatively high kinetic energy density because of the high compressive stress and particle velocity of the shock wave. After the shock wave has propagated through the spherical shell, the spherical shell vibrates in order to dissipate the kinetic energy acquired from the shock wave. Based on the model, the frequency of vibration depends on the dimensions and material properties of the spherical shell. The model can also be applied in an inverse mode to obtain global estimates of averaged materials properties. This requires using experimental data and semi-empirical relationships involving the material properties. A particular case of estimating a value for shear strength is described. Finally, the oscillation time period of the lowest frequency from five nuclear tests is correlated with the energy of the explosion. The correlation provides another diagnostic to estimate the energy of a nuclear explosion. Also, the longest oscillation time period measurement provides additional experimental data that can be used to assess and validate various computer models. 11 refs., 2 figs

  4. 3+1 dimensional envelop waves and its stability in magnetized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Wenshan

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that there are envelope solitary waves in unmagnetized dusty plasmas which are described by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). A three dimension nonlinear Schrodinger equation for small but finite amplitude dust acoustic waves is first obtained for magnetized dusty plasma in this paper. It suggest that in magnetized dusty plasmas the envelope solitary waves exist. The modulational instability for three dimensional NLSE is studied as well. The regions of stability and instability are well determined in this paper

  5. Observation of Self-Cavitating Envelope Dispersive Shock Waves in Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janantha, P. A. Praveen; Sprenger, Patrick; Hoefer, Mark A.; Wu, Mingzhong

    2017-07-01

    The formation and properties of envelope dispersive shock wave (DSW) excitations from repulsive nonlinear waves in a magnetic film are studied. Experiments involve the excitation of a spin wave step pulse in a low-loss magnetic Y3Fe5O12 thin film strip, in which the spin wave amplitude increases rapidly, realizing the canonical Riemann problem of shock theory. Under certain conditions, the envelope of the spin wave pulse evolves into a DSW that consists of an expanding train of nonlinear oscillations with amplitudes increasing from front to back, terminated by a black soliton. The onset of DSW self-cavitation, indicated by a point of zero power and a concomitant 180° phase jump, is observed for sufficiently large steps, indicative of the bidirectional dispersive hydrodynamic nature of the DSW. The experimental observations are interpreted with theory and simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  6. Gravitational Waves from Accreting Neutron Stars Undergoing Common-envelope Inspiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado, A. Miguel; Ricker, Paul M.; Huerta, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    The common-envelope phase is a likely formation channel for close binary systems containing compact objects. Neutron stars in common envelopes accrete at a fraction of the Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion rate, since the stellar envelope is inhomogeneous, but they may still be able to accrete at hypercritical rates (though not enough to become black holes). We show that common-envelope systems consisting of a neutron star with a massive primary may be gravitational-wave (GW) sources detectable in the Advanced LIGO band as far away as the Magellanic Clouds. To characterize their evolution, we perform orbital integrations using 1D models of 12 M ⊙ and 20 M ⊙ primaries, considering the effects of density gradient on the accretion onto the NS and spin evolution. From the range of possible accretion rates relevant to common-envelope evolution, we find that these systems may be louder GW sources than low-mass X-ray binaries like Sco X-1, which are currently the target of directed searches for continuous GWs. We also find that their strain amplitude signal may allow for novel constraints on the orbital separation and inspiral timescale in common envelopes when combined with pre-common-envelope electromagnetic observations.

  7. Unified formulation of radiation conditions for the wave equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2002-01-01

    A family of radiation conditions for the wave equation is derived by truncating a rational function approxiamtion of the corresponding plane wave representation, and it is demonstrated how these boundary conditions can be formulated in terms of fictitious surface densities, governed by second......-order wave equations on the radiating surface. Several well-established radiation boundary conditions appear as special cases, corresponding to different choice of the coefficients in the rational approximation. The relation between these choices is established, and an explicit formulation in terms...

  8. Investigating the Wave Nature of the Outer Envelope of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Vourlidas, Angelos, E-mail: rkwon@gmu.edu [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    We investigate the nature of the outer envelope of halo coronal mass ejections (H-CMEs) using multi-viewpoint observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-A , -B , and SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory coronagraphs. The 3D structure and kinematics of the halo envelopes and the driving CMEs are derived separately using a forward modeling method. We analyze three H-CMEs with peak speeds from 1355 to 2157 km s{sup −1}; sufficiently fast to drive shocks in the corona. We find that the angular widths of the halos range from 192° to 252°, while those of the flux ropes range between only 58° and 91°, indicating that the halos are waves propagating away from the CMEs. The halo widths are in agreement with widths of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves in the low corona further demonstrating the common origin of these structures. To further investigate the wave nature of the halos, we model their 3D kinematic properties with a linear fast magnetosonic wave model. The model is able to reproduce the position of the halo flanks with realistic coronal medium assumptions but fails closer to the CME nose. The CME halo envelope seems to arise from a driven wave (or shock) close to the CME nose, but it is gradually becoming a freely propagating fast magnetosonic wave at the flanks. This interpretation provides a simple unifying picture for CME halos, EUV waves, and the large longitudinal spread of solar energetic particles.

  9. Fundamental theories of waves and particles formulated without classical mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.

    2010-12-01

    Quantum and classical mechanics are two conceptually and mathematically different theories of physics, and yet they do use the same concept of classical mass that was originally introduced by Newton in his formulation of the laws of dynamics. In this paper, physical consequences of using the classical mass by both theories are explored, and a novel approach that allows formulating fundamental (Galilean invariant) theories of waves and particles without formally introducing the classical mass is presented. In this new formulation, the theories depend only on one common parameter called 'wave mass', which is deduced from experiments for selected elementary particles and for the classical mass of one kilogram. It is shown that quantum theory with the wave mass is independent of the Planck constant and that higher accuracy of performing calculations can be attained by such theory. Natural units in connection with the presented approach are also discussed and justification beyond dimensional analysis is given for the particular choice of such units.

  10. (2+1)-dimensional dissipation nonlinear Schrödinger equation for envelope Rossby solitary waves and chirp effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin-Yuan; Fang Nian-Qiao; Yuan Xiao-Bo; Zhang Ji; Xue Yu-Long; Wang Xue-Mu

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation had been derived for envelope Rossby solitary waves in a line by employing the perturbation expansion method. But, with the development of theory, we note that the (1+1)-dimensional model cannot reflect the evolution of envelope Rossby solitary waves in a plane. In this paper, by constructing a new (2+1)-dimensional multiscale transform, we derive the (2+1)-dimensional dissipation nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLS) to describe envelope Rossby solitary waves under the influence of dissipation which propagate in a plane. Especially, the previous researches about envelope Rossby solitary waves were established in the zonal area and could not be applied directly to the spherical earth, while we adopt the plane polar coordinate and overcome the problem. By theoretical analyses, the conservation laws of (2+1)-dimensional envelope Rossby solitary waves as well as their variation under the influence of dissipation are studied. Finally, the one-soliton and two-soliton solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation are obtained with the Hirota method. Based on these solutions, by virtue of the chirp concept from fiber soliton communication, the chirp effect of envelope Rossby solitary waves is discussed, and the related impact factors of the chirp effect are given. (paper)

  11. Three-Dimensional Coupled NLS Equations for Envelope Gravity Solitary Waves in Baroclinic Atmosphere and Modulational Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope gravity solitary waves are an important research hot spot in the field of solitary wave. And the weakly nonlinear model equations system is a part of the research of envelope gravity solitary waves. Because of the lack of technology and theory, previous studies tried hard to reduce the variable numbers and constructed the two-dimensional model in barotropic atmosphere and could only describe the propagation feature in a direction. But for the propagation of envelope gravity solitary waves in real ocean ridges and atmospheric mountains, the three-dimensional model is more appropriate. Meanwhile, the baroclinic problem of atmosphere is also an inevitable topic. In the paper, the three-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS equations are presented to describe the evolution of envelope gravity solitary waves in baroclinic atmosphere, which are derived from the basic dynamic equations by employing perturbation and multiscale methods. The model overcomes two disadvantages: (1 baroclinic problem and (2 propagation path problem. Then, based on trial function method, we deduce the solution of the CNLS equations. Finally, modulational instability of wave trains is also discussed.

  12. Subphotospheric fluctuations in magnetized radiative envelopes: contribution from unstable magnetosonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Koushik; Fernández, Rodrigo; Socrates, Aristotle

    2018-06-01

    We examine the excitation of unstable magnetosonic waves in the radiative envelopes of intermediate- and high-mass stars with a magnetic field of ˜kG strength. Wind clumping close to the star and microturbulence can often be accounted for when including small-scale, subphotospheric density or velocity perturbations. Compressional waves - with wavelengths comparable to or shorter than the gas pressure scale height - can be destabilized by the radiative flux in optically thick media when a magnetic field is present, in a process called the radiation-driven magneto-acoustic instability (RMI). The instability does not require radiation or magnetic pressure to dominate over gas pressure, and acts independently of subsurface convection zones. Here we evaluate the conditions for the RMI to operate on a grid of stellar models covering a mass range 3-40 M⊙ at solar metallicity. For a uniform 1 kG magnetic field, fast magnetosonic modes are unstable down to an optical depth of a few tens, while unstable slow modes extend beyond the depth of the iron convection zone. The qualitative behaviour is robust to magnetic field strength variations by a factor of a few. When combining our findings with previous results for the saturation amplitude of the RMI, we predict velocity fluctuations in the range ˜0.1-10 km s-1. These amplitudes are a monotonically increasing function of the ratio of radiation to gas pressure, or alternatively, of the zero-age main sequence mass.

  13. Helioseismic measurements in the solar envelope using group velocities of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, S. V.; Baturin, V. A.; Ayukov, S. V.; Gryaznov, V. K.

    2014-07-01

    At intermediate- and high-degree l, solar p and f modes can be considered as surface waves. Using variational principle, we derive an integral expression for the group velocities of the surface waves in terms of adiabatic eigenfunctions of normal modes, and address the benefits of using group-velocity measurements as a supplementary diagnostic tool in solar seismology. The principal advantage of using group velocities, when compared with direct analysis of the oscillation frequencies, comes from their smaller sensitivity to the uncertainties in the near-photospheric layers. We address some numerical examples where group velocities are used to reveal inconsistencies between the solar models and the seismic data. Further, we implement the group-velocity measurements to the calibration of the specific entropy, helium abundance Y, and heavy-element abundance Z in the adiabatically stratified part of the solar convective envelope, using different recent versions of the equation of state. The results are in close agreement with our earlier measurements based on more sophisticated analysis of the solar oscillation frequencies. These results bring further support to the downward revision of the solar heavy-element abundances in recent spectroscopic measurements.

  14. Amplitude modulation of quantum-ion-acoustic wavepackets in electron-positron-ion plasmas: Modulational instability, envelope modes, extreme waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Ata-ur-, E-mail: ata797@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Islamia College Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Kerr, Michael Mc, E-mail: mjamckerr@gmail.com; Kourakis, Ioannis, E-mail: IoannisKourakisSci@gmail.com [Centre for Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); El-Taibany, Wael F., E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta, P.O. Box 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 960, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Qamar, A., E-mail: anisaqamar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)

    2015-02-15

    A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes.

  15. Wave propagation in nanostructures nonlocal continuum mechanics formulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Wave Propagation in Nanostructures describes the fundamental and advanced concepts of waves propagating in structures that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. The book is fundamentally based on non-local elasticity theory, which includes scale effects in the continuum model. The book predominantly addresses wave behavior in carbon nanotubes and graphene structures, although the methods of analysis provided in this text are equally applicable to other nanostructures. The book takes the reader from the fundamentals of wave propagation in nanotubes to more advanced topics such as rotating nanotubes, coupled nanotubes, and nanotubes with magnetic field and surface effects. The first few chapters cover the basics of wave propagation, different modeling schemes for nanostructures and introduce non-local elasticity theories, which form the building blocks for understanding the material provided in later chapters. A number of interesting examples are provided to illustrate the important features of wave behav...

  16. Wave packet formulation of the boomerang model for resonant electron--molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Turner, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent formulation of the boomerang model for resonant electron--molecule scattering is presented in terms of a wave packet propagating on the complex potential surface of the metastable anion. The results of calculations using efficient semiclassical techniques for propagating the wave packet are found to be in excellent agreement with full quantum-mechanical calculations of vibrational excitation cross sections in e - --N 2 scattering. The application of the wave packet formulation as a computational and conceptual approach to the problem of resonant collisions with polyatomic molecules is discussed in the light of recent wave packet calculations on polyatomic photodissociation and Raman spectra

  17. Bayesian Estimation of Wave Spectra – Proper Formulation of ABIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2007-01-01

    It is possible to estimate on-site wave spectra using measured ship responses applied to Bayesian Modelling based on two prior information: the wave spectrum must be smooth both directional-wise and frequency-wise. This paper introduces two hyperparameters into Bayesian Modelling and, hence, a pr...

  18. Variational formulation of covariant eikonal theory for vector waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.N.; Ye, H.; Hui, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The eikonal theory of wave propagation is developed by means of a Lorentz-covariant variational principle, involving functions defined on the natural eight-dimensional phase space of rays. The wave field is a four-vector representing the electromagnetic potential, while the medium is represented by an anisotropic, dispersive nonuniform dielectric tensor D/sup μν/(k,x). The eikonal expansion yields, to lowest order, the Hamiltonian ray equations, which define the Lagrangian manifold k(x), and the wave-action conservation law, which determines the wave-amplitude transport along the rays. The first-order contribution to the variational principle yields a concise expression for the transport of the polarization phase. The symmetry between k-space and x-space allows for a simple implementation of the Maslov transform, which avoids the difficulties of caustic singularities

  19. Electromagnetic wave propagation over an inhomogeneous flat earth (two-dimensional integral equation formulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Jong, G.

    1975-01-01

    With the aid of a two-dimensional integral equation formulation, the ground wave propagation of electromagnetic waves transmitted by a vertical electric dipole over an inhomogeneous flat earth is investigated. For the configuration in which a ground wave is propagating across an ''island'' on a flat earth, the modulus and argument of the attenuation function have been computed. The results for the two-dimensional treatment are significantly more accurate in detail than the calculations using a one-dimensional integral equation

  20. Dissipative Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation for Envelope Solitary Rossby Waves with Dissipation Effect in Stratified Fluids and Its Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve the so-called dissipative nonlinear Schrödinger equation by means of multiple scales analysis and perturbation method to describe envelope solitary Rossby waves with dissipation effect in stratified fluids. By analyzing the evolution of amplitude of envelope solitary Rossby waves, it is found that the shear of basic flow, Brunt-Vaisala frequency, and β effect are important factors to form the envelope solitary Rossby waves. By employing trial function method, the asymptotic solution of dissipative nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived. Based on the solution, the effect of dissipation on the evolution of envelope solitary Rossby wave is also discussed. The results show that the dissipation causes a slow decrease of amplitude of envelope solitary Rossby waves and a slow increase of width, while it has no effect on the propagation velocity. That is quite different from the KdV-type solitary waves. It is notable that dissipation has certain influence on the carrier frequency.

  1. Quasi-wavelet formulations of turbulence and wave scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, D. Keith; Ott, Søren; Goedecke, George H.

    2009-01-01

    Quasi-wavelets (QWs) are eddy-like entities similar to customary wavelets in the sense that they are based on translations and dilations of a spatially localized parent function. The positions and orientations are, however, normally taken to be random. Random fields such as turbulence may...... types of QWs and couplings, suitable for various applicatons, can be constructed through differentiation of spherically symmetric parent functions. For velocity fluctuations, QWs with toroidal and poloidal circulations can be derived. (2) Self-similar ensembles of QWs with rotation rates scaling...... to Fourier modes, QWs can be naturally arranged in a spatially intermittent manner. Models for both local (intrinsic) and global intermittency are discussed. (5) The spatially localized nature of QWs can be advantageous in wave-scattering calculations and other applications....

  2. Factor-of-safety formulations for linear and parabolic failure envelopes for rock. Technical memorandum report RSI-0038

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnirk, P.F.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents documentation of the basic formulation of the factor-of-safety relationships for linear and parabolic failure criteria for rock with an example application for a candidate room-and-pillar configuration at the proposed Alpha repository site in New Mexico. 8 figures, 4 tables

  3. Formulation of the rotational transformation of wave fields and their application to digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Kyoji

    2008-07-01

    Rotational transformation based on coordinate rotation in Fourier space is a useful technique for simulating wave field propagation between nonparallel planes. This technique is characterized by fast computation because the transformation only requires executing a fast Fourier transform twice and a single interpolation. It is proved that the formula of the rotational transformation mathematically satisfies the Helmholtz equation. Moreover, to verify the formulation and its usefulness in wave optics, it is also demonstrated that the transformation makes it possible to reconstruct an image on arbitrarily tilted planes from a wave field captured experimentally by using digital holography.

  4. A consistent formulation of wave propagation and conversion in low aspect ratio tokamaks with non-circular cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K.

    1999-01-01

    The authors developed a consistent formalism for the full wave equation, appropriate for the study of propagation, absorption and wave conversion of externally launched waves in strongly toroidal, spherical tokamaks with non-circular cross-section. This includes also the formulation of rigorous regularity, boundary, gauge and periodicity conditions suitable for the exact solution of the wave equation for such devices

  5. Gravitational waves in Fully Constrained Formulation in a dynamical spacetime with matter content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero-Carrion, Isabel; Cerda-Duran, Pablo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Ibanez, Jose MarIa, E-mail: chabela@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: cerda@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: jose.m.ibanez@uv.es [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-22

    We analyze numerically the behaviour of the hyperbolic sector of the Fully Constrained Formulation (FCF) (Bonazzola et al. 2004). The numerical experiments allow us to be confident in the performances of the upgraded version of the CoCoNuT code (Dimmelmeier et al. 2005) by replacing the Conformally Flat Condition (CFC), an approximation of Einstein equations, by FCF. First gravitational waves in FCF in a dynamical spacetime with matter content will be shown.

  6. Diffraction of Elastic Waves in Fluid-Layered Solid Interfaces by an Integral Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Basaldúa-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present communication, scattering of elastic waves in fluid-layered solid interfaces is studied. The indirect boundary element method is used to deal with this wave propagation phenomenon in 2D fluid-layered solid models. The source is represented by Hankel’s function of second kind and this is always applied in the fluid. Our method is an approximate boundary integral technique which is based upon an integral representation for scattered elastic waves using single-layer boundary sources. This approach is typically called indirect because the sources’ strengths are calculated as an intermediate step. In addition, this formulation is regarded as a realization of Huygens’ principle. The results are presented in frequency and time domains. Various aspects related to the different wave types that emerge from this kind of problems are emphasized. A near interface pulse generates changes in the pressure field and can be registered by receivers located in the fluid. In order to show the accuracy of our method, we validated the results with those obtained by the discrete wave number applied to a fluid-solid interface joining two half-spaces, one fluid and the other an elastic solid.

  7. Wave propagation properties of frame structures. Formulation for three-dimensional frame structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Since it is generally difficult to predict the occurrence of natural disasters such as earth-quakes, a performance management system that constantly maintains the safety and functionality of structures is required, particularly for critical structures like nuclear power plants. In order to realize such a system, it is becoming important to carry out detailed modeling procedures and analyses to better understand actual phenomena. The aim of our research is to determine the dynamic behavior - especially the wave propagation phenomena - of piping systems in nuclear power plants, which are complicated assemblages of parts. The spectral element method is adopted in this study, and the formulation considering a shear deformation independently for a frame element is described. The Timoshenko beam theory is introduced for the purpose of this formulation. The validity of the presented element will be shown through comparisons with the conventional beam element. (author)

  8. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  9. Analytical Formulation of Equatorial Standing Wave Phenomena: Application to QBO and ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukite, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    inversion of the biennial mode lasting from 1980 to 1996. The parsimony of these analytical models arises from applying only known cyclic forcing terms to fundamental wave equation formulations. This raises the possibility that both QBO and ENSO can be predicted years in advance, apart from a metastable biennial phase inversion in ENSO.

  10. Formulation of electromagnetic-wave analysis by boundary element method and its application to the analysis of RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washizu, Masao; Tanabe, Yoshio.

    1986-01-01

    In a system handling the electromagnetic waves of large power such as the cavity resonator for a high energy accelerator and the high frequency heater for a nuclear fusion apparatus, the margin in the thermal and mechanical design of a wave guide system cannot be taken large, accordingly, the detailed analysis of electromagnetic waves is required. When the analysis in a general form is carried out, boundary element method may be a useful method of solution. This time, the authors carried out the formulation of steady electromagnetic wave problems by boundary element method, and it was shown that the formulation was able to be carried out under the physically clear boundary condition also in this case, and especially in the case of a perfect conductor system, a very simple form was obtained. In this paper, first, the techniques of formulation in a general case, and next, as a special case, the formulation for a perfect conductor system are described. Taking the analysis of the cavity resonators of cylindrical and rectangular parallelepiped forms as examples, the comparison with the analytical solution was carried out. (Kako, I.)

  11. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available for use in the building. This is done through photovoltaic and solar water heating panels and wind turbines. Ideally these are integrated in the design of the building envelope to improve the aesthetic quality of the building and minimise material... are naturally ventilated. Renewable energy The building envelope includes renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics, wind turbines and solar water heaters and 10% of the building’s energy requirements are generated from these sources. Views All...

  12. Biomimetic Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Mazzoleni

    2010-01-01

    How to translate the lessons learned from the analysis and observation of the animal world is the design learning experience presented in this article. Skin is a complex and incredibly sophisticated organ that performs various functions, including protection, sensation and heat and water regulation. In a similar way building envelopes serve multiple roles, as they are the interface between the building inhabitants and environmental elements. The resulting architectural building envelopes prot...

  13. Projector Augmented-Wave formulation of response to strain and electric field perturbation within the density-functional perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alexandre; Torrent, Marc; Caracas, Razvan

    2015-03-01

    A formulation of the response of a system to strain and electric field perturbations in the pseudopotential-based density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) has been proposed by D.R Hamman and co-workers. It uses an elegant formalism based on the expression of DFT total energy in reduced coordinates, the key quantity being the metric tensor and its first and second derivatives. We propose to extend this formulation to the Projector Augmented-Wave approach (PAW). In this context, we express the full elastic tensor including the clamped-atom tensor, the atomic-relaxation contributions (internal stresses) and the response to electric field change (piezoelectric tensor and effective charges). With this we are able to compute the elastic tensor for all materials (metals and insulators) within a fully analytical formulation. The comparison with finite differences calculations on simple systems shows an excellent agreement. This formalism has been implemented in the plane-wave based DFT ABINIT code. We apply it to the computation of elastic properties and seismic-wave velocities of iron with impurity elements. By analogy with the materials contained in meteorites, tested impurities are light elements (H, O, C, S, Si).

  14. Propagation of shock waves in elastic solids caused by cavitation microjet impact. I: Theoretical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, P; Chuong, C J

    1993-07-01

    To understand the physical process of the impingement of cavitation microjet and the resultant shock wave propagation in an elastic solid, a theoretical model using geometrical acoustics was developed. Shock waves induced in both the jet head (water) and the solid were analyzed during a tri-supersonic impact configuration when the contact edge between the jet head and the elastic boundary expands faster than the longitudinal wave speed in the solid. Impact pressure at the boundary was solved using continuity conditions along the boundary normal. Reflection and refraction of shock waves from a solid-water interface were also included in the model. With this model, the impact pressure at the solid boundary and the stress, strain as well as velocity discontinuities at the propagating shock fronts were calculated. A comparison with results from previous studies shows that this model provides a more complete and general solution for the jet impact problem.

  15. Toroidal Dielectric Tensor-Operator for Arbitrary Aspect-Ratio and Wave Frequency an Anisotropic-Resistivity MHD Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.

    1998-01-01

    Motivated by the recently increased interest in small aspect ratio tokamaks, we have derived a 2(1/2)D dielectric tensor-operator which can properly describe the plasma response to r.f. waves, under conditions prevailing in the pre-heated stages of arbitrary aspect ratio, axisymmetric toroidal fusion devices. The derived dielectric tensor elements are based on a two-fluid, weakly collisional plasma description, with the Hall term included. They are characterized by the following features: (i) They are cast in a form evidencing the dielectric (non-operator) and operator contributions - the latter being due to the toroidal structure of the V-operators present in Maxwell's equations, on the background of equilibrium currents and pressure gradients; (ii) They are not subject to any I imitation on the (relative) magnitude of the toroidal effects - no expansion in the inverse aspect ratio parameter is used for their derivation; (iii) They include anisotropic - parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field - contributions to the plasma resistivity; (iv) They are not Iimited by any restriction on the (relative) value of the wave frequency. The explicit, physically transparent formulation of the dielectric tensor is intended for the numerical solution of the full (E ll ≠ 0) wave equation and subsequently, evaluation of the Alfven wave current drive in small aspect ratio tokamaks

  16. General formulation for magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation, fire-hose, and mirror instabilities in Harris-type current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.-N.; Lai, Y.-T.

    2013-01-01

    Harris-type current sheets with the magnetic field model of B-vector=B x (z)x-caret+B y (z)y-caret have many important applications to space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas for which the temperature or pressure usually exhibits the gyrotropic form of p↔=p ∥ b-caretb-caret+p ⊥ (I↔−b-caretb-caret). Here, p ∥ and p ⊥ are, respectively, to be the pressure component along and perpendicular to the local magnetic field, b-caret=B-vector/B. This study presents the general formulation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagation, fire-hose, and mirror instabilities in general Harris-type current sheets. The wave equations are expressed in terms of the four MHD characteristic speeds of fast, intermediate, slow, and cusp waves, and in the local (k ∥ ,k ⊥ ,z) coordinates. Here, k ∥ and k ⊥ are, respectively, to be the wave vector along and perpendicular to the local magnetic field. The parameter regimes for the existence of discrete and resonant modes are identified, which may become unstable at the local fire-hose and mirror instability thresholds. Numerical solutions for discrete eigenmodes are shown for stable and unstable cases. The results have important implications for the anomalous heating and stability of thin current sheets.

  17. Kubo-Greenwood electrical conductivity formulation and implementation for projector augmented wave datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderín, L.; Karasiev, V. V.; Trickey, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    As the foundation for a new computational implementation, we survey the calculation of the complex electrical conductivity tensor based on the Kubo-Greenwood (KG) formalism (Kubo, 1957; Greenwood, 1958), with emphasis on derivations and technical aspects pertinent to use of projector augmented wave datasets with plane wave basis sets (Blöchl, 1994). New analytical results and a full implementation of the KG approach in an open-source Fortran 90 post-processing code for use with Quantum Espresso (Giannozzi et al., 2009) are presented. Named KGEC ([K]ubo [G]reenwood [E]lectronic [C]onductivity), the code calculates the full complex conductivity tensor (not just the average trace). It supports use of either the original KG formula or the popular one approximated in terms of a Dirac delta function. It provides both Gaussian and Lorentzian representations of the Dirac delta function (though the Lorentzian is preferable on basic grounds). KGEC provides decomposition of the conductivity into intra- and inter-band contributions as well as degenerate state contributions. It calculates the dc conductivity tensor directly. It is MPI parallelized over k-points, bands, and plane waves, with an option to recover the plane wave processes for their use in band parallelization as well. It is designed to provide rapid convergence with respect to k-point density. Examples of its use are given.

  18. A new formulation of theta pinch implosions - a collisionless wave model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, K.H.

    Previous work in theta pinch implosions is characterized by anomalous resistivity owing its origin to plasma instabilities. A diametrically opposite collisionless model is proposed here that consists of an inhomogeneous wave equation. The electron velocities are solved by guiding center approximation. This model offers qualitative explanations to various effects like experimental Alfven scaling law, Alfven penetration time, sheath thickness, shock formation, shock width, piston thickness, Alfven Mach number. Although collision is not essential, the plasma has an apparent resistivity with an effective collision frequency of roughly the same as those anomalous ones used in turbulent model. (Author) [pt

  19. Effect of roughness formulation on the performance of a coupled wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of algorithms are available for parameterizing the hydrodynamic bottom roughness associated with grain size, saltation, bedforms, and wave–current interaction in coastal ocean models. These parameterizations give rise to spatially and temporally variable bottom-drag coefficients that ostensibly provide better representations of physical processes than uniform and constant coefficients. However, few studies have been performed to determine whether improved representation of these variable bottom roughness components translates into measurable improvements in model skill. We test the hypothesis that improved representation of variable bottom roughness improves performance with respect to near-bed circulation, bottom stresses, or turbulence dissipation. The inner shelf south of Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, is the site of sorted grain-size features which exhibit sharp alongshore variations in grain size and ripple geometry over gentle bathymetric relief; this area provides a suitable testing ground for roughness parameterizations. We first establish the skill of a nested regional model for currents, waves, stresses, and turbulent quantities using a uniform and constant roughness; we then gauge model skill with various parameterization of roughness, which account for the influence of the wave-boundary layer, grain size, saltation, and rippled bedforms. We find that commonly used representations of ripple-induced roughness, when combined with a wave–current interaction routine, do not significantly improve skill for circulation, and significantly decrease skill with respect to stresses and turbulence dissipation. Ripple orientation with respect to dominant currents and ripple shape may be responsible for complicating a straightforward estimate of the roughness contribution from ripples. In addition, sediment-induced stratification may be responsible for lower stresses than predicted by the wave–current interaction model.

  20. Density-based global sensitivity analysis of sheet-flow travel time: Kinematic wave-based formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seiyed Mossa; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2018-04-01

    Despite advancements in developing physics-based formulations to estimate the sheet-flow travel time (tSHF), the quantification of the relative impacts of influential parameters on tSHF has not previously been considered. In this study, a brief review of the physics-based formulations to estimate tSHF including kinematic wave (K-W) theory in combination with Manning's roughness (K-M) and with Darcy-Weisbach friction formula (K-D) over single and multiple planes is provided. Then, the relative significance of input parameters to the developed approaches is quantified by a density-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The performance of K-M considering zero-upstream and uniform flow depth (so-called K-M1 and K-M2), and K-D formulae to estimate the tSHF over single plane surface were assessed using several sets of experimental data collected from the previous studies. The compatibility of the developed models to estimate tSHF over multiple planes considering temporal rainfall distributions of Natural Resources Conservation Service, NRCS (I, Ia, II, and III) are scrutinized by several real-world examples. The results obtained demonstrated that the main controlling parameters of tSHF through K-D and K-M formulae are the length of surface plane (mean sensitivity index T̂i = 0.72) and flow resistance (mean T̂i = 0.52), respectively. Conversely, the flow temperature and initial abstraction ratio of rainfall have the lowest influence on tSHF (mean T̂i is 0.11 and 0.12, respectively). The significant role of the flow regime on the estimation of tSHF over a single and a cascade of planes are also demonstrated. Results reveal that the K-D formulation provides more precise tSHF over the single plane surface with an average percentage of error, APE equal to 9.23% (the APE for K-M1 and K-M2 formulae were 13.8%, and 36.33%, respectively). The superiority of Manning-jointed formulae in estimation of tSHF is due to the incorporation of effects from different flow regimes as

  1. Enveloping Aerodynamic Decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Kerry T. (Inventor); Aaron, Kim M. (Inventor); McRonald, Angus D. (Inventor); Gates, Kristin L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An inflatable aerodynamic deceleration method and system is provided for use with an atmospheric entry payload. The inflatable aerodynamic decelerator includes an inflatable envelope and an inflatant, wherein the inflatant is configured to fill the inflatable envelope to an inflated state such that the inflatable envelope surrounds the atmospheric entry payload, causing aerodynamic forces to decelerate the atmospheric entry payload.

  2. Second-order coupling of numerical and physical wave tanks for 2D irregular waves. Part I: Formulation, implementation and numerical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    In this series of two papers, we report on the irregular wave extension of the second-order coupling theory of numerical and physical wave model described in [Z. Yang, S. Liu, H.B. Bingham and J. Li. Second-order theory for coupling numerical and physical wave tanks: Derivation, evaluation...

  3. On advanced variational formulation of the method of lines and its application to the wave propagation problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available are transformed into systems of ordinary differential equations with initial conditions. This reduction is obtained by means of application of particular finite difference schemes to the spatial derivatives. Many of the wave propagation problems describing...

  4. Storage envelopes or sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater, J.R.; Wagman, P.I.

    1980-01-01

    A storage envelope or sleeve particularly for processed X-ray films is described. It consists of front and back panels joined together at a hinge line and connected along the intermediate sides by connecting flaps. An inner pocket is formed from a third flap which is folded to lie against the inner face of the back panel. The panels may have additional score lines parallel to the closed sides of the envelope and the inner pocket so that the envelope and the inner pocket can accommodate bulky contents. The free edge of the pocket is inset from the open side of the envelope, and finger cut-outs may be provided to facilitate access to the contents of the envelope and the pocket. (author)

  5. Protective plasma envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, V.N.; Konstantinov, S.G.; Kudryavtsev, A.M.; Myskin, O.K.; Panasyuk, V.M.; Tsel'nik, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    A method of creating an annular plasma envelope used to protect the hot plasma from flows of impurities and gases from the walls of the vacuum chamber is described. The diameter of the envelope is 30 cm, the thickness of the wall is 1.5 cm, the length is 2.5 m, and its density is from 10 13 to 10 14 cm -3 . The envelope attenuates the incident (from outside) flow of helium 10-fold and the low of hydrogen 20-fold

  6. Reduced-order prediction of rogue waves in two-dimensional deep-water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsis, Themistoklis; Farazmand, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of large wave prediction in two-dimensional water waves. Such waves form due to the synergistic effect of dispersive mixing of smaller wave groups and the action of localized nonlinear wave interactions that leads to focusing. Instead of a direct simulation approach, we rely on the decomposition of the wave field into a discrete set of localized wave groups with optimal length scales and amplitudes. Due to the short-term character of the prediction, these wave groups do not interact and therefore their dynamics can be characterized individually. Using direct numerical simulations of the governing envelope equations we precompute the expected maximum elevation for each of those wave groups. The combination of the wave field decomposition algorithm, which provides information about the statistics of the system, and the precomputed map for the expected wave group elevation, which encodes dynamical information, allows (i) for understanding of how the probability of occurrence of rogue waves changes as the spectrum parameters vary, (ii) the computation of a critical length scale characterizing wave groups with high probability of evolving to rogue waves, and (iii) the formulation of a robust and parsimonious reduced-order prediction scheme for large waves. T.S. has been supported through the ONR Grants N00014-14-1-0520 and N00014-15-1-2381 and the AFOSR Grant FA9550-16-1-0231. M.F. has been supported through the second Grant.

  7. Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we......In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We...

  8. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  9. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  10. A momentum-space formulation without partial wave decomposition for scattering of two spin-half particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachruddin, Imam, E-mail: imam.fachruddin@sci.ui.ac.id; Salam, Agus [Departemen Fisika, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    A new momentum-space formulation for scattering of two spin-half particles, both either identical or unidentical, is formulated. As basis states the free linear-momentum states are not expanded into the angular-momentum states, the system’s spin states are described by the product of the spin states of the two particles, and the system’s isospin states by the total isospin states of the two particles. We evaluate the Lippmann-Schwinger equations for the T-matrix elements in these basis states. The azimuthal behavior of the potential and of the T-matrix elements leads to a set of coupled integral equations for the T-matrix elements in two variables only, which are the magnitude of the relative momentum and the scattering angle. Some symmetry relations for the potential and the T-matrix elements reduce the number of the integral equations to be solved. A set of six spin operators to express any interaction of two spin-half particles is introduced. We show the spin-averaged differential cross section as being calculated in terms of the solution of the set of the integral equations.

  11. On the relationship between multi-channel envelope and temporal fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; Decorsiere, Remi Julien Blaise; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    The envelope of a signal is broadly defined as the slow changes in time of the signal, where as the temporal fine structure (TFS) are the fast changes in time, i.e. the carrier wave(s) of the signal. The focus of this paper is on envelope and TFS in multi-channel systems. We discuss the differenc...

  12. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  13. Dispersion - does it degrade a pulse envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deighton, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    In hostile environments, transmitting information as ultrasonic Lamb wave pulses has advantages, since the stainless steel strip serving as a waveguide is very durable. Besides attenuation, velocity dispersion (inherent in Lamb waves) can be important even in fairly short guides. Theory shows that unlimited propagation of a pulsed r.f. envelope is possible, even with dispersion present. The constant group velocity needed would favour asub(o)-mode pulses over other modes, provided ordinary attenuation is small. An approximate formula indicates the useful range of a pulse, when group velocity does vary. (author)

  14. (Quasi-)Poisson enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan-Hong; Yao, Yuan; Ye, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra and Poisson enveloping algebra for a non-commutative Poisson algebra. We prove that for a non-commutative Poisson algebra, the category of quasi-Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra, and the category of Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its Poisson enveloping algebra.

  15. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary......, environmental dynamics and occupancy dynamics. Lastly, a physical prototype is created, which illustrates the physical expression of the bi-materials and the problems related to manufacturing of these composite structures.......The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary...

  16. The laboratory investigation of surface envelope solitons: reflection from a vertical wall and collisions of solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slunyaev, Alexey; Klein, Marco; Clauss, Günther F.

    2016-04-01

    Envelope soliton solutions are key elements governing the nonlinear wave dynamics within a simplified theory for unidirectional weakly modulated weakly nonlinear wave groups on the water surface. Within integrable models the solitons preserve their structure in collisions with other waves; they do not disperse and can carry energy infinitively long. Steep and short soliton-like wave groups have been shown to exist in laboratory tests [1] and, even earlier, in numerical simulations [2, 3]. Thus, long-living wave groups may play important role in the dynamics of intense sea waves and wave-structure interactions. The solitary wave groups may change the wave statistics and can be taken into account when developing approaches for the deterministic forecasting of dangerous waves, including so-called rogue waves. An experimental campaign has been conducted in the wave basin of the Technical University of Berlin on simulations of intense solitary wave groups. The first successful experimental observation of intense envelope solitons took place in this facility [1]. The new experiments aimed at following main goals: 1) to reproduce intense envelope solitons with different carrier wave lengths; 2) to estimate the rate of envelope soliton dissipation; 3) to consider the reflection of envelope solitons on a vertical wall; 4) to consider head-on collisions of envelope solitons, and 5) to consider overtaking interactions of envelope solitons. Up to 9 wave gauges were used in each experimental run, which enabled registration of the surface movement at different distances from the wavemaker, at different locations across the wave flume and near the wall. Besides surface displacements, the group envelope shapes were directly recorded, with use of phase shifts applied to the modulated waves generated by the wavemaker. [1] A. Slunyaev, G.F. Clauss, M. Klein, M. Onorato, Simulations and experiments of short intense envelope solitons of surface water waves. Phys. Fluids 25, 067105

  17. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  18. Uncertain data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to present the milestones in the progression of uncertain Data envelopment analysis (DEA). Chapter 1 gives some basic introduction to uncertain theories, including probability theory, credibility theory, uncertainty theory and chance theory. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive review and discussion of basic DEA models. The stochastic DEA is introduced in Chapter 3, in which the inputs and outputs are assumed to be random variables. To obtain the probability distribution of a random variable, a lot of samples are needed to apply the statistics inference approach. Chapter 4

  19. Solitons, envelope solitons in collisonless plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Watanabe, S.

    1977-08-01

    A review is given to extensive development of theoretical, computational and experimental studies of nonlinear wave propagation in collisionless plasmas. Firstly, the historical experiment of Ikezi et al. is discussed in comparison with theoretical analysis based on the Korteweg-de Vries equation. Systematic discrepancy between the observation and the theoretical prediction suggests that it is necessary to examine such as higher order mode coupling effect and contribution of trapped particles. Secondly, effects of the nonlinear Landau damping on the envelope solution of ion plasma wave is discussed on the basis of theoretical study of Ichikawa-Taniuti, experimental observation of Watanabe and numerical analysis of Yajima et al. Finally, a new type of evolution equation derived for the Alfven wave is examined in some detail. The rigorous solution obtained for this mode represents a new kind of envelope solution, in which both of its phase and amplitude are subject to modulation of comparable spatial extension. In conclusion, the emphasis will be placed on the fact that much more intensive experimental researches are expected to be done, since the powerful methods to disentangle various nonlinear evolution equations are now available for theoretical approach. (auth.)

  20. The potential of building envelope greening to achieve quietness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Renterghem, T.; Hornikx, M.C.J.; Forssén, J.; Botteldooren, D.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of noise is one of the multiple benefits of building envelope greening measures. The potential of wall vegetation systems, green roofs, vegetated low screens at roof edges, and also combinations of such treatments, have been studied by means of combining 2D and 3D full-wave numerical

  1. Solitons of an envelope in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Solutions of the Schroedinger nonlinear equation (SNE) used for the description of evolution of a wave packet envelope has been investigated in inhomogeneous and nonstationary media. It is shown that the SNE solution possessing two important properties exists. Firstly, the wave packet remains localized when propagating in an inhomogeneous medium. Secondly, the soliton width and amplitude are determined only with local characteristics of medium and don't depend on the prehistory. Problem of limits of obtained result applicability has been considered

  2. The LHC on an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays ...

  3. The LHC in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (Ferney-Voltaire, Prévessin...

  4. CONTROL OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS VIA THE REGULATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Košir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of comfortable, healthy and stimulating indoor environments in buildings has a direct impact on the users and on energy consumption, as well as on the wider soci-economic environment of society.The indoor environment of buildings is defined with the formulation of the building envelope, which functions as an interface between the internal and external environments and its users. A properly designed, flexible and adequately controlled building envelope is a starting point in the formulation of a high-quality indoor environment. The systematic treatment of the indoor environment and building envelope from a user’s point of view represents an engineering approach that enables the holistic treatment of buildings, as well as integrated components and systems. The presented division of indoor environment in terms of visual, thermal, olfactory, acoustic and ergonomic sub-environments enables the classification and selection of crucial factors influencing design. This selection and classification can be implemented in the design, as well as in control applications of the building envelope. The implementation of the approach described is demonstrated with an example of an automated control system for the internal environment of an office in the building of the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering.

  5. Bicovariant differential calculus on quantum groups and wave mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Watamura, S.; Hebecker, A.; Schlieker, M.; Weich, W.

    1992-01-01

    The bicovariant differential calculus on quantum groups defined by Woronowicz and later worked out explicitly by Carow-Watamura et al. and Jurco for the real quantum groups SU q (N) and SO q (N) through a systematic construction of the bicovariant bimodules of these quantum groups, is reviewed for SU q (2) and SO q (N). The resulting vector fields build representations of the quantized universal enveloping algebras acting as covariant differential operators on the quantum groups and their associated quantum spaces. As an application, a free particle stationary wave equation on quantum space is formulated and solved in terms of a complete set of energy eigenfunctions. (author) 15 refs

  6. Envelope enhancement increases cortical sensitivity to interaural envelope delays with acoustic and electric hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E H Hartley

    Full Text Available Evidence from human psychophysical and animal electrophysiological studies suggests that sensitivity to interaural time delay (ITD in the modulating envelope of a high-frequency carrier can be enhanced using half-wave rectified stimuli. Recent evidence has shown potential benefits of equivalent electrical stimuli to deaf individuals with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. In the current study we assessed the effects of envelope shape on ITD sensitivity in the primary auditory cortex of normal-hearing ferrets, and profoundly-deaf animals with bilateral CIs. In normal-hearing animals, cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±1 ms in 0.1-ms steps was assessed in response to dichotically-presented i sinusoidal amplitude-modulated (SAM and ii half-wave rectified (HWR tones (100-ms duration; 70 dB SPL presented at the best-frequency of the unit over a range of modulation frequencies. In separate experiments, adult ferrets were deafened with neomycin administration and bilaterally-implanted with intra-cochlear electrode arrays. Electrically-evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABRs were recorded in response to bipolar electrical stimulation of the apical pair of electrodes with singe biphasic current pulses (40 µs per phase over a range of current levels to measure hearing thresholds. Subsequently, we recorded cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±800 µs in 80-µs steps within the envelope of SAM and HWR biphasic-pulse trains (40 µs per phase; 6000 pulses per second, 100-ms duration over a range of modulation frequencies. In normal-hearing animals, nearly a third of cortical neurons were sensitive to envelope-ITDs in response to SAM tones. In deaf animals with bilateral CI, the proportion of ITD-sensitive cortical neurons was approximately a fifth in response to SAM pulse trains. In normal-hearing and deaf animals with bilateral CI the proportion of ITD sensitive units and neural sensitivity to ITDs increased in response to HWR, compared with SAM stimuli

  7. Full-wave analysis using a tangential vector finite-element formulation of arbitrary cross-section transmission lines for millimeter and microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, M.; Legier, J. F.; Pribetich, P.; Kennis, P.

    1994-06-01

    A tangential vector finite-element formulation is implemented to deal with arbitrary cross section and metallic strip shape. Classical planar transmission lines as well as nonconventional cross-section waveguides such as the new microshield line are treated. Effects on propagation characteristics for these lines are studied when the metallization shape is approximated by a lossy trapezoid area.

  8. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Robert; Metcalf, Richard; Bevill, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant's large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis

  9. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  10. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  11. Sensitivity of growth characteristics of tidal sand ridges and long bed waves to formulations of bed shear stress, sand transport and tidal forcing : A numerical model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Bing; de Swart, Huib E.; Panadès, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Tidal sand ridges and long bed waves are large-scale bedforms that are observed on continental shelves. They differ in their wavelength and in their orientation with respect to the principal direction of tidal currents. Previous studies indicate that tidal sand ridges appear in areas where tidal

  12. Nature of 'unseen' galactic envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that unseen matter in a galactic envelope or in a group of galaxies may consist of substellar bodies originating as the first permanent 'stars' in the formation of a very massive galaxy according to a model for galaxy-formation on the basis of simple big-bang cosmology. (Auth.)

  13. Handbook on data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, William W; Zhu, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on extensively used Data Envelopment Analysis topics, this volume aims to both describe the state of the field and extend the frontier of DEA research. New chapters include DEA models for DMUs, network DEA, models for supply chain operations and applications, and new developments.

  14. Nonlinear modulation of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Naoaki

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the nonlinear characteristics of ionization waves (moving-striations) in the positive column of glow discharge, a nonlinear modulation of ionization waves in the region of the Pupp critical current is analysed by means of the reductive perturbation method. The modulation of ionization waves is described by a nonlinear Schroedinger type equation. The coefficients of the equation are evaluated using the data of the low pressure Argon-discharge, and the simple solutions (plane wave and envelope soliton type solutions) are presented. Under a certain condition an envelope soliton is propagated through the positive column. (author)

  15. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 4: intercellular bridges, mitochondria, nuclear envelope, apoptosis, ubiquitination, membrane/voltage-gated channels, methylation/acetylation, and transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermo, Louis; Pelletier, R-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Smith, Charles E

    2010-04-01

    As germ cells divide and differentiate from spermatogonia to spermatozoa, they share a number of structural and functional features that are common to all generations of germ cells and these features are discussed herein. Germ cells are linked to one another by large intercellular bridges which serve to move molecules and even large organelles from the cytoplasm of one cell to another. Mitochondria take on different shapes and features and topographical arrangements to accommodate their specific needs during spermatogenesis. The nuclear envelope and pore complex also undergo extensive modifications concomitant with the development of germ cell generations. Apoptosis is an event that is normally triggered by germ cells and involves many proteins. It occurs to limit the germ cell pool and acts as a quality control mechanism. The ubiquitin pathway comprises enzymes that ubiquitinate as well as deubiquitinate target proteins and this pathway is present and functional in germ cells. Germ cells express many proteins involved in water balance and pH control as well as voltage-gated ion channel movement. In the nucleus, proteins undergo epigenetic modifications which include methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, with each of these modifications signaling changes in chromatin structure. Germ cells contain specialized transcription complexes that coordinate the differentiation program of spermatogenesis, and there are many male germ cell-specific differences in the components of this machinery. All of the above features of germ cells will be discussed along with the specific proteins/genes and abnormalities to fertility related to each topic. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. A deformation (strain) envelope for cyclic disturbed sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in triaxial testing procedures revealed new properties governing disturbed sand stiffness. This paper summarizes the new observations into an original, proof of concept. The novel concept interpolates effective stress within a strain (deformation) envelope. Coulomb stress limits...... are still satisfied, but the stresses are interpolated using a deformation (strain) envelope. The method is not part of a constitutive formulation, but is remarkably functional in triaxial testing practice. The practicality is proven by plotting simulations on top of empirically measured stiffness history...... - the fitting is remarkably good even during tests of extreme complexity. The novelty has substantial interdisciplinary potential: offshore anchors and foundations, earthquakes and industrial processes - wherever dynamic loads and disturbed sand are encountered. It opens the door to a new branch of numerical...

  17. Multi-component optical solitary waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  19. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G C [OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  20. An efficient formulation and implementation of the analytic energy gradient method to the single and double excitation coupled-cluster wave function - Application to Cl2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Alistair P.; Lee, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    The analytic energy gradient for the single and double excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD) wave function has been reformulated and implemented in a new set of programs. The reformulated set of gradient equations have a smaller computational cost than any previously published. The iterative solution of the linear equations and the construction of the effective density matrices are fully vectorized, being based on matrix multiplications. The new method has been used to investigate the Cl2O2 molecule, which has recently been postulated as an important intermediate in the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. In addition to reporting computational timings, the CCSD equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, and relative energetics of three isomers of Cl2O2 are presented.

  1. A simplectic formulation of relativistic particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulczyjew, W.M.

    1976-12-01

    Particle mechanics is formulated in terms of symplectic relations and infinitesimal symplectic relations. Generating functions of symplectic relations are shown to be classical counterparts of Green's functions of wave mechanics. (orig.) [de

  2. A sympletic formulation of relativistic particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulczyjew, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Particle mechanics is formulated in terms of sympletic relations and infinitesimal symplectic relations. Generating functions of symplectic relations are shown to be classical counterparts of Green's functions of wave mechanics. (author)

  3. Formulating Fermat's principle for light traveling in negative refraction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselago, Viktor G

    2002-01-01

    The formulation of Fermat's principle for electromagnetic waves traveling in materials with a negative refractive index is refined. It is shown that a formulation in terms of the minimum (or extremum) of wave travel time between two points is not correct in general. The correct formulation involves the extremum of the total optical length, with the optical length for the wave propagation through left-handed materials taken to be negative. (methodological notes)

  4. Cortical processing of dynamic sound envelope transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2010-12-08

    Slow envelope fluctuations in the range of 2-20 Hz provide important segmental cues for processing communication sounds. For a successful segmentation, a neural processor must capture envelope features associated with the rise and fall of signal energy, a process that is often challenged by the interference of background noise. This study investigated the neural representations of slowly varying envelopes in quiet and in background noise in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys. We characterized envelope features based on the local average and rate of change of sound level in envelope waveforms and identified envelope features to which neurons were selective by reverse correlation. Our results showed that envelope feature selectivity of A1 neurons was correlated with the degree of nonmonotonicity in their static rate-level functions. Nonmonotonic neurons exhibited greater feature selectivity than monotonic neurons in quiet and in background noise. The diverse envelope feature selectivity decreased spike-timing correlation among A1 neurons in response to the same envelope waveforms. As a result, the variability, but not the average, of the ensemble responses of A1 neurons represented more faithfully the dynamic transitions in low-frequency sound envelopes both in quiet and in background noise.

  5. The noise of ultrashort pulse mode-locked lasers beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takushima, Y; Haus, H A; Kaertner, F X

    2004-01-01

    The zero-point fluctuations in an L-C circuit of finite Q are revisited. The zero-point energy is shown to approach the value of hbarω 0 /2 only in the limit of an infinite Q. A Fabry-Perot resonator, on the other hand, has bounded zero-point energies of its modes that are equal to hbarω n /2 for each resonance. Based on the Fabry-Perot resonator with broadband noise, we analyse the noise of an ultrafast mode-locked laser when the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA) is not valid. This is achieved by reinterpreting the quantized form of the master equation of mode locking as an equation of motion for the electric field rather than for the creation operator of a photon. It is found that in this formulation quantum correlations exist that are not present in the SVEA. The correlations become evident in the spectrum of the zero-point fluctuations and therefore in the background noise of the laser. This behaviour can be detected by homodyne detection of the laser output. The linewidth of the frequency comb generated by the mode-locked laser is not affected by these correlations and is given by the Schawlow-Townes linewidth of an equivalent continuous wave taking the additional intracavity loss due to the mode locking process into account

  6. Square-wave voltammetric determination of rutin in pharmaceutical formulations using a carbon composite electrode modified with copper (II phosphate immobilized in polyester resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Heloizy Garcia Freitas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A carbon composite electrode modified with copper (II phosphate immobilized in a polyester resin (Cu3(PO42-Poly for the determination of rutin in pharmaceutical samples by square-wave voltammetry is described herein. The modified electrode allows the determination of rutin at a potential (0.20 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L-1 KCl lower than that observed at an unmodified electrode. The peak current was found to be linear to the rutin concentration in the range from 9.9 × 10-8 to 2.5 × 10-6 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 1.2×10-8 mol L-1. The response of the electrode was stable, with no variation in baseline levels within several hours of continuous operation. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX system. The results obtained are precise and accurate. In addition, these results are in agreement with those obtained by the chromatographic method at a 95% confidence level.Descreve-se um eletrodo de carbono modificado com fosfato de cobre (II imobilizado em uma resina de poliéster (Cu3(PO42-Poly para a determinação de rutina em amostras farmacêuticas por voltametria de onda quadrada. O eletrodo modificado permite a determinação de rutina em potencial (0.20 V vs Ag / AgCl (3,0 mol L-1 KCl menor que o observado em um eletrodo não modificado. Verificou-se que a corrente de pico foi linear com a concentração de rutina na faixa de 9,9 × 10-8 a 2,5 × 10-6 mol L-1, com um limite de detecção de 1,2 × 10-8 mol L¹. A resposta do eletrodo foi estável, sem variação significativa dentro de várias horas de operação contínua. A morfologia da superfície do eletrodo modificado foi caracterizada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e pelo sistema de energia dispersiva de raios-X (EDX. Os resultados obtidos foram precisos e exatos. Ademais, estes resultados estão de acordo com aqueles obtidos pelo método cromatográfico a um nível de

  7. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  8. ONDAS SOLITÓNICAS EN INTERFACES ABIÓTICAS-BIÓTICAS BASADAS EN FORMULACIÓN DE DRUDE PARA MEDIOS QUIRALES SOLITONIC WAVES IN BIOTIC-ABIOTIC INTERFACES BASED IN DRUDE FORMULATION FOR CHIRAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cancino L

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un modelo teórico y la simulación computacional correspondiente, que permite analizar los efectos de la propagación de ondas solitónicas en medios biológicos esencialmente quirales. La quiralidad se modela, en este caso, bajo la formulación de Drude, mostrándose los rangos de validez del modelo propuesto. Este modelo considera los efectos no lineales y dispersivos del medio, debido a una dependencia espectral de la señal de entrada y la aproximación de campo cuasi-monocromático, para escribir la ecuación no lineal de Schrödinger y resolverla numéricamente mediante el método espectral de Fourier. Los resultados de nuestras simulaciones muestran el efecto de la variación del factor quiral sobre la impedancia del medio y sobre los coeficientes de transmisión y reflexión. Finalmente se discute, brevemente, la generalización del modelo de Drude para el caso de metamateriales.In this paper a theory model with the corresponding simulations, which permit to analyze the solitonic wave propagation in biological media, is presented. The chirality is modeled as Drude's formulation, showing the validity rank of the model. The model considers nonlinear and dispersive effects due to the spectral dependency of the input signal and the cuasy-monocromatic approach, so as to write the Schrödinger non-linear equation and solving it numerically by means of the spectral Fourier method. The numerical results show the effect of chiral factor variation on the media impedance, transmission and reflection coefficients. Finally, the generalization of the Drude's formulation for the metamaterial case, is briefly discussed.

  9. Mosaic HIV envelope immunogenic polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T. M.; Gnanakaran, S.; Perkins, Simon; Sodroski, Joseph; Haynes, Barton

    2018-01-02

    Disclosed herein are mosaic HIV envelope (Env) polypeptides that can elicit an immune response to HIV (such as cytotoxic T cell (CTL), helper T cell, and/or humoral responses). Also disclosed are sets of the disclosed mosaic Env polypeptides, which include two or more (for example, three) of the polypeptides. Also disclosed herein are methods for treating or inhibiting HIV in a subject including administering one or more of the disclosed immunogenic polypeptides or compositions to a subject infected with HIV or at risk of HIV infection. In some embodiments, the methods include inducing an immune response to HIV in a subject comprising administering to the subject at least one (such as two, three, or more) of the immunogenic polypeptides or at least one (such as two, three, or more) nucleic acids encoding at least one of the immunogenic polypeptides disclosed herein.

  10. Test particle method for incorporation of the kinetic effects into the envelope simulations of Raman backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Min Sup; Suk, Hyyong

    2007-01-01

    A new test particle method is presented for self-consistent incorporation of the kinetic effects into the fluid three-wave model. One of the most important kinetic effects is the electron trapping and it has been found that the trapping affects significantly the behavior of Raman backscatter and Raman backward laser amplification. The conventional fluid three-wave model cannot reproduce the kinetic simulations in the trapping regime. The test particle scheme utilizes the same equations for the laser evolution as in the three-wave model. However, the plasma wave is treated by the envelope-kinetic equation, which consists of envelope evolution and the kinetic term. The core of the new scheme is employing test particles to compute the kinetic term self-consistently. The benchmarking results against the averaged particle-in-cell (aPIC) code show excellent agreements, and the computation speed gain over the aPIC is from 2 to 20 depending on parameters

  11. Ether formulations of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Contemporary ether theories are surveyed and criticised, especially those formally identical to orthodox Relativity. The historical development of Relativity, Special and General, in terms of an ether, is briefly indicated. Classical interpretations of Generalized Relativity using ether are compared to Euclidean formulations using a background space. The history of a sub-group of theories, formulating a 'new' Relativity involving modified transforms, is outlined. According to the theory with which they agree, recent supposed detections of drift are classified and criticised. Cosmological evidence suggesting an ether is mentioned. Only ether theories formally identical to Relativity have been published in depth. They stand criticised as being contrary to the positivist spirit. The history of mechanical analogues is traced, from Hartley's representing gravitating matter as spherical standing waves, to recent suggestions that vortex-sponge might model electromagnetic, quantum, uncertainty and faster-than-light phenomena. Contemporary theories are particular physical theories, themselves 'second interpretations' of a primary mathematical model. Mechanical analogues are auxiliary, not necessary, to other theory, disclosing relationships between classical and non-classical descriptions of assemblies charging state. The ether-relativity polemic, part of a broader dispute about relativity, is founded on mistaken conceptions of the roles of mathematical and physical models, mechanical analogues; and a distored view of history, which indicates that ether theories have become relativistic. (author)

  12. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark; Reeves, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  13. Physical properties of the red giant envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, W J [Instituto de Astronomia e Geofisico da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1978-12-01

    In this work, several model envelopes are calculated for cool giant stars with mass loss due to the action of stellar radiation pressure on molecules and grains. Molecular profiles as well as average values of some physical parameters of the envelopes are obtained.

  14. Physical properties of the red giant envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    In this work, several model envelopes are calculated for cool giant stars with mass loss due to the action of stellar radiation pressure on molecules and grains. Molecular profiles as well as average values of some physical parameters of the envelopes are obtained [pt

  15. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark [NB Power Nuclear, P.O. Box 600, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Reeves, David [Atlantic Nuclear Services Ltd., PO Box 1268 Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  16. Traveling wave tube and method of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, Bernard K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A traveling wave tube includes a glass or other insulating envelope having a plurality of substantially parallel glass rods supported therewithin which in turn support an electron gun, a collector and an intermediate slow wave structure. The slow wave structure itself provides electrostatic focussing of a central electron beam thereby eliminating the need for focussing magnetics and materially decreasing the cost of construction as well as enabling miniaturization. The slow wave structure advantageously includes cavities along the electron beam through which the r.f. energy is propagated, or a double, interleaved ring loop structure supported by dielectric fins within a ground plane cylinder disposed coaxially within the glass envelope.

  17. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  18. On Scalar Energy: Mathematical Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathout, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of electromagnetic waves (EMW), which exists only in vacuum of the empty space, will be discussed and mathematically formulated in this paper. The mathematical existence of this energy was first proposed in a series of groundbreaking equations by Scottish Mathematician, James Clerk Maxwell, in the mid of 1800 and 39;s. This energy is called scalar energy. It is characterized by both particle and wave like. The waves of this energy are called longitudinal EMW to distinguish them from transverse EM, the kind we are familiar with in our daily life. Teslas name of this energy is scalar energy or zero point energy. It is aimed at this paper to explain more details and to verify the scalar EM concept in vacuum.

  19. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Spence, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  20. MHTGR thermal performance envelopes: Reliability by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzel, K.T.; Howard, W.W.; Zgliczynski, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    This document discusses thermal performance envelopes which are used to specify steady-state design requirements for the systems of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor to maximize plant performance reliability with optimized design. The thermal performance envelopes are constructed around the expected operating point accounting for uncertainties in actual plant as-built parameters and plant operation. The components are then designed to perform successfully at all points within the envelope. As a result, plant reliability is maximized by accounting for component thermal performance variation in the design. The design is optimized by providing a means to determine required margins in a disciplined and visible fashion

  1. Ion-acoustic envelope modes in a degenerate relativistic electron-ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKerr, M.; Kourakis, I. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    A self-consistent relativistic two-fluid model is proposed for one-dimensional electron-ion plasma dynamics. A multiple scales perturbation technique is employed, leading to an evolution equation for the wave envelope, in the form of a nonlinear Schrödinger type equation (NLSE). The inclusion of relativistic effects is shown to introduce density-dependent factors, not present in the non-relativistic case—in the conditions for modulational instability. The role of relativistic effects on the linear dispersion laws and on envelope soliton solutions of the NLSE is discussed.

  2. Constructing canonical bases of quantized enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, W.A. de

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for computing the elements of a given weight of the canonical basis of a quantized enveloping algebra is described. Subsequently, a similar algorithm is presented for computing the canonical basis of a finite-dimensional module.

  3. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  4. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  5. Tides in differentially rotating convective envelopes. II. The tidal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    The tidal coupling between a star with an extended, differentially rotating convective envelope, and its companion in a close binary system, is calculated from the tidal velocity field derived in Paper I. The derived coupling torque can be tested using observations of RS Canum Venaticorum systems, for which a photometric wave in the light curve provides an accurate stellar rotation rate, and for which observed orbital period changes require the stars in the systems to be coupled. The coupling torque is sufficient to explain the nearly synchronous rotation of the active star in RS CVn systems, despite the observed orbital period changes, but may not be able to explain the extreme tightness of the coupling implied by the very long periods for the migration of the photometric waves in the systems. This conclusion depends on the origin of the orbital period changes, but not on the nature of the wave or the wave migration. When the coupling torque vanishes, a specific latitude at the surface of the convective star will exactly corotate with the binary system: this corotation latitude is calculated. Finally, it is shown that the additional viscous terms introduced by tides should not suppress differential rotation in binary systems with RS Cvn parameters

  6. All the Universe in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Do you know which force is hidden in an envelope or how many billions of years old are the atoms it contains? You will find the answers to these (curious) questions in a post office in the Pays de Gex. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex are again issuing pre-paid envelopes in collaboration with CERN (see Bulletin No. 24/2006). The new series presents some of the concepts of modern physics in an amazing way by showing what you can learn about the Universe with a single envelope. Packets of ten pre-stamped envelopes, each carrying a statement on fundamental physics, will be on sale from 7 July onwards. To learn more about the physics issues presented on the envelopes, people are invited to go to the CERN Web site where they will find the explanations. Five thousand envelopes will be put on sale in July and five thousand more during the French "Fête de la science" in October. They will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (F...

  7. Genetic Diversity of Koala Retroviral Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqin Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  8. Formulation of an OTTV for walls of bedroom in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tummu, Preecha; Chirarattananon, Surapong; Hien, Vu Duc; Chaiwiwatworakul, Pipat; Rakkwamsuk, Pattana

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • High and increasing use of air-conditioning in household bedrooms. • Building envelope is the barrier against heat gain into air-conditioned bedroom. • The OTTV form of performance measure for bedroom wall is applicable. • Effects of solar radiation appear strongly in OTTV formulation. - Abstract: Air-conditioning has penetrated to a significant extent in urban households and is increasingly used in all areas in Thailand. Building envelope is the most significant component that affects energy performance of an air-conditioned building. This paper reports results of an attempt to formulate a measure of performance of building envelope enclosing space used under bedroom function. The overall thermal transfer value form of the measure that comprises a heat gain through opaque wall term, a solar radiation gain term, and a conduction heat gain through glazing term proves to apply well. The formulation is validated through the use of two simulation programs on two residential building models with significant variations of the envelope thermal parameters. The work is a part of an effort in an international research program to develop a scheme for rating energy and carbon performance of residential buildings.

  9. Stability of an expanding cylindrical plasma envelope: Rayleigh--Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    The stability of a cylindrically symmetric plasma envelope driven outward by blast waves is considered. The plasma fluid is assumed to be a compressible, isentropic gas describable as an ideal gas ( p = arho/sup γ/, γ>1). The stability problem of such an envelope undergoing self-similar motion is solved by considering the initial-value problem. It is shown that in the early phase of an expansion, the envelope is unstable to Rayleigh--Taylor modes which develop at the inner surface. In the later phase of the expansion, the Rayleigh--Taylor modes are weakened due to the geometrical divergence effect. The implications of the time-dependent behavior of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability for plasma switches are discussed

  10. Enveloping algebra-valued gauge transformations for non-abelian gauge groups on non-commutative spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurco, B.; Schraml, S.; Schupp, P.; Wess, J.

    2000-11-01

    An enveloping algebra-valued gauge field is constructed, its components are functions of the Lie algebra-valued gauge field and can be constructed with the Seiberg-Witten map. This allows the formulation of a dynamics for a finite number of gauge field components on non-commutative spaces.

  11. Enveloping algebra-valued gauge transformations for non-abelian gauge groups on non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurco, B.; Schraml, S.; Wess, J.; Schupp, P.

    2000-01-01

    An enveloping algebra-valued gauge field is constructed, its components are functions of the Lie algebra-valued gauge field and can be constructed with the Seiberg-Witten map. This allows the formulation of a dynamics for a finite number of gauge field components on non-commutative spaces. (orig.)

  12. Enveloping algebra-valued gauge transformations for non-abelian gauge groups on non-commutative spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurco, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mathematik, Bonn (Germany); Schraml, S.; Wess, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany); Schupp, P. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    An enveloping algebra-valued gauge field is constructed, its components are functions of the Lie algebra-valued gauge field and can be constructed with the Seiberg-Witten map. This allows the formulation of a dynamics for a finite number of gauge field components on non-commutative spaces. (orig.)

  13. Non-stationary pre-envelope covariances of non-classically damped systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolino, G.

    1991-08-01

    A new formulation is given to evaluate the stationary and non-stationary response of linear non-classically damped systems subjected to multi-correlated non-separable Gaussian input processes. This formulation is based on a new and more suitable definition of the impulse response function matrix for such systems. It is shown that, when using this definition, the stochastic response of non-classically damped systems involves the evaluation of quantities similar to those of classically damped ones. Furthermore, considerations about non-stationary cross-covariances, spectral moments and pre-envelope cross-covariances are presented for a monocorrelated input process.

  14. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  15. Featured Image: Orbiting Stars Share an Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This beautiful series of snapshots from a simulation (click for a better look!) shows what happens when two stars in a binary system become enclosed in the same stellar envelope. In this binary system, one of the stars has exhausted its hydrogen fuel and become a red giant, complete with an expanding stellar envelope composed of hydrogen and helium. Eventually, the envelope expands so much that the companion star falls into it, where it releases gravitational potential energy into the common envelope. A team led by Sebastian Ohlmann (Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies and University of Wrzburg) recently performed hydrodynamic simulations of this process. Ohlmann and collaborators discovered that the energy release eventually triggers large-scale flow instabilities, which leads to turbulence within the envelope. This process has important consequences for how these systems next evolve (for instance, determining whether or not a supernova occurs!). You can check out the authors video of their simulated stellar inspiral below, or see their paper for more images and results from their study.CitationSebastian T. Ohlmann et al 2016 ApJ 816 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L9

  16. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  17. Boundaries, injective envelopes, and reduced crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryder, Rasmus Sylvester

    In this dissertation, we study boundary actions, equivariant injective envelopes, as well as theideal structure of reduced crossed products. These topics have recently been linked to thestudy of C-simple groups, that is, groups with simple reduced group C-algebras.In joint work with Matthew Kennedy......, we consider reduced twisted crossed products overC-simple groups. For any twisted C-dynamical system over a C-simple group, we provethat there is a one-to-one correspondence between maximal invariant ideals in the underlyingC-algebra and maximal ideals in the reduced crossed product. When......*-algebras, and relate the intersection property for group actions on unital C*-algebras to the intersection property for theequivariant injective envelope. Moreover, we also prove that the equivariant injective envelopeof the centre of the injective envelope of a unital C*-algebra can be regarded as a C...

  18. Nonlinear wave equation with intrinsic wave particle dualism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A nonlinear wave equation derived from the sine-Gordon equation is shown to possess a variety of solutions, the most interesting of which is a solution that describes a wave packet travelling with velocity usub(e) modulating a carrier wave travelling with velocity usub(c). The envelop and carrier wave speeds agree precisely with the group and phase velocities found by de Broglie for matter waves. No spreading is exhibited by the soliton, so that it behaves exactly like a particle in classical mechanics. Moreover, the classically computed energy E of the disturbance turns out to be exactly equal to the frequency ω of the carrier wave, so that the Planck relation is automatically satisfied without postulating a particle-wave dualism. (author)

  19. Variational formulation of the Gardner's restacking algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The incompressibility of the phase flow of Hamiltonian wave-plasma interactions restrains the class of realizable wave-driven transformations of the particle distribution. After the interaction, the distribution remains composed of the original phase-space elements, or local densities, which are only rearranged (''restacked'') by the wave. A variational formalism is developed to study the corresponding limitations on the energy and momentum transfer. A case of particular interest is a toroidal plasma immersed in a dc magnetic field. The restacking algorithm by Gardner [Phys. Fluids 6, 839 (1963)] is formulated precisely. The minimum energy state for a plasma with a given current is determined

  20. A study of some Be star envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The envelope model and emission region radius of six Be stars have been determined from 36 lines on 15 spectra taken with the Isaac Newton telescope. The results have been compared with earlier determinations to search for changes with the time. No definite evidence for such changes has been found, although there may be an indication of a change in phi Per. A re-determination of the errors involved in the method of analysis shows that these are smaller than previously estimated and range from about 9% to 35% for both envelope model and emission region radius. (Auth.)

  1. Asymmetry of the SN 1987A envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugaj, N.N.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the peculiar structure in the profiles of the emission lines observed in the spectrum of SN 1987A, namely, (1) redshift of maxima, and (2) fine structure of hydrogen lines, is considered. Among the three proposed hypothesis for the redshift, at least two (electron scattering in the spherically-symmetric envelope, and geometrical effects in the fragmented envelope) have serious drawbacks. More favorable is the third hypothesis which invokes asymmetric distribution of 56 Ni and of the iron-peak elements

  2. Radio Imaging of Envelopes of Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Bill

    2018-04-01

    This talk will cover imaging of stellar envelopes using radio VLBI techniques; special attention will be paid to the technical differences between radio and optical/IR interferomery. Radio heterodyne receivers allow a straightforward way to derive spectral cubes and full polarization observations. Milliarcsecond resolution of very bright, i.e. non thermal, emission of molecular masers in the envelopes of evolved stars can be achieved using VLBI techniques with baselines of thousands of km. Emission from SiO, H2O and OH masers are commonly seen at increasing distance from the photosphere. The very narrow maser lines allow accurate measurements of the velocity field within the emitting region.

  3. Global Envelope Tests for Spatial Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllymäki, Mari; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Grabarnik, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Envelope tests are a popular tool in spatial statistics, where they are used in goodness-of-fit testing. These tests graphically compare an empirical function T(r) with its simulated counterparts from the null model. However, the type I error probability α is conventionally controlled for a fixed d......) the construction of envelopes for a deviation test. These new tests allow the a priori selection of the global α and they yield p-values. We illustrate these tests using simulated and real point pattern data....

  4. Global envelope tests for spatial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllymäki, Mari; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Grabarnik, Pavel

    Envelope tests are a popular tool in spatial statistics, where they are used in goodness-of-fit testing. These tests graphically compare an empirical function T(r) with its simulated counterparts from the null model. However, the type I error probability α is conventionally controlled for a fixed......) the construction of envelopes for a deviation test. These new tests allow the a priori selection of the global α and they yield p-values. We illustrate these tests using simulated and real point pattern data....

  5. Nonlinear evolution of astrophysical Alfven waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear Alfven waves were studied using the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation as a model. The evolution of initial conditions, such as envelope solitons, amplitude-modulated waves, and band-limited noise was investigated. The last two furnish models for naturally occurring Alfven waves in an astrophysical plasma. A collapse instability in which a wave packet becomes more intense and of smaller spatial extent was analyzed. It is argued that this instability leads to enhanced plasma heating. In studies in which the waves are amplified by an electron beam, the instability tends to modestly inhibit wave growth.

  6. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...

  7. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Richard; Bevill, Aaron; Charlton, William; Bean, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of 'non-traditional' operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes

  8. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  9. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  10. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Validating predictions from climate envelope models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James I Watling

    Full Text Available Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species' distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967-1971 (t1 and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998-2002 (t2. Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on

  12. Validating predictions from climate envelope models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, J.; Bucklin, D.; Speroterra, C.; Brandt, L.; Cabal, C.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species’ distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967–1971 (t1) and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998–2002 (t2). Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences) was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences) was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on species.

  13. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  14. Wave groupiness variations in the nearshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a new definition of the groupiness factor, GF, based on the envelope of the incident-wave time series. It is shown that an envelope-based GF has several important advantages over the SIWEH-based groupiness factor, including objective criteria for determining the accuracy of the envelope function and well-defined numerical limits. Using this new GF, the variability of incident wave groupiness in the field is examined both temporally, in unbroken waves at a fixed location, and spatially, in a cross-shore array through the surf zone. Contrary to previous studies using the SIWEH-based GF, results suggest that incident wave groupiness may not be an independent parameter in unbroken waves; through a wide range of spectral shapes, from swell to storm waves, the groupiness did not vary significantly. As expected, the groupiness decreases rapidly as waves break through the surf zone, although significant wave height variability persists even through a saturated surf zone. The source of this inner surf zone groupiness is not identified; however, this observation implies that models of long wave generation must account for nonsteady radiation stress gradients landward of some narrow zone near the mean breakpoint. ?? 1991.

  15. Amplitude modulation of quantum-ion-acoustic wavepackets in electron-positron-ion plasmas: Modulational instability, envelope modes, extreme wavesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ata-ur-; Kerr, Michael Mc; El-Taibany, Wael F.; Kourakis, Ioannis; Qamar, A.

    2015-02-01

    A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes.

  16. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  17. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M K

    1999-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  18. Inversion of Auditory Spectrograms, Traditional Spectrograms, and Other Envelope Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decorsière, Remi Julien Blaise; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    Envelope representations such as the auditory or traditional spectrogram can be defined by the set of envelopes from the outputs of a filterbank. Common envelope extraction methods discard information regarding the fast fluctuations, or phase, of the signal. Thus, it is difficult to invert, or re...... to the framework is proposed, which leads to a more accurate inversion of traditional spectrograms...

  19. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation

  20. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable power failure condition in paragraph (b) of this section, a limiting height-speed envelope must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any...

  1. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category A engine isolation requirements, the height-velocity envelope for complete power failure must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a...

  2. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  3. Equivariant calculus in the differential envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, D.

    1991-01-01

    The author shows how Z/2-graded cyclic cohomology is related to the equivariant calculus of S. Klimek, W. Kondracki, and A. Lesniewski (HUTMP 90/B247 (1990)). He uses the differential envelope of a complex unital differential algebra. After a presentation of fiber-preserved operators on equivariant functions valued in this algebra on a group he considers certain operators on this algebra. Finally he discusses explicitly the case G=Z/2. (HSI)

  4. Equivariant calculus in the differential envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, D. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique)

    1991-01-01

    The author shows how Z/2-graded cyclic cohomology is related to the equivariant calculus of S. Klimek, W. Kondracki, and A. Lesniewski (HUTMP 90/B247 (1990)). He uses the differential envelope of a complex unital differential algebra. After a presentation of fiber-preserved operators on equivariant functions valued in this algebra on a group he considers certain operators on this algebra. Finally he discusses explicitly the case G=Z/2. (HSI).

  5. Digital image envelope: method and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Cao, Fei; Zhou, Michael Z.; Mogel, Greg T.; Liu, Brent J.; Zhou, Xiaoqiang

    2003-05-01

    Health data security, characterized in terms of data privacy, authenticity, and integrity, is a vital issue when digital images and other patient information are transmitted through public networks in telehealth applications such as teleradiology. Mandates for ensuring health data security have been extensively discussed (for example The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA) and health informatics guidelines (such as the DICOM standard) are beginning to focus on issues of data continue to be published by organizing bodies in healthcare; however, there has not been a systematic method developed to ensure data security in medical imaging Because data privacy and authenticity are often managed primarily with firewall and password protection, we have focused our research and development on data integrity. We have developed a systematic method of ensuring medical image data integrity across public networks using the concept of the digital envelope. When a medical image is generated regardless of the modality, three processes are performed: the image signature is obtained, the DICOM image header is encrypted, and a digital envelope is formed by combining the signature and the encrypted header. The envelope is encrypted and embedded in the original image. This assures the security of both the image and the patient ID. The embedded image is encrypted again and transmitted across the network. The reverse process is performed at the receiving site. The result is two digital signatures, one from the original image before transmission, and second from the image after transmission. If the signatures are identical, there has been no alteration of the image. This paper concentrates in the method and evaluation of the digital image envelope.

  6. The cell envelope glycoconjugates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angala, Shiva Kumar; Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Wheat, William H.; Jackson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the second most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent. The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of the disease in humans, is a source of unique glycoconjugates and the most distinctive feature of the biology of this organism. It is the basis of much of Mtb pathogenesis and one of the major causes of its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. At the same time, the unique structures of Mtb cell envelope glycoconjugates, their antigenicity and essentiality for mycobacterial growth provide opportunities for drug, vaccine, diagnostic and biomarker development, as clearly illustrated by recent advances in all of these translational aspects. This review focuses on our current understanding of the structure and biogenesis of Mtb glycoconjugates with particular emphasis on one of most intriguing and least understood aspect of the physiology of mycobacteria: the translocation of these complex macromolecules across the different layers of the cell envelope. It further reviews the rather impressive progress made in the last ten years in the discovery and development of novel inhibitors targeting their biogenesis. PMID:24915502

  7. Spectral envelope sensitivity of musical instrument sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, David; Sen, D

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the spectral envelope is a perceptually salient attribute in musical instrument timbre perception. While a number of studies have explored discrimination thresholds for changes to the spectral envelope, the question of how sensitivity varies as a function of center frequency and bandwidth for musical instruments has yet to be addressed. In this paper a two-alternative forced-choice experiment was conducted to observe perceptual sensitivity to modifications made on trumpet, clarinet and viola sounds. The experiment involved attenuating 14 frequency bands for each instrument in order to determine discrimination thresholds as a function of center frequency and bandwidth. The results indicate that perceptual sensitivity is governed by the first few harmonics and sensitivity does not improve when extending the bandwidth any higher. However, sensitivity was found to decrease if changes were made only to the higher frequencies and continued to decrease as the distorted bandwidth was widened. The results are analyzed and discussed with respect to two other spectral envelope discrimination studies in the literature as well as what is predicted from a psychoacoustic model.

  8. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  9. Toward 2D Seismic Wavefield Monitoring: Seismic Gradiometry for Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope applied to the Hi-net Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Nishida, K.; Takagi, R.; Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network Japan (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km. We can observe long-period seismic wave propagation as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength. In contrast, short-period waves are quite incoherent at stations, however, their envelope shapes resemble at neighbor stations. Therefore, we may be able to extract seismic wave energy propagation by seismogram envelope analysis. We attempted to characterize seismic waveform at long-period and its envelope at short-period as 2D wavefield by applying seismic gradiometry. We applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50s) dataset prepared by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout. Wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are estimated by using data at nearby stations. The slowness vector, the radiation pattern and the geometrical spreading are extracted from estimated velocity, displacement and its spatial derivatives. For short-periods at shorter than 1 s, seismogram envelope shows temporal and spatial broadening through scattering by medium heterogeneity. It is expected that envelope shape may be coherent among nearby stations. Based on this idea, we applied the same method to the time-integration of seismogram envelope to estimate its spatial derivatives. Together with seismogram envelope, we succeeded in estimating the slowness vector from the seismogram envelope as well as long-period waveforms by synthetic test, without using phase information. Our preliminarily results show that the seismic gradiometry suits the Hi-net to extract wave propagation characteristics both at long and short periods. This method is appealing that it can estimate waves at homogeneous grid to monitor seismic wave as a wavefield. It is promising to obtain phase velocity variation from direct waves, and to grasp wave

  10. Audits of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for auditing radiopharmaceutical formulations is described. To meet FDA guidelines regarding the quality of radiopharmaceuticals, institutional radioactive drug research committees perform audits when such drugs are formulated away from an institutional pharmacy. All principal investigators who formulate drugs outside institutional pharmacies must pass these audits before they can obtain a radiopharmaceutical investigation permit. The audit team meets with the individual who performs the formulation at the site of drug preparation to verify that drug formulations meet identity, strength, quality, and purity standards; are uniform and reproducible; and are sterile and pyrogen free. This team must contain an expert knowledgeable in the preparation of radioactive drugs; a radiopharmacist is the most qualified person for this role. Problems that have been identified by audits include lack of sterility and apyrogenicity testing, formulations that are open to the laboratory environment, failure to use pharmaceutical-grade chemicals, inadequate quality control methods or records, inadequate training of the person preparing the drug, and improper unit dose preparation. Investigational radiopharmaceutical formulations, including nonradiolabeled drugs, must be audited before they are administered to humans. A properly trained pharmacist should be a member of the audit team

  11. ON THE ACCRETION-FED GROWTH OF NEUTRON STARS DURING COMMON ENVELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper models the orbital inspiral of a neutron star (NS) through the envelope of its giant-branch companion during a common envelope (CE) episode. These CE episodes are necessary to produce close pairs of NSs that can inspiral and merge due to gravitational wave losses in less than a Hubble time. Because cooling by neutrinos can be very efficient, NSs have been predicted to accumulate significant mass during CE events, perhaps enough to lead them to collapse to black holes. We revisit this conclusion with the additional consideration of CE structure, particularly density gradients across the embedded NS's accretion radius. This work is informed by our recent numerical simulations that find that the presence of a density gradient strongly limits accretion by imposing a net angular momentum to the flow around the NS. Our calculations suggest that NSs should survive CE encounters. They accrete only modest amounts of envelope material, ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}, which is broadly consistent with mass determinations of double NS binaries. With less mass gain, NSs must spiral deeper to eject their CE, leading to a potential increase in mergers. The survival of NSs in CE events has implications for the formation mechanism of observed double NS binaries, as well as for predicted rates of NS binary gravitational wave inspirals and their electromagnetic counterparts.

  12. Observation of Ion Acoustic Waves Excited by Drift Waves in a Weakly Magnetized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukabayashi, Isao; Sato, Sugiya; Nakamura, Yoshiharu

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous fluctuations excited by drift waves are investigated experimentally in magnetic multi-pole plasma. The magnetic multi-pole has been widely used in DP devices and so on. It was observed that the high level of density fluctuations was generated by the drift instability near a magnetic multi-pole or a dipole magnet. The waves propagate to the middle plasma region forming the envelope train waves

  13. Reactive decontamination formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletto, Anthony [College Station, TX; White, William [College Station, TX; Cisar, Alan J [Cypress, TX; Hitchens, G Duncan [Bryan, TX; Fyffe, James [Bryan, TX

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  14. Preparation of radiopharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Garlich, J.R.; Frank, R.K.; McMillan, K.

    1998-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical formulations for complexes comprising at least one radionuclide complexed with a ligand, or its physiologically-acceptable salts thereof, especially 153 samarium-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid, which optionally contains a divalent metal ion, e.g. calcium, and is frozen, thawed, and then administered by injection. Alternatively, the radiopharmaceutical formulations must contain the divalent metal and are frozen only if the time before administration is sufficiently long to cause concern for radiolysis of the ligand. 2 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Tariff formulation and equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svartsund, Trond

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the transmission tariff is to provide for socioeconomic use of the transmission grid. The present tariff structure is basically right. The responsibility for the formulation of the tariff resides with the local grid owner. This must take place in agreement with the current regulations which are passed by the authorities. The formulation must be adaptable to the local requirements. EBL (Norwegian Electricity Industry Association) is content with the current regulations

  16. Distribution of SO_{2} and so in the Envelope of Vy-Canis Majoris: Insight Into Circumstellar Sulfur Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adande, Gilles; Ziurys, L. M.

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter wave observations of SO_{2} and SO in the envelope of the O-rich supergiant VY-Canis Majoris have been conducted with the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory, between 210 and 290 GHz. A non LTE radiative transfer code has been written to fit the line profile of 22 lines of SO_{2} and 5 transitions of SO, and model their abundance and distribution within the circumstellar envelope. The rotational levels involved span a wide energy range, from 13 cm^{-1} to 104 cm^{-1} for SO_{2}, and 17 to 40 cm^{-1} for SO. The high number of transitions fitted provides strong constraints on the excitation conditions, hydrogen density and kinetic temperatures. The results will be discussed in relation to the formation processes and chemistry of these two species in O-rich molecular envelopes.

  17. Nuclear Facility Isotopic Content (NFIC) Waste Management System to provide input for safety envelope definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genser, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is aggressively applying environmental remediation and radioactive waste management activities at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) to ensure compliance with today's challenging governmental laws and regulatory requirements. This report discusses a computer-based Nuclear Facility Isotopic Content (NFIC) Waste Management System developed to provide input for the safety envelope definition and assessment of site-wide facilities. Information was formulated describing the SRS ''Nuclear Facilities'' and their respective bounding inventories of nuclear materials and radioactive waste using the NFIC Waste Management System

  18. Selected HIV-1 Env trimeric formulations act as potent immunogens in a rabbit vaccination model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyndrickx, Leo; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Jansson, Marianne Bendixen

    2013-01-01

    Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence of an ad...

  19. Selected HIV-1 Env Trimeric Formulations Act as Potent Immunogens in a Rabbit Vaccination Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyndrickx, Leo; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Jansson, Marianne; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Bowles, Emma; Buonaguro, Luigi; Grevstad, Berit; Vinner, Lasse; Vereecken, Katleen; Parker, Joe; Ramaswamy, Meghna; Biswas, Priscilla; Vanham, Guido; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence of an

  20. Formulating viscous hydrodynamics for large velocity gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Viscous corrections to relativistic hydrodynamics, which are usually formulated for small velocity gradients, have recently been extended from Navier-Stokes formulations to a class of treatments based on Israel-Stewart equations. Israel-Stewart treatments, which treat the spatial components of the stress-energy tensor τ ij as dynamical objects, introduce new parameters, such as the relaxation times describing nonequilibrium behavior of the elements τ ij . By considering linear response theory and entropy constraints, we show how the additional parameters are related to fluctuations of τ ij . Furthermore, the Israel-Stewart parameters are analyzed for their ability to provide stable and physical solutions for sound waves. Finally, it is shown how these parameters, which are naturally described by correlation functions in real time, might be constrained by lattice calculations, which are based on path-integral formulations in imaginary time

  1. An Envelope Correlation Formula for (N,N MIMO Antenna Arrays Using Input Scattering Parameters, and Including Power Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. S. Dama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering parameter formulation for the envelope correlation in an (N,N MIMO antenna array has been modified to take the intrinsic antenna power losses into account. This method of calculation provides a major simplification over the use of antenna radiation field patterns. Its accuracy is illustrated in three examples, which also show that the locations of the correlation minima are sensitive to the intrinsic losses.

  2. Shape Control of Responsive Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christensen, Jesper Thøger

    2010-01-01

    The present paper considers shape control of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scop...... environmental system to a primary structural system joint into a collective behavioral system equipment with an actuator system is presented....... alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept of a secondary...

  3. Snell Envelope with Small Probability Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Moral, Pierre, E-mail: Pierre.Del-Moral@inria.fr; Hu, Peng, E-mail: Peng.Hu@inria.fr [Universite de Bordeaux I, Centre INRIA Bordeaux et Sud-Ouest and Institut de Mathematiques de Bordeaux (France); Oudjane, Nadia, E-mail: Nadia.Oudjane@edf.fr [EDF R and D Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    We present a new algorithm to compute the Snell envelope in the specific case where the criteria to optimize is associated with a small probability or a rare event. This new approach combines the Stochastic Mesh approach of Broadie and Glasserman with a particle approximation scheme based on a specific change of measure designed to concentrate the computational effort in regions pointed out by the criteria. The theoretical analysis of this new algorithm provides non asymptotic convergence estimates. Finally, the numerical tests confirm the practical interest of this approach.

  4. Weakly nonlinear electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzato, F.B.; Schneider, R.S.; Dillenburg, D.

    1987-01-01

    The modulation of a high-frequency electromagnetic wave which is circulary polarized and propagates in a plasma made up of electrons, ions and positrons is investigated. The coefficient of the cubic nonlinear term in the Schroedinger equation may change sign as the relative particle concentrations vary, and consequently a marginal state of modulation instability may exist. To described the system in the neighbourhood of this state an appropriate equation is derived. Particular stationary solutions of this equation are envelope solitary waves, envelope Kinks and envelope hole solitary waves. The dependence of the amplitude of the solutions on the propagation velocity and the particle concentrations is discussed. (author) [pt

  5. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  6. Modeling of Mud-Wave Interaction: Mud-Induced Wave Transport & Wave-Induced Mud Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winterwerp, Johan C

    2007-01-01

    .... Also a new rheological model has been proposed to describe liquefaction of soft mud by waves, and the subsequent strength recovery after the passage of the waves. A scheme is presented on how to implement these formulations in Delft3D.

  7. The performance of energy efficient residential building envelope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G.

    1996-08-01

    The adequacy and durability of residential building envelope systems under actual field conditions were evaluated. A building envelope offers protection from cold, heat, moisture, wind and noise. However, they are exposed to thermal, structural, and moisture stresses and their performance can degrade over time. Envelope performance was evaluated at 20 energy efficient and four conventional, detached modern homes in Winnipeg, Canada. The three complementary measurement tools were wood moisture content (WMC) of framing members, thermographic examinations, and airtightness tests. As expected, energy efficient building envelope systems performed better than the conventional systems. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in any of the energy efficient houses. The building envelopes using polyethylene air barriers performed slightly better than those which used the airtight drywall approach, although both were considered satisfactory. WMC levels were a bit lower in the polyethylene-clad house. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  8. Grain formation in cool stellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, S.

    1980-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of dust grains in the stellar envelope are investigated for the case of oxygen-rich stars, where the mass loss occurs as a result of the radiation pressure on the dust grains. The number density of grains, the final grain sizes, and the final amount of metals remaining in gaseous states are calculated based on the grain-nucleation theory proposed by Yamamoto and Hasegawa and Draine and Salpeter. It is shown that, even if we base our calculations on the Lothe-Pound nucleation rate equation instead of the classical, homogeneous nucleation rate equation, the proposed theory gives a number density of grains quite similar to that based on the classical rate equation. The approximate solution of the flow, in this paper, brings physical insight to the problem of how the formation of grains couples the flow passing the sonic point. The metals in the outer envelope remain in gaseous state by the amount of 1--10% of the initial content for the mass-loss rate of 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 and by less than 1% for the massloss are less than 3 x 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1 . Species of metals condensed onto the grains are also discussed

  9. Bellanca building, Yellowknife : building envelope retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewski, G. [A.D. Williams Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Bellanca building is a ten-story, commercial office building, located in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. The owner was concerned about annual fuel consumption, relative to other buildings of similar size. Tenants reported cold drafts and some ice build-up had been reported in the past, on the exterior of the cladding. In addition, some water penetration had occurred during rainfall. This presentation provided background information on the Bellanca building and discussed a building envelope retrofit project. A.D. Williams was hired in late 2006 in order to provide an opinion on the present condition of the building envelope. This presentation described the site investigation and presented an interior and exterior review of the building. It also presented a thermographic survey in order to map thermal anomalies and establish trends. Following acceptance of the report on findings, one of five options was selected for further development. This included removal of existing cladding, exterior gypsum wallboard, fiberglass insulation and application of BASF Walltite CT foam, sheathing, rigid insulation, drainage plane and new cladding. The preliminary design was then presented. This paper also described the tender and award of the contract; construction phase; and substantial completion of the project. tabs, figs.

  10. Chemistry of Protostellar Envelopes and Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Rivera, Lizxandra; Terebey, Susan; Willacy, Karen

    2018-06-01

    Molecule formation is dynamic during the protostar collapse phase, driven by changes in temperature, density, and UV radiation as gas and dust flows from the envelope onto the forming protoplanetary disk. In this work, we compare physical models based on two different collapse solutions. We modeled the chemistry (created by Karen Willacy) for C18O to see how its abundance changes over time using as primary input parameters the temperature and density profile that were produced by the dust Radiative Transfer (MCRT) model called HOCHUNK3D from Whitney (2003). Given this model, we produce synthetic line emission maps from L1527 IRS to simulate the Class 0/I protostar L1527 IRS using RADMC3D code and compare them with previous observations from ALMA. High concentrations of gas phase molecules of C18O are found within the 20 AU in areas in the envelope that are close to the surface of the disk. In the outermost part of the disk surface, the C18O freezes out beyond 400 AU, showing a much reduced abundance where the temperature profile drops down below 25 K. In cold regions, the radiation field plays an important role in the chemistry.

  11. [An improved algorithm for electrohysterogram envelope extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaosheng; Pan, Jie; Chen, Zhaoxia; Chen, Zhaoxia

    2017-02-01

    Extraction uterine contraction signal from abdominal uterine electromyogram(EMG) signal is considered as the most promising method to replace the traditional tocodynamometer(TOCO) for detecting uterine contractions activity. The traditional root mean square(RMS) algorithm has only some limited values in canceling the impulsive noise. In our study, an improved algorithm for uterine EMG envelope extraction was proposed to overcome the problem. Firstly, in our experiment, zero-crossing detection method was used to separate the burst of uterine electrical activity from the raw uterine EMG signal. After processing the separated signals by employing two filtering windows which have different width, we used the traditional RMS algorithm to extract uterus EMG envelope. To assess the performance of the algorithm, the improved algorithm was compared with two existing intensity of uterine electromyogram(IEMG) extraction algorithms. The results showed that the improved algorithm was better than the traditional ones in eliminating impulsive noise present in the uterine EMG signal. The measurement sensitivity and positive predictive value(PPV) of the improved algorithm were 0.952 and 0.922, respectively, which were not only significantly higher than the corresponding values(0.859 and 0.847) of the first comparison algorithm, but also higher than the values(0.928 and 0.877) of the second comparison algorithm. Thus the new method is reliable and effective.

  12. Solution of K-V envelope equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1995-04-01

    The envelope equations for a KV beam with space charge have been analyzed systematically by an e expansion followed by integrations. The focusing profile as a function of axial length is assumed to be symmetric but otherwise arbitrary. Given the bean current, emittance, and peak focusing field, we find the envelopes a(s) and b(s) and obtain , a max , σ, and σ 0 . Explicit results are presented for various truncations of the expansion. The zeroth order results correspond to those from the well-known smooth approximation; the same convenient format is retained for the higher order cases. The first order results, involving single correction terms, give 3--10 times better accuracy and are good to ∼1% at σ 0 = 70 degree. Third order gives a factor of 10--30 improvement over the smooth approximation and derived quantities accurate to ∼1% at σ 0 = 112 degree. The first order expressions are convenient design tools. They lend themselves to variable energy problems and have been applied to the design, construction, and testing of ESQ accelerators at LBL

  13. Granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  14. Mechanism of protein import across the chloroplast envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K; Chen, X; Schnell, D J

    2000-01-01

    The development and maintenance of chloroplasts relies on the contribution of protein subunits from both plastid and nuclear genomes. Most chloroplast proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and are post-translationally imported into the organelle across the double membrane of the chloroplast envelope. Protein import into the chloroplast consists of two essential elements: the specific recognition of the targeting signals (transit sequences) of cytoplasmic preproteins by receptors at the outer envelope membrane and the subsequent translocation of preproteins simultaneously across the double membrane of the envelope. These processes are mediated via the co-ordinate action of protein translocon complexes in the outer (Toc apparatus) and inner (Tic apparatus) envelope membranes.

  15. Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative flight envelope estimation and...

  16. Use of response envelopes for seismic margin assessment of reinforced concrete walls and slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ile, Nicolas; Frau, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.frau@cea.fr

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Proposal of a method for application of the elliptical envelope to RC shell elements. • Proposal of new algorithms for the seismic margin evaluation for RC shell elements. • Verification of a RC wall 3D structure, using the proposed assessment approach. - Abstract: Seismic safety evaluations of existing nuclear facilities are usually based on the assumption of structural linearity. For the design basis earthquake (DBE), it is reasonable to apply a conventional evaluation of the seismic safety of building structures and carry out a linear elastic analysis to assess the load effects on structural elements. Estimating the seismic capacity of a structural element requires an estimation of the critical combination of responses acting in this structural element and compare this combination with the capacity of the element. By exploiting the response-spectrum-based procedure for predicting the response envelopes in linear structures formulated by Menun and Der Kiureghian (2000a), algorithms are developed for the seismic margin assessment of reinforced concrete shell finite elements. These algorithms facilitate the comparison of the response-spectrum-based envelopes to prescribed capacity surfaces for the purpose of assessing the safety margin of this kind of structures. The practical application of elliptical response envelopes in case of shell finite elements is based on the use of layer models such as those developed by Marti (1990), which transfer the generalized stress field to three layers under the assumption that the two outer layers carry membrane forces and the internal layer carries only the out-of-plane shears. The utility of the assessment approach is discussed with reference to a case study of a 3D structure made of reinforced concrete walls.

  17. Use of response envelopes for seismic margin assessment of reinforced concrete walls and slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ile, Nicolas; Frau, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposal of a method for application of the elliptical envelope to RC shell elements. • Proposal of new algorithms for the seismic margin evaluation for RC shell elements. • Verification of a RC wall 3D structure, using the proposed assessment approach. - Abstract: Seismic safety evaluations of existing nuclear facilities are usually based on the assumption of structural linearity. For the design basis earthquake (DBE), it is reasonable to apply a conventional evaluation of the seismic safety of building structures and carry out a linear elastic analysis to assess the load effects on structural elements. Estimating the seismic capacity of a structural element requires an estimation of the critical combination of responses acting in this structural element and compare this combination with the capacity of the element. By exploiting the response-spectrum-based procedure for predicting the response envelopes in linear structures formulated by Menun and Der Kiureghian (2000a), algorithms are developed for the seismic margin assessment of reinforced concrete shell finite elements. These algorithms facilitate the comparison of the response-spectrum-based envelopes to prescribed capacity surfaces for the purpose of assessing the safety margin of this kind of structures. The practical application of elliptical response envelopes in case of shell finite elements is based on the use of layer models such as those developed by Marti (1990), which transfer the generalized stress field to three layers under the assumption that the two outer layers carry membrane forces and the internal layer carries only the out-of-plane shears. The utility of the assessment approach is discussed with reference to a case study of a 3D structure made of reinforced concrete walls.

  18. Radiative transfer in spherical circumstellar dust envelopes. III. Dust envelope models of some well known infrared stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The radiative transfer techniques described elsewhere by the author have been employed to construct dust envelope models of several well known infrared stars. The resulting calculations indicate that the infrared emissivity of circumstellar grains generally must be higher than that which many calculations of small nonsilicate grains yield. This conclusion is dependent to some degree on the (unknown) size of the stellar envelopes considered, but is quite firm in the case of the spatially resolved envelope of IRC+10216. Further observations of the spatial distribution of the infrared radiation from stellar envelopes will be invaluable in deciphering the properties of the circumstellar grains

  19. Constraining the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) Bonin deep-focus earthquake using seismogram envelopes of high-frequency P waveforms: Occurrence of deep-focus earthquake at the bottom of a subducting slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takuto; Furumura, Takashi; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) deep-focus Bonin earthquake was constrained using P wave seismograms recorded across Japan. We focus on propagation characteristics of high-frequency P wave. Deep-focus intraslab earthquakes typically show spindle-shaped seismogram envelopes with peak delays of several seconds and subsequent long-duration coda waves; however, both the main shock and aftershock of the 2015 Bonin event exhibited pulse-like P wave propagations with high apparent velocities (~12.2 km/s). Such P wave propagation features were reproduced by finite-difference method simulations of seismic wave propagation in the case of slab-bottom source. The pulse-like P wave seismogram envelopes observed from the 2015 Bonin earthquake show that its source was located at the bottom of the Pacific slab at a depth of ~680 km, rather than within its middle or upper regions.

  20. Experimental Modeling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is currently facing a precommercial phase. At this stage of development a reliable overtopping model is highly required, in order to predict the performance of the device at possible deployment locations. A model formulation derived for an overtopping device...... with general geometry has been used so far. The paper presents an updated formulation drawn through the tank testing of a scaled model the Wave Dragon. The sensitivity analysis of the main features influencing the overtopping flow led to an updated model formulation which can be specifically suited...... for the Wave Dragon....

  1. Polarimetry and physics of Be star envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, G.V.; McLean, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the most recent developments in polarization studies of Be stars is presented. New polarization techniques for high-resolution spectropolarimetry and for near infrared polarimetry are described and a wide range of new observations are discussed. These include broad-band, intermediate-band and multichannel observations of the continuum polarization of Be stars in the wavelength interval 0.3-2.2 microns, high resolution (0.5 A) line profile polarimetry of a few stars and surveys of many stars for the purposes of statistical analyses. The physical significance of the observational material is discussed in the light of recent theoretical models. Emphasis is placed on the physical and geometrical parameters of Be star envelopes which polarimetry helps to determine. (Auth.)

  2. Enveloping branes and brane-world singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN-Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Samos (Greece)

    2014-12-01

    The existence of envelopes is studied for systems of differential equations in connection with the method of asymptotic splittings which allows one to determine the singularity structure of the solutions. The result is applied to brane-worlds consisting of a 3-brane in a five-dimensional bulk, in the presence of an analog of a bulk perfect fluid parameterizing a generic class of bulk matter. We find that all flat brane solutions suffer from a finite-distance singularity contrary to previous claims. We then study the possibility of avoiding finite-distance singularities by cutting the bulk and gluing regular solutions at the position of the brane. Further imposing physical conditions such as finite Planck mass on the brane and positive energy conditions on the bulk fluid, excludes, however, this possibility as well. (orig.)

  3. Performance measurement with fuzzy data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavana, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of global competition and ever-increasing economic uncertainties has led organizations to search for more efficient and effective ways to manage their business operations.  Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely used as a conceptually simple yet powerful tool for evaluating organizational productivity and performance. Fuzzy DEA (FDEA) is a promising extension of the conventional DEA proposed for dealing with imprecise and ambiguous data in performance measurement problems. This book is the first volume in the literature to present the state-of-the-art developments and applications of FDEA. It is designed for students, educators, researchers, consultants and practicing managers in business, industry, and government with a basic understanding of the DEA and fuzzy logic concepts.

  4. Pushing the Envelope of Extreme Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme Space Weather events are large solar flares or geomagnetic storms, which can cost billions of dollars to recover from. We have few examples of such events; the Carrington Event (the solar superstorm) is one of the few that had superlatives in three categories: size of solar flare, drop in Dst, and amplitude of aa. Kepler observations show that stars similar to the Sun can have flares releasing millions of times more energy than an X-class flare. These flares and the accompanying coronal mass ejections could strongly affect the atmosphere surrounding a planet. What level of solar activity would be necessary to strongly affect the atmosphere of the Earth? Can we map out the envelope of space weather along the evolution of the Sun? What would space weather look like if the Sun stopped producing a magnetic field? To what extreme should Space Weather go? These are the extremes of Space Weather explored in this talk.

  5. Data envelopment analysis of randomized ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant'Anna Annibal P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilities and odds, derived from vectors of ranks, are here compared as measures of efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs. These measures are computed with the goal of providing preliminary information before starting a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA or the application of any other evaluation or composition of preferences methodology. Preferences, quality and productivity evaluations are usually measured with errors or subject to influence of other random disturbances. Reducing evaluations to ranks and treating the ranks as estimates of location parameters of random variables, we are able to compute the probability of each DMU being classified as the best according to the consumption of each input and the production of each output. Employing the probabilities of being the best as efficiency measures, we stretch distances between the most efficient units. We combine these partial probabilities in a global efficiency score determined in terms of proximity to the efficiency frontier.

  6. Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-10-14

    To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-β-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.7(10∕12)-helix and a left-handed 3(14)-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations.

  7. Tyre-road contact using a particle-envelope surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnington, Roger J.

    2013-12-01

    Determination of the contact forces is the central problem in all aspects of road-tyre interaction: i.e. noise, energy loss and friction. A procedure to find the contact forces under a rolling tyre is presented in four stages. First, the contact stiffness of a uniform peak array from indentations in the rubber tread, and also tyre carcass deflection, is described by some new simplified expressions. Second, a routine divides a single surface profile into equal search intervals, in which the highest peaks are identified. These are used to obtain the parameters for the interval, i.e. the mean envelope and the mean interval. The process is repeated at geometrically decreasing search intervals until the level of the data resolution, thereby describing the profile by a set of envelopes. The ‘strip profile’ ultimately used to describe the surface, is obtained by selecting the highest points across the profiles of one stone's width. The third stage is to combine the strip profile envelopes with the contact stiffness expressions, yielding the nonlinear stiffness-displacement, and force-displacement relationships for the chosen road-tyre combination. Finally the contact pressure distribution from a steady-state rolling tyre model is applied to the strip profile, via the force-displacement relationship, giving the local tyre displacements on the road texture. This displacement pattern is shown to be proportional to the time and space varying contact pressure, which then is incorporated into a wave equation for rolling contact.

  8. Semiparametric Power Envelopes for Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael

    This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown...

  9. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-05-01

    To increase the feasibility of full waveform inversion on real data, we suggest a new objective function, which is defined as the global correlation of the envelopes of modelled and observed data. The envelope-based global correlation norm has the advantage of the envelope inversion that generates artificial low-frequency information, which provides the possibility to recover long-wavelength structure in an early stage. In addition, the envelope-based global correlation norm maintains the advantage of the global correlation norm, which reduces the sensitivity of the misfit to amplitude errors so that the performance of inversion on real data can be enhanced when the exact source wavelet is not available and more complex physics are ignored. Through the synthetic example for 2-D SEG/EAGE overthrust model with inaccurate source wavelet, we compare the performance of four different approaches, which are the least-squares waveform inversion, least-squares envelope inversion, global correlation norm and envelope-based global correlation norm. Finally, we apply the envelope-based global correlation norm on the 3-D Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) data from the North Sea. The envelope-based global correlation norm captures the strong reflections from the high-velocity caprock and generates artificial low-frequency reflection energy that helps us recover long-wavelength structure of the model domain in the early stages. From this long-wavelength model, the conventional global correlation norm is sequentially applied to invert for higher-resolution features of the model.

  10. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low- and high- mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflatons decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use. CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the ...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be established...

  12. Beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinbao; Xie Xi

    1984-01-01

    The general theory of beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space is developed. By means of this theory the beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space can be calculated directly. An example is carried out in detail to show the practical application of the theory

  13. IRC +10 216 in 3D: morphology of a TP-AGB star envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guélin, M.; Patel, N. A.; Bremer, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Pety, J.; Fonfría, J. P.; Agúndez, M.; Santander-García, M.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Blundell, R.; Thaddeus, P.

    2018-02-01

    During their late pulsating phase, AGB stars expel most of their mass in the form of massive dusty envelopes, an event that largely controls the composition of interstellar matter. The envelopes, however, are distant and opaque to visible and NIR radiation: their structure remains poorly known and the mass-loss process poorly understood. Millimeter-wave interferometry, which combines the advantages of longer wavelength, high angular resolution and very high spectral resolution is the optimal investigative tool for this purpose. Mm waves pass through dust with almost no attenuation. Their spectrum is rich in molecular lines and hosts the fundamental lines of the ubiquitous CO molecule, allowing a tomographic reconstruction of the envelope structure. The circumstellar envelope IRC +10 216 and its central star, the C-rich TP-AGB star closest to the Sun, are the best objects for such an investigation. Two years ago, we reported the first detailed study of the CO(2-1) line emission in that envelope, made with the IRAM 30-m telescope. It revealed a series of dense gas shells, expanding at a uniform radial velocity. The limited resolution of the telescope (HPBW 11″) did not allow us to resolve the shell structure. We now report much higher angular resolution observations of CO(2-1), CO(1-0), CN(2-1) and C4H(24-23) made with the SMA, PdB and ALMA interferometers (with synthesized half-power beamwidths of 3″, 1″ and 0.3″, respectively). Although the envelope appears much more intricate at high resolution than with an 11″ beam, its prevailing structure remains a pattern of thin, nearly concentric shells. The average separation between the brightest CO shells is 16″ in the outer envelope, where it appears remarkably constant. Closer to the star (system with a period of 700 yr and a near face-on elliptical orbit. The companion fly-by triggers enhanced episodes of mass loss near periastron. The densification of the shell pattern observed in the central part of the

  14. HIFISTARS Herschel/HIFI observations of VY Canis Majoris. Molecular-line inventory of the envelope around the largest known star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcolea, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Planesas, P.; Teyssier, D.; Cernicharo, J.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Dominik, C.; Justtanont, K.; de Koter, A.; Marston, A.P.; Melnick, G.; Menten, K.M.; Neufeld, D.A.; Olofsson, H.; Schmidt, M.; Schöier, F.L.; Szczerba, R.; Waters, L.B.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The study of the molecular gas in the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars is normally undertaken by observing lines of CO (and other species) in the millimetre-wave domain. In general, the excitation requirements of the observed lines are low at these wavelengths, and therefore these

  15. A Spectral Algorithm for Envelope Reduction of Sparse Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Stephen T.; Pothen, Alex; Simon, Horst D.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of reordering a sparse symmetric matrix to reduce its envelope size is considered. A new spectral algorithm for computing an envelope-reducing reordering is obtained by associating a Laplacian matrix with the given matrix and then sorting the components of a specified eigenvector of the Laplacian. This Laplacian eigenvector solves a continuous relaxation of a discrete problem related to envelope minimization called the minimum 2-sum problem. The permutation vector computed by the spectral algorithm is a closest permutation vector to the specified Laplacian eigenvector. Numerical results show that the new reordering algorithm usually computes smaller envelope sizes than those obtained from the current standard algorithms such as Gibbs-Poole-Stockmeyer (GPS) or SPARSPAK reverse Cuthill-McKee (RCM), in some cases reducing the envelope by more than a factor of two.

  16. CHARACTERIZING THE YOUNGEST HERSCHEL-DETECTED PROTOSTARS. I. ENVELOPE STRUCTURE REVEALED BY CARMA DUST CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Henning, Thomas; Ragan, Sarah E.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Fischer, William J.; Ali, Babar; Stanke, Thomas; Manoj, P.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee

    2015-01-01

    We present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy 2.9 mm dust continuum emission observations of a sample of 14 Herschel-detected Class 0 protostars in the Orion A and B molecular clouds, drawn from the PACS Bright Red Sources (PBRS) sample. These objects are characterized by very red 24-70 μm colors and prominent submillimeter emission, suggesting that they are very young Class 0 protostars embedded in dense envelopes. We detect all of the PBRS in 2.9 mm continuum emission and emission from four protostars and one starless core in the fields toward the PBRS; we also report one new PBRS source. The ratio of 2.9 mm luminosity to bolometric luminosity is higher by a factor of ∼5 on average, compared to other well-studied protostars in the Perseus and Ophiuchus clouds. The 2.9 mm visibility amplitudes for 6 of the 14 PBRS are very flat as a function of uv distance, with more than 50% of the source emission arising from radii <1500 AU. These flat visibility amplitudes are most consistent with spherically symmetric envelope density profiles with ρ ∝ R –2.5 . Alternatively, there could be a massive unresolved structure like a disk or a high-density inner envelope departing from a smooth power law. The large amount of mass on scales <1500 AU (implying high average central densities) leads us to suggest that that the PBRS with flat visibility amplitude profiles are the youngest PBRS and may be undergoing a brief phase of high mass infall/accretion and are possibly among the youngest Class 0 protostars. The PBRS with more rapidly declining visibility amplitudes still have large envelope masses, but could be slightly more evolved

  17. Instantaneous wave emission model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1970-12-01

    A useful treatment of electrostatic wave emission by fast particles in a plasma is given. First, the potential due to a fast particle is expressed as a simple integration over the particle orbit; several interesting results readily follow. The potential in the wake of an accelerating particle is shown to be essentially that produced through local excitation of the plasma by the particle free-streaming about its instantaneous orbit. Application is made to one dimension, and it is shown that the wave emission and adsorption synchronize to the instantaneous velocity distribution function. Guided by these calculations, we then formulate a test particle model for computing the instantaneous wave emission by fast particles in a Vlasov plasma. This model lends itself to physical interpretation and provides a direct approach to many problems. By adopting a Fokker-Planck description for the particle dynamics, we calculate the broadening of the wave-particle resonance due to velocity diffusion and drag

  18. Width of electromagnetic wave instability spectrum in tungsten plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkevich, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the study of high-frequency signal modulation and spectrum analysis of the envelope a measurement of spectrum width for electromagnetic wave instability was carried out under conditions of current pulse action on tungsten plate in magnetic field. The existence of amplitude-frequency wave modulation was revealed. The width of current disturbance spectrum in a specimen was evaluated. Current disturbances are shown to cause the instability of electromagnetic wave. 11 refs.; 6 figs

  19. Selecting Energy Efficient Building Envelope Retrofits to Existing Department of Defense Building Using Value Focused Thinking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratt, David M

    2006-01-01

    ... these facilities that have the greatest potential for energy efficient building envelope retrofits. There are hundreds of various new building envelope technologies available to retrofit an existing building envelope, including window, roof, and wall technologies...

  20. R Peak Detection Method Using Wavelet Transform and Modified Shannon Energy Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Seon; Lee, Sang-Woong; Park, Unsang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid automatic detection of the fiducial points-namely, the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave-is necessary for early detection of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this paper, we present an R peak detection method using the wavelet transform (WT) and a modified Shannon energy envelope (SEE) for rapid ECG analysis. The proposed WTSEE algorithm performs a wavelet transform to reduce the size and noise of ECG signals and creates SEE after first-order differentiation and amplitude normalization. Subsequently, the peak energy envelope (PEE) is extracted from the SEE. Then, R peaks are estimated from the PEE, and the estimated peaks are adjusted from the input ECG. Finally, the algorithm generates the final R features by validating R-R intervals and updating the extracted R peaks. The proposed R peak detection method was validated using 48 first-channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database with a sensitivity of 99.93%, positive predictability of 99.91%, detection error rate of 0.16%, and accuracy of 99.84%. Considering the high detection accuracy and fast processing speed due to the wavelet transform applied before calculating SEE, the proposed method is highly effective for real-time applications in early detection of CVDs.

  1. The limited role of recombination energy in common envelope removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grichener, Aldana; Sabach, Efrat; Soker, Noam

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the outward energy transport time by convection and photon diffusion in an inflated common envelope and find this time to be shorter than the envelope expansion time. We conclude therefore that most of the hydrogen recombination energy ends in radiation rather than in kinetic energy of the outflowing envelope. We use the stellar evolution code MESA and inject energy inside the envelope of an asymptotic giant branch star to mimic energy deposition by a spiraling-in stellar companion. During 1.7 years the envelope expands by a factor of more than 2. Along the entire evolution the convection can carry the energy very efficiently outwards, to the radius where radiative transfer becomes more efficient. The total energy transport time stays within several months, shorter than the dynamical time of the envelope. Had we included rapid mass loss, as is expected in the common envelope evolution, the energy transport time would have been even shorter. It seems that calculations that assume that most of the recombination energy ends in the outflowing gas might be inaccurate.

  2. On the interpretation of wave function overlaps in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The spontaneous emission rate of excitons strongly confined in quantum dots (QDs) is proportional to the overlap integral of electron and hole envelope wave functions. A common and intuitive interpretation of this result is that the spontaneous emission rate is proportional to the probability...... that the electron and the hole are located at the same point or region in space, i.e., they must coincide spatially to recombine. Here, we show that this interpretation is not correct even loosely speaking. By general mathematical considerations we compare the envelope wave function overlap, the exchange overlap...... integral, and the probability of electrons and holes coinciding, and find that the frequency dependence of the envelope wave function overlap integral is very different from that expected from the common interpretation. We show that these theoretical considerations lead to predictions for measurements. We...

  3. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  4. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab

  5. The eikonal equation, envelopes and contact transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, Simonetta; Kamran, Niky; Newman, Ezra T

    2003-01-01

    We begin with an arbitrary but given conformal Lorentzian metric on an open neighbourhood, U, of a four-dimensional manifold (spacetime) and study families of solutions of the eikonal equation. In particular, the families that are of interest to us are the complete solutions. Their level surfaces form a two-parameter (points of S 2 ) family of foliations of U. We show that, from such a complete solution, it is possible to derive a pair of second-order PDEs defined solely on the parameter space S 2 , i.e., they have no reference to the spacetime points. We then show that if one uses the classical envelope method for the construction of new complete solutions from any given complete solution, then the new pair of PDEs (found from the new complete solution) is related to the old pair by contact transformations in the second jet bundle over S 2 . Further, we demonstrate that the pair of second-order PDEs obtained in this manner from any complete solution lies in a subclass of all pairs of second-order PDEs defined by the vanishing of a certain function obtained from the pair and is referred to as the generalized-Wuenschmann invariant. For completeness we briefly discuss the analogous issues associated with the eikonal equation in three dimensions. Finally we point out that conformally invariant geometric structures from the Lorentzian manifold have natural counterparts in the second jet bundle over S 2 on which the pair of PDEs lives

  6. Ecosystem functioning is enveloped by hydrometeorological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christoforos; Mahecha, Miguel D; Frank, David C; Babst, Flurin; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem processes, and the associated vegetation carbon dynamics, respond differently to hydrometeorological variability across timescales, and so does our scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Long-term variability of the terrestrial carbon cycle is not yet well constrained and the resulting climate-biosphere feedbacks are highly uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive overview of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability from hourly to decadal timescales integrating multiple in situ and remote-sensing datasets characterizing extra-tropical forest sites. We find that ecosystem variability at all sites is confined within a hydrometeorological envelope across sites and timescales. Furthermore, ecosystem variability demonstrates long-term persistence, highlighting ecological memory and slow ecosystem recovery rates after disturbances. However, simulation results with state-of-the-art process-based models do not reflect this long-term persistent behaviour in ecosystem functioning. Accordingly, we develop a cross-time-scale stochastic framework that captures hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability. Our analysis offers a perspective for terrestrial ecosystem modelling and paves the way for new model-data integration opportunities in Earth system sciences.

  7. Fullerenes and fulleranes in circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun; Sadjadi, SeyedAbdolreza

    2016-01-01

    Three decades of search have recently led to convincing discoveries of cosmic fullerenes. The presence of C_6_0 and C"+ _6_0 in both circumstellar and interstellar environments suggests that these molecules and their derivatives can be efficiently formed in circumstellar envelopes and survive in harsh conditions. Detailed analysis of the infrared bands from fullerenes and their connections with the local properties can provide valuable information on the physical conditions and chemical processes that occurred in the late stages of stellar evolution. The identification of C"+ _6_0 as the carrier of four diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) suggests that fullerene- related compounds are abundant in interstellar space and are essential for resolving the DIB mystery. Experiments have revealed a high hydrogenation rate when C_6_0 is exposed to atomic hydrogen, motivating the attempt to search for cosmic fulleranes. In this paper, we present a short review of current knowledge of cosmic fullerenes and fulleranes and briefly discuss the implications on circumstellar chemistry. (paper)

  8. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  9. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.

  10. Pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The post office on CERN's Prévessin site is still selling pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days. Hurry while stocks last!   The special envelopes, which are valid in France for non-priority letters weighing up to 20 grams, are ideal for your Christmas and New Year correspondence. A set of ten envelopes, each featuring a different image, costs € 8.70 or 10 CHF. The post office is located in Building 866 on the Prévessin site and is open Mondays to Thursdays from 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.

  11. Transgene vaccination using Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1) for targeted mucosal immunization against HIV-1 envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhai; Kochetkova, Irina; Haddad, Asmahan; Hoyt, Teri; Hone, David M; Pascual, David W

    2005-05-31

    Receptor-mediated gene transfer using an M cell ligand has been shown to be an efficient method for mucosal DNA immunization. To investigate further into alternative M cell ligands, the plant lectin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), was tested. UEA-1 binds to human intestinal Caco-2 cells, and these cells can be transfected with poly-l-lysine (PL)-conjugated UEA-1 for expression of reporter cDNAs. When tested in vivo, mice nasally immunized with UEA-1-PL complexed to plasmid encoding HIV-1 envelope showed elevated systemic and mucosal antibody responses, and these were supported by tissue antibody-forming cells. Likewise, elevated envelope-specific CTLs were induced. Thus, UEA-1 mediated DNA delivery represents an alternative mucosal formulation for inducing humoral and cellular immunity against HIV-1.

  12. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  13. The Newtonian form of wave mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapuscik, E.

    1984-01-01

    Following the general principles of both Newton's mechanics and quantum mechanics a new formulation of wave mechanics is proposed. The new basic equations do not contain physical parameters and admit a different interpretation of the Planck constant. (author)

  14. New formulations for tsunami runup estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, U.; Aydin, B.; Ceylan, N.

    2017-12-01

    We evaluate shoreline motion and maximum runup in two folds: One, we use linear shallow water-wave equations over a sloping beach and solve as initial-boundary value problem similar to the nonlinear solution of Aydın and Kanoglu (2017, Pure Appl. Geophys., https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-017-1508-z). Methodology we present here is simple; it involves eigenfunction expansion and, hence, avoids integral transform techniques. We then use several different types of initial wave profiles with and without initial velocity, estimate shoreline properties and confirm classical runup invariance between linear and nonlinear theories. Two, we use the nonlinear shallow water-wave solution of Kanoglu (2004, J. Fluid Mech. 513, 363-372) to estimate maximum runup. Kanoglu (2004) presented a simple integral solution for the nonlinear shallow water-wave equations using the classical Carrier and Greenspan transformation, and further extended shoreline position and velocity to a simpler integral formulation. In addition, Tinti and Tonini (2005, J. Fluid Mech. 535, 33-64) defined initial condition in a very convenient form for near-shore events. We use Tinti and Tonini (2005) type initial condition in Kanoglu's (2004) shoreline integral solution, which leads further simplified estimates for shoreline position and velocity, i.e. algebraic relation. We then use this algebraic runup estimate to investigate effect of earthquake source parameters on maximum runup and present results similar to Sepulveda and Liu (2016, Coast. Eng. 112, 57-68).

  15. Genetic algorithm for building envelope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Fernández Bandera, Carlos; Gómez-Acebo Temes, Tomás; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutierrez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calibration methodology using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). • Uncertainty analysis formulas implemented directly in EnergyPlus. • The methodology captures the heat dynamic of the building with a high level of accuracy. • Reduction in the number of parameters involved due to sensitivity analysis. • Cost-effective methodology using temperature sensors only. - Abstract: Buildings today represent 40% of world primary energy consumption and 24% of greenhouse gas emissions. In our society there is growing interest in knowing precisely when and how energy consumption occurs. This means that consumption measurement and verification plans are well-advanced. International agencies such as Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) and International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) have developed methodologies to quantify savings. This paper presents a methodology to accurately perform automated envelope calibration under option D (calibrated simulation) of IPMVP – vol. 1. This is frequently ignored because of its complexity, despite being more flexible and accurate in assessing the energy performance of a building. A detailed baseline energy model is used, and by means of a metaheuristic technique achieves a highly reliable and accurate Building Energy Simulation (BES) model suitable for detailed analysis of saving strategies. In order to find this BES model a Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is used, together with a highly efficient engine to stimulate the objective, thus permitting rapid achievement of the goal. The result is a BES model that broadly captures the heat dynamic behaviour of the building. The model amply fulfils the parameters demanded by ASHRAE and EVO under option D.

  16. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.; Shaqura, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU

  17. Envelope Protection for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  18. that Bind Specifically to Recombinant Envelope Protein of Dengue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2015; 14 (6): 997-1003 ... Revised accepted: 30 April 2015. Abstract ... Results: The 45 KDa, 43 KDa and 30 KDa plasma membrane proteins were identified as viral envelope targets.

  19. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry's initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants

  20. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied

  1. Intelligent building envelopes. Architectural concept and applications for daylighting quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyckmans, Annemie

    2005-11-15

    How does an intelligent building envelope manage the variable and sometimes conflictive occupant requirements that arise in a day lit indoor environment. This is the research question that provides the basis for this Ph.D. work. As it touches upon several fields of application, the research question is untangled into four steps, each of which corresponds to a chapter of the thesis. 1) What characterises intelligent behaviour for a building envelope. 2) What characterises indoor day lighting quality. 3) Which functions can an intelligent building envelope be expected to perform in the context of day lighting quality. 4) How are the materials, components and composition of an intelligent building envelope designed to influence this performance. The emphasis is on design, environmental aspects, energy conservation, functional analysis and physical applications.

  2. Torsin Mediates Primary Envelopment of Large Ribonucleoprotein Granules at the Nuclear Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahbiz Jokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A previously unrecognized mechanism through which large ribonucleoprotein (megaRNP granules exit the nucleus is by budding through the nuclear envelope (NE. This mechanism is akin to the nuclear egress of herpes-type viruses and is essential for proper synapse development. However, the molecular machinery required to remodel the NE during this process is unknown. Here, we identify Torsin, an AAA-ATPase that in humans is linked to dystonia, as a major mediator of primary megaRNP envelopment during NE budding. In torsin mutants, megaRNPs accumulate within the perinuclear space, and the messenger RNAs contained within fail to reach synaptic sites, preventing normal synaptic protein synthesis and thus proper synaptic bouton development. These studies begin to establish the cellular machinery underlying the exit of megaRNPs via budding, offer an explanation for the “nuclear blebbing” phenotype found in dystonia models, and provide an important link between Torsin and the synaptic phenotypes observed in dystonia.

  3. Aspherical Dust Envelopes Around Oxygen-Rich AGB Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We model the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars. We perform the radiative transfer model calculations for axisymmetric dust distributions. We simulate what could be observed from the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars by presenting the model spectral energy distributions and images at various wavelengths for different optical depths and viewing angles. The model results are very different from the ones with spherically symmetric geometry.

  4. Failure envelope approach for consolidated undrained capacity of shallow foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Vulpe, Cristina; Gourvenec, Susan; Leman, Billy; Fung, Kah Ngii

    2016-01-01

    A generalized framework is applied to predict consolidated undrained VHM failure envelopes for surface circular and strip foundations. The failure envelopes for consolidated undrained conditions are shown to be scaled from those for unconsolidated undrained conditions by the uniaxial consolidated undrained capacities, which are predicted through a theoretical framework based on fundamental critical state soil mechanics. The framework is applied to results from small-strain finite-element anal...

  5. Vozy formule 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zbožínek, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Tato práce uvádí základní pravidla a předpoklady pro konstrukci a použití vozů formule 1. Hlavní zaměření je na aerodynamiku, která je nejdůležitější disciplínou v tomto motoristickém sportu, dále je tato práce zaměřena na základní faktory týkající se motoru vozu, kol, nové technologie KERS a provedení volantu. This work shows basic rules and conditions for construction and use of cars formula 1. The main part of this work focus on the aerodynamics which is the most important discipline of...

  6. Assessment of strategy formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    of the success criteria through face-to-face interviews with 46 managers, workshops involving 40 managers, and two in-depth case studies. The success criteria have been slightly modified due to the empirical results, to yield the assessment tool. Findings – The resulting assessment tool integrates three generic...... approaches to strategy assessment, namely the goal-centred, comparative and improvement approaches, as found in the literature. Furthermore, it encompasses three phases of strategy formulation processes: strategic thinking, strategic planning and embedding of strategy. The tool reflects that the different......, but cases and managerial perceptions indicate that the need for accurate and detailed plans might be overrated in the literature, as implementation relies heavily on continuous improvement and empowerment. Concerning embedding, key aspects relate both to the goal-centred and improvement approaches, while...

  7. Moreton wave, "EIT wave", and type II radio burst as manifestations of a single wave front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, I. V.; Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    We show that a Moreton wave, an "EIT wave," and a type II radio burst observed during a solar flare of July 13, 2004, might have been a manifestation of a single front of a decelerating shock wave, which appeared in an active region (AR) during a filament eruption. We propose describing a quasi-spheroidal wave propagating upward and along the solar surface by using relations known from a theory of a point-like explosion in a gas whose density changes along the radius according to a power law. By applying this law to fit the drop in density of the coronal plasma enveloping the solar active region, we first managed to bring the measured positions and velocities of surface Moreton wave and "EIT wave" into correspondence with the observed frequency drift rate of the meter type II radio burst. The exponent of the vertical coronal density falloff is selected by fitting the power law to the Newkirk and Saito empirical distributions in the height range of interest. Formal use of such a dependence in the horizontal direction with a different exponent appears to be reasonable up to distances of less than 200 Mm around the eruption center. It is possible to assume that the near-surface shock wave weakens when leaving this radius and finally the active region, entering the region of the quiet Sun where the coronal plasma density and the fast-mode speed are almost constant along the horizontal.

  8. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A. [Thornton Energy Consulting (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Efficiency Solutions (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  9. Velocity potential formulations of highly accurate Boussinesq-type models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, Harry B.; Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2009-01-01

    , B., 2006. A Boussinesq-type method for fully nonlinear waves interacting with a rapidly varying bathymetry. Coast. Eng. 53, 487-504); Jamois et al. (Jamois, E., Fuhrman, D.R., Bingham, H.B., Molin, B., 2006. Wave-structure interactions and nonlinear wave processes on the weather side of reflective...... with the kinematic bottom boundary condition. The true behaviour of the velocity potential formulation with respect to linear shoaling is given for the first time, correcting errors made by Jamois et al. (Jamois, E., Fuhrman, D.R., Bingham, H.B., Molin, B., 2006. Wave-structure interactions and nonlinear wave...... processes on the weather side of reflective structures. Coast. Eng. 53, 929-945). An exact infinite series solution for the potential is obtained via a Taylor expansion about an arbitrary vertical position z=(z) over cap. For practical implementation however, the solution is expanded based on a slow...

  10. Direct formulation of the supersonic acoustic intensity in space domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclre, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    into the far field. To date, its calculation has been formulated in the wave number domain, filtering out the evanescent waves outside the radiation circle and reconstructing the acoustic field with only the propagating waves. In this study, the supersonic intensity is calculated directly in space domain......This paper proposes and examines a direct formulation in space domain of the so-called supersonic acoustic intensity. This quantity differs from the usual (active) intensity by excluding the circulating energy in the near-field of the source, providing a map of the acoustic energy that is radiated...... by means of a two-dimensional convolution between the acoustic field and a spatial filter mask that corresponds to the space domain representation of the radiation circle. Therefore, the acoustic field that propagates effectively to the far field is calculated via direct filtering in space domain...

  11. Stimulated Raman scattering and ion dynamics: the role of Langmuir wave non-linearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.

    1988-02-01

    The non-linear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering by coupling of the SRS-driven Langmuir waves to ion acoustic waves is studied numerically, in a homogeneous density laser-irradiated plasma. The coupled wave amplitude behaviour is represented either by envelope equations or by complete wave-like equations. The various physical phenomena which are involved are described. This preliminary work has been presented at the 17th Anomalous Absorption Conference, held in last May, in Lake Tahoe City (USA) [fr

  12. Drift waves in a stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Sedlak, J.E.; Similon, P.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Ross, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    We investigate the eigenmode structure of drift waves in a straight stellarator using the ballooning mode formalism. The electrons are assumed to be adiabatic and the ions constitute a cold, magnetized fluid. The effective potential has an overall parabolic envelope but is modulated strongly by helical ripples along B. We have found two classes of solutions: those that are strongly localized in local helical wells, and those that are weakly localized and have broad spatial extent. The weakly localized modes decay spatially due to the existence of Mathieu resonances between the periods of the eigenfunction and the effective potential

  13. Numerical investigation on an array of Helmholtz resonators for the reduction of micro-pressure waves in modern and future high-speed rail tunnel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbutt, J. A.; Vahdati, M.; Carolan, D.; Dear, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has proposed that an array of Helmholtz resonators may be an effective method for suppressing the propagation of pressure and sound waves, generated by a high-speed train entering and moving in a tunnel. The array can be used to counteract environmental noise from tunnel portals and also the emergence of a shock wave in the tunnel. The implementation of an array of Helmholtz resonators in current and future high-speed train-tunnel systems is studied. Wave propagation in the tunnel is modelled using a quasi-one-dimensional formulation, accounting for non-linear effects, wall friction and the diffusivity of sound. A multi-objective genetic algorithm is then used to optimise the design of the array, subject to the geometric constraints of a demonstrative tunnel system and the incident wavefront in order to attenuate the propagation of pressure waves. It is shown that an array of Helmholtz resonators can be an effective countermeasure for various tunnel lengths. In addition, the array can be designed to function effectively over a wide operating envelope, ensuring it will still function effectively as train speeds increase into the future.

  14. Rogue waves in a water tank: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Recently many rogue waves have been reported as the main cause of ship incidents on the sea. One of the main characteristics of rogue waves is its elusiveness: they present unexpectedly and disappear in the same wave. Some authors (Zakharov and al.2010) are attempting to find the probability of their appearances apart from studyingthe mechanism of the formation. As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum(Akhmediev et al. 2011) as input on the wave maker. The produced waves were clearly rogue waves with a rate (maximum wave height/ Significant wave height) of 2.33 and a kurtosis of 4.77 (Janssen 2003, Onorato 2006). These results were already presented (Lechuga 2012). Similar waves (in pattern aspect, but without being extreme waves) were described as crossing waves in a water tank(Shemer and Lichter1988). To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves. After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This apparently amazing result is easily explained: We know that the Ginzburg-Landau model is related to some regular structures on the surface of a liquid and also in plasmas, electric and magnetic fields and other media. Another important characteristic of the model is that their solutions are invariants with respectto the translation group. The main aim of this presentation is to extract conclusions of the model and the comparison with the measured waves in the water tank.The nonlinear structure of waves and their regularity make suitable the use of the Ginzburg-Landau model to the envelope of generated waves in the tank,so giving us a powerful tool to cope with the results of our experiment.

  15. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements

  16. Integrated energy design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vraa Nielsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building's facades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1) the importance of integrating knowledge in the early stages of design, and how it can be done; 2) understanding the facade's typology; and 3) the complex notion of comfort. The project touched not only on the technical capabilities and requirements governing facade design, but also the process by which it takes place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of facades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages of design not only can qualify the geometrical processing, but also facilitate the design development of the facade. Thereby a more holistic performance optimisation can be obtained through parameters such as overall facade geometry and orientation, functional organisation, room height and depth, facade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over

  17. Subharmonic edge waves on a large, shallow island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mostafa A.

    1988-08-01

    Subharmonic resonance of edge waves by incident and reflected waves has been studied thus far for the case of a plane infinite beach. The analysis will be extended here to the case of a curved coastline, with a large radius of curvature and slowly varying beach slope in the longshore direction. It will be shown that the effects of such slow beach slope changes on a propagating edge wave are similar to the familiar shoaling effects on incident waves. The case of subharmonic edge wave generation on large shallow islands will be discussed in detail. The nonlinear analysis will show that within a certain range of island sizes, the generation mechanism can produce a stable standing edge wave around the island. For larger islands the solution disintegrates into two out-of-phase envelopes of opposite-going edge waves. For still larger islands, the generated progressive edge waves become unstable to sideband modulations.

  18. Hydrodynamic loads of sea waves on horizontal elements of berths with wave quenching chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshchenko Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the process of hydraulic structures design, in particular berths with wave cancelling structures, which serve to decrease the wave impact on structures, there appears a problem of vertical wave hydrodynamic loads calculation on floor slabs. In the existing normative documents there are no requirements on calculating vertical wave loads on the horizontal floor slabs of open-type structures (enveloping, mooring, approach trestles, etc. and stairs of sloping-staired open-type structures. A mathematical model is proposed for calculation of the vertical wave loads on the floor slab through moorings. The model is based on the theory of jet impact on a solid surface. The width of the wave crest, striking in the overlap of the pier, and its vertical velocity is determined by the linear wave theory. The coefficient of transmission of waves through wave quenching chambers is calculated according to the previously developed methods. Vertical wave loading is adjusted based on the ratio of the wave length and width of the overlay. Model validation is performed according to the hydraulic modelling interaction of waves with through berths in the port of Tuapse. 7 variants of their design were considered. Data mapping mathematical and hydraulic modeling showed them a close match.

  19. Penetration of Cosmic Rays into Dense Molecular Clouds: Role of Diffuse Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Dogiel, V. A.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Caselli, P.; Ko, C.-M.; Cheng, K. S.

    2018-03-01

    A flux of cosmic rays (CRs) propagating through a diffuse ionized gas can excite MHD waves, thus generating magnetic disturbances. We propose a generic model of CR penetration into molecular clouds through their diffuse envelopes, and identify the leading physical processes controlling their transport on the way from a highly ionized interstellar medium to the dense interior of the cloud. The model allows us to describe a transition between a free streaming of CRs and their diffusive propagation, determined by the scattering on the self-generated disturbances. A self-consistent set of equations, governing the diffusive transport regime in an envelope and the MHD turbulence generated by the modulated CR flux, is characterized by two dimensionless numbers. We demonstrate a remarkable mutual complementarity of different mechanisms leading to the onset of the diffusive regime, which results in a universal energy spectrum of the modulated CRs. In conclusion, we briefly discuss implications of our results for several fundamental astrophysical problems, such as the spatial distribution of CRs in the Galaxy as well as the ionization, heating, and chemistry in dense molecular clouds. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Vadim Tsytovich.

  20. Envelopment filter and K-means for the detection of QRS waveforms in electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Manuel; Gómez, Isabel María; Molina, Alberto J

    2015-06-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a well-established technique for determining the electrical activity of the heart and studying its diseases. One of the most common pieces of information that can be read from the ECG is the heart rate (HR) through the detection of its most prominent feature: the QRS complex. This paper describes an offline version and a real-time implementation of a new algorithm to determine QRS localization in the ECG signal based on its envelopment and K-means clustering algorithm. The envelopment is used to obtain a signal with only QRS complexes, deleting P, T, and U waves and baseline wander. Two moving average filters are applied to smooth data. The K-means algorithm classifies data into QRS and non-QRS. The technique is validated using 22 h of ECG data from five Physionet databases. These databases were arbitrarily selected to analyze different morphologies of QRS complexes: three stored data with cardiac pathologies, and two had data with normal heartbeats. The algorithm has a low computational load, with no decision thresholds. Furthermore, it does not require any additional parameter. Sensitivity, positive prediction and accuracy from results are over 99.7%. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Feaster, Toby D.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations to evaluate historical, riverine bridge scour in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of South Carolina. These investigations included data collected at 231 riverine bridges, which lead to the development of bridge-scour envelope curves for clear-water and live-bed components of scour. The application and limitations of the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves were documented in four reports, each report addressing selected components of bridge scour. The current investigation (2016) synthesizes the findings of these previous reports into a guidance manual providing an integrated procedure for applying the envelope curves. Additionally, the investigation provides limited verification for selected bridge-scour envelope curves by comparing them to field data collected outside of South Carolina from previously published sources. Although the bridge-scour envelope curves have limitations, they are useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential for scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina.

  2. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, R.L.; Berry, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Solar energy utilization in urban areas requires public guarantees that all property owners have direct access to the sun. The study examines the implications of this premise in relation to the need for cities to also encourage or accommodate rebuilding and future development. The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided. The results of development simulation studies on all test sites are tabulated to show building bulk, density, land-coverage and open space characteristics obtainable under the hypothesized envelopes.

  3. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  4. Dengue-1 envelope protein domain III along with PELC and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides synergistically enhances immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The major weaknesses of subunit vaccines are their low immunogenicity and poor efficacy. Adjuvants can help to overcome some of these inherent defects with subunit vaccines. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the newly developed water-in-oil-in-water multiphase emulsion system, termed PELC, in potentiating the protective capacity of dengue-1 envelope protein domain III. Unlike aluminum phosphate, dengue-1 envelope protein domain III formulated with PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induced neutralizing antibodies against dengue-1 virus and increased the splenocyte secretion of IFN-γ after in vitro re-stimulation. The induced antibodies contained both the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses. A rapid anamnestic neutralizing antibody response against a live dengue virus challenge was elicited at week 26 after the first immunization. These results demonstrate that PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides broaden the dengue-1 envelope protein domain III-specific immune responses. PELC plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides is a promising adjuvant for recombinant protein based vaccination against dengue virus.

  5. One-dimensional free-electron laser equations without the slowly varying envelope approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Maroli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of one-dimensional equations has been deduced in the time domain from the Maxwell-Lorentz system with the aim of describing the free-electron laser radiation without using the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA. These equations are valid even in the case of arbitrarily short electron bunches and of current distributions with ripples on the scale of or shorter than the wavelength. Numerical examples are presented, showing that for long homogeneous bunches the new set of equations gives results in agreement with the SVEA free-electron laser theory and that the use of short or prebunched electron beams leads to a decrease of the emission lethargy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in all cases in which the backward low frequency wave has negligible effects, these equations can be reduced to a form similar to the usual 1D SVEA equations but with a different definition of the bunching term.

  6. High frequency vibration analysis by the complex envelope vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, O; Carcaterra, A; Sestieri, A

    2007-06-01

    The complex envelope displacement analysis (CEDA) is a procedure to solve high frequency vibration and vibro-acoustic problems, providing the envelope of the physical solution. CEDA is based on a variable transformation mapping the high frequency oscillations into signals of low frequency content and has been successfully applied to one-dimensional systems. However, the extension to plates and vibro-acoustic fields met serious difficulties so that a general revision of the theory was carried out, leading finally to a new method, the complex envelope vectorization (CEV). In this paper the CEV method is described, underlying merits and limits of the procedure, and a set of applications to vibration and vibro-acoustic problems of increasing complexity are presented.

  7. Safety analysis to support a safe operating envelope for fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, R.A.; Reid, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for defining a safe operating envelope for fuel. 'Safe operating envelope' is defined as an envelope of fuel parameters defined for application in safety analysis that can be related to, or used to define, the acceptable range of fuel conditions due to operational transients or deviations in fuel manufacturing processes. The paper describes the motivation for developing such a methodology. The methodology involved four steps: the update of fission product inventories, the review of sheath failure criteria, a review of input parameters to be used in fuel modelling codes, and the development of an improved fission product release code. This paper discusses the aspects of fuel sheath failure criteria that pertain to operating or manufacturing conditions and to the evaluation and selection of modelling input data. The other steps are not addressed in this paper since they have been presented elsewhere. (author)

  8. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  10. Mathematical formulation and numerical simulation of bird flu infection process within a poultry farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Arrival Rince; Nova, Tertia Delia; Watanabe, M.

    2016-02-01

    Bird flu infection processes within a poultry farm are formulated mathematically. A spatial effect is taken into account for the virus concentration with a diffusive term. An infection process is represented in terms of a traveling wave solutions. For a small removal rate, a singular perturbation analysis lead to existence of traveling wave solutions, that correspond to progressive infection in one direction.

  11. The nuclear envelope from basic biology to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worman, Howard J; Foisner, Roland

    2010-02-01

    The nuclear envelope has long been a focus of basic research for a highly specialized group of cell biologists. More recently, an expanding group of scientists and physicians have developed a keen interest in the nuclear envelope since mutations in the genes encoding lamins and associated proteins have been shown to cause a diverse range of human diseases often called laminopathies or nuclear envelopathies. Most of these diseases have tissue-selective phenotypes, suggesting that the nuclear envelope must function in cell-type- and developmental-stage-specific processes such as chromatin organization, regulation of gene expression, controlled nucleocytoplasmic transport and response to stress in metazoans. On 22-23 April 2009, Professor Christopher Hutchison organized the 4th British Nuclear Envelope Disease and Chromatin Organization meeting at the College of St Hild and St Bede at Durham University, sponsored by the Biochemical Society. In attendance were investigators with one common interest, the nuclear envelope, but with diverse expertise and training in animal and plant cell biology, genetics, developmental biology and medicine. We were each honoured to be keynote speakers. This issue of Biochemical Society Transactions contains papers written by some of the presenters at this scientifically exciting meeting, held in a bucolic setting where the food was tasty and the wine flowed freely. Perhaps at the end of this excellent meeting more questions were raised than answered, which will stimulate future research. However, what became clear is that the nuclear envelope is a cellular structure with critical functions in addition to its traditional role as a barrier separating the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in interphase eukaryotic cells.

  12. Envelope proteins of bovine herpesvirus 1: immunological and biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Roque, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied immunological and biochemical properties of the bovid herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) envelope proteins in order to understand the pathogenesis of BHV-1 infection and to provide basic information for the production of effective subunit vaccines against BHV-1. Ten glycoproteins MW 180, 150, 130, 115, 97, 77, 74, 64, 55, and 45 kilodaltons (K), and a single non-glycosylated 108 K protein were quantitatively removed from purified BHV-1 virions by detergent treatment. These glycoproteins were present on the virion envelope and on the surface of BHV-1 infected cells. The quantitative removal from virions by treatment with nonionic detergents and their presence on the surface of infected cells indicate that 180/97, 150/77, and 130/74/55 K are major components of the BHV-1 envelope and are also the targets of virus neutralizing humoral immune response. Envelope glycoproteins of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) bind immunoglobulin by the Fc end and it is suggested this may increase pathogenicity of this virus. They searched for a similar function in BVH-1 by measuring the ability of BHV-1 infected cells and viral envelope proteins to bind radiolabelled rabbit and bovine IgG. Binding activity for rabbit IgG or bovine IgG-Fc could not be demonstrated by BHV-1 infected MDBK cells, whereas, MDBK cells infected with HSV-1 bound rabbit IgG and bovine IgG-Fc. None of the three major envelope proteins of BHV-1 bound to rabbit or bovine IgG. The results of this study indicate that BHV-1, unlike some other herpesviruses, lack Fc binding activity

  13. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  14. Enveloping algebras of Lie groups with descrete series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen huu Anh; Vuong manh Son

    1990-09-01

    In this article we shall prove that the enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of some unimodular Lie group having discrete series, when localized at some element of the center, is isomorphic to the tensor product of a Weyl algebra over the ring of Laurent polynomials of one variable and the enveloping algebra of some reductive Lie algebra. In particular, it will be proved that the Lie algebra of a unimodular solvable Lie group having discrete series satisfies the Gelfand-Kirillov conjecture. (author). 6 refs

  15. Constant envelope OFDM scheme for 6PolSK-QPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Ding, Ding

    2018-03-01

    A constant envelope OFDM scheme with phase modulator (PM-CE-OFDM) for 6PolSK-QPSK modulation was demonstrated. Performance under large fiber launch power is measured to check its advantages in counteracting fiber nonlinear impairments. In our simulation, PM-CE-OFDM, RF-assisted constant envelope OFDM (RF-CE-OFDM) and conventional OFDM (Con-OFDM) are transmitted through 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) single channel and WDM system. Simulation results confirm that PM-CE-OFDM has best performance in resisting fiber nonlinearity. In addition, benefiting from the simple system structure, the complexity and cost of PM-CE-OFDM system could be reduced effectively.

  16. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Model in Operation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Meilisa; Efendi, Syahril; Zarlis, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Quality management is an effective system in operation management to develops, maintains, and improves quality from groups of companies that allow marketing, production, and service at the most economycal level as well as ensuring customer satisfication. Many companies are practicing quality management to improve their bussiness performance. One of performance measurement is through measurement of efficiency. One of the tools can be used to assess efficiency of companies performance is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The aim of this paper is using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to assess efficiency of quality management. In this paper will be explained CCR, BCC, and SBM models to assess efficiency of quality management.

  17. Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Koechlin, L.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.

    1989-04-13

    The supernova SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed by high-angular-resolution speckle interferometry since 25 March (30 days after the explosion) with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Data obtained on 25 March and 2 April 1987 revealed a second bright 'companion' source separated from the supernova by 60 milliarcseconds and less than three magnitudes fainter than the supernova. Measurements of the average diameter of the supernova envelope have been made from data recorded from March 1987 to April 1988. Here we present a more detailed analysis of these data, which shows that the expanding envelope is asymmetric. (author).

  18. Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Koechlin, L.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.

    1989-01-01

    The supernova SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed by high-angular-resolution speckle interferometry since 25 March (30 days after the explosion) with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Data obtained on 25 March and 2 April 1987 revealed a second bright 'companion' source separated from the supernova by 60 milliarcseconds and less than three magnitudes fainter than the supernova. Measurements of the average diameter of the supernova envelope have been made from data recorded from March 1987 to April 1988. Here we present a more detailed analysis of these data, which shows that the expanding envelope is asymmetric. (author)

  19. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Chowdhury, I.

    2007-01-01

    We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low-and high-mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflations decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the structure of resonance band formation. We observe that though low-mass fermion production is not effective in preheating because of Pauli blocking, it is quite probable for high-mass fermion to take part in pre heating. (author)

  20. Refractive index dispersion measurement using carrier-envelope phasemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansinger, Peter; Töpfer, Philipp; Adolph, Daniel; Hoff, Dominik; Rathje, Tim; Sayler, A Max; Paulus, Gerhard G; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Dreischuh, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for direct and accurate measurement of refractive index dispersion based on carrier-envelope phase detection of few-cycle laser pulses, exploiting the difference between phase and group velocity in a dispersive medium. In a layout similar to an interferometer, two carrier-envelope phasemeters are capable of measuring the dispersion of a transparent or reflective sample, where one phasemeter serves as the reference and the other records the influence of the sample. Here we report on proof-of-principle measurements that already reach relative uncertainties of a few 10 −4 . Further development is expected to allow for unprecedented precision. (paper)

  1. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  2. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  3. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies, co...

  4. Horizontal circulation and jumps in Hamiltonian wave models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagarina, Elena; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in the numerical modeling of wave-current interactions around surf zones at beaches. Any model that aims to predict the onset of wave breaking at the breaker line needs to capture both the nonlinearity of the wave and its dispersion. We have therefore formulated the Hamiltonian

  5. Interaction of externally-driven acoustic waves with compressible convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.; Merryfield, W.

    1992-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to examine the interaction of acoustic waves with a compressible convecting fluid. Acoustic waves are forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagate through a three-layer system undergoing vigorous penetrative convection. Energy exchange between the wave and the fluid is analyzed using a work integral formulation

  6. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  7. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  8. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  9. Wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)

  10. Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.

  11. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic

  12. Measuring Eco-efficiency of Production with Data Envelopment Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Kortelainen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Aggregation of environmental pressures into a single environmental damage index is a major challenge of eco-efficiency measurement. This article examines how the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method can be adapted for this purpose. DEA accounts for substitution possibilities between different

  13. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in lateritic building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, Pierre

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the behavior of building envelopes made of local lateritic soil bricks subjected to different climatic conditions. The analysis is developed for the prediction of the temperature, relative humidity and water content behavior within the walls. The building envelopes studied in this work consist of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials, and limit the heat transfer between the atmospheric climate and the inside environment. In order to describe coupled heat and moisture transfer in wet porous materials, the coupled equations were solved by the introduction of diffusion coefficients. A numerical model HMtrans, developed for prediction of beat and moisture transfer in multi-layered building components, was used to simulate the temperature, water content and relative humidity profiles within the building envelopes. The results allow the prediction of the duration of the exposed building walls to the local weather conditions. They show that for any of three climatic conditions considered, relative humidity and water content do not exceed 87% and 5% respectively. There is therefore minimum possibility of water condensation in the materials studied. The durability of building envelopes made of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust is not strongly affected by the climatic conditions in tropical and equatorial regions. (author)

  14. Design of a Haptic Feedback System for Flight Envelope Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baelen, D.; Ellerbroek, J.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2018-01-01

    Current Airbus aircraft use a fly-by-wire control device: a passive spring-damper system which generates, without any force feedback, an electrical signal to the flight control computer. Additionally, a hard flight envelope protection system is used which can limit the inputs of the pilot when

  15. Hygrothermal Simulation: A Tool for Building Envelope Design Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Anton TenWolde; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to gauge the risk of moisture problems while designing the building envelope? This article provides a brief introduction to computer-based hygrothermal (heat and moisture) simulation, shows how simulation can be useful as a design tool, and points out a number of im-portant considerations regarding model inputs and limita-tions. Hygrothermal simulation...

  16. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  17. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huedo, Patricia, E-mail: huedo@uji.es [Universitat Jaume I (Spain); Mulet, Elena, E-mail: emulet@uji.es [Universitat Jaume I (Spain); López-Mesa, Belinda, E-mail: belinda@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  18. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huedo, Patricia; Mulet, Elena; López-Mesa, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  19. Print and supply of envelopes and file covers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    “Tender for Supply of Printed Envelopes and File Covers". Tender ... Twenty Five Thousand Only) in the form of Demand Draft drawn on any Nationalized. Bank and .... m) The finalized contract shall be interpreted under Indian Laws. In case of ...

  20. Envelopes of Sets of Measures, Tightness, and Markov Control Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Hernandez-Lerma, O.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce upper and lower envelopes for sets of measures on an arbitrary topological space, which are then used to give a tightness criterion. These concepts are applied to show the existence of optimal policies for a class of Markov control processes

  1. Development of a pneumatic roof envelope for industrial greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, G.; Vos, de G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) was approached by Van Diemen BV, a turn-key greenhouse builder looking for a new and higher insulated design for their green house envelope. They had developed a new system of climate control which rendered windows for ventilation purposes unnecessary

  2. Bioinformatics Analysis of Envelope Glycoprotein E epitopes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The E glycoprotein of dengue virus is responsible for the viral binding to the receptor. The crystal structure of envelope glycoprotein has already been determined. However, where the well-defined Bcell and T-cell epitopes are located is still a question. Because of the large variations among the four dengue genotypes, it is ...

  3. Origin of envelope proteins of a leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    The roles of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) and host myeloblast cells in controlling the protein composition of virus envelope and host cell membrane are being studied by examining an ATPase enzyme in the virus and cells. New culture techniques for virus producing myeloblasts have been developed. (U.S.)

  4. Enveloped virus flocculation and removal in osmolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoglu, Maria F; Heldt, Caryn L

    2015-07-20

    Our ability to reduce infectious disease burden throughout the world has been greatly improved by the creation of vaccines. However, worldwide immunization rates are low. The two most likely reasons are the lack of sufficient distribution in underdeveloped countries and the high cost of vaccine products. The high costs are due to the difficulties of manufacturing individual vaccine products with specialized purification trains. In this study, we propose to use virus flocculation in osmolytes, followed by microfiltration, as an alternative vaccine purification operation. In our previous work, we demonstrated that osmolytes preferentially flocculate a non-enveloped virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV). In this work we show that osmolytes flocculate the enveloped virus, Sindbis virus heat resistant strain (SVHR), and demonstrate a >80% removal with a 0.2 μm microfilter membrane while leaving proteins in solution. The best osmolytes were tested for their ability to flocculate SVHR at different concentrations, pH and ionic strengths. Our best removal was 98% of SVHR in 0.3M mannitol at a pH of 5. We propose that osmolytes are able to flocculate hydrophobic non-enveloped and enveloped virus particles by the reduction of the hydration layer around the particles, which stimulates virus aggregation. Now that we have demonstrated that protecting osmolytes flocculate viruses, this method has the potential to be a future platform purification process for vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  6. Masking Release for Sweeping Masker Components with Correlated Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko l.; Klein-Hennig, Hendrike; Epp, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    To separate sounds from different sound sources, common properties of natural sounds are used by the auditory system, such as coherent temporal envelope fluctuations and correlated changes of frequency in different frequency regions. The present study investigates how the auditory systemprocesses...

  7. Innovative Danish Building Envelope Components for Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    and in some cases very innovative envelope constructions. In this paper, two of the most interesting components are described; a prefabricated light-weight exterior wall element with a load-bearing plywood and steel frame and a foundation / slab on ground solution based on concrete and EPS insulation...

  8. Purification and characterization of cell-envelope proteinase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride;. ACE, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme. Poolman, 1998). Cell-envelope proteinase (CEP) play an important role in the lactobacillus proteolytic system. CEPs are the critical enzyme in the system (Kunji et al., 1996), since it is the only enzyme that can initiate the breakdown of.

  9. Statistical formulation of gravitational radiation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    A new formulation of the radiation-reaction problem is proposed, which is simpler than alternatives which have been used before. The new approach is based on the initial-value problem, uses approximations which need be uniformly valid only in compact regions of space-time, and makes no time-asymmetric assumptions (no a priori introduction of retarded potentials or outgoing-wave asymptotic conditions). It defines radiation reaction to be the expected evolution of a source obtained by averaging over a statistical ensemble of initial conditions. The ensemble is chosen to reflect one's complete lack of information (in real systems) about the initial data for the radiation field. The approach is applied to the simple case of a weak-field, slow-motion source in general relativity, where it yields the usual expressions for radiation reaction when the gauge is chosen properly. There is a discussion of gauge freedom, and another of the necessity of taking into account reaction corrections to the particle-conservation equation. The analogy with the second law of thermodynamics is very close, and suggests that the electromagnetic and thermodynamic arrows of time are the same. Because the formulation is based on the usual initial-value problem, it has no spurious ''runaway'' solutions

  10. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eMellier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's 'protective shield' and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review:1 Freud's protective shield describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality.2 Anzieu's Skin-Ego is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. 3 Bick's psychic skin establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother’s containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant’s psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces.4 Stern's narrative envelope derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualise the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes.Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic and genetic and recommend further investigation.

  11. Neonates need tailored drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegaert, Karel

    2013-02-08

    Drugs are very strong tools used to improve outcome in neonates. Despite this fact and in contrast to tailored perfusion equipment, incubators or ventilators for neonates, we still commonly use drug formulations initially developed for adults. We would like to make the point that drug formulations given to neonates need to be tailored for this age group. Besides the obvious need to search for active compounds that take the pathophysiology of the newborn into account, this includes the dosage and formulation. The dosage or concentration should facilitate the administration of low amounts and be flexible since clearance is lower in neonates with additional extensive between-individual variability. Formulations need to be tailored for dosage variability in the low ranges and also to the clinical characteristics of neonates. A specific focus of interest during neonatal drug development therefore is a need to quantify and limit excipient exposure based on the available knowledge of their safety or toxicity. Until such tailored vials and formulations become available, compounding practices for drug formulations in neonates should be evaluated to guarantee the correct dosing, product stability and safety.

  12. Microcanonical formulation of quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazaki, A.

    1984-03-01

    A microcanonical formulation of Euclidean quantum field theories is presented. In the formulation, correlation functions are given by a microcanonical ensemble average of fields. Furthermore, the perturbative equivalence of the formulation and the standard functional formulation is proved and the equipartition low is derived in our formulation. (author)

  13. 3N scattering in a three-dimensional operator formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckle, W.; Fachruddin, I.; Elster, C.; Golak, J.; Skibinski, R.; Witala, H.

    2010-01-01

    A recently developed formulation for a direct treatment of the equations for two- and three-nucleon bound states as set of coupled equations of scalar functions depending only on vector momenta is extended to three-nucleon scattering. Starting from the spin-momentum dependence occurring as scalar products in two- and three-nucleon forces together with other scalar functions, we present the Faddeev multiple scattering series in which order by order the spin degrees can be treated analytically leading to 3D integrations over scalar functions depending on momentum vectors only. Such formulation is especially important in view of awaiting extension of 3N Faddeev calculations to projectile energies above the pion production threshold and applications of chiral perturbation theory 3N forces, which are to be most efficiently treated directly in such three-dimensional formulation without having to expand these forces into a partial-wave basis. (orig.)

  14. Breaking of ocean surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanin, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)

  15. Nondispersive Wave Packets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaarawi, Amr Mohamed

    In this work, nondispersive wavepacket solutions to linear partial differential equations are investigated. These solutions are characterized by infinite energy content; otherwise they are continuous, nonsingular and propagate in free space without spreading out. Examples of such solutions are Berry and Balazs' Airy packet, MacKinnon's wave packet and Brittingham's Focus Wave Mode (FWM). It is demonstrated in this thesis that the infinite energy content is not a basic problem per se and that it can be dealt with in two distinct ways. First these wave packets can be used as bases to construct highly localized, slowly decaying, time-limited pulsed solutions. In the case of the FWMs, this path leads to the formulation of the bidirectional representation, a technique that provides the most natural basis for synthesizing Brittingham-like solutions. This representation is used to derive new exact solutions to the 3-D scalar wave equation. It is also applied to problems involving boundaries, in particular to the propagation of a localized pulse in a infinite acoustic waveguide and to the launchability of such a pulse from the opening of a semi-infinite waveguide. The second approach in dealing with the infinite energy content utilizes the bump-like structure of nondispersive solutions. With an appropriate choice of parameters, these bump fields have very large amplitudes around the centers, in comparison to their tails. In particular, the FWM solutions are used to model massless particles and are capable of providing an interesting interpretation to the results of Young's two slit experiment and to the wave-particle duality of light. The bidirectional representation provides, also, a systematic way of deriving packet solutions to the Klein-Gordon, the Schrodinger and the Dirac equations. Nondispersive solutions of the former two equations are compared to previously derived ones, e.g., the Airy packet and MacKinnon's wave packet.

  16. An efficient algorithm for the generalized Foldy-Lax formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Li, Peijun; Zhao, Hongkai

    2013-02-01

    Consider the scattering of a time-harmonic plane wave incident on a two-scale heterogeneous medium, which consists of scatterers that are much smaller than the wavelength and extended scatterers that are comparable to the wavelength. In this work we treat those small scatterers as isotropic point scatterers and use a generalized Foldy-Lax formulation to model wave propagation and capture multiple scattering among point scatterers and extended scatterers. Our formulation is given as a coupled system, which combines the original Foldy-Lax formulation for the point scatterers and the regular boundary integral equation for the extended obstacle scatterers. The existence and uniqueness of the solution for the formulation is established in terms of physical parameters such as the scattering coefficient and the separation distances. Computationally, an efficient physically motivated Gauss-Seidel iterative method is proposed to solve the coupled system, where only a linear system of algebraic equations for point scatterers or a boundary integral equation for a single extended obstacle scatterer is required to solve at each step of iteration. The convergence of the iterative method is also characterized in terms of physical parameters. Numerical tests for the far-field patterns of scattered fields arising from uniformly or randomly distributed point scatterers and single or multiple extended obstacle scatterers are presented.

  17. Expansion of the HMX-1 Flight Envelope With the EDU-5/P Laser Eye Protection Spectacles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penhallegon, William

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this testing was to determine if the day operations envelope should be expanded to include takeoffs and landings, whether the night operations envelope should he expanded in the VH-6ON...

  18. Tests of two convection theories for red giant and red supergiant envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.; Chin, Chao-Wen

    1995-01-01

    Two theories of stellar envelope convection are considered here in the context of red giants and red supergiants of intermediate to high mass: Boehm-Vitense's standard mixing-length theory (MLT) and Canuto & Mazzitelli's new theory incorporating the full spectrum of turbulence (FST). Both theories assume incompressible convection. Two formulations of the convective mixing length are also evaluated: l proportional to the local pressure scale height (H(sub P)) and l proportional to the distance from the upper boundary of the convection zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red phase of core helium burning. Since the theoretically predicted effective temperatures for cool stars are known to be sensitive to the assigned value of the mixing length, this quantity has been individually calibrated for each evolutionary sequence. The calibration is done in a composite Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the red giant and red supergiant members of well-observed Galactic open clusters. The MLT model requires the constant of proportionality for the convective mixing length to vary by a small but statistically significant amount with stellar mass, whereas the FST model succeeds in all cases with the mixing lenghth simply set equal to z. The structure of the deep stellar interior, however, remains very nearly unaffected by the choices of convection theory and mixing lenghth. Inside the convective envelope itself, a density inversion always occurs, but is somewhat smaller for the convectively more efficient MLT model. On physical grounds the FST model is preferable, and seems to alleviate the problem of finding the proper mixing length.

  19. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  20. Final Report - LAW Envelope C Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Waste Loading, VSL-05R5900-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-12-03

    This report describes the results of testing specified by Test Plan VSL-05R5900-1 Rev.0. The work was performed in compliance with the quality assurance requirements specified in the Test Plan. Results required by the Test Plan are reported. The test results and this report have been reviewed for correctness, technical adequacy, completeness, and accuracy.

  1. Final Report - LAW Envelope A and B Glass Formulations Testing in Increase Waste Loading. VSL-06R6900-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-12-03

    This report describes the results of testing specified by the Test Plan VSL-06R6900-1 Rev 0. The work was performed in compliance with quality assurance requirements specified in the Test Plan. Results required by the Test Plan are reported. The test results and this report have been reviewed for correctness, technical adequacy, completeness, and accuracy.

  2. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions. New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Manufacturing is one possible answer. The term ‘AM Envelope’ (Additive Manufacturing Envelope describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope. First beginnings of AM facade construction show up when dealing with relevant aspects like material consumption, mounting or part’s performance. From those starting points several parts of an existing post-and-beam façade system were optimized, aiming toward the implementation of AM into the production chain. Enhancements on all different levels of production were achieved: storing, producing, mounting and performance. AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades ‘just in time’. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on ‘tool-less’ production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation. Producing tool-less also allows for new shapes and functional parts in small batch sizes – down to batch size one. The parts performance can be re-interpreted based on the demands within the system, not based on the limitations of conventional manufacturing. AM offers new ways of materializing the physical part around its function. It leads toward customized

  3. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 78 FR 5148 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... failure states occur in the electronic flight control system, flight envelope protection features can... Envelope Protection: General Limiting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...), specifically new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which provides flight envelope...

  5. Wave propagation and scattering in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Akira

    1978-01-01

    Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an

  6. Stability charts for uniform slopes in soils with nonlinear failure envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Hisham T.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of an extensive parametric study, charts were developed for assessment of the stability of uniform slopes in soils with nonlinear shear strength failure envelopes. The study was conducted using envelopes formed to represent the realistic shapes of soil nonlinear drained strength envelopes and the associated different degrees of nonlinearity. The introduction of a simple methodology to describe the nonlinear envelopes and a stability parameter, the value of which depends o...

  7. Dynamical model for the dusty envelope around the symbiotic nova PU Vulpeculae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men'shchikov, A.B.; Tutukov, A.V.; Shustov, B.M.; Ergma, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    An evolutionary model for PU Vul, Object Kuwano--Honda, indicates that the deep 1980--1981 minimum may have resulted from detachment of a dust envelope. The envelope ejection process and the changes in the infrared spectrum are studied numerically; evidently the envelope departs strongly from spherical symmetry. The bluing observed at minimum light might have been due to dissipation of shock energy

  8. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  9. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  10. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  11. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  12. Optimized Perturbation Theory for Wave Functions of Quantum Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kunihiro, T.

    1997-01-01

    The notion of the optimized perturbation, which has been successfully applied to energy eigenvalues, is generalized to treat wave functions of quantum systems. The key ingredient is to construct an envelope of a set of perturbative wave functions. This leads to a condition similar to that obtained from the principle of minimal sensitivity. Applications of the method to the quantum anharmonic oscillator and the double well potential show that uniformly valid wave functions with correct asymptotic behavior are obtained in the first-order optimized perturbation even for strong couplings. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Delta function excitation of waves in the earth's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, R. J.; Crawford, F. W.; Harker, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Excitation of the earth's ionosphere by delta function current sheets is considered, and the temporal and spatial evolution of wave packets is analyzed for a two-component collisional F2 layer. Approximations of an inverse Fourier-Laplace transform via saddle point methods provide plots of typical wave packets. These illustrate cold plasma wave theory and may be used as a diagnostic tool since it is possible to relate specific features, e.g., the frequency of a modulation envelope, to plasma parameters such as the electron cyclotron frequency. It is also possible to deduce the propagation path length and orientation of a remote radio beacon.

  14. Multiplicative formulation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voros, A.; Leboeuf, P.

    1991-01-01

    A general semi-classical description for the eigenfunctions of the multidimensional Schroedinger operator cannot be based on the WKB method which is incompatible with classically ergodic behavior. An alternative, more general multiplicative parametrization of quantum wave functions is suggested, whereby the semi-classical behavior of eigenfunctions can be traced in the presence of classical ergodicity, in the form of diffusive patterns of phase-space zeros in the quantum wave functions. (author) 24 refs.; 4 figs

  15. Beating HF waves to generate VLF waves in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Kossey, Paul; Chang, Chia-Lie; Labenski, John

    2012-03-01

    Beat-wave generation of very low frequency (VLF) waves by two HF heaters in the ionosphere is formulated theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. The heater-induced differential thermal pressure force and ponderomotive force, which dominate separately in the D and F regions of the ionosphere, drive an electron current for the VLF emission. A comparison, applying appropriate ionospheric parameters shows that the ponderomotive force dominates in beat-wave generation of VLF waves. Three experiments, one in the nighttime in the absence of D and E layers and two in the daytime in the presence of D and E layers, were performed. X mode HF heaters of slightly different frequencies were transmitted at CW full power. VLF waves at 10 frequencies ranging from 3.5 to 21.5 kHz were generated. The frequency dependencies of the daytime and nighttime radiation intensities are quite similar, but the nighttime radiation is much stronger than the daytime one at the same radiation frequency. The intensity ratio is as large as 9 dB at 11.5 kHz. An experiment directly comparing VLF waves generated by the beat-wave approach and by the amplitude modulation (AM) approach was also conducted. The results rule out the likely contribution of the AM mechanism acting on the electrojet and indicate that beat-wave in the VLF range prefers to be generated in the F region of the ionosphere through the ponderomotive nonlinearity, consistent with the theory. In the nighttime experiment, the ionosphere was underdense to the HF heaters, suggesting a likely setting for effective beat-wave generation of VLF waves by the HF heaters.

  16. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  17. Virulence properties of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eShevchuk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial envelope plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the structure and molecular composition of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope. We describe LPS biosynthesis and the biological activities of membrane and periplasmic proteins and discuss their decisive functions during the pathogen-host interaction. In addition to adherence, invasion and intracellular survival of L. pneumophila, special emphasis is laid on iron acquisition, detoxification, key elicitors of the immune response and the diverse functions of outer membrane vesicles. The critical analysis of the literature reveals that the dynamics and phenotypic plasticity of the Legionella cell surface during the different metabolic stages requires more attention in the future.

  18. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Reynolds, Reid G.; Liu, Frank X.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum that the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical strategies for distributing a prescribed torque or momentum among the n wheels are presented, with special emphasis on configurations of four, five, and six wheels.

  19. Functional envelope of a non-autonomous discrete system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzanouni Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Let (X, F = {fn}n =0∞ be a non-autonomous discrete system by a compact metric space X and continuous maps fn : X → X, n = 0, 1, ....We introduce functional envelope (S(X, G = {Gn}n =0∞, of (X, F = {fn}n =0∞, where S(X is the space of all continuous self maps of X and the map Gn : S(X → S(X is defined by Gn(ϕ = Fn ∘ ϕ, Fn = fn ∘ fn-1 ∘ . . . ∘ f1 ∘ f0. The paper mainly deals with the connection between the properties of a system and the properties of its functional envelope.

  20. Efficiency in the Worst Production Situation Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA measures relative efficiency among the decision making units (DMU without considering noise in data. The least efficient DMU indicates that it is in the worst situation. In this paper, we measure efficiency of individual DMU whenever it losses the maximum output, and the efficiency of other DMUs is measured in the observed situation. This efficiency is the minimum efficiency of a DMU. The concept of stochastic data envelopment analysis (SDEA is a DEA method which considers the noise in data which is proposed in this study. Using bounded Pareto distribution, we estimate the DEA efficiency from efficiency interval. Small value of shape parameter can estimate the efficiency more accurately using the Pareto distribution. Rank correlations were estimated between observed efficiencies and minimum efficiency as well as between observed and estimated efficiency. The correlations are indicating the effectiveness of this SDEA model.

  1. Enveloped Lives: Practicing Health and Care in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praspaliauskiene, Rima

    2016-12-01

    This article analyzes informal medical payments that the majority of Lithuanians give or feel compelled to give to doctors before or after treatment. It focuses on how patients and their caretakers encounter, practice, and enact informal payments in health care and how these payments create a reality of health care that is not limited to an economic rationality. Within such a frame, rather than being considered a gift or bribe, it conceptualizes these little white envelopes as a practice of health and care. The article shows how an envelope of money given to a doctor transcends the material patient-doctor transaction and emerges as a productive force for coping with illness, medical encounters, and misfortunes. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  2. Interior thermal insulation systems for historical building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Miloš; Solař, Miloš; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The design specifics of interior thermal insulation systems applied for historical building envelopes are described. The vapor-tight systems and systems based on capillary thermal insulation materials are taken into account as two basic options differing in building-physical considerations. The possibilities of hygrothermal analysis of renovated historical envelopes including laboratory methods, computer simulation techniques, and in-situ tests are discussed. It is concluded that the application of computational models for hygrothermal assessment of interior thermal insulation systems should always be performed with a particular care. On one hand, they present a very effective tool for both service life assessment and possible planning of subsequent reconstructions. On the other, the hygrothermal analysis of any historical building can involve quite a few potential uncertainties which may affect negatively the accuracy of obtained results.

  3. Motion of photons in a gravitational wave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhe; Huang, Chao-Guang; Zhao, Zhi-Chao

    2017-09-01

    Photon motion in a Michelson interferometer is re-analyzed in terms of both geometrical optics and wave optics. The classical paths of the photons in the background of a gravitational wave are derived from the Fermat principle, which is the same as the null geodesics in general relativity. The deformed Maxwell equations and the wave equations of electric fields in the background of a gravitational wave are presented in a flat-space approximation. Both methods show that even the envelope of the response of an interferometer depends on the frequency of a gravitational wave, but it is almost independent of the frequency of the mirror’s vibrations. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275207, 11375203, 11690022, 11675182) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences “Multi-waveband Gravitational Wave Universe” (XDB23040000)

  4. DOUBLE COMPACT OBJECTS. I. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COMMON ENVELOPE ON MERGER RATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominik, Michal; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Fryer, Christopher; Holz, Daniel E.; Berti, Emanuele; Mandel, Ilya; O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The last decade of observational and theoretical developments in stellar and binary evolution provides an opportunity to incorporate major improvements to the predictions from population synthesis models. We compute the Galactic merger rates for NS-NS, BH-NS, and BH-BH mergers with the StarTrack code. The most important revisions include updated wind mass-loss rates (allowing for stellar-mass black holes up to 80 M ☉ ), a realistic treatment of the common envelope phase (a process that can affect merger rates by 2-3 orders of magnitude), and a qualitatively new neutron star/black hole mass distribution (consistent with the observed m ass gap ) . Our findings include the following. (1) The binding energy of the envelope plays a pivotal role in determining whether a binary merges within a Hubble time. (2) Our description of natal kicks from supernovae plays an important role, especially for the formation of BH-BH systems. (3) The masses of BH-BH systems can be substantially increased in the case of low metallicities or weak winds. (4) Certain combinations of parameters underpredict the Galactic NS-NS merger rate and can be ruled out. (5) Models incorporating delayed supernovae do not agree with the observed NS/BH 'mass gap', in accordance with our previous work. This is the first in a series of three papers. The second paper will study the merger rates of double compact objects as a function of redshift, star formation rate, and metallicity. In the third paper, we will present the detection rates for gravitational-wave observatories, using up-to-date signal waveforms and sensitivity curves.

  5. Stripped-envelope supernova SN 2004dk is now interacting with hydrogen-rich circumstellar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhan, Jon C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, WeiKang; Brink, Thomas; Graham, Melissa L.; Shivvers, Isaac; Clubb, Kelsey

    2018-05-01

    The dominant mechanism and time scales over which stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) progenitor stars shed their hydrogen envelopes are uncertain. Observations of Type Ib and Ic SNe at late phases could reveal the optical signatures of interaction with distant circumstellar material (CSM) providing important clues on the origin of the necessary pre-SN mass loss. We report deep late-time optical spectroscopy of the Type Ib explosion SN 2004dk 4684 days (13 years) after discovery. We detect strong Hα emission with an intermediate line width of ˜400 km s-1 and luminosity ˜2.5 × 1039 erg s-1, signaling that the SN blast wave has caught up with the hydrogen-rich CSM lost by the progenitor system. The line luminosity is the highest ever reported for a SN at this late stage. Prominent emission features of He I, Fe, and Ca are also detected. The spectral characteristics are consistent with CSM energized by the forward shock, and resemble the late-time spectra of the persistently interacting Type IIn SNe 2005ip and 1988Z. We suggest that the onset of interaction with H-rich CSM was associated with a previously reported radio rebrightening at ˜1700 days. The data indicate that the mode of pre-SN mass loss was a relatively slow dense wind that persisted millennia before the SN, followed by a short-lived Wolf-Rayet phase that preceded core-collapse and created a cavity within an extended distribution of CSM. We also present new spectra of SNe 2014C, PTF11iqb, and 2009ip, all of which also exhibit continued interaction with extended CSM distributions.

  6. LITHIUM DEPLETION IS A STRONG TEST OF CORE-ENVELOPE RECOUPLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Rotational mixing is a prime candidate for explaining the gradual depletion of lithium from the photospheres of cool stars during the main sequence. However, previous mixing calculations have relied primarily on treatments of angular momentum transport in stellar interiors incompatible with solar and stellar data in the sense that they overestimate the internal differential rotation. Instead, recent studies suggest that stars are strongly differentially rotating at young ages but approach a solid body rotation during their lifetimes. We modify our rotating stellar evolution code to include an additional source of angular momentum transport, a necessary ingredient for explaining the open cluster rotation pattern, and examine the consequences for mixing. We confirm that core-envelope recoupling with a ∼20 Myr timescale is required to explain the evolution of the mean rotation pattern along the main sequence, and demonstrate that it also provides a more accurate description of the Li depletion pattern seen in open clusters. Recoupling produces a characteristic pattern of efficient mixing at early ages and little mixing at late ages, thus predicting a flattening of Li depletion at a few Gyr, in agreement with the observed late-time evolution. Using Li abundances we argue that the timescale for core-envelope recoupling during the main sequence decreases sharply with increasing mass. We discuss the implications of this finding for stellar physics, including the viability of gravity waves and magnetic fields as agents of angular momentum transport. We also raise the possibility of intrinsic differences in initial conditions in star clusters using M67 as an example.

  7. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellier, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's “protective shield” and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review: (1) Freud's “protective shield” describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality. (2) Anzieu's “Skin-Ego” is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. (3) Bick's “psychic skin” establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother's containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant's psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces. (4) Stern's “narrative envelope” derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualize the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes. Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic, and genetic) and recommend further investigation. PMID:25076924

  8. Maximum Likelihood, Consistency and Data Envelopment Analysis: A Statistical Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a formal statistical basis for the efficiency evaluation techniques of data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA estimators of the best practice monotone increasing and concave production function are shown to be also maximum likelihood estimators if the deviation of actual output from the efficient output is regarded as a stochastic variable with a monotone decreasing probability density function. While the best practice frontier estimator is biased below the theoretical front...

  9. The Use of Categorical Variables in Data Envelopment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Richard C. Morey

    1986-01-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis has now been extensively applied in a range of empirical settings to identify relative inefficiencies, and provide targets for improvements. It accomplishes this by developing peer groups for each unit being operated. The use of categorical variables is an important extension which can improve the peer group construction process and incorporate "on-off" characteristics, e.g., presence of drive-in window or not in a banking network. It relaxes the stringent need for f...

  10. Windows and Envelope R&D Opportunities Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2018-02-01

    BTO's Emerging Technologies program held a two-day workshop on “Windows and Envelope R&D Opportunities” on May 31 and June 1, 2017 at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois. A broad range of about 100 experts from industry, academia, national laboratories, and government participated, contributing their ideas, insights, and perspectives. Their feedback is intended to help inform and augment BTO’s research and development activities.

  11. Two different formulations of the heavy quark effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balk, S.; Ilakovac, A.; Koerner, J.G.; Pirjol, D.

    1994-01-01

    We point out that there exist two different formulations of the Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET). The one formulation of HQET was mostly developed at Harvard and involves the use of the equation of motion to eliminate the small components of the heavy quark field. The second formulation, developed in Mainz, involves a series of Foldy-Wouthuysen-type field transformations which diagonalizes the heavy quark Lagrangian in terms of an effective quark and antiquark sector. Starting at O(1/m Q 2 ) the two formulations are different in that their effective Lagrangians, their effective currents, and their effective wave functions differ. However, when these three differences are properly taken into account, the two alternative formulations lead to identical transition or S-matrix elements. This is demonstrated in an explicit example at O(1/m Q 2 ). We point to an essential difficulty of the Harvard HQET in that the Harvard effective fields are not properly normalized starting at order O(1/m Q 2 ). We provide explicit higher order expressions for the effective fields and the Lagrangian in the Mainz approach, and write down an O(1/m Q 2 ) nonabelian version of the Pauli equation for the heavy quark effective field. (orig.)

  12. Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    bolinger, Mark A.

    2011-01-18

    In the United States, the 'community wind' sector - loosely defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that sell power on the wholesale market and that are developed and owned primarily by local investors - has historically served as a 'test bed' or 'proving grounds' for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects - and primarily those located in the state of Minnesota - have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010), Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Thus far, one of these turbine manufacturers - Suzlon - has subsequently achieved some success in the broader U.S. wind market as well. Just as it has provided a proving grounds for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market today - the special allocation partnership flip structure (see Figure 1 in Section 2.1) - was first developed by community wind projects in Minnesota more than a decade ago (and is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Minnesota flip' model) before being adopted by the broader wind market. More recently, a handful of community wind projects built over the past year have been financed via new and creative structures that push the envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. - in many cases, moving beyond the now-standard partnership flip structures involving strategic tax equity investors. These include: (1) a 4.5 MW project in Maine that combines low-cost government debt with local tax equity, (2) a 25.3 MW project in Minnesota using a sale/leaseback structure

  13. Group Velocity for Leaky Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeznik, Andrew; Chumakova, Lyubov; Rosales, Rodolfo

    2017-11-01

    In many linear dispersive/conservative wave problems one considers solutions in an infinite medium which is uniform everywhere except for a bounded region. In general, localized inhomogeneities of the medium cause partial internal reflection, and some waves leak out of the domain. Often one only desires the solution in the inhomogeneous region, with the exterior accounted for by radiation boundary conditions. Formulating such conditions requires definition of the direction of energy propagation for leaky waves in multiple dimensions. In uniform media such waves have the form exp (d . x + st) where d and s are complex and related by a dispersion relation. A complex s is required since these waves decay via radiation to infinity, even though the medium is conservative. We present a modified form of Whitham's Averaged Lagrangian Theory along with modulation theory to extend the classical idea of group velocity to leaky waves. This allows for solving on the bounded region by representing the waves as a linear combination of leaky modes, each exponentially decaying in time. This presentation is part of a joint project, and applications of these results to example GFD problems will be presented by L. Chumakova in the talk ``Leaky GFD Problems''. This work is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-1614043, DMS-1719637, and 1122374, and by the Hertz Foundation.

  14. Biomimetic Architecture in Building Envelope Maintenance (A Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomimetic architecture on building envelope is the main structure of this research. The concept is believed more sustainable and efficient for energy saving, operating cost consumption, waste recycle and design renewal in the future. The inspiration from the nature developed the intention on this study to explore on what and how this concept to overcome the problems through design. Biomimicry does catch the attention of human to study more on the system and function of its nature course. The designers are not exception influenced by this concept when the form, shape, texture and colour inspired them in their design. The domination of building form will affect the building envelope as the skin of the structure. A clear impact on building failure is begun with building envelope appearance without a proper maintenance. The faults in building design place a heavy burden on the building for the rest of its operational life and there is no compensation for it. In such situations, the responsibility falls on the shoulders of the designer.

  15. Specifics of Building Envelope Air Leakage Problems and Airtightness Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodinecs Anatolijs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to transmission heat loses the infiltration of outdoor air can cause significant heat losses. The external building envelope should be airtight in order to prevent uncontrolled cold air infiltration. The article analysis modern building materials and structures influence on airtightness. The practical measurements of renovated buildings’ airtightness are presented and compared to non-renovated buildings. In addition paper presents data on airtightness measurements of whole multi apartment building and single apartment in analyzed building taking inco accout properties of building materials. The airtightness of single apartment was evaluated with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The results show that the airtightness measurements of multi apartment building can be evaluated by measuring single apartment on last floor with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The practical measurement of renovated buildings had shown the air leakage rate q50 of typical Latvian construction after renovation is between 2.5 and 2.9 m3/(m2·h. Since the building envelope has to minimize the heat loses (transmission and infiltration and ventilation system either mechanical or natural has to provide necessary air exchange, the building envelope airtightness shouldn’t be dependent on type of ventilation systems.

  16. Experiences when employing different alternatives for envelope upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peru Elguezabal Esnarrizaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of achieving the 2020 goals in terms of energy savings and improving efficiency are guiding numerous research initiatives looking for more insulated envelopes, dealing with thermal performance of insulation materials and envelope systems. Nevertheless, the envelope integrates within the building and this improvement on the insulation performance has to be properly adopted, taking into account the interrelation of main elements composing the overall system (facade, frame, slabs, openings, partitions etc., as well as side effects originated not only for new erected buildings, but specifically in renovation and retrofitting works. This paper describes real experiences when considering various options for upgrading the facade through the increase of the insulation capacity, starting from external overcladding prefabricated panels and ventilated facades, advancing to more sustainable low carbon systems and ending with even more highly insulated solutions employing aerogels. Lessons from these cases, where energy and hygrothermal assessments have being carried out, demonstrate the influence of the design and construction phases and the relevance of disregarded effects such as minor thermal bridges, uncontrolled craftsmanship on site, and moisture transfer for the different technologies considered. Finally, possible alternatives are provided to overcome some of the detected difficulties, such as combination with non-metallic structural components and building membranes, and being prepared for future challenges and new developments when these isolative elements are combined with other technologies, as for example, renewable energy harvesting devices.  

  17. Thermal performance envelopes for MHTGRs - Reliability by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzel, K.T.; Howard, W.W.; Zgliczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal performance envelopes are used to specify steady-state design requirements for the systems of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) to maximize plant performance reliability with optimized design. The thermal performance envelopes are constructed around the expected operating point to account for uncertainties in actual plant as-built parameters and plant operation. The components are then designed to perform successfully at all points within the envelope. As a result, plant reliability is maximized by accounting for component thermal performance variation in the design. The design is optimized by providing a means to determine required margins in a disciplined and visible fashion. This is accomplished by coordinating these requirements with the various system and component designers in the early stages of the design, applying the principles of total quality management. The design is challenged by the more complex requirements associated with a range of operating conditions, but in return, high probability of delivering reliable performance throughout the plant life is ensured

  18. The epigenetics of nuclear envelope organization and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian chromosomes and some specific genes have non-random positions within the nucleus that are tissue-specific and heritable. Work in many organisms has shown that genes at the nuclear periphery tend to be inactive and altering their partitioning to the interior results in their activation. Proteins of the nuclear envelope can recruit chromatin with specific epigenetic marks and can also recruit silencing factors that add new epigenetic modifications to chromatin sequestered at the periphery. Together these findings indicate that the nuclear envelope is a significant epigenetic regulator. The importance of this function is emphasized by observations of aberrant distribution of peripheral heterochromatin in several human diseases linked to mutations in NE proteins. These debilitating inherited diseases range from muscular dystrophies to the premature aging progeroid syndromes and the heterochromatin changes are just one early clue for understanding the molecular details of how they work. The architecture of the nuclear envelope provides a unique environment for epigenetic regulation and as such a great deal of research will be required before we can ascertain the full range of its contributions to epigenetics

  19. Alfven-wave particle interaction in finite-dimensional self-consistent field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhye, N.; Horton, W.

    1998-01-01

    A low-dimensional Hamiltonian model is derived for the acceleration of ions in finite amplitude Alfven waves in a finite pressure plasma sheet. The reduced low-dimensional wave-particle Hamiltonian is useful for describing the reaction of the accelerated ions on the wave amplitudes and phases through the self-consistent fields within the envelope approximation. As an example, the authors show for a single Alfven wave in the central plasma sheet of the Earth's geotail, modeled by the linear pinch geometry called the Harris sheet, the time variation of the wave amplitude during the acceleration of fast protons

  20. Travelling waves in heterogeneous media

    OpenAIRE

    Boden, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we study the existence of travelling wave type solutions for a reaction diffusion equation in R2 with a nonlinearity which depends periodically on the spatial variable. Specifically we will consider a particular class of nonlinearities where we treat the coefficient of the linear term as a parameter. For this class of nonlinearities we formulate the problem as a spatial dynamical system and use a centre manifold reduction to find conditions on the parameter and nonlinearity for...

  1. Excitation of waves in elastic waveguides by piezoelectric patch actuators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available for waveguides excited by piezoelectric patch actuators. The waveguide is modelled using specially developed waveguide finite elements. These elements are formulated using a complex exponential to describe the wave propagation along the structure and finite...

  2. High pressure treatment under subfreezing temperature results in drastic inactivation of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, T; Cui, F-D; Ohgitani, E; Gao, F; Hayakawa, K; Mazda, O

    2013-08-01

    Some viruses are sensitive to high pressure. The freeze-pressure generation method (FPGM) applies pressure as high as 250 MPa on a substance, simply by freezing a pressure-resistant reservoir in which the substance is immersed in water. Here we examined whether the FPGM successfully inactivates herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), an enveloped DNA virus belonging to the human Herpesviridae, and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), an envelope-free RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae. After the treatment, HSV-1 drastically reduced the ability to form plaque in Vero cells in vitro as well as to kill mice in vivo. EMCV that had been pressurized failed to proliferate in HeLa cells and induce interferon response. The results suggest that the FPGM provides a feasible procedure to inactivate a broad spectrum of viruses.

  3. Quasitravelling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklaryan, Leva A

    2011-01-01

    A finite difference analogue of the wave equation with potential perturbation is investigated, which simulates the behaviour of an infinite rod under the action of an external longitudinal force field. For a homogeneous rod, describing solutions of travelling wave type is equivalent to describing the full space of classical solutions to an induced one-parameter family of functional differential equations of point type, with the characteristic of the travelling wave as parameter. For an inhomogeneous rod, the space of solutions of travelling wave type is trivial, and their 'proper' extension is defined as solutions of 'quasitravelling' wave type. By contrast to the case of a homogeneous rod, describing the solutions of quasitravelling wave type is equivalent to describing the quotient of the full space of impulsive solutions to an induced one-parameter family of point-type functional differential equations by an equivalence relation connected with the definition of solutions of quasitravelling wave type. Stability of stationary solutions is analyzed. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  4. Curcumin nanodisks: formulation and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Mistuni; Singh, Amareshwar T. K.; Xu, Wenwei; Sulchek, Todd; Gordon, Leo I.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Nanodisks (ND) are nanoscale, disk-shaped phospholipid bilayers whose edge is stabilized by apolipoproteins. In the present study, ND were formulated with the bioactive polyphenol, curcumin, at a 6:1 phospholipid:curcumin molar ratio. Atomic force microscopy revealed that curcumin-ND are particles with diameters

  5. Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gron, O.

    1981-01-01

    Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

  6. Hamiltonian formulation of the supermembrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Sezgin, E.; Tanii, Y.

    1987-06-01

    The Hamiltonian formulation of the supermembrane theory in eleven dimensions is given. The covariant split of the first and second class constraints is exhibited, and their Dirac brackets are computed. Gauge conditions are imposed in such a way that the reparametrizations of the membrane with divergence free 2-vectors are unfixed. (author). 10 refs

  7. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  8. Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Sandra; Kaumanns, Patrick; Buschhorn, Sabine B.; Dittmar, Matthias T.

    2005-01-01

    We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-AΔenv-GFP, ROD-AΔenv-RFP, or ROD-AΔenv-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

  9. Nonlinear ultrasonic imaging with X wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongwei; Lu, Wei; Feng, Huanqing

    2009-10-01

    X wave has a large depth of field and may have important application in ultrasonic imaging to provide high frame rate (HFR). However, the HFR system suffers from lower spatial resolution. In this paper, a study of nonlinear imaging with X wave is presented to improve the resolution. A theoretical description of realizable nonlinear X wave is reported. The nonlinear field is simulated by solving the KZK nonlinear wave equation with a time-domain difference method. The results show that the second harmonic field of X wave has narrower mainlobe and lower sidelobes than the fundamental field. In order to evaluate the imaging effect with X wave, an imaging model involving numerical calculation of the KZK equation, Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral, band-pass filtering and envelope detection is constructed to obtain 2D fundamental and second harmonic images of scatters in tissue-like medium. The results indicate that if X wave is used, the harmonic image has higher spatial resolution throughout the entire imaging region than the fundamental image, but higher sidelobes occur as compared to conventional focus imaging. A HFR imaging method with higher spatial resolution is thus feasible provided an apodization method is used to suppress sidelobes.

  10. Theory of modulational interaction of trapped ion convective cells and drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, V.D.; Diamond, P.H.; Lebedev, V.; Soloviev, G.; Shevchenko, V.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical and computational studies of the modulational interaction between trapped ion convective cells and short wavelength drift wave turbulence are discussed. These studies are motivated by the fact that cells and drift waves are expected to coexist in tokamaks so that: (a) cells strain and modulate drift waves, and (b) drift waves open-quote ride on close-quote a background of cells. The results of the authors' investigation indicate that: (1) (nonlinear) parametric growth rates of trapped ion convective cells can exceed linear predictions (for drift wave levels at the mixing length limit); (2) a set of coupled envelope equations, akin to the Zakharov equations from Langmuir turbulence, can be derived and used to predict the formation of a dipole pair of convective cells trapped by the drift wave envelope. This dipole pair is strongly anisotropic, due to the structure of the drift wave Reynolds stress which drives the cell flow. Numerical solutions of the envelope equations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, and indicate the persistence of the structure in time; (3) strong modulation and trapping of drift waves with k perpendicular ρ > 1 occurs. Extensions to magnetically sheared systems and the broader implications of this work as a paradigm for the dynamics of persistent structures in shearing flows are discussed

  11. Internal Waves and Wave Attractors in Enceladus' Subsurface Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, A. M.; Maas, L. R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most peculiar features on Saturn moon Enceladus is its so-called tiger stripe pattern at the geologically active South Polar Terrain (SPT), as first observed in detail by the Cassini spacecraft early 2005. It is generally assumed that the four almost parallel surface lines that constitute this pattern are faults in the icy surface overlying a confined salty water reservoir. In 2013, we formulated the original idea [Vermeersen et al., AGU Fall Meeting 2013, abstract #P53B-1848] that the tiger stripe pattern is formed and maintained by induced, tidally and rotationally driven, wave-attractor motions in the ocean underneath the icy surface of the tiger-stripe region. Such wave-attractor motions are observed in water tank experiments in laboratories on Earth and in numerical experiments [Maas et al., Nature, 338, 557-561, 1997; Drijfhout and Maas, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2740-2763, 2007; Hazewinkel et al., Phys. Fluids, 22, 107102, 2010]. Numerical simulations show the persistence of wave attractors for a range of ocean shapes and stratifications. The intensification of the wave field near the location of the surface reflections of wave attractors has been numerically and experimentally confirmed. We measured the forces a wave attractor exerts on a solid surface, near a reflection point. These reflection points would correspond to the location of the tiger stripes. Combining experiments and numerical simulations we conclude that (1) wave attractors can exist in Enceladus' subsurface sea, (2) their shape can be matched to the tiger stripes, (3) the wave attractors cause a localized force at the water-ice boundaries, (4) this force could have been large enough to contribute to fracturing the ice and (5) the wave attractors localize energy (and particles) and cause dissipation along its path, helping explain Enceladus' enigmatic heat output at the tiger stripes.

  12. Wave-Particle Dualism in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    The wave-particle dualism, that is the wave nature of particles and the particle nature of light together with the uncertainty relation of Werner Heisenberg and the principle of complementarity formulated by Niels Bohr represent pillars of quantum theory. We provide an introduction into these fascinating yet strange aspects of the microscopic world and summarize key experiments confirming these concepts so alien to our daily life.

  13. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  14. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  15. Spatiotemporal structure of pulsating solitons in the cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation: A novel variational formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancas, Stefan C. [Department of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-1364 (United States)], E-mail: smancas@mail.ucf.edu; Roy Choudhury, S. [Department of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-1364 (United States)], E-mail: choudhur@longwood.cs.ucf.edu

    2009-04-15

    Comprehensive numerical simulations (reviewed in Dissipative Solitons, Akhmediev and Ankiewicz (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, 2005) of pulse solutions of the cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau Equation (CGLE), a canonical equation governing the weakly nonlinear behavior of dissipative systems in a wide variety of disciplines, reveal various intriguing and entirely novel classes of solutions. In particular, there are five new classes of pulse or solitary waves solutions, viz. pulsating, creeping, snake, erupting, and chaotic solitons. In contrast to the regular solitary waves investigated in numerous integrable and non-integrable systems over the last three decades, these dissipative solitons are not stationary in time. Rather, they are spatially confined pulse-type structures whose envelopes exhibit complicated temporal dynamics. The numerical simulations also reveal very interesting bifurcations sequences of these pulses as the parameters of the CGLE are varied. In this paper, we address the issues of central interest in the area, i.e., the conditions for the occurrence of the five categories of dissipative solitons, as well the dependence of both their shape and their stability on the various parameters of the CGLE, viz. the nonlinearity, dispersion, linear and nonlinear gain, loss and spectral filtering parameters. Our predictions on the variation of the soliton amplitudes, widths and periods with the CGLE parameters agree with simulation results. First, we elucidate the Hopf bifurcation mechanism responsible for the various pulsating solitary waves, as well as its absence in Hamiltonian and integrable systems where such structures are absent. Next, we develop and discuss a variational formalism within which to explore the various classes of dissipative solitons. Given the complex dynamics of the various dissipative solutions, this formulation is, of necessity, significantly generalized over all earlier approaches in several crucial ways. Firstly, the starting formulation

  16. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during this ext......Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...... this extended period. The prototype is highly instrumented. The overtopping characteristic and the power produced are presented here. This has enabled comparison between the prototype and earlier results from both laboratory model and computer simulation. This gives the optimal operating point and the expected...... power of the device. The project development team has gained much soft experience from working in the harsh offshore environment. In particular the effect of marine growth in the draft tubes of the turbines has been investigated. The control of the device has been a focus for development as is operates...

  17. ANALISIS EFISIENSI DISTRIBUSI PADA PENJUALAN PRODUK OLAHAN BUAH DAN SAYURAN DENGAN METODE DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS (DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maulidah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial agro requires efficient marketing distribution making it easier for consumers to get their products and can optimize the benefits to achieve a large market share. The purposes from this research is to identify the distributional channel toward fruit and vegetable processing product sale, to analyze the efficient rate on fruit and vegetable processing product, and to formulate the distributional efficiency rate improvement strategy which is not efficient using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is done by WDEA (Warwick DEA Software. Limitations in the efficiency measurement in this study is the input and output variables. Input variables include the number of retailers, delivery volume, and distribution costs. Variable output includes the volume of sales, revenue and profits. The result of distributinal efficiency analysis toward fruit and vegetables processing product selling namely: (1 used are zero-rate and one rate distributional channeling. (2 There are 8 distributional channeling which is efficient includes in Malang, Batu, Kediri, Tuban, Magelang, Jombang, Lumajang and Surabaya. Meanwhile 7 distributional channeling area which is not efficient are Blitar, Banyuwangi, Bojonegoro, Trenggalek, Lamongan, Ponorogo, and  Mojokerto. (3 Improvement strategy toward distributional channeling area which is not efficient are explained below: (a decrease the sending volume according to the efficiency target; (b increase the selling volume based on the efficiency target in order not to get heaping on product so it can give advantage for industrial agro; and (c add the total amount of retailer toward distributional area which is not efficient.

  18. Siegert pseudostate formulation of scattering theory: Nonzero angular momenta in the one-channel case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batishchev, Pavel A.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.

    2007-01-01

    The Siegert pseudostate (SPS) formulation of scattering theory, originally developed by Tolstikhin, Ostrovsky, and Nakamura [Phys. Rev. A, 58, 2077 (1998)] for s-wave scattering in a spherically symmetric finite-range potential, is generalized to nonzero angular momenta. The orthogonality and completeness properties of SPSs are established and SPS expansions for the outgoing-wave Green's function, physical states, and scattering matrix are obtained. The present formulation completes the theory of SPSs in the one-channel case, making its application to three-dimensional problems possible. The results are illustrated by calculations for several model potentials

  19. Langevin formulation of quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncadelli, M.

    1989-03-01

    We first show that nonrelativistic quantum mechanics formulated at imaginary-(h/2 π) can formally be viewed as the Fokker-Planck description of a frictionless brownian motion, which occurs (in general) in an absorbing medium. We next offer a new formulation of quantum mechanics, which is basically the Langevin treatment of this brownian motion. Explicitly, we derive a noise-average representation for the transition probability W(X'',t''|X',t'), in terms of the solutions to a Langevin equation with a Gaussian white-noise. Upon analytic continuation back to real-(h/2 π),W(X'',t''|X',t') becomes the propagator of the original Schroedinger equation. Our approach allows for a straightforward application to quantum dynamical problems of the mathematical techniques of classical stochastic processes. Moreover, computer simulations of quantum mechanical systems can be carried out by using numerical programs based on the Langevin dynamics. (author). 19 refs, 1 tab

  20. A Multifunctional Envelope-Type Nano Device Containing a pH-Sensitive Cationic Lipid for Efficient Delivery of Short Interfering RNA to Hepatocytes In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yusuke; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-01

    Various types of nanoparticles have been developed with the intent of efficiently delivering short interfering RNA (siRNA) to hepatocytes to date. To achieve efficient SiRNA delivery, various aspects of the delivery processes and physical properties need to be considered. We recently developed an original lipid nanoparticle, a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) containing YSK05, a pH-sensitive cationic lipid (YSK05-MEND). The YSK05-MEND with SiRNA in its formulation showed hepatocyte-specific uptake and robust gene silencing in hepatocytes after intravenous administration. Here, we describe the procedure used in the preparation and characterization method of the YSK05-MEND.

  1. Optimization of chlorphenesin emulgel formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Magdy I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation of chlorphenesin (CHL) using 2 types of gelling agents: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934. The influence of the type of the gelling agent and the concentration of both the oil phase and emulsifying agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgels was investigated using a 23 factorial design. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, antifungal activi...

  2. Studies on the parametric decay of waves in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paettikangas, T.

    1992-08-01

    Parametric instabilities of large-amplitude electromagnetic waves are investigated in fusion applications. In laser fusion, the electromegnetic wave reflected from the overdense plasma can act as a secondary pump wave and exite parametric instabilities. In double simulated Brilloun scattering (DSBS), both the incoming and the reflected pump wave scatter from a common ion sound wave. The stationary states and the dynamics of DSBS are investigated by using a simple envelope model. The ion sound wave that is exited in DSBS is shown to have soliton-like properties. The simulated Raman scattering (SRS) of free-electron-laser radiation can be applied to current drive in tokamaks. SRS generates fast longitudinal electron plasma waves which accelerate electrons to relativistic energies. Since the energetic current-carrying electrons are almost collisionless, the current decays very slowly. The feasibility of the Raman current drive in tokamaks is investigated theoretically. The current drive efficiency and the optimum free-electron-laser parameters are determined. The energy transfer to the fast electrons from the electrostatic wave is studied with relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell simulations. The parametric decay of a wave to half-harmonics is investigated. It is shown that the growth rate of the decay vanishes in the limit of a long wavelenght of the pump wave even for general electromagnetic or electrostatic decay models. The results are applied to the decay of a fast magnetosonic waves in tokamak plasmas. (orig.)

  3. Biliary Secretion of Quasi-Enveloped Human Hepatitis A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Hirai-Yuki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut. To assess whether eHAV and nonenveloped virus egress from cells via vectorially distinct pathways, we studied infected polarized cultures of Caco-2 and HepG2-N6 cells. Most (>99% progeny virions were released apically from Caco-2 cells, whereas basolateral (64% versus apical (36% release was more balanced with HepG2-N6 cells. Both apically and basolaterally released virions were predominantly enveloped, with no suggestion of differential vectorial release of eHAV versus naked virions. Basolateral to apical transcytosis of either particle type was minimal (<0.02%/h in HepG2-N6 cells, arguing against this as a mechanism for differences in membrane envelopment of serum versus fecal virus. High concentrations of human bile acids converted eHAV to nonenveloped virions, whereas virus present in bile from HAV-infected Ifnar1−/−Ifngr1−/− and Mavs−/− mice banded over a range of densities extending from that of eHAV to that of nonenveloped virions. We conclude that nonenveloped virions shed in feces are derived from eHAV released across the canalicular membrane and stripped of membranes by the detergent action of bile acids within the proximal biliary canaliculus.

  4. Energy Optimized Envelope for Cold Climate Indoor Agricultural Growing Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hachem-Vermette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the development of building envelope design for improved energy performance of a controlled indoor agricultural growing center in a cold climate zone (Canada, 54° N. A parametric study is applied to analyze the effects of envelope parameters on the building energy loads for heating, cooling and lighting, required for maintaining growing requirement as obtained in the literature. A base case building of rectangular layout, incorporating conventionally applied insulation and glazing components, is initially analyzed, employing the EnergyPlus simulation program. Insulation and glazing parameters are then modified to minimize energy loads under assumed minimal lighting requirement. This enhanced design forms a base case for analyzing effects of additional design parameters—solar radiation control, air infiltration rate, sky-lighting and the addition of phase change materials—to obtain an enhanced design that minimizes energy loads. A second stage of the investigation applies a high lighting level to the enhanced design and modifies the design parameters to improve performance. A final part of the study is an investigation of the mechanical systems and renewable energy generation. Through the enhancement of building envelope components and day-lighting design, combined heating and cooling load of the low level lighting configuration is reduced by 65% and lighting load by 10%, relative to the base case design. Employing building integrated PV (BIPV system, this optimized model can achieve energy positive status. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC, are discussed, as potential means to offset increased energy consumption associated with the high-level lighting model.

  5. Nuclear envelopathies: a complex LINC between nuclear envelope and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Alexandre; Bauer, Delphine; Ratti, Francesca; Millat, Gilles; Méjat, Alexandre

    2017-08-30

    Since the identification of the first disease causing mutation in the gene coding for emerin, a transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane, hundreds of mutations and variants have been found in genes encoding for nuclear envelope components. These proteins can be part of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), such as emerin or SUN proteins, outer nuclear membrane (ONM), such as Nesprins, or the nuclear lamina, such as lamins A and C. However, they physically interact with each other to insure the nuclear envelope integrity and mediate the interactions of the nuclear envelope with both the genome, on the inner side, and the cytoskeleton, on the outer side. The core of this complex, called LINC (LInker of Nucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton) is composed of KASH and SUN homology domain proteins. SUN proteins are INM proteins which interact with lamins by their N-terminal domain and with the KASH domain of nesprins located in the ONM by their C-terminal domain.Although most of these proteins are ubiquitously expressed, their mutations have been associated with a large number of clinically unrelated pathologies affecting specific tissues. Moreover, variants in SUN proteins have been found to modulate the severity of diseases induced by mutations in other LINC components or interactors. For these reasons, the diagnosis and the identification of the molecular explanation of "nuclear envelopathies" is currently challenging.The aim of this review is to summarize the human diseases caused by mutations in genes coding for INM proteins, nuclear lamina, and ONM proteins, and to discuss their potential physiopathological mechanisms that could explain the large spectrum of observed symptoms.

  6. Dynamic network data envelopment analysis for university hospitals evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella de Castro Lobo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To develop an assessment tool to evaluate the efficiency of federal university general hospitals. METHODS Data envelopment analysis, a linear programming technique, creates a best practice frontier by comparing observed production given the amount of resources used. The model is output-oriented and considers variable returns to scale. Network data envelopment analysis considers link variables belonging to more than one dimension (in the model, medical residents, adjusted admissions, and research projects. Dynamic network data envelopment analysis uses carry-over variables (in the model, financing budget to analyze frontier shift in subsequent years. Data were gathered from the information system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education (MEC, 2010-2013. RESULTS The mean scores for health care, teaching and research over the period were 58.0%, 86.0%, and 61.0%, respectively. In 2012, the best performance year, for all units to reach the frontier it would be necessary to have a mean increase of 65.0% in outpatient visits; 34.0% in admissions; 12.0% in undergraduate students; 13.0% in multi-professional residents; 48.0% in graduate students; 7.0% in research projects; besides a decrease of 9.0% in medical residents. In the same year, an increase of 0.9% in financing budget would be necessary to improve the care output frontier. In the dynamic evaluation, there was progress in teaching efficiency, oscillation in medical care and no variation in research. CONCLUSIONS The proposed model generates public health planning and programming parameters by estimating efficiency scores and making projections to reach the best practice frontier.

  7. Characteristics between the meshing pairs with different envelope profile in single screw compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Liu, F.; Li, T.; Feng, Q.

    2017-08-01

    Single screw compressors have been used in various industrial fields. However, because the star-wheel teeth are easy to wear, the market for the development of single screw compressors is limited. In order to extend the service life of the star-wheel, researchers have developed different kinds of star-wheel tooth profile, such as single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile. These profiles greatly affect the lubrication characteristics between the star-wheel teeth and the screw grooves. In this article, the lubrication characteristics between the meshing pairs with different envelope profiles are analyzed. Results show that the pressure peak of the single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile are 3.23×105Pa, 3.38×105Pa, and 4.31×105Pa, respectively. This means that the multi-column enveloped meshing pair can resist the biggest external impact load. The deviation angle (γ) of the single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile are 0.0139°~0.0286°, 0.0225°~0.0306° and 0.0122°~0.0262°, respectively. Thus, the self-balancing ability of the multi-column enveloped meshing pair is the strongest, and the oil film thickness on both sides of the multi-column enveloped star-wheel tooth is the most reasonable, which indicates a good lubrication state during operation, that is, longer operation life of the star-wheel teeth.

  8. A smart growth evaluation model based on data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokun; Guan, Yongyi

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid spread of urbanization, smart growth (SG) has attracted plenty of attention from all over the world. In this paper, by the establishment of index system for smart growth, data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was suggested to evaluate the SG level of the current growth situation in cities. In order to further improve the information of both radial direction and non-radial detection, we introduced the non-Archimedean infinitesimal to form C2GS2 control model. Finally, we evaluated the SG level in Canberra and identified a series of problems, which can verify the applicability of the model and provide us more improvement information.

  9. Thermonuclear runaways in thick hydrogen rich envelopes of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfield, S. G.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one dimensional hydrodynamic computer code was used to evolve thermonuclear runaways in the accreted hydrogen rich envelopes of 1.0 Msub solar neutron stars with radii of 10 km and 20 km. Simulations produce outbursts which last from about 750 seconds to about one week. Peak effective temeratures and luninosities were 26 million K and 80 thousand Lsub solar for the 10 km study and 5.3 millison and 600 Lsub solar for the 20 km study. Hydrodynamic expansion on the 10 km neutron star produced a precursor lasting about one ten thousandth seconds.

  10. Multinodal control room envelope model used for habitability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, W.M.; Gore, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This work analyzes the habitability of the control room envelope (CRE) during an off-normal ventilation system condition. The most limiting design basis accident utilized for this analysis is the postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The off-normal condition assumes two rooms within the CRE are at pressures that are lower than adjoining rooms outside the CRE. This pressure differential allows unfiltered in-leakage to enter the CRE through the doors and penetrations in these rooms. This paper quantifies the maximum unfiltered in-leakage

  11. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method in Benchmarking of Technological Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kaczmarska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original concept for the application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA in benchmarking processes within innovation and entrepreneurship centers based on the example of technological incubators. Applying the DEA method, it is possible to order analyzed objects, on the basis of explicitly defined relative efficiency, by compiling a rating list and rating classes. Establishing standards and indicating “clearances” allows the studied objects - innovation and entrepreneurship centers - to select a way of developing effectively, as well as preserving their individuality and a unique way of acting with the account of local needs. (original abstract

  12. Biliary Secretion of Quasi-Enveloped Human Hepatitis A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai-Yuki, Asuka; Hensley, Lucinda; Whitmire, Jason K; Lemon, Stanley M

    2016-12-06

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV) are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood) sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut. To assess whether eHAV and nonenveloped virus egress from cells via vectorially distinct pathways, we studied infected polarized cultures of Caco-2 and HepG2-N6 cells. Most (>99%) progeny virions were released apically from Caco-2 cells, whereas basolateral (64%) versus apical (36%) release was more balanced with HepG2-N6 cells. Both apically and basolaterally released virions were predominantly enveloped, with no suggestion of differential vectorial release of eHAV versus naked virions. Basolateral to apical transcytosis of either particle type was minimal (work reveals that it has an unusual life cycle. Virus is found in cell culture supernatant fluids in two mature, infectious forms: one wrapped in membranes (quasi-enveloped) and another that is nonenveloped. Membrane-wrapped virions circulate in blood during acute infection and are resistant to neutralizing antibodies, likely facilitating HAV dissemination within the liver. On the other hand, virus shed in feces is nonenveloped and highly stable, facilitating epidemic spread and transmission to naive hosts. Factors controlling the biogenesis of these two distinct forms of the virus in infected humans are not understood. Here we characterize vectorial release of quasi-enveloped virions from polarized epithelial cell cultures and provide evidence that bile acids strip membranes from eHAV following its secretion into the biliary tract. These results

  13. Towards a fourth skin? sustainability and double-envelope buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprose, P.R.; Robertson, G. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand)

    1996-05-01

    In several well publicised designs for `green` office buildings, the zone of meditation between inside and outside has been increased by the addition of a second building envelope. When interpreted as exemplars of sustainable architecture, the addition of a second wall in these buildings is questionable both biophysically and psycho-culturally. More constructive design strategies acknowledge the wider biophysical contexts of the human ecosystem, the prudent use of material and energy resources throughout a building`s life, make realistic use of climate, and promote psycho-cultural needs arising out of ecologism. (author)

  14. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  15. Radiation-induced invagination of the nuclear envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, J.G.; Copps, T.P.; Morash, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    Using electron microscopy, we have measured radiation-induced invagination of the nuclear envelope of Chinese hamster V-79 and mouse L cells to produce a quantifiable radiation endpoint on a membrane system. In the dose ranges measured (800 to 3000 rad in L cells and 1270 to 5700 rad in V-79 cells), the amount of invagination increased with dose and continued to develop in intact cells for up to 72 hr after the original population was irradiated. Small vacuoles, which sometimes appeared in the nuclei of L cells, were also more numerous in irradiated cells and increased with dose and incubation time in a similar fashion to invagination development

  16. A competitive-inhibiton radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, G.; Styk, B.; Vareckova, E.; Polakova, K.

    1976-01-01

    A double-antibody competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens is described. A viral antigen preparation from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] consisting of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase was labelled with radioiodine. Rabbit antisera were allowed to react with the labelled antigen and the resultant antigen-antibody complexes were precipitated with the appropriate antiglobulin. The competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay very sensitively elucidated differences even among closely related influenza virus strains. Attempts have been made to eliminate neuraminidase from radioimmunoprecipitation to obtain a competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay system for haemagglutinin alone. (author)

  17. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered.......The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  18. A quasilinear formulation of turbulence driven current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Non-inductive current drive mechanisms, such as the familiar neoclassical bootstrap current correspond to an essential component to the realization of steady state tokamak operation. In this work, we discuss a novel collisionless mechanism through which a mean plasma current may be driven in the presence of microturbulence. In analogy with the traditional neoclassical bootstrap current drive mechanism, in which the collisional equilibrium established between trapped and passing electrons results in the formation of a steady state plasma current, here we show that resonant scattering of electrons by drift wave microturbulence provides an additional means of determining the equilibrium between trapped and passing electrons. The resulting collisionless equilibrium is shown to result in the formation of an equilibrium current whose magnitude is a function of the thermodynamic forces. A mean field formulation is utilized to incorporate the above components into a unified framework through which both collisional as well as collisionless current drive mechanisms may be self-consistently treated. Utilizing a linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator, the plasma current in the presence of both collisions as well as turbulent stresses is computed, allowing for the relative strength of these two mechanisms to be quantified as a function of collisionality and fluctuation amplitude.

  19. A quasilinear formulation of turbulence driven current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Non-inductive current drive mechanisms, such as the familiar neoclassical bootstrap current correspond to an essential component to the realization of steady state tokamak operation. In this work, we discuss a novel collisionless mechanism through which a mean plasma current may be driven in the presence of microturbulence. In analogy with the traditional neoclassical bootstrap current drive mechanism, in which the collisional equilibrium established between trapped and passing electrons results in the formation of a steady state plasma current, here we show that resonant scattering of electrons by drift wave microturbulence provides an additional means of determining the equilibrium between trapped and passing electrons. The resulting collisionless equilibrium is shown to result in the formation of an equilibrium current whose magnitude is a function of the thermodynamic forces. A mean field formulation is utilized to incorporate the above components into a unified framework through which both collisional as well as collisionless current drive mechanisms may be self-consistently treated. Utilizing a linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator, the plasma current in the presence of both collisions as well as turbulent stresses is computed, allowing for the relative strength of these two mechanisms to be quantified as a function of collisionality and fluctuation amplitude

  20. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the elastic wave-equation; Dansei hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, S [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, T; Sassa, K [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Algorithm is constructed and a program developed for a full-wave inversion (FWI) method utilizing the elastic wave equation in seismic exploration. The FWI method is a method for obtaining a physical property distribution using the whole observed waveforms as the data. It is capable of high resolution which is several times smaller than the wavelength since it can handle such phenomena as wave reflection and dispersion. The method for determining the P-wave velocity structure by use of the acoustic wave equation does not provide information about the S-wave velocity since it does not consider S-waves or converted waves. In an analysis using the elastic wave equation, on the other hand, not only P-wave data but also S-wave data can be utilized. In this report, under such circumstances, an inverse analysis algorithm is constructed on the basis of the elastic wave equation, and a basic program is developed. On the basis of the methods of Mora and of Luo and Schuster, the correction factors for P-wave and S-wave velocities are formulated directly from the elastic wave equation. Computations are performed and the effects of the hypocenter frequency and vibration transmission direction are examined. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Constraining Phosphorus Chemistry in Carbon- and Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Envelopes: Observations of PN, HCP, and CP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, S. N.; Halfen, D. T.; Tenenbaum, E. D.; Apponi, A. J.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2008-09-01

    Millimeter-wave observations of PN, CP, and HCP have been carried out toward circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). HCP and PN have been identified in the carbon-rich source CRL 2688 via observations at 1 mm using the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) and 2-3 mm with the Kitt Peak 12 m. An identical set of measurements were carried out toward IRC +10216, as well as observations of CP at 1 mm. PN was also observed toward VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), an oxygen-rich supergiant star. The PN and HCP line profiles in CRL 2688 and IRC +10216 are roughly flat topped, indicating unresolved, optically thin emission; CP, in contrast, has a distinct "U" shape in IRC +10216. Modeling of the line profiles suggests abundances, relative to H2, of f(PN) ~ (3-5) × 10-9 and f(HCP) ~ 2 × 10-7 in CRL 2688, about an order of magnitude higher than in IRC +10216. In VY CMa, f(PN) is ~4 × 10-8. The data in CRL 2688 and IRC +10216 are consistent with LTE formation of HCP and PN in the inner envelope, as predicted by theoretical calculations, with CP a photodissociation product at larger radii. The observed abundance of PN in VY CMa is a factor of 100 higher than LTE predictions. In IRC +10216, the chemistry of HCP/CP mimics that of HCN/CN and suggests an N2 abundance of f ~ 1 × 10-7. The chemistry of phosphorus appears active in both carbon- and oxygen-rich envelopes of evolved stars.

  2. Traveling waves of the regularized short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y; Horikis, T P; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the so-called regularized short pulse equation (RSPE) are explored with a particular focus on the traveling wave solutions of this model. We theoretically analyze and numerically evolve two sets of such solutions. First, using a fixed point iteration scheme, we numerically integrate the equation to find solitary waves. It is found that these solutions are well approximated by a finite sum of hyperbolic secants powers. The dependence of the soliton's parameters (height, width, etc) to the parameters of the equation is also investigated. Second, by developing a multiple scale reduction of the RSPE to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we are able to construct (both standing and traveling) envelope wave breather type solutions of the former, based on the solitary wave structures of the latter. Both the regular and the breathing traveling wave solutions identified are found to be robust and should thus be amenable to observations in the form of few optical cycle pulses. (paper)

  3. Formulation of a Mesoscopic Electron Beam Splitter with Application in Semiconductor Based Quantum Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Shanker, A.; Bhowmik, D.; Bhattacharya, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    We aim to analytically arrive at a beam splitter formulation for electron waves. The electron beam splitter is an essential component of quantum logical devices. To arrive at the beam splitter structure, the electrons are treated as waves, i.e. we assume the transport to be ballistic. Ballistic electrons are electrons that travel over such short distances that their phase coherence is maintained. For mesoscopic devices with size smaller than the mean free path, the phase relaxation length and...

  4. High Frequency Waves Propagating in Octagonal Bars: a Low Cost Computation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Marzani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid semi-analytical Finite Element formulation is proposed to efficiently calculate the time dependent response due to stress waves propagating in a slender solid with uniform cross-section when excited by impulsive forces. The formulation takes advantage of the direct and inverse Fourier transform to formulate and solve the governing wave equation. The framework is applied to an octagonal viscoelastic isotropic steel bar.

  5. A new insight into opaque envelopes in a passive solar house: Properties and roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong; Liu, Minghou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new insight into the opaque envelopes of a passive solar house was gained. • Five parts of envelopes, i.e., roof, south/east/west/north walls, were discussed. • Each part of envelopes were analyzed separately rather than treated as a whole. • Ideal properties of materials for each envelope are diverse from one another. • Differences are related to the envelopes’ leading roles as a heater or a cooler. - Abstract: Passive solar houses are effective solutions for minimizing the operating energy of buildings. The building envelopes of passive solar houses exert a significant influence on the degree of indoor thermal comfort. The focus of this study was the construction of high-performance opaque envelopes, i.e., the roof and walls, for a passive solar house, and a new conception of the envelopes from the perspective of the relation between the properties and roles was provided. The discussion was conducted based on a comprehensive range of envelope materials that were distinguished by the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. For the first time, each part of the envelopes was analyzed separately rather than considered as an entire envelope. By analyzing each envelope individually, the optimum properties of each envelope were found to be distinct from each other. The distinctions are determined by the dominant role of each envelope, which is associated with the location and absorbed solar irradiation. For summer or hot climate applications, when the dominant role is a cooler, the envelope, e.g., the south wall, should consist of materials with high thermal conductivity and large heat capacity; if a heater is the dominant role, the envelope, e.g., the roof, should consist of materials with low thermal conductivity. For winter or cold climate applications, the envelopes with a leading role of a heater or a cooler require materials with high or low thermal conductivity, respectively. Under the guidance of the results, a discussion

  6. Simulation of Wave Overtopping of Maritime Structures in a Numerical Wave Flume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago C. A. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical wave flume based on the particle finite element method (PFEM is applied to simulate wave overtopping for impermeable maritime structures. An assessment of the performance and robustness of the numerical wave flume is carried out for two different cases comparing numerical results with experimental data. In the first case, a well-defined benchmark test of a simple low-crested structure overtopped by regular nonbreaking waves is presented, tested in the lab, and simulated in the numerical wave flume. In the second case, state-of-the-art physical experiments of a trapezoidal structure placed on a sloping beach overtopped by regular breaking waves are simulated in the numerical wave flume. For both cases, main overtopping events are well detected by the numerical wave flume. However, nonlinear processes controlling the tests proposed, such as nonlinear wave generation, energy losses along the wave propagation track, wave reflection, and overtopping events, are reproduced with more accuracy in the first case. Results indicate that a numerical wave flume based on the PFEM can be applied as an efficient tool to supplement physical models, semiempirical formulations, and other numerical techniques to deal with overtopping of maritime structures.

  7. Local Tensor Radiation Conditions For Elastic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2001-01-01

    A local boundary condition is formulated, representing radiation of elastic waves from an arbitrary point source. The boundary condition takes the form of a tensor relation between the stress at a point on an arbitrarily oriented section and the velocity and displacement vectors at the point....... The tensor relation generalizes the traditional normal incidence impedance condition by accounting for the angle between wave propagation and the surface normal and by including a generalized stiffness term due to spreading of the waves. The effectiveness of the local tensor radiation condition...

  8. Radial extension of drift waves in presence of velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Weiland, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a radially varying poloidal velocity field on the recently found radially extended toroidal drift waves is investigated analytically. The role of velocity curvature (υ φ '') is found to have robust effects on the radial model structure of the mode. For a positive value of the curvature (Usually found in the H-mode edges) the radial model envelope, similar to the sheared slab case, becomes fully outgoing. The mode is therefore stable. On the other hand, for a negative value of the curvature (usually observed in the L-mode edges) all the characteristics of conventional drift waves return back. The radial mode envelope reduces to a localized Gaussian shape and the mode is therefore unstable again for typical (magnetic) shear values in tokamaks. Velocity shear (υ φ ??) on the other hand is found to have rather insignificant role both in determining the radial model structure and stability

  9. Studies on spin waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prets, A.

    1998-07-01

    In the present Ph. D. thesis we are considering a special form of scaling limits, namely the hydrodynamic limit. Such limits are considered to explain macroscopic behavior of matter by means of microscopic dynamic laws. In this procedure a rescaling of space and time plays a central role. The limit will be formulated in a quantum mechanical way. Within this framework we study derivations of the Landau Lifshitz equation for ferromagnets. This equation is a macroscopic equation of motion for the magnetization vector and results into the theory of spin waves. Since we have no exact knowledge of the Heisenberg operator's time evolution no definitive statement an how to regain the Landau Lifshitz equation from the microscopic dynamics can be given. In contrast to the Heisenberg operator, for an Ising type interaction inside a ferromagnet one is able to recover macroscopically a solution of a linearized Landau Lifschitz equation. (author)

  10. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Random Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of a narrow frequency band beam of electromagnetic waves in a medium with randomly varying index of refraction is considered. A novel formulation of the governing equation is proposed. An equation for the average Green function (or transition probability) can then be derived...

  11. Utilizing the building envelope for power generation and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Wang, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat loading of the building envelope is caused by strong solar radiation and incorrect material selection. As a result of the heat loading of the building envelope, the indoor air temperature is increased, resulting in high energy consumption by air conditioners to maintain a comfortable indoor thermal environment. This study explores the use of a hybrid wall integrated with heat collectors (water piping system) and solar thermal power generators, which absorbs solar radiation through water to reduce heat transmission thereby saving energy and generating power. Power generation is achieved by an OD (oscillator device) that installed between a water tank (hot side) and building interior (cold side). The device acts by temperature differences between hot air (expansion) and cold air (contraction). CFD (computational dynamic simulation) was used to assess the effects of the hybrid wall on the interior environment. The results show that exterior heat is absorbed by cool water thereby reducing the heat transmission into the building, resulting in less energy consumption by air conditioners and power generation by use of temperature differences. - Highlights: • This study explores a hybrid building wall to save energy and generate power. • Power generators operated by air pressure change via hot tank and cool interior. • Less energy consumption by air conditioners and heating water. • Performance of CFD simulated results and experiment results are similar. • The energy saving efficiency is around 15 kWh/day via hybrid wall in west façade.

  12. Residential building envelope heat gain and cooling energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Tsang, C.L.; Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, S.O.

    2005-01-01

    We present the energy use situation in Hong Kong from 1979 to 2001. The primary energy requirement (PER) nearly tripled during the 23-year period, rising from 195,405 TJ to 572,684 TJ. Most of the PER was used for electricity generation, and the electricity use in residential buildings rose from 7556 TJ (2099 GWh) to 32,799 TJ (9111 GWh), an increase of 334%. Air-conditioning accounted for about 40% of the total residential sector electricity consumption. A total of 144 buildings completed in the month of June during 1992-2001 were surveyed. Energy performance of the building envelopes was investigated in terms of the overall thermal transfer value (OTTV). To develop the appropriated parameters used in OTTV calculation, long-term measured weather data such as ambient temperature (1960-2001), horizontal global solar radiation (1992-2001) and global solar radiation on vertical surfaces (1996-2001) were examined. The OTTV found varied from 27 to 44 W/m 2 with a mean value of 37.7 W/m 2 . Building energy simulation technique using DOE-2.1E was employed to determine the cooling requirements and hence electricity use for building envelope designs with different OTTVs. It was found that cooling loads and electricity use could be expressed in terms of a simple two-parameter linear regression equation involving OTTV

  13. Do all Planetary Nebulae result from Common Envelopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, O.; Moe, M.; Herwig, F.; Politano, M.

    2005-12-01

    The common envelope interaction is responsible for evolved close binaries. Some of these binaries reside in the middle of planetary nebulae (PN). Conventional wisdom has it that only about 10% of all PN contain close binary central stars. Recent observational results, however, strongly suggest that most or even all PN are in close binary systems. Interestingly, our population synthesis calculations predict that the number of post-common envelope PN is in agreement with the total number of PN in the Galaxy. On the other hand, if all stars (single and in binaries) with mass between ˜1-8 M⊙ eject a PN, there would be 10-20 times many more PN in the galaxy than observed. This theoretical result is in agreement with the observations in suggesting that binary interactions play a functional rather than marginal role in the creation of PN. FH acknowledges funds from the U.S. Dept. of Energy, under contract W-7405-ENG-36 to Los Alamos National Laboratory. MP gratefully acknowledges NSF grant AST-0328484 to Marquette University.

  14. THE PROPERTIES OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN GIANT PLANET ENVELOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubiran, François; Militzer, Burkhard [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    The core-accretion model for giant planet formation suggests a two-layer picture for the initial structure of Jovian planets, with heavy elements in a dense core and a thick H–He envelope. Late planetesimal accretion and core erosion could potentially enrich the H–He envelope in heavy elements, which is supported by the threefold solar metallicity that was measured in Jupiter’s atmosphere by the Galileo entry probe. In order to reproduce the observed gravitational moments of Jupiter and Saturn, models for their interiors include heavy elements, Z , in various proportions. However, their effect on the equation of state of the hydrogen–helium mixtures has not been investigated beyond the ideal mixing approximation. In this article, we report results from ab initio simulations of fully interacting H–He– Z mixtures in order to characterize their equation of state and to analyze possible consequences for the interior structure and evolution of giant planets. Considering C, N, O, Si, Fe, MgO, and SiO{sub 2}, we show that the behavior of heavy elements in H–He mixtures may still be represented by an ideal mixture if the effective volumes and internal energies are chosen appropriately. In the case of oxygen, we also compute the effect on the entropy. We find the resulting changes in the temperature–pressure profile to be small. A homogeneous distribution of 2% oxygen by mass changes the temperature in Jupiter’s interior by only 80 K.

  15. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenklach, M.; Feigelson, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    Production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes was investigated using a kinetic approach. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism of gas-phase PAH formation and growth, containing approximately 100 reactions of 40 species, was numerically solved under the physical conditions expected in cool stellar winds. The chemistry is based on studies of soot production in hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion. Several first-ring and second-ring cyclization processes were considered. A linear lumping algorithm was used to describe PAH growth beyond the second aromatic ring. PAH production using this mechanism was examined with respect to a grid of idealized constant velocity stellar winds as well as several published astrophysical models. The basic result is that the onset of PAH production in the interstellar envelopes is predicted to occur within the temperature interval of 1100 to 900 K. The absolute amounts of the PAHs formed, however, are very sensitive to a number of parameters, both chemical and astrophysical, whose values are not accurately known. Astrophysically meaningful quantities of PAHs require particularly dense and slow stellar winds and high initial acetylene abundance. It is suggested that most of the PAHs may be produced in a relatively small fraction of carbon-rich red giants. 87 refs

  16. Crystal structure of the Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Vincent C; AbiMansour, Jad; Nelson, Christopher A; Fremont, Daved H

    2012-02-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading global cause of viral encephalitis. The JEV envelope protein (E) facilitates cellular attachment and membrane fusion and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. We have determined the 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of the JEV E ectodomain refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies. The E protein possesses the three domains characteristic of flavivirus envelopes and epitope mapping of neutralizing antibodies onto the structure reveals determinants that correspond to the domain I lateral ridge, fusion loop, domain III lateral ridge, and domain I-II hinge. While monomeric in solution, JEV E assembles as an antiparallel dimer in the crystal lattice organized in a highly similar fashion as seen in cryo-electron microscopy models of mature flavivirus virions. The dimer interface, however, is remarkably small and lacks many of the domain II contacts observed in other flavivirus E homodimers. In addition, uniquely conserved histidines within the JEV serocomplex suggest that pH-mediated structural transitions may be aided by lateral interactions outside the dimer interface in the icosahedral virion. Our results suggest that variation in dimer structure and stability may significantly influence the assembly, receptor interaction, and uncoating of virions.

  17. Functional Analysis of Glycosylation of Zika Virus Envelope Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila R. Fontes-Garfias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Zika virus (ZIKV infection causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The ZIKV envelope (E protein is responsible for viral entry and represents a major determinant for viral pathogenesis. Like other flaviviruses, the ZIKV E protein is glycosylated at amino acid N154. To study the function of E glycosylation, we generated a recombinant N154Q ZIKV that lacks the E glycosylation and analyzed the mutant virus in mammalian and mosquito hosts. In mouse models, the mutant was attenuated, as evidenced by lower viremia, decreased weight loss, and no mortality; however, knockout of E glycosylation did not significantly affect neurovirulence. Mice immunized with the mutant virus developed a robust neutralizing antibody response and were completely protected from wild-type ZIKV challenge. In mosquitoes, the mutant virus exhibited diminished oral infectivity for the Aedes aegypti vector. Collectively, the results demonstrate that E glycosylation is critical for ZIKV infection of mammalian and mosquito hosts. : Zika virus (ZIKV causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Fontes-Garfias et al. showed that the glycosylation of ZIKV envelope protein plays an important role in infecting mosquito vectors and pathogenesis in mouse. Keywords: Zika virus, glycosylation, flavivirus entry, mosquito transmission, vaccine

  18. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi eRashid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs target anionic lipids (e.g. phosphatidylglycerol (PG and cardiolipins (CL in the cell membrane and anionic components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g. lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1 CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2 delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3 CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction.

  19. Binaural hearing in children using Gaussian enveloped and transposed tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Erica; Kan, Alan; Winn, Matthew B; Stoelb, Corey; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-04-01

    Children who use bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) show significantly poorer sound localization skills than their normal hearing (NH) peers. This difference has been attributed, in part, to the fact that cochlear implants (CIs) do not faithfully transmit interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs), which are known to be important cues for sound localization. Interestingly, little is known about binaural sensitivity in NH children, in particular, with stimuli that constrain acoustic cues in a manner representative of CI processing. In order to better understand and evaluate binaural hearing in children with BiCIs, the authors first undertook a study on binaural sensitivity in NH children ages 8-10, and in adults. Experiments evaluated sound discrimination and lateralization using ITD and ILD cues, for stimuli with robust envelope cues, but poor representation of temporal fine structure. Stimuli were spondaic words, Gaussian-enveloped tone pulse trains (100 pulse-per-second), and transposed tones. Results showed that discrimination thresholds in children were adult-like (15-389 μs for ITDs and 0.5-6.0 dB for ILDs). However, lateralization based on the same binaural cues showed higher variability than seen in adults. Results are discussed in the context of factors that may be responsible for poor representation of binaural cues in bilaterally implanted children.

  20. Hospitals Productivity Measurement Using Data Envelopment Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabipour, Amin; Najarzadeh, Maryam; Arab, Mohammad; Farzianpour, Freshteh; Ghasemzadeh, Roya

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the hospital productivity using data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique and Malmquist indices. This is a cross sectional study in which the panel data were used in a 4 year period from 2007 to 2010. The research was implemented in 12 teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Ahvaz County. Data envelopment analysis technique and the Malmquist indices with an input-orientation approach, was used to analyze the data and estimation of productivity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.18 and DEAP.2 software. Six hospitals (50%) had a value lower than 1, which represents an increase in total productivity and other hospitals were non-productive. the average of total productivity factor (TPF) was 1.024 for all hospitals, which represents a decrease in efficiency by 2.4% from 2007 to 2010. The average technical, technologic, scale and managerial efficiency change was 0.989, 1.008, 1.028, and 0.996 respectively. There was not a significant difference in mean productivity changes among teaching and non-teaching hospitals (P>0.05) (except in 2009 years). Productivity rate of hospitals had an increasing trend generally. However, the total average of productivity was decreased in hospitals. Besides, between the several components of total productivity, variation of technological efficiency had the highest impact on reduce of total average of productivity.

  1. A novel family of plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Vidya; Poulet, Axel; Détourné, Gwénaëlle; Tatout, Christophe; Vanrobays, Emmanuel; Evans, David E; Graumann, Katja

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the characterisation of a new family of higher plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins (NEAPs) that interact with other proteins of the nuclear envelope. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the family consists of three genes expressed ubiquitously (AtNEAP1-3) and a pseudogene (AtNEAP4). NEAPs consist of extensive coiled-coil domains, followed by a nuclear localisation signal and a C-terminal predicted transmembrane domain. Domain deletion mutants confirm the presence of a functional nuclear localisation signal and transmembrane domain. AtNEAP proteins localise to the nuclear periphery as part of stable protein complexes, are able to form homo- and heteromers, and interact with the SUN domain proteins AtSUN1 and AtSUN2, involved in the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. An A. thaliana cDNA library screen identified a putative transcription factor called AtbZIP18 as a novel interactor of AtNEAP1, which suggest a connection between NEAP and chromatin. An Atneap1 Atneap3 double-knockout mutant showed reduced root growth, and altered nuclear morphology and chromatin structure. Thus AtNEAPs are suggested as inner nuclear membrane-anchored coiled-coil proteins with roles in maintaining nuclear morphology and chromatin structure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Optimum moisture levels for biodegradation of mortality composting envelope materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2008-01-01

    Moisture affects the physical and biological properties of compost and other solid-state fermentation matrices. Aerobic microbial systems experience different respiration rates (oxygen uptake and CO2 evolution) as a function of moisture content and material type. In this study the microbial respiration rates of 12 mortality composting envelope materials were measured by a pressure sensor method at six different moisture levels. A wide range of respiration (1.6-94.2mg O2/g VS-day) rates were observed for different materials, with alfalfa hay, silage, oat straw, and turkey litter having the highest values. These four envelope materials may be particularly suitable for improving internal temperature and pathogen destruction rates for disease-related mortality composting. Optimum moisture content was determined based on measurements across a range that spans the maximum respiration rate. The optimum moisture content of each material was observed near water holding capacity, which ranged from near 60% to over 80% on a wet basis for all materials except a highly stabilized soil compost blend (optimum around 25% w.b.). The implications of the results for moisture management and process control strategies during mortality composting are discussed.

  3. Stress envelope of silicon carbide composites at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Kim, Sunghun; Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    To identify a comprehensive stress envelope, i.e., strength anisotropy map, of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (SiC/SiC composite) for practical component design, tensile and compressive tests were conducted using the small specimen test technique specifically tailored for high-temperature use. In-plane shear properties were, however, estimated using the off-axial tensile method and assuming that the mixed mode failure criterion, i.e., Tsai–Wu criterion, is valid for the composites. The preliminary test results indicate no significant degradation to either proportional limit stress (PLS) or fracture strength by tensile loading at temperatures below 1000 °C. A similarly good tolerance of compressive properties was identified at elevated temperatures, except for a slight degradation in PLS. With the high-temperature test data of tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties, the stress envelopes at elevated temperatures were finally obtained. A slight reduction in the design limit was obvious at elevated temperatures when the compressive mode is dominant, whereas a negligibly small impact on the design is expected by considering the tensile loading case

  4. Stress envelope of silicon carbide composites at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, Takashi, E-mail: nozawa.takashi67@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Kim, Sunghun [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    To identify a comprehensive stress envelope, i.e., strength anisotropy map, of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (SiC/SiC composite) for practical component design, tensile and compressive tests were conducted using the small specimen test technique specifically tailored for high-temperature use. In-plane shear properties were, however, estimated using the off-axial tensile method and assuming that the mixed mode failure criterion, i.e., Tsai–Wu criterion, is valid for the composites. The preliminary test results indicate no significant degradation to either proportional limit stress (PLS) or fracture strength by tensile loading at temperatures below 1000 °C. A similarly good tolerance of compressive properties was identified at elevated temperatures, except for a slight degradation in PLS. With the high-temperature test data of tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties, the stress envelopes at elevated temperatures were finally obtained. A slight reduction in the design limit was obvious at elevated temperatures when the compressive mode is dominant, whereas a negligibly small impact on the design is expected by considering the tensile loading case.

  5. Envelope method for determination of the ion linear accelerator acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshanov, A.A.; Goncharenko, I.I.; Revutskij, E.I.

    1974-01-01

    The acceptance defined by the slit u 2 2 in space u, ν, z (u=coordinate of the accelerated particle in the direction perpendicular to the accelerator axis, ν=ratio of the transverse particle velocity component to the longitudinal component, z=accelerator axis, a=dimensions of slit) represents a convex curvilinear polygon with centre of symmetry at the origin of the co-ordinates. The sides of the polygon are sections of ellipses and straight lines, the ellipses being part of an envelope to the set of proto-types of all cross-sections of the slit in planes z=3, where 0<=xi<=z and z is the length of the accelerator, and the straight lines are tangents to the ends of the envelope. In the paper the equations of the ellipses forming the sides of the polygon are written using an elementary variable matrix of the accelerator structure, and the co-ordinates of the polygon apexes are found. A numerical value is derived for the area of the polygon for one transverse co-ordinate of the particular accelerator, the pre-stripping section of the LUMZI-10. (author)

  6. A multi-objective optimization model for energy-efficiency building envelope retrofitting plan with rooftop PV system installation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yuling; Xia, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization model for building envelope retrofit is presented. • Facility performance degradation and maintenance is built into the model. • A rooftop PV system is introduced to produce electricity. • Economic factors including net present value and payback period are considered. - Abstract: Retrofitting existing buildings with energy-efficient facilities is an effective method to improve their energy efficiency, especially for old buildings. A multi-objective optimization model for building envelope retrofitting is presented. Envelope components including windows, external walls and roofs are considered to be retrofitted. Installation of a rooftop solar panel system is also taken into consideration in this study. Rooftop solar panels are modeled with their degradation and a maintenance scheme is studied for sustainability of energy and its long-term effect on the retrofitting plan. The purpose is to make the best use of financial investment to maximize energy savings and economic benefits. In particular, net present value, the payback period and energy savings are taken as the main performance indicators of the retrofitting plan. The multi-objective optimization problem is formulated as a non-linear integer programming problem and solved by a weighted sum method. Results of applying the designed retrofitting plan to a 50-year-old building consisting of 66 apartments demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  7. The Experimental Research on Seismic Capacity of the Envelope Systems with Steel Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuyang; Wang, Bingbing; Li, Hengxu

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, according to the present application situation of the external envelope systems steel frame in the severe cold region, the stuffed composite wall panels are improved, the flexible connection with the steel frame is designed, the reduced scale specimens are made, the seismic capacity test is made and some indexes of the envelope systems such as bearing capacity, energy consumption and ductility, etc. are compared, which provide reference for the development and application of the steel frame envelope systems.

  8. CCR5 Signal Transduction in Macrophages by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Arthos, James; Rubbert, Andrea; Rabin, Ronald L.; Cicala, Claudia; Machado, Elizabeth; Wildt, Kathryne; Hanbach, Meredith; Steenbeke, Tavis D.; Swofford, Ruth; Farber, Joshua M.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelopes to transduce signals through chemokine coreceptors on macrophages was examined by measuring the ability of recombinant envelope proteins to mobilize intracellular calcium stores. Both HIV and SIV envelopes mobilized calcium via interactions with CCR5. The kinetics of these responses were similar to those observed when macrophages were treated with MIP-1β. Distinct differences in the capacity o...

  9. Combined centroid-envelope dynamics of intense, magnetically focused charged beams surrounded by conducting walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiuza, K.; Rizzato, F.B.; Pakter, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the combined envelope-centroid dynamics of magnetically focused high-intensity charged beams surrounded by conducting walls. Similar to the case where conducting walls are absent, it is shown that the envelope and centroid dynamics decouple from each other. Mismatched envelopes still decay into equilibrium with simultaneous emittance growth, but the centroid keeps oscillating with no appreciable energy loss. Some estimates are performed to analytically obtain characteristics of halo formation seen in the full simulations

  10. Perfume formulation: words and chats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Céline

    2008-06-01

    What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!

  11. E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time

  12. Numerical Simulations of Upstream Propagating Solitary Waves and Wave Breaking In A Stratified Fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastna, M.; Peltier, W. R.

    In this talk we will discuss ongoing numerical modeling of the flow of a stratified fluid over large scale topography motivated by observations in Knight Inlet, a fjord in British Columbia, Canada. After briefly surveying the work done on the topic in the past we will discuss our latest set of simulations in which we have observed the gener- ation and breaking of three different types of nonlinear internal waves in the lee of the sill topography. The first type of wave observed is a large lee wave in the weakly strat- ified main portion of the water column, The second is an upward propagating internal wave forced by topography that breaks in the strong, near-surface pycnocline. The third is a train of upstream propagating solitary waves that, in certain circumstances, form as breaking waves consisting of a nearly solitary wave envelope and a highly unsteady core near the surface. Time premitting, we will comment on the implications of these results for our long term goal of quantifying tidally driven mixing in Knight Inlet.

  13. Formulation of soy oil products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerfel, John B.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments different formulations of soy oil products such as salad and cooking oils, margarine, shortenings, commercial shortenings, frying shortenings, and fluid shortenings. Hydrogenation and its influence on final products is also included.

    El trabajo presenta diferentes formulaciones a base de aceite de soja tales como aceites para ensalada y cocinado, margarina, grasas sólidas (shortenings, grasas sólidas comerciales, grasas sólidas para frituras y grasas fluidas. Hace también referencia al proceso de hidrogenación y a sus efectos en los productos finales.

  14. Formulation and Characterization of Sustained Release Floating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate sustained release gastroretentive microballoons of metformin hydrochloride with the objective of improving its bioavailability. Methods: Microballoons of metformin hydrochloride were formulated by solvent evaporation and diffusion method using varying mixtures of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ...

  15. Bioequivalence assessment of two formulations of ibuprofen

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Talla, Zeyad; Akrawi, Sabah H; Tolley, Luke T; Sioud, Salim H; Zaater, Mohammed F; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the relative bioavailability of two formulations of ibuprofen. The first formulation was Doloraz , produced by Al-Razi Pharmaceutical Company, Amman, Jordan. The second forumulation was Brufen , manufactured by Boots

  16. Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab

  17. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J

    , steep nonsymmetric cnoidal waves, solitons and random waves. They have different properties too. Any wave form has a wave period (T), wave height (H) and speed (C) which depends on T. Still another type of waves are breaking waves near a coast...

  18. Evolution of a blue supergiant with a neutron star companion immersed in its envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of a binary system consisting of 1 Msub(sun) neutron star and a 25 Msub(sun) blue supergiant through a phase of common envelope is investigated. We include the effects of an additional energy source on the supergiant's envelope, due to the presence of the neutron star, and variable mass loss from the system, taken as proportional to the total luminosity. The results indicate that, independently of the initial period, the system loses its whole envelope as a consequence of the common envelope phase, the final product of this being a detached system, consisting of a neutron star and a helium star. (orig.)

  19. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  20. Fundamental structure of steady plastic shock waves in metals

    OpenAIRE

    Molinari, A.; Ravichandran, G.

    2004-01-01

    The propagation of steady plane shock waves in metallic materials is considered. Following the constitutive framework adopted by R. J. Clifton [Shock Waves and the Mechanical Properties of Solids, edited by J. J. Burke and V. Weiss (Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N.Y., 1971), p. 73] for analyzing elastic–plastic transient waves, an analytical solution of the steady state propagation of plastic shocks is proposed. The problem is formulated in a Lagrangian setting appropriate for large de...

  1. Wave function of the Universe as a leaking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, W.; Young, K.

    1989-01-01

    We propose a path-integral formulation for the wave function of the Universe which requires neither the Euclidean nor the conformal rotation. The boundary condition is taken to be that ''all possible boundaries are included.'' The resulting wave function in a simple model is shown to have the following properties: (i) the wave function tends to zero as the scale factor of the Universe tends to zero; (ii) in the semiclassical regime, it contains only the expanding component; (iii) it favors inflation

  2. Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Dunkerton

    2009-08-01

    cyclonic vorticity and weak deformation by the resolved flow, (ii containment of moisture entrained by the developing gyre and/or lofted by deep convection therein, (iii confinement of mesoscale vortex aggregation, (iv a predominantly convective type of heating profile, and (v maintenance or enhancement of the parent wave until the vortex becomes a self-sustaining entity and emerges from the wave as a tropical depression. The entire sequence is likened to the development of a marsupial infant in its mother's pouch. These ideas are formulated in three new hypotheses describing the flow kinematics and dynamics, moist thermodynamics and wave/vortex interactions comprising the "marsupial paradigm". A survey of 55 named tropical storms in 1998–2001 reveals that actual critical layers sometimes resemble the ideal east-west train of cat's eyes, but are usually less regular, with one or more recirculation regions in the co-moving frame. It is shown that the kinematics of isolated proto-vortices carried by the wave also can be visualized in a frame of reference translating at or near the phase speed of the parent wave. The proper translation speeds for wave and vortex may vary with height owing to vertical shear and wave-vortex interaction. Some implications for entrainment/containment of vorticity and moisture in the cat's eye are discussed from this perspective, based on the observational survey.

  3. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  4. Application of Maximum Entropy Distribution to the Statistical Properties of Wave Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The new distributions of the statistics of wave groups based on the maximum entropy principle are presented. The maximum entropy distributions appear to be superior to conventional distributions when applied to a limited amount of information. Its applications to the wave group properties show the effectiveness of the maximum entropy distribution. FFT filtering method is employed to obtain the wave envelope fast and efficiently. Comparisons of both the maximum entropy distribution and the distribution of Longuet-Higgins (1984) with the laboratory wind-wave data show that the former gives a better fit.

  5. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  6. Computer simulation of driven Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geary, J.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The first particle simulation study of shear Alfven wave resonance heating is presented. Particle simulation codes self-consistently follow the time evolution of the individual and collective aspects of particle dynamics as well as wave dynamics in a fully nonlinear fashion. Alfven wave heating is a possible means of increasing the temperature of magnetized plasmas. A new particle simulation model was developed for this application that incorporates Darwin's formulation of the electromagnetic fields with a guiding center approximation for electron motion perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The implementation of this model and the examination of its theoretical and computational properties are presented. With this model, several cases of Alfven wave heating is examined in both uniform and nonuniform simulation systems in a two dimensional slab. For the inhomogeneous case studies, the kinetic Alfven wave develops in the vicinity of the shear Alfven resonance region

  7. Time evolution of wave packets on nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunele, E de

    2005-01-01

    Time evolution of wave packets on nanostructures is studied on the basis of a three-dimensional solvable model with singular interactions (de Prunele 1997 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 30 7831). In particular, methods and tools are provided to determine time independent upper bounds for the overlap of the normalized time-dependent wave packet with the time independent normalized wave packet concentrated at an arbitrarily chosen vertex of the nanosystem. The set of upper bounds referring to all initial positions of the wave packet and all overlaps are summarized in a matrix. The analytical formulation allows a detailed study for arbitrary geometrical configurations. Time evolution on truncated quasicrystalline systems has been found to be site selective, depending on the position of the initial wave packet

  8. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general space-time to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave space-times. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

  9. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  10. Wave fields in real media wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic, porous and electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Carcione, José M

    2014-01-01

    Authored by the internationally renowned José M. Carcione, Wave Fields in Real Media: Wave Propagation in Anisotropic, Anelastic, Porous and Electromagnetic Media examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, starting with the introduction of relevant stress-strain relations. The combination of this relation and the equations of momentum conservation lead to the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. This book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and ...

  11. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  12. Performance Evaluation of Abrasive Grinding Wheel Formulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on the formulation and manufacture of abrasive grinding wheel using locally formulated silicon carbide abrasive grains. Six local raw material substitutes were identified through pilot study and with the initial mix of the identified materials, a systematic search for an optimal formulation of silicon ...

  13. Optimization of chlorphenesin emulgel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Magdy I

    2004-10-11

    This study was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation of chlorphenesin (CHL) using 2 types of gelling agents: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934. The influence of the type of the gelling agent and the concentration of both the oil phase and emulsifying agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgels was investigated using a 2(3) factorial design. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, antifungal activity, and stability. Commercially available CHL topical powder was used for comparison. All the prepared emulgels showed acceptable physical properties concerning color, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, and pH value. They also exhibited higher drug release and antifungal activity than the CHL powder. It was found that the emulsifying agent concentration had the most pronounced effect on the drug release from the emulgels followed by the oil phase concentration and finally the type of the gelling agent. The drug release from all the emulgels was found to follow diffusion-controlled mechanism. Rheological studies revealed that the CHL emulgels exhibited a shear-thinning behavior with thixotropy. Stability studies showed that the physical appearance, rheological properties, drug release, and antifungal activity in all the prepared emulgels remained unchanged upon storage for 3 months. As a general conclusion, it was suggested that the CHL emulgel formulation prepared with HPMC with the oil phase concentration in its low level and emulsifying agent concentration in its high level was the formula of choice since it showed the highest drug release and antifungal activity.

  14. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2018-01-01

    Various parameterizations have been suggested to simplify inversions of first arrivals, or P −waves, in orthorhombic anisotropic media, but the number and type of retrievable parameters have not been decisively determined. We show that only six

  15. General time-dependent formulation of quantum scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2004-01-01

    We derive and explain the key ideas behind a time-dependent formulation of quantum scattering theory, applicable generally to systems with a finite-range scattering potential. The scattering is initiated and probed by plane wave packets, which are localized just outside the range of the potential. The asymptotic limits of conventional scattering theory (initiation in the remote past; detection in the remote future) are not taken. Instead, the differential cross section (DCS) is obtained by projecting the scattered wave packet onto the probe plane wave packets. The projection also yields a time-dependent version of the DCS. Cuts through the wave packet, just as it exits the scattering potential, yield time-dependent and time-independent angular distributions that give a close-up picture of the scattering which complements the DCS. We have previously applied the theory to interpret experimental cross sections of chemical reactions [e.g., S. C. Althorpe, F. Fernandez-Alonso, B. D. Bean, J. D. Ayers, A. E. Pomerantz, R. N. Zare, and E. Wrede, Nature (London) 416, 67 (2002)]. This paper gives the derivation of the theory, and explains its relation to conventional scattering theory. For clarity, the derivation is restricted to spherical-particle scattering, though it may readily be extended to general multichannel systems. We illustrate the theory using a simple application to hard-sphere scattering

  16. Mutations That Alter the Bacterial Cell Envelope Increase Lipid Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Zhang, Weiping; Langer, Samantha J.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Hu, Dehong; Lemke, Rachelle A.; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Orr, Galya; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2017-05-23

    ABSTRACT

    Lipids from microbes offer a promising source of renewable alternatives to petroleum-derived compounds. In particular, oleaginous microbes are of interest because they accumulate a large fraction of their biomass as lipids. In this study, we analyzed genetic changes that alter lipid accumulation inRhodobacter sphaeroides. By screening anR. sphaeroidesTn5mutant library for insertions that increased fatty acid content, we identified 10 high-lipid (HL) mutants for further characterization. These HL mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to drugs that target the bacterial cell envelope and changes in shape, and some had the ability to secrete lipids, with two HL mutants accumulating ~60% of their total lipids extracellularly. When one of the highest-lipid-secreting strains was grown in a fed-batch bioreactor, its lipid content was comparable to that of oleaginous microbes, with the majority of the lipids secreted into the medium. Based on the properties of these HL mutants, we conclude that alterations of the cell envelope are a previously unreported approach to increase microbial lipid production. We also propose that this approach may be combined with knowledge about biosynthetic pathways, in this or other microbes, to increase production of lipids and other chemicals.

    IMPORTANCEThis paper reports on experiments to understand how to increase microbial lipid production. Microbial lipids are often cited as one renewable replacement for petroleum-based fuels and chemicals, but strategies to increase the yield of these compounds are needed to achieve this goal. While lipid biosynthesis is often well understood, increasing yields of these compounds to industrially relevant levels is a challenge, especially since genetic, synthetic biology, or engineering approaches are not feasible in many microbes. We show that altering the bacterial cell envelope can be used to increase

  17. CISBAT 2007 - Design and renovation of building envelopes (bioclimatic architecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the second part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of sustainable building envelopes the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Flexible photovoltaics integrated in transparent membrane and pneumatic foil constructions', 'Development of a numerical thermal model for double skin facades', 'Thermal performance analysis for an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings', 'Challenging the public building sector: optimization of energy performance by sustainable strategies', 'Simulation of the thermal performance of a climate adaptive skin', 'Possibilities for upgrading prefabricated concrete building envelopes', 'Experimental study of airflow and heat transfer in a double skin facade with blinds', 'Energy efficiency of a glazing system - Case study: a dynamic glazing and double skin facades - the use of venetian blinds and night ventilation for saving energy on mediterranean climate'. Poster-sessions on the subject include 'Adaptive building envelopes design ', 'GRC facade panels in Brazil', 'Solar absorptance of building opaque surfaces', 'Evaluating the thermal behavior of exterior walls (in residential buildings of hot-dry climate of Yazd)', 'Energy performance of buildings and local energy policy: the case of new residential buildings in Greve in Chianti (Firenze)', 'Space heating and domestic hot water energy demand in high-level-insulation multi-storey buildings in Tuscany (Italy)', 'Is 2000 W society possible, affordable, and socially acceptable for the Vaud existing school building?', 'Development of simplified method for measuring solar shading performance of windows', 'Studies of ecological architecture in China's Loess Plateau region', 'Contemporary mud

  18. Constraint-preserving boundary treatment for a harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Jennifer; Szilagyi, Bela; Pollney, Denis; Rezzolla, Luciano [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm (Germany)

    2008-09-07

    We present a set of well-posed constraint-preserving boundary conditions for a first-order in time, second-order in space, harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations. The boundary conditions are tested using robust stability, linear and nonlinear waves, and are found to be both less reflective and constraint preserving than standard Sommerfeld-type boundary conditions.

  19. Constraint-preserving boundary treatment for a harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, Jennifer; Szilagyi, Bela; Pollney, Denis; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    We present a set of well-posed constraint-preserving boundary conditions for a first-order in time, second-order in space, harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations. The boundary conditions are tested using robust stability, linear and nonlinear waves, and are found to be both less reflective and constraint preserving than standard Sommerfeld-type boundary conditions

  20. Formulation development for PREPP concreted waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Welch, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    Analysis of variance and logistic regression techniques have been used to develop models describing the effects of formulation variables and their interactions on compressive strength, solidification, free-standing water, and workability of hydraulic cement grouts incorporating simulated Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) wastes. These models provide the basis for specifications of grout formulations to solidify these wastes. The experimental test matrix, formulation preparation, and test methods employed are described. The development of analytical models for formulation behavior and the conclusions drawn regarding appropriate formulation variable ranges are discussed. 13 references, 9 figures, 15 tables

  1. Conservation of the egg envelope digestion mechanism of hatching enzyme in euteleostean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Shimizu, Akio; Sano, Kaori; Iuchi, Ichiro; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2010-12-01

    We purified two hatching enzymes, namely high choriolytic enzyme (HCE; EC 3.4.24.67) and low choriolytic enzyme (LCE; EC 3.4.24.66), from the hatching liquid of Fundulus heteroclitus, which were named Fundulus HCE (FHCE) and Fundulus LCE (FLCE). FHCE swelled the inner layer of egg envelope, and FLCE completely digested the FHCE-swollen envelope. In addition, we cloned three Fundulus cDNAs orthologous to cDNAs for the medaka precursors of egg envelope subunit proteins (i.e. choriogenins H, H minor and L) from the female liver. Cleavage sites of FHCE and FLCE on egg envelope subunit proteins were determined by comparing the N-terminal amino acid sequences of digests with the sequences deduced from the cDNAs for egg envelope subunit proteins. FHCE and FLCE cleaved different sites of the subunit proteins. FHCE efficiently cleaved the Pro-X-Y repeat regions into tripeptides to dodecapeptides to swell the envelope, whereas FLCE cleaved the inside of the zona pellucida domain, the core structure of egg envelope subunit protein, to completely digest the FHCE-swollen envelope. A comparison showed that the positions of hatching enzyme cleavage sites on egg envelope subunit proteins were strictly conserved between Fundulus and medaka. Finally, we extended such a comparison to three other euteleosts (i.e. three-spined stickleback, spotted halibut and rainbow trout) and found that the egg envelope digestion mechanism was well conserved among them. During evolution, the egg envelope digestion by HCE and LCE orthologs was established in the lineage of euteleosts, and the mechanism is suggested to be conserved. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  2. Geometrical Determinants of Neuronal Actin Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Caterina; Braïni, Céline; Bugnicourt, Ghislain; Cohen, Floriane; Friedrich, Benjamin M; Gov, Nir S; Villard, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal neurons produce in their early stages of growth propagative, actin-rich dynamical structures called actin waves. The directional motion of actin waves from the soma to the tip of neuronal extensions has been associated with net forward growth, and ultimately with the specification of neurites into axon and dendrites. Here, geometrical cues are used to control actin wave dynamics by constraining neurons on adhesive stripes of various widths. A key observable, the average time between the production of consecutive actin waves, or mean inter-wave interval (IWI), was identified. It scales with the neurite width, and more precisely with the width of the proximal segment close to the soma. In addition, the IWI is independent of the total number of neurites. These two results suggest a mechanistic model of actin wave production, by which the material conveyed by actin waves is assembled in the soma until it reaches the threshold leading to the initiation and propagation of a new actin wave. Based on these observations, we formulate a predictive theoretical description of actin wave-driven neuronal growth and polarization, which consistently accounts for different sets of experiments.

  3. Test Summary Report Vitrification Demonstration of an Optimized Hanford C-106/AY-102 Waste-Glass Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goles, Ronald W.; Buchmiller, William C.; Hymas, Charles R.; MacIsaac, Brett D.

    2002-01-01

    In order to further the goal of optimizing Hanford?s HLW borosilicate flowsheet, a glass formulation effort was launched to develop an advanced high-capacity waste form exhibiting acceptable leach and crystal formation characteristics. A simulated C-106/AY-102 waste envelop inclusive of LAW pretreatment products was chosen as the subject of these nonradioactive optimization efforts. To evaluate this optimized borosilicate waste formulation under continuous dynamic vitrification conditions, a research-scale Joule-heated ceramic melter was used to demonstrate the advanced waste form?s flowsheet. The main objectives of this melter test was to evaluate (1) the processing characteristics of the newly formulated C-106/AY-102 surrogate melter-feed stream, (2) the effectiveness of sucrose as a glass-oxidation-state modifier, and (3) the impact of this reductant upon processing rates

  4. On phase, action and canonical conservation laws in kinematic-wave theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maugin, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Canonical equations of energy and momentum are constructed in the kinematic-wave theory of waves in a continuum. This is done in analogy with what is achieved in nonlinear continuum mechanics. The starting point is a generalized balance of wave action. The standard formulas are recovered when the system follows from the averaged-Lagrangian variational formulation of Whitham

  5. A two stage data envelopment analysis model with undesirable output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam; Izzati Jaini, Nur; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2017-09-01

    The dependent relationship among the decision making units (DMU) is usually assumed to be non-existent in the development of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The dependency can be represented by the multi-stage DEA model, where the outputs from the precedent stage will be the inputs for the latter stage. The multi-stage DEA model evaluate both the efficiency score for each stages and the overall efficiency of the whole process. The existing multi stage DEA models do not focus on the integration with the undesirable output, in which the higher input will generate lower output unlike the normal desirable output. This research attempts to address the inclusion of such undesirable output and investigate the theoretical implication and potential application towards the development of multi-stage DEA model.

  6. Data Envelopment Analysis with Uncertain Inputs and Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilin Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA, as a useful management and decision tool, has been widely used since it was first invented by Charnes et al. in 1978. On the one hand, the DEA models need accurate inputs and outputs data. On the other hand, in many situations, inputs and outputs are volatile and complex so that they are difficult to measure in an accurate way. The conflict leads to the researches of uncertain DEA models. This paper will consider DEA in uncertain environment, thus producing a new model based on uncertain measure. Due to the complexity of the new uncertain DEA model, an equivalent deterministic model is presented. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the uncertain DEA model.

  7. Modeling technical efficiency of inshore fishery using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rahayu; Zahid, Zalina; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh

    2016-10-01

    Fishery industry contributes significantly to the economy of Malaysia. This study utilized Data Envelopment Analysis application in estimating the technical efficiency of fishery in Terengganu, a state on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, based on multiple output, i.e. total fish landing and income of fishermen with six inputs, i.e. engine power, vessel size, number of trips, number of workers, cost and operation distance. The data were collected by survey conducted between November and December 2014. The decision making units (DMUs) involved 100 fishermen from 10 fishery areas. The result showed that the technical efficiency in Season I (dry season) and Season II (rainy season) were 90.2% and 66.7% respectively. About 27% of the fishermen were rated to be efficient during Season I, meanwhile only 13% of the fishermen achieved full efficiency 100% during Season II. The results also found out that there was a significance difference in the efficiency performance between the fishery areas.

  8. Modeling data irregularities and structural complexities in data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Joe

    2007-01-01

    In a relatively short period of time, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has grown into a powerful quantitative, analytical tool for measuring and evaluating performance. It has been successfully applied to a whole variety of problems in many different contexts worldwide. This book deals with the micro aspects of handling and modeling data issues in modeling DEA problems. DEA's use has grown with its capability of dealing with complex "service industry" and the "public service domain" types of problems that require modeling of both qualitative and quantitative data. This handbook treatment deals with specific data problems including: imprecise or inaccurate data; missing data; qualitative data; outliers; undesirable outputs; quality data; statistical analysis; software and other data aspects of modeling complex DEA problems. In addition, the book will demonstrate how to visualize DEA results when the data is more than 3-dimensional, and how to identify efficiency units quickly and accurately.

  9. Estimating returns to scale in imprecise data envelopment analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatami-Marbini, Adel; Beigi, Zahra Ghelej; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The economic concept of Returns-to-Scale (RTS) has been intensively studied in the context of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The conventional DEA models that are used for RTS classification require well-defined and accurate data whereas in reality data are often imprecise, vague, uncertain......-decreasing and variable RTS. The situation for non-increasing (non-decreasing) RTS is then divided into two partitions; constant or decreasing (constant or increasing) RTS using sensitivity analysis. Additionally, the situation for variable RTS is split into three partitions consisting of constant, decreasing...... and increasing RTS using sensitivity analysis. Finally, we present the stability region of an observation while preserving its current RTS classification using the optimal values of a set of proposed DEA-based models....

  10. A statistical test for outlier identification in data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Khodabin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the use of peer group data to assess individual, typical or best practice performance, the effective detection of outliers is critical for achieving useful results. In these ‘‘deterministic’’ frontier models, statistical theory is now mostly available. This paper deals with the statistical pared sample method and its capability of detecting outliers in data envelopment analysis. In the presented method, each observation is deleted from the sample once and the resulting linear program is solved, leading to a distribution of efficiency estimates. Based on the achieved distribution, a pared test is designed to identify the potential outlier(s. We illustrate the method through a real data set. The method could be used in a first step, as an exploratory data analysis, before using any frontier estimation.

  11. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-04-28

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU; an application executable by the computing device comprising: logic that estimates an angle of attack; a slip angle; and a speed of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based at least in part on data received from the UAV. A method can comprise estimating, via a computing device, flight data of a UAV based at least in part on data received from an IMU; comparing the estimated flight data with measured flight data; and triggering an error indication in response to a determination that the measured flight data exceeds a predefined deviation of the estimated flight data. The estimated speed can comprise an estimated airspeed, vertical speed and/or ground velocity.

  12. Construction Project Success ranking through the Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Zahedi-Seresht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to rank construction projects' success in a post delivery phase. To attain this objective, a data envelopment analysis (DEA approach is used. The model's output is a project success index which is calculated based on five project success criteria. These criteria which are determined by a two-round Delphi questionnaire survey are time performance, cost performance, quality, HSE, and customer satisfaction. The input factors which have effects on the output measures are Organizational Sponsorship, Project Manager Competency, Customer Organization, Project Operational Environment and Organizational Experience. The tool adopted to determine these factors is questionnaire. This model is applied for 9 projects with different importance of output and input factors and the reasonable result is achieved for ranking these projects.

  13. Frontier Assignment for Sensitivity Analysis of Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Akio; Aoki, Shingo; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    To extend the sensitivity analysis capability for DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis), this paper proposes frontier assignment based DEA (FA-DEA). The basic idea of FA-DEA is to allow a decision maker to decide frontier intentionally while the traditional DEA and Super-DEA decide frontier computationally. The features of FA-DEA are as follows: (1) provides chances to exclude extra-influential DMU (Decision Making Unit) and finds extra-ordinal DMU, and (2) includes the function of the traditional DEA and Super-DEA so that it is able to deal with sensitivity analysis more flexibly. Simple numerical study has shown the effectiveness of the proposed FA-DEA and the difference from the traditional DEA.

  14. Development of building envelope structures; Udvikling af klimaskaermskonstruktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monefeldt Tommerup, H. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark); Munch-Andersen, J. [Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Hoersholm (Denmark); Kjaer Esbensen, P. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    2000-08-01

    The present report concludes the work concerning the development of building envelope constructions, which can form the basis of new buildings with considerably less heat demand than in the present building regulations. It has been made probable that it is technically possible to build exterior walls with less heat loss than those just complying with the requirements of the current building regulations with no considerable added use of material apart from insulation. In their structure many of the shown constructions resemble types that are used today, while others presuppose that one part of the wall is attached to the other part or possibly to the rafters. Calculations concerning the importance of heat capacity for a 100 m{sup 2} single-family house have been made which confirm that by using heavy rather than light envelope constructions the reduction of the heating requirements is relatively small. Therefore optimisation of the insulation level can be carried out separately on the building components. A method has been developed for the evaluation of the optimum insulation level for the individual building components of the building envelope based on life cycle cost analysis. The method is based on making up the changes in the operational energy costs/ heating-costs and the cost of construction due to a change in the insulation thickness over a 30-year period. The life span of the primary parts of the building envelope is estimated at 100 years. It is assumed that the gross energy consumption that covers the heating requirements and the heat loss (determined by a simple calculation of degree days) changes concurrently with the change in the insulation thickness, which has been proved to be a reasonable approximation. The life cycle cost analysis has been carried out for a test-house of about 100 m{sup 2} and with two different energy price scenarios: 0.60 dkk/kWh (including taxes and VAT) which roughly corresponds to the present energy price level, and 1.20 dkk

  15. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Core Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Hua, Yuanzi; Dai, Xiaoping; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2014-08-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold β sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.

  16. Efficiency of Polish metallurgical industry based on data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to compare the technical efficiency of 12 sectors manufacturing basic metals and metal products in Poland. This article presents the use of Data Envelopment Analysis models, to determine overall technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of metallurgical branches in Poland. The average technical efficiency of metallurgical industry in Poland was quite high. The analysis gives a possibility to create a ranking of sectors. Three branches were found to be fully efficient: manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferroalloys, manufacture of basic precious and other non - ferrous metals and manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings, of steel. The results point out the reasons of the inefficiency and provide improving directions for the inefficient sectors.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL EFFICIENCY IN CROATIA USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Rabar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, regional efficiency of Croatian counties is measured in three-year period (2005-2007 using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The set of inputs and outputs consists of seven socioeconomic indicators. Analysis is carried out using models with assumption of variable returns-to-scale. DEA identifies efficient counties as benchmark members and inefficient counties that are analyzed in detail to determine the sources and the amounts of their inefficiency in each source. To enable proper monitoring of development dynamics, window analysis is applied. Based on the results, guidelines for implementing necessary improvements to achieve efficiency are given. Analysis reveals great disparities among counties. In order to alleviate naturally, historically and politically conditioned unequal county positions over which economic policy makers do not have total control, categorical approach is introduced as an extension to the basic DEA models. This approach, combined with window analysis, changes relations among efficiency scores in favor of continental counties.

  18. Determinants of foamy virus envelope glycoprotein mediated resistance to superinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Angelika; Pietschmann, Thomas; Rethwilm, Axel; Lindemann, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of foamy virus (FV) receptor molecules on target cells and their interaction with the viral glycoproteins. Similar to other viruses, cellular expression of the FV Env protein is sufficient to induce resistance to exogenous FV, a phenomenon called superinfection resistance (SIR). In this study we define determinants of the FV Env protein essential for mediating SIR. FV Env requires the extracellular domains of the SU and the TM subunits as well as membrane anchorage, efficient cell surface transport, and most probably correct subunit processing. This is in contrast to murine leukemia virus where secreted proteins comprising the receptor-binding domain in SU are sufficient to induce SIR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cellular expression of the prototype FV envelope proteins induces SIR against pseudotypes with glycoproteins of other FV species, including of simian, feline, bovine, and equine origin. This implies that all of them use the same receptor molecules for viral entry

  19. Glycosylation in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and its biological implications

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Yung Shwen

    2013-08-01

    Glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env gp120/gp41) plays a vital role in viral evasion from the host immune response, which occurs through the masking of key neutralization epitopes and the presentation of the Env glycosylation as \\'self\\' to the host immune system. Env glycosylation is generally conserved, yet its continual evolution plays an important role in modulating viral infectivity and Env immunogenicity. Thus, it is believed that Env glycosylation, which is a vital part of the HIV-1 architecture, also controls intra- and inter-clade genetic variations. Discerning intra- and inter-clade glycosylation variations could therefore yield important information for understanding the molecular and biological differences between HIV clades and may assist in effectively designing Env-based immunogens and in clearly understanding HIV vaccines. This review provides an in-depth perspective of various aspects of Env glycosylation in the context of HIV-1 pathogenesis. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

  20. Bank branch operating efficiency: evaluation with data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Talebi Zarinkamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of similar units has been a popular research especially when the units were mostly non-financial. Even, similar financial units may not be necessarily evaluated based on traditional financial figures such as return of equities, return of assets, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of 30 branches of an Iranian bank named Bank Mellat. The study considers four inputs including operating expenses, interest paid, capital expenditures and fixed assets. In addition, we use customers’ bank deposit, commissions and loans paid as output parameters. Using three different data envelopment analyses, the study measures the relative efficiencies of all units. The preliminary results indicate that most banks were working under desirable level of efficiency.

  1. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  2. Nuclear envelope and genome interactions in cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamas, Jessica A.; Capelson, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus houses an organism’s genome and is the location within the cell where all signaling induced and development-driven gene expression programs are ultimately specified. The genome is enclosed and separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope (NE), a double-lipid membrane bilayer, which contains a large variety of trans-membrane and associated protein complexes. In recent years, research regarding multiple aspects of the cell nucleus points to a highly dynamic and coordinated concert of efforts between chromatin and the NE in regulation of gene expression. Details of how this concert is orchestrated and how it directs cell differentiation and disease are coming to light at a rapid pace. Here we review existing and emerging concepts of how interactions between the genome and the NE may contribute to tissue specific gene expression programs to determine cell fate. PMID:25852741

  3. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  4. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines

  5. Envelope evolution of a laser pulse in an active medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.L.; Tajima, T.; Downer, M.C.; Siders, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The authors show that the envelope velocity, v env , of a short laser pulse can, via propagation in an active medium, be made less than, equal to, or even greater than c, the vacuum phase velocity of light. Simulation results, based on moving frame propagation equations coupling the laser pulse, active medium and plasma, are presented, as well as equations that determines the design value of super- and sub-luminous v env . In this simulation the laser pulse evolves in time in a moving frame as opposed to their earlier work where the profile was fixed. The elimination of phase slippage and pump depletion effects in the laser wakefield accelerator is discussed as a particular application. Finally they discuss media properties necessary for an experimental realization of this technique

  6. Statistical investigation of expected wave energy and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozger, M.; Altunkaynak, A.; Sen, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The statistical behavior of wave energy at a single site is derived by considering simultaneous variations in the period and wave height. In this paper, the general wave power formulation is derived by using the theory of perturbation. This method leads to a general formulation of the wave power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The statistical parameters, namely the mean value and variance of wave energy, are found in terms of the simple statistical parameters of period, significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. The elegance of these parameters is that they are distribution free. These parameters provide a means for defining the wave energy distribution function by employing the Chebyschev's inequality. Subsequently, an approximate probability distribution function of the wave energy is also derived for assessment of risk and reliability associated with wave energy. Necessary simple charts are given for risk and reliability assessments. Two procedures are presented for such assessments in wave energy calculations and the applications of these procedures are provided for wave energy potential assessment in the regions of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of U.S. (author)

  7. Statistical investigation of expected wave energy and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezger, Mehmet; Altunkaynak, Abduesselam; Sen, Zekai

    2004-01-01

    The statistical behavior of wave energy at a single site is derived by considering simultaneous variations in the period and wave height. In this paper, the general wave power formulation is derived by using the theory of perturbation. This method leads to a general formulation of the wave power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The statistical parameters, namely the mean value and variance of wave energy, are found in terms of the simple statistical parameters of period, significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. The elegance of these parameters is that they are distribution free. These parameters provide a means for defining the wave energy distribution function by employing the Chebyschev's inequality. Subsequently, an approximate probability distribution function of the wave energy is also derived for assessment of risk and reliability associated with wave energy. Necessary simple charts are given for risk and reliability assessments. Two procedures are presented for such assessments in wave energy calculations and the applications of these procedures are provided for wave energy potential assessment in the regions of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of U.S

  8. Velocity structure of protostellar envelopes: gravitational collapse and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloche, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Stars form from the gravitational collapse of pre-stellar condensations in molecular clouds. The major aim of this thesis is to compare the predictions of collapse models with observations of both very young (class 0) protostars and starless condensations in millimeter molecular lines. We wish to understand what determines the masses of forming stars and whether the initial conditions have an effect on the dynamical evolution of a condensation. Using a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, we analyze rotation and infall spectroscopic signatures to study the velocity structure of a sample of protostellar condensations. We show that the envelope of the class 0 protostar IRAM 04191 in the Taurus molecular cloud is undergoing both extended, subsonic infall and fast, differential rotation. We propose that the inner part of the envelope is a magnetically supercritical core in the process of decoupling from the ambient cloud still supported by the magnetic field. We suggest that the kinematical properties observed for IRAM 04191 are representative of the physical conditions characterizing isolated protostars shortly after point mass formation. On the other hand, a similar study for the pre-stellar condensations of the Rho Ophiuchi proto-cluster yields mass accretion rates that are an order of magnitude higher than in IRAM 04191. This suggests that individual protostellar collapse in clusters is induced by external disturbances. Moreover, we show that the condensations do not have time to orbit significantly through the proto-cluster gas before evolving into protostars and pre-main-sequence stars. This seems inconsistent with models which resort to dynamical interactions and competitive accretion to build up a mass spectrum comparable to the stellar initial mass function. We conclude that protostellar collapse is nearly spontaneous in regions of isolated star formation such as the Taurus cloud but probably strongly induced in proto-clusters. (author) [fr

  9. Evolution of building envelope construction techniques in coastal British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattock, C.; Ito, K.; Oshikawa, T. [International Eco-House Inc., (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Changes in the significant evolutionary development over the past 3 years in building envelope construction for multi storey wood frame housing in British Columbia are described. The urban areas of this region are characterized by a maritime climate which features a high frequency of wind driven rain and little accumulation of snow. Buildings are exposed to high wetting with little drying potential, and moderate temperatures allow for fungal growth even in the winter. While as in the rest of Canada wetting is often due to condensation of moisture contained in indoor air as it leaks out of the building, in British Columbia wind driven rain is a much larger source of moisture. Given this, the following principles of moisture control have been promoted to the B.C. building industry in order of priority: 1) deflection - using parts and elements of the building such as overhangs and flashings that reduce the exposure of the exterior walls to rain, 2) drainage - using envelope assemblies that will then redirect liquid water to the outside, 3) employing drying elements that promote drying through diffusion such as highly permeable wall sheathings, and 4) use of durable materials - using materials that resist rot such as treated lumber, stainless steel fastenings, etc. A variety of air barrier systems other than the conventional sealed polyethylene approach have been employed because of the introduction of recent building code requirements for enhanced airtightness and air barrier durability combined with the use of rain screen construction. This variety of air barrier systems includes: an airtight drywall, an exterior permeable membrane, and an exterior impermeable membrane.

  10. Supernovae from massive stars with extended tenuous envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessart, Luc; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni

    2018-04-01

    Massive stars with a core-halo structure are interesting objects for stellar physics and hydrodynamics. Using simulations for stellar evolution, radiation hydrodynamics, and radiative transfer, we study the explosion of stars with an extended and tenuous envelope (i.e. stars in which 95% of the mass is contained within 10% or less of the surface radius). We consider both H-rich supergiant and He-giant progenitors resulting from close-binary evolution and dying with a final mass of 2.8-5 M⊙. An extended envelope causes the supernova (SN) shock to brake and a reverse shock to form, sweeping core material into a dense shell. The shock-deposited energy, which suffers little degradation from expansion, is trapped in ejecta layers of moderate optical depth, thereby enhancing the SN luminosity at early times. With the delayed 56Ni heating, we find that the resulting optical and near-IR light curves all exhibit a double-peak morphology. We show how an extended progenitor can explain the blue and featureless optical spectra of some Type IIb and Ib SNe. The dense shell formed by the reverse shock leads to line profiles with a smaller and near-constant width. This ejecta property can explain the statistically narrower profiles of Type IIb compared to Type Ib SNe, as well as the peculiar Hα profile seen in SN 1993J. At early times, our He-giant star explosion model shows a high luminosity, a blue colour, and featureless spectra reminiscent of the Type Ib SN 2008D, suggesting a low-mass progenitor.

  11. Analysis of beam envelope by transverse space charge effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Shin'ichi

    1997-09-01

    It is important for high current accelerators to estimate the contribution of the space charge effect to keep the beam off its beak up. The application of an envelope equation is examined in previous report in which the beam is just coasting beam (non accelerating). The analysis of space charge effect is necessary for the comparison in coming accelerator test in PNC. In order to evaluate the beam behavior in high current, the beam dynamics and beam parameters which are input to the equation for the evaluation are developed and make it ready to estimate the beam transverse dynamics by the space charge. The estimate needs to have enough accuracy for advanced code calculation. After the preparation of the analytic expression of transverse motion, the non-linear differential equation of beam dynamics is solved by a numerical method on a personal computer. The beam envelope from the equation is estimated by means of the beam emittance, current and energy. The result from the analysis shows that the transverse beam broadening is scarecely small around the beam current value of PNC design. The contribution to the beam broadening of PNC linac comes from its beam emittance. The beam broadening in 100 MeV case is almost negligible in the view of transverse space charge effect. Therefore, the electron beam is stable up to 10 A order in PNC linac design. Of course, the problem for RF supply is out of consideration here. It is important to estimate other longitudinal effect such as beam bunch effect which is lasting unevaluated. (author)

  12. Impact of Wave Dragon on Wave Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Tedd, James; Kramer, Morten

    This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator.......This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator....

  13. Identification of new genes in a cell envelope-cell division gene cluster of Escherichia coli: cell envelope gene murG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, G P; Lutkenhaus, J F; Donachie, W D

    1980-01-01

    We report the identification, cloning, and mapping of a new cell envelope gene, murG. This lies in a group of five genes of similar phenotype (in the order murE murF murG murC ddl) all concerned with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This group is in a larger cluster of at least 10 genes, all of which are involved in some way with cell envelope growth. Images PMID:6998962

  14. Inability of keratinocytes lacking their specific transglutaminase to form cross-linked envelopes: Absence of envelopes as a simple diagnostic test for lamellar ichthyosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Saewha; Djian, Philippe; Green, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes, late in their terminal differentiation, form cross-linked envelopes resistant to ionic detergent and reducing agent. Because the cross-linking process is catalyzed by the keratinocyte transglutaminase, the absence of active transglutaminase should result in failure of the keratinocyte to form a cross-linked envelope. Three keratinocyte strains bearing mutations in the keratinocyte transglutaminase were examined: two contained no detectable transglutaminase mRNA and no...

  15. Energy policy formulation for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, T.

    1981-01-01

    Pakistan is a low income, low energy consumption country. In view of the close interdependence between economic growth and energy consumption, she will need increasing energy supplies in order to maintain her economic growth. This paper develops an energy sector optimization model for the Pakistan economy, which consists of production models for five energy industries, ie oil, gas, coal, electricity (including electricity generated in nuclear power plants) and non-commercial fuels. The model is first used to forecast energy balances for the period 1975 - 2006. The model is then employed to formulate a long-term comprehensive energy policy for Pakistan. Finally the suggested policy is compared with the current official energy programme. (author)

  16. Models of few optical cycle solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, H.; Mihalache, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the past years there was a huge interest in experimental and theoretical studies in the area of few-optical-cycle pulses and in the broader fast growing field of the so-called extreme nonlinear optics. This review concentrates on theoretical studies performed in the past decade concerning the description of few optical cycle solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). Here we systematically use the powerful reductive expansion method (alias multiscale analysis) in order to derive simple integrable and nonintegrable evolution models describing both nonlinear wave propagation and interaction of ultrashort (femtosecond) pulses. To this aim we perform the multiple scale analysis on the Maxwell–Bloch equations and the corresponding Schrödinger–von Neumann equation for the density matrix of two-level atoms. We analyze in detail both long-wave and short-wave propagation models. The propagation of ultrashort few-optical-cycle solitons in quadratic and cubic nonlinear media are adequately described by generic integrable and nonintegrable nonlinear evolution equations such as the Korteweg–de Vries equation, the modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, the complex modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, the sine–Gordon equation, the cubic generalized Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation, and the two-dimensional sine–Gordon equation. Moreover, we consider the propagation of few-cycle optical solitons in both (1+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional physical settings. A generalized modified Korteweg–de Vries equation is introduced in order to describe robust few-optical-cycle dissipative solitons. We investigate in detail the existence and robustness of both linearly polarized and circularly polarized few-cycle solitons, that is, we also take into account the effect of the vectorial nature of the electric field. Some of these results concerning the systematic use of the reductive expansion method beyond the SVEA can be relatively easily extended to few

  17. Wave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, T.J.T. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK)); White, P.R.S. (Lanchester Polytechnic, Coventry (UK)); Baker, A.C.J. (Binnie and Partners, London (UK))

    1988-10-01

    An informal discussion on various wave energy converters is reported. These included a prototype oscillating water column (OWC) device being built on the Isle of Islay in Scotland; the SEA Clam; a tapering channel device (Tapchan) raising incoming waves into a lagoon on a Norwegian island and an OWC device on the same island. The Norwegian devices are delivering electricity at about 5.5p/KWh and 4p/KWh respectively with possibilities for reduction to 2.5-3p/KWh and 3p/KWh under favourable circumstances. The discussion ranged over comparisons with progress in wind power, engineering aspects, differences between inshore and offshore devices, tidal range and energy storage. (UK).

  18. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  19. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  20. Positive Quasi Linear Operator Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Jaeger, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expressions for the RF quasi-linear operator are biquadratic sums over the Fourier modes (or FLR equivalent) that describe the RF electric field with a kernel that is a function of the two wave vectors, k-vector L and k-vector R , in the sum. As a result of either an implicit or explicit average over field lines or flux surfaces, this kernel only depends on one parallel wave vector, conventionally k R -vector. When k-vector is an independent component of the representation for E, the sums are demonstrably positive. However, except for closed field line systems, k-vector is dependent on the local direction of the equilibrium magnetic field, and, empirically, the absorbed energy and quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are observed to have negative features. We have formally introduced an independent k-vector sum by Fourier transforming the RF electric field (assuming straight field lines) using a field-line-length coordinate. The resulting expression is positive. We have modeled this approach by calculating the quasi linear operator for 'modes' with fixed k-vector. We form these modes by discretizing k-vector and then assigning all of the Fourier components with k-vectorthat fall within a given k-vector bin to that k-vector mode. Results will be shown as a function of the number of bins. Future work will involve implementing the expressions derived from the Fourier transform and evaluating the dependence on field line length

  1. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Boundary Integral Formulations of Acoustic Scattering Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Zaman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a review presenting an overview of the developments in boundary integral formulations of the acoustic scattering problems. Generally, the problem is formulated in one of two ways viz. Green’s representation formula, and the Layer-theoretic formulation utilizing either a simple-layer or a double-layer potential. The review presents and expounds the major contributions in this area over the last four decades. The need for a robust and improved formulation of the exterior scattering problem (Neumann or Dirichlet arose due to the fact that the classical formulation failed to yield a unique solution at (acoustic wave-numbers which correspond to eigenvalues (eigenfrequencies of the corresponding interior scattering problem. Moreover, this correlation becomes more pronounced as the wave-numbers become larger i.e. as the (acoustic frequency increases. The robust integral formulations which are discussed here yield Fredholms integral equations of the second kind which are more amenable to computation than the first kind. However, the integral equation involves a hypersingular kernel which creates ill-conditioning in the final matrix representation. This is circumvented by a regularisation technique. An extensive useful list of references is also presented here for researchers in this area.

  3. CMS-Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program CMS -Wave CMS -Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward...marching, finite-difference method to solve the wave action conservation equation. Capabilities of CMS -Wave include wave shoaling, refraction... CMS -Wave can be used in either on a half- or full-plane mode, with primary waves propagating from the seaward boundary toward shore. It can

  4. Enhancement of feline immunodeficiency virus infection after immunization with envelope glycoprotein subunit vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); E.J. Tijhaar (Edwin); R.C. Huisman (Robin); W. Huisman (Willem); A. de Ronde; I.H. Darby; M.J. Francis; G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCats were immunized three times with different recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) candidate vaccines. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)-expressed envelope glycoprotein with (vGR657) or without (vGR657 x 15) the cleavage site and an FIV envelope bacterial fusion protein

  5. The dynamics of short envelope solitons in media with controlled dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseeva, N.V.; Gromov, E.M.; Tyutin, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of short envelope solitons in media with controlled dispersion is investigated in the framework of the third-order nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Evolution of the solitons amplitude is analyzed in the adiabatic approximation. The existence of short envelope solitons independent from linear dispersion inhomogeneity is shown

  6. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karl Grau; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    cavity such as behind the exterior cladding of a building envelope, i.e. a flow which is parallel to the construction plane. (2) Infiltration/exfiltration of air through the building envelope, i.e. a flow which is perpendicular to the constructionplane. The paper presents the models and how they have...

  7. Effects of radial envelope modulations on the collisionless trapped-electron mode in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Tian; Chen, Liu

    2018-05-01

    Adopting the ballooning-mode representation and including the effects of radial envelope modulations, we have derived the corresponding linear eigenmode equation for the collisionless trapped-electron mode in tokamak plasmas. Numerical solutions of the eigenmode equation indicate that finite radial envelope modulations can affect the linear stability properties both quantitatively and qualitatively via the significant modifications in the corresponding eigenmode structures.

  8. Bursting the Bubble - Nuclear Envelope Rupture as a Path to Genomic Instability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, P.; Wolf, K.A.; Lammerding, J.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear envelope safeguards the genetic material inside the nucleus by separating it from the cytoplasm. Until recently, it was assumed that nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown occurs only in a highly controlled fashion during mitosis when the chromatin is condensed and divided between the daughter

  9. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations. 25.218 Section 25.218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.218 Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS...

  10. Efficiency Enhancement of an Envelope Tracking Power Amplifier Combining Supply Shaping and Dynamic Biasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafuri, Felice Francesco; Sira, Daniel; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to improve the performance of envelope tracking (ET) power amplifiers (PAs). The method consists of combining the supply modulation that characterizes the envelope tracking architecture with supply shaping and dynamic biasing. The inclusion of dynamic biasing allo...

  11. Design and evaluation of a Flight Envelope Protection haptic feedback system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Rodriguez Martin, M.J.M.; Lombaerts, T; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a shared control, haptic feedback system to communicate Flight Envelope Protection System intent. The concept uses a combination of stiffness feedback and vibration to communicate proximity of the aircraft state to flight envelope boundaries. In

  12. Analyzing energy consumption while heating one-layer building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytchikov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.

  13. Advancing the manufacture of complex geometry GFRC for today's building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Henriksen

    2017-06-01

    With this research the current architectural knowledge base has been advanced in terms of complex geometry thin-walled GFRC for building envelopes. The identified solutions should allow building with complex geometries to be realised using thin-walled GFRC as the envelope cladding.

  14. Protamine-induced permeabilization of cell envelopes of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Verheul, A.; Gram, Lone

    1997-01-01

    carboxyfluorescein and ATP after 2 to 5 min. Maximum antibacterial activity was reached at alkaline pH and in the absence of divalent cations. The efficient permeabilization of cell envelopes of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria suggests that protamine causes a general disruption of the cell envelope...

  15. Incipient failure detection of space shuttle main engine turbopump bearings using vibration envelope detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an analysis performed on seven successive Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) static test firings, utilizing envelope detection of external accelerometer data are discussed. The results clearly show the great potential for using envelope detection techniques in SSME incipient failure detection.

  16. Indoor Modelling from Slam-Based Laser Scanner: Door Detection to Envelope Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Verbree, E.; Zlatanova, S.; Diakité, A.

    2017-09-01

    Updated and detailed indoor models are being increasingly demanded for various applications such as emergency management or navigational assistance. The consolidation of new portable and mobile acquisition systems has led to a higher availability of 3D point cloud data from indoors. In this work, we explore the combined use of point clouds and trajectories from SLAM-based laser scanner to automate the reconstruction of building indoors. The methodology starts by door detection, since doors represent transitions from one indoor space to other, which constitutes an initial approach about the global configuration of the point cloud into building rooms. For this purpose, the trajectory is used to create a vertical point cloud profile in which doors are detected as local minimum of vertical distances. As point cloud and trajectory are related by time stamp, this feature is used to subdivide the point cloud into subspaces according to the location of the doors. The correspondence between subspaces and building rooms is not unambiguous. One subspace always corresponds to one room, but one room is not necessarily depicted by just one subspace, for example, in case of a room containing several doors and in which the acquisition is performed in a discontinue way. The labelling problem is formulated as combinatorial approach solved as a minimum energy optimization. Once the point cloud is subdivided into building rooms, envelop (conformed by walls, ceilings and floors) is reconstructed for each space. The connectivity between spaces is included by adding the previously detected doors to the reconstructed model. The methodology is tested in a real case study.

  17. INDOOR MODELLING FROM SLAM-BASED LASER SCANNER: DOOR DETECTION TO ENVELOPE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Díaz-Vilariño

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Updated and detailed indoor models are being increasingly demanded for various applications such as emergency management or navigational assistance. The consolidation of new portable and mobile acquisition systems has led to a higher availability of 3D point cloud data from indoors. In this work, we explore the combined use of point clouds and trajectories from SLAM-based laser scanner to automate the reconstruction of building indoors. The methodology starts by door detection, since doors represent transitions from one indoor space to other, which constitutes an initial approach about the global configuration of the point cloud into building rooms. For this purpose, the trajectory is used to create a vertical point cloud profile in which doors are detected as local minimum of vertical distances. As point cloud and trajectory are related by time stamp, this feature is used to subdivide the point cloud into subspaces according to the location of the doors. The correspondence between subspaces and building rooms is not unambiguous. One subspace always corresponds to one room, but one room is not necessarily depicted by just one subspace, for example, in case of a room containing several doors and in which the acquisition is performed in a discontinue way. The labelling problem is formulated as combinatorial approach solved as a minimum energy optimization. Once the point cloud is subdivided into building rooms, envelop (conformed by walls, ceilings and floors is reconstructed for each space. The connectivity between spaces is included by adding the previously detected doors to the reconstructed model. The methodology is tested in a real case study.

  18. Adjuvant-Mediated Epitope Specificity and Enhanced Neutralizing Activity of Antibodies Targeting Dengue Virus Envelope Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denicar Lina Nascimento Fabris Maeda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The heat-labile toxins (LT produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli display adjuvant effects to coadministered antigens, leading to enhanced production of serum antibodies. Despite extensive knowledge of the adjuvant properties of LT derivatives, including in vitro-generated non-toxic mutant forms, little is known about the capacity of these adjuvants to modulate the epitope specificity of antibodies directed against antigens. This study characterizes the role of LT and its non-toxic B subunit (LTB in the modulation of antibody responses to a coadministered antigen, the dengue virus (DENV envelope glycoprotein domain III (EDIII, which binds to surface receptors and mediates virus entry into host cells. In contrast to non-adjuvanted or alum-adjuvanted formulations, antibodies induced in mice immunized with LT or LTB showed enhanced virus-neutralization effects that were not ascribed to a subclass shift or antigen affinity. Nonetheless, immunosignature analyses revealed that purified LT-adjuvanted EDIII-specific antibodies display distinct epitope-binding patterns with regard to antibodies raised in mice immunized with EDIII or the alum-adjuvanted vaccine. Notably, the analyses led to the identification of a specific EDIII epitope located in the EF to FG loop, which is involved in the entry of DENV into eukaryotic cells. The present results demonstrate that LT and LTB modulate the epitope specificity of antibodies generated after immunization with coadministered antigens that, in the case of EDIII, was associated with the induction of neutralizing antibody responses. These results open perspectives for the more rational development of vaccines with enhanced protective effects against DENV infections.

  19. Models for short-wave instability in inviscid shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Roger

    1999-11-01

    The generation of instability in an invsicid fluid occurs by a resonance between two wave modes, where here the resonance occurs by a coincidence of phase speeds for a finite, non-zero wavenumber. We show that in the weakly nonlinear limit, the appropriate model consists of two coupled equations for the envelopes of the wave modes, in which the nonlinear terms are balanced with low-order cross-coupling linear dispersive terms rather than the more familiar high-order terms which arise in the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, for instance. We will show that this system may either contain gap solitons as solutions in the linearly stable case, or wave breakdown in the linearly unstable case. In this latter circumstance, the system either exhibits wave collapse in finite time, or disintegration into fine-scale structures.

  20. Lagrangian formulation of the general relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Vittorio; Battista, Emmanuele; Falanga, Maurizio

    2018-04-01

    We propose the Lagrangian formulation for describing the motion of a test particle in a general relativistic, stationary, and axially symmetric spacetime. The test particle is also affected by a radiation field, modeled as a coherent flux of photons traveling along the null geodesics of the background spacetime, including the general relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect. The innovative part of this work is to prove the existence of the potential linked to the dissipative action caused by the Poynting-Robertson effect in general relativity through the help of an integrating factor, depending on the energy of the system. Generally, such kinds of inverse problems involving dissipative effects might not admit a Lagrangian formulation; especially, in general relativity, there are no examples of such attempts in the literature so far. We reduce this general relativistic Lagrangian formulation to the classic case in the weak-field limit. This approach facilitates further studies in improving the treatment of the radiation field, and it contains, for example, some implications for a deeper comprehension of the gravitational waves.