WorldWideScience

Sample records for wave ebw coupling

  1. EBW PHYSICS OF ECE IN NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Vahala

    2012-06-26

    Topics covered include: ray tracing and Fokker-Planck coupling; relativistic and electromagnetic effects in EBW damping (ray-tracing); O-X-EBW mode conversion efficiency limit due to finite beam divergence; general prospects for electron Bernstein wave heating and current drive in spherical tokamaks; sensitivity of EBW H&CD; collisional effects on EBW coupling; and EBW propagation in a high-temperature plasma.

  2. ECH/EBW Plasma Coupling and Heating Experiments on the Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Tim; Caughman, John; Caneses, Juan; Diem, Stephanie; Goulding, Richard; Kafle, Nischal; Rapp, Juergen

    2016-10-01

    ECH and EBW have been under development on the Proto-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment device (Proto-MPEX) to provide additional plasma electron heating. Proto-MPEX has a linear magnetic field configuration and a helicon plasma source that forms a high-density medium-temperature central core plasma of typically 0.08m diameter. A plasma density of up to 6x1019m-3 is generated which is >6 times over-dense for 28 GHz microwave power available from the experiment's gyrotron system. Modeling using Genray-C code has indicated that some heating of the plasma core should be possible at this frequency using the optimum O-X-EBW coupling scheme. Several improvements to the waveguide system have been made to increase the reliable operating power level and launch beam quality. To improve the plasma heating efficiency, work is underway to optimize the beam launch by adding a remotely adjustable launch angle, adding a polarization rotating miter bend, moving the launch point closer to the plasma edge and providing some beam focusing. Preliminary heating experiments have indicated some over-dense heating has been achieved. A launch power of 75 kW has been achieved out of a possible 150 kW. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  3. Simulation of the time development of EBW emission from NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Taylor, G.; Diem, S.; Vahala, L.; Vahala, G.

    2006-04-01

    Time evolution of ECE spectra in 20-40GHz range were simulated for NSTX plasmas. The code is based on the full wave solution of the cold plasma wave propagation used for determination of EBW-X-O and EBW-X mode conversion efficiencies and on the determination of the effective radiation temperature from simultaneous solution of EBW ray evolution and integration of the radiative transfer equation. The method was successfully used for determination of the central temperature in NSTX from detected EBW signal at 16.5GHz [1]. The time development of the frequency spectra of EBW emission from the new NSTX antenna is simulated. For the shots (#117970-#117982), the most intense radiation occurs at f = 25GHz. In this case EBW starts at the plasma center and is radiated mainly from the second harmonic [2]. We obtained detailed information how the ECE intensity is connected with the plasma parameters so the simulations allow determination of the EBW usability for plasma diagnostics and proposal of parameters for ECCD application. [1] J. Preinhaelter et al, 16th Topical Conf. on RF Power in Plasmas, Park City, Utah, B-05, AIP Conference Proceedings 787,ed. Stephen J. Wukitch, Paul T. Bonoli,(2005), 349-352. [2] J. Urban, J. Preinhaelter, G. Taylor, L. Vahala, G. Vahala: Simulation of ECE frequency spectra for NSTX and comparison with new radiometer results. 47th APS-DPP, October, 2005. Denver, Colorado *Work supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy.

  4. Long Pulse EBW Start-up Experiments in MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Start-up technique reported here relies on a double mode conversion (MC for electron Bernstein wave (EBW excitation. It consists of MC of the ordinary (O mode, entering the plasma from the low field side of the tokamak, into the extraordinary (X mode at a mirror-polarizer located at the high field side. The X mode propagates back to the plasma, passes through electron cyclotron resonance (ECR and experiences a subsequent X to EBW MC near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR. Finally the excited EBW mode is totally absorbed at the Doppler shifted ECR. The absorption of EBW remains high even in cold rarefied plasmas. Furthermore, EBW can generate significant plasma current giving the prospect of a fully solenoid-free plasma start-up. First experiments using this scheme were carried out on MAST [1]. Plasma currents up to 33 kA have been achieved using 28 GHz 100kW 90ms RF pulses. Recently experimental results were extended to longer RF pulses showing further increase of plasma currents generated by RF power alone. A record current of 73kA has been achieved with 450ms RF pulse of similar power. The current drive enhancement was mainly achieved due to RF pulse extension and further optimisation of the start-up scenario.

  5. Design of an novel antenna for EBW heating in FLIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudischhauser, Lukas; Rumiantcev, Kirill; Kasparek, Walter [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Electron Bernstein waves (EBW) are electrostatic waves which do not have an O-wave cutoff. This enables them to penetrate into overdense plasmas and be absorbed at multiples of the electron cyclotron resonance frequency. These waves cannot propagate in free space, necessitating generation of EBW within the plasma volume through O-X-B or X-B conversion processes only possible for certain plasma parameters and injection angles. The aim of this work is to design a high directivity antenna which can excite EBW in FLIPS (Flexible Linear Plasma Experiment Stuttgart). We use commercial and scientific software such as CST MS and PROFUSION to produce two designs, a Vlasov-type cut waveguide and a circular slotted waveguide antenna. This second design is to line the inside of the vessel with rotational symmetry, simplifying comparison to numerical results. To find optimal injection angles and polarisations extensive use is made of simulations using a FD3D code and previous work on the plasma configuration in FLIPS. In a first step radiation pattern measurements outside of the plasma will be performed, the antenna will then be installed and generation of EBW indirectly shown by increased heating in the overdense plasma region.

  6. Charakterisierung der 2. Harmonischen EBW-Heizung

    OpenAIRE

    Höfel, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Elektron-Bernstein-Wellen (EBW) können dazu benutzt werden ein überdichtes Plasma effektiv zu heizen, da für für ihr Eindringen ins Plasma kein oberes Limit in der Elektronendichte existiert, sie allerdings sehr gut an der Elektronzyklotronresonanz (ECR) absorbiert werden. Dies gilt nicht nur für die direkte Absorption an der ECR, sondern auch an deren Harmonischen. Die EBW muss dazu allerdings durch Modenkonversionsprozesse aus einer von außen eingestrahlten Mikrowelle erzeugt werden, da sie...

  7. The Coupling Waves of Multicore-Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Multicore-fiber as gain medium for fiber laser is introduced. The cores are coupled via evanescent waves. Analysis of the coupling waves is agree with the numerical simulations and experimental results.

  8. Electron Bernstein waves emission in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Regana, J M; Cappa, A; Castejon, F; Ros, A [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Caughman, J B O; Rasmussen, D A; Wilgen, J B [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tereshchenko, M, E-mail: josemanuel.garcia@ciemat.es [Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    Taking advantage of the electron Bernstein waves heating system of the TJ-II stellarator, an electron Bernstein emission (EBE) diagnostic was installed. Its purpose is to investigate the B-X-O radiation properties in the zone where optimum theoretical electron Bernstein wave (EBW) coupling is predicted. An internal movable mirror shared by both systems allows us to collect the EBE radiation along the same line of sight that is used for EBW heating. The theoretical EBE has been calculated for different orientations of the internal mirror using the TRUBA code as the ray tracer. A comparison with experimental data obtained in NBI discharges is carried out. The results provide valuable information regarding the experimental O-X-mode conversion window expected in the EBW heating experiments. Furthermore, the characterization of the radiation polarization shows evidence of the underlying B-X-O conversion process.

  9. Electron Bernstein Wave Emission and Mode Conversion Physics on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diem, S J; Caughman, J B; Efthimion, P; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B P; Preinhaelter, J; Sabbagh, S A; Urban, J

    2008-05-21

    NSTX is a spherical tokamak (ST) that operates with ne up to 1020 m-3 and BT less than 0.6 T, cutting off low harmonic electron cyclotron (EC) emission widely used for Te measurements on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in ST plasmas and is emitted at EC harmonics. These properties suggest thermal EBW emission (EBE) may be used for local Te measurements in the ST. Practically, a robust Te(R,t) EBE diagnostic requires EBW transmission efficiencies of > 90% for a wide range of plasma conditions. EBW emission and coupling physics were studied on NSTX with an obliquely viewing EBW to O-mode (B-X-O) diagnostic with two remotely steered antennas, coupled to absolutely calibrated radiometers. While Te(R,t) measurements with EBW emission on NSTX were possible, they were challenged by several issues. Rapid fluctuations in edge ne scale length resulted in > 20% changes in the low harmonic B-X-O transmission efficiency. Also, B-X-O transmission efficiency 2 during H-modes was observed to decay by a factor of 5-10 to less than a few percent. The B-X-O transmission behavior during H-modes was reproduced by EBE simulations that predict that EBW collisional damping can significantly reduce emission when Te < 30 eV inside the B-X-O mode conversion (MC) layer. Initial edge lithium conditioning experiments during H-modes have shown that evaporated lithium can increase Te inside the B-X-O MC layer, significantly increasing B-X-O transmission.

  10. Electron Bernstein waves emission in the TJ--II Stellarator

    CERN Document Server

    García-Regaña, J M; Castejón, F; Caughman, J B O; Tereshchenko, M; Ros, A; Rasmussen, D A; Wilgen, J B

    2010-01-01

    Taking advantage of the electron Bernstein waves heating (EBWH) system of the TJ--II stellarator, an electron Bernstein emission (EBE) diagnostic was installed. Its purpose is to investigate the B--X--O radiation properties in the zone where optimum theoretical EBW coupling is predicted. An internal movable mirror shared by both systems allows us to collect the EBE radiation along the same line of sight that is used for EBW heating. The theoretical EBE has been calculated for different orientations of the internal mirror using the TRUBA code as ray tracer. A comparison with experimental data obtained in NBI discharges is carried out. The results provide a valuable information regarding the experimental O--X mode conversion window expected in the EBW heating experiments. Furthermore, the characterization of the radiation polarization shows evidence of the underlying B--X--O conversion process.

  11. Internal wave coupling processes in Earth's atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Yiğit, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a contemporary review of vertical coupling in the atmosphere and ionosphere system induced by internal waves of lower atmospheric origin. Atmospheric waves are primarily generated by meteorological processes, possess a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and can propagate to the upper atmosphere. A brief summary of internal wave theory is given, focusing on gravity waves, solar tides, planetary Rossby and Kelvin waves. Observations of wave signatures in the upper atmosphere, their relationship with the direct propagation of waves into the upper atmosphere, dynamical and thermal impacts as well as concepts, approaches, and numerical modeling techniques are outlined. Recent progress in studies of sudden stratospheric warming and upper atmospheric variability are discussed in the context of wave-induced vertical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere.

  12. Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed, creat

  13. A Spinning Mirror for Fast Angular Scans of EBW Emission for Magnetic Pitch Profile Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    A tilted spinning mirror rapidly steers the line of sight of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) emission radiometer at the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). In order to resist high mechanical stresses at rotation speeds of up to 12,000 rpm and to avoid eddy current induced magnetic braking, the mirror consists of a glass-reinforced nylon substrate of a special self-balanced design, coated with a reflecting layer. By completing an angular scan every 2.5-10ms, it allows one to characterize with good time resolution the Bernstein-extraordinary-ordinary mode-conversion efficiency as a function of the view angles. Angular maps of conversion efficiency are directly related to the magnetic pitch angle at the cutoff layer for the ordinary mode. Hence, measurements at various frequencies provide the safety factor profile at the plasma edge. Initial measurements and indications of the feasibility of the diagnostic are presented. Moreover, angular scans indicate the best launch conditions for EBW heating.

  14. Measurement of the Electron Bernstein Wave Emission with One of the Power Transmission Lines for ECH in LHD%Measurement of the Electron Bernstein Wave Emission with One of the Power Transmission Lines for ECH in LHD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroe IGAMI; Hiroshi IDEI; Shin KUBO; Yasuo YOSHIMURA; Takashi SHIMOZUMA; Hiromi TAKAHASHI

    2011-01-01

    Possibility of the measurement of radiated waves derived from the thermally emitted electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is numerically investigated based on the assumption of the super dense core (SDC) plasma generated in LHD. EBW that is thermally emitted in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) layer may couple with the electromagnetic wave and be emitted to the vacuum via the EBW-extraordinary-ordinary (B-X-O) mode conversion process. We consider the use of one of the transmission lines for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in LHD as a receiving system of the emission. It is derived that the waves in the fundamental cyclotron frequency range are emitted as the EBW near their upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer outside the last close flux surface (LCFS). On the other hand, waves in the second harmonics cyclotron frequency range are emitted in the core region. It means that successful measurement of waves of the second harmonic frequency range emitted from extremely high dense core plasma with setting an aim angle for receiving indicates a possibility of the second harmonic ECH by EBW in the core region with setting the same aim angle and the same polarization for launching.

  15. Coupled-cavity traveling-wave tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, D. J.; Omalley, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program is developed for analysis of coupled cavity traveling waves tubes (TWT's) which are used in variety of radar and communications applications. Programmers can simulate tubes of arbitrary complexity such as input and output couplers and other features peculiar to one or few cavities which may be modeled by correct choices of input data.

  16. Coupling between whistler waves and slow-mode solitary waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tenerani, Anna; Pegoraro, Francesco; Contel, Olivier Le

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between electron-scale and ion-scale phenomena is of general interest for both laboratory and space plasma physics. In this paper we investigate the linear coupling between whistler waves and slow magnetosonic solitons through two-fluid numerical simulations. Whistler waves can be trapped in the presence of inhomogeneous external fields such as a density hump or hole where they can propagate for times much longer than their characteristic time scale, as shown by laboratory experiments and space measurements. Space measurements have detected whistler waves also in correspondence to magnetic holes, i.e., to density humps with magnetic field minima extending on ion-scales. This raises the interesting question of how ion-scale structures can couple to whistler waves. Slow magnetosonic solitons share some of the main features of a magnetic hole. Using the ducting properties of an inhomogeneous plasma as a guide, we present a numerical study of whistler waves that are trapped and transported inside pr...

  17. COMPUTATIONS OF WIND-WAVE COUPLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We present numerical computations of a new wind-wave coupling theory that is governed by a system of nonlinear advance-delay differential equations (NLADDE). NLADDE are functional differential equations for which the derivative of an unknown function depends nonlinearly on the past (delayed), present, and future (advanced) values of the unknown function (if time is the independent variable). A practical numerical method for solving NLADDE is implemented, based on a collocation method. The method is tested f...

  18. Convectively coupled Kelvin waves in CMIP5 coupled climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Tim

    2016-04-01

    This study provided a quantitative evaluation of convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) over the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean simulated by 20 coupled climate models that participated in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. The two leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of filtered daily precipitation anomalies are used to represent the eastward propagating CCKWs in both observations and simulations. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the EOF modes represent the spatial patterns and intensity of CCKWs respectively, and the lead-lag relationship between the two EOF principle components describe the phase propagation of CCKWs. A non-dimensional metric was designed in consideration of all the three factors (i.e., pattern, amplitude and phase propagation) for evaluation. The relative rankings of the models based on the skill scores calculated by the metric are conducted for the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, respectively. Two models (NorESM1-M and MPI-ESM-LR) are ranked among the best 20 % for both the regions. Three models (inmcm4, MRI-CGCM3 and HadGEM2-ES) are ranked among the worst 20 % for both the regions. While the observed CCKW amplitude is greater north of the equator in the Pacific, some models overestimate the CCKW ampliutde in the Southern Hemisphere. This bias is related to the mean state precipitation bias along the south Pacific convergence zone.

  19. Convectively coupled Kelvin waves in CMIP5 coupled climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Tim

    2017-02-01

    This study provided a quantitative evaluation of convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) over the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean simulated by 20 coupled climate models that participated in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. The two leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of filtered daily precipitation anomalies are used to represent the eastward propagating CCKWs in both observations and simulations. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the EOF modes represent the spatial patterns and intensity of CCKWs respectively, and the lead-lag relationship between the two EOF principle components describe the phase propagation of CCKWs. A non-dimensional metric was designed in consideration of all the three factors (i.e., pattern, amplitude and phase propagation) for evaluation. The relative rankings of the models based on the skill scores calculated by the metric are conducted for the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, respectively. Two models (NorESM1-M and MPI-ESM-LR) are ranked among the best 20 % for both the regions. Three models (inmcm4, MRI-CGCM3 and HadGEM2-ES) are ranked among the worst 20 % for both the regions. While the observed CCKW amplitude is greater north of the equator in the Pacific, some models overestimate the CCKW ampliutde in the Southern Hemisphere. This bias is related to the mean state precipitation bias along the south Pacific convergence zone.

  20. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovnikov, A. V., E-mail: sadovnikovav@gmail.com; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-25

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  1. Coupled wave analysis of obliquely incident waves in thin film gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roey, J.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1981-02-01

    The problem of a guided wave obliquely incident on a grating etched in a thin film guide is considered. Two-dimensional coupled wave equations for the incident and reflected beams are derived for the cases of TE-TE, TE-TM, and TM-TM coupling. Two methods, a ray optic approximation and a coupled beam method, are proposed for the numerical solution of the coupled wave equations. Both methods are illustrated by a number of calculated examples.

  2. Coupling atmospheric and ocean wave models for storm simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting

    This thesis studies the wind-wave interactions through the coupling between the atmospheric model and ocean surface wave models. Special attention is put on storm simulations in the North Sea for wind energy applications in the coastal zones. The two aspects, namely storm conditions and coastal...... areas, are challenging for the wind-wave coupling system because: in storm cases, the wave field is constantly modified by the fast varying wind field; in coastal zones, the wave field is strongly influenced by the bathymetry and currents. Both conditions have complex, unsteady sea state varying...... with time and space that challenge the current coupled modeling system. The conventional approach of estimating the momentum exchange is through parameterizing the aerodynamic roughness length (z0) with wave parameters such as wave age, steepness, significant wave height, etc. However, it is found in storm...

  3. Exact Travelling Wave Solutions to a Coupled Nonlinear Evolution Equation[

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGDing-Jiang; ZHANGHong-Qing

    2004-01-01

    By using an improved hyperbola function method, several types of exact travelling wave solutions to a coupled nonlinear evolution equation are obtained, which include kink-shaped soliton solutions, bell-shaped soliton solutions, envelop solitary wave solutions, and new solitary waves. The method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  4. Exact Travelling Wave Solutions to a Coupled Nonlinear Evolution Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ding-Jiang; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2004-01-01

    By using an improved hyperbola function method, several types of exact travelling wave solutions to a coupled nonlinear evolution equation are obtained, which include kink-shaped soliton solutions, bell-shaped soliton solutions, envelop solitary wave solutions, and new solitary waves. The method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  5. Dynamics of coupled light waves and electron-acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P K; Stenflo, L; Hellberg, M

    2002-08-01

    The nonlinear interaction between coherent light waves and electron-acoustic waves in a two-electron plasma is considered. The interaction is governed by a pair of equations comprising a Schrödinger-like equation for the light wave envelope and a driven (by the light pressure) electron-acoustic wave equation. The newly derived nonlinear equations are used to study the formation and dynamics of envelope light wave solitons and light wave collapse. The implications of our investigation to space and laser-produced plasmas are pointed out.

  6. Requirements for Verifying Wave-Wave Coupling at Texcoco, Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, W. R.

    2002-12-01

    A late-arriving monochromatic wave has been identified at the Texcoco accelerograph array in the Valley of Mexico, for the 2001 October 8 Coyuca, Guerrero (M 6.1) earthquake. Because this wave propagates nearly towards the epicentre, it must be locally-generated, and its combination of low velocity (160m/s phase, 60m/s group) long delay (85sec after s-wave arrival), distance from the basin margin (about 8km), and relatively high amplitude, are not consistent with current beliefs about wave attenuation in the lacustrine mud in which the wave travels. Three possibilities must be considered; that the mud does not attenuate motion as much as believed; that most of the wave energy does not travel in the mud; or that the observed wave is coupled to a less-attenuated wave so that energy lost in the mud is continually being replaced by wave-wave coupling. Wave-wave coupling is a likely mechanism because the monochromatic motion is at a frequency that differs from the readily-evaluated "layer frequency", ruling out the layer as the main determinant of frequency. Instead it is possible that the observed frequency is that at which a Rayleigh wave travels at the speed of a wave in a material below the surface (28m thick) layer. In order for wave-wave coupling to be unambiguously confirmed it is necessary to identify a layer of material which will support a wave at the observed velocity of 160m/s. Such a wave is unlikely to be a p-wave because p-waves in the profile are likely to have velocities in excess of 1500m/s. SCPT testing will readily determine whether an s-wave velocity of 160m/s is present in the profile. In the case of coupling of a Rayleigh wave to an acoustic wave it is relatively easy to identify the two waves and to ascertain that they travel at the same speed, on account of the widely differing nature of the two waves. A pressure detector will not respond to the Rayleigh wave, even though a seismometer will respond to the pressure wave. The situation is more

  7. Random coupling of acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Christophe; Lott, Francois; Haynes, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    In numerical modeling of long-range acoustic propagation in the atmosphere, the effect of gravity waves on low-frequency acoustic waves is often ignored. As the sound speed far exceeds the gravity wave phase speed, these two types of waves present different spatial scales and their linear coupling is weak. It is possible, however, to obtain relatively strong couplings via sound speed profile changes with altitude. In the present study, this scenario is analyzed for realistic gravity wave fields and the incident acoustic wave is modeled as a narrow-banded acoustic pulse. The gravity waves are represented as a random field using a stochastic multiwave parameterization of non-orographic gravity waves. The parameterization provides independent monochromatic gravity waves, and the gravity wave field is obtained as the linear superposition of the waves produced. When the random terms are retained, a more generalized wave equation is obtained that both qualitatively and quantitatively agrees with the observations of several highly dispersed stratospheric wavetrains. Here, we show that the cumulative effect of gravity wave breakings makes the sensitivity of ground-based acoustic signals large, in that small changes in the parameterization can create or destroy an acoustic wavetrain.

  8. BIFURCATIONS OF TRAVELLING WAVE SOLUTIONS TO A COUPLED NONLINEAR WAVE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Employ theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems to a system of coupled nonlin-ear equations, the existence of solitary wave solutions, kink wave solutions, anti-kink wave solutions and periodic wave solutions is obtained. Under different parametric conditions, various suffcient conditions to guarantee the existence of the above so-lutions are given. Some exact explicit parametric representations of travelling wave solutions are derived.

  9. Wave-Tide-Surge Coupled Simulation for Typhoon Maemi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byung Ho Choi; Byung Il Min; Kyeong Ok Kim; Jin Hee Yuk

    2013-01-01

    The main task of this study focuses on studying the effect of wave-current interaction on currents,storm surge and wind wave as well as effects of current induced wave refraction and current on waves by using numerical models which consider the bottom boundary layer and sea surface roughness parameter for shallow and smooth bed area around Korean Peninsula.The coupled system (unstructured-mesh SWAN wave and ADCIRC) run on the same unstructured mesh.This identical and homogeneous mesh allows the physics of wave-circulation interactions to be correctly resolved in both models.The unstructured mesh can be applied to a large domain allowing all energy from deep to shallow waters to be seamlessly followed.There is no nesting or overlapping of structured wave meshes,and no interpolation is required.In response to typhoon Maemi (2003),all model components were validated independently,and shown to provide a faithful representation of the system's response to this storm.The waves and storm surge were allowed to develop on the continental shelf and interact with the complex nearshore environment.The resulting modeling system can be used extensively for prediction of the typhoon surge.The result show that it is important to incorporate the wave-current interaction effect into coastal area in the wave-tide-surge coupled model.At the same time,it should consider effects of depth-induced wave breaking,wind field,currents and sea surface elevation in prediction of waves.Specially,we found that:(1) wave radiation stress enhanced the current and surge elevation otherwise wave enhanced nonlinear bottom boundary layer decreased that,(2) wind wave was significantly controlled by sea surface roughness thus we cautiously took the experimental expression.The resulting modeling system can be used for hindcasting (prediction) the wave-tide-surge coupled environments at complex coastline,shallow water and fine sediment area like areas around Korean Peninsula.

  10. Guided wave coupling in integrated-optic gratings - Normal incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roey, J.; Denturck, B.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1984-10-01

    The coupling between the different guided modes of an integrated-optic waveguide grating filter is analyzed. A numerical method based on a finite-difference scheme for the solution of this coupling problem in the case of normal incidence is presented. This allows one to study the influence of the grating profile on the coupling between guided or radiated waves. The exact numerical results are compared with approximate formulas for the coupling coefficient.

  11. A coupled "AB" system: Rogue waves and modulation instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C F; Grimshaw, R H J; Chow, K W; Chan, H N

    2015-10-01

    Rogue waves are unexpectedly large and localized displacements from an equilibrium position or an otherwise calm background. For the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model widely used in fluid mechanics and optics, these waves can occur only when dispersion and nonlinearity are of the same sign, a regime of modulation instability. For coupled NLS equations, rogue waves will arise even if dispersion and nonlinearity are of opposite signs in each component as new regimes of modulation instability will appear in the coupled system. The same phenomenon will be demonstrated here for a coupled "AB" system, a wave-current interaction model describing baroclinic instability processes in geophysical flows. Indeed, the onset of modulation instability correlates precisely with the existence criterion for rogue waves for this system. Transitions from "elevation" rogue waves to "depression" rogue waves are elucidated analytically. The dispersion relation as a polynomial of the fourth order may possess double pairs of complex roots, leading to multiple configurations of rogue waves for a given set of input parameters. For special parameter regimes, the dispersion relation reduces to a cubic polynomial, allowing the existence criterion for rogue waves to be computed explicitly. Numerical tests correlating modulation instability and evolution of rogue waves were conducted.

  12. Breakup of Spiral Waves in Coupled Hindmarsh-Rose Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; JIA Ya; TANG Jun; YANG Li-Jian

    2008-01-01

    @@ Breakup of spiral wave in the Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with nearest-neighbour couplings is reported.Appropriate initial values and parameter regions are selected to develop a stable spiral wave and then the Gauesian coloured noise with different intensities and correlation times is imposed on all neurons to study the breakup of spiral wave, respectively.Based on the mean field theory, the statistical factor of synchronization is defined to analyse the evolution of spiral wave.It is found that the stable rotating spiral wave encounters breakup with increasing intensity of Gaussian coloured noise or decreasing correlation time to certain threshold.

  13. Beta Value Coupled Wave Theory for Nonslanted Reflection Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Neipp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a modified coupled wave theory to describe the properties of nonslanted reflection volume diffraction gratings. The method is based on the beta value coupled wave theory, which will be corrected by using appropriate boundary conditions. The use of this correction allows predicting the efficiency of the reflected order for nonslanted reflection gratings embedded in two media with different refractive indices. The results obtained by using this method will be compared to those obtained using a matrix method, which gives exact solutions in terms of Mathieu functions, and also to Kogelnik’s coupled wave theory. As will be demonstrated, the technique presented in this paper means a significant improvement over Kogelnik’s coupled wave theory.

  14. Surface-wave mode coupling : modelling and inverting waveforms including body-wave phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquering, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a similar problem as addressed by Li & Tanimoto (1993) in the surfacewave mode approach. In this thesis it is shown that surface-wave mode coupling is required when body-wave phases in laterally heterogeneous media are modelled by surface-wave mode summation. An efficie

  15. Holes and chaotic pulses of traveling waves coupled to a long-wave mode

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero, H; Herrero, Henar; Riecke, Hermann

    1997-01-01

    Localized traveling-wave pulses and holes, i.e. localized regions of vanishing wave amplitude, are investigated in a real Ginzburg-Landau equation coupled to a long-wave mode. In certain parameter regimes the pulses exhibit a Hopf bifurcation which leads to a breathing motion. Subsequently the oscillations undergo period-doubling bifurcations and become chaotic.

  16. The dynamic financial distress prediction method of EBW-VSTW-SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Li, Hui; Chang, Pei-Chann; He, Kai-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Financial distress prediction (FDP) takes important role in corporate financial risk management. Most of former researches in this field tried to construct effective static FDP (SFDP) models that are difficult to be embedded into enterprise information systems, because they are based on horizontal data-sets collected outside the modelling enterprise by defining the financial distress as the absolute conditions such as bankruptcy or insolvency. This paper attempts to propose an approach for dynamic evaluation and prediction of financial distress based on the entropy-based weighting (EBW), the support vector machine (SVM) and an enterprise's vertical sliding time window (VSTW). The dynamic FDP (DFDP) method is named EBW-VSTW-SVM, which keeps updating the FDP model dynamically with time goes on and only needs the historic financial data of the modelling enterprise itself and thus is easier to be embedded into enterprise information systems. The DFDP method of EBW-VSTW-SVM consists of four steps, namely evaluation of vertical relative financial distress (VRFD) based on EBW, construction of training data-set for DFDP modelling according to VSTW, training of DFDP model based on SVM and DFDP for the future time point. We carry out case studies for two listed pharmaceutical companies and experimental analysis for some other companies to simulate the sliding of enterprise vertical time window. The results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient to help managers improve corporate financial management.

  17. An experimental study of wave coupling in gravity surface wave turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubourg, Quentin; Sommeria, Joel; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Weak turbulence is a theoretical framework aimed at describing wave turbulence (in the weakly nonlinear limit) i.e. a statistical state involving a large number of nonlinearly coupled waves. For gravity waves at the surface of water, it provides a phenomenology that may describe the formation of the spectrum of the ocean surface. Analytical predictions of the spectra are made based on the fact that energy transfer occurs through 4-wave coupling. By using an advanced stereoscopic imaging technique, we measure in time the deformation of the water surface. We obtain a state of wave turbulence by using two small wedge wavemakers in a 13-m diameter wavetank. We then use high order correlator (bi- and tri-coherence) in order to get evidence of the active wave coupling present in our system as used successfully for gravity-capillary wave turbulence. At odds with the weak turbulence theory we observe 3-wave interaction involving 2 quasi linear wave and a bound wave whose frequency lies on the first harmonics of the linear dispersion relation. We do not observe 4-wave coupling within the accuracy of our measurement. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 647018-WATU).

  18. Superstrong coupling of thin film magnetostatic waves with microwave cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Tang, Hong X., E-mail: hong.tang@yale.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Zou, Changling [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Jiang, Liang [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We experimentally demonstrated the strong coupling between a microwave cavity and standing magnetostatic magnon modes in a yttrium iron garnet film. Such strong coupling can be observed for various spin wave modes under different magnetic field bias configurations, with a coupling strength inversely proportional to the transverse mode number. A comb-like spectrum can be obtained from these high order modes. The collectively enhanced magnon-microwave photon coupling strength is comparable with the magnon free spectral range and therefore leads to the superstrong coupling regime. Our findings pave the road towards designing a new type of strongly hybridized magnon-photon system.

  19. Wave propagation of coupled modes in the DNA double helix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabi, C B; Ekobena Fouda, H P [Laboratory of Biophysics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Mohamadou, A [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, PO Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); Kofane, T C, E-mail: contab408@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2011-03-15

    The remarkable dynamics of waves propagating along the DNA molecule is described by the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We consider both the single and the coupled nonlinear excitation modes and, under numerical simulations of the Peyrard-Bishop model, with the use of realistic values of parameters, their biological implications are studied. Furthermore, the characteristics of the coupled mode solution are discussed and we show that such a solution can describe the local opening observed within the transcription and the replication phenomena.

  20. Coupling Atmosphere and Waves for Coastal Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolanos, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Petersen, Ole S.

    2014-01-01

    , but new roughness formulations have been proposed to better estimate wave-wind interactions according to observations. In the present work, an assessment of several roughness descriptions is performed, and implications for coastal wind and wave modelling are studied. An atmospheric (WRF) and spectral wave...... model (MIKE 21 SW) are implemented for the North Sea in order to consider wave effects on roughness. The objective is to see the reaction of an atmospheric model to the water surface description through offline coupling. A comparison with three simplified roughness formulations embedded in WRF showed...

  1. Coupling model for waves propagating over a porous seabed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Liao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The wave–seabed interaction issue is of great importance for the design of foundation around marine infrastructures. Most previous investigations for such a problem have been limited to uncoupled or one-way coupled methods connecting two separated wave and seabed sub models with the continuity of pressures at the seabed surface. In this study, a strongly coupled model was proposed to realize both wave and seabed processes in a same program and to calculate the wave fields and seabed response simultaneously. The information between wave fields and seabed fields were strongly shared and thus results in a more profound investigation of the mechanism of the wave–seabed interaction. In this letter, the wave and seabed models were validated with previous experimental tests. Then, a set of application of present model were discussed in prediction of the wave-induced seabed response. Numerical results show the wave-induced liquefaction area of coupled model is smaller than that of uncoupled model.

  2. Development of a coupled wave-flow-vegetation interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beudin, Alexis; Kalra, Tarandeep; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Warner, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Emergent and submerged vegetation can significantly affect coastal hydrodynamics. However, most deterministic numerical models do not take into account their influence on currents, waves, and turbulence. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a wave-flow-vegetation module into a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system that includes a flow model (ROMS) and a wave model (SWAN), and illustrate various interacting processes using an idealized shallow basin application. The flow model has been modified to include plant posture-dependent three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and production of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy to parameterize vertical mixing. The coupling framework has been updated to exchange vegetation-related variables between the flow model and the wave model to account for wave energy dissipation due to vegetation. This study i) demonstrates the validity of the plant posture-dependent drag parameterization against field measurements, ii) shows that the model is capable of reproducing the mean and turbulent flow field in the presence of vegetation as compared to various laboratory experiments, iii) provides insight into the flow-vegetation interaction through an analysis of the terms in the momentum balance, iv) describes the influence of a submerged vegetation patch on tidal currents and waves separately and combined, and v) proposes future directions for research and development.

  3. Development of a coupled wave-flow-vegetation interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beudin, Alexis; Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Ganju, Neil K.; Warner, John C.

    2017-03-01

    Emergent and submerged vegetation can significantly affect coastal hydrodynamics. However, most deterministic numerical models do not take into account their influence on currents, waves, and turbulence. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a wave-flow-vegetation module into a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system that includes a flow model (ROMS) and a wave model (SWAN), and illustrate various interacting processes using an idealized shallow basin application. The flow model has been modified to include plant posture-dependent three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and production of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy to parameterize vertical mixing. The coupling framework has been updated to exchange vegetation-related variables between the flow model and the wave model to account for wave energy dissipation due to vegetation. This study i) demonstrates the validity of the plant posture-dependent drag parameterization against field measurements, ii) shows that the model is capable of reproducing the mean and turbulent flow field in the presence of vegetation as compared to various laboratory experiments, iii) provides insight into the flow-vegetation interaction through an analysis of the terms in the momentum balance, iv) describes the influence of a submerged vegetation patch on tidal currents and waves separately and combined, and v) proposes future directions for research and development.

  4. Shear flow induced wave couplings in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poedts, S. [KULeuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Centre for Plasma Astrophysics; Rogava, A.D. [Tbilisi State Univ. (Georgia). Dept. of Physics]|[International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mahajan, S.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Institute for Fusion Studies]|[International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1998-01-01

    A sheared background flow in a plasma induces coupling between different MHD wave modes, resulting in their mutual transformations with corresponding energy redistributing between the modes. In this way, the energy can be transfered from one wave mode to the other, but energy can also be added to or extracted from the background flow. In the present paper it is investigated whether the wave coupling and energy transfer mechanisms can operate under solar wind conditions. It is shown that this is indeed the case. Hence, the long-period waves observed in the solar wind at r > 0.3 AU might be generated by much faster periodic oscillations in the photosphere of the Sun. Other possible consequences for observable beat phenomena in the wind and the acceleration of the solar wind particles are also discussed.

  5. Fully Coupled Electromechanical Elastodynamic Model for Guided Wave Propagation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    Physics-based computational models play a key role in the study of wave propagation for structural health monitoring (SHM) and the development of improved damage detection methodologies. Due to the complex nature of guided waves, accurate and efficient computation tools are necessary to investigate the mechanisms responsible for dispersion, coupling, and interaction with damage. In this paper, a fully coupled electromechanical elastodynamic model for wave propagation in a heterogeneous, anisotropic material system is developed. The final framework provides the full three dimensional displacement and electrical potential fields for arbitrary plate and transducer geometries and excitation waveform and frequency. The model is validated theoretically and proven computationally efficient. Studies are performed with surface bonded piezoelectric sensors to gain insight into the physics of experimental techniques used for SHM. Collocated actuation of the fundamental Lamb wave modes is modeled over a range of frequenc...

  6. On the coupling between spinning particles and cosmological gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Milillo, Irene; Montani, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spin in a system of classical particles on the propagation of gravitational waves is analyzed in the cosmological context of primordial thermal equilibrium. On a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, when the precession is neglected, there is no contribution due to the spin to the distribution function of the particles. Adding a small tensor perturbation to the background metric, we study if a coupling between gravitational waves and spin exists that can modify the evolution of the distribution function, leading to new terms in the anisotropic stress, and then to a new source for gravitational waves. In the chosen gauge, the final result is that, in the absence of other kind of perturbations, there is no coupling between spin and gravitational waves.

  7. Adiabatic trapping in coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, H. A.; Ali, Z. [Department of Physics, G.C. University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-03-15

    In the present work, we have discussed the effects of adiabatic trapping of electrons on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low {beta} plasma. Using the two potential theory and employing the Sagdeev potential approach, we have investigated the existence of arbitrary amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves in both the sub and super Alfvenic cases. The results obtained have been analyzed and presented graphically and can be applied to regions of space where the low {beta} assumption holds true.

  8. Coupled wave versus modal theory in uniform dielectric gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. St. J.

    1983-11-01

    The philosophical bases of coupled wave and modal theories are explored and compared. For the particular case of the diffraction of light by thick, uniform dielectric gratings, they are investigated in detail. It is shown that Moharam and Gaylord's recent accurate method for solving the coupled wave equations (JOSA 71 (1981) 811) is exactly equivalent to the modal (or Floquet-Bloch) approach, and hence that their results can be interpreted in an alternative manner using the many valuable intuitional insights offered by Floquet-Bloch theory.

  9. Holes and chaotic pulses of traveling waves coupled to a long-wave mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Henar; Riecke, Hermann

    1997-02-01

    It is shown that localized traveling-wave pulses and holes can be stabilized by a coupling to a long-wave mode. Simulations of suitable real Ginzburg-Landau equations reveal a small parameter regime in which the pulses exhibit a breathing motion (presumably related to a front bifurcation), which subsequently becomes chaotic via period-doubling bifurcations.

  10. Ring Current-Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves, generated by ion temperature anisotropy in Earth s ring current (RC), is the best known example of wave- particle interaction in the magnetosphere. Also, there is much controversy over the importance of EMIC waves on RC depletion. Under certain conditions, relativistic electrons, with energies 21 MeV, can be removed from the outer radiation belt (RB) by EMIC wave scattering during a magnetic storm. That is why the calculation of EMIC waves must be a very critical part of the space weather studies. The new RC model that we have developed and present for the first time has several new features that we have combine together in a one single model: (a) several lower frequency cold plasma wave modes are taken into account; (b) wave tracing of these wave has been incorporated in the energy EMIC wave equation; (c) no assumptions regarding wave shape spectra have been made; (d) no assumptions regarding the shape of particle distribution have been made to calculate the growth rate; (e) pitch-angle, energy, and mix diffusions are taken into account together for the first time; (f) the exact loss-cone RC analytical solution has been found and coupled with bounce-averaged numerical solution of kinetic equation; (g) the EMIC waves saturation due to their modulation instability and LHW generation are included as an additional factor that contributes to this process; and (h) the hot ions were included in the real part of dielectric permittivity tensor. We compare our theoretical results with the different EMIC waves models as well as RC experimental data.

  11. Ring Current Ion Coupling with Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.

    2002-01-01

    A new ring current global model has been developed for the first time that couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation describes the ring current (RC) ion dynamic, and another equation describes wave evolution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (EMIC). The coupled model is able to simulate, for the first time self-consistently calculated RC ion kinetic and evolution of EMIC waves that propagate along geomagnetic field lines and reflect from the ionosphere. Ionospheric properties affect the reflection index through the integral Pedersen and Hall coductivities. The structure and dynamics of the ring current proton precipitating flux regions, intensities of EMIC, global RC energy balance, and some other parameters will be studied in detail for the selected geomagnetic storms. The space whether aspects of RC modelling and comparison with the data will also be discussed.

  12. Dust acoustic waves in strongly coupled dissipative plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, B. S.; Yu, M. Y.

    2000-12-01

    The theory of dust acoustic waves is revisited in the frame of the generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic theory for highly correlated dusts. Physical processes relevant to many experiments on dusts in plasmas, such as ionization and recombination, dust-charge variation, elastic electron and ion collisions with neutral and charged dust particles, as well as relaxation due to strong dust coupling, are taken into account. These processes can be on similar time scales and are thus important for the conservation of particles and momenta in a self-consistent description of the system. It is shown that the dispersion properties of the dust acoustic waves are determined by a sensitive balance of the effects of strong dust coupling and collisional relaxation. The predictions of the present theory applicable to typical parameters in laboratory strongly coupled dusty plasmas are given and compared with the experiment results. Some possible implications and discrepanies between theory and experiment are also discussed.

  13. Long codas of coupled wave systems in seismic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Thomas H.

    2002-11-01

    Quite some time ago it was pointed out that the damage patterns and Fourier spectra of the 1985 earthquake in Mexico City are only compatible with a resonant effect of horizontal waves with the approximate speed of sound waves in water [see Flores et al., Nature 326, 783 (1987)]. In a more recent paper it was pointed out that this indeed will occur with a very specific frequency selection for a coupled system of Raleigh waves at the interface of the bottom of the ancient lakebed with the more solid deposits, and an evanescent sound wave in the mud above [see J. Flores et al., Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 89, 14-21 (1999)]. In the present talk we shall go over these arguments again and show that strong reflection at the edges of the lake must occur to account for the strong magnification entailing necessarily a long coda, and that the mecanism can be understood in the same terms.

  14. Stability of Solitary Waves for Three Coupled Long Wave - Short Wave Interaction Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Borluk, H.; Erbay, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider a three-component system of one dimensional long wave-short wave interaction equations. The system has two-parameter family of solitary wave solutions. We prove orbital stability of the solitary wave solutions using variational methods.

  15. Mediterranea Forecasting System: a focus on wave-current coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Emanuela; Delrosso, Damiano; Pistoia, Jenny; Drudi, Massimiliano; Fratianni, Claudia; Grandi, Alessandro; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Tonani, Marina

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) is a numerical ocean prediction system that produces analyses, reanalyses and short term forecasts for the entire Mediterranean Sea and its Atlantic Ocean adjacent areas. MFS became operational in the late 90's and has been developed and continuously improved in the framework of a series of EU and National funded programs and is now part of the Copernicus Marine Service. The MFS is composed by the hydrodynamic model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) 2-way coupled with the third generation wave model WW3 (WaveWatchIII) implemented in the Mediterranean Sea with 1/16 horizontal resolution and forced by ECMWF atmospheric fields. The model solutions are corrected by the data assimilation system (3D variational scheme adapted to the oceanic assimilation problem) with a daily assimilation cycle, using a background error correlation matrix varying seasonally and in different sub-regions of the Mediterranean Sea. The focus of this work is to present the latest modelling system upgrades and the related achieved improvements. In order to evaluate the performance of the coupled system a set of experiments has been built by coupling the wave and circulation models that hourly exchange the following fields: the sea surface currents and air-sea temperature difference are transferred from NEMO model to WW3 model modifying respectively the mean momentum transfer of waves and the wind speed stability parameter; while the neutral drag coefficient computed by WW3 model is passed to NEMO that computes the turbulent component. In order to validate the modelling system, numerical results have been compared with in-situ and remote sensing data. This work suggests that a coupled model might be capable of a better description of wave-current interactions, in particular feedback from the ocean to the waves might assess an improvement on the prediction capability of wave characteristics, while suggests to proceed toward a fully

  16. Modeling Pancake Formation with a Coupled Wave-Ice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramony, J.; Orzech, M.; Shi, F.; Bateman, S. P.; Calantoni, J.

    2016-12-01

    Recent results from the ONR-sponsored Arctic Sea State DRI cruise (Thomson et al., 2016, EOS, in press) suggest that small-scale pancake ice formation is an important process in the initial recovery and refreezing of the Arctic pack ice each autumn. Ocean surface waves and ambient temperature play significant roles in shaping and/or limiting the pancake growth patterns, which may either facilitate or delay the recovery of the ice pack. Here we apply a phase-resolving, coupled wave-ice system, consisting of a CFD wave model (NHWAVE) and a discrete-element ice model (LIGGGHTS), to investigate the formation processes of pancake ice under different conditions. A series of simulations is run, each beginning with a layer of disconnected ice particles floating on the ocean surface. Wave conditions and ice bonding properties are varied to examine the effects of mild versus stormy conditions, wind waves versus swell, and warmer versus colder temperatures. Model runs are limited to domains of O(1 sq km). Initial tests have shown some success in replicating qualitative results from the Sea State cruise, including the formation of irregularly shaped pancakes from the "frazil" ice layer, changes in formation processes caused by varying ambient temperature (represented through variations in ice bonding strength), occasional rafting of one pancake on top of another, and increased wave attenuation as pancakes grow larger.

  17. 联轴节电子束焊焊缝超声相控阵检测技术%Research on PAUT technology of EBW welding seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万升云; 章文显; 刘仕远; 任好娟; 陈仕华

    2011-01-01

    According to the special characteristic of electron beam weld in shaft coupling,it is hard to apply radiographic testing and normal ultrasonic testing,so the phase array ultrasonic testing(PAUT) is required.In the paper,the structure of the electron beam weld (EBW) in the shaft coupling is analyzed,and also the trait of PAUT.So it seems that the PAUT is fit to the EBW.And then a PAUT process is setup, reference block for sensitivity is produced, and several experiments are put in.At last.it is shown, A-type, B-type and C-type ultrasonic testing can be done synchronously via PAUT, and it has characteristics of high sensitivity, intuitionistic result, etc.so as to apply testing on EBW in shaft coupling availably.%针对联轴节电子束焊缝比较特殊、射线和普通超声波检测存在一定困难的特点,采用超声波相控阵检测技术来进行检测.分析联轴节电子束焊缝的结构,结合超声波相控阵检测技术的特点,确认相控阵检测技术可用于该类型焊缝的检测.制订相控阵检测工艺,设计制作了灵敏度测试试块,并进行试验.结果表明,采用超声波相控阵检测技术可同时进行A型、B型、C型超声波检测扫描,具备检测灵敏度高、检测结果直观等特点,可有效实现联轴节电子束焊焊缝缺陷的检测.

  18. Traveling and Standing Waves in Coupled Pendula and Newton's Cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Azpeitia, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The existence of traveling and standing waves is investigated for chains of coupled pendula with periodic boundary conditions. The results are proven by applying topological methods to subspaces of symmetric solutions. The main advantage of this approach comes from the fact that only properties of the linearized forces are required. This allows to cover a wide range of models such as Newton's cradle, the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, and the Toda lattice.

  19. Body-wave traveltime and amplitude shifts from asymptotic travelling wave coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the sensitivity of finite-frequency body-wave traveltimes and amplitudes to perturbations in 3-D seismic velocity structure relative to a spherically symmetric model. Using the approach of coupled travelling wave theory, we consider the effect of a structural perturbation on an isolated portion of the seismogram. By convolving the spectrum of the differential seismogram with the spectrum of a narrow window taper, and using a Taylor's series expansion for wavenumber as a function of frequency on a mode dispersion branch, we derive semi-analytic expressions for the sensitivity kernels. Far-field effects of wave interactions with the free surface or internal discontinuities are implicitly included, as are wave conversions upon scattering. The kernels may be computed rapidly for the purpose of structural inversions. We give examples of traveltime sensitivity kernels for regional wave propagation at 1 Hz. For the direct SV wave in a simple crustal velocity model, they are generally complicated because of interfering waves generated by interactions with the free surface and the Mohorovic??ic?? discontinuity. A large part of the interference effects may be eliminated by restricting the travelling wave basis set to those waves within a certain range of horizontal phase velocity. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  20. Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices.

  1. Acoustic mode coupling induced by nonlinear internal waves: evaluation of the mode coupling matrices and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T C

    2014-02-01

    This paper applies the mode coupling equation to calculate the mode-coupling matrix for nonlinear internal waves appearing as a train of solitons. The calculation is applied to an individual soliton up to second order expansion in sound speed perturbation in the Dyson series. The expansion is valid so long as the fractional sound speed change due to a single soliton, integrated over range and depth, times the wavenumber is smaller than unity. Scattering between the solitons are included by coupling the mode coupling matrices between the solitons. Acoustic fields calculated using this mode-coupling matrix formulation are compared with that obtained using a parabolic equation (PE) code. The results agree very well in terms of the depth integrated acoustic energy at the receivers for moving solitary internal waves. The advantages of using the proposed approach are: (1) The effects of mode coupling can be studied as a function of range and time as the solitons travel along the propagation path, and (2) it allows speedy calculations of sound propagation through a packet or packets of solitons saving orders of magnitude computations compared with the PE code. The mode coupling theory is applied to at-sea data to illustrate the underlying physics.

  2. Water Wave Solutions of the Coupled System Zakharov-Kuznetsov and Generalized Coupled KdV Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Seadawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic study was conducted on coupled partial differential equations. We formally derived new solitary wave solutions of generalized coupled system of Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK and KdV equations by using modified extended tanh method. The traveling wave solutions for each generalized coupled system of ZK and KdV equations are shown in form of periodic, dark, and bright solitary wave solutions. The structures of the obtained solutions are distinct and stable.

  3. Water wave solutions of the coupled system Zakharov-Kuznetsov and generalized coupled KdV equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seadawy, A R; El-Rashidy, K

    2014-01-01

    An analytic study was conducted on coupled partial differential equations. We formally derived new solitary wave solutions of generalized coupled system of Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) and KdV equations by using modified extended tanh method. The traveling wave solutions for each generalized coupled system of ZK and KdV equations are shown in form of periodic, dark, and bright solitary wave solutions. The structures of the obtained solutions are distinct and stable.

  4. New Explicit Solitary Wave Solutions and Periodic Wave Solutions for the Generalized Coupled Hirota-Satsuma KdV system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENYong; YANZhen-Ya; 等

    2002-01-01

    In this paper,we study the generalized coupled Hirota-Satsuma KdV system by using the new generalized transformation in homogeneous balance method.As a result,many explicit exact solutions,which contain new solitary wave solutions,periodic wave solutions,and the combined formal solitary wave solutions,and periodic wave solutions ,are obtained.

  5. Comparison between off-resonance and electron Bernstein waves heating regime in a microwave discharge ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G.; Di Giugno, R.; Miracoli, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IBAM Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Lanaia, D.; Ciavola, G. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serafino, T. [CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Bartolo, F. [Universita di Messina, Ctr. da Papardo-Sperone, 98100 Messina (Italy); Gambino, N. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); IET-Institute of Energy Technology, LEC-Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    A microwave discharge ion source (MDIS) operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania has been used to compare the traditional electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating with an innovative mechanisms of plasma ignition based on the electrostatic Bernstein waves (EBW). EBW are obtained via the inner plasma electromagnetic-to-electrostatic wave conversion and they are absorbed by the plasma at cyclotron resonance harmonics. The heating of plasma by means of EBW at particular frequencies enabled us to reach densities much larger than the cutoff ones. Evidences of EBW generation and absorption together with X-ray emissions due to high energy electrons will be shown. A characterization of the discharge heating process in MDISs as a generalization of the ECR heating mechanism by means of ray tracing will be shown in order to highlight the fundamental physical differences between ECR and EBW heating.

  6. Waveguide characteristics of coupled in-plane waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Lu, Jing; Qiu, Xiaojun

    2012-06-01

    In-plane waves in a waveguide made from a thin plate are described by a superposition of a set of orthogonal functions that satisfy the edge conditions of the waveguide. Due to the Poisson and shear effects, the displacement components of the in-plane waves along the two in-plane orthogonal coordinates are coupled and this coupling affects the propagation and spatial properties of the waveguide modes. The orthogonal functions and their associated wavenumbers represent the characteristics of the uncoupled modes of the waveguide where the above mentioned couplings are ignored. This study demonstrates that the characteristics of the waveguide modes are determined by the couplings of the uncoupled mode pairs, which become significant when the pairs satisfy the conditions of spatial coincidence. At some frequencies, certain waveguide modes can be determined by a single pair of uncoupled modes. For this case, the analytical solution for the waveguide modes exists and provides both a qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the characteristics of the waveguide mode.

  7. Slot-coupled CW standing wave accelerating cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaoheng; Rimmer, Robert; Wang, Haipeng

    2017-05-16

    A slot-coupled CW standing wave multi-cell accelerating cavity. To achieve high efficiency graded beta acceleration, each cell in the multi-cell cavity may include different cell lengths. Alternatively, to achieve high efficiency with acceleration for particles with beta equal to 1, each cell in the multi-cell cavity may include the same cell design. Coupling between the cells is achieved with a plurality of axially aligned kidney-shaped slots on the wall between cells. The slot-coupling method makes the design very compact. The shape of the cell, including the slots and the cone, are optimized to maximize the power efficiency and minimize the peak power density on the surface. The slots are non-resonant, thereby enabling shorter slots and less power loss.

  8. Rational homoclinic solution and rogue wave solution for the coupled long-wave–short-wave system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chen Wei; Chen Hanlin; Dai Zhengde

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a rational homoclinic solution is obtained via the classical homoclinicsolution for the coupled long-wave–short-wave system. Based on the structures of ratinal homoclinic solution, the characteristics of homoclinic solution are discussed which might provide us with useful information on the dynamics of the relevant physical fields.

  9. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal waves in piano strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchenique, Nikki; Collin, Samantha R; Moore, Thomas R

    2015-04-01

    The existence of longitudinal waves in vibrating piano strings has been previously established, as has their importance in producing the characteristic sound of the piano. Modeling of the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motion of strings indicates that the amplitude of the longitudinal waves are quadratically related to the transverse displacement of the string, however, experimental verification of this relationship is lacking. In the work reported here this relationship is tested by driving the transverse motion of a piano string at only two frequencies, which simplifies the task of unambiguously identifying the constituent signals. The results indicate that the generally accepted relationship between the transverse motion and the longitudinal motion is valid. It is further shown that this dependence on transverse displacement is a good approximation when a string is excited by the impact of the hammer during normal play.

  10. Cloud Computing for Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Kazanskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and analysis of complex nanophotonic and nanoelectronic structures require significant computing resources. Cloud computing infrastructure allows distributed parallel applications to achieve greater scalability and fault tolerance. The problems of effective use of high-performance computing systems for modeling and simulation of subwavelength diffraction gratings are considered. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA is adapted to cloud computing environment. In order to accomplish this, data flow of the RCWA is analyzed and CPU-intensive operations are converted to data-intensive operations. The generated data sets are structured in accordance with the requirements of MapReduce technology.

  11. Effects of asymmetric coupling and self-coupling on metastable dynamical transient rotating waves in a ring of sigmoidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Yo

    2014-05-01

    Transient rotating waves in a ring of sigmoidal neurons with asymmetric bidirectional coupling and self-coupling were studied. When a pair of stable steady states and an unstable traveling wave coexisted, rotating waves propagating in a ring were generated in transients. The pinning (propagation failure) of the traveling wave occurred in the presence of asymmetric coupling and self-coupling, and its conditions were obtained. A kinematical equation for the propagation of wave fronts of the traveling and rotating waves was then derived for a large output gain of neurons. The kinematical equation showed that the duration of transient rotating waves increases exponentially with the number of neurons as that in a ring of unidirectionally coupled neurons (metastable dynamical transients). However, the exponential growth rate depended on the asymmetry of bidirectional coupling and the strength of self-coupling. The rate was equal to the propagation time of the traveling wave (a reciprocal of the propagation speed), and it increased near pinned regions. Then transient rotating waves could show metastable dynamics (extremely long duration) even in a ring of a small number of neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Framework of Distributed Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Wave Modeling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yuanqiao; HUANG Liwen; DENG Jian; ZHANG Jinfeng; WANG Sisi; WANG Lijun

    2006-01-01

    In order to research the interactions between the atmosphere and ocean as well as their important role in the intensive weather systems of coastal areas, and to improve the forecasting ability of the hazardous weather processes of coastal areas, a coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave modeling system has been developed.The agent-based environment framework for linking models allows flexible and dynamic information exchange between models. For the purpose of flexibility, portability and scalability, the framework of the whole system takes a multi-layer architecture that includes a user interface layer, computational layer and service-enabling layer. The numerical experiment presented in this paper demonstrates the performance of the distributed coupled modeling system.

  13. Excitation of electrostatic waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range during magnetic reconnection in laboratory overdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahata, A., E-mail: kuwahata@ts.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Igami, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kawamori, E. [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Inomoto, M.; Ono, Y. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    We report the observation of electromagnetic radiation at high harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency that was considered to be converted from electrostatic waves called electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) during magnetic reconnection in laboratory overdense plasmas. The excitation of EBWs was attributed to the thermalization of electrons accelerated by the reconnection electric field around the X-point. The radiative process discussed here is an acceptable explanation for observed radio waves pulsation associated with major flares.

  14. New Explicit Solitary Wave Solutions and Periodic Wave Solutions for the Generalized Coupled Hirota-Satsuma KdV System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; YAN Zhen-Ya; LI Biao; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generalized coupled Hirota Satsuma KdV system by using the new generalizedtransformation in homogeneous balance method. As a result, many explicit exact solutions, which contain new solitarywave solutions, periodic wave solutions, and the combined formal solitary wave solutions, and periodic wave solutions,are obtained.

  15. Coriolis-coupled wave packet dynamics of H + HLi reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, R; Mahapatra, S

    2006-05-11

    We investigated the effect of Coriolis coupling (CC) on the initial state-selected dynamics of H+HLi reaction by a time-dependent wave packet (WP) approach. Exact quantum scattering calculations were obtained by a WP propagation method based on the Chebyshev polynomial scheme and ab initio potential energy surface of the reacting system. Partial wave contributions up to the total angular momentum J=30 were found to be necessary for the scattering of HLi in its vibrational and rotational ground state up to a collision energy approximately 0.75 eV. For each J value, the projection quantum number K was varied from 0 to min (J, K(max)), with K(max)=8 until J=20 and K(max)=4 for further higher J values. This is because further higher values of K do not have much effect on the dynamics and also because one wishes to maintain the large computational overhead for each calculation within the affordable limit. The initial state-selected integral reaction cross sections and thermal rate constants were calculated by summing up the contributions from all partial waves. These were compared with our previous results on the title system, obtained within the centrifugal sudden and J-shifting approximations, to demonstrate the impact of CC on the dynamics of this system.

  16. Transverse multipolar light-matter couplings in evanescent waves

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Bonod, Nicolas; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to study the interaction between matter and evanescent fields. The approach is based on the decomposition of evanescent plane waves into multipoles of well-defined angular momentum transverse to both decay and propagation directions. We use the approach to identify the origin of the recently observed directional coupling of emitters into guided modes, and of the opposite Zeeman state excitation of atoms near a fiber. We explain how to rigorously quantify both effects, and show that the directionality and the difference in excitation rates grow exponentially with the multipolar order of the light-matter interaction. We also use the approach to study and maximize the transverse torque exerted by an evanescent plane wave onto a given spherical absorbing particle. The maximum occurs at the quadrupolar order of the particle, and for a particular polarization of the plane wave. All the obtained physical insights can be traced back to the two main features of the decomposition of evanescent pl...

  17. Wave Data Processing and Analysis, Part 2: Codes for Coupling GenCade and CMS-Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    coastal modeling system , Report 2: CMS -Wave. ERDC/CHL-TR-11-10. Vicksburg, MS: US Army Engineer Research and Development Center. Connell, K. J. and...Coupling GenCade and CMS -Wave by Rusty Permenter, Kenneth J. Connell, and Zeki Demirbilek PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering...to GenCade. This is the second CHETN in a two‐part series detailing the process of coupling CMS ‐Wave with GenCade. This CHETN focuses on

  18. P -wave coupled channel effects in electron-positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meng-Lin; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    P -wave coupled channel effects arising from the D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , and D*D¯* thresholds in e+e- annihilations are systematically studied. We provide an exploratory study by solving the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with short-ranged contact potentials obtained in the heavy quark limit. These contact potentials can be extracted from the P -wave interactions in the e+e- annihilations, and then be employed to investigate possible isosinglet P -wave hadronic molecules. In particular, such an investigation may provide information about exotic candidates with quantum numbers JPC=1-+ . In the mass region of the D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , and D*D¯* thresholds, there are two quark model bare states, i.e. the ψ (3770 ) and ψ (4040 ), which are assigned as (13D1) and (31S1) states, respectively. By an overall fit of the cross sections of e+e-→D D ¯, D D¯ *+c .c . , D*D¯*, we determine the physical coupling constants to each channel and extract the pole positions of the ψ (3770 ) and ψ (4040 ). The deviation of the ratios from that in the heavy quark spin symmetry (HQSS) limit reflects the HQSS breaking effect due to the mass splitting between the D and the D*. Besides the two poles, we also find a pole a few MeV above the D D¯ *+c .c . threshold which can be related to the so-called G (3900 ) observed earlier by BABAR and Belle. This scenario can be further scrutinized by measuring the angular distribution in the D*D¯* channel with high luminosity experiments.

  19. Tunable, continuous-wave single-resonant optical parametric oscillator with output coupling for resonant wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong-Hua, Zheng; Bao-Fu, Zhang; Zhong-Xing, Jiao; Biao, Wang

    2016-01-01

    We present a continuous-wave singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator with 1.5% output coupling of the resonant signal wave, based on an angle-polished MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN), pumped by a commercial Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm. The output-coupled optical parametric oscillator delivers a maximum total output power of 4.19 W with 42.8% extraction efficiency, across a tuning range of 1717 nm in the near- and mid-infrared region. This indicates improvements of 1.87 W in output power, 19.1% in extraction efficiency and 213 nm in tuning range extension in comparison with the optical parametric oscillator with no output coupling, while at the expense of increasing the oscillation threshold by a factor of ˜ 2. Moreover, it is confirmed that the finite output coupling also contributes to the reduction of the thermal effects in crystal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308056, 11204044, 11232015, and 11072271), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20120171110005 and 20130171130003), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 14lgpy07), and the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, China (Grant No. ZHD201203).

  20. Convectively coupled Kelvin waves in aquachannel simulations: 2. Life cycle and dynamical-convective coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Joaquín. E.; Nolan, David S.; Mapes, Brian E.

    2016-10-01

    This second part of a two-part study uses Weather Research and Forecasting simulations with aquachannel and aquapatch domains to investigate the time evolution of convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs). Power spectra, filtering, and compositing are combined with object-tracking methods to assess the structure and phase speed propagation of CCKWs during their strengthening, mature, and decaying phases. In this regard, we introduce an innovative approach to more closely investigate the wave (Kelvin) versus entity (super cloud cluster or "SCC") dualism. In general, the composite CCKW structures represent a dynamical response to the organized convective activity. However, pressure and thermodynamic fields in the boundary layer behave differently. Further analysis of the time evolution of pressure and low-level moist static energy finds that these fields propagate eastward as a "moist" Kelvin wave (MKW), faster than the envelope of organized convection or SCC. When the separation is sufficiently large the SCC dissipates, and a new SCC generates to the east, in the region of strongest negative pressure perturbations. We revisit the concept itself of the "coupling" between convection and dynamics, and we also propose a conceptual model for CCKWs, with a clear distinction between the SCC and the MKW components.

  1. Nonlinear waves in a positive-negative coupled waveguide zigzag array

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantseva, Elena V

    2013-01-01

    We consider the coupled electromagnetic waves propagating in a waveguide array, which consists of alternating waveguides of positive and negative refraction indexes. Due to zigzag configuration there are interactions between both nearest and next nearest neighboring waveguides exist. It is shown that there is a stop band in the spectrum of linear waves. The system of evolution equations for coupled waves has the steady state solution describing the electromagnetic pulse running in the array. Numerical simulation demonstrates robustness of these solitary waves.

  2. Human seizures couple across spatial scales through travelling wave dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, L.-E.; Fiddyment, G.; Madsen, J. R.; Eskandar, E. N.; Truccolo, W.; Eden, U. T.; Cash, S. S.; Kramer, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    Epilepsy--the propensity toward recurrent, unprovoked seizures--is a devastating disease affecting 65 million people worldwide. Understanding and treating this disease remains a challenge, as seizures manifest through mechanisms and features that span spatial and temporal scales. Here we address this challenge through the analysis and modelling of human brain voltage activity recorded simultaneously across microscopic and macroscopic spatial scales. We show that during seizure large-scale neural populations spanning centimetres of cortex coordinate with small neural groups spanning cortical columns, and provide evidence that rapidly propagating waves of activity underlie this increased inter-scale coupling. We develop a corresponding computational model to propose specific mechanisms--namely, the effects of an increased extracellular potassium concentration diffusing in space--that support the observed spatiotemporal dynamics. Understanding the multi-scale, spatiotemporal dynamics of human seizures--and connecting these dynamics to specific biological mechanisms--promises new insights to treat this devastating disease.

  3. Capillary Waves And Energy Coupling In Laser Materials Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, A.; Herziger, G.; Holtgen, B.; Kreutz, E. W.; Treusch, H. G.

    1987-09-01

    Static and dynamic measurements of the incident laser power, of the diffuse and specular reflected power have been performed in order to determine the absorption behavior of various metals and semiconductors during the interaction with powerful CO2-and Nd:YAG-laser-radiation. The absorptivity of the vapor and laser-induced plasma was probed by high-speed photography and measurements of conductivity transients as a function of intensity, composition, and pressure of the ambient atmosphere. For IIB the intensity-dependent energy coupling is governed by the generation of photon-induced plasma in the surface region in combination with the dynamics of the molten and vaporized material within the interaction zone giving in addition indication for capillary waves.

  4. Coupling characteristics between five-layer slab wave-guides including left-handed materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Lu-fa; WANG Zi-hua

    2008-01-01

    To obtain the coupling characteristics between slab wave-guides including lift-handed material, we modify the coupledwave equations by using Maxwell's equations. First, we obtain new-couplid wave equations and new-coupling coefficient.Second, the coupling between two identical five-layer slab wave-guides where their cores are left-haaded material, but theircladdings are right-handed materials is studied. The coupling coefficient for even TE mode which is more complex than thatof the riglt-handed material slab wave guides, is obtained.

  5. Nonlinear coupling of kinetic Alfven waves with acoustic waves in a self-gravitating dusty plasma with adiabatic trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeen, A.; Masood, W.; Qureshi, M. N. S.; Shah, H. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, linear and nonlinear coupling of kinetic Alfven and acoustic waves has been studied in a dusty plasma in the presence of trapping and self-gravitation effects. In this regard, we have derived the linear dispersion relations for positively and negatively coupled dust kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves. Stability analysis of the coupled dust kinetic Alfven-acoustic wave has also been presented. The formation of solitary structures has been investigated following the Sagdeev potential approach by using the two-potential theory. Numerical results show that the solitary structures can be obtained only for sub-Alfvenic regimes in the scenario of space plasmas.

  6. Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction in the Lifecycle of ENSO: The Coupled Wave Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jialin LIN

    2009-01-01

    To explain the oscillatory nature of E1 Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), many ENSO theories emphasize the free oceanic equatorial waves propagating/reflecting within the Pacific Ocean, or the discharge/recharge of Pacific-basin-averaged ocean heat content. ENSO signals in the Indian and Atlantic oceans are often considered as remote response to the Pacific SST anomaly through atmospheric teleconnections. This study investigates the ENSO life cycle near the equator using long-term observational datasets. Space-time spectral analysis is used to identify and isolate the dominant interannual oceanic and atmospheric wave modes associated with ENSO. Nino3 SST anomaly is utilized as the ENSO index, and lag-correlation/regression are used to construct the composite ENSO life cycle. The propagation, structure and feedback mechanisms of the dominant wave modes are studied in detail. The results show that the dominant oceanic equatorial wave modes associated with ENSO are not free waves, but are two ocean-atmosphere coupled waves including a coupled Kelvin wave and a coupled equatorial Rossby (ER) wave. These waves are not confined only to the Pacific Ocean, but are of planetary scale with zonal wavenumbers 1-2, and propagate all the way around the equator in more than three years, leading to the longer than 3-year period of ENSO. When passing the continents, they become uncoupled atmospheric waves. The coupled Kelvin wave has larger variance than the coupled ER wave, making the total signals dominated by eastward propagation. Surface zonal wind stress (x) acts to slow down the waves. The two coupled waves interact with each other through boundary reflection and superposition, and they also interact with an off-equatorial Rossby wave in north Pacific along 15N through boundary reflection and wind stress forcing. The precipitation anomalies of the two coupled waves meet in the eastern Pacific shortly after the SST maximum of ENSO and excite a dry atmospheric Kelvin wave which

  7. Propagation of edge waves in a thinly layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijush Pal Roy

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of edge waves in a thinly layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stresses is examined. Based upon an approximate representation of a laminated medium by an equivalent anisotropic continuum with average initial and couple stresses, an explicit form of frequency equation is obtained to derive the phase velocity of edge waves. Edge waves exist under certain conditions. The inclusion of couple stresses increases the velocity of wave propagation. For a specific compression, the presence of couple stresses increases the velocity of wave propagation with the increase of wave number, whereas the reverse is the case when there is no couple stress. Numerical computation is performed with graphical representations. Several special cases are also examined.

  8. A coupled DEM-CFD method for impulse wave modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Utili, Stefano; Crosta, GiovanBattista

    2015-04-01

    Rockslides can be characterized by a rapid evolution, up to a possible transition into a rock avalanche, which can be associated with an almost instantaneous collapse and spreading. Different examples are available in the literature, but the Vajont rockslide is quite unique for its morphological and geological characteristics, as well as for the type of evolution and the availability of long term monitoring data. This study advocates the use of a DEM-CFD framework for the modelling of the generation of hydrodynamic waves due to the impact of a rapid moving rockslide or rock-debris avalanche. 3D DEM analyses in plane strain by a coupled DEM-CFD code were performed to simulate the rockslide from its onset to the impact with still water and the subsequent wave generation (Zhao et al., 2014). The physical response predicted is in broad agreement with the available observations. The numerical results are compared to those published in the literature and especially to Crosta et al. (2014). According to our results, the maximum computed run up amounts to ca. 120 m and 170 m for the eastern and western lobe cross sections, respectively. These values are reasonably similar to those recorded during the event (i.e. ca. 130 m and 190 m respectively). In these simulations, the slope mass is considered permeable, such that the toe region of the slope can move submerged in the reservoir and the impulse water wave can also flow back into the slope mass. However, the upscaling of the grains size in the DEM model leads to an unrealistically high hydraulic conductivity of the model, such that only a small amount of water is splashed onto the northern bank of the Vajont valley. The use of high fluid viscosity and coarse grain model has shown the possibility to model more realistically both the slope and wave motions. However, more detailed slope and fluid properties, and the need for computational efficiency should be considered in future research work. This aspect has also been

  9. Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Baile, E-mail: blzhang@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2016-01-25

    We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk.

  10. An atmosphere-wave regional coupled model: improving predictions of wave heights and surface winds in the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, Kathrin; Staneva, Joanna; Koch, Wolfgang; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Ho-Hagemann, Ha T. M.; Stanev, Emil V.

    2017-04-01

    The coupling of models is a commonly used approach when addressing the complex interactions between different components of earth systems. We demonstrate that this approach can result in a reduction of errors in wave forecasting, especially in dynamically complicated coastal ocean areas, such as the southern part of the North Sea - the German Bight. Here, we study the effects of coupling of an atmospheric model (COSMO) and a wind wave model (WAM), which is enabled by implementing wave-induced drag in the atmospheric model. The numerical simulations use a regional North Sea coupled wave-atmosphere model as well as a nested-grid high-resolution German Bight wave model. Using one atmospheric and two wind wave models simultaneously allows for study of the individual and combined effects of two-way coupling and grid resolution. This approach proved to be particularly important under severe storm conditions as the German Bight is a very shallow and dynamically complex coastal area exposed to storm floods. The two-way coupling leads to a reduction of both surface wind speeds and simulated wave heights. In this study, the sensitivity of atmospheric parameters, such as wind speed and atmospheric pressure, to the wave-induced drag, in particular under storm conditions, and the impact of two-way coupling on the wave model performance, is quantified. Comparisons between data from in situ and satellite altimeter observations indicate that two-way coupling improves the simulation of wind and wave parameters of the model and justify its implementation for both operational and climate simulations.

  11. From a breather homoclinic wave to a rogue wave solution for the coupled Schrödinger-Boussinesq equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanjian; Dai, Zhengde; Liu, Changfu

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, two types of multi-parameter breather homoclinic wave solutions—including breather homoclinic wave and rational homoclinic wave solutions—are obtained by using the Hirota technique and ansätz with complexity of parameter for the coupled Schrödinger-Boussinesq equation. Rogue waves in the form of the rational homoclinic solution are derived when the periods of breather homoclinic wave go to infinite. Some novel features of homoclinic wave solutions are discussed and presented. In contrast to the normal bright rogue wave structure, a structure like a four-petaled flower in temporal-spatial distribution is exhibited. Further with the change of the wave number of the plane wave, the bright and dark rogue wave structures may change into each other. The bright rogue wave structure results from the full merger of two nearby peaks, and the dark rogue wave structure results from the full merger of two nearby holes. The dark rogue wave for the uncoupled Boussinesq equation is finally obtained. Its structural properties show that it never takes on bright rogue wave features with the change of parameter. It is hoped that these results might provide us with useful information on the dynamics of the relevant fields in physics.

  12. Stability and evolution of wave packets in strongly coupled degenerate plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, A P

    2011-01-01

    We study the nonlinear propagation of electrostatic wave packets in a collisional plasma composed of strongly coupled ions and relativistically degenerate electrons. The equilibrium of ions is maintained by an effective temperature associated with their strong coupling, whereas that of electrons is provided by the relativistic degeneracy pressure. Using a multiple scale technique, a (3+1)-dimensional coupled set of nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger-like equations with nonlocal nonlinearity is derived from a generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic model. These coupled equations, which govern the dynamics of wave packets, are used to study the oblique modulational instability of a Stoke's wave train to a small plane wave perturbation. We show that the wave packets, though stable to the parallel modulation, becomes unstable against oblique modulations. In contrast to the long-wavelength carrier modes, the wave packets with short-wavelengths are shown to be stable in the weakly relativistic case, whereas they can be stable...

  13. Solitary Wave Solutions for the Coupled Ito System and a Generalized Hirota-Satsuma Coupled KdV System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Feng; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2001-01-01

    We make use of an extended tanh-function method and symbolic computation to construct four kinds of travelling solitary wave solutions for the coupled Ito system and a generalized Hirota-Satsuma coupled KdV system.PACS numbers: 02.90.+p, 03.40.-t

  14. Existence,Orbital Stability and Instability of Solitary Waves for Coupled BBM Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-wei Cui

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the orbital stability/instability of solitary waves for coupled BBM equations which have Hamiltonian form.The explicit solitary wave solutions will be worked out first.Then by detailed spectral analysis and decaying estimates of solutions for the initial value problem,we obtain the orbital stability/instability of solitary waves.

  15. Instrumental vetoes for transient gravitational-wave triggers using noise-coupling models: The bilinear-coupling veto

    CERN Document Server

    Ajith, Parameswaran; Christensen, Nelson; Adhikari, Rana; Pearlman, Aaron B; Wein, Alex; Weinstein, Alan J; Yuan, Ben

    2014-01-01

    LIGO and Virgo recently completed searches for gravitational waves at their initial target sensitivities, and soon Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will commence observations with even better capabilities. In the search for short duration signals, such as coalescing compact binary inspirals or "burst" events, noise transients can be problematic. Interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are highly complex instruments, and, based on the experience from the past, the data often contain a large number of noise transients that are not easily distinguishable from possible gravitational-wave signals. In order to perform a sensitive search for short-duration gravitational-wave signals it is important to identify these noise artifacts, and to "veto" them. Here we describe such a veto, the bilinear-coupling veto, that makes use of an empirical model of the coupling of instrumental noise to the output strain channel of the interferometric gravitational-wave detector. In this method, we check whether the data from th...

  16. Development of an unstructured-grid wave-current coupled model and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu; Yang, Dezhou

    2016-08-01

    An unstructured grid wave-current coupled model was developed by coupling the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) wave model and ADCIRC (Advanced Circulation model) ocean model through the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). The developed coupled model has high spatial resolution in the coastal area and is efficient for computation. The efficiency of the newly developed SWAN + ADCIRC model was compared with that of the widely-used SWAN + ADCIRC coupled model, in which SWAN and ADCIRC are coupled directly rather than through the MCT. Results show that the directly-coupled model is more efficient when the total number of computational cores is small, but the MCT-coupled model begin to run faster than the directly-coupled model when more computational cores are used. The MCT-coupled model maintains the scalability longer and can increase the simulation efficiency more than 35% by comparing the minimum wall clock time of one day simulation in the test runs. The MCT-coupled SWAN + ADCIRC model was used to simulate the storm surge and waves during the typhoon Usagi which formed in the western Pacific on September 17, 2013 and landed at Shanwei, China. Three numerical experiments were performed to investigate the effect of wave-current interaction on the storm surge and waves. The results show that the coupled model can better simulate the storm surge and waves when considering the wave-induced radiation stress, the wave effect on the wind stress drag coefficient and the modulation of current and water level on waves. During the typhoon Usagi, the effect of wave radiation stress could result in a maximum of 0.75 m increase in the extreme storm surge, and the wave induced wind stress could cause a -0.82∼0.48 m change of the extreme storm surge near the coastal area. Besides, the radiation stress forced currents cannot be ignored either in the study of mass transport at coastal zones. Results of this study are useful for understanding the wave-current interaction processes and

  17. Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas with nonthermal ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamid Reza Pakzad; Kurosh Javidan

    2009-11-01

    The Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers (KdV–Burgers) equation and modified Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers equation are derived in strongly coupled dusty plasmas containing nonthermal ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons. It is found that solitary waves and shock waves can be produced in this medium. The effects of important parameters such as ion nonthermal parameter, temperature, density and velocity on the properties of shock waves and solitary waves are discussed.

  18. Travelling wave solutions for the Painleve-integrable coupled KdV equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Biao Lin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the travelling wave solutions for a system of coupled KdV equations derived by Lou et al [11]. In that paper, they found 5 types of Painleve integrable systems for the coupled KdV system. We show that each of them can be reduced to a partially or completely uncoupled system, through which the dynamical behavior of travelling wave solutions can be determined. In some parameter regions, exact formulas for periodic and solitary waves can be obtained while in other cases, bounded travelling wave solution are discussed.

  19. Nonbreaking wave-induced mixing in upper ocean during tropical cyclones using coupled hurricane-ocean-wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijaz, S.; Ghantous, M.; Babanin, A. V.; Ginis, I.; Thomas, B.; Wake, G.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of turbulence generated by nonbreaking waves have been investigated by testing and evaluating a new nonbreaking wave parameterization in a coupled hurricane-ocean-wave model. The MPI version of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) with hurricane forcing is coupled with the WAVEWATCH-III (WW3) surface wave model. Hurricane Ivan is chosen as the test case due to its extreme intensity and availability of field data during its passage. The model results are validated against field observations of wave heights and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the National Data Buoy Centre (NDBC) during Hurricane Ivan and against limited in situ current and bottom temperature data. A series of numerical experiments is set up to examine the influence of the nonbreaking wave parameterization on the mixing of upper ocean. The SST response from the modeling experiments indicates that the nonbreaking wave-induced mixing leads to significant cooling of the SST and deepening of the mixed layer. It was found that the nondimensional constant b1 in the nonbreaking wave parameterization has different impacts on the weak and the strong sides of the storm track. A constant value of b1 leads to improved predictions on the strong side of the storm while a steepness-dependent b1 provides a better agreement with in situ observations on the weak side. A separate simulation of the intense tropical cyclone Olwyn in north-west Australia revealed the same trend for b1 on the strong side of the tropical cyclone.

  20. Ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) and Superstorm Sandy (2012): Coupled model predictions and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.

  1. An Overview of Recent Advances in the Iterative Analysis of Coupled Models for Wave Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave propagation problems can be solved using a variety of methods. However, in many cases, the joint use of different numerical procedures to model different parts of the problem may be advisable and strategies to perform the coupling between them must be developed. Many works have been published on this subject, addressing the case of electromagnetic, acoustic, or elastic waves and making use of different strategies to perform this coupling. Both direct and iterative approaches can be used, and they may exhibit specific advantages and disadvantages. This work focuses on the use of iterative coupling schemes for the analysis of wave propagation problems, presenting an overview of the application of iterative procedures to perform the coupling between different methods. Both frequency- and time-domain analyses are addressed, and problems involving acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic wave propagation problems are illustrated.

  2. Spinor-electron wave guided modes in coupled quantum wells structures by solving the Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, Jesus [Area de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Fisica, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)], E-mail: suso.linares.beiras@usc.es; Nistal, Maria C. [Area de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Fisica, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2009-05-04

    A quantum analysis based on the Dirac equation of the propagation of spinor-electron waves in coupled quantum wells, or equivalently coupled electron waveguides, is presented. The complete optical wave equations for Spin-Up (SU) and Spin-Down (SD) spinor-electron waves in these electron guides couplers are derived from the Dirac equation. The relativistic amplitudes and dispersion equations of the spinor-electron wave-guided modes in a planar quantum coupler formed by two coupled quantum wells, or equivalently by two coupled slab electron waveguides, are exactly derived. The main outcomes related to the spinor modal structure, such as the breaking of the non-relativistic degenerate spin states, the appearance of phase shifts associated with the spin polarization and so on, are shown.

  3. Three-dimensional coupled mode analysis of internal-wave acoustic ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, Alexey A; Lynch, James F; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Schmidt, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    A fully three-dimensional coupled mode approach is used in this paper to describe the physics of low frequency acoustic signals propagating through a train of internal waves at an arbitrary azimuth. A three layer model of the shallow water waveguide is employed for studying the properties of normal modes and their coupled interaction due to the presence of nonlinear internal waves. Using a robust wave number integration technique for Fourier transform computation and a direct global matrix approach, an accurate three-dimensional coupled mode full field solution is obtained for the tonal signal propagation through straight and parallel internal waves. This approach provides accurate results for arbitrary azimuth and includes the effects of backscattering. This enables one to provide an azimuthal analysis of acoustic propagation and separate the effects of mode coupled transparent resonance, horizontal reflection and refraction, the horizontal Lloyd's mirror, horizontal ducting and anti-ducting, and horizontal tunneling and secondary ducting.

  4. Second-order coupling of numerical and physical wave tanks for 2D irregular waves. Part I: Formulation, implementation and numerical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    In this series of two papers, we report on the irregular wave extension of the second-order coupling theory of numerical and physical wave model described in [Z. Yang, S. Liu, H.B. Bingham and J. Li. Second-order theory for coupling numerical and physical wave tanks: Derivation, evaluation...

  5. EXISTENCE OF TIME PERIODIC SOLUTIONS FOR A DAMPED GENERALIZED COUPLED NONLINEAR WAVE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房少梅; 郭柏灵

    2003-01-01

    The time periodic solution problem of damped generalized coupled nonlinear wave equations with periodic boundary condition was studied. By using the Galerkin method to construct the approximating sequence of time periodic solutions, a priori estimate and Laray-Schauder fixed point theorem to prove the convergence of the approximate solutions, the existence of time periodic solutions for a damped generalized coupled nonlinear wave equations can be obtained.

  6. Solitary waves for a coupled nonlinear Schrodinger system with dispersion management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis Panayotaros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a system of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations with periodically varying dispersion coefficient that arises in the context of fiber-optics communication. We use Lions's Concentration Compactness principle to show the existence of standing waves with prescribed L^2 norm in an averaged equation that approximates the coupled system. We also use the Mountain Pass Lemma to prove the existence of standing waves with prescribed frequencies.

  7. Standing Wave Solutions in Nonhomogeneous Delayed Synaptically Coupled Neuronal Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Linghai; STONER Melissa Anne

    2012-01-01

    The authors establish the existence and stability of standing wave solutions of a nonlinear singularly perturbed system of integral differential equations and a nonlinear scalar integral differential equation.It will be shown that there exist six standing wave solutions ((u(x,t),w(x,t)) =(U(x),W(x)) to the nonlinear singularly perturbed system of integral differential equations.Similarly,there exist six standing wave solutions u(x,t) =U(x) to the nonlinear scalar integral differential equation.The main idea to establish the stability is to construct Evans functions corresponding to several associated eigenvalue problems.

  8. Coupling hydrodynamic and wave models: first step and sensitivity experiments in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Emanuela; Oddo, Paolo; Drudi, Massimiliano; Pinardi, Nadia; Korres, Gerasimos; Grandi, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the first step towards a fully coupled modelling system composed of an ocean circulation and a wind wave model. Sensitivity experiments are presented for the Mediterranean Sea where the hydrodynamic model NEMO is coupled with the third-generation wave model WaveWatchIII (WW3). Both models are implemented at 1/16° horizontal resolution and are forced by ECMWF 1/4° horizontal resolution atmospheric fields. The models are two-way coupled at hourly intervals exchanging the following fields: sea surface currents and temperature are transferred from NEMO to WW3 by modifying the mean momentum transfer of waves and the wind speed stability parameter, respectively. The neutral drag coefficient computed by WW3 is then passed to NEMO, which computes the surface stress. Five-year (2009-2013) numerical experiments were carried out in both uncoupled and coupled mode. In order to validate the modelling system, numerical results were compared with coastal and drifting buoys and remote sensing data. The results show that the coupling of currents with waves improves the representation of the wave spectrum. However, the wave-induced drag coefficient shows only minor improvements in NEMO circulation fields, such as temperature, salinity, and currents.

  9. Coupling hydrodynamic and wave models: first step and sensitivity experiments in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Emanuela; Oddo, Paolo; Drudi, Massimiliano; Pinardi, Nadia; Korres, Gerasimos; Grandi, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    This work describes the first step towards a fully coupled modelling system composed of an ocean circulation and a wind wave model. Sensitivity experiments are presented for the Mediterranean Sea where the hydrodynamic model NEMO is coupled with the third-generation wave model WaveWatchIII (WW3). Both models are implemented at 1/16° horizontal resolution and are forced by ECMWF 1/4° horizontal resolution atmospheric fields. The models are two-way coupled at hourly intervals exchanging the following fields: sea surface currents and temperature are transferred from NEMO to WW3 by modifying the mean momentum transfer of waves and the wind speed stability parameter, respectively. The neutral drag coefficient computed by WW3 is then passed to NEMO, which computes the surface stress. Five-year (2009-2013) numerical experiments were carried out in both uncoupled and coupled mode. In order to validate the modelling system, numerical results were compared with coastal and drifting buoys and remote sensing data. The results show that the coupling of currents with waves improves the representation of the wave spectrum. However, the wave-induced drag coefficient shows only minor improvements in NEMO circulation fields, such as temperature, salinity, and currents.

  10. A (2+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Hierarchy and its Integrable Couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanhe Dong

    2007-01-01

    Under the frame of the (2+1)-dimensional zero curvature equation and Tu model,the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, the loop algebra is expanded into a larger one. Moreover, a class of integrable coupling system for dispersive long wave hierarchy and (2+1)-dimensional multi-component integrable system will be investigated.

  11. Coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motion in a periodic structure with asymmetrically arranged transverse beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motions in a waveguide with structural side branches attached at regular intervals. The analysis is based on periodic structure theory, and considers wave transmission in a fully tricoupled and semidefinite periodic...

  12. Wave coupling between the lower and middle thermosphere as viewed from TIMED and GOCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasperini, F.; Forbes, J.M.; Doornbos, E.N.; Bruinsma, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical coupling between the lower and middle thermosphere due to the eastward propagating diurnal tide with zonal wave number 3 (DE3) and the 3.5 day ultra-fast Kelvin Wave (UFKW) is investigated using Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics-Sounding of the Atmosphere using B

  13. ORBITAL INSTABILITY OF STANDING WAVES FOR THE COUPLED NONLINEAR KLEIN-GORDON EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Zaihui; Guo Boling; Zhang Jian

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a type of standing waves for the coupled nonlin-ear Klein-Gordon equations in three space dimensions. First we construct a suitable constrained variational problem and obtain the existence of the standing waves with ground state by using variational argument. Then we prove the orbital instability of the standing waves by defining invariant sets and applying some priori estimates.

  14. Coupled BOUSS-2D and CMS-Wave Modeling Approach for Harbor Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    al. 2011; Demirbilek et al. 2007) is part of the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) for simulating combined waves, currents, sediment transport, and...III. 2011. Verification and Validation of the Coastal Modeling System : Report 2, CMS -Wave, Tech. Report ERDC/CHL-TR-11-10, U.S. Army Engineer R&D...ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-84 August 2012 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Coupled BOUSS-2D and CMS -Wave Modeling Approach for

  15. A Coupled Atmospheric and Wave Modeling System for Storm Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Bolanos, R.

    2015-01-01

    to parametrize z0. The results are validated through QuikScat data and point measurements from an open ocean site Ekosk and a coastal, relatively shallow water site Horns Rev. It is found that the modeling system captures in general better strong wind and strong wave characteristics for open ocean condition than...... Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with the thirdgeneration ocean wave modelSWAN. This study investigates mainly two issues: spatial resolution and the wind-wave interface parameter roughness length(z0). To study the impact of resolution, the nesting function for both WRF and SWAN is used, with spatial...... (1991) z0 expression gives better results of the signicant wave hight under high sea state conditions....

  16. Accumulative coupling between magnetized tenuous plasma and gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan

    2016-07-01

    We explicitly compute the plasma wave (PW) induced by a plane gravitational wave (GW) traveling through a region of strongly magnetized plasma, governed by force-free electrodynamics. The PW comoves with the GW and absorbs its energy to grow over time, creating an essentially force-free counterpart to the inverse-Gertsenshtein effect. The time-averaged Poynting flux of the induced PW is comparable to the vacuum case, but the associated current may offer a more sensitive alternative to photodetection when designing experiments for detecting/constraining high-frequency gravitational waves. Aside from the exact solutions, we also offer an analysis of the general properties of the GW to PW conversion process, which should find use when evaluating electromagnetic counterparts to astrophysical gravitational waves that are generated directly by the latter as a second-order phenomenon.

  17. Accumulative coupling between magnetized tenuous plasma and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    We explicitly compute the plasma wave (PW) induced by a plane gravitational wave (GW) travelling through a region of strongly magnetized plasma, governed by force-free electrodynamics. The PW co-moves with the GW and absorbs its energy to grow over time, creating an essentially force-free counterpart to the inverse-Gertsenshtein effect. The time-averaged Poynting flux of the induced PW is comparable to the vacuum case, but the associated current may offer a more sensitive alternative to photodetection when designing experiments for detecting/constraining high frequency gravitational waves. Aside from the exact solutions, we also offer an analysis of the general properties of the GW to PW conversion process, which should find use when evaluating electromagnetic counterparts to astrophysical gravitational waves, that are generated directly by the latter as a second order phenomenon.

  18. An Arctic Ice/Ocean Coupled Model with Wave Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    ocean waves and sea ice interact, for use in operational models of the Arctic Basin and the adjacent seas; – improve the forecasting capacities of...spectra and modify their directional spread. Being the primary focus of the current project, we are developing innovative methods to model these...during WIFAR (Waves-in-Ice Forecasting for Arctic Operators), a partnership between the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) in

  19. Plasma heating via electron Bernstein wave heating using ordinary and extraodinary mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parvazian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically confined plasma can be heated with high power microwave sources. In spherical torus the electron plasma frequency exeeds the electron cyclotron frequency (EC and, as a consequence, electromagnetic waves at fundamental and low harmonic EC cannot propagate within the plasma. In contrast, electron Bernstein waves (EBWs readily propagate in spherical torus plasma and are absorbed strongly at the electron cyclotron resonances. In order to proagate EBWs beyond the upper hybrid resonance (UHR, that surrounds the plasma, the EBWs must convert via one of two processes to either ordinary (O-mode or extraordinary (X-mode electromagnetic waves. O-mode and X-mode electromagnetic waves lunched at the plasma edge can convert to the electron Bernstein waves (EBWs which can propagate without and cut-off into the core of the plasma and damp on electrons. Since the electron Bernstein wave (EBW has no cut-off limits, it is well suited to heat an over-dense plasma by resonant absorption. An important problem is to calculate mode conversion coefficient that is very sensitive to density. Mode conversion coefficient depends on Budden parameter ( ñ and density scale length (Ln in upper hybrid resonance (UHR. In Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, the optimized conversion efficiency approached 72.5% when Ln was 4.94 cm and the magnetic field was 0.475 Tesla in the core of the plasma.

  20. Coupled-Channels Partial-Wave Analysis of Kaon Photoproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    The K-matrix formalism is offering a very realistic approach to arrive at a description of meson-nucleon scattering that obeys unitarity since it takes into account the full coupled channels dynamics. Some examples of the importance of coupled channels effects are presented for photo-induced reactio

  1. Coupled-Channels Partial-Wave Analysis of Kaon Photoproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.

    2008-01-01

    The K-matrix formalism is offering a very realistic approach to arrive at a description of meson-nucleon scattering that obeys unitarity since it takes into account the full coupled channels dynamics. Some examples of the importance of coupled channels effects are presented for photo-induced reactio

  2. Pattern formation of coupled spiral waves in bilayer systems: rich dynamics and high-frequency dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haichun; Gao, Jihua; Zhan, Meng

    2011-11-01

    The interaction of two spiral waves with independent frequencies in a bilayer oscillatory medium (one spiral in each layer) and with a symmetric coupling e is studied. If the spirals have different frequencies, the faster spiral is unaffected by the slower one, and the slower can show a variety of behaviors, which depend on e and include, in order of increasing e, phase drifting, amplitude modulation, amplitude domination, and phase synchronization. This high-frequency dominance, the asymmetric driving-response effect under the condition of a symmetric coupling, is generic and independent of whether the coupled spiral waves are outwardly rotating or inwardly rotating spirals. If the spirals have identical frequencies, they may even show complete synchronization, parallel drift, or circular drift, depending on the relative rotation direction of the two spirals and their initial separation distance. Comparisons with coupled spirals in monolayer media, previous works on coupled spirals in bilayer systems, and coupled phase oscillators are made.

  3. Localized waves in three-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    We study the generalized Darboux transformation to the three-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. First- and second-order localized waves are obtained by this technique. In first-order localized wave, we get the interactional solutions between first-order rogue wave and one-dark, one-bright soliton respectively. Meanwhile, the interactional solutions between one-breather and first-order rogue wave are also given. In second-order localized wave, one-dark-one-bright soliton together with second-order rogue wave is presented in the first component, and two-bright soliton together with second-order rogue wave are gained respectively in the other two components. Besides, we observe second-order rogue wave together with one-breather in three components. Moreover, by increasing the absolute values of two free parameters, the nonlinear waves merge with each other distinctly. These results further reveal the interesting dynamic structures of localized waves in the three-component coupled system. Project supported by the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953904), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275072 and 11435005), the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120076110024), the Network Information Physics Calculation of Basic Research Innovation Research Group of China (Grant No. 61321064), and Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Trustworthy Software for Internet of Things, China (Grant No. ZF1213).

  4. Enhancing four-wave-mixing processes by nanowire arrays coupled to a gold film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Ciracì, Cristian; Gauthier, Daniel J; Smith, David R

    2012-05-07

    We consider the process of four-wave mixing in an array of gold nanowires strongly coupled to a gold film. Using full-wave simulations, we perform a quantitative comparison of the four-wave mixing efficiency associated with a bare film and films with nanowire arrays. We find that the strongly localized surface plasmon resonances of the coupled nanowires provide an additional local field enhancement that, along with the delocalized surface plasmon of the film, produces an overall four-wave mixing efficiency enhancement of up to six orders of magnitude over that of the bare film. The enhancement occurs over a wide range of excitation angles. The film-coupled nanowire array is easily amenable to nanofabrication, and could find application as an ultra-compact component for integrated photonic and quantum optic systems.

  5. Nonreciprocal wave scattering on nonlinear string-coupled oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepri, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.lepri@isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Pikovsky, Arkady [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str 24/25, Potsdam (Germany); Department of Control Theory, Nizhni Novgorod State University, Gagarin Av. 23, 606950, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-01

    We study scattering of a periodic wave in a string on two lumped oscillators attached to it. The equations can be represented as a driven (by the incident wave) dissipative (due to radiation losses) system of delay differential equations of neutral type. Nonlinearity of oscillators makes the scattering non-reciprocal: The same wave is transmitted differently in two directions. Periodic regimes of scattering are analyzed approximately, using amplitude equation approach. We show that this setup can act as a nonreciprocal modulator via Hopf bifurcations of the steady solutions. Numerical simulations of the full system reveal nontrivial regimes of quasiperiodic and chaotic scattering. Moreover, a regime of a “chaotic diode,” where transmission is periodic in one direction and chaotic in the opposite one, is reported.

  6. Assessment of the importance of the current-wave coupling in the shelf ocean forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jordà

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wave-current interactions on shelf ocean forecasts is investigated in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecasting System Project Towards Enviromental Predictions project. A one way sequential coupling approach is adopted to link the wave model (WAM to the circulation model (SYMPHONIE. The coupling of waves and currents has been done considering four main processes: wave refraction due to currents, surface wind drag and bo€ttom drag modifications due to waves, and the wave induced mass flux. The coupled modelling system is implemented in the southern Catalan shelf (NW Mediterranean, a region with characteristics similar to most of the Mediterranean shelves. The sensitivity experiments are run in a typical operational configuration. The wave refraction by currents seems to be not very relevant in a microtidal context such as the western Mediterranean. The main effect of waves on current forecasts is through the modification of the wind drag. The Stokes drift also plays a significant role due to its spatial and temporal characteristics. Finally, the enhanced bottom friction is just noticeable in the inner shelf.

  7. Assessment of the importance of the current-wave coupling in the shelf ocean forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jordà

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wave-current interactions on shelf ocean forecasts is investigated in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecasting System Project Towards Enviromental Predictions project. A one way sequential coupling approach is adopted to link the wave model (WAM to the circulation model (SYMPHONIE. The coupling of waves and currents has been done considering four main processes: wave refraction due to currents, surface wind drag and bottom drag modifications due to waves, and the wave induced mass flux. The coupled modelling system is implemented in the southern Catalan shelf (NW Mediterranean, a region with characteristics similar to most of the Mediterranean shelves. The sensitivity experiments are run in a typical operational configuration. The wave refraction by currents seems to be not very relevant in a microtidal context such as the western Mediterranean. The main effect of waves on current forecasts is through the modification of the wind drag. The Stokes drift also plays a significant role due to its spatial and temporal characteristics. Finally, the enhanced bottom friction is just noticeable in the inner shelf.

  8. Amplitude equations for coupled electrostatic waves in the limit of weak instability

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, J D; Crawford, John David; Knobloch, Edgar

    1997-01-01

    We consider the simplest instabilities involving multiple unstable electrostatic plasma waves corresponding to four-dimensional systems of mode amplitude equations. In each case the coupled amplitude equations are derived up to third order terms. The nonlinear coefficients are singular in the limit in which the linear growth rates vanish together. These singularities are analyzed using techniques developed in previous studies of a single unstable wave. In addition to the singularities familiar from the one mode problem, there are new singularities in coefficients coupling the modes. The new singularities are most severe when the two waves have the same linear phase velocity and satisfy the spatial resonance condition $k_2=2k_1$. As a result the short wave mode saturates at a dramatically smaller amplitude than that predicted for the weak growth rate regime on the basis of single mode theory. In contrast the long wave mode retains the single mode scaling. If these resonance conditions are not satisfied both mo...

  9. On strongly interacting internal waves in a rotating ocean and coupled Ostrovsky equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, A; Grimshaw, R H J; Khusnutdinova, K R

    2013-06-01

    In the weakly nonlinear limit, oceanic internal solitary waves for a single linear long wave mode are described by the KdV equation, extended to the Ostrovsky equation in the presence of background rotation. In this paper we consider the scenario when two different linear long wave modes have nearly coincident phase speeds and show that the appropriate model is a system of two coupled Ostrovsky equations. These are systematically derived for a density-stratified ocean. Some preliminary numerical simulations are reported which show that, in the generic case, initial solitary-like waves are destroyed and replaced by two coupled nonlinear wave packets, being the counterpart of the same phenomenon in the single Ostrovsky equation.

  10. Dynamical System Approach to a Coupled Dispersionless System: Localized and Periodic Traveling Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gambo Betchewe; Kuetche Kamgang Victor; Bouetou Bouetou Thomas; Timoleon Crepin Kofane

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of a coupled dispersionlees system describing a current-conducting string with infinite length within a magnetic field.Thus,following a dynamical system approach,we unwrap typical miscellaneous traveling waves including localized and periodic ones.Studying the relative stabilities of such structures through their energy densities,we find that under some boundary conditions,localized waves moving in positive directions are more stable than periodic waves which in contrast stand for the most stable traveling waves in another boundary condition situation.

  11. A fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model of the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Nicolas; Toumi, Ralf

    2016-11-01

    Located in the mid-latitudes, the Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed basin in the world. A fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model of the Caspian Sea at high resolution (8 km) for a period of three years is presented. After validating each component of the modelling platform, the wave state of the Caspian Sea is studied. Results show very different wave regimes between the three different basins, a strong seasonality and an almost swell-free state. It is shown here that waves modify the horizontal eddy viscosity and vertical heat diffusion. However, due to a reasonably weak annual wave state, these effects are restricted to the upper-ocean layer (cooling of the SST accompanied with a deepening of the MLD is modelled during autumn and winter. The results also show a significant improvement of the model skill in the representation of the dynamics when ROMS is coupled to WRF. Finally, as ocean surface waves imply feedback at the interface atmosphere-ocean through the transfer of momentum, mass and heat, we investigate their potential effects on the Caspian Sea dynamics. Results are mixed and show a reasonably weak impact of wave-induced processes. While waves have a negligible effect during the winter as wave-induced mixing is confined to the MLD, the summer global SST are less accurately modelled due to the enhancement of mixing in shallow MLDs. However the SST bias, temperature at a subsurface location are improved.

  12. Coupling of Wave and Circulation Models in the Atlantic European North-West Shelf Predicting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Krüger, Oliver; Behrens, Arno; Lewis, Huw; Castillo, Juan M.

    2017-04-01

    This study addresses the coupling between wind wave and circulation models on the example of the Atlantic - European North-West Shelf (NWS). This topic reflects the increased interest in operational oceanography to reduce prediction errors of state estimates at coastal scales. The uncertainties in most of the presently used models result from the nonlinear feedback between strong tidal currents and wind-waves, which can no longer be ignored, in particular in the coastal zone where its role seems to be dominant. Coupled circulation (NEMO) and wave model (WAM) system was used to study the effects of surface ocean waves on thermohaline distribution and ocean circulation at the NWS. Four scenarios - including Stokes-Coriolis force, sea-state dependent energy flux (additional turbulent kinetic energy due to breaking waves), sea-state dependent momentum flux and the combination of the three wave-induced forcing were performed to study the role of the wave-induced processes on model simulations. The individual and collective role of those processes is quantified and the results are compared with the NWS circulation model results without wave effects as well as against various in-situ measurements. The performance of the forecasting system is illustrated for the cases of several extreme events. The improved skills resulting from the new developments in the forecasting system, in particular during extreme events, justify further enhancements of the coastal operational systems. The study is performed in the frame of the COPERNICUS CMEMS Service Evolution Projects Wave2NEMO and OWAIRS.

  13. Wave turbulence in a two-layer fluid: coupling between free surface and interface waves

    CERN Document Server

    Issenmann, Bruno; Falcon, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally study gravity-capillary wave turbulence on the interface between two immiscible fluids of close density with free upper surface. We locally measure the wave height at the interface between both fluids by means of a highly sensitive laser Doppler vibrometer. We show that the inertial range of the capillary wave turbulence regime is significantly extended when the upper fluid depth is increased: The crossover frequency between the gravity and capillary wave turbulence regimes is found to decrease whereas the dissipative cut-off frequency of the spectrum is found to increase. We explain most of these observations by the progressive decoupling between waves propagating at the interface and the ones at the free surface, using the full dispersion relation of gravity-capillary waves in a two-layer fluid of finite depths.s.

  14. Second-order coupling of numerical and physical wave tanks for 2D irregular waves. Part II: Experimental validation in two-dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an experimental validation of the second-order coupling theory outlined by Yang et al. (Z. Yang, S. Liu, H.B. Bingham and J. Li., 2013. Second-order coupling of numerical and physical wave tanks for 2D irregular waves. Part I: Formulation, implementation and numerical properties...... to an unwanted spurious freely propagating second harmonic that is substantially reduced when compared to an identical wave paddle operating with a first-order coupling signal. Using nonlinear regular (monochromatic), bichromatic and irregular wave cases as well as varying coupled wave tank bathymetries, both...... these aspects are verified over a broad range of wave frequencies and shown to be extensively applicable to physical wave tanks. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. On the Periodic Solutions of the Five-Dimensional Lorenz Equation Modeling Coupled Rosby Waves and Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Tiago; Llibre, Jaume

    2017-06-01

    Lorenz studied the coupled Rosby waves and gravity waves using the differential system U˙ = -VW + bVZ,V˙ = UW - bUZ,Ẇ = -UV,Ẋ = -Z,Ż = bUV + X. This system has the two first integrals H1 = U2 + V2,H 2 = V2 + W2 + X2 + Z2. Our main result shows that in each invariant set {H1 = h1 > 0}∩{H2 = h2 > 0} there are at least four (resp., 2) periodic solutions of the differential system with b≠0 and h2 > h1 (resp., h2 < h1).

  16. Electric-Field Coupling to Spin Waves in a Centrosymmetric Ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu

    A systematic control of spin waves via external electric fields has been a long standing issue for the design of magnonic devices, and is of fundamental interest. One way to attain such control is to use multiferroics, whose electric and magnetic polarizations are inherently coupled. The lack of electric polarization in a centrosymmetric ferrite, however, makes direct coupling of its magnetization to external electric fields a challenge. Indirect electric control of spin waves has been accomplished by hybridizing yttrium iron garnet (YIG), a centrosymmetric ferrite, with a piezoelectric material. Here, we predict direct control of spin waves in YIG by a flexoelectric interaction, which couples an electric field to the spatial gradient of the magnetization, and thus the spin waves. Based on a superexchange model, which describes the antiferromagnetic coupling between two nearest neighbor iron ions through an oxygen ion, including spin-orbit coupling, we estimate the coupling constant and predict a phase shift linear in the applied electric fields. The theory is then confirmed by experimental measurement of the electric-field-induced phase shift in a YIG waveguide. In addition to the flexoelectric effect, another electric effect is observed, which couples the electric field directly with the magnetization of YIG. We call this a magnetoelectric effect. By adjusting the direction of the electric field, the two effects can be well separated. Experimental results agree quantitatively with the theoretical prediction. A phenomenological coupling constant for the magnetoelectric effect is also obtained. Our findings point to an important avenue for manipulating spin waves and developing electrically tunable magnonic devices.

  17. High-order rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with negative coherent coupling in an isotropic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Tian, Bo; Xie, Xi-Yang; Chai, Jun; Jiang, Yan

    2016-10-01

    High-order rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with negative coherent coupling, which describe the propagation of orthogonally polarized optical waves in an isotropic medium, are reported in this paper. Key point lies in the introduction of a limit process in the Darboux transformation, with which we obtain a family of the first- and second-order rational solutions for the purpose of modelling the rogue waves. We observe that the double-hump rogue wave in the course of evolution turns into the one-hump rogue wave, and that the dark rogue wave with four valleys in the course of evolution turns into the bright rogue wave. It is found that the second-order rogue wave can split up, giving birth to the multiple rogue waves.

  18. Simulation of Organized Convection and Tropical-wave Coupling in a YOTC MJO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, M. W.; Liu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Organized precipitating convection coupled to various tropical waves was impressively complex in the eastern Indian Ocean in the April 2009 MJO, one of the six MJOs that occurred during the YOTC virtual global field campaign (May 2008-April 2010). Organized convection in the form of a westward-propagating synoptic-scale supercluster and a family of eastward-propagating mesoscale squall lines formed west of Sumatra. The supercluster was strongly coupled to a westward inertio-gravity wave. All these features are embedded in an equatorial Rossby wave, and the MJO overall. The 1.3 km inner-grid of the WRF model, nested in a 4 km-grid outer-grid spanning the Indian Ocean and the western Maritime Continent region, successfully simulated the timing, location, propagation, and life-cycle of this multiscale convection-wave interaction as verified by TRMM measurements.

  19. Breathers and rogue waves: Demonstration with coupled nonlinear Schrödinger family of equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Vishnu Priya; M Senthilvelan; M Lakshmanan

    2015-03-01

    Different types of breathers and rogue waves (RWs) are some of the important coherent structures which have been recently realized in several physical phenomena in hydrodynamics, nonlinear optics, Bose–Einstein condensates, etc. Mathematically, they have been deduced in non-linear Schrödinger (NLS) equations. Here we show the existence of general breathers, Akhmediev breathers, Ma soliton and rogue wave solutions in coupled Manakov-type NLS equations and coupled generalized NLS equations representing four-wave mixing. We deduce their explicit forms using Hirota bilinearization procedure and bring out their exact structures and important properties. We also show the method to deduce the various breather solutions from rogue wave solutions using factorization form and the so-called imbricate series.

  20. Coupling between whistler waves and ion-scale solitary waves: cluster measurements in the magnetotail during a substorm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenerani, A; Le Contel, O; Califano, F; Pegoraro, F; Robert, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Sauvaud, J A

    2012-10-12

    We present a new model of self-consistent coupling between low frequency, ion-scale coherent structures with high frequency whistler waves in order to interpret Cluster data. The idea relies on the possibility of trapping whistler waves by inhomogeneous external fields where they can be spatially confined and propagate for times much longer than their characteristic electronic time scale. Here we take the example of a slow magnetosonic soliton acting as a wave guide in analogy with the ducting properties of an inhomogeneous plasma. The soliton is characterized by a magnetic dip and density hump that traps and advects high frequency waves over many ion times. The model represents a new possible way of explaining space measurements often detecting the presence of whistler waves in correspondence to magnetic depressions and density humps. This approach, here given by means of slow solitons, but more general than that, is alternative to the standard approach of considering whistler wave packets as associated with nonpropagating magnetic holes resulting from a mirror-type instability.

  1. Elastic constants measurement of anisotropic Olivier wood plates using air-coupled transducers generated Lamb wave and ultrasonic bulk wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Souhail; Ketata, Hassiba; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi; Hosten, Bernard

    2010-04-01

    A hybrid elastic wave method is applied to determine the anisotropic constants of Olive wood specimen considered as an orthotropic solid. The method is based on the measurements of the Lamb wave velocities as well as the bulk ultrasonic wave velocities. Electrostatic, air-coupled, ultrasonic transducers are used to generate and receive Lamb waves which are sensitive to material properties. The variation of phase velocity with frequency is measured for several modes propagating parallel and normal to the fiber direction along a thin Olivier wood plates. A numerical model based mainly on an optimization method is developed; it permits to recover seven out of nine elastic constants with an uncertainty of about 15%. The remaining two elastic constants are then obtained from bulk wave measurements. The experimental Lamb phase velocities are in good agreement with the calculated dispersion curves. The evaluation of Olive wood elastic properties has been performed in the low frequency range where the Lamb length wave is large in comparison with the heterogeneity extent. Within the interval errors, the obtained elastic tensor doesn't reveal a large deviation from a uniaxial symmetry.

  2. Phase Coupling in Langmuir Wave Packets: Evidence for Four Wave Interactions in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The four wave interaction process, known as the oscillating two stream instability (OTSI) is considered as one of the mechanisms responsible for stabilizing the electron beams associated with solar type III radio bursts. It has been reported that (1) an intense localized Langmuir wave packet associated with a type III burst contains the spectral characteristics of the OTSI: (a) a resonant peak at the local electron plasma frequency, f(sub pe), (b) a Stokes peak at a frequency slightly lower than f(sub pe), (c) anti-Stokes peak at a frequency slightly higher than f(sub pe), and (d) a low frequency enhancement below a few hundred Hz, (2) the frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the OTSI, and (3) the peak intensity of the wave packet is well above the thresholds for the OTSI as well as spatial collapse of envelope solitons. Here, for the first time, applying the trispectral analysis on this wave packet, we show that the tricoherence, which measures the degree of coherent four-wave coupling amongst the observed spectral components exhibits a peak. This provides an additional evidence for the OTSI and related spatial collapse of Langmuir envelope solitons in type III burst sources.

  3. Coupled Mooring Analyses for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Hall, Matthew; Bosma, Bret

    2016-07-01

    A wave-energy-converter-specific time-domain modeling method (WEC-Sim) was coupled with a lumped-mass-based mooring model (MoorDyn) to improve its mooring dynamics modeling capability. This paper presents a verification and validation study on the coupled numerical method. First, a coupled model was built to simulate a 1/25 model scale floating power system connected to a traditional three-point catenary mooring with an angle of 120 between the lines. The body response and the tension force on the mooring lines at the fairlead in decay tests and under regular and irregular waves were examined. To validate and verify the coupled numerical method, the simulation results were compared to the measurements from a wave tank test and a commercial code (OrcaFlex). Second, a coupled model was built to simulate a two-body point absorber system with a chain-connected catenary system. The influence of the mooring connection on the point absorber was investigated. Overall, the study showed that the coupling of WEC-Sim and the MoorDyn model works reasonably well for simulating a floating system with practical mooring designs and predicting the corresponding dynamic loads on the mooring lines. Further analyses on improving coupling efficiency and the feasibility of applying the numerical method to simulate WEC systems with more complex mooring configuration are still needed.

  4. Coupled Mooring Analyses for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Hall, Matthew; Bosma, Bret

    2016-06-24

    A wave-energy-converter-specific time-domain modeling method (WEC-Sim) was coupled with a lumped-mass-based mooring model (MoorDyn) to improve its mooring dynamics modeling capability. This paper presents a verification and validation study on the coupled numerical method. First, a coupled model was built to simulate a 1/25 model scale floating power system connected to a traditional three-point catenary mooring with an angle of 120 between the lines. The body response and the tension force on the mooring lines at the fairlead in decay tests and under regular and irregular waves were examined. To validate and verify the coupled numerical method, the simulation results were compared to the measurements from a wave tank test and a commercial code (OrcaFlex). Second, a coupled model was built to simulate a two-body point absorber system with a chain-connected catenary system. The influence of the mooring connection on the point absorber was investigated. Overall, the study showed that the coupling of WEC-Sim and the MoorDyn model works reasonably well for simulating a floating system with practical mooring designs and predicting the corresponding dynamic loads on the mooring lines. Further analyses on improving coupling efficiency and the feasibility of applying the numerical method to simulate WEC systems with more complex mooring configuration are still needed.

  5. Dust-Acoustic Waves in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas Containing Variable-Charge Impurities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bai-Song; HE Kai-Fen; M. Y. Yu

    2000-01-01

    A relatively self-consistent theory of dust-acoustic waves in the strongly coupled dusty plasmas containing variable charge impurities is given. Relevant physical processes such as dust elastic relaxation and dust charge relaxation are taken into account. It is shown that the negative dispersion of dust-acoustic waves due to the strong correlation of dusts is enhanced in the presence of dust-neutral collisions.

  6. Alfvén wave coupled with flow-driven fluid instability in interpenetrating plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vranjes, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain and Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    The Alfvén wave is analyzed in case of one quasineutral plasma propagating with some constant speed v{sub 0} through another static quasineutral plasma. A dispersion equation is derived describing the Alfvén wave coupled with the flow driven mode ω=kv{sub 0} and solutions are discussed analytically and numerically. The usual solutions for two oppositely propagating Alfvén waves are substantially modified due to the flowing plasma. More profound is modification of the solution propagating in the negative direction with respect to the magnetic field and the plasma flow. For a large enough flow speed (exceeding the Alfvén speed in the static plasma), this negative solution may become non-propagating, with frequency equal to zero. In this case, it represents a spatial variation of the electromagnetic field. For greater flow speed it becomes a forward mode, and it may merge with the positive one. This merging of the two modes represents the starting point for a flow-driven instability, with two complex-conjugate solutions. The Alfvén wave in interpenetrating plasmas is thus modified and coupled with the flow-driven mode and this coupled mode is shown to be growing when the flow speed is large enough. The energy for the instability is macroscopic kinetic energy of the flowing plasma. The dynamics of plasma particles caused by such a coupled wave still remains similar to the ordinary Alfvén wave. This means that well-known stochastic heating by the Alfvén wave may work, and this should additionally support the potential role of the Alfvén wave in the coronal heating.

  7. An Improved Coupling of Numerical and Physical Models for Simulating Wave Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shu-xue; Li, Jin-xuan

    2014-01-01

    An improved coupling of numerical and physical models for simulating 2D wave propagation is developed in this paper. In the proposed model, an unstructured finite element model (FEM) based Boussinesq equations is applied for the numerical wave simulation, and a 2D piston-type wavemaker is used fo...... that the proposed numerical scheme and transfer function modulation method are efficient for the data transfer from the numerical model to the physical model up to a deterministic level.......An improved coupling of numerical and physical models for simulating 2D wave propagation is developed in this paper. In the proposed model, an unstructured finite element model (FEM) based Boussinesq equations is applied for the numerical wave simulation, and a 2D piston-type wavemaker is used...... for the physical wave generation. An innovative scheme combining fourth-order Lagrange interpolation and Runge-Kutta scheme is described for solving the coupling equation. A Transfer function modulation method is presented to minimize the errors induced from the hydrodynamic invalidity of the coupling model and...

  8. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, P; Sen, A; Kaw, P K

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and $MnO_2$ dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of $\\partial\\omega/\\partial k < 0$ are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.

  9. Surface acoustic wave regulated single photon emission from a coupled quantum dot-nanocavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, M.; Kapfinger, S.; Reichert, T.; Finley, J. J.; Wixforth, A.; Kaniber, M.; Krenner, H. J.

    2016-07-01

    A coupled quantum dot-nanocavity system in the weak coupling regime of cavity-quantumelectrodynamics is dynamically tuned in and out of resonance by the coherent elastic field of a fSAW ≃ 800 MHz surface acoustic wave. When the system is brought to resonance by the sound wave, light-matter interaction is strongly increased by the Purcell effect. This leads to a precisely timed single photon emission as confirmed by the second order photon correlation function, g(2). All relevant frequencies of our experiment are faithfully identified in the Fourier transform of g(2), demonstrating high fidelity regulation of the stream of single photons emitted by the system.

  10. Enhanced four-wave mixing via photonic bandgap coupled defect resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, S

    2005-05-16

    Frequency conversion efficiency via four-wave mixing in coupled 1-D photonic crystal defect structures is studied numerically. In structures where all interacting frequencies coincide with intraband defect resonances, energy conversion efficiencies greater than 5% are predicted. Because the frequency spacings are determined by the free-spectral range, thereby requiring long defects for small spacings using intraband resonances, four-wave mixing using coupled-defect miniband resonances in more compact structures is also studied. Conversion efficiencies of greater than 1% are obtained in this case.

  11. Highly asymmetric interaction forces induced by acoustic waves in coupled plate structures

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xiying; Zhang, Shenwei; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2015-01-01

    Mutual forces can be induced between coupled structures when illuminated by external acoustic waves. In this Letter, we propose a concept of asymmetric interaction between two coupled plate-like structures, which is generated by oppositely incident plane waves. Besides the striking contrast in magnitude, the mutual force induced by one of the incidences can be tuned extremely strong due to the resonant excitation of the flexural plate modes. The highly asymmetric interaction with enhanced strength in single side should be potentially useful, such as in designing ultrasound instruments and sensors.

  12. Nonlinear propagation of coupled electromagnetic waves in a circular cylindrical waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovik, D. V.; Smol'kin, E. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    The problem of the propagation of coupled surface electromagnetic waves in a two-layer cylindrical circular waveguide filled with an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium is considered. A nonlinear coupled TE-TM wave is characterized by two (independent) frequencies ωe and ωm and two propagation constants {\\widehat γ _e} and {\\widehat γ _m}. The physical problem reduces to a nonlinear two-parameter eigenvalue problem for a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The existence of eigenvalues ({\\widehat γ _e}, {\\widehat γ _m}) in proven and intervals of their localization are determined.

  13. Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Starinets, Andrei O.

    2006-01-01

    Using gauge theory/gravity duality we study sound wave propagation in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. We compute the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity of N=2 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills plasma at a temperature much larger than the mass scale of the theory in the limit of large N and large 't Hooft coupling. The speed of sound is computed both from the equation of state and the hydrodynamic pole in the stress-energy tensor two-point correlation function. Both computations lead to the same result. Bulk viscosity is determined by computing the attenuation constant of the sound wave mode.

  14. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  15. Convectively coupled equatorial waves within the MJO during CINDY/DYNAMO: slow Kelvin waves as building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kazuyoshi; Kiladis, George N.; Dias, Juliana; Nasuno, Tomoe

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between the MJO and convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs) during the CINDY2011/DYNAMO field campaign using satellite-borne infrared radiation data, in order to better understand the interaction between convection and the large-scale circulation. The spatio-temporal wavelet transform (STWT) enables us to document the convective signals within the MJO envelope in terms of CCEWs in great detail, through localization of space-time spectra at any given location and time. Three MJO events that occurred in October, November, and December 2011 are examined. It is, in general, difficult to find universal relationships between the MJO and CCEWs, implying that MJOs are diverse in terms of the types of disturbances that make up its convective envelope. However, it is found in all MJO events that the major convective body of the MJO is made up mainly by slow convectively coupled Kelvin waves. These Kelvin waves have relatively fast phase speeds of 10-13 m s-1 outside of, and slow phase speeds of 8-9 m s-1 within the MJO. Sometimes even slower eastward propagating signals with 3-5 m s-1 phase speed show up within the MJO, which, as well as the slow Kelvin waves, appear to comprise major building blocks of the MJO. It is also suggested that these eastward propagating waves often occur coincident with n = 1 WIG waves, which is consistent with the schematic model from Nakazawa in 1988. Some practical aspects that facilitate use of the STWT are also elaborated upon and discussed.

  16. Exact Synchronization for a Coupled System of Wave Equations with Dirichlet Boundary Controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatsien LI; Bopeng RAO

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the exact synchronization for a coupled system of wave equations with Dirichlet boundary controls and some related concepts are introduced.By means of the exact null controllability of a reduced coupled system,under certain conditions of compatibility,the exact synchronization,the exact synchronization by groups,and the exact null controllability and synchronization by groups are all realized by suitable boundary controls.

  17. Non-partial wave treatment of reactive and non-reactive scattering Coupled integral equation formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, E. F.; Kouri, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    Coupled integral equations are derived for the full scattering amplitudes for both reactive and nonreactive channels. The equations do not involve any partial wave expansion and are obtained using channel operators for reactive and nonreactive collisions. These coupled integral equations are similar in nature to equations derived for purely nonreactive collisions of structureless particles. Using numerical quadrature techniques, these equations may be reduced to simultaneous algebraic equations which may then be solved.

  18. Effects of the Biot and the squirt-flow coupling interaction on anisotropic elastic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Considering the velocity anisotropy of the solid/fluid relative motion and employment of the BISQ theory[1] based on the one-dimensional porous isotropic case, we establish a two-phase anisotropic elastic wave equation to simultaneously include the Biot and the squirt mechanisms in terms of both the basic principles of the fluid's mass conservation and the elastic-wave dynamical equations in the two-phase anisotropic rock. Numerical results, while the Biot-flow and the squirt-flow effects are simultaneously considered in the transversely isotropic (TI) poroelastic medium, show that the attenuation of the quasi P-wave and the quasi SV-wave strongly depend on the permeability anisotropy, and the attenuation behavior at low and high frequencies is contrary. Meanwhile, the attenuation and dispersion of the quasi P-wave are also affected seriously by the anisotropic solid/fluid coupling additional density.

  19. Ground-coupled air waves and diffracted infrasound from the Arequipa earthquake of June 23, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, A.; Guilbert, J.; Vega, A.; Garcés, M.; Brachet, N.

    2002-09-01

    On June 23, 2001, a strong earthquake measuring Mw 8.4 occurred along the coast of south-central Peru. Coherent infrasonic waves were detected over a period of one hour by the IS08 infrasound station in Bolivia. Analysis of the ground-coupled air waves shows that the rupture propagated from the northwestern to the southeastern part of the fault with a rupture velocity of 3.3 km/s. The azimuth variation of the infrasonic waves is attributed to a distribution of secondary sources along the highest mountain ranges, which excite infrasonic waves that are diffracted to the ground. The predominant source of infrasound is likely distributed along the Andean Cordillera. Using the azimuth and arrival time determination, the horizontal scale size of the distant source regions of infrasonic waves is reconstructed over distances greater than 400 km.

  20. How does downward planetary wave coupling affect polar stratospheric ozone in the Arctic winter stratosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, Sandro W.; Silverman, Vered; Matthes, Katja; Harnik, Nili; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Wahl, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that variable wintertime planetary wave forcing in the stratosphere controls the variability of Arctic stratospheric ozone through changes in the strength of the polar vortex and the residual circulation. While previous studies focused on the variations in upward wave flux entering the lower stratosphere, here the impact of downward planetary wave reflection on ozone is investigated for the first time. Utilizing the MERRA2 reanalysis and a fully coupled chemistry-climate simulation with the Community Earth System Model (CESM1(WACCM)) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), we find two downward wave reflection effects on ozone: (1) the direct effect in which the residual circulation is weakened during winter, reducing the typical increase of ozone due to upward planetary wave events and (2) the indirect effect in which the modification of polar temperature during winter affects the amount of ozone destruction in spring. Winter seasons dominated by downward wave reflection events (i.e., reflective winters) are characterized by lower Arctic ozone concentration, while seasons dominated by increased upward wave events (i.e., absorptive winters) are characterized by relatively higher ozone concentration. This behavior is consistent with the cumulative effects of downward and upward planetary wave events on polar stratospheric ozone via the residual circulation and the polar temperature in winter. The results establish a new perspective on dynamical processes controlling stratospheric ozone variability in the Arctic by highlighting the key role of wave reflection.

  1. Excitation of the Uller-Zenneck electromagnetic surface waves in the prism-coupled configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Mehran; Faryad, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    A configuration to excite the Uller-Zenneck surface electromagnetic waves at the planar interfaces of homogeneous and isotropic dielectric materials is proposed and theoretically analyzed. The Uller-Zenneck waves are surface waves that can exist at the planar interface of two dissimilar dielectric materials of which at least one is a lossy dielectric material. In this paper, a slab of a lossy dielectric material was taken with lossless dielectric materials on both sides. A canonical boundary-value problem was set up and solved to find the possible Uller-Zenneck waves and waveguide modes. The Uller-Zenneck waves guided by the slab of the lossy dielectric material were found to be either symmetric or antisymmetric and transmuted into waveguide modes when the thickness of that slab was increased. A prism-coupled configuration was then successfully devised to excite the Uller-Zenneck waves. The results showed that the Uller-Zenneck waves are excited at the same angle of incidence for any thickness of the slab of the lossy dielectric material, whereas the waveguide modes can be excited when the slab is sufficiently thick. The excitation of Uller-Zenneck waves at the planar interfaces with homogeneous and all-dielectric materials can usher in new avenues for the applications for electromagnetic surface waves.

  2. An Improved Coupling of Numerical and Physical Models for Simulating Wave Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳志文; 柳淑学; 李金宣

    2014-01-01

    An improved coupling of numerical and physical models for simulating 2D wave propagation is developed in this paper. In the proposed model, an unstructured finite element model (FEM) based Boussinesq equations is applied for the numerical wave simulation, and a 2D piston-type wavemaker is used for the physical wave generation. An innovative scheme combining fourth-order Lagrange interpolation and Runge-Kutta scheme is described for solving the coupling equation. A Transfer function modulation method is presented to minimize the errors induced from the hydrodynamic invalidity of the coupling model and/or the mechanical capability of the wavemaker in area where nonlinearities or dispersion predominate. The overall performance and applicability of the coupling model has been experimentally validated by accounting for both regular and irregular waves and varying bathymetry. Experimental results show that the proposed numerical scheme and transfer function modulation method are efficient for the data transfer from the numerical model to the physical model up to a deterministic level.

  3. Strong coupling of gold dipolar nanoantennas by symmetry-breaking in evanescent wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Observing the resonance wavelengths of nanoantennas (NAs) with changing incident angles in TM and TE polarization. Extinction cross section shows the dark and bright coupling modes at resonance wavelength of NAs with symmetry breaking oblique incidence. The plasmonic enhancement is stronger under evanescent wave in total internal reflection.

  4. Travelling waves associated with saddle-node bifurcation in weakly coupled CML

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo Herrera, Ma Dolores, E-mail: dsh@dfmf.uned.e [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, E.U.I.T.I., Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, 28012 Madrid (Spain); San Martin, Jesus, E-mail: jsm@dfmf.uned.e [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, E.U.I.T.I., Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, U.N.E.D., Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-19

    Weakly coupled CML can be analytically solved by using perturbative methods. This technique has been recently used to deduce analytical expressions for travelling waves. Nonetheless, the results were limited for periodic solutions far away from saddle-node bifurcation. In this Letter, this problem is solved and periodic solutions, arising from the individual dynamics, are totally characterised.

  5. Construction of wave operator for two-dimensional Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger systems with Yukawa coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Tsuruta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of the wave operator for the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system with Yukawa coupling. This non-linearity type is below Strichartz scaling, and therefore classic perturbation methods will fail in any Strichartz space. Instead, we follow the "first iteration method" to handle these critical non-linearities.

  6. Forced vibration and wave propagation in mono-coupled periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the wave propagation and vibration characteristics of mono-coupled structures which are of spatially periodic nature. The receptance approach to periodic structure theory is applied to study undamped periodic systems with composite structural elements; particular emphasis...... of the determination of the junction-receptance. The influence of such a disorder is illustrated by a simple example...

  7. Nonlinear coupling of left and right handed circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R. P., E-mail: rpsharma@ces.iitd.ac.in; Sharma, Swati, E-mail: swati.sharma704@gmail.com; Gaur, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhiphysics@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-07-15

    The nonlinear phenomena are of prominent interests in understanding the particle acceleration and transportation in the interplanetary space. The ponderomotive nonlinearity causing the filamentation of the parallel propagating circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén wave having a finite frequency may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to the heating of the plasmas. The contribution will be different of the left (L) handed mode, the right (R) handed mode, and the mix mode. The contribution also depends upon the finite frequency of the circularly polarized waves. In the present paper, we have investigated the effect of the nonlinear coupling of the L and R circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén wave on the localized structures formation and the respective power spectra. The dynamical equations are derived in the presence of the ponderomotive nonlinearity of the L and R pumps and then studied semi-analytically as well as numerically. The ponderomotive nonlinearity accounts for the nonlinear coupling between both the modes. In the presence of the adiabatic response of the density fluctuations, the nonlinear dynamical equations satisfy the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The equations thus obtained are solved in solar wind regime to study the coupling effect on localization and the power spectra. The effect of coupling is also studied on Faraday rotation and ellipticity of the wave caused due to the difference in the localization of the left and the right modes with the distance of propagation.

  8. On the spectral stability of periodic waves of the coupled Schrödinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkaya, Aslihan, E-mail: demirkaya@hartford.edu [Mathematics Department, University of Hartford, 200 Bloomfield Avenue, West Hartford, CT 06117 (United States); Hakkaev, Sevdzhan [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Istanbul Aydin University, Istanbul (Turkey); Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Shumen University, Shumen (Bulgaria)

    2015-12-04

    In this present work we consider the periodic standing wave solutions for the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. We restrict our problem to two cases and construct the solutions explicitly. Then we make the stability analysis for each case. We show that the relevant stationary solutions are spectrally stable for certain parameters. For those parameters, we also present our numerical results in the spectral analysis. - Highlights: • We consider the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. • We study the existence and the stability of the periodic standing waves. • We show that these waves are spectrally stable for certain parameter values. • We use Floquet theory and do some numerical computations.

  9. Damping and coupling of long-period hydromagnetic waves by the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, F. B.; Allan, W.

    The theory that long-period geomagnetic pulsations are due to hydromagnetic waves resonating in a magnetosphere bounded by an anisotropically conducting ionosphere, insulating atmosphere, and conducting earth is reviewed. The history of the subject is outlined, covering the effects of the ionospheric boundary on: pulsations seen at ground level and in the ionosphere (ionospheric screening, 90 deg rotation of polarization, attenuation of short wavelengths, mode coupling via Hall conductance); and wave systems above the ionosphere (wave-boundary impedance matching, damping, phase variation along the geomagnetic field, and allowed resonances). Coupling of non-axisymmetric modes within the magnetosphere is also mentioned, and a summary of the present picture given, with suggestions for future work.

  10. The effect of initial stress on the propagation behavior of SH waves in piezoelectric coupled plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myung Seob; Kang, Yeon June

    2011-05-01

    This study analytically investigates the propagation of shear waves (SH waves) in a coupled plate consisting of a piezoelectric layer and an elastic layer with initial stress. The piezoelectric material is polarized in z-axis direction and perfectly bonded to an elastic layer. The mechanical displacement and electrical potential function are derived for the piezoelectric coupled plates by solving the electromechanical field equations. The effects of the thickness ratio and the initial stress on the dispersion relations and the phase and group velocities are obtained for electrically open and mechanically free situations. The numerical examples are provided to illustrate graphically the variations of the phase and group velocities versus the wave number for the different layers comparatively. It is seen that the phase velocity of SH waves decreases with the increase of the magnitude of the initial compression stress, while it increases with the increase of the magnitude of the initial tensile stress. The initial stress has a great effect on the propagation of SH waves with the decrease of the thickness ratio. This research is theoretically useful for the design of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with high performance.

  11. Ground-coupled air waves and diffracted infrasounds from the Arequipa earthquake of June 23, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepichon, A.; Guilbert, J.; Van de Walle, M.

    2001-12-01

    On June 23, 2001, a strong earthquake measuring Ms 8.2 occurred along the coast of south-central Peru. This event was detected by the IS08 infrasound station of Bolivia operating for the CTBTO(Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization). Coherent infrasonic waves have been detected over a period of one hour. In the first part of the signals, the analysis of the seismic coupled-air waves shows clearly that the rupture propagates from the northwertern to the southeastern part of the fault. The Doppler effect allows us to fixe the velocity of the rupture equal to 3.4 +/- 0.5 km.s-1. In the second part of the signals, the azimuth variation is interpreted as a distribution of secondary sources along the highest mountain ranges generating distant air-coupled waves in the atmosphere. The predominant source mechanism of the earthquake and two main aftershocks is likely diffracted pressure waves radiated along the Eastern Andean Cordillera from the southwest of the station to the coastline near Pamana. From the wave azimuth and arrival time determination, the horizontal scale size of the distant source regions remote from the epicenters is reconstructed over distances greater than 400 km. The generation of pressure waves associated with offshore source regions is also considered.

  12. Surface acoustic wave regulated single photon emission from a coupled quantum dot-nanocavity system

    CERN Document Server

    Weiß, Matthias; Reichert, Thorsten; Finley, Jonathan J; Wixforth, Achim; Kaniber, Michael; Krenner, Hubert J

    2016-01-01

    A coupled quantum dot--nanocavity system in the weak coupling regime of cavity quantumelectrodynamics is dynamically tuned in and out of resonance by the coherent elastic field of a $f_{\\rm SAW}\\simeq800\\,\\mathrm{MHz}$ surface acoustic wave. When the system is brought to resonance by the sound wave, light-matter interaction is strongly increased by the Purcell effect. This leads to a precisely timed single photon emission as confirmed by the second order photon correlation function $g^{(2)}$. All relevant frequencies of our experiment are faithfully identified in the Fourier transform of $g^{(2)}$, demonstrating high fidelity regulation of the stream of single photons emitted by the system. The implemented scheme can be directly extended to strongly coupled systems and acoustically drives non-adiabatic entangling quantum gates based on Landau-Zener transitions.

  13. Traveling wave solutions of degenerate coupled multi-KdV equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Metin; Pekcan, Aslı

    2016-10-01

    Traveling wave solutions of degenerate coupled ℓ-KdV equations are studied. Due to symmetry reduction these equations reduce to one ordinary differential equation (ODE), i.e., (f')2 = Pn(f) where Pn(f) is a polynomial function of f of degree n = ℓ + 2, where ℓ ≥ 3 in this work. Here ℓ is the number of coupled fields. There is no known method to solve such ordinary differential equations when ℓ ≥ 3. For this purpose, we introduce two different types of methods to solve the reduced equation and apply these methods to degenerate three-coupled KdV equation. One of the methods uses the Chebyshev's theorem. In this case, we find several solutions, some of which may correspond to solitary waves. The second method is a kind of factorizing the polynomial Pn(f) as a product of lower degree polynomials. Each part of this product is assumed to satisfy different ODEs.

  14. Beam Coupling Impedances of Traveling-Wave Ferrite-Free Extraction Kickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    2002-04-01

    Fast traveling-wave extraction kickers contain no ferrite and consist of two long metallic parallel plates supported by insulators inside a beam pipe. A beam is deflected by both the electric and magnetic fields of a TEM wave created by a pulse propagating along the strips in the direction opposite to the beam. Computations of the beam coupling impedances for such structures are difficult because of their length. In the paper, the beam coupling impedances of such transmission-line kickers are calculated by combining analytical and numerical methods: the wake potentials computed in short models are extended analytically to obtain the wakes for the long kickers, and then the corresponding beam impedances are derived. As one can expect, at very low frequencies the results are in agreement with simple analytical expressions available for the coupling impedances of striplines in beam position monitors.

  15. Regulating drift-wave plasma turbulence into spatiotemporal patterns by pinning coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Panpan; Yang, Lei; Deng, Zhigang; Wang, Xingang

    2011-07-01

    Using the technique of pinning coupling in chaos control, we investigate how the two-dimensional drift-wave plasma turbulence described by the Hasegawa-Mima equation can be regulated into different spatiotemporal patterns. It is shown both analytically and numerically that, depending on the pattern structure of the target, the pinning strength necessary for regulating the turbulence could have a large variation. More specifically, with the increase of the wave number of the target, the critical pinning strength is found to be increased by a power-law scaling. Moreover, in both the transition and transient process of the pinning regulation, the modes of the turbulence are found to be suppressed in a hierarchical fashion, that is, by the sequence of mode wave number. The findings give insight into the dynamics of drift-wave turbulence, as well as indicative to the design of new control techniques for real-world turbulence.

  16. Forced Planetary Waves in the Northern Hemisphere Winter: Wave-Coupled Orographic and Thermal Forcings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyh-Chin; Trenberth, Kevin E.

    1988-02-01

    A more complete and new formulation of the orographic forcing and new thermal forcings are included in a steady state model of the Northern Hemisphere planetary waves. When both forcings are included, the simulation produces excellent results which are compared in detail with observations. In particular, the Siberian high, the tropospheric East Asian trough and subtropical tropospheric East Asian jet stream maxima are well reproduced even though the forcing is primarily extratropical in origin.The modes uses a lower boundary condition in which the orographic forcing is determined by the effects of the total flow, not just the zonal mean basic state. Consequently, the net orographic forcing changes when thermal forcing is added and the tow solution is not equal to the linear sum of the solutions with orographic and thermal forcings separately. The thermally induced orographic forcing is found to be very significant and, in the troposphere, there is strong interaction between the two forcings with both of roughly equal importance. However, the Iowa-latitude vertically propagating waves am deflected by the subtropical jet and absorbed in the low-latitude easterlies. Thus only the mid-high latitude planetary waves are important in the stratosphere which seems to be dominated by the thermally forced component.The model is forced with new estimates of diabetic heating from several FGGE analyses. The sensitivity of the results to different heatings and their assumed vertical profile is examined. The amplitude of the lower-troposphere response is very sensitive to the vertical profile but there are much smaller changes at upper levels which are dominated by the remote response. Large differences in the response to the different diabatic heatings are found at high latitudes and over the Pacific Ocean. However, when orographic forcing is also included, these differences diminish indicating a smaller sensitivity to uncertainties in heating, and thus the orographic forcing is

  17. Spatial versus temporal deterministic wave breakup of nonlinearly coupled light waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, D; Minardi, S; Trull, J; Varanavicius, A; Tamosauskas, G; Valiulis, G; Dubietis, A; Caironi, D; Trillo, S; Piskarskas, A; Di Trapani, P

    2003-10-01

    We investigate experimentally the competition between spatial and temporal breakup due to modulational instability in chi((2)) nonlinear mixing. The modulation of the wave packets caused by the energy exchange between fundamental and second-harmonic components is found to be the prevailing trigger mechanism which, according to the relative weight of diffraction and dispersion, leads to the appearance of a multisoliton pattern in the low-dimensional spatial or temporal domain.

  18. A numerical coupled model for studying air-sea-wave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Le Ngoc

    1995-10-01

    A numerical coupled model of air-sea-wave interaction is developed to study the influence of ocean wind waves on dynamical, turbulent structures of the air-sea system and their impact on coupled modeling. The model equations for both atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers include equations for: (1) momentum, (2) a k-ɛ turbulence scheme, and (3) stratification in the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. The model equations are written in the same form for both the atmosphere and ocean. In this model, wind waves are considered as another source of turbulent energy in the upper layer of the ocean besides turbulent energy from shear production. The dissipation ɛ at the ocean surface is written as a linear combination of terms representing dissipation from mean flow and breaking waves. The ɛ from breaking waves is estimated by using similarity theory and observed data. It is written in terms of wave parameters such as wave phase speed, height, and length, which are then expressed in terms of friction velocity. Numerical experiments are designed for various geostrophic winds, wave heights, and wave ages, to study the influence of waves on the air-sea system. The numerical simulations show that the vertical profiles of ɛ in the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers (AOBL) are similar. The magnitudes of ɛ in the oceanic surface zone are much larger than those in the atmospheric surface zone and in the interior of the oceanic boundary layer (OBL). The model predicts ɛ distributions with a surface zone of large dissipation which was not expected from similarity scaling based on observed wind stress and surface buoyancy. The simulations also show that waves have a strong influence on eddy viscosity coefficients (EVC) and momentum fluxes, and have a dominated effect on the component of fluxes in the direction of the wind. The depth of large changes in flux magnitudes and EVC in the ocean can reach to 10-20 m. The simulations of surface drift currents confirm that

  19. Dust-acoustic solitary waves and shocks in strongly coupled quantum plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the propagation characteristics of electrostatic dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves and shocks in a strongly coupled dusty plasma consisting of intertialess electrons and ions, and strongly coupled inertial charged dust particles. A generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic model with the effects of electrostatic dust pressure associated with the strong coupling of dust particles, and a quantum hydrodynamic model with the effects of quantum forces associated with the Bohm potential and the exchange-correlation potential for electrons and ions are considered. Both the linear and weakly nonlinear theory of DA waves are studied by the derivation and analysis of dispersion relations as well as Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and KdV-Burgers (KdVB)-like equations. It is shown that in the kinetic regime ($\\omega\\tau_m\\gg1$, where $\\omega$ is the wave frequency and $\\tau_m$ is the viscoelastic relaxtation time), the amplitude of the DA solitary waves decays slowly with time with the effect of a small amount of dus...

  20. Linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic waves in a strongly coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, S. A., E-mail: ema.plasma@gmail.com; Mamun, A. A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342 (Bangladesh); Hossen, M. R. [Deparment of Natural Sciences, Daffodil International University, Sukrabad, Dhaka-1207 (Bangladesh)

    2015-09-15

    A theoretical study on the propagation of linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in an unmagnetized, collisionless, strongly coupled plasma system has been carried out. The plasma system is assumed to contain adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ion fluids, nonextensive distributed electrons, and Maxwellian light ions. The normal mode analysis is used to study the linear behaviour. On the other hand, the well-known reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the nonlinear dynamical equations, namely, Burgers equation and Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation. They are also numerically analyzed in order to investigate the basic features of shock and solitary waves. The adiabatic effects on the HIA shock and solitary waves propagating in such a strongly coupled plasma are taken into account. It has been observed that the roles of the adiabatic positively charged heavy ions, nonextensivity of electrons, and other plasma parameters arised in this investigation have significantly modified the basic features (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the HIA solitary/shock waves. The findings of our results obtained from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the linear as well as nonlinear phenomena associated with the HIA waves both in space and laboratory plasmas.

  1. Visualization of stress wave propagation via air-coupled acoustic emission sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivey, Joshua C.; Lee, Gil-Yong; Yang, Jinkyu; Kim, Youngkey; Kim, Sungchan

    2017-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of visualizing stress waves propagating in plates using air-coupled acoustic emission sensors. Specifically, we employ a device that embeds arrays of microphones around an optical lens in a helical pattern. By implementing a beamforming technique, this remote sensing system allows us to record wave propagation events in situ via a single-shot and full-field measurement. This is a significant improvement over the conventional wave propagation tracking approaches based on laser doppler vibrometry or digital image correlation techniques. In this paper, we focus on demonstrating the feasibility and efficacy of this air-coupled acoustic emission technique by using large metallic plates exposed to external impacts. The visualization results of stress wave propagation will be shown under various impact scenarios. The proposed technique can be used to characterize and localize damage by detecting the attenuation, reflection, and scattering of stress waves that occurs at damage locations. This can ultimately lead to the development of new structural health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation methods for identifying hidden cracks or delaminations in metallic or composite plate structures, simultaneously negating the need for mounted contact sensors.

  2. A three-dimensional coupled numerical model of nonlinear waves in a harbor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.G.THAM

    2008-01-01

    A 3-D time-domain numerical coupled model for nonlinear waves acting on a ship in a harbor has been developed in the present study.The whole domain is divided into the inner domain and the outer domain.The inner domain is the area around the ship,where the flow is expressed by the Laplace equation and numerically solved by the finite element method.The other area is the outer domain,where the flow is described by the higher-order Boussinesq equations and numerically solved by the finite difference method.The matching conditions on the interfaces between the inner domain and the outer domain,the procedure of coupled solution,the length of common domain and the mesh generation in the inner domain are discussed in detail.The other coupled model with the flow in the inner domain governed by the simplified linear Euler equations and relevant physical experiment are adopted to validate the present coupled model,and it is shown that the numerical results of the present model agree with the experimental data,so the present model can be used for the study on the effect of nonlinear waves acting on a fixed ship in a large area and provide a reference for the time-domain simulation of nonlinear wave forces on an arbitrary object in a large harbor and the 3-D district computation in the future.

  3. Vibrational Energy Flow Analysis of Corrected Flexural Waves in Timoshenko Beam – Part II: Application to Coupled Timoshenko Beams

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for the energy flow analysis of coupled Timoshenko beam structures and various numerical applications to verify the developed methodology. To extend the application of the energy flow model for corrected flexural waves in the Timoshenko beam, which is developed in the other companion paper, to coupled structures, the wave transmission analyses of general coupled Timoshenko beam systems are performed. First, power transmission and reflection coefficients for...

  4. Development and transition of spiral wave in the coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neurons in two-dimensional space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jun; Ying He-Ping; Liu Yong; Li Shi-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics and the transition of spiral waves in the couplcd Hindmarsh-Rose (H-R) neurons in two-dimensional space are investigated in the paper. It is found that the spiral wave can be induced and developed in the coupled HR neurons in two-dimensional space, with appropriate initial values and a parameter region given. However, the spiral wave could encounter instability when the intensity of the external current reaches a threshold value of 1.945. The transition of spiral wave is found to be affected by coupling intensity D and bifurcation parameter r. The spiral wave becomes sparse as the coupling intensity increases, while the spiral wave is eliminated and the whole neuronal system becomes homogeneous as the bifurcation parameter increases to a certain threshold value. Then the coupling action of the four sub-adjacent neurons, which is described by coupling coefficient DI, is also considered, and it is found that the spiral wave begins to breakup due to the introduced coupling action from the sub-adjacent neurons (or sites) and together with the coupling action of the nearest-neighbour neurons, which is described by the coupling intensity D.

  5. Fast calculate the parameters of surface acoustic wave coupling-of-modes model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiansheng; HE Shitang

    2007-01-01

    Accurate solutions of acoustic waves in piezoelectric substrate and metal film as layered structure were obtained. Phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and static capacitance were calculated based upon the solutions. Chen and Haus' theory was used to analyze surface acoustic waves in shorten gratings with single finger every period and a reflection coefficient expression of one strip was presented. Parameters of aluminum on X112°Y LiTaO3 and gold on ST-quartz were calculated. The results agreed well with those from Ken-ya Hashimoto's theory. The reflection coefficient of gold on ST-quartz was measured to verify the theoretical result.

  6. Traveling Wave-Guide Channels of a New Coupled Integrable Dispersionless System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbagari Souleymanou; Victor K. Kuetche; Thomas B. Bouetou; Timoleon C. Kofane

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the recent investigation of new coupled integrable dispersionless equations by means of the Darboux transformation [Zhaqilao, et al., Chin. Phys; B 18 (2009) 1780], we carry out the initial value analysis of the previous system using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta's computational scheme. As a result, while depicting its phase portraits accordingly, we show that the above dispersionless system actually supports two kinds of solutions amongst which the localized traveling wave-guide channels. In addition, paying particular interests to such localized structures, we construct the bilinear transformation of the current system from which scattering amongst the above waves can be deeply studied.

  7. Second-order theory for coupling 2D numerical and physical wave tanks: Derivation, evaluation and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    of regular waves, and the re-reflection control on the wave paddle is also not included. In order to validate the solution methodology further, a series of nonlinear, periodic waves based on stream function theory are generated in a physical wave tank using a piston-type wavemaker. These experiments show......A full second-order theory for coupling numerical and physical wave tanks is presented. The ad hoc unified wave generation approach developed by Zhang et al. [Zhang, H., Schäffer, H.A., Jakobsen, K.P., 2007. Deterministic combination of numerical and physical coastal wave models. Coast. Eng. 54...... nonlinear wave generation in the physical wave tank based on target numerical solutions. The performance and efficiency of the new model is first evaluated theoretically based on second order Stokes waves. Due to the complexity of the problem, the proposed method has been truncated at 2D and the treatment...

  8. Inducing rostrum interfacial waves by fluid-solid coupling in a Chinese river dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongchang; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Chong; Wang, Xianyan

    2016-01-01

    Through numerically solving the appropriate wave equations, propagation of biosonar signals in a Chinese river dolphin (baiji) was studied. The interfacial waves along the rostrum-tissue interfaces, including both compressional (longitudinal) and shear (transverse) waves in the solid rostrum through fluid-solid coupling were examined. The baiji's rostrum was found to effect acoustic beam formation not only as an interfacial wave generator but also as a sound reflector. The wave propagation patterns in the solid rostrum were found to significantly change the wave movement through the bone. Vibrations in the rostrum, expressed in solid displacement, initially increased but eventually decreased from posterior to anterior sides, indicating a complex physical process. Furthermore, the comparisons among seven cases, including the combination of (1) the rostrum, melon, and air sacs; (2) rostrum-air sacs; (3) rostrum-melon; (4) only rostrum; (5) air sacs-melon; (6) only air sacs; and (7) only melon revealed that the cases including the rostrum were better able to approach the complete system by inducing rostrum-tissue interfacial waves and reducing the differences in main beam angle and -3 dB beam width. The interfacial waves in the rostrum were considered complementary with reflection to determine the obbligato role of the rostrum in the baiji's biosonar emission. The far-field beams formed from complete fluid-solid models and non-fluid-solid models were compared to reveal the effects brought by the consideration of shear waves of the solid structures of the baiji. The results may provide useful information for further understanding the role of the rostrum in this odontocete species.

  9. Coupling a Surface Acoustic Wave to an Electron Spin in Diamond via a Dark State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Andrew Golter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of quantum acoustics explores interactions between acoustic waves and artificial atoms and their applications in quantum information processing. In this experimental study, we demonstrate the coupling between a surface acoustic wave (SAW and an electron spin in diamond by taking advantage of the strong strain coupling of the excited states of a nitrogen vacancy center while avoiding the short lifetime of these states. The SAW-spin coupling takes place through a Λ-type three-level system where two ground spin states couple to a common excited state through a phonon-assisted as well as a direct dipole optical transition. Both coherent population trapping and optically driven spin transitions have been realized. The coherent population trapping demonstrates the coupling between a SAW and an electron spin coherence through a dark state. The optically driven spin transitions, which resemble the sideband transitions in a trapped-ion system, can enable the quantum control of both spin and mechanical degrees of freedom and potentially a trapped-ion-like solid-state system for applications in quantum computing. These results establish an experimental platform for spin-based quantum acoustics, bridging the gap between spintronics and quantum acoustics.

  10. Gravitational waves induced by massless vector fields with non-minimal coupling to gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Kaixi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the contribution of the late time mode of a massless vector field to the power spectrum of the primordial gravitational wave using retarded Green's propagator. We consider a non-trivial coupling between gravity and the vector field. We find that the correction is scale-invariant and of order $\\frac{H^4}{M_P^4}$. The non-minimal coupling leads to a dependence of $\\frac{H^2}{M^2}$, which can amplify the correlation function up to the level of $\\frac{H^2}{M^2_P}$.

  11. Stimulated Brillouin scattering and Brillouin-coupled four-wave-mixing in a silica microbottle resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, Motoki; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yang, Lan; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) with Brillouin lasing, and Brillouin-coupled four-wave-mixing (FWM) in an ultra-high-Q silica microbottle resonator. The Brillouin lasing was observed at the frequency of $\\Omega_B=2\\pi\\times10.4$ GHz with a threshold power of $0.45$ mW. Coupling between Brillouin and FWM was observed in both backward and forward scattering directions with separations of $2\\Omega_B$. At a pump power of $10$ mW, FWM spacing reached to 7th and 9th order anti-Stokes and Stokes, respectively.

  12. Stimulated Brillouin scattering and Brillouin-coupled four-wave-mixing in a silica microbottle resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Motoki; Takeuchi, Yuki; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yang, Lan; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-05-30

    We report the first observation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) with Brillouin lasing, and Brillouin-coupled four-wave-mixing (FWM) in an ultra-high-Q silica microbottle resonator. The Brillouin lasing was observed at the frequency of ΩB = 2π × 10.4 GHz with a threshold power of 0.45 mW. Coupling between Brillouin and FWM was observed in both backward and forward scattering directions with separations of 2ΩB. At a pump power of 10 mW, FWM spacing reached to 7th and 9th order anti-Stokes and Stokes, respectively.

  13. On asymptotic stability of solitary waves for Sch\\"odinger equation coupled to nonlinear oscillator, II

    CERN Document Server

    Komech, A I; Stuart, D

    2008-01-01

    The long-time asymptotics is analyzed for finite energy solutions of the 1D Schr\\"odinger equation coupled to a nonlinear oscillator; mathematically the system under study is a nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, whose nonlinear term includes a Dirac delta. The coupled system is invariant with respect to the phase rotation group U(1). This article, which extends the results of a previous one, provides a proof of asymptotic stability of solitary wave solutions in the case that the linearization contains a single discrete oscillatory mode satisfying a non-degeneracy assumption of the type known as the Fermi Golden Rule.

  14. Simulation of ultrasonic lamb wave generation, propagation and detection for a reconfigurable air coupled scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Gordon; Spencer, Andrew; Burnham, Kenneth; Pierce, S Gareth; Worden, Keith; Galbraith, Walter; Hayward, Gordon

    2011-04-01

    A computer simulator, to facilitate the design and assessment of a reconfigurable, air-coupled ultrasonic scanner is described and evaluated. The specific scanning system comprises a team of remote sensing agents, in the form of miniature robotic platforms that can reposition non-contact Lamb wave transducers over a plate type of structure, for the purpose of non-destructive evaluation (NDE). The overall objective is to implement reconfigurable array scanning, where transmission and reception are facilitated by different sensing agents which can be organised in a variety of pulse-echo and pitch-catch configurations, with guided waves used to generate data in the form of 2-D and 3-D images. The ability to reconfigure the scanner adaptively requires an understanding of the ultrasonic wave generation, its propagation and interaction with potential defects and boundaries. Transducer behaviour has been simulated using a linear systems approximation, with wave propagation in the structure modelled using the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). Integration of the linear systems and LISA approaches are validated for use in Lamb wave scanning by comparison with both analytic techniques and more computationally intensive commercial finite element/difference codes. Starting with fundamental dispersion data, the paper goes on to describe the simulation of wave propagation and the subsequent interaction with artificial defects and plate boundaries, before presenting a theoretical image obtained from a team of sensing agents based on the current generation of sensors and instrumentation.

  15. Multiple and spin off initiation of atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Dariusz B.; Flatau, Maria K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Schmidt, Jerome M.

    2017-02-01

    A novel atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin wave trajectories database, derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation data, is used to investigate initiation of sequential Kelvin wave events. Based on the analysis of beginnings of trajectories from years 1998-2012 it is shown that sequential event initiations can be divided into two distinct categories: multiple initiations and spin off initiations, both of which involve interactions with ocean surface and upper ocean temperature variability. The results of composite analysis of the 83 multiple Kelvin wave initiations show that the local thermodynamic forcing related to the diurnal sea surface temperature variability is responsible for sequential Kelvin wave development. The composite analysis of 91 spin off Kelvin wave initiations shows that the dynamic forcing is a dominant effect and the local thermodynamic forcing is secondary. Detail case studies of both multiple and spin off initiations confirm statistical analysis. A multiple initiation occurs in the presence of the high upper ocean diurnal cycle and a spin off initiation results from both dynamic and local thermodynamic processes. The dynamic forcing is related to increased wind speed and latent heat flux likely associated with an off equatorial circulation. In addition a theoretical study of the sequential Kelvin waves is performed using a shallow water model. Finally, conceptual models of these two types of initiations are proposed.

  16. Phase linearity of the 914H coupled-cavity traveling wave tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Frank E.

    1994-01-01

    Tests of phase deviation from linearity were made on two 914H coupled-cavity traveling wave tubes (TWT). One tube had a voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of 2.4 and the other 1.4. The data showed that phase deviation is primarily a function of the amplitude and shape of the output VSWR. It was predicted that the low-VSWR tube would give a better system performance than the tube with a high VSWR. This prediction was confirmed by the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system tests performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A possible improvement in the construction and stability of coupled-cavity TWT's is discussed.

  17. Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, P; Starinets, A O; Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Starinets, Andrei O.

    2005-01-01

    Using gauge theory/gravity duality we study sound wave propagation in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. We compute the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity of N=2^* supersymmetric SU(N_c) Yang-Mills plasma at a temperature much larger than the mass scale of the theory in the limit of large N_c and large 't Hooft coupling. The speed of sound is computed both from the equation of state and the hydrodynamic pole in the stress-energy tensor two-point correlation function. Both computations lead to the same result. Bulk viscosity is determined by computing the attenuation constant of the sound wave mode.

  18. Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benincasa, Paolo [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Starinets, Andrei O. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada)]. E-mail: starina@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2006-01-16

    Using gauge theory/gravity duality we study sound wave propagation in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. We compute the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity of N=2* supersymmetric SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills plasma at a temperature much larger than the mass scale of the theory in the limit of large N{sub c} and large 't Hooft coupling. The speed of sound is computed both from the equation of state and the hydrodynamic pole in the stress-energy tensor two-point correlation function. Both computations lead to the same result. Bulk viscosity is determined by computing the attenuation constant of the sound wave mode.

  19. Vibrational Energy Flow Analysis of Corrected Flexural Waves in Timoshenko Beam – Part II: Application to Coupled Timoshenko Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Park

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology for the energy flow analysis of coupled Timoshenko beam structures and various numerical applications to verify the developed methodology. To extend the application of the energy flow model for corrected flexural waves in the Timoshenko beam, which is developed in the other companion paper, to coupled structures, the wave transmission analyses of general coupled Timoshenko beam systems are performed. First, power transmission and reflection coefficients for all kinds of propagating waves in the general, coupled Timoshenko beam structures are derived by the wave transmission approach. In numerical applications, the energy flow solutions using the derived coefficients agree well with the classical solutions for various exciting frequencies, damping loss factors, and coupled Timoshenko beam structures. Additionally, the numerical results for the Timoshenko beam are compared with those for the Euler-Bernoulli beam.

  20. Charge creation and nucleation of longitudinal plasma wave in coupled Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Hamdipour, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the phase dynamics in coupled Josephson junctions describing by system of nonlinear differential equations. Results of detailed numerical simulations of charge creation in the superconducting layers and the longitudinal plasma wave (LPW) nucleation are presented. We demonstrate the different time stages in the development of the LPW and present results of FFT analysis at different values of bias current. The correspondence between the breakpoint position on the outermost branch of cu...

  1. The c-axis charge traveling wave in coupled system of Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Hamdipour, M.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a manifestation of the charge traveling wave along the c-axis (TW) in current voltage characteristics of coupled Josephson junctions in high-$T_c$ superconductors. The branches related to the TW with different wavelengths are found for the stacks with different number of Josephson junctions at different values of system's parameters. Transitions between the TW branches and the outermost branch are observed. Time dependence of the electric charge in the superconducting layers an...

  2. Singular solitons and other solutions to a couple of nonlinear wave equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Inc; Esma Uluta(s); Anjan Biswas

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the extended (G′/G)-expansion method and applies it to a couple of nonlinear wave equations.These equations are modified the Benjamin-Bona-Mahoney equation and the Boussinesq equation.This extended method reveals several solutions to these equations.Additionally,the singular soliton solutions are revealed,for these two equations,with the aid of the ansatz method.

  3. Wind waves modelling on the water body with coupled WRF and WAVEWATCH III models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Baydakov, Georgy; Vdovin, Maxim; Papko, Vladislav; Sergeev, Daniil

    2015-04-01

    Simulation of ocean and sea waves is an accepted instrument for the improvement of the weather forecasts. Wave modelling, coupled models modelling is applied to open seas [1] and is less developed for moderate and small inland water reservoirs and lakes, though being of considerable interest for inland navigation. Our goal is to tune the WAVEWATCH III model to the conditions of the inland reservoir and to carry out the simulations of surface wind waves with coupled WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and WAVEWATCH III models. Gorky Reservoir, an artificial lake in the central part of the Volga River formed by a hydroelectric dam, was considered as an example of inland reservoir. Comparing to [2] where moderate constant winds (u10 is up to 9 m/s) of different directions blowing steadily all over the surface of the reservoir were considered, here we apply atmospheric model WRF to get wind input to WAVEWATCH III. WRF computations were held on the Yellowstone supercomputer for 4 nested domains with minimum scale of 1 km. WAVEWATCH III model was tuned for the conditions of the Gorky Reservoir. Satellite topographic data on altitudes ranged from 56,6° N to 57,5° N and from 42.9° E to 43.5° E with increments 0,00833 ° in both directions was used. 31 frequencies ranged from 0,2 Hz to 4 Hz and 30 directions were considered. The minimal significant wave height was changed to the lower one. The waves in the model were developing from some initial seeding spectral distribution (Gaussian in frequency and space, cosine in direction). The range of the observed significant wave height in the numerical experiment was from less than 1 cm up to 30 cm. The field experiments were carried out in the south part of the Gorky reservoir from the boat [2, 3]. 1-D spectra of the field experiment were compared with those obtained in the numerical experiments with different parameterizations of flux provided in WAVEWATCH III both with constant wind input and WRF wind input. For all the

  4. A Spectral Multiscale Method for Wave Propagation Analysis: Atomistic-Continuum Coupled Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Amit K; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new multiscale method which is capable of coupling atomistic and continuum domains for high frequency wave propagation analysis. The problem of non-physical wave reflection, which occurs due to the change in system description across the interface between two scales, can be satisfactorily overcome by the proposed method. We propose an efficient spectral domain decomposition of the total fine scale displacement along with a potent macroscale equation in the Laplace domain to eliminate the spurious interfacial reflection. We use Laplace transform based spectral finite element method to model the macroscale, which provides the optimum approximations for required dynamic responses of the outer atoms of the simulated microscale region very accurately. This new method shows excellent agreement between the proposed multiscale model and the full molecular dynamics (MD) results. Numerical experiments of wave propagation in a 1D harmonic lattice, a 1D lattice with Lennard-Jones potential, a ...

  5. Observation of Quantum Beating from Two Coupled Parametric Six-Wave Mixing Signals in Rb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chang-Jun; HE Jun-Fang; ZHAI Xue-Jun; XUE Bing

    2008-01-01

    Two processes of coupled difference-frequency axially phase-matched parametric six-wave mixing are carried out in Rb vapour by two-photon excitation using fs laser pulses, and parametric six-wave mixing signals in the infrared and near infrared regime are detected. The infrared parametric six-wave mixing signals are up-converted into the visible spectral range by sum-frequency mixing with the pump laser in a LiI03 crystal. Moreover, quantum beating at 608cm-1, corresponding to the 7s - 5d energy difference in Rb, is observed from the sum-frequency signal at 495 nm. As a result, we obtain modulated light signals in the visible, near infrared and infrared spectral ranges, and study the interference between 7s and 5d states of Rb.

  6. A laterally-coupled distributed feedback laser with equivalent quarter-wave phase shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingsi; Cheng, Julian

    2013-11-04

    We report the first laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) laser with a quarter-wave equivalent phase shift (EPS) realized by interference lithography (IL) and conventional photolithography. A specially designed sampled grating is fabricated on both sidewalls of a ridge waveguide to provide a quarter-wave EPS at the center of the cavity. The resulting laser exhibits stable single-mode lasing operation over a wide range of injection currents, with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 41.1 dB. This provides a practical, low-cost method to fabricate quarter-wave phase shifted DFB lasers with high performance without any epitaxial regrowth or the use of electron-beam lithography, thereby simplifying the fabrication of DFB lasers with stable and precise wavelengths, as single devices or as arrays in photonic integrated circuits.

  7. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik;

    2016-01-01

    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere......-wave-coupled regional climate model, separately and combined. The swell influence on atmospheric mixing is introduced into the atmospheric mixing length formula by adding a swell-induced contribution to the mixing. The swell influence on the wind stress under wind-following swell, moderate-range wind, and near......-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress...

  8. Cosmological Gravitational Wave in a Gravity with Quadratic Order Curvature Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Noh, H

    1996-01-01

    We present a set of equations describing the cosmological gravitational wave in a gravity theory with quadratic order gravitational coupling terms which naturally arise in quantum correction procedures. It is known that the gravitational wave equation in the gravity theories with a general $f(R)$ term in the action leads to a second order differential equation with the only correction factor appearing in the damping term. The case for a $R^{ab} R_{ab}$ term is completely different. The gravitational wave is described by a fourth order differential equation both in time and space. However, curiously, we find that the contributions to the background evolution are qualitatively the same for both terms.

  9. Standing wave plasmon modes interact in an antenna-coupled nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jared; Large, Nicolas; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi

    2015-03-01

    In a standing wave optical cavity, the coupling of cavity modes, e.g. through a nonlinear medium, results in a rich variety of nonlinear dynamical phenomena, such as frequency pushing and pulling, mode-locking and pulsing, and modal instabilities. Metallic nanowires of finite length support a hierarchy of longitudinal surface plasmon modes with standing wave properties: the plasmonic analog of a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Here we show that positioning the nanowire within the gap of a plasmonic nanoantenna introduces a passive, hybridization-based coupling of the standing-wave nanowire plasmon modes with the antenna structure, mediating an interaction between the nanowire plasmon modes themselves. Frequency pushing and pulling, and the enhancement and suppression of specific plasmon modes, can be controlled and manipulated by nanoantenna position and shape. Dark-field spectroscopy, CL spectroscopy and imaging, and finite-difference time-domain calculations are performed to investigate these surface plasmon ``drift.'' Near-field coupling of nanoantennas to nanowire optical cavities shows that plasmon hybridization is a powerful strategy for controlling the radiative LDOS of nanowires, and could ultimately enable strategies for active control of emission properties in nanowire-based devices. Work funded by the Welch Foundation (C-1220, C-1222), the NSSEFF (N00244-09-1-0067), the ONR (N00014-10-1-0989), and the NSF (ECCS-1040478, CNS-0821727).

  10. Riccati-coupled similarity shock wave solutions for multispeed discrete Boltzmann models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornille, H. (Service de Physique Theorique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Platkowski, T. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland))

    1993-05-01

    The authors study nonstandard shock wave similarity solutions for three multispeed discrete boltzmann models: (1) the square 8[upsilon][sub i] model with speeds 1 and [radical]2 with the x axis along one median, (2) the Cabannes cubic 14[upsilon][sub i] model with speeds 1 and [radical]3 and the x axis perpendicular to one face, and (3) another 14[upsilon][sub i] model with speeds 1 and [radical]2. These models have five independent densities and two nonlinear Riccati-coupled equations. The standard similarity shock waves, solutions of scalar Riccati equations, are monotonic and the same behavior holds for the conservative macroscopic quantities. First, the exact similarity shock-wave solutions of coupled Riccati equations are determined and the nonmonotonic behavior for one density and a smaller effect for one conservative macroscopic quantity are observed when a violation of the microreversibility is allowed. Second, new results are obtained on the Whitham weak shock wave propagation. Third, the corresponding dynamical system is numerically solved, with microreversibility satisfied or not, and the analogous nonmonotonic behavior is observed. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Interactions of localized wave structures and dynamics in the defocusing coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Yan, Zhenya; Wen, Xiao-Yong; Chen, Yong

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the defocusing coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations from a 3 ×3 Lax pair. The Darboux transformations with the nonzero plane-wave solutions are presented to derive the newly localized wave solutions including dark-dark and bright-dark solitons, breather-breather solutions, and different types of new vector rogue wave solutions, as well as interactions between distinct types of localized wave solutions. Moreover, we analyze these solutions by means of parameters modulation. Finally, the perturbed wave propagations of some obtained solutions are explored by means of systematic simulations, which demonstrates that nearly stable and strongly unstable solutions. Our research results could constitute a significant contribution to explore the distinct nonlinear waves (e.g., dark solitons, breather solutions, and rogue wave solutions) dynamics of the coupled system in related fields such as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, oceanography, and Bose-Einstein condensates.

  12. Tackling excess noise from bilinear and nonlinear couplings in gravitational-wave interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Sukanta; Mazumder, Nairwita; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Gupta, Anuradha; Lundgren, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We describe a tool we improved to detect excess noise in the gravitational wave (GW) channel arising from its bilinear or nonlinear coupling with fluctuations of various components of a GW interferometer and its environment. We also describe a higher-order statistics tool we developed to characterize these couplings, e.g., by unraveling the frequencies of the fluctuations contributing to such noise, and demonstrate its utility by applying it to understand nonlinear couplings in Advanced LIGO engineering data. Once such noise is detected, it is highly desirable to remove it or correct for it. Such action in the past has been shown to improve the sensitivity of the instrument in searches of astrophysical signals. If this is not possible, then steps must be taken to mitigate its influence, e.g., by characterizing its effect on astrophysical searches. We illustrate this through a study of the effect of transient sine-Gaussian noise artifacts on a compact binary coalescence template bank.

  13. Decay of density waves in coupled one-dimensional many-body-localized systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelovšek, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This work analyzes the behavior of coupled disordered one-dimensional systems as modelled by identical fermionic Hubbard chains with the on-site potential disorder and coupling emerging through the interchain hopping t'. The study is motivated by the experiment on fermionic cold atoms on a disordered lattice, where a decay rate of the quenched density wave was measured. We present a derivation of the decay rate Γ within perturbation theory and show that, even at large disorder along the chains, the interaction leads to finite Γ >0 , the mechanism being the interaction-induced coupling of in-chain localized and interchain extended single-fermion states. Explicit expressions for Γ are presented for a weak interaction U U >t' . It is shown that, in both regimes, Γ increases with the interchain hopping t', as well as decreases with increasing disorder.

  14. The Nonlinear Coupling of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Waves in the Ring Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2004-01-01

    The excitation of lower hybrid waves (LHWs) is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space, and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. In this paper we present the morphology, dynamics, and level of LHW activity generated by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves during the May 2-7, 1998 storm period on the global scale. The LHWs were calculated based on a newly developed self-consistent model (Khazanov et. al., 2002, 2003) that couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation describes the ring current (RC) ion dynamic, and another equation describes the evolution of EMIC waves. It is found that the LHWs are excited by helium ions due to their mass dependent drift in the electric field of EMIC waves. The level of LHW activity is calculated assuming that the induced scattering process is the main saturation mechanism for these waves. The calculated LHWs electric fields are consistent with the observational data.

  15. Spin waves in exchange-coupled double layers in the presence of spin torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláž, Pavel; Barnaś, Józef

    2015-03-01

    Spin-wave spectra of a double magnetic layer are calculated theoretically in the macroscopic limit. Magnetic dynamics is described in terms of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, and both static (of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida type) and dynamic (via spin pumping) interlayer couplings are taken into account. The influence of spin pumping and spin transfer torque on the spin-wave spectra (frequency and damping factor) has been studied for both parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations. The spin-wave spectrum in the parallel magnetic state is reciprocal, while in the antiparallel configuration it is nonreciprocal. In both cases, a substantial reduction of the spin-wave lifetimes due to spin pumping to the nonmagnetic metallic layers has been found. In the parallel configuration, this reduction appears mainly for optical modes, while in the antiparallel configuration, it is remarkable for all modes. In turn, the spin torque due to spin current flowing from a metallic layer, created for instance by the spin Hall effect, gives rise to significant changes in the damping factors as well, but these modifications depend on the sign of spin current. For one spin current orientation, the spin-wave damping becomes reduced and may disappear for some modes at a specific threshold value of the spin current, indicating magnetic instability in the system due to spin transfer torque. For the opposite spin current, the damping is enhanced, which indicates stabilization of the corresponding magnetic state.

  16. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik; Guo Larsén, Xiaoli

    2016-07-01

    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere-wave-coupled regional climate model, separately and combined. The swell influence on atmospheric mixing is introduced into the atmospheric mixing length formula by adding a swell-induced contribution to the mixing. The swell influence on the wind stress under wind-following swell, moderate-range wind, and near-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress reduces the near-surface wind speed. Introducing the wave influence roughness length has a larger influence than does adding the swell influence on mixing. Compared with measurements, adding the swell influence on both atmospheric mixing and wind stress gives the best model performance for the wind speed. The influence varies with wave characteristics for different sea basins. Swell occurs infrequently in the studied area, and one could expect more influence in high-swell-frequency areas (i.e., low-latitude ocean). We conclude that the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress should be considered when developing climate models.

  17. Modeling of Breaching Due to Overtopping Flow and Waves Based on Coupled Flow and Sediment Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breaching of earthen or sandy dams/dunes by overtopping flow and waves is a complicated process with strong, unsteady flow, high sediment transport, and rapid bed changes in which the interactions between flow and morphology should not be ignored. This study presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D coupled flow and sediment transport model to investigate the flow and breaching processes with and without waves. Bed change and variable flow density are included in the flow continuity and momentum equations to consider the impacts of sediment transport. The model adopts the non-equilibrium approach for total-load sediment transport and specifies different repose angles to handle non-cohesive embankment slope avalanching. The equations are solved using an explicit finite volume method on a rectangular grid with the improved Godunov-type central upwind scheme and the nonnegative reconstruction of the water depth method to handle mixed-regime flows near the breach. The model has been tested against two sets of experimental data which show that it well simulates the flow characteristics, bed changes, and sediment transport. It is then applied to analyze flow and morphologic changes by overtopping flow with and without waves. The simulated bed change and breach cross-section shape show a significant difference if waves are considered. Erosion by flow without waves mainly occurs at the breach and is dominated by vertical erosion at the initial stage followed by the lateral erosion. With waves, the flow overtops the entire length of the dune to cause faster erosion along the entire length. Erosion mainly takes place at the upper layer at the initial stage and gradually accelerates as the height of the dune reduces and flow discharge increases, which indicates the simulated results with waves shall be further verified by physical experimental evidence.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION STRESS ON WAVE HEIGHTS AND SEA LEVEL IN THE INTERACTION OF COUPLED WAVE-TIDE-SURGE IN THE COASTAL AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on coastal high-resolution (2′×2′) coupled wave-tide-surge interaction numerical model, the effects of radiation stress on wave heights and sea level in the coastal area of Huanghe Delta were studied. By comparisons of simulated and measured wave heights and sea level for two mediately strong weather cases, it is demonstrated that the results simulated by coupled wave-tide-surge model are closer to the measured and particularly in excellent agreement in the extreme values of the wave heights and set-up. This study shows that the radiation stress can increase the wave heights maximally to 67cm and sea level to 40cm. It is also found that there are areas of over 50cm wave height increase and an area of over 20cm sea level increase in the Huanghe Delta coastal area, and this find may be very important in engineering. For this reason, it is suggested that in the practical engineering application, the coupled wave-tide-surge interaction numerical model should be prefered.

  19. An operational coupled wave-current forecasting system for the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A.; Coluccelli, A.; Deserti, M.; Valentini, A.; Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2005 an Adriatic implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (AdriaROMS) is being producing operational short-term forecasts (72 hours) of some hydrodynamic properties (currents, sea level, temperature, salinity) of the Adriatic Sea at 2 km horizontal resolution and 20 vertical s-levels, on a daily basis. The main objective of AdriaROMS, which is managed by the Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service (SIMC) of ARPA Emilia Romagna, is to provide useful products for civil protection purposes (sea level forecasts, outputs to run other forecasting models as for saline wedge, oil spills and coastal erosion). In order to improve the forecasts in the coastal area, where most of the attention is focused, a higher resolution model (0.5 km, again with 20 vertical s-levels) has been implemented for the northern Adriatic domain. The new implementation is based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST)and adopts ROMS for the hydrodynamic and Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN) for the wave module, respectively. Air-sea fluxes are computed using forecasts produced by the COSMO-I7 operational atmospheric model. At the open boundary of the high resolution model, temperature, salinity and velocity fields are provided by AdriaROMS while the wave characteristics are provided by an operational SWAN implementation (also managed by SIMC). Main tidal components are imposed as well, derived from a tidal model. Work in progress is oriented now on the validation of model results by means of extensive comparisons with acquired hydrographic measurements (such as CTDs or XBTs from sea-truth campaigns), currents and waves acquired at observational sites (including those of SIMC, CNR-ISMAR network and its oceanographic tower, located off the Venice littoral) and satellite-derived wave-heights data. Preliminary results on the forecast waves denote how, especially during intense storms, the effect of coupling can lead to significant variations in the wave

  20. Propagation of SH waves in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate: Effects of interfacial imperfection couplings and the related physical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hong-Xing [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Yong-Dong, E-mail: LYDbeijing@163.com [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Xiong, Tao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing 100072 (China); Guan, Yong [Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China)

    2016-09-07

    The problem of dispersive SH wave in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plate that contains an imperfect interface is considered in the present work. An imperfection coupling model is adopted to describe the magnetic, electric and mechanical imperfections on the interface. A transcendental dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved to get the phase velocity. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified in a degenerated case. The effects of the coupled interfacial imperfections on the dispersion behavior of SH waves are discussed in detail and the related underlying physical mechanisms are explained. - Highlights: • SH-wave is investigated in a multiferroic plate with coupled interfacial imperfections. • SH-wave is affected by both interfacial imperfections and their inter-couplings. • Physical mechanisms of the effects are explained via energy transformations.

  1. $P$-wave coupled channel effects in electron-positron annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Meng-Lin; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    $P$-wave coupled channel effects arising from the $D\\bar{D}$, $D\\bar{D}^*+c.c.$ and $D^*\\bar{D}^*$ thresholds in $e^+e^-$ annihilations are systematically studied. We provide an exploratory study by solving the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with short-ranged contact potentials obtained in the heavy quark limit. These contact potentials can be extracted from the $P$-wave interactions in the $e^+e^-$ annihilations, and then be employed to investigate possible isosinglet $P$-wave hadronic molecules. In particular, such an investigation may provide information about exotic candidates with quantum numbers $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$. In the mass region of the $D\\bar{D}$, $D\\bar{D}^*+c.c.$ and $D^*\\bar{D}^*$ thresholds, there are two quark model bare states, i.e. the $\\psi(3770)$ and $\\psi(4040)$, which are assigned as $(1^3D_1)$ and $(3^1S_1)$ states, respectively. By an overall fit of the cross sections of $e^+e^-\\to D\\bar{D}$, $D\\bar{D}^*+c.c.$, $D^*\\bar{D}^*$, we determine the physical coupling constants to each channel and ...

  2. The effects of air gap reflections during air-coupled leaky Lamb wave inspection of thin plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zichuan; Jiang, Wentao; Cai, Maolin; Wright, William M D

    2016-02-01

    Air-coupled ultrasonic inspection using leaky Lamb waves offers attractive possibilities for non-contact testing of plate materials and structures. A common method uses an air-coupled pitch-catch configuration, which comprises a transmitter and a receiver positioned at oblique angles to a thin plate. It is well known that the angle of incidence of the ultrasonic bulk wave in the air can be used to preferentially generate specific Lamb wave modes in the plate in a non-contact manner, depending on the plate dimensions and material properties. Multiple reflections of the ultrasonic waves in the air gap between the transmitter and the plate can produce additional delayed waves entering the plate at angles of incidence that are different to those of the original bulk wave source. Similarly, multiple reflections of the leaky Lamb waves in the air gap between the plate and an inclined receiver may then have different angles of incidence and propagation delays when arriving at the receiver and hence the signal analysis may become complex, potentially leading to confusion in the identification of the wave modes. To obtain a better understanding of the generation, propagation and detection of leaky Lamb waves and the effects of reflected waves within the air gaps, a multiphysics model using finite element methods was established. This model facilitated the visualisation of the propagation of the reflected waves between the transducers and the plate, the subsequent generation of additional Lamb wave signals within the plate itself, their leakage into the adjacent air, and the reflections of the leaky waves in the air gap between the plate and receiver. Multiple simulations were performed to evaluate the propagation and reflection of signals produced at different transducer incidence angles. Experimental measurements in air were in good agreement with simulation, which verified that the multiphysics model can provide a convenient and accurate way to interpret the signals in

  3. Surface Wave Effects in the NEMO Ocean Model: Forced and Coupled Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Janssen, Peter A E M

    2015-01-01

    The NEMO general circulation ocean model is extended to incorporate three physical processes related to ocean surface waves, namely the surface stress (modified by growth and dissipation of the oceanic wave field), the turbulent kinetic energy flux from breaking waves, and the Stokes-Coriolis force. Experiments are done with NEMO in ocean-only (forced) mode and coupled to the ECMWF atmospheric and wave models. Ocean-only integrations are forced with fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. All three effects are noticeable in the extra-tropics, but the sea-state dependent turbulent kinetic energy flux yields by far the largest difference. This is partly because the control run has too vigorous deep mixing due to an empirical mixing term in NEMO. We investigate the relation between this ad hoc mixing and Langmuir turbulence and find that it is much more effective than the Langmuir parameterization used in NEMO. The biases in sea surface temperature as well as subsurface temperature are reduced, and the total oce...

  4. Adjustment of Born-Oppenheimer electronic wave functions to simplify close coupling calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenker, Robert J; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Yong; Yan, Lingling; Liu, Chunhua; Qu, Yizhi; Wang, Jianguo

    2013-04-30

    Technical problems connected with use of the Born-Oppenheimer clamped-nuclei approximation to generate electronic wave functions, potential energy surfaces (PES), and associated properties are discussed. A computational procedure for adjusting the phases of the wave functions, as well as their order when potential crossings occur, is presented which is based on the calculation of overlaps between sets of molecular orbitals and configuration interaction eigenfunctions obtained at neighboring nuclear conformations. This approach has significant advantages for theoretical treatments describing atomic collisions and photo-dissociation processes by means of ab initio PES, electronic transition moments, and nonadiabatic radial and rotational coupling matrix elements. It ensures that the electronic wave functions are continuous over the entire range of nuclear conformations considered, thereby greatly simplifying the process of obtaining the above quantities from the results of single-point Born-Oppenheimer calculations. The overlap results are also used to define a diabatic transformation of the wave functions obtained for conical intersections that greatly simplifies the computation of off-diagonal matrix elements by eliminating the need for complex phase factors.

  5. Evaluation of Simulated Marine Aerosol Production Using the WaveWatchIII Prognostic Wave Model Coupled to the Community Atmosphere Model within the Community Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, M. S. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Keene, William C. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Zhang, J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Reichl, B. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Shi, Y. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Hara, T. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Reid, J. S. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Monterey, CA (United States); Fox-Kemper, B. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences; Craig, A. P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Erickson, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division; Ginis, I. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Webb, A. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Ocean Technology, Policy, and Environment

    2016-11-08

    Primary marine aerosol (PMA) is emitted into the atmosphere via breaking wind waves on the ocean surface. Most parameterizations of PMA emissions use 10-meter wind speed as a proxy for wave action. This investigation coupled the 3rd generation prognostic WAVEWATCH-III wind-wave model within a coupled Earth system model (ESM) to drive PMA production using wave energy dissipation rate – analogous to whitecapping – in place of 10-meter wind speed. The wind speed parameterization did not capture basin-scale variability in relations between wind and wave fields. Overall, the wave parameterization did not improve comparison between simulated versus measured AOD or Na+, thus highlighting large remaining uncertainties in model physics. Results confirm the efficacy of prognostic wind-wave models for air-sea exchange studies coupled with laboratory- and field-based characterizations of the primary physical drivers of PMA production. No discernible correlations were evident between simulated PMA fields and observed chlorophyll or sea surface temperature.

  6. Evanescent Wave Coupling Using Different Subwavelength Gratings for a MEMS Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Al-Aakhir A.

    2011-12-01

    A novel technique of coupling near-field evanescent waves by means of variable period subwavelength gratings (1.2 mum and 1.0 mum), using a 1.55 mum infrared semiconductor laser is presented for the use of an optical MEMS accelerometer. The subwavelength gratings were fabricated on both glass and silicon substrates respectively. Optical simulation of the subwavelength gratings was carried out to obtain the maximum coupling efficiency of the two subwavelength gratings; the grating thickness, grating width, and the grating separation were optimized. This was performed for both silicon and glass substrates. The simulations were used to determine the total system noise, including the noise generated from the germanium photodiode, sensitivity, and displacement detection resolution of the coupled subwavelength grating MEMS accelerometer. The coupled gratings were utilized as optical readout accelerometers. The spring/proof mass silicon accelerometer was fabricated using a four mask process, in which the structure was completed using two deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) processes. The designed serpentine spring styles determine the sensitivity of the accelerometer; when the springs are made longer or shorter, thicker or thinner, this directly attributes to the sensitivity of the device. To test function of the example of the devices, the accelerometer is placed on a platform, which permits displacement normal to the plane of the grating. The 1.550 im infrared laser is incident on the coupled subwavelength grating accelerometer device and the output intensity is measured using a geranium photodiode. As the platform is displaced, the grating separation between the two gratings changes and causes the output intensity to change. Using the coupled subwavelength grating simulations as a reference to the output intensity change with respect to gap, the mechanical and coupling sensitivity properties of as it relates to acceleration is presented.

  7. Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Modeling of Tropical Cyclones: Progress, Challenges, and Ways Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi

    2015-04-01

    It has long been recognized that air-sea interaction plays an important role in tropical cyclones (TC) intensity change. However, most current numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are deficient in predicting TC intensity. The extreme high winds, intense rainfall, large ocean waves, and copious sea spray in TCs push the surface-exchange parameters for temperature, water vapor, and momentum into untested regimes. Parameterizations of air-sea fluxes in NWP models are often crude and create "manmade" energy source/sink that does not exist, especially in the absence of a fully interactive ocean in the model. The erroneous surface heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes can cause compounding errors in the model (e.g., precipitation, water vapor, boundary layer properties). The energy source (heat and moisture fluxes from the ocean) and sink (surface friction and wind-induced upper ocean cooling) are critical to TC intensity. However, observations of air-sea fluxes in TCs are very limited, especially in extreme high wind conditions underneath of the eyewall region. The Coupled Boundary Layer Air-Sea Transfer (CBLAST) program was designed to better understand the air-sea interaction, especially in high wind conditions, which included laboratory and coupled model experiments and field campaign in 2003-04 hurricane seasons. Significant progress has been made in better understanding of air-sea exchange coefficients up to 30 m/s, i.e., a leveling off in drag coefficient and relatively invariant exchange coefficient of enthalpy with wind speed. More recently, the Impact of Typhoon on the Ocean in the Pacific (ITOP) field campaign in 2010 has provided an unprecedented data set to study the air-sea fluxes in TCs and their impact on TC structure and intensity. More than 800 GPS dropsondes and 900 AXBTs/AXCTs as well as drifters, floats, and moorings were deployed in TCs, including Typhoons Fanapi and Malakas, and Supertyphoon Megi with a record peak wind speed of more than 80 m

  8. Collapse of the wave field in a one-dimensional system of weakly coupled light guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakin, A. A.; Litvak, A. G.; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The analytical and numerical study of the radiation self-action in a system of coupled light guides is fulfilled on the basis of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNSE). We develop a variational method for qualitative study of DNSE and classify self-action modes. We show that the diffraction of narrow (in grating scale) wave beams weakens in discrete media and, consequently, the "collapse" of the one-dimensional wave field with power exceeding the critical value occurs. This results in the ability to self-channel radiation in the central fiber. Qualitative analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulation of DNSE, which also shows the stability of the collapse mode.

  9. SELF-EXCITED WAVE PROCESSES IN CHAINS OF UNIDIRECTIONALLY COUPLED IMPULSE NEURONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Glyzin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the mathematical modeling of neural activity. We propose new classes of singularly perturbed differential-difference equations with delay of Volterra type. With these systems, the models as a single neuron or neural networks are described. We study attractors of ring systems of unidirectionally coupled impulse neurons in the case where the number of links in the system increases indefinitely. In order to study periodic solutions of travelling wave type of this system, some special tricks are used which reduce the existence and stability problems for cycles to the investigation of auxiliary system with impulse actions. Using this approach, we establish that the number of stable self-excited waves simultaneously existing in the chain increases unboundedly as the number of links of the chain increases, that is, the well-known buffer phenomenon occurs.

  10. Enhancement of effective electromechanical coupling factor by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave device structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Teshigahara, Akihiko; Iwaki, Takao; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a drastic enhancement of the effective coupling factor K\\text{e}2 by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave (SAW) device structures such as the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure. This phenomenon occurs when the piezoelectric layer exhibits a high acoustic wave velocity. The mass loading decreases the SAW velocity and causes SAW energy confinement close to the top surface where an interdigital transducer is placed. It is shown that this phenomenon is obvious even when an amorphous SiO2 film is deposited on the top surface for temperature compensation. This K\\text{e}2 enhancement was also found in various combinations of electrode, piezoelectric layer, and/or substrate materials. The existence of this phenomenon was verified experimentally using the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure.

  11. Suppression of Spiral Waves and Spatiotemporal Chaos Under Local Self-adaptive Coupling Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; WU Ning-Jie; YING He-Ping; YUAN Li-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a close-loop feedback control is imposed locally on the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) system to suppress the stable spirals and spatiotemporal chaos according to the principle of self-adaptive coupling interaction. The simulation results show that an expanding target wave is stimulated by the spiral waves under dynamic control period when a local area of 5 x 5 grids is controlled, or the spiral tip is driven to the board of the system. It is adso found that the spatiotemporal chaos can be suppressed to get a stable homogeneous state within 50 time units as two local grids are controlled mutually. The mechanism of the scheme is briefly discussed.

  12. Hybrid metal-dielectric, slow wave structure with magnetic coupling and compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.V., E-mail: asmirnov@radiabeam.com [RadiaBeam Systems LLC, 1713 Stewart St., Santa Monica, CA 90404 (United States); Savin, E. [RadiaBeam Systems LLC, 1713 Stewart St., Santa Monica, CA 90404 (United States); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-01

    A number of electron beam vacuum devices such as small radiofrequency (RF) linear accelerators (linacs) and microwave traveling wave tubes (TWTs) utilize slow wave structures which are usually rather complicated in production and may require multi-step brazing and time consuming tuning. Fabrication of these devices becomes challenging at centimeter wavelengths, at large number of cells, and when a series or mass production of such structures is required. A hybrid, metal-dielectric, periodic structure for low gradient, low beam current applications is introduced here as a modification of Andreev’s disk-and-washer (DaW) structure. Compensated type of coupling between even and odd TE01 modes in the novel structure results in negative group velocity with absolute values as high as 0.1c–0.2c demonstrated in simulations. Sensitivity to material imperfections and electrodynamic parameters of the disk-and-ring (DaR) structure are considered numerically using a single cell model.

  13. Coupling of a Linearized Gravitational Wave to Electromagnetic Fields and Relevant Noise Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳昱; 吴张晗; 张义

    2003-01-01

    According to electrodynamic equations in curved spacetime we consider the coupling of a linearized weak gravitational wave(GW)to a Gaussian beam passing through a static magnetic field.It is found that unlike the properties of the "left-circular" and "right-circular" waves of the tangential perturbative photon fluxes in the cylindrical polar coordinates,the resultant effect of the tangential and radial perturbations can produce a unique nonvanishing photon flux propagating along the direction of the electric field of the Gaussian beam.This result might provide a larger detecting space for the high-frequency GWs in GHz band.Moreover,we also discuss the relevant noise issues.

  14. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Krishna C; Davanço, Marcelo I; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-05-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains.

  15. Effect of viscous cross coupling between two immiscible fluids on elastic wave propagation and attenuation in unsaturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Yeh, Chao-Lung; Lee, Jhe-Wei

    2015-09-01

    A central issue in the theoretical treatment of a multiphase system is the proper mathematical description of momentum transfer across fluid-solid and fluid-fluid interfaces. Although recent studies have advanced our knowledge on modeling the coupling behavior between a porous framework and the fluids permeating it, the effect of viscous resistance caused by two-fluid flow on elastic wave behavior in unsaturated porous media still remains elusive. In the present study, the theoretical model developed for describing immiscible two-phase fluid flows in a deformable porous medium related to harmonic wave perturbation is generalized to account for viscous cross coupling due to relative velocity between two adjacent fluids. The corresponding dispersion relations whose coefficients feature all elasticity, inertial-drag, and viscous-drag parameters are then precisely formulated, in a physical context characterizing three compressional waves and one shear wave. To evaluate quantitatively this as-yet unknown effect, numerical calculations are conducted to solve the dispersion relations for Columbia fine sandy loam bearing an oil-water mixture as a function of water saturation and excitation frequency. Our results show that the phase speed and attenuation coefficient of the P3 wave which has the smallest speed is strongly sensitive to the presence of viscous cross coupling, as expected since this wave is attributed primarily to the out-of-phase motion of the two pore fluids. Viscous cross coupling also exerts an impact on the attenuation coefficient of the shear wave and the P1 wave whose speed is greatest, which exhibits two opposite trends at different ranges of low and high water contents. Relative differences in these wave attributes are principally independent of excitation frequency. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess how changes in viscous cross coupling affect these differences, revealing that some of them become more significant as viscous cross

  16. Development of a three-dimensional, regional, coupled wave, current, and sediment-transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J.C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Harris, C.K.; Arango, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a three-dimensional numerical model that implements algorithms for sediment transport and evolution of bottom morphology in the coastal-circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v3.0), and provides a two-way link between ROMS and the wave model Simulating Waves in the Nearshore (SWAN) via the Model-Coupling Toolkit. The coupled model is applicable for fluvial, estuarine, shelf, and nearshore (surfzone) environments. Three-dimensional radiation-stress terms have been included in the momentum equations, along with effects of a surface wave roller model. The sediment-transport algorithms are implemented for an unlimited number of user-defined non-cohesive sediment classes. Each class has attributes of grain diameter, density, settling velocity, critical stress threshold for erosion, and erodibility constant. Suspended-sediment transport in the water column is computed with the same advection-diffusion algorithm used for all passive tracers and an additional algorithm for vertical settling that is not limited by the CFL criterion. Erosion and deposition are based on flux formulations. A multi-level bed framework tracks the distribution of every size class in each layer and stores bulk properties including layer thickness, porosity, and mass, allowing computation of bed morphology and stratigraphy. Also tracked are bed-surface properties including active-layer thickness, ripple geometry, and bed roughness. Bedload transport is calculated for mobile sediment classes in the top layer. Bottom-boundary layer submodels parameterize wave-current interactions that enhance bottom stresses and thereby facilitate sediment transport and increase bottom drag, creating a feedback to the circulation. The model is demonstrated in a series of simple test cases and a realistic application in Massachusetts Bay. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Amplitude death, oscillation death, wave, and multistability in identical Stuart-Landau oscillators with conjugate coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenchen; Cheng, Hongyan; Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Ju, Ping; Yang, Junzhong

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics in a ring of identical Stuart-Landau oscillators with conjugate coupling systematically. We analyze the stability of the amplitude death and find the stability independent of the number of oscillators. When the amplitude death state is unstable, a large number of states such as homogeneous oscillation death, heterogeneous oscillation death, homogeneous oscillation, and wave propagations are found and they may coexist. We also find that all of these states are related to the unstable spatial modes to the amplitude death state.

  18. Conditions for the spin wave nonreciprocity in an array of dipolarly coupled magnetic nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verba, Roman; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Bankowski, Elena; Meitzler, Thomas; Melkov, Gennadiy; Slavin, Andrei

    2013-08-01

    It is demonstrated that collective spin waves (SWs) propagating in complex periodic arrays of dipolarly coupled magnetic nanopillars existing in a saturated (single-domain) ground state in a zero bias magnetic field could be nonreciprocal. To guarantee the SW nonreciprocity, two conditions should be fulfilled: (i) existence of a nonzero out-of-plane component of the pillars' static magnetization and (ii) a complex periodicity of array's ground state with at least two elements per a primitive cell, if the elements are different, and at least three elements per a primitive cell, if the elements are identical.

  19. The c-axis charge traveling wave in a coupled system of Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Hamdipour, M.

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate a manifestation of the charge traveling wave along the c axis (TW) in current voltage characteristics of coupled Josephson junctions in high- T c superconductors. The branches related to the TW with different wavelengths are found for the stacks with different number of Josephson junctions at different values of system's parameters. Transitions between the TW branches and the outermost branch are observed. The electric charge in the superconducting layers and charge-charge correlation functions for TW and outermost branches show different behavior with bias current. We propose an experimental testing of the TW branching by microwave irradiation.

  20. Non-minimally Coupled Gravitational and Electromagnetic Fields: pp-Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Dereli, T

    2011-01-01

    We give the Lagrangian formulation of a generic non-minimally extended Einstein-Maxwell theory with an action that is linear in the curvature and quadratic in the electromagnetic field. We derive the coupled field equations by a first order variational principle using the method of Lagrange multipliers. We look for solutions describing plane-fronted Einstein-Maxwell waves with parallel rays. We give a family of exact solutions associated with a partially massless spin-2 photon and a partially massive spin-2 graviton.

  1. Super-resolution Imaging by Evanescent Wave Coupling to Surface States on Effective Gain Media

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrotra, Prateek; Blaikie, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Higher resolution demands for semiconductor lithography may be fulfilled by higher numerical aperture (NA) systems. However, NAs more than the photoresist refractive index (~1.7) cause surface confinement of the image. In this letter we describe how evanescent wave coupling to effective gain medium surface states beneath the imaging layer can counter this problem. At {\\lambda}=193 nm a layer of sapphire on SiO2 counters image decay by an effective-gain-medium resonance phenomena allowing evanescent interferometric lithography to create high aspect ratio structures at NAs of 1.85 (26-nm) and beyond.

  2. Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Benincasa, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Gauge/string correspondence provides an efficient method to investigate gauge theories. In this talk we discuss the results of the paper (to appear) by P. Benincasa, A. Buchel and A. O. Starinets, where the propagation of sound waves is studied in a strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. In particular, a prediction for the speed of sound as well as for the bulk viscosity is made for the N=2* gauge theory in the high temperature limit. As expected, the results achieved show a devi...

  3. Charge creation and nucleation of the longitudinal plasma wave in coupled Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Hamdipour, M.

    2010-11-01

    We study the phase dynamics in coupled Josephson junctions described by a system of nonlinear differential equations. Results of detailed numerical simulations of charge creation in the superconducting layers and the longitudinal plasma wave (LPW) nucleation are presented. We demonstrate the different time stages in the development of the LPW and present the results of FFT analysis at different values of bias current. The correspondence between the breakpoint position on the outermost branch of current voltage characteristics (CVC) and the growing region in time dependence of the electric charge in the superconducting layer is established. The effects of noise in the bias current and the external microwave radiation on the charge dynamics of the coupled Josephson junctions are found. These effects introduce a way to regulate the process of LPW nucleation in the stack of IJJ.

  4. Intercellular waves propagation in an array of cells coupled through paracrine signaling: A computer simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepseu, W. D.; Woafo, P.

    2006-04-01

    A linear chain of cells is considered in which calcium (Ca2+) fluctuations within a cell are described by a simple minimal model. Cells are coupled together by bidirectional paracrine signaling via calcium oscillations. Two typical zones of propagation are observed: a transition zone and a regular zone. The transition zone exhibits the same phenomena that can be observed in single cells, pairs or triplets of cells. Within the regular zone, simple periodic oscillations of calcium propagate and the Ca2+ signal is similar from one cell to another (same amplitude and same frequency). But, the signals are separated by a slight phase shift characterizing the propagation of Ca2+ waves due to the type of coupling used. We also consider the colonization of the lattice by the abnormal oscillations of sick cells.

  5. Coupling discontinuous Galerkin methods and retarded potentials for transient wave propagation on unbounded domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Toufic; Joly, Patrick; Rodríguez, Jerónimo; Terrasse, Isabelle

    2011-07-01

    This work deals with the numerical simulation of wave propagation on unbounded domains with localized heterogeneities. To do so, we propose to combine a discretization based on a discontinuous Galerkin method in space and explicit finite differences in time on the regions containing heterogeneities with the retarded potential method to account the unbounded nature of the computational domain. The coupling formula enforces a discrete energy identity ensuring the stability under the usual CFL condition in the interior. Moreover, the scheme allows to use a smaller time step in the interior domain yielding to quasi-optimal discretization parameters for both methods. The aliasing phenomena introduced by the local time stepping are reduced by a post-processing by averaging in time obtaining a stable and second order consistent (in time) coupling algorithm. We compute the numerical rate of convergence of the method for an academic problem. The numerical results show the feasibility of the whole discretization procedure.

  6. A coupled phase-field and volume-of-fluid method for accurate representation of limiting water wave deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Yu, Xiping

    2016-09-01

    A coupled phase-field and volume-of-fluid method is developed to study the sensitive behavior of water waves during breaking. The THINC model is employed to solve the volume-of-fluid function over the entire domain covered by a relatively coarse grid while the phase-field model based on Allen-Cahn equation is applied over the fine grid. A special algorithm that takes into account the sharpness of the diffuse-interface is introduced to correlate the order parameter obtained on the fine grid and the volume-of-fluid function obtained on the coarse grid. The coupled model is then applied to the study of water waves generated by moving pressures on the free surface. The deformation process of the wave crest during the initial stage of breaking is discussed in details. It is shown that there is a significant variation of the free nappe developed at the front side of the wave crest as the wave steepness differs. It is of a plunging type at large wave steepness while of a spilling type at small wave steepness. The numerical results also indicate that breaking occurs later and the duration of breaking is shorter for waves of smaller steepness and vice versa. Neglecting the capillary effect leads to wave breaking with a sharper nappe and a more dynamic plunging process. The surface tension also has an effect to prevent the formation of a free nappe at the front side of the wave crest in some cases.

  7. Coupled wave-atmosphere-ocean modeling under RCP8.5 emissions during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hylke; Semedo, Alvaro; Sterl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Most climate models have no explicit treatment of surface ocean waves. As a result, wave climatologies are usually obtained off-line, using atmospheric forcing as input. In recent years attempts have been made to incorporate surface ocean wave models into GCMs, giving the possibility of interactions between components. In the presence of waves the atmospheric winds are modified due to different drag-coefficient and breaking waves will have also influence vertical ocean mixing. As such the waves may play a role in solving long-standing ocean and atmospheric biases. Recently we have coupled the global wave model WAM into EC-Earth GCM (v3.0.1). EC-Earth is based on the IFS atmospheric model and the NEMO/LIM ocean/sea ice model. First results are presented from a 140-year (1961-2100) continuous transient, coupled simulation under RCP8.5 emission scenario. As the modelled climate warms during the transient period, (arctic) sea-ice gradually diminishes, allowing surface waves to penetrate to higher and higher latitudes. Eventually Arctic sea-ice completely disappears in the simulation in late summer. We will discuss swell and wind-wave climatologies, Stokes drift patterns as well as other relevant wave parameters.

  8. Satellite observations of atmosphere-ionosphere vertical coupling by gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Thai; Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Earth's thermosphere/ionosphere (T/I) is strongly influenced by various processes from above as well as from below. One of the most important processes from below is vertical coupling by atmospheric waves. Among these waves, gravity waves (GWs) excited in the lower atmosphere, mainly in the troposphere and tropopause region, are likely essential for the mean state of the T/I system. The penetration of GWs into the T/I system is however not well understood in modeling as well as observations. In this work, we analyze the correlation between different GW parameters at lower altitudes (below 90 km) and GW induced perturbations in the T/I. At lower altitudes, GW parameters are derived from temperature observations of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER). In the T/I, GW induced perturbations of neutral density measured by Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) and CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) are analyzed. Interestingly, we find positive correlations between the spatial distributions at low altitudes (i.e. below 90km) and the spatial distributions of GW-induced density fluctuations in the T/I (at 200km and above), which suggests that many waves seen in the T/I have their origins in the troposphere or lower stratosphere. It is also indicated that mountain waves generated near the Andes and Antarctic Peninsula propagate up to the T/I. Strong positive correlations between GW perturbations in the T/I and GW parameters at 30 km are mainly found at mid latitudes, which may be an indicator of propagation of convectively generated GWs. Increase of correlation starting from 70 km in many cases shows that filtering of the GW distribution by the background atmosphere is very important. Processes that are likely involved are GW dissipation, generation of secondary GWs, as well as horizontal propagation of GWs. Limitations of our method and of the observations are also discussed.

  9. Simulating Tropical Instability Waves in the Equatorial Eastern Pacific with a Coupled General Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xianyan; Masahide KIMOTO

    2009-01-01

    Satellite observations of SSTs have revealed the existence of unstable waves in the equatorial eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans. These waves have a 20-40-day periodicity with westward phase speeds of 0.4-0.6 m s-1 and wavelengths of 1000-2000 km during boreal summer and fall.They are generally called tropical instability waves (TIWs).This study investigates TIWs simulated by a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM).The horizontal resolution of the model is 120 km in the atmosphere,and 30 km longitude by 20 km latitude in the ocean.Model simulations show good agreement with the observed main features associated with TIWs.The results of energetics analysis reveal that barotropic energy conversion is responsible for providing the main energy source for TIWs by extracting energy from the meridional shear of the climatological-mean equatorial currents in the mixed layer.This deeper and northward-extended wave activity appears to gain its energy through baroclinic conversion via buoyancy work,which further contributes to the asymmetric distribution of TIWs.It is estimated that the strong cooling effect induced by equatorial upwelling is partially (~30%-40%)offset by the equatorward heat flux due to TIWs in the eastern tropical Pacific during the seasons when TIWs are active.The atmospheric mixed layer just above the sea surface responds to the waves with enhanced or reduced vertical mixing.Furthermore,the changes in turbulent mixing feed back to sea surface evaporation,favoring the westward propagation of TIWs.The atmosphere to the south of the Equator also responds to TIWs in a similar way,although TIWs are much weaker south of the Equator.

  10. Regional seismic wavefield computation on a 3-D heterogeneous Earth model by means of coupled traveling wave synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2002-01-01

    I present a new algorithm for calculating seismic wave propagation through a three-dimensional heterogeneous medium using the framework of mode coupling theory originally developed to perform very low frequency (f seismic wavefield computation. It is a Greens function approach for multiple scattering within a defined volume and employs a truncated traveling wave basis set using the locked mode approximation. Interactions between incident and scattered wavefields are prescribed by mode coupling theory and account for the coupling among surface waves, body waves, and evanescent waves. The described algorithm is, in principle, applicable to global and regional wave propagation problems, but I focus on higher frequency (typically f ??????0.25 Hz) applications at regional and local distances where the locked mode approximation is best utilized and which involve wavefields strongly shaped by propagation through a highly heterogeneous crust. Synthetic examples are shown for P-SV-wave propagation through a semi-ellipsoidal basin and SH-wave propagation through a fault zone.

  11. Si-prism-array coupled terahertz-wave parametric oscillator with pump light totally reflected at the terahertz-wave exit surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiliang; Qu, Yanchen; Zhao, Weijiang; Liu, Chuang; Chen, Zhenlei

    2016-09-01

    A Si-prism-array coupled terahertz (THz)-wave parametric oscillator with the pump totally reflected at the THz-wave exit surface (PR-Si-TPO) is demonstrated by manufacturing an 800 nm air gap between the crystal and the Si-prism array. Influence on the total reflection of the pump from the Si prisms is eliminated and efficient coupling of the THz wave is ensured by using this air gap. When the THz-wave frequency varies from 1.8 to 2.3 THz, compared with a Si-prism-array coupled TPO (Si-TPO) with the pump transmitting through the crystal directly, the THz-wave output energy is enhanced by 20-50 times, and the oscillating threshold is reduced by 10%-35%. Furthermore, the high end of the THz-wave frequency tuning range of the PR-Si-TPO is expanded to 3.66 THz compared with 2.5 THz for the Si-TPO.

  12. A Nonlinear Coupled-Mode System for Water Waves over a General Bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassoulis, G. A.; Belibassakis, K. A.

    2003-04-01

    Athanassoulis 2002) problems, over variable bathymetry regions. Using the local-mode expansion in conjunction with the variational principle the original problem is reformulated as an infinite, coupled-mode system of second-order differential equations in the propagation (horizontal) space, fully accounting for the effects of non-linearity and dispersion. Various simplified equations, like Boussinesq-type models, in shallow water depth, and non-linear mild-slope models, in intermediate depth, can be obtained as limiting forms. As a first step towards the solution of fully nonlinear coupled-mode system, the system is simplified keeping only up to second-order terms in the system coefficients, and the derived weakly non-linear model has been applied to water waves propagating over a flat bottom and over an arbitrary bathymetry. This model is solved numerically in the frequency and in the time domain, providing very good results in a wide range of water depths. In the case of monochromatic waves propagating over a flat bottom, it is shown that the present model correctly treats the dispersion effects in the whole range of relative water depths from practically deep to shallow water. In the same case, it is also shown that the present model reproduces correctly the second-order Stokes solutions. In the general case, the solution of the coupled-mode system is obtained numerically by truncating the local-mode series into a finite number of terms, and using finite differences for approximating the derivatives on the horizontal plane. Numerical results presented for a smooth underwater shoaling with a steep bottom slope, demonstrate that the rate of decay of the modal-amplitude functions is very fast, in conformity with similar behaviour in the linear case (Athanassoulis and Belibassakis 1999). This means that a small number of modes (up to 5 or 7) are sufficient for precise numerical solution, provided that the two new modes (the free-surface and the sloping-bottom ones) are included

  13. Efficient simulation of wave-packet dynamics on multiple coupled potential surfaces with split potential propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonovich, Igal

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple method to expedite simulation of quantum wave-packet dynamics by more than a factor of $2$ with the Strang split-operator propagation. Dynamics of quantum wave-packets are often evaluated using the the \\emph{Strang} split-step propagation, where the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian $\\hat{T}$ and the potential part $\\hat{V}$ are piecewise integrated according to $e^{- i \\hat{H} \\delta t} \\approx e^{- i \\hat{V} \\delta t/2} e^{- i \\hat{T}\\delta t} e^{- i \\hat{V} \\delta t/2}$, which is accurate to second order in the propagation time $\\delta t$. In molecular quantum dynamics, the potential propagation occurs over multiple coupled potential surfaces and requires matrix exponentiation for each position in space and time which is computationally demanding. Our method employs further splitting of the potential matrix $\\hat{V}$ into a diagonal space dependent part $\\hat{V}_{D}(R)$ and an off-diagonal time-dependent coupling-field $\\hat{V}_{OD}(t)$, which then requires only a single matrix exponentia...

  14. Density convection near radiating ICRF antennas and its effect on the coupling of lower hybrid waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.; Beaumont, B.; Bibet, Ph.; Bremond, S.; Kazarian, F. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Mayoral, M.L.; Mailloux, J. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Noterdaeme, J.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Garching (Germany)]|[Gent University, EESA Dept. (Belgium); Tuccillo, A.A. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    Combined operation of lower hybrid (LH) and Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) waves can result in a degradation of the LH wave coupling, as observed both in the Tore-Supra and Jet tokamaks. The reflection coefficient on the part of the LH launcher magnetically connected to the powered ICRF antenna increases, suggesting a local decrease in the electron density in the connecting flux tubes. This has been confirmed by Langmuir probe measurements on the LH launchers in the latest Tore-Supra experiments. Moreover, recent experiments in Jet indicate that the LH coupling degradation depends on the ICRF power and its launched k{sub /} spectrum. The 2D density distribution around the Tore-Supra ICRF antennas has been modelled with the CELLS-code, balancing parallel losses with diffusive transport and sheath induced ExB convection, obtained from RF field mapping using the ICANT-code. The calculations are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations, i.e. density depletion is obtained, localised mainly in the antenna shadow, and dependent on ICRF power and antenna spectrum. (authors)

  15. Shear Bloch waves and coupled phonon-polariton in periodic piezoelectric waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliposyan, D G; Ghazaryan, K B; Piliposian, G T

    2014-02-01

    Coupled electro-elastic SH waves propagating in a periodic piezoelectric finite-width waveguide are considered in the framework of the full system of Maxwell's electrodynamic equations. We investigate Bloch-Floquet waves under homogeneous or alternating boundary conditions for the elastic and electromagnetic fields along the guide walls. Zero frequency stop bands, trapped modes as well as some anomalous features due to piezoelectricity are identified. For mixed boundary conditions, by modulating the ratio of the length of the unit cell to the width of the waveguide, the minimum widths of the stop bands can be moved to the middle of the Brillouin zone. The dispersion equation has been investigated also for phonon-polariton band gaps. It is shown that for waveguides at acoustic frequencies, acousto-optic coupling gives rise to polariton behavior at wavelengths much larger than the length of the unit cell but at optical frequencies polariton resonance occurs at wavelengths comparable with the period of the waveguide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Method of Moments of Coupled-Cluster Equations: Externally Corrected Approaches Employing Configuration Interaction Wave Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S.O. Pimienta

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new approach to the many-electron correlation problem, termed the method of moments of coupled-cluster equations (MMCC, is further developed and tested. The main idea of the MMCC theory is that of the noniterative energy corrections which, when added to the energies obtained in the standard coupled-cluster calculations, recover the exact (full configuration interaction energy. The MMCC approximations require that a guess is provided for the electronic wave function of interest. The idea of using simple estimates of the wave function, provided by the inexpensive configuration interaction (CI methods employing small sets of active orbitals to define higher–than–double excitations, is tested in this work. The CI-corrected MMCC methods are used to study the single bond breaking in HF and the simultaneous breaking of both O–H bonds in H2O.

  17. Waveform Modeling of the Crust and Upper Mantle Using S, Sp, SsPmP, and Shear-Coupled PL Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-10

    and excitation of shear-coupled Pl waves with distance and corresponding phase velocity ( Vph )-period (T) curve: αN and βN are the P and S wave...Pulliam and Sen, 2005) (b) Propagation characteristics and excitation of shear-coupled Pl waves with distance and corresponding phase velocity ( Vph

  18. Convectively coupled Kelvin waves in aquachannel simulations: 1. Propagation speeds, composite structures, and comparison with aquaplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Joaquín. E.; Nolan, David S.; Tulich, Stefan N.

    2016-10-01

    Convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) represent a significant contribution to the total variability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This study analyzes the structure and propagation of CCKWs simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using two types of idealized domains. These are the "aquachannel," a flat rectangle on a beta plane with zonally periodic boundary conditions and length equal to the Earth's circumference at the equator, and the "aquapatch," a square domain with zonal extent equal to one third of the aquachannel's length. A series of simulations are performed, including a doubly nested aquapatch, in which convection is solved explicitly along the equator. The model intercomparison is carried out throughout the use of several techniques such as power spectra, filtering, wave tracking, and compositing, and it is extended to some simulations from the Aquaplanet Experiment (APE). Results show that despite the equatorial superrotation bias produced by the WRF simulations, the CCKWs simulated with this model propagate with similar phase speeds (relative to the low-level mean flow) as the corresponding waves from the APE simulations. Horizontal and vertical structures of the CCKWs simulated with aquachannels are also in overall good agreement with those from aquaplanet simulations and observations, although there is a distortion of the zonal extent of anomalies when the shorter aquapatch is used.

  19. Alfven wave coupled with flow-driven fluid instability in interpenetrating plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Vranjes, J

    2015-01-01

    The Alfven wave is analyzed in case of one quasineutral plasma propagating with some constant speed $v_0$ through another static quasineutral plasma. A dispersion equation is derived describing the Alfven wave coupled with the flow driven mode $\\omega= k v_0$ and solutions are discussed analytically and numerically. The usual solutions for two oppositely propagating Alfv\\'en waves are substantially modified due to the flowing plasma. More profound is modification of the solution propagating in the negative direction with respect to the magnetic field and the plasma flow. For a large enough flow speed (exceeding the Alfven speed in the static plasma), this negative solution may become non-propagating, with frequency equal to zero. In this case it represents a spatial variation of the electromagnetic field. For greater flow speed it becomes a forward mode, and it may merge with the positive one. This merging of the two modes represents the starting point for a flow-driven instability, with two complex-conjugate...

  20. A three-dimensional, wave-current coupled, sediment transport model for POM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua

    2010-01-01

    In the high-energy environment of coastal seas and estuaries,strong sediment resuspension/ deposition events are driven by surface waves,tides,winds and buoyancy driven currents.In recent years,A POM based three-dimensional ,wave-current coupled ,sediment transport model has been developed by the University of New South Wales.This paper presents several examples of the model applications to study sediment dynamics in the environments where forcings such as waves,tides, and winds are equally important to affect sediment fluxes and distributions.Firstly,the sediment transport model coupled to the Yellow Sea general circulation model and a third generation wave model SWAN was implemented in the Yellow Sea to study the dynamics of the sediment transport and resuspension in the northern Jiangsu shoal-water(NJSW).The sediment distributions and fluxes and their inter-annual variability were studied by realistic numerical simulations.The study found that the surface waves played a dominant role over the tides to form the turbidity maxima along the muddy coast of NJSW. Secondly,the sediment transport model was used to explore the effect of suspended sediment-induced stratificationin the bottom boundary layer(BBL).The model uses a re-parameterized bottom drag coefficient Cd that incorporates a linear stability function of flux Richardson number RsThe study has shown that the sediment induced stratification in the BBL reduces the vertical eddy viscosity and bottom shear stress in comparison with the model prediction in a neutrally stratified BBL.In response to these apparent reductions,the tidal current shear is increased and sediments are abnormally concentrated within a thin wall layer that is overlain by a thicker layer with much smaller concentration.The formation of this fluid-mud layer near the seabed has led to a significant reduction in the total sediment transport.This study contributes to the understanding of formations of tidal flats along the coasts of turbid seas

  1. Study of ICRF wave propagation and plasma coupling efficiency in a linear magnetic mirror device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.Y.

    1991-07-01

    Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) wave propagation in an inhomogeneous axial magnetic field in a cylindrical plasma-vacuum system has historically been inadequately modelled. Previous works either sacrifice the cylindrical geometry in favor of a simpler slab geometry, concentrate on the resonance region, use a single mode to represent the entire field structure, or examine only radial propagation. This thesis performs both analytical and computational studies to model the ICRF wave-plasma coupling and propagation problem. Experimental analysis is also conducted to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Both theoretical as well as experimental analysis are undertaken as part of the thesis. The theoretical studies simulate the propagation of ICRF waves in an axially inhomogeneous magnetic field and in cylindrical geometry. Two theoretical analysis are undertaken - an analytical study and a computational study. The analytical study treats the inhomogeneous magnetic field by transforming the (r,z) coordinate into another coordinate system ({rho},{xi}) that allows the solution of the fields with much simpler boundaries. The plasma fields are then Fourier transformed into two coupled convolution-integral equations which are then differenced and solved for both the perpendicular mode number {alpha} as well as the complete EM fields. The computational study involves a multiple eigenmode computational analysis of the fields that exist within the plasma-vacuum system. The inhomogeneous axial field is treated by dividing the geometry into a series of transverse axial slices and using a constant dielectric tensor in each individual slice. The slices are then connected by longitudinal boundary conditions.

  2. Superconductivity enhanced by d-density wave: A weak-coupling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kim; Subok, Ri; Ilmyong, Ri; Cheongsong, Kim; Yuling, Feng

    2011-04-01

    Making a revision of mistakes in Ref. [19], we present a detailed study of the competition and interplay between the d-density wave (DDW) and d-wave superconductivity (DSC) within the fluctuation-exchange (FLEX) approximation for the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model. In order to stabilize the DDW state with respect to phase separation at lower dopings a small nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion is included within the Hartree-Fock approximation. We solve the coupled gap equations for the DDW, DSC, and π-pairing as the possible order parameters, which are caused by exchange of spin fluctuations, together with calculating the spin fluctuation pairing interaction self-consistently within the FLEX approximation. We show that even when nesting of the Fermi surface is perfect, as in a square lattice with only nearest-neighbor hopping, there is coexistence of DSC and DDW in a large region of dopings close to the quantum critical point (QCP) at which the DDW state vanishes. In particular, we find that in the presence of DDW order the superconducting transition temperature Tc can be much higher compared to pure superconductivity, since the pairing interaction is strongly enhanced due to the feedback effect on spin fluctuations of the DDW gap. π-pairing appears generically in the coexistence region, but its feedback on the other order parameters is very small. In the present work, we have developed a weak-coupling theory of the competition between DDW and DSC in 2D Hubbard model, using the static spin fluctuation obtained within FLEX approximation and ignoring the self-energy effect of spin fluctuations. For our model calculations in the weak-coupling limit we have taken U/ t=3.4, since the antiferromagnetic instability occurs for higher values of U/ t.

  3. Modulation of the Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the major tropical wave modes, the convectively-coupled equatorial Kelvin wave (CCKW) plays a critical role in tropical climate / weather variability. CCKW activity exhibits strong variation on both seasonal and intraseasonal time scales. In this study, evidence of the strong modulation of the CCKW activity by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) will be presented, with a particular focus over South America and tropical Atlantic region. The primary modulation of CCKWs over this region, as noted in anomalous fields of rainfall as well as vertical profiles of wind, moisture and temperature, is found to be a modulation of wave activity - namely amplitude, with secondary effects on vertical structure, and very little impact on wavenumber. CCKW activity is enhanced during MJO phases 8, 1, and 2, and damped during MJO phases 4, 5, and 6. Further analyses reveal that the strong modulation of the MJO on the CCKW activity could be largely through two factors, namely, the vertical zonal wind shear and the lower-middle troposphere specific humidity. The CCKW activity tends to be enhanced during MJO phases when the westward vertical wind shear and positive lower to mid-troposphere moisture anomalies are evident, and vice versa. These two physical processes associated with the MJO are found to have positively (negatively) reinforcing influences in the CCKW activity in phase 1 (4, and 5), while counteracting influences in phases 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8, leading to the observed MJO cycle of the CCKW activity anomalies in the study region. The results presented in this study may have important implications for extended-range prediction of tropical wave activity, and possibly initiation of the MJO further downstream in the Indian Ocean.

  4. Modeling of atmospheric-coupled Rayleigh waves on planets with atmosphere: From Earth observation to Mars and Venus perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lognonné, Philippe; Karakostas, Foivos; Rolland, Lucie; Nishikawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Acoustic coupling between solid Earth and atmosphere has been observed since the 1960s, first from ground-based seismic, pressure, and ionospheric sensors and since 20 years with various satellite measurements, including with global positioning system (GPS) satellites. This coupling leads to the excitation of the Rayleigh surface waves by local atmospheric sources such as large natural explosions from volcanoes, meteor atmospheric air-bursts, or artificial explosions. It contributes also in the continuous excitation of Rayleigh waves and associated normal modes by atmospheric winds and pressure fluctuations. The same coupling allows the observation of Rayleigh waves in the thermosphere most of the time through ionospheric monitoring with Doppler sounders or GPS. The authors review briefly in this paper observations made on Earth and describe the general frame of the theory enabling the computation of Rayleigh waves for models of telluric planets with atmosphere. The authors then focus on Mars and Venus and give in both cases the atmospheric properties of the Rayleigh normal modes and associated surface waves compared to Earth. The authors then conclude on the observation perspectives especially for Rayleigh waves excited by atmospheric sources on Mars and for remote ionospheric observations of Rayleigh waves excited by quakes on Venus.

  5. Coupling of WRF meteorological model to WAM spectral wave model through sea surface roughness at the Balearic Sea: impact on wind and wave forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosana-Delgado, R.; Soret, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological models, like WRF, usually describe the earth surface characteristics by tables that are function of land-use. The roughness length (z0) is an example of such approach. However, over sea z0 is modeled by the Charnock (1955) relation, linking the surface friction velocity u*2 with the roughness length z0 of turbulent air flow, z0 = α-u2* g The Charnock coefficient α may be considered a measure of roughness. For the sea surface, WRF considers a constant roughness α = 0.0185. However, there is evidence that sea surface roughness should depend on wave energy (Donelan, 1982). Spectral wave models like WAM, model the evolution and propagation of wave energy as a function of wind, and include a richer sea surface roughness description. Coupling WRF and WAM is thus a common way to improve the sea surface roughness description of WRF. WAM is a third generation wave model, solving the equation of advection of wave energy subject to input/output terms of: wind growth, energy dissipation and resonant non-linear wave-wave interactions. Third generation models work on the spectral domain. WAM considers the Charnock coefficient α a complex yet known function of the total wind input term, which depends on the wind velocity and on the Charnock coefficient again. This is solved iteratively (Janssen et al., 1990). Coupling of meteorological and wave models through a common Charnock coefficient is operationally done in medium-range met forecasting systems (e.g., at ECMWF) though the impact of coupling for smaller domains is not yet clearly assessed (Warner et al, 2010). It is unclear to which extent the additional effort of coupling improves the local wind and wave fields, in comparison to the effects of other factors, like e.g. a better bathymetry and relief resolution, or a better circulation information which might have its influence on local-scale meteorological processes (local wind jets, local convection, daily marine wind regimes, etc.). This work, within the

  6. Influence of Four-Wave Mixing and Walk-Off on the Self-Focusing of Coupled Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, W.

    2000-01-01

    Four-wave mixing and walk-off between two optical beams are! investigated For focusing Kerr media. It is shown that four-wave mixing reinforces the self-focusing of mutually trapped waves by lowering their power threshold for collapse, only when their phase mismatch is small. On the contrary, walk...

  7. Observation of two coupled Faraday waves in a vertically vibrating Hele-Shaw cell with one of them oscillating horizontally

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaochen; Liao, Shijun

    2016-01-01

    A system of two-dimensional, two coupled Faraday interfacial waves is experimentally observed at the two interfaces of the three layers of fluids (air, pure ethanol and silicon oil) in a sealed Hele-Shaw cell with periodic vertical vibration. The upper and lower Faraday waves coexist: the upper vibrates vertically, but the crests of the lower one oscillate horizontally with unchanged wave height and a frequency equal to the half of the forcing one of the vertically vibrating basin, while the troughs of the lower one always stay in the same place (relative to the basin). Besides, they are strongly coupled: the wave height of the lower Faraday wave is either a linear function (in the case of a fixed forcing frequency) or a parabolic function (in the case of a fixed acceleration amplitude) of that of the upper, with the same wave length. In addition, the upper Faraday wave temporarily loses its smoothness at around $t=T/4$ and $t=3T/4$, where $T$ denotes the wave period, and thus has fundamental difference from ...

  8. Resonant excitation of coupled Rayleigh waves in a short and narrow fluid channel clad between two identical metal plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. García-Chocano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in a channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.

  9. How important is mode-coupling in global surface wave tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesell, Dylan; Nolet, Guust; Voronin, Sergey; Ritsema, Jeroen; Van Heijst, Hendrik-Jan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the influence of mode coupling for fundamental mode Rayleigh waves with periods between 64 and 174s, we analysed 3,505,902 phase measurements obtained along minor arc trajectories as well as 2,163,474 phases along major arcs. This is a selection of five frequency bands from the data set of Van Heijst and Woodhouse, extended with more recent earthquakes, that served to define upper mantle S velocity in model S40RTS. Since accurate estimation of the misfits (as represented by χ2) is essential, we used the method of Voronin et al. (GJI 199:276, 2014) to obtain objective estimates of the standard errors in this data set. We adapted Voronin's method slightly to avoid that systematic errors along clusters of raypaths can be accommodated by source corrections. This was done by simultaneously analysing multiple clusters of raypaths originating from the same group of earthquakes but traveling in different directions. For the minor arc data, phase errors at the one sigma level range from 0.26 rad at a period of 174s to 0.89 rad at 64s. For the major arcs, these errors are roughly twice as high (0.40 and 2.09 rad, respectively). In the subsequent inversion we removed any outliers that could not be fitted at the 3 sigma level in an almost undamped inversion. Using these error estimates and the theory of finite-frequency tomography to include the effects of scattering, we solved for models with χ2 = N (the number of data) both including and excluding the effect of mode coupling between Love and Rayleigh waves. We shall present some dramatic differences between the two models, notably near ocean-continent boundaries (e.g. California) where mode conversions are likely to be largest. But a sharpening of other features, such as cratons and high-velocity blobs in the oceanic domain, is also observed when mode coupling is taken into account. An investigation of the influence of coupling on azimuthal anisotropy is still under way at the time of writing of this

  10. Fully Coupled Three-Dimensional Dynamic Response of a Tension-Leg Platform Floating Wind Turbine in Waves and Wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumari Ramachandran, Gireesh Kumar Vasanta; Bredmose, Henrik; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær;

    2014-01-01

    , which is a consequence of the wave-induced rotor dynamics. Loads and coupled responses are predicted for a set of load cases with different wave headings. Further, an advanced aero-elastic code, Flex5, is extended for the TLP wind turbine configuration and the response comparison with the simpler model...... shows a generally good agreement, except for the yaw motion. This deviation is found to be a result of the missing lateral tower flexibility in the simpler model....

  11. Performance analysis of coupled and uncoupled hydrodynamic and wave models in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    The complex dynamics of the Adriatic Sea are the result of geographical position, orography and bathymetry, as well as rivers discharge and meteorological conditions that influence, more strongly, the shallow northern part. Such complexity requires a constant monitoring of marine conditions in order to support several activities (marine resources management, naval operations, emergency management, shipping, tourism, as well as scientific ones). Platforms, buoys and mooring located in Adriatic Sea supply almost continuously real time punctual information, which can be spatially extended, with some limitations, by drifters and remote sensing. Operational forecasting systems represent valid tools to provide a complete tridimensional coverage of the area, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service of the Emilia-Romagna Environmental Agency (ARPA-SIMC, Bologna, Italy) and the Dept. of Life and Environmental Sciences of Università Politecnica delle Marche (DISVA-UNIVPM, Ancona, Italy), in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Science of the National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR, Italy) operationally run several wave and hydrodynamic models on the Adriatic Sea. The main implementations are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of the former two models in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system. Horizontal resolutions of the different systems range from the 2 km of AdriaROMS to the 0.5 km of the recently implemented northern Adriatic COAWST. Forecasts are produced every day for the subsequent 72 hour with hourly resolution. All the systems compute the fluxes exchanged through the interface with the atmosphere from the numerical weather prediction system named COSMO-I7, an implementation for Italy of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model, at 7 km horizontal resolution. Considering the several operational

  12. A 2D Time Domain DRBEM Computer Model for MagnetoThermoelastic Coupled Wave Propagation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A numerical computer model based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM is extended to study magneto-thermoelastic coupled wave propagation problems with relaxation times involving anisotropic functionally graded solids. The model formulation is tested through its application to the problem of a solid placed in a constant primary magnetic field acting in the direction of the z-axis and rotating about this axis with a constant angular velocity. In the case of two-dimensional deformation, an implicit-explicit time domain DRBEM was presented and implemented to obtain the solution for the displacement and temperature fields. A comparison of the results is presented graphically in the context of Lord and Shulman (LS and Green and Lindsay (GL theories. Numerical results that demonstrate the validity of the proposed method are also presented graphically.

  13. Temporal coupled mode theory of standing wave resonant cavities for infrared photodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmanne, Emeline; De Lamaestre, Roch Espiau; Fowler, David; Boutami, Salim; Badano, Giacomo

    2015-03-23

    Standing wave resonating cavities have been proposed in the past to increase the performance of infrared detectors by minimizing the volume of photogeneration, hence the noise, while maintaining the same quantum efficiency. We present an approach based on the temporal coupled mode theory to explain their behavior and limitations. If the ratio of the imaginary part of the absorber's dielectric function to the index of the incident medium ε″(d)/n₀ is larger than 1.4, then the absorption cross section σ(a) can attain its maximum value, which for an isolated cavity is approximately 2λ/π. Besides, for σ(a) to exceed the cavity width, the incident medium refractive index must be close to unity. Metallic loss is negligible in the infrared, making those resonators suitable for integration in infrared photodetectors.

  14. Coupled motions of two ships in irregular waves in time domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-fang; LI Ji-de; WENG Nian-ming; GUAN Ling-xuan

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional time domain approach is used to study the aves. In this approach ,the boundary condition is satisfied on the mean wetted hull surface of the moving bodies and the free surface condition is linearized. The problem is solved by using a transient free-surface Green function source distribution on the submerged hulls. After solving the response amplitude operator ,the method of spectral analysis is employed to clearly express the motion energy spectrum and significant amplitude of two ships. For verifying the code .two same circular cylinders at beam wave are selected to calculate coupled motions by comparison with the results obtained by 3Dfrequcy method which has been proved to be efficient for solving such problems. Two Wigley ships of different sizes with the same forward speed are chosen for numerical calculation of the interaction effect, and some useful suggestions ate obtained for underway replenishment at sea.

  15. Revised NASA axially symmetric ring model for coupled-cavity traveling-wave tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    1987-01-01

    A versatile large-signal, two-dimensional computer program is used by NASA to model coupled-cavity travelling-wave tubes (TWTs). In this model, the electron beam is divided into a series of disks, each of which is further divided into axially symmetric rings which can expand and contract. The trajectories of the electron rings and the radiofrequency (RF) fields are determined from the calculated axial and radial space-charge, RF, and magnetic forces as the rings pass through a sequence of cavities. By varying electrical and geometric properties of individual cavities, the model is capable of simulating severs, velocity tapers, and voltage jumps. The calculated electron ring trajectories can be used in designing magnetic focusing and multidepressed collectors. The details of using the program are presented, and results are compared with experimental data.

  16. Resonant plane waves in metamaterials with dipoles and quadrupoles coupled with quantum system

    CERN Document Server

    Chipouline, A; Pertsch, T

    2013-01-01

    Here the multipole approach [13], in combination with the density matrix formalism is used for establishing of the model for MMs with gain. This approach allows us to investigate analytically or semi-analytically the interplay between gain and magnetic properties of the MMs, the influence of internally unstable operation mode for spasers (MAs coupled with emitters, which the MMs consist of) on the propagation characteristics, and finally to optimize MM design. Moreover, the presented model is in line with the previously presented approach [16] (actually is its natural extension on the problem of plane wave propagation) and from the other side pretty clear and observable. The results presented in this paper resolve the discussion excited by [12] followed by [35-38].

  17. Coupling coefficients and kinetic equation for Rossby waves in multi-layer ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Soomere

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic description of baroclinic Rossby waves in multi-layer model ocean is analysed. Explicit analytical expressions for the coupling coefficients describing energy exchange intensity between different modes are obtained and their main properties are established for the three-layer model. It is demonstrated that several types of interactions vanish in the case of simple vertical structures of the ocean, e.g. when all layers have equal depth. These cases correspond to a zero component of the eigenvectors of the potential vorticity equations. The kinetic equation always possesses a fully barotropic solution. If energy is concentrated in the baroclinic modes, the barotropic mode will necessarily be generated. Motion systems consisting of a superposition of the barotropic and a baroclinic mode always transfer energy to other baroclinic modes.

  18. Coupled wave equations theory of surface-enhanced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Michael O.; McMahon, Jeffrey M.; Van Duyne, Richard P.; Schatz, George C.

    2016-09-01

    We present a coupled wave semiclassical theory to describe plasmonic enhancement effects in surface-enhanced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SE-FSRS). A key result is that the plasmon enhanced fields which drive the vibrational equation of motion for each normal mode results in dispersive lineshapes in the SE-FSRS spectrum. This result, which reproduces experimental lineshapes, demonstrates that plasmon-enhanced stimulated Raman methods provide unique sensitivity to a plasmonic response. Our derived SE-FSRS theory shows a plasmonic enhancement of |gp u|2I m {" separators="χR(ω ) gst 2 }/I m {" separators="χR(ω ) }, where |gpu|2 is the absolute square of the plasmonic enhancement from the Raman pump, χR(ω) is the Raman susceptibility, and gst is the plasmonic enhancement of the Stokes field in SE-FSRS. We conclude with a discussion on potential future experimental and theoretical directions for the field of plasmonically enhanced coherent Raman scattering.

  19. Detection of elastic photon-photon scattering through four-wave coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Lundstrom, E

    2005-01-01

    According to the theory of quantum electrodynamics, photon-photon scattering can take place via exchange of virtual electron-positron pairs. Effectively, the interaction can be formulated in terms of non-linear corrections to Maxwell's equations, and hence may be treated by classical non-linear electrodynamics. Due to the strong electromagnetic fields needed to reach any noticeable effect, photon-photon scattering has not yet been observed experimentally, but recent improvements in laser technology have increased the possibility of direct detection. A verification of the phenomena would be of great scientific value as a confirmation of quantum electrodynamics. In this thesis the possibility of direct detection of elastic photon-photon scattering through four-wave coupling is investigated, both for current and future systems. It is shown how three colliding laser pulses satisfying certain matching conditions, can generate scattered radiation in a fourth resonant direction. The interaction is modeled, and the n...

  20. On elastic waves in an thinly-layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pal Roy

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is concerned with a simple transformation rule in finding out the composite elastic coefficients of a thinly layered laminated medium whose bulk properties are strongly anisotropic with a microelastic bending rigidity. These elastic coefficients which were not known completely for a layered laminated structure, are obtained suitably in terms of initial stress components and Lame's constants λi, μi of initially isotropic solids. The explicit solutions of the dynamical equations for a prestressed thinly layered laminated medium under horizontal compression in a gravity field are derived. The results are discussed specifying the effects of hydrostatic, deviatoric and couple stresses upon the characteristic propagation velocities of shear and compression wave modes.

  1. Goos-Hänchen shift in a standing-wave-coupled electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Hai-Hua; Liang, Zhi-Peng; Xu, Yan; Fan, Cun-Bo; Liu, Cheng-Zhi; Gao, Jin-Yue

    2015-03-01

    The Goos-Hänchen shift of the system composed by two cavity walls and an intracavity atomic sample is presented. The atomic sample is treated as a four-level double-Λ system, driven by the two counterpropagating coupling fields. The probe field experiences the discontinuous refractive index variation and is reflected. Moreover, under the phase-matching condition, the four-wave mixing effect based on electromagnetically induced transparency can cause effective reflection. The Goos-Hänchen shifts appear in both situations and are carefully investigated in this article. We refer to the first one with the incident and reflected light having identical wavelength as the linear Goos-Hänchen shift, and the second one with the reflection wavelength determined by the phase-matching condition as the nonlinear Goos-Hänchen shift. The differences between the two kinds of shifts, such as the incident angle range, conditions for the shift peaks, and controllability, are discussed.

  2. Development of an Inductively Coupled Thermometer for a Cryogenic Half-Wave Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurowicz, Alexander; Kusaka, Akito

    2017-01-01

    The current state of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) research has focused much attention on the measurement of polarization. In an effort to modulate the CMB polarization while also minimizing photon noise due to thermal emission, we are developing a sapphire half-wave plate (HWP) cooled to 50 K rotating at 2 Hz on a superconducting magnetic levitating bearing. In order to measure the temperature of the rotor without making physical contact, we designed an inductively coupled cryogenic thermometer. The complex impedance of the circuit has a resonant peak when driven around 1 MHz. The width of this resonance is dependent on the value of the resistor, which varies with temperature and functions as a thermometer once calibrated. In this talk, we will present results from stationary measurements of this impedance and discuss the temperature accuracy of this thermometer, as well as a preliminary circuit design to measure this impedance during the HWP rotation.

  3. Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2013-07-01

    Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices.

  4. Local-Oscillator Noise Coupling in Balanced Homodyne Readout for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Steinlechner, Sebastian; Bell, Angus S; Danilishin, Stefan L; Gläfke, Andreas; Gräf, Christian; Hennig, Jan-Simon; Houston, E Alasdair; Huttner, Sabina H; Leavey, Sean S; Pascucci, Daniela; Sorazu, Borja; Spencer, Andrew; Strain, Kenneth A; Wright, Jennifer; Hild, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The second generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors are quickly approaching their design sensitivity. For the first time these detectors will become limited by quantum back-action noise. Several back-action evasion techniques have been proposed to further increase the detector sensitivity. Since most proposals rely on a flexible readout of the full amplitude- and phase-quadrature space of the output light field, balanced homodyne detection is generally expected to replace the currently used DC readout. Up to now, little investigation has been undertaken into how balanced homodyne detection can be successfully transferred from its ubiquitous application in table-top quantum optics experiments to large-scale interferometers with suspended optics. Here we derive implementation requirements with respect to local oscillator noise couplings and highlight potential issues with the example of the Glasgow Sagnac Speed Meter experiment, as well as for a future upgrade to the Advanced LIGO detectors.

  5. Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, P

    2005-01-01

    Gauge/string correspondence provides an efficient method to investigate gauge theories. In this talk we discuss the results of the paper (to appear) by P. Benincasa, A. Buchel and A. O. Starinets, where the propagation of sound waves is studied in a strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. In particular, a prediction for the speed of sound as well as for the bulk viscosity is made for the N=2* gauge theory in the high temperature limit. As expected, the results achieved show a deviation from the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity for a conformal theory. It is pointed out that such results depend on the particular gauge theory considered.

  6. Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzini, Stefano; Grassani, Davide; Galli, Matteo; Gerace, Dario; Patrini, Maddalena; Liscidini, Marco; Velha, Philippe; Bajoni, Daniele

    2013-07-01

    We report on four-wave mixing in coupled photonic crystal nano-cavities on a silicon-on-insulator platform. Three photonic wire cavities are side-coupled to obtain three modes equally separated in energy. The structure is designed to be self-filtering, and we show that the pump is rejected by almost two orders of magnitude. We study both the stimulated and the spontaneous four-wave mixing processes: owing to the small modal volume, we find that signal and idler photons are generated with a hundred-fold increase in efficiency as compared to silicon micro-ring resonators.

  7. Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Azzini, Stefano; Grassani, Davide; Galli, Matteo; Gerace,Dario; Patrini, Maddalena; Liscidini, Marco; Velha, Philippe; Bajoni, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    We report on four-wave mixing in coupled photonic crystal nano-cavities on a silicon-on-insulator platform. Three photonic wire cavities are side-coupled to obtain three modes equally separated in energy. The structure is designed to be self-filtering, and we show that the pump is rejected by almost two orders of magnitudes. We study both the stimulated and the spontaneous four-wave mixing processes: owing to the small modal volume, we find that signal and idler photons are generated with a h...

  8. Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Azzini, Stefano; Grassani, Davide; Galli, Matteo; Gerace, Dario; Patrini, Maddalena; Liscidini, Marco; Velha, Philippe; Bajoni, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    We report on four-wave mixing in coupled photonic crystal nano-cavities on a silicon-on-insulator platform. Three photonic wire cavities are side-coupled to obtain three modes equally separated in energy. The structure is designed to be self-filtering, and we show that the pump is rejected by almost two orders of magnitudes. We study both the stimulated and the spontaneous four-wave mixing processes: owing to the small modal volume, we find that signal and idler photons are generated with a h...

  9. Future Evolution of Marine Heat Waves in the Mediterranean: Coupled Regional Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaraki, Sofia; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Nabat, Pierre; Cavicchia, Leone; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Cabos, William; Sein, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    FUTURE EVOLUTION OF MARINE HEAT WAVES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN : COUPLED REGIONAL CLIMATE PROJECTIONS The Mediterranean area is identified as a « Hot Spot » region, vulnerable to future climate change with potentially strong impacts over the sea. By 2100, climate models predict increased warming over the sea surface, with possible implications on the Mediterranean thermohaline and surface circulation,associated also with severe impacts on the ecosystems (e.g. fish habitat loss, species extinction and migration, invasive species). However, a robust assesment of the future evolution of the extreme marine temperatures remains still an open issue of primary importance, under the anthropogenic pressure. In this context, we study here the probability and characteristics of marine heat wave (MHW) occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea in future climate projections. To this end, we use an ensemble of fully coupled regional climate system models (RCSM) from the Med- CORDEX initiative. This multi-model approach includes a high-resolution representation of the atmospheric, land and ocean component, with a free air-sea interface.Specifically, dedicated simulations for the 20th and the 21st century are carried out with respect to the different IPCC-AR5 socioeconomic scenarios (1950-2100, RCP8.5, RCP4.5, RCP2.6). Model evaluation for the historical period is performed using satellite and in situ data. Then, the variety of factors that can cause the MHW (e.g. direct radiative forcing, ocean advection, stratification change) are examined to disentangle the dominant driving force. Finally, the spatial variability and temporal evolution of MHW are analyzed on an annual basis, along with additional integrated indicators, useful for marine ecosystems.

  10. Direct observation of nonlinear coupling in wave turbulence at the surface of water and relevance of approximate resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubourg, Quentin; Mordant, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    The theoretical framework of Weak Turbulence describes the statistical properties of a large collection of nonlinear waves. For a weakly nonlinear wave field, energy is assumed to be transferred only trough resonant interaction. This enables the computation of analytical solutions of the stationary statistical states (Zakhaorv spectrum). Some similarities with hydrodynamical turbulence appear : an energy cascade is present from the injection scale to the dissipation at small scales. The theory has been applied to numerous systems many of them being of geophysical or astrophysical nature (water surface waves, internal waves, inertial waves, solar winds) as well as superfluid turbulence, lasers, nonlinear optics in fibers or vibrated elastic plates. For water surface waves, experimental laboratory measurements often fail to reproduce quantitatively theoretical predictions. Gravity waves and capillary waves are often treated separately because of their different nature. For capillary waves, energy is supposed to be transferred trough 3-waves interactions, whereas for gravity waves the coupling involves 4 waves (because of the curvature of the dispersion relation which does not allow triadic solutions). In the laboratory, the range of exited wavelength are usually not strongly separated from the crossover between capillary and gravity waves (which occur near 13 Hz) due to size or measurement limitations. Near this crossover, the dispersion relation is significantly affected and this impacts most likely the theoretical predictions. To investigate how this special point may act on the phenomenology, we report laboratory experiments on gravity-capillary waves focused on the crossover (Aubourg,Mordant-PRL,2015). The setup consists in a 70 ∗ 40 cm2 vessel where waves are generated by horizontal vibration. A Fourier Transform Profilometry technique is used that is fully resolved in time and space and thus permits to compute the full space-time spectrum. The presence of an

  11. The dynamic coupling of a third-generation wave model and a 3D hydrodynamic model through boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M. Y.; Li, Y. S.

    1997-08-01

    A third-generation wind wave model based on the energy balance equation taking into account the effects of time-varying currents and coupled dynamically with a semi-implicit three-dimensional hydrodynamic model incorporating the influences of time- and space-varying vertical eddy viscosity, bottom topography and wave-current interactions is presented in this paper. The wave model is synchronously coupled with the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model through the surface atmospheric turbulent boundary layer and the bottom boundary layer. The theory of Janssen (1991) (in Journal of Physical Oceanography21, 1631-1642) is used to incorporate the effects of waves on the surface boundary layer, while the theory of Grant and Maddsen (1979) [in Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans)84, 1797-1808], which was used by Signell et al. (1990) (in Journal of Geophysical Research95, 9671-9678) on the bottom boundary layer for constant waves, is modified for the inclusion of time-varying waves. The mutual influences between waves and currents are investigated through an idealized continental shelf case and hindcastings of storm events in the sea area adjacent to Hong Kong in the northern South China Sea. Calculations are compared with other computed results and observations. Calculations show that the wave-dependent surface stress incorporated in the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model has significant impact on water surface velocities and surface elevations (over 10% higher). The inclusion of wave-dependent bottom stress also shows some effects; however, in the presence of the wave-dependent surface stress, its effect on surge levels becomes negligible. The effect of currents on waves amounts to the reduction of the significant wave height by about 8% and less for wave mean periods. However, the inclusion of the wave-dependent bottom stress in the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model has little effect on wave characteristics whether or not the wave-dependent surface stress is

  12. Grating-Coupling-Based Excitation of Bloch Surface Waves for Lab-on-Fiber Nanoprobes

    CERN Document Server

    Scaravilli, Michele; Cusano, Andrea; Galdi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate for the first time the possibility to excite Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on the tip of single-mode optical fibers. Within this framework, we first demonstrate the possibility to exploit a grating-coupling mechanism for on-tip excitation of BSWs, and highlight the flexibility of the proposed design as well as its intrinsic robustness to unavoidable fabrication tolerances. Subsequently, with a view towards label-free chemical and biological sensing, we present an optimized design to maximize the sensitivity (in terms of wavelength shift) of the arising resonances with respect to changes in the refractive properties of the surrounding environment. Numerical results indicate that the attained sensitivities are in line with those exhibited by state-of-the-art plasmonic nanoprobes, with the key advantage of exhibiting much narrower spectral resonances. This prototype study paves the way for a new class of miniaturized high-performance surface-wave fiber-optic devices for high-resolution...

  13. Modeling of Breaching Due to Overtopping Flow and Waves Based on Coupled Flow and Sediment Transport

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zhiguo; Zhao, Liang; Wu, Ganfeng; Pähtz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Breaching of earthen or sandy dams/dunes by overtopping flow and waves is a complicated process with strong, unsteady flow, high sediment transport, and rapid bed changes in which the interactions between flow and morphology should not be ignored. This study presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) coupled flow and sediment transport model to investigate the flow and breaching processes with and without waves. Bed change and variable flow density are included in the flow continuity and momentum equations to consider the impacts of sediment transport. The model adopts the non-equilibrium approach for total-load sediment transport and specifies different repose angles to handle non-cohesive embankment slope avalanching. The equations are solved using an explicit finite volume method on a rectangular grid with the improved Godunov-type central upwind scheme and the nonnegative reconstruction of the water depth method to handle mixed-regime flows near the breach. The model has been tested against two sets o...

  14. Electron attachment in F2 - Conclusive demonstration of nonresonant, s-wave coupling in the limit of zero electron energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to F2 has been observed in the energy range 0-140 meV, at a resolution of 6 meV (full width at half maximum). Results show conclusively a sharp, resolution-limited threshold behavior consistent with an s-wave cross section varying as sq rt of epsilon. Two accurate theoretical calculations predict only p-wave behavior varying as the sq rt of epsilon. Several nonadiabatic coupling effects leading to s-wave behavior are outlined.

  15. Fibre-Coupling Zig-Zag Beam Deflection Technology for Investigation of Attenuation Process of Laser-Induced Shock Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; BIAN Bao-Min; LI Zhen-Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ A novel fibre-coupling zig-zag beam deflection technology is developed to investigate the attenuation process of laser-induced shock waves in air. Utilizing ordinal reflections of probe beams by a pair of parallel mirrors,a zig-zag beam field is formed, which has eleven probe beams in the horizontal plane. When a laser-induced shock wave propagates through the testing field, it causes eleven deflection signals one after another. The whole attenuation process of the shock wave in air can be detected and illuminated clearly on one experimental curve.

  16. Coupled wave analysis of holographically induced transparency (HIT) generated by two multiplexed volume gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Luis; Blaya, Salvador; Acebal, Pablo; Fimia, Antonio; Madrigal, Roque; Murciano, Angel

    2011-04-11

    We present a holographic system that can be used to manipulate the group velocity of light pulses. The proposed structure is based on the multiplexing of two sequential holographic volume gratings, one in transmission and the other in reflection geometry, where one of the recording beams must be the same for both structures. As in other systems such as grating induced transparency (GIT) or coupled-resonator-induced transparency (CRIT), by using the coupled wave theory it is shown that this holographic structure represents a classical analogue of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Analytical expressions were obtained for the transmittance induced at the forbidden band (spectral hole) and conditions where the group velocity was slowed down were analyzed. Moreover, the propagation of Gaussian pulses is analyzed for this system by obtaining, after further approximations, analytical expressions for the distortion of the transmitted field. As a result, we demonstrate the conditions where the transmitted pulse is slowed down and its shape is only slightly distorted. Finally, by comparing with the exact solutions obtained, the range of validity of all the analytical formulae was verified, demonstrating that the error is very low.

  17. Robust vetoes for gravitational-wave burst triggers using known instrumental couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Ajith, P; Smith, J R; Strain, K A

    2006-01-01

    The search for signatures of transient, unmodelled gravitational-wave (GW) bursts in the data of ground-based interferometric detectors typically uses `excess-power' search methods. One of the most challenging problems in the burst-data-analysis is to distinguish between actual GW bursts and spurious noise transients that trigger the detection algorithms. In this paper, we present a unique and robust strategy to `veto' the instrumental glitches. This method makes use of the phenomenological understanding of the coupling of different detector sub-systems to the main detector output. The main idea behind this method is that the noise at the detector output (channel H) can be projected into two orthogonal directions in the Fourier space -- along, and orthogonal to, the direction in which the noise in an instrumental channel X would couple into H. If a noise transient in the detector output originates from channel X, it leaves the statistics of the noise-component of H orthogonal to X unchanged, which can be veri...

  18. Spin wave eigenmodes in single and coupled sub-150 nm rectangular permalloy dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlotti, G., E-mail: giovanni.carlotti@fisica.unipg.it; Madami, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Perugia (Italy); Gubbiotti, G.; Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Porod, W. [Center for Nano Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We present the results of a Brillouin light scattering investigation of thermally excited spin wave eigenmodes in square arrays of either isolated rectangular dots of permalloy or twins of dipolarly coupled elements, placed side-by-side or head-to-tail. The nanodots, fabricated by e-beam lithography and lift-off, are 20 nm thick and have the major size D in the range between 90 nm and 150 nm. The experimental spectra show the presence of two main peaks, corresponding to modes localized either at the edges or in the center of the dots. Their frequency dependence on the dot size and on the interaction with adjacent elements has been measured and successfully interpreted on the basis of dynamical micromagnetic simulations. The latter enabled us also to describe the spatial profile of the eigenmodes, putting in evidence the effects induced by the dipolar interaction between coupled dots. In particular, in twinned dots the demagnetizing field is appreciably modified in proximity of the “internal edges” if compared to the “external” ones, leading to a splitting of the edge mode. These results can be relevant for the exploitation of sub-150 nm magnetic dots in new applications, such as magnonic metamaterials, bit-patterned storage media, and nano-magnetic logic devices.

  19. RF-thermal-structural-RF coupled analysis on a travelling wave disk-loaded accelerating structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Shi-Lun; CHI Yun-Long; ZHANG Jing-Ru; HOU Mi; LI Xiao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The travelling wave (TW) disk-loaded accelerating structure is one of the key components in normal conducting (NC) linear accelerators,and has been studied for many years.In the design process,usually after the dimensions of each cell and the two couplers are finalized,the structure is fabricated and tuned,and then the whole structure RF characteristics are measured by using a vector network analyzer.Before fabrication,the whole structure characteristics (including RF,thermal and structural ones) are less simulated due to the limited capability of currently available computers.In this paper,we described a method for performing RF-thermal-structural-RF coupled analysis on a TW disk-loaded structure using only one PC.In order to validate our method,we first analyzed and compared our RF simulation results on the 3 m long BEPC Ⅱ structure with the corresponding experimental results,which shows very good consistency.Finally,the RF-thermal-structure-RF coupled analysis results on the 1.35 m long NSC KIPT linac accelerating structure are presented.

  20. Spatial structure and dispersion of drift mirror waves coupled with Alfvén waves in a 1-D inhomogeneous plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Klimushkin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper employs the frame of a 1-D inhomogeneous model of space plasma,to examine the spatial structure and growth rate of drift mirror modes, often suggested for interpreting some oscillation types in space plasma. Owing to its coupling with the Alfvén mode, the drift mirror mode attains dispersion across magnetic shells (dependence of the frequency on the wave-vector's radial component, kr. The spatial structure of a mode confined across magnetic shells is studied. The scale of spatial localization of the wave is shown to be determined by the plasma inhomogeneity scale and by the azimuthal component of the wave vector. The wave propagates across magnetic shells, its amplitude modulated along the radial coordinate by the Gauss function. Coupling with the Alfvén mode strongly influences the growth rate of the drift mirror instability. The mirror mode can only exist in a narrow range of parameters. In the general case, the mode represents an Alfvén wave modified by plasma inhomogeneity.

  1. Incommensurate spin density wave as a signature of spin-orbit coupling and precursor of topological superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Aaron; Wu, P.-K.; Kao, Y.-J.; Pereg-Barnea, T.

    2016-12-01

    On a square lattice, the Hubbard model at half filling reduces to the Heisenberg model and exhibits antiferromagnetism. When doped away from half filling this model gives rise to d -wave superconductivity. This behavior is reminiscent of the phenomenology of the cuprate family with their high Tcd -wave superconductivity and their antiferromagnetic parent compound. It is therefore interesting to study an extension of the Hubbard model which includes spin orbit coupling. We have previously studied this model away from half filling [see, for example, Farrell and Pereg-Barnea, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035112 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.035112] and found that the addition of spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman field leads to topological superconductivity with d +i d pairing function. In this paper we are interested in the `parent compound' of this state. Namely, we study the half filling, strong coupling limit of the square lattice Hubbard model with spin orbit coupling and Zeeman field. The strong coupling expansion of the model is a spin model which contains compass anisotropy and Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction on top of the usual Heisenberg term. We analyze this spin model classically and find an incommensurate spin density wave (ISDW) for low Zeeman fields. This ISDW has a wave vector Q ⃗ which deviates from (π ,π ) by an amount which is proportional to the spin-orbit coupling and can therefore serve as a signature. We study the stability of the ISDW phase using spin wave theory and find a stable and an unstable region. At higher but moderate Zeeman fields we find a tilted antiferromagnet and a ferromagnet at high Zeeman fields.

  2. Effects of gap junction inhibition on contraction waves in the murine small intestine in relation to coupled oscillator theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Jan D.

    2014-01-01

    Waves of contraction in the small intestine correlate with slow waves generated by the myenteric network of interstitial cells of Cajal. Coupled oscillator theory has been used to explain steplike gradients in the frequency (frequency plateaux) of contraction waves along the length of the small intestine. Inhibition of gap junction coupling between oscillators should lead to predictable effects on these plateaux and the wave dislocation (wave drop) phenomena associated with their boundaries. It is these predictions that we wished to test. We used a novel multicamera diameter-mapping system to measure contraction along 25- to 30-cm lengths of murine small intestine. There were typically two to three plateaux per length of intestine. Dislocations could be limited to the wavefronts immediately about the terminated wave, giving the appearance of a three-pronged fork, i.e., a fork dislocation; additionally, localized decreases in velocity developed across a number of wavefronts, ending with the terminated wave, which could appear as a fork, i.e., slip dislocations. The gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone increased the number of plateaux and dislocations and decreased contraction wave velocity. In some cases, the usual frequency gradient was reversed, with a plateau at a higher frequency than its proximal neighbor; thus fork dislocations were inverted, and the direction of propagation was reversed. Heptanol had no effect on the frequency or velocity of contractions but did reduce their amplitude. To understand intestinal motor patterns, the pacemaker network of the interstitial cells of Cajal is best evaluated as a system of coupled oscillators. PMID:25501550

  3. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  4. Analysis of the Tangjiaxi landslide-generated waves in the Zhexi Reservoir, China, by a granular flow coupling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bolin; Yin, Yueping; Wang, Shichang; Tan, Jianmin; Liu, Guangning

    2017-05-01

    A rocky granular flow is commonly formed after the failure of rocky bank slopes. An impulse wave disaster may also be initiated if the rocky granular flow rushes into a river with a high velocity. Currently, the granular mass-water body coupling study is an important trend in the field of landslide-induced impulse waves. In this paper, a full coupling numerical model for landslide-induced impulse waves is developed based on a non-coherent granular flow equation, i.e., the Mih equation. In this model, the Mih equation for continuous non-coherent granular flow controls movements of sliding mass, the two-phase flow equation regulates the interaction between sliding mass and water, and the renormalization group (RNG) turbulence model governs the movement of the water body. The proposed model is validated and applied for the 2014 Tangjiaxi landslide of the Zhexi Reservoir located in Hunan Province, China, to analyze the characteristics of both landslide motion and its following impulse waves. On 16 July 2014, a rocky debris flow was formed after the failure of the Tangjiaxi landslide, damming the Tangjiaxi stream and causing an impulse wave disaster with three dead and nine missing bodies. Based on the full coupling numerical analysis, the granular flow impacts the water with a maximum velocity of about 22.5 m s-1. Moreover, the propagation velocity of the generated waves reaches up to 12 m s-1. The maximum calculated run-up of 21.8 m is close enough to the real value of 22.7 m. The predicted landslide final deposit and wave run-up heights are in a good agreement with the field survey data. These facts verify the ability of the proposed model for simulating the real impulse wave generated by rocky granular flow events.

  5. Coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave simulations of a storm event over the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Warner, John C.; Gomez, Marta; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintore, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea are one of the most challenging places for ocean forecasting. This region is exposed to severe storms events that are of short duration. During these events, significant air-sea interactions, strong winds and large sea-state can have catastrophic consequences in the coastal areas. To investigate these air-sea interactions and the oceanic response to such events, we implemented the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System simulating a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea that occurred in May 2010. During this event, wind speed reached up to 25 m.s-1 inducing significant sea surface cooling (up to 2°C) over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) and along the storm track, and generating surface waves with a significant height of 6 m. It is shown that the event, associated with a cyclogenesis between the Balearic Islands and the GoL, is relatively well reproduced by the coupled system. A surface heat budget analysis showed that ocean vertical mixing was a major contributor to the cooling tendency along the storm track and in the GoL where turbulent heat fluxes also played an important role. Sensitivity experiments on the ocean-atmosphere coupling suggested that the coupled system is sensitive to the momentum flux parameterization as well as air-sea and air-wave coupling. Comparisons with available atmospheric and oceanic observations showed that the use of the fully coupled system provides the most skillful simulation, illustrating the benefit of using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model for the assessment of these storm events.

  6. Determination of the chiral coupling constants c(3) and c(4) in new pp and np partial-wave analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentmeester, MCM; Timmermans, RGE; de Swart, JJ

    2003-01-01

    As a first result of two new partial-wave analyses, one of the pp and another one of the np scattering data below 500 MeV, we report a study of the long-range chiral two-pion exchange interaction which contains the chiral coupling constants c(1), c(3), and c(4). By using as input a theoretical value

  7. Three-dimensional coupled-wave theory for the guided mode resonance in photonic crystal slabs: TM-like polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Peng, Chao; Liang, Yong; Li, Zhengbin; Noda, Susumu

    2014-08-01

    A general coupled-wave theory is presented for the guided resonance in photonic crystal (PhC) slabs with TM-like polarization. Numerical results based on our model are presented with finite-difference time-domain validations. The proposed analysis facilitates comprehensive understanding of the physics of guided resonance in PhC slabs and provides guidance for its applications.

  8. Planetary wave signatures in the equatorial atmosphere ionosphere system, and mesosphere- E- and F-region coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, M. A.; Ramkumar, T. K.; Batista, I. S.; Brum, C. G. M.; Takahashi, H.; Reinisch, B. W.; Sobral, J. H. A.

    2006-02-01

    Upward transport of wave energy and momentum due to gravity, tidal and planetary waves from below and extra-tropics controls the phenomenology of the equatorial atmosphere ionosphere system. An important aspect of this phenomenology is the development of small- and large-scale structures including thin layers in the mesosphere and E-region, and the formation of wide spectrum plasma structures of the equatorial F-region, widely known as equatorial spread F/plasma bubble irregularities (that are known to have significant impact on space application systems based on trans-ionospheric radio waves propagation). It seems that the effects of tidal and gravity waves at mesospheric and thermospheric heights and their control of ionospheric densities, electric fields and currents are relatively better known than are the effects originating from vertical coupling due to planetary waves. Results from airglow, radar and ionospheric sounding observations demonstrate the existence of significant planetary wave influence on plasma parameters at E- and F-region heights over equatorial latitudes. We present and discuss here some results showing planetary wave oscillations in concurrent mesospheric winds and equatorial electrojet intensity variations in the Indian sector as well as in the mesospheric airglow and F-layer height variation in Brazil. Also presented are evidences of planetary wave-scale oscillations in equatorial evening pre-reversal electric field (F-region vertical drift) and their effects on equatorial spread F /plasma bubble irregularity development and day-to-day variability.

  9. Numerical simulation of landslide-generated waves using a soil-water coupling smoothed particle hydrodynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chuanqi; An, Yi; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Qingquan; Cao, Zhixian

    2016-06-01

    We simulate the generation of a landslide-induced impulse wave with a newly-developed soil-water coupling model in the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) framework. The model includes an elasto-plastic constitutive model for soil, a Navier-Stokes equation based model for water, and a bilateral coupling model at the interface. The model is tested with simulated waves induced by a slow and a fast landslide. Good agreement is obtained between simulation results and experimental data. The generated wave and the deformation of the landslide body can both be resolved satisfactorily. All parameters in our model have their physical meaning in soil mechanics and can be obtained from conventional soil mechanics experiments directly. The influence of the dilatancy angle of soil shows that the non-associated flow rule must be selected, and the value of the dilatancy angle should not be chosen arbitrarily, if it is not determined with relative experiments.

  10. Coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motion in a finite periodic structure with asymmetrically arranged transverse beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    and wave forces that are associated with the characteristic wave-types, which can exist in a multicoupled periodic system [Mead, J. Sound Vib. 40, 19–39 (1975)]. The third part of the paper considers a finite specific test-structure with eight periodic elements and with structural terminations...... is examined in the first part of the present paper, and the damping-dependent decrease in wave coupling is revealed for a structure with multiresonant side-branches. In the second part, the simplifying semi-infinite assumption is relaxed and general expressions for the junction responses of finite...... and multicoupled periodic systems are derived as a generalization of the governing expressions for finite, mono-coupled periodic systems [Ohlrich, J. Sound Vib. 107, 411–434 (1986)]. The present derivation of the general frequency response of a finite system utilizes the eigenvectors of displacement responses...

  11. Surface wave effects on water temperature in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Coupled circulation (NEMO) and wave model (WAM) system was used to study the effects of surface ocean waves on water temperature distribution and heat exchange at regional scale (the Baltic Sea). Four scenarios—including Stokes-Coriolis force, sea-state dependent energy flux (additional turbulent kinetic energy due to breaking waves), sea-state dependent momentum flux and the combination these forcings—were simulated to test the impact of different terms on simulated temperature distribution. The scenario simulations were compared to a control simulation, which included a constant wave-breaking coefficient, but otherwise was without any wave effects. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwelling's. Overall, when all three wave effects were accounted for, did the estimates of temperature improve compared to control simulation. During the summer, the wave-induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea, a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations in summer months. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data, e.g. the control simulation was too cold compared to measurements. The warming is related to sea-state dependent energy flux. This implies that a spatio-temporally varying wave-breaking coefficient is necessary, because it depends on actual sea state. Wave-induced cooling is mostly observed in near-coastal areas and is the result of intensified upwelling in the scenario, when Stokes-Coriolis forcing is accounted for. Accounting for sea-state dependent momentum flux results in modified heat exchange at the water-air boundary which consequently leads to warming of surface water compared to control simulation.

  12. Orbital stability of spatially synchronized solitary waves of an m-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuangye; Nguyen, Nghiem V.; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the orbital stability of solitary-wave solutions for an m-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system i /∂ ∂ t u j + /∂ 2 ∂ x 2 u j + ∑ i = 1 m b i j |" separators=" u i | 2 u j = 0 , j = 1 , … , m , where m ≥ 2, uj are complex-valued functions of (x, t) ∈ ℝ2, bjj ∈ ℝ, j = 1, 2, …, m, and bij, i ≠ j are positive coupling constants satisfying bij = bji. It will be shown that spatially synchronized solitary-wave solutions of the m-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system exist and are orbitally stable. Here, by synchronized solutions we mean solutions in which the components are proportional to one another. Our results completely settle the question on the existence and stability of synchronized solitary waves for the m-coupled system while only partial results were known in the literature for the cases of m ≥ 3 heretofore. Furthermore, the conditions imposed on the symmetric matrix B = (bij) satisfied here are both sufficient and necessary for the m-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system to admit synchronized ground-state solutions.

  13. An Investigation of the Effects of Wave State and Sea Spray on an Idealized Typhoon Using an Air-Sea Coupled Modeling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; GUAN Changlong; Li'an XIE; ZHAO Dongliang

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the impact of atmosphere-wave coupling on typhoon intensity was investigated using numerical simulations of an idealized typhoon in a coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean modeling system.The coupling between atmosphere and sea surface waves considered the effects of wave state and sea sprays on air-sea momentum flux,the atmospheric low-level dissipative heating,and the wave-state-affected seaspray heat flux. Several experiments were conducted to examine the impacts of wave state,sea sprays,and dissipative heating on an idealized typhoon system. Results show that considering the wave state and sea-spray-affected sea-surface roughness reduces typhoon intensity,while including dissipative heating intensifies the typhoon system.Taking into account sea spray heat flux also strengthens the typhoon system with increasing maximum wind speed and significant wave height.The overall impact of atmosphere- wave coupling makes a positive contribution to the intensification of the idealized typhoon system.The minimum central pressure simulated by the coupled atmosphere wave experiment was 16.4 hPa deeper than that of the control run,and the maximum wind speed and significant wave height increased by 31% and 4%,respectively.Meanwhile,within the area beneath the typhoon center,the average total upward air-sea heat flux increased by 22%,and the averaged latent heat flux increased more significantly by 31% compared to the uncoupled run.

  14. Conceptual study of an ICRH traveling-wave antenna system for low-coupling conditions as expected in DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragona, R.; Messiaen, A.

    2016-07-01

    For the central heating of a fusion reactor ion cyclotron radio frequency heating (ICRH) is the first choice method as it is able to couple RF power to the ions without density limit. The drawback of this heating method is the problem of excitation of the magneto-sonic wave through the plasma boundary layer from the antenna located along the wall, without exceeding its voltage standoff. The amount of coupling depends on the antenna excitation and the surface admittance at the antenna output due to the plasma profile. The paper deals with the optimization of the antenna excitation by the use of sections of traveling-wave antennas (TWAs) distributed all along the reactor wall between the blanket modules. They are mounted and fed in resonant ring system(s). First, the physics of the coupling of a strap array is studied by simple models and the coupling code ANTITER II. Then, after the study of the basic properties of a TWA section, its feeding problem is solved by hybrids driving them in resonant ring circuit(s). The complete modeling is obtained from the matrices of the TWA sections connected to one of the feeding hybrid(s). The solution is iterated with the coupling code to determine the loading for a reference low-coupling ITER plasma profile. The resulting wave pattern up to the plasma bulk is derived. The proposed system is totally load resilient and allows us to obtain a very selective exciting wave spectrum. A discussion of some practical implementation problems is added.

  15. Wave-vector-dependent electron-phonon coupling and the charge-density-wave transition in TbT e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschek, M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Heid, R.; Said, A. H.; Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Fisher, I. R.; Weber, F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a high-energy-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering investigation of the soft phonon mode in the charge-density-wave (CDW) system TbT e3 . We analyze our data based on lattice dynamical calculations using density-functional-perturbation theory and find clear evidence that strongly momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling defines the periodicity of the CDW superstructure: Our experiment reveals strong phonon softening and increased phonon linewidths over a large part in reciprocal space adjacent to the CDW ordering vector qCDW=(0 ,0 ,0.3 ) . Further, qCDW is clearly offset from the wave vector of (weak) Fermi surface nesting qFS=(0 ,0 ,0.25 ) , and our detailed analysis indicates that electron-phonon coupling is responsible for this shift. Hence, we can add TbT e3 , which was previously considered as a canonical CDW compound following the Peierls scenario, to the list of distinct charge-density-wave materials characterized by momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling.

  16. Weak stability for coupled wave and/or Petrovsky systems with complementary frictional damping and infinite memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, M. M.; Domingos Cavalcanti, V. N.; Guesmia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we consider coupled wave-wave, Petrovsky-Petrovsky and wave-Petrovsky systems in N-dimensional open bounded domain with complementary frictional damping and infinite memory acting on the first equation. We prove that these systems are well-posed in the sense of semigroups theory and provide a weak stability estimate of solutions, where the decay rate is given in terms of the general growth of the convolution kernel at infinity and the arbitrary regularity of the initial data. We finish our paper by considering the uncoupled wave and Petrovsky equations with complementary frictional damping and infinite memory, and showing a strong stability estimate depending only on the general growth of the convolution kernel at infinity.

  17. Generation of zonal flow and magnetic field by coupled internal-gravity and alfvén waves in the ionospheric E-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladze, Tamaz; Kahlon, Laila

    Nonlinear dynamics of coupled internal-gravity (IG) and alfven electromagnetic planetary waves in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer is investigated. Under such coupling new type of alfven waves is revealed. It is shown that such short wavelength turbulence of IG and alfvén waves is unstable with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbations of the zonal flow and magnetic field. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of coupled IG and alfven waves with zonal flows is derived. The nonlinear mechanism of the instability is driven by the advection of vorticity and is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite-amplitude coupled IG and alfven waves leading to the inverse energy cascade toward the longer wavelength. The growth rates of the corresponding instability and the conditions for driving them are determined. The possibility of generation of the intense mean magnetic field is shown.

  18. Mode stability analysis in the beam-wave interaction process for a three-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ji-Run; Cui Jian; Zhu Min; Guo Wei

    2013-01-01

    Based on space-charge wave theory,the formulae of the beam-wave coupling coefficient and the beam-loaded conductance are given for the beam-wave interaction in an N-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain.The ratio of the nonbeam-loaded quality factor of the coupled cavity chain to the beam quality factor is used to determine the stability of the beam-wave interaction.As an example,the stabilities of the beam-wave interaction in a three-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain are discussed with the formulae and the CST code for the operations of the 2π,π,and π/2 modes,respectively.The results show that stable operation of the 2π,π,and π/2 modes may all be realized in an extended-interaction klystron with the three-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain.

  19. Response of water temperature to surface wave effects in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The effects of wind waves on the Baltic Sea water temperature has been studied by coupling the hydrodynamical model NEMO with the wave model WAM. The wave forcing terms that have been taken into consideration are: Stokes-Coriolis force, seastate dependent energy flux and sea-state dependent momentum flux. The combined role of these processes as well as their individual contributions on simulated temperature is analysed. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwellinǵs. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data. The warming is primarily caused by sea-state dependent energy flux. Wave induced cooling is mostly observed in near coastal areas and is mainly due to Stokes-Coriolis forcing. The latter triggers effect of intensifying upwellings near the coasts, depending on the direction of the wind. The effect of sea-state dependent momentum flux is predominantly to warm the surface layer. During the summer the wave induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C.

  20. An Efficient Full-Wave Electromagnetic Analysis for Capacitive Body-Coupled Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Kazim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measured propagation loss for capacitive body-coupled communication (BCC channel (1 MHz to 60 MHz is limitedly available in the literature for distances longer than 50 cm. This is either because of experimental complexity to isolate the earth-ground or design complexity in realizing a reliable communication link to assess the performance limitations of capacitive BCC channel. Therefore, an alternate efficient full-wave electromagnetic (EM simulation approach is presented to realistically analyze capacitive BCC, that is, the interaction of capacitive coupler, the human body, and the environment all together. The presented simulation approach is first evaluated for numerical/human body variation uncertainties and then validated with measurement results from literature, followed by the analysis of capacitive BCC channel for twenty different scenarios. The simulation results show that the vertical coupler configuration is less susceptible to physiological variations of underlying tissues compared to the horizontal coupler configuration. The propagation loss is less for arm positions when they are not touching the torso region irrespective of the communication distance. The propagation loss has also been explained for complex scenarios formed by the ground-plane and the material structures (metals or dielectrics with the human body. The estimated propagation loss has been used to investigate the link-budget requirement for designing capacitive BCC system in CMOS sub-micron technologies.

  1. Magnon-phonon coupling and implications for charge-density wave states and superconductivity in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Chen, Xiao-Jia

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity of copper oxides (cuprates) remains unsolved puzzle in condensed matter physics. The cuprates represent extremely complicated system, showing fascinating variety of quantum phenomena and rich phase diagram as a function of doping. In the suggested "superconducting glue" mechanisms, phonon and spin excitations are invoked most frequently, and it appears that only spin excitations cover the energy scale required to justify very high transition temperature Tc ˜ 165 K (as in mercury-based triple layer cuprates compressed to 30 GPa). It appears that pressure is quite important variable helping to boost the Tc record by almost 30°. Pressure may be also considered as a clean tuning parameter, helping to understand the underlying balance of various energy scales and ordered states in cuprates. In this paper, a review of mostly our work on cuprates under pressure will be given, with the emphasis on the interactions between phonon and spin excitations. It appears that there is a strong coupling between superexchange interaction and stretching in-plane oxygen vibrations, which may give rise to a variety of complex phenomena, including the charge-density wave state intertwined with superconductivity and attracting a lot of interest recently.

  2. Magnetic field controlled charge density wave coupling in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.; Blackburn, E.; Ivashko, O.; Holmes, A. T.; Christensen, N. B.; Hücker, M.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Rütt, U.; Zimmermann, M. V.; Forgan, E. M.; Hayden, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    The application of magnetic fields to layered cuprates suppresses their high-temperature superconducting behaviour and reveals competing ground states. In widely studied underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO), the microscopic nature of field-induced electronic and structural changes at low temperatures remains unclear. Here we report an X-ray study of the high-field charge density wave (CDW) in YBCO. For hole dopings ~0.123, we find that a field (B~10 T) induces additional CDW correlations along the CuO chain (b-direction) only, leading to a three-dimensional (3D) ordered state along this direction at B~15 T. The CDW signal along the a-direction is also enhanced by field, but does not develop an additional pattern of correlations. Magnetic field modifies the coupling between the CuO2 bilayers in the YBCO structure, and causes the sudden appearance of the 3D CDW order. The mirror symmetry of individual bilayers is broken by the CDW at low and high fields, allowing Fermi surface reconstruction, as recently suggested.

  3. Operation and coupling of LH waves with the ITER-like wall at JET

    CERN Document Server

    Kirov, K K; Ekedahl, A; Petrzilka, V; Arnoux, G; Baranov, Yu; Brix, M; Goniche, M; Jachmich, S; Mayoral, M-L; Ongena, J; Rimini, F; Stamp, M; Contributors, JET EFDA

    2013-01-01

    In this paper important aspects of Lower Hybrid (LH) operation with the ITER Like Wall (ILW) [1] at JET are reported. Impurity release during LH operation was investigated and it was found that there is no significant Be increase with LH power. Concentration of W was analysed in more detail and it was concluded that LH contributes negligibly to its increase. No cases of W accumulation in LH-only heating experiments were observed so far. LH wave coupling was studied and optimised to achieve the level of system performance similar to before ILW installation. Measurements by Li-beam were used to study systematic dependencies of the SOL density on the gas injection rate from a dedicated gas introduction module and the LH power and launcher position. Experimental results are supported by SOL transport modelling. Observations of arcs in front of the LH launcher and hotspots on magnetically connected sections of the vessel are reported. Overall, a relatively troublefree operation of the LH system up to 2.5MW of coup...

  4. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashino, Katsuya; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Kanemura, Shinya; Ko, Pyungwon; Matsui, Toshinori

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  5. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Hashino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  6. On ultrasound waves guided by bones with coupled soft tissues: a mechanism study and in vitro calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangang; Su, Zhongqing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of soft tissues coupled with cortical bones on precision of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has been an issue in the clinical bone assessment in conjunction with the use of ultrasound. In this study, the effect arising from soft tissues on propagation characteristics of guided ultrasound waves in bones was investigated using tubular Sawbones phantoms covered with a layer of mimicked soft tissue of different thicknesses and elastic moduli, and an in vitro porcine femur in terms of the axial transmission measurement. Results revealed that presence of soft tissues can exert significant influence on the propagation of ultrasound waves in bones, leading to reduced propagation velocities and attenuated wave magnitudes compared with the counterparts in a free bone in the absence of soft tissues. However such an effect is not phenomenally dependent on the variations in thickness and elastic modulus of the coupled soft tissues, making it possible to compensate for the coupling effect regardless of the difference in properties of the soft tissues. Based on an in vitro calibration, this study proposed quantitative compensation for the effect of soft tissues on ultrasound waves in bones, facilitating development of high-precision QUS.

  7. Nonlinear random motion analysis of coupled heave-pitch motions of a spar platform considering 1st-order and 2nd-order wave loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuxiao; Tang, Yougang; Li, Wei

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we consider first- and second-order random wave loads and the effects of time-varying displacement volume and transient wave elevation to establish motion equations of the Spar platform's coupled heave-pitch. We generated random wave loads based on frequency-domain wave load transfer functions and the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) wave spectrum, designed program codes to solve the motion equations, and then simulated the coupled heave-pitch motion responses of the platform in the time domain. We then calculated and compared the motion responses in different sea conditions and separately investigated the effects of second-order random wave loads and transient wave elevation. The results show that the coupled heave-pitch motion responses of the platform are primarily dominated by wave height and the characteristic wave period, the latter of which has a greater impact. Second-order mean wave loads mainly affect the average heave value. The platform's pitch increases after the second-order low frequency wave loads are taken into account. The platform's heave is underestimated if the transient wave elevation term in the motion equations is neglected.

  8. A Linearized Model for Wave Propagation through Coupled Volcanic Conduit-crack Systems Filled with Multiphase Magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Dunham, E. M.; OReilly, O. J.; Karlstrom, L.

    2015-12-01

    Both the oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits and resonance of fluid-filled cracks (dikes and sills) are appealing explanations for very long period signals recorded at many active volcanoes. While these processes have been studied in isolation, real volcanic systems involve interconnected networks of conduits and cracks. The overall objective of our work is to develop a model of wave propagation and ultimately eruptive fluid dynamics through this coupled system. Here, we present a linearized model for wave propagation through a conduit with multiple cracks branching off of it. The fluid is compressible and viscous, and is comprised of a mixture of liquid melt and gas bubbles. Nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption (BGR) is quantified by introducing a time scale for mass exchange between phases, following the treatment in Karlstrom and Dunham (2015). We start by deriving the dispersion relation for crack waves travelling along the multiphase-magma-filled crack embedded in an elastic solid. Dissipation arises from magma viscosity, nonequilibrium BGR, and radiation of seismic waves into the solid. We next introduce coupling conditions between the conduit and crack, expressing conservation of mass and the balance of forces across the junction. Waves in the conduit, like those in the crack, are influenced by nonequilibrium BGR, but the deformability of the surrounding solid is far less important than for cracks. Solution of the coupled system of equations provides the evolution of pressure and fluid velocity within the conduit-crack system. The system has various resonant modes that are sensitive to fluid properties and to the geometry of the conduit and cracks. Numerical modeling of seismic waves in the solid allows us to generate synthetic seismograms.

  9. Electromagnetic backscattering from one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface I: Wave-current coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xie; Shang-Zhuo, Zhao; William, Perrie; He, Fang; Wen-Jin, Yu; Yi-Jun, He

    2016-06-01

    To study the electromagnetic backscattering from a one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface, a fractal sea surface wave-current model is derived, based on the mechanism of wave-current interactions. The numerical results show the effect of the ocean current on the wave. Wave amplitude decreases, wavelength and kurtosis of wave height increase, spectrum intensity decreases and shifts towards lower frequencies when the current occurs parallel to the direction of the ocean wave. By comparison, wave amplitude increases, wavelength and kurtosis of wave height decrease, spectrum intensity increases and shifts towards higher frequencies if the current is in the opposite direction to the direction of ocean wave. The wave-current interaction effect of the ocean current is much stronger than that of the nonlinear wave-wave interaction. The kurtosis of the nonlinear fractal ocean surface is larger than that of linear fractal ocean surface. The effect of the current on skewness of the probability distribution function is negligible. Therefore, the ocean wave spectrum is notably changed by the surface current and the change should be detectable in the electromagnetic backscattering signal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41276187), the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953901), the Priority Academic Development Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), Program for the Innovation Research and Entrepreneurship Team in Jiangsu Province, China, the Canadian Program on Energy Research and Development, and the Canadian World Class Tanker Safety Service.

  10. Asymmetric coupling and dispersion of surface-plasmon-polariton waves on a periodically patterned anisotropic metal film

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Jhuma; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-01-01

    The morphology of a columnar thin film (CTF) of silver renders it an effectively biaxially anisotropic continuum. CTFs of silver deposited on one-dimensional gratings of photoresist showed strong blazing action and asymmetrically coupled optical radiation to surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves propagating only along one direction supported by either the CTF/photoresist or the CTF/air interfaces. Homogenization of the CTFs using the Bruggeman formalism revealed them to display hyperbolic dispersion, and the dispersion of SPP waves was adequately described thereby.

  11. Nonlinear coupling of lower hybrid waves to the kinetic low-frequency plasma response in the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, K. Y.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.

    A hybrid kinetic-fluid model is developed which is relevant to lower hybrid spikelets observed in the topside auroral ionosphere [Vago et al., 1992; Eriksson et al., 1994]. In contrast to previous fluid models [Shapiro et al., 1995; Tam and Chang, 1995; Seyler, 1994; Shapiro et al., 1993] our linear low frequency plasma response is magnetized and kinetic. Fluid theory is used to incorporate the nonlinear wave coupling. Performing a linear stability analysis, we calculate the growth rate for the modulational instability, driven by a lower hybrid wave pump. We find that both the magnetic and kinetic effects inhibit the modulational instability.

  12. Asymmetric coupling and dispersion of surface-plasmon-polariton waves on a periodically patterned anisotropic metal film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Jhuma; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Lakhtakia, Akhlesh, E-mail: akhlesh@psu.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-01-07

    The morphology of a columnar thin film (CTF) of silver renders it an effectively biaxially anisotropic continuum. CTFs of silver deposited on one-dimensional gratings of photoresist showed strong blazing action and asymmetrically coupled optical radiation to surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves propagating only along one direction supported by either the CTF/photoresist or the CTF/air interfaces. Homogenization of the CTFs using the Bruggeman formalism revealed them to display hyperbolic dispersion, and the dispersion of SPP waves was adequately described thereby.

  13. Effect of phase coupling on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Nonlinear features of wind generated surface waves are considered here to be caused by nonrandomness (non-Uniform) in the phase spectrum. Nonrandomness in recorded waves, if present, would be generally obscured within the error level of observations...

  14. Stochastic process of pragmatic information for 2D spiral wave turbulence in globally and locally coupled Alief-Panfilov oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Jun; Miyata, Hajime; Konno, Hidetoshi

    2017-09-01

    Recently, complex dynamics of globally coupled oscillators have been attracting many researcher's attentions. In spite of their numerous studies, their features of nonlinear oscillator systems with global and local couplings in two-dimension (2D) are not understood fully. The paper focuses on 2D states of coherent, clustered and chaotic oscillation especially under the effect of negative global coupling (NGC) in 2D Alief-Panfilov model. It is found that the tuning NGC can cause various new coupling-parameter dependency on the features of oscillations. Then quantitative characterization of various states of oscillations (so called spiral wave turbulence) is examined by using the pragmatic information (PI) which have been utilized in analyzing multimode laser, solar activity and neuronal systems. It is demonstrated that the dynamics of the PI for various oscillations can be characterized successfully by the Hyper-Gamma stochastic process.

  15. A Coupled Mesoscale-Model Fourier Method for Mountain Waves Over Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    2008a; Eckermann et al, 2009). As Smith et al (2007) note 3 in their overview of mountain waves observed over the Pyrenees during the Mesoscale Alpine...smaller than the FT/WRF wave drag values. Given that the two wave-flux peaks above the downslope of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea were governed by

  16. Effect of quantum corrections on Rayleigh-Taylor instability and internal waves in strongly coupled magnetized viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Ramprasad

    2016-07-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability is recently investigated is strongly coupled plasma looking to its importance in dense stellar systems and Inertial Confinement Fusion [1-3]. In the present work, the effect of quantum corrections are studied on Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and internal wave propagation in a strongly coupled, magnetized, viscoelastic fluid. The modified generalized hydrodynamic model is used to derive the analytical dispersion relation. The internal wave mode and dispersion relation are modified due to the presence of quantum corrections and viscoelastic effects. We observe that strong coupling effects and quantum corrections significantly modifies the dispersion characteristics. The dispersion relation is also discussed in weakly coupled (hydrodynamic) and strongly coupled (kinetic) limits. The explicit expression of R-T instability criterion is derived which is influenced by shear velocity and quantum corrections. Numerical calculations are performed in astrophysical and experimental relevance and it is examined that both the shear and quantum effects suppresses the growth rate of R-T instability. The possible application of the work is discussed in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) to discuss the suppression of R-T instability under considered situation. References: [1] R. P. Prajapati, Phys. Plasmas 23, 022106 (2016). [2] K. Avinash and A. Sen, Phys. Plasmas 22, 083707 (2015). [3] A. Das and P. Kaw, Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 062102.

  17. 海浪和潮汐风暴潮耦合过程的数值研究%Numerical Study of Wave-Tide-Surge Coupling Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹宝树; 莎日娜; 杨德周; 程明华

    2006-01-01

    @@ Risk assessment of storm surge and wave hazards in the Huanghe Delta coastal area of the Bohai Sea requires accurate prediction of storm surge and wave hazards. So this study is aimed at establishing a coastal high-resolution (2' × 2') two-way coupled wave-tide-surge model, including three main physical mechanisms. The model was used for comparisons and analysis of simulated and measured wave heights and sea level in two moderate storm cases in the Huanghe Delta coastal area. We show that the effects of different physical mechanisms on wave heights are mainly determined by wave-current interaction by radiation stress in the wave energy equation. Wave-age dependent surface wind stress and radiation stress mechanisms in the coupling wave-tide-surge interaction have positive impact on sea level, and wave-current interaction bottom stress mechanism show negative impact on sea level. The comprehensive effects of three main physical mechanisms show positive net impact on seal level and increase it by as much as 25 cm. We show that the wave heights and sea levels simulated by the coupled wave-tide-surge model agree better with the measured values compared to uncoupled model results, particularly for peak storm conditions.

  18. Self-action of Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides and formation of light bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakin, A. A., E-mail: balakin.alexey@yandex.ru; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A., E-mail: sk.sa1981@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The self-action of two-dimensional and three-dimensional Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides is considered using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The features of the self-action of such wave fields are related to their initial strong spatial inhomogeneity. The numerical simulation shows that for the field amplitude exceeding a critical value, the development of an instability typical of a medium with the cubic nonlinearity is observed. Various regimes are studied: the self-channeling of a wave beam in one light guide at powers not strongly exceeding a critical value, the formation of the “kaleidoscopic” picture of a wave packet during the propagation of higher-power radiation along a stratified medium, the formation of light bullets during competition between self-focusing and modulation instabilities in the case of three-dimensional wave packets, etc. In the problem of laser pulse shortening, the situation is considered when the wave-field stratification in the transverse direction dominates. This process is accompanied by the self-compression of laser pulses in well enough separated light guides. The efficiency of conversion of the initial Bessel field distribution to two flying parallel light bullets is about 50%.

  19. Coupled solitons of intense high-frequency and low-frequency waves in Zakharov-type systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Evgeny; Malomed, Boris

    2016-12-01

    One-parameter families of exact two-component solitary-wave solutions for interacting high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) waves are found in the framework of Zakharov-type models, which couple the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for intense HF waves to the Boussinesq (Bq) or Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the LF component through quadratic terms. The systems apply, in particular, to the interaction of surface (HF) and internal (LF) waves in stratified fluids. These solutions are two-component generalizations of the single-component Bq and KdV solitons. Perturbed dynamics and stability of the solitary waves are studied in detail by means of analytical and numerical methods. Essentially, they are stable against separation of the HF and LF components if the latter one is shaped as a potential well acting on the HF field, and unstable, against splitting of the two components, with a barrier-shaped LF one. Collisions between the solitary waves are studied by means of direct simulations, demonstrating a trend to merger of in-phase solitons, and elastic interactions of out-of-phase ones.

  20. Optical bistability and four-wave mixing with a single nitrogen-vacancy center coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity in the weak-coupling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Ding, Chunling; Wu, Ying

    2014-06-16

    We explore optical bistability and degenerate four-wave mixing of a hybrid optical system composed of a photonic crystal nanocavity, a single nitrogen-vacancy center embedded in the cavity, and a nearby photonic waveguide serving for in- and outcoupling of light into the cavity in the weak-coupling regime. Here the hybrid system is coherently driven by a continuous-wave bichromatic laser field consisting of a strong control field and a weak probe field. We take account of the nonlinear nature of the nitrogen-vacancy center in the Heisenberg-Langevin equations and give an effective perturbation method to deal with such problems in the continuous-wave-operation regime. The results clearly show that the bistability region of the population inversion and the intensity of the generated four-wave mixing field can be well controlled by properly adjusting the system practical parameters. The nanophotonic platform can be used to implement our proposal. This investigation may be useful for gaining further insight into the properties of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics system and find applications in all-optical wavelength converter and switch in a photonic crystal platform.

  1. A hybrid surface layer parameterization scheme for the two-way fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave system WEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsafados, Petros; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Varlas, George; Korres, Gerasimos

    2015-04-01

    The two-way fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave system WEW has been recently developed in order to study the factors that contribute to the air-sea interaction processes and feedbacks. The coupled system consists of two components: the atmospheric component which is based on the Workstation Eta non-hydrostatic limited area model and the ocean-wave component which is based on the fourth generation OpenMP (OMP) version of the WAM model. The WEW has been already evaluated in a number of high-impact weather and sea state events where generally a more realistic representation of the momentum exchanges in the ocean wind-wave system has been shown However, the new developed wind-wave parameterization scheme reduces both the near surface wind speed and the significant wave height as a response to the increased aerodynamic drag considered by the atmospheric model over rough sea surfaces. Such behavior is mainly attributed to the surface layer parameterization scheme of the atmospheric component which is based on the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) scheme. It is noted that this scheme has been adjusted to support independent atmospheric simulations. Therefore, we proceed to develop a new hybrid surface layer parameterization based on the MYJ and the Janssen schemes that operate in the atmospheric and ocean wave components of the WEW, respectively. In this case the roughness length depends on the wave age instead of the Charnock parameter following the formulation proposed by Vickers and Mahrt. The spatial variability of the wave age is estimated at each ocean wave component time step and it is directly provided to the MYJ scheme. The parameterization of the viscous sublayer and the universal functions for the estimation of the near surface wind speed have been also revised accordingly. In this study, a test version of the new hybrid scheme of WEW has been statistically evaluated against a number of buoys and satellite retrievals over the Mediterranean Sea in a case study of high

  2. An emerging reactor technology for chemical synthesis: surface acoustic wave-assisted closed-vessel Suzuki coupling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ketav; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie; Perlmutter, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of an energy-efficient surface acoustic wave (SAW) device for driving closed-vessel SAW-assisted (CVSAW), ligand-free Suzuki couplings in aqueous media. The reactions were carried out on a mmolar scale with low to ultra-low catalyst loadings. The reactions were driven by heating resulting from the penetration of acoustic energy derived from RF Raleigh waves generated by a piezoelectric chip via a renewable fluid coupling layer. The yields were uniformly high and the reactions could be executed without added ligand and in water. In terms of energy density this new technology was determined to be roughly as efficient as microwaves and superior to ultrasound.

  3. Coupling of symmetric and asymmetric modes in a high-power, high-efficiency traveling-wave amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banna, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, (Israel); Schaechter, L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, (Israel); Nation, J. A. [School of Electrical Engineering and Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Wang, P. [School of Electrical Engineering and Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2000-04-01

    A three-dimensional model has been developed for the investigation of the coupling of symmetric (TM{sub 01}) and asymmetric (HEM{sub 11}) modes in a high-power, high-efficiency traveling-wave amplifier. In the framework of a simplified model it is shown that the coupling between these two modes is determined by a single parameter that depends on the beam characteristics. For a specific set of parameters corresponding to operation at 35 GHz, simulations indicate that an initial HEM{sub 11} power of 0.5 MW at the input end is sufficient to deflect electrons to the wall. The build-up of this parasitic mode is investigated over many round trips of the wave in the structure and a threshold criterion for self-sustain oscillation is established. Finally a way for suppressing the HEM{sub 11} mode is analyzed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  4. Influence of coupling with shear horizontal surface acoustic wave on lateral propagation of Rayleigh surface acoustic wave on 128°YX-LiNbO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Benfeng; Han, Tao; Tang, Gongbin; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of the coupling with shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic wave (SAW) on the propagation of Rayleigh SAW in periodic grating structures on 128°YX-LiNbO3. First, the frequency dispersion behavior with longitudinal and lateral wavenumbers of Rayleigh SAW is calculated using the finite element method (FEM) software COMSOL. It is shown that the coupling causes (1) the satellite stopband and (2) variation of the anisotropy factor. It is also shown these phenomena remain even when the electromechanical coupling factor of SH SAW is zero. Then, the extended thin plate model which can take coupling between two SAWs into account, is applied to simulate the result of FEM. Good agreement between these results indicated that the mechanical coupling is responsible for these two phenomena. Finally, including electrical excitation and detection, the model is applied to the infinitely long interdigital transducer (IDT) structure and the calculated result is compared with that obtained by the three-dimensional FEM. The excellent agreement of both results confirms the effectiveness of the extended thin plate model.

  5. Abundant families of new traveling wave solutions for the coupled Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Yuqin [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Taiwan 271019 (China)]. E-mail: yyqin_78@163.com

    2005-04-01

    The generalized Jacobi elliptic function method is further improved by introducing an elliptic function {phi}({xi}) as a new independent variable and it is easy to calculate the over-determined equations. Abundant new traveling wave solutions of the coupled Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation are obtained. The solutions obtained include the kink-shaped solutions, bell-shaped solutions, singular solutions and periodic solutions.

  6. Discrete doubly periodic and solitary wave solutions for the semi-discrete coupled mKdV equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiao-Fei; Zhu Jia-Min; Ma Zheng-Yi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the improved Jacobian elliptic function expansion approach is extended and applied to constructing discrete solutions of the semi-discrete coupled modified Korteweg de Vries (mKdV) equations with the aid of the symbolic computation system Maple. Some new discrete Jacobian doubly periodic solutions are obtained. When the modulus M → 1, these doubly periodic solutions degenerate into the corresponding solitary wave solutions, including kink-type, bell-type and other types of excitations.

  7. Bond order wave (BOW) phase of the extended Hubbard model: Electronic solitons, paramagnetism, coupling to Peierls and Holstein phonons

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Manoranjan; Soos, Zolt'an G.

    2011-01-01

    The bond order wave (BOW) phase of the extended Hubbard model (EHM) in one dimension (1D) is characterized at intermediate correlation $U = 4t$ by exact treatment of $N$-site systems. Linear coupling to lattice (Peierls) phonons and molecular (Holstein) vibrations are treated in the adiabatic approximation. The molar magnetic susceptibility $\\chi_M(T)$ is obtained directly up to $N = 10$. The goal is to find the consequences of a doubly degenerate ground state (gs) and finite magnetic gap $E_...

  8. Asymmetric coupling and dispersion of surface-plasmon-polariton waves on a periodically patterned anisotropic metal film

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Jhuma; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-01-01

    The morphology of a columnar thin film (CTF) of silver renders it an effectively biaxially anisotropic continuum. CTFs of silver deposited on one-dimensional gratings of photoresist showed strong blazing action and asymmetrically coupled optical radiation to surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves propagating only along one direction supported by either the CTF/photoresist or the CTF/air interfaces. Homogenization of the CTFs using the Bruggeman formalism revealed them to display hyperbolic dis...

  9. Variable separation solutions and interacting waves of a coupled system of the modified KdV and potential BLMP equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiao-yan, E-mail: xytang@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of System Science, School of Information Science Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Li, Jing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liang, Zu-feng [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Wang, Jian-yong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-04-01

    The multilinear variable separation approach (MLVSA) is applied to a coupled modified Korteweg–de Vries and potential Boiti–Leon–Manna–Pempinelli equations, as a result, the potential fields u{sub y} and v{sub y} are exactly the universal quantity applicable to all multilinear variable separable systems. The generalized MLVSA is also applied, and it is found that u{sub y} (v{sub y}) is rightly the subtraction (addition) of two universal quantities with different parameters. Then interactions between periodic waves are discussed, for instance, the elastic interaction between two semi-periodic waves and non-elastic interaction between two periodic instantons. An attractive phenomenon is observed that a dromion moves along a semi-periodic wave.

  10. General transformation of α cluster model wave function to jj-coupling shell model in various 4N nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, N.; Matsuno, H.; Suhara, T.

    2016-09-01

    The antisymmetrized quasi-cluster model (AQCM) is a method to describe transitions from the α cluster wave functions to jj-coupling shell model wave functions. In this model, the cluster-shell transition is characterized by only two parameters: R representing the distance between α clusters and Λ describing the breaking of α clusters. The contribution of the spin-orbit interaction, very important in the jj-coupling shell model, can be taken into account starting with the α cluster model wave function. In this article we show the generality of AQCM by extending the application to heavier regions: various 4N nuclei from 4He to 100Sn. The characteristic magic numbers of the jj-coupling shell model, 28 and 50, are described starting with the α cluster model. The competition of two different configurations is discussed in 20Ne (16O + one quasi-cluster and 12C + two quasi-clusters) and 28Si (pentagon shape of five quasi-clusters and 12C + 16O). Also, we compare the energy curves for the α + 40Ca cluster configuration calculated with and without the α breaking effect in 44Ti.

  11. Analysis and experimental verification of electroacoustic wave energy harvesting in a coupled piezoelectric plate-harvester system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Amir; Leamy, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces an analytical framework for predicting wave energy harvested by a circular piezoelectric disk attached to a thin plate. An harmonic point source excitation generates waves that are then incident on a piezoelectric disk—summing responses due to all such excitation enables general forcing profiles to be considered. The analysis approach decomposes the coupled system into two subdomains, one being the piezoelectric disk, and the other an infinite plate for which a Green's function is readily available. Interaction forces between the two subdomains couple the problems and lead to a closed-form solution for the propagation, transmission, and reflection of waves over the entire domain. In addition, the voltage generated by the harvester is calculated using coupled electromechanical equations. The analysis approach is first validated by comparing predicted response quantities to those computed using numerical simulations, documenting good agreement. The system is then studied in the frequency domain and the optimum harvester resistance is found for generating the most electrical power. Representative experiments are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the analytical approach and verify the harvested power versus resistance trend.

  12. Measurement and simulation of ground-coupled air waves and diffracted infrasound from the Kokoxili Earthquake, 14th Nov. 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, J.; Le Pichon, A.; Vallee, M.; Alcoverro, B.; Ulziibat, M.

    2002-12-01

    On November 14, 2001, a strong earthquake measuring Mm 7.8 occurred in the Qinghai Province (China). Coherent infrasonic waves were detected during more than one hour by the IS34 infrasound station in Mongolia (~1500 km from the epicenter). Using an appropriate acoustic propagation model, the inversion of the infrasonic measurements allows a precise localization of the secondary sources distribution along the Qinghai mountains. The predominant source of infrasound is likely ground-coupled air waves generated by the strong variations of topography due to energy carried out by surface seismic waves that travel from the epicenter region through the Qinghai mountains. To confirm the locations of these distant source regions, the pressure field has been reconstructed at IS34. For each element of the topography, a synthetic seismogram used as an input of the integral relation of Huygens-Rayleigh permits to estimate the pressure variation. The synthetic pressure field fit the recorded data in azimuth and in relative amplitude. These results confirm the hypothesis of a strong coupling between the Rayleigh waves and the atmosphere, as it has already been observed during the Arequipa earthquake of June 23rd 2001. The simulations also permit to validate the infrasonic propagation model. This favorable setting within a region of high mountains makes easier the evaluation of the relative contribution of the different source mechanisms involved in large earthquake.

  13. The coupling instability of Rossby and topographic Rossby waves in the equatorial area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO Jiping; LIU Lin; YU Weidong

    2005-01-01

    In case of considering the fact that the tropical ocean thermocline or the lower atmosphere height field has the meridional variation, the topographic Rossby wave will be excited. Also the background geostrophic current emerges. Under such conditions, the topographic Rossby wave can interact with the classical Rossby wave at some parameter band and thus brings a new kind of instability, which may be of potential application in understanding some phenomena of the ENSO cycle.

  14. Coupled Wave Energy and Erosion Dynamics along a Salt Marsh Boundary, Hog Island Bay, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Priestas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lateral erosion of salt marshes and wind waves is studied in Hog Island Bay, Virginia USA, with high-resolution field measurements and aerial photographs. Marsh retreat is compared to wave climate calculated in the bay using the spectral wave-model Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN. We confirm the existence of a linear relationship between long-term salt marsh erosion and wave energy, and show that wave power can serve as a good proxy for average salt-marsh erosion rates. At each site, erosion rates are consistent across several temporal scales, ranging from months to decades, and are strongly related to wave power. On the contrary, erosion rates vary in space and weakly depend on the spatial distribution of wave energy. We ascribe this variability to spatial variations in geotechnical, biological, and morphological marsh attributes. Our detailed field measurements indicate that at a small spatial scale (tens of meters, a positive feedback between salt marsh geometry and wave action causes erosion rates to increase with boundary sinuosity. However, at the scale of the entire marsh boundary (hundreds of meters, this relationship is reversed: those sites that are more rapidly eroding have a marsh boundary which is significantly smoother than the marsh boundary of sheltered and slowly eroding marshes.

  15. Tunable coupled-mode dispersion compensation and its application to on-chip resonant four-wave mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Gentry, Cale M; Popovic, Milos A

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate localized mode coupling as a viable dispersion engineering technique for phase-matched resonant four-wave mixing (FWM). We demonstrate a dual-cavity resonant structure that employs coupling-induced frequency splitting at one of three resonances to compensate for cavity dispersion, enabling phase-matching. Coupling strength is controlled by thermal tuning of one cavity enabling active control of the resonant frequency-matching. In a fabricated silicon microresonator, we show an 8 dB enhancement of seeded FWM efficiency over the non-compensated state. The measured four-wave mixing has a peak wavelength conversion efficiency of -37.9 dB across a free spectral range (FSR) of 3.334 THz ($\\sim$27 nm). Enabled by strong counteraction of dispersion, this FSR is, to our knowledge, the largest in silicon to demonstrate FWM to date. This form of mode-coupling-based, active dispersion compensation can be beneficial for many FWM-based devices including wavelength converters, parametric amplifier...

  16. Strong-Coupling Properties of a p-Wave Interacting Fermi Gas on the Viewpoint of Specific Heat at Constant Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotani, Daisuke; van Wyk, Pieter; Ohashi, Yoji

    2017-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the specific heat CV at constant volume in the normal state of a p-wave interacting Fermi gas. Including fluctuations in the p-wave Cooper channel within the framework of the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we clarify how CV as a function of temperature varies, as one moves from the weak-coupling regime to the strong-coupling limit. In the weak-coupling regime, CV is shown to be enhanced by p-wave pairing fluctuations, near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc. Similar enhancement of CV(T ≃ Tc) is also obtained in the strong-coupling regime, which, however, reflects that system is close an ideal Bose gas of p-wave two-body bound molecules. Using these results, we classify the normal state into (1) the normal Fermi gas regime, (2) the p-wave molecular Bose gas regime, and (3) the region between the two, where p-wave pairing fluctuations are dominant. Since the current experiments can only access the normal phase of a p-wave interacting Fermi gas, our results would be useful for experiments to understand strong-coupling properties of this Fermi system above Tc.

  17. Homogenization of heterogeneously coupled bistable ODE's - applied to excitation waves in pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2004-01-01

    We consider a lattice of coupled identical differential equations. The coupling is between nearest neighbors and of resistance type, but the strength of coupling varies from site to site. Such a lattice can, for example, model an islet of Langerhans, where the sites in the lattice model individua...

  18. Homogenization of heterogeneously coupled bistable ODE's - applied to excitation waves in pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2004-01-01

    We consider a lattice of coupled identical differential equations. The coupling is between nearest neighbors and of resistance type, but the strength of coupling varies from site to site. Such a lattice can, for example, model an islet of Langerhans, where the sites in the lattice model individua...

  19. Fano-Agarwal couplings and non-rotating wave approximation in single-photon timed Dicke subradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; Begzjav, Tuguldur

    2016-04-01

    Recently a new class of single-photon timed Dicke (TD) subradiant states has been introduced with possible applications in single-photon-based quantum information storage and on demand ultrafast retrieval (Scully M. O., Phys. Rev. Lett., 115 (2015) 243602). However, the influence of any kind of virtual processes on the decay of these new kind of subradiant states has been left as an open question. In the present paper, we focus on this problem in detail. In particular, we investigate how pure Fano-Agarwal couplings and other virtual processes arising from non-rotating wave approximation impact the decay of otherwise sub- and superradiant states. In addition to the overall virtual couplings among all TD states, we also focus on the dominant role played by the couplings between specific TD states.

  20. Validation of a coupled wave-flow model in a high-energy setting: the mouth of the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Edwin P.L.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; van der Westhuysen, André J.

    2012-01-01

     A monthlong time series of wave, current, salinity, and suspended-sediment measurements was made at five sites on a transect across the Mouth of Columbia River (MCR). These data were used to calibrate and evaluate the performance of a coupled hydrodynamic and wave model for the MCR based on the Delft3D modeling system. The MCR is a dynamic estuary inlet in which tidal currents, river discharge, and wave-driven currents are all important. Model tuning consisted primarily of spatial adjustments to bottom drag coefficients. In combination with (near-) default parameter settings, the MCR model application is able to simulate the dominant features in the tidal flow, salinity and wavefields observed in field measurements. The wave-orbital averaged method for representing the current velocity profile in the wave model is considered the most realistic for the MCR. The hydrodynamic model is particularly effective in reproducing the observed vertical residual and temporal variations in current structure. Density gradients introduce the observed and modeled reversal of the mean flow at the bed and augment mean and peak flow in the upper half of the water column. This implies that sediment transport during calmer summer conditions is controlled by density stratification and is likely net landward due to the reversal of flow near the bed. The correspondence between observed and modeled hydrodynamics makes this application a tool to investigate hydrodynamics and associated sediment transport.

  1. Kinetic Temperature and Electron Density Measurement in an Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch using Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Julia; Lyons, Wendy; Tong, WIlliam G.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Laser wave mixing is presented as an effective technique for spatially resolved kinetic temperature measurements in an atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma. Measurements are performed in a 1 kW, 27 MHz RF plasma using a continuous-wave, tunable 811.5-nm diode laser to excite the 4s(sup 3)P2 approaches 4p(sup 3)D3 argon transition. Kinetic temperature measurements are made at five radial steps from the center of the torch and at four different torch heights. The kinetic temperature is determined by measuring simultaneously the line shape of the sub-Doppler backward phase-conjugate degenerate four-wave mixing and the Doppler-broadened forward-scattering degenerate four-wave mixing. The temperature measurements result in a range of 3,500 to 14,000 K+/-150 K. Electron densities measured range from 6.1 (+/-0.3) x 10(exp 15)/cu cm to 10.1 (+/-0.3) x 10(exp 15)/cu cm. The experimental spectra are analyzed using a perturbative treatment of the backward phase-conjugate and forward-geometry wave-mixing theory. Stark width is determined from the collisional broadening measured in the phase-conjugate geometry. Electron density measurements are made based on the Stark width. The kinetic temperature of the plasma was found to be more than halved by adding deionized water through the nebulizer.

  2. Adhesive F-actin waves: a novel integrin-mediated adhesion complex coupled to ventral actin polymerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B Case

    Full Text Available At the leading lamellipodium of migrating cells, protrusion of an Arp2/3-nucleated actin network is coupled to formation of integrin-based adhesions, suggesting that Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and integrin-dependent adhesion may be mechanistically linked. Arp2/3 also mediates actin polymerization in structures distinct from the lamellipodium, in "ventral F-actin waves" that propagate as spots and wavefronts along the ventral plasma membrane. Here we show that integrins engage the extracellular matrix downstream of ventral F-actin waves in several mammalian cell lines as well as in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These "adhesive F-actin waves" require a cycle of integrin engagement and disengagement to the extracellular matrix for their formation and propagation, and exhibit morphometry and a hierarchical assembly and disassembly mechanism distinct from other integrin-containing structures. After Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization, zyxin and VASP are co-recruited to adhesive F-actin waves, followed by paxillin and vinculin, and finally talin and integrin. Adhesive F-actin waves thus represent a previously uncharacterized integrin-based adhesion complex associated with Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization.

  3. Wave-Ice interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone: Toward a Wave-Ocean-Ice Coupled Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    concentration and thickness were taken from the Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS), based on the Los Alamos Community Ice Code (CICE) with blending of... Special grids for WW3 were created which can run on a laptop and were tested during the mock “Plan of the Day” exercises prior to the cruise. An automated...measurements and analysis of ocean waves in the Antarctic marginal ice zone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 5046–5051, doi:10.1002/2014GL060809. Mosig, J. E

  4. Modelling coupled turbulence - dissolved oxygen dynamics near the sediment-water interface under wind waves and sea swell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Mathieu; Guizien, Katell

    2010-03-01

    A one-dimensional vertical unsteady numerical model for diffusion-consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) above and below the sediment-water interface was developed to investigate DO profile dynamics under wind waves and sea swell (high-frequency oscillatory flows with periods ranging from 2 to 30s). We tested a new approach to modelling DO profiles that coupled an oscillatory turbulent bottom boundary layer model with a Michaelis-Menten based consumption model. The flow regime controls both the mean value and the fluctuations of the oxygen mass transfer efficiency during a wave cycle, as expressed by the non-dimensional Sherwood number defined with the maximum shear velocity (Sh). The Sherwood number was found to be non-dependent on the sediment biogeochemical activity (mu). In the laminar regime, both cycle-averaged and variance of the Sherwood number are very low (Sh wave cycle fluctuations that increase with the wave Reynolds number (VAR(Sh) up to 30%). Our computations show that DO mass transfer efficiency under high-frequency oscillatory flows in the turbulent regime are water-side controlled by: (a) the diffusion time across the diffusive boundary layer and (b) diffusive boundary layer dynamics during a wave cycle. As a result of these two processes, when the wave period decreases, the Sh minimum increases and the Sh maximum decreases. Sh values vary little, ranging from 0.17 to 0.23. For periods up to 30s, oxygen penetration depth into the sediment did not show any intra-wave fluctuations. Values for the laminar regime are small (

  5. The pump-probe coupling of matter wave packets to remote lattice states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherson, Jacob F; Park, Sung Jong; Pedersen, Poul Lindholm;

    2012-01-01

    containing a Bose–Einstein condensate. The evolution of these wave packets is monitored in situ and their six-photon reflection at a band gap is observed. In direct analogy with pump–probe spectroscopy, a probe pulse allows for the resonant de-excitation of the wave packet into states localized around...

  6. Coupling of Waves, Turbulence and Thermodynamics Across the Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    addition wave induced deformation and fracturing that results from the presence of surface wave orbital motions and non- linear sub-harmonics resulting...IOBL structure in later summer of 2014 using data primarily from C2 and C3 has been submitted for publication (Gallaher et al 2015). A second paper

  7. A Coupled VOF-Eulerian Multiphase CFD Model to Simulate Breaking Wave Impacts on Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaselli, Pietro; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    Breaking wave-induced loads on offshore structures can be extremely severe. The air entrainment mechanism during the breaking process plays a not well-known role in the exerted forces. This paper present a CFD solver, developed in the Open-FOAM environment, capable of simulating the wave breaking...

  8. A Coupled Mesoscale-Model Fourier-Method for Idealized Mountain-Wave Simulations Over Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    overview of mountain waves observed over the Pyrenees during the Mesoscale Alpine Project, “...any quantitative prediction of mountain wave...above the downslope of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea were governed by nonlinear responses not captured by hds, and that two additional and larger flux peaks

  9. A Coupled Finite Difference and Moving Least Squares Simulation of Violent Breaking Wave Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    Two model for simulation of free surface flow is presented. The first model is a finite difference based potential flow model with non-linear kinematic and dynamic free surface boundary conditions. The second model is a weighted least squares based incompressible and inviscid flow model. A special...... feature of this model is a generalized finite point set method which is applied to the solution of the Poisson equation on an unstructured point distribution. The presented finite point set method is generalized to arbitrary order of approximation. The two models are applied to simulation of steep...... and overturning wave impacts on a vertical breakwater. Wave groups with five different wave heights are propagated from offshore to the vicinity of the breakwater, where the waves are steep, but still smooth and non-overturning. These waves are used as initial condition for the weighted least squares based...

  10. Heave-roll-pitch coupled nonlinear internal resonance response of a spar platform considering wave and vortex exciting loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Tang, Yougang; Liu, Liqin; Liu, Shuxiao; Cai, Runbo

    2017-04-01

    Many studies have been done on the heave-pitch unstable coupling response for a spar platform by a 2-DOF model. In fact, in addition to the heave and pitch which are in one plane, the nonlinear unstable motion will also occur in roll. From the results of the experiments, the unstable roll motion plays a dominant role in the motion of a spar platform which is much stronger than that of pitch. The objective of this paper is to study 3-DOF coupling response performance of spar platform under wave and vortex-induced force. The nonlinear coupled equations in heave, roll and pitch are established by considering time-varying wet surface and coupling. The first order steady-state response is solved by multi-scales method when the incident wave frequency approaches the heave natural frequency. Numerical integration of the motion equations has been performed to verify the first-order perturbation solution. The results are confirmed by model test. There is a saturation phenomenon associated with heave mode in 3-DOF systems and all extra energy is transferred to roll and pitch. It is observed that sub-harmonic response occurs in roll and pitch when the wave force exceeds a certain value. The energy distribution in roll and pitch is determined by the initial value and damping characteristics of roll and pitch. The energy transfers from heave to pitch and then transfers from pitch to roll. Due to the influence of the low-frequency vortex-excited force, the response of roll is more complicated than that of pitch.

  11. Use of rigorous vector coupled-wave theory for designing and tolerancing surface-relief diffractive components for magneto-optical heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggans, Charles W.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    1991-01-01

    A rigorous coupled wave model is presented, experimentally validated, and used for tolerancing surface relief diffractive elements. Applications of the model in the design and tolerancing of components for magneto optical (M-O) data storage heads are investigated.

  12. Development of a numerical modelling tool for combined near field and far field wave transformations using a coupling of potential flow solvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbrugghe, Tim; Troch, Peter; Kortenhaus, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy converters (WECs) need to be deployed in large numbers in an array layout in order to have a significant power production. Each WEC has an impact on the incoming wave field, diffracting, reflecting and radiating waves. Simulating the wave transformations within and around a WEC farm...... is complex; it is difficult to simulate both near field and far field effects with a single numerical model, with relatively fast computing times. Within this research a numerical tool is developed to model near-field and far-field wave transformations caused by WECs. The tool is based on the coupling...... that the coupling of the two solvers is an efficient and promising numerical tool to perform simulations on near – and far field wave elevations and kinematics nearby WEC farms....

  13. "J waves" induced after short coupling intervals: a manifestations of latent depolarization abnormality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Nakayama, Masafumi; Sato, Masahito; Okabe, Masaaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Takatsuki, Seiji; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2017-04-24

    To confirm the presence of tachycardia-induced slur or notch in the terminal portion of the QRS complexes in a general patient population. A tachycardia-induced J wave was defined as a slur or notch in the terminal portion of the QRS complexes newly induced at short RR intervals during atrial premature contractions (APCs) or atrial electrical stimulation in the electrophysiological study (EPS). Twenty-three out of 2000 patients with general diseases were involved. All patients with aborted sudden cardiac death, ventricular fibrillation or a family history of sudden cardiac death were excluded. The mean age was 72 ± 9 years, and 11 patients were male (47.8%). When the RR interval was shortened from 821 ± 142 ms to 464 ± 52 ms in the conducted APCs (P waves became diagnostic (0.02 ± 0.03 mV to 0.20 ± 0.07 mV, P waves were confined to the inferior leads in 22 (95.7%) patients and were notched in 11 (47.8%) and slurred in 12 (52.2%) patients. The induction of J waves was accompanied by visible changes of the QRS morphology. When the post-APC RR interval was prolonged to 992 ± 305 ms (P = 0.0154 vs. baseline), the J waves were similar to baseline levels. During the EPS, J wave induction was confirmed during atrial stimulation. There were no characteristic clinical or ECG features in the patients with tachycardia-induced J waves. J waves can be newly induced by short RR intervals in a general patient population, and a conduction delay is the likely mechanism causing such J waves.

  14. Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs. PMID:28056020

  15. Fast Inversion of Air-Coupled Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW Using in situ Particle Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Lu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW is widely used in nondestructive subsurface profiling for geological sites. The air-coupled SASW is an extension from conventional SASW methods by replacing ground-mounted accelerometers with non-contact microphones, which acquire a leaky surface wave instead of ground vibration. The air-coupled SASW is a good candidate for fast inspection in shallow geological studies. Especially for pavement maintenance, minimum traffic interference might be induced. One issue that restrains SASW from fast inspection is the traditional slow inversion which relies on guess-and-check iteration techniques including a forward analysis. In this article, a fast inversion analysis algorithm is proposed to estimate the shear velocity profile without performing conventional forward simulation. By investigating the attenuation of particle displacement along penetrating depths, a weighted combination relationship is derived to connect the dispersion curve with the shear velocity profile directly. Using this relationship, the shear velocity profile could be estimated from a given/measured dispersion curve. The proposed procedure allows the surface wave-based method to be fully automatic and even operated in real-time for geological site and pavement assessment. The method is verified by the forward analysis with stiffness matrix method. It is also proved by comparing with other published results using various inversion methods.

  16. Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Zeyad Ghaleb; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs.

  17. Investigation of emergence of target wave and spiral wave in neuronal network induced by gradient coupling%梯度耦合下神经元网络中靶波和螺旋波的诱发研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莹; 王春妮; 靳伍银; 马军

    2015-01-01

    Distinct rhythm and self-organization in collective electric activities of neurons could be observed in a neuronal system composed of a large number of neurons. It is found that target wave can be induced in the network by imposing continuous local periodical force or introducing local heterogeneity in the network;and these target waves can regulate the wave propagation and development as‘pacemaker’ in the network or media. A regular neuronal network is constructed in two-dimensional space, in which the local kinetics can be described by Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model, the emergence and development of ordered waves are investigated by introducing gradient coupling between neurons. For simplicity, the center area is selected by the largest coupling intensity, which is gradually decreased at certain step with increasing distance from the center area. It is found that the spiral wave and/or the target wave can be induced by appropriate selection of gradient coupling, and both waves can occupy the network, and then the collective behaviors of the network can be regulated to show ordered states. Particularly, the ordered wave can be effective to dominate the collective behavior of neuronal networks, even as the stochastic values are used for initial states. These results associated with the gradient coupling on the regulating collective behaviors could be useful to understand the self-organization behaviors in neuronal networks.

  18. A coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave modeling approach for a Tropical Like Cyclone in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchi, Antonio; Miglietta, M. Marcello; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco; Russo, Aniello; Sclavo, Mauro; Carniel, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    In November 6-8, 2011, in the Balearic islands an extra-tropical depression developed into a Tropical-Like Cyclone (TLC) characterized by a deep-warm core, leading to a mean sea level pressure minimum of about 991 hPa, 10 m wind speeds higher than 28 m/s around the eye, and very intense rainfall, especially in the Gulf of Lion. To explore in detail the effect of the sea surface temperature on the Medicane evolution, we employed the coupled modeling system COAWST, which consists of the ROMS model for the hydrodynamic part, the WRF model for the meteorological part, and the SWAN for the surface wave modeling. All model run over 5 km domain (same domain for ROMS and SWAN). COAWST was used with different configurations: in Stand Alone (SA) mode (that is, with only the atmospheric part), in atmosphere-ocean coupled mode (AO), and in a fully coupled version including also surface waves (AOW). Several sensitivity simulations performed with the SA approach were undertaken to simulate the TLC evolution. Especially in the later stage of the lifetime, when the cyclone was weaker, the predictability appears limited. Sensitivity simulations have considered the effect of the cumulus scheme (using an explicit scheme the Medicane does not develop and remains an extra-tropical depression) and the PBL scheme (using MYJ or MYNN resulting "Medicane" are extremely similar, although the roughness appears rather different among the two experiments). Comparing the three runs, the effects of different simulations on the Medicane tracks are significant only in the later stage of the cyclone lifetime. In the overall modeled basin, wind intensity is higher in the SA case w.r.t. both coupled runs. When compared to case AO, winds are about 1 m/s larger, even though the spatial distribution is very similar (possibly because of the lower SST produced by case AO). Case AOW produces less intense winds then SA and AO case in the areas where the wave is most developed (differences are about 2-4 m

  19. A qubit strongly coupled to a resonant cavity: asymmetry of the spontaneous emission spectrum beyond the rotating wave approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, X [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); You, J Q; Nori, F [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan); Zheng, H, E-mail: xfcao@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-07-15

    We investigate the spontaneous emission (SE) spectrum of a qubit in a lossy resonant cavity. We use neither the rotating-wave approximation nor the Markov approximation. For the weak-coupling case, the SE spectrum of the qubit is a single peak, with its location depending on the spectral density of the qubit environment. Then, the asymmetry (of the location and heights of the two peaks) of the two SE peaks (which are related to the vacuum Rabi splitting) changes as the qubit-cavity coupling increases. Explicitly, for a qubit in a low-frequency intrinsic bath, the height asymmetry of the splitting peaks is enhanced as the qubit-cavity coupling strength increases. However, for a qubit in an Ohmic bath, the height asymmetry of the spectral peaks is inverted compared to the low-frequency bath case. With further increasing the qubit-cavity coupling to the ultra-strong regime, the height asymmetry of the left and right peaks is slightly inverted, which is consistent with the corresponding case of a low-frequency bath. This inversion of the asymmetry arises from the competition between the Ohmic bath and the cavity bath. Therefore, after considering the anti-rotating terms, our results explicitly show how the height asymmetry in the SE spectrum peaks depends on the qubit-cavity coupling and the type of intrinsic noise experienced by the qubit.

  20. Ferromagnetic resonance study of interface coupling for spin waves in narrow NiFe/Ru/NiFe multilayer nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, P.; Haghshenasfard, Z.; Cottam, M. G.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2016-12-01

    A systematic investigation is presented for the magnetization dynamics in trilayer nanowires, consisting of two permalloy (Ni80Fe20 ) layers separated by a nonmagnetic Ru spacer layer. The width of the wires ranges from 90 to 190 nm. By varying the Ru thickness between 0.7 and 2.0 nm, the interlayer coupling can be effectively controlled, modifying the corresponding magnetic ground state and the spin-wave dynamics. By contrast with previous work on coupled trilayer nanowires with larger widths (270 nm and more), the focus here is on nanowire arrays where the strong shape anisotropy competes with the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions and biquadratic exchange interactions across the Ru interface, as well as dipolar interactions and Zeeman energy. As a result, the spin-wave spectrum is found to be drastically modified. Ferromagnetic resonance and hysteresis loop measurements are reported over a wide range of applied magnetic fields, showing that the overall magnetization alignment between the permalloy layers may be parallel, antiparallel, or in a spin-flop state, depending on the overall interlayer coupling. The experimental results for different stripe widths are successfully analyzed using a microscopic dipole-dipole theory and micromagnetic simulations.

  1. Linear and nonlinear MHD mode coupling of the fast magnetoacoustic wave about a 3D magnetic null point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, J. O.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Coronal magnetic null points have been implicated as possible locations for localised heating events in 2D models. We investigate this possibility about fully 3D null points. Aims: We investigate the nature of the fast magnetoacoustic wave about a fully 3D magnetic null point, with a specific interest in its propagation, and we look for evidence of MHD mode coupling and/or conversion to the Alfvén mode. Methods: A special fieldline and flux-based coordinate system was constructed to permit the introduction of a pure fast magnetoacoustic wave in the vicinity of proper and improper 3D null points. We considered the ideal, β = 0, MHD equations, which are solved using the LARE3D numerical code. The constituent modes of the resulting wave were isolated and identified using the special coordinate system. Numerical results were supported by analytical work derived from perturbation theory and a linear implementation of the WKB method. Results: An initially pure fast wave is found to be permanently decoupled from the Alfvén mode both linearly and nonlinearly for both proper and improper 3D null points. The pure fast mode also generates and sustains a nonlinear disturbance aligned along the equilibrium magnetic field. The resulting pure fast magnetoacoustic pulse has transient behaviour, which is found to be governed by the (equilibrium) Alfvén-speed profile, and a refraction effect focuses all the wave energy towards the null point. Conclusions: Thus, the main results from previous 2D work do indeed carry over to the fully 3D magnetic null points and so we conclude that 3D null points are locations for preferential heating in the corona by 3D fast magnetoacoustic waves.

  2. Lamb wave dispersion and anisotropy profiling of composite plates via non-contact air-coupled and laser ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, M. S.; Yuan, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional ultrasound inspection has been a standard non-destructive testing method for providing an in-service evaluation and noninvasive means of probing the interior of a structure. In particular, measurement of the propagation characteristics of Lamb waves allows inspection of plates that are typical components in aerospace industry. A rapid, complete non-contact hybrid approach for excitation and detection of Lamb waves is presented and applied for non-destructive evaluation of composites. An air-coupled transducer (ACT) excites ultrasonic waves on the surface of a composite plate, generating different propagating Lamb wave modes and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is used to measure the out-of-plane velocity of the plate. This technology, based on direct waveform imaging, focuses on measuring dispersive curves for A0 mode in a composite laminate and its anisotropy. A two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) is applied to out-of-plane velocity data captured experimentally using LDV to go from the time-spatial domain to frequency-wavenumber domain. The result is a 2D array of amplitudes at discrete frequencies and wavenumbers for A0 mode in a given propagation direction along the composite. The peak values of the curve are then used to construct frequency wavenumber and phase velocity dispersion curves, which are also obtained directly using Snell's law and the incident angle of the excited ultrasonic waves. A high resolution and strong correlation between numerical and experimental results are observed for dispersive curves with Snell's law method in comparison to 2D-FFT method. Dispersion curves as well as velocity curves for the composite plate along different directions of wave propagation are measured. The visual read-out of the dispersion curves at different propagation directions as well as the phase velocity curves provide profiling and measurements of the composite anisotropy. The results proved a high sensitivity of the air-coupled and laser

  3. Linear and nonlinear MHD mode coupling of the fast magnetoacoustic wave about a 3D magnetic null point

    CERN Document Server

    Thurgood, J O; 10.1051/0004-6361/201219850

    2012-01-01

    Context: Coronal magnetic null points have been implicated as possible locations for localised heating events in 2D models. We investigate this possibility about fully 3D null points. Aims: We investigate the nature of the fast magnetoacoustic wave about a fully 3D magnetic null point, with a specific interest in its propagation, and we look for evidence of MHD mode coupling and/or conversion to the Alfv\\'en mode. Methods: A special fieldline and flux-based coordinate system was constructed to permit the introduction of a pure fast magnetoacoustic wave in the vicinity of proper and improper 3D null points. We considered the ideal, {\\beta} = 0, MHD equations, which are solved using the LARE3D numerical code. The constituent modes of the resulting wave were isolated and identified using the special coordinate system. Numerical results were supported by analytical work derived from perturbation theory and a linear implementation of the WKB method. Results: An initially pure fast wave is found to be permanently d...

  4. A contribution to computer analysis of coupled-cavity traveling wave tubes. [design study for CTS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, D. J.; Omalley, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    A flexible accurate large-signal computer program has been developed for the design of coupled-cavity traveling wave tubes. The program is written for a TSS-360 time sharing system. The beam is described by a disk model and the slow wave structure by a sequence of cavities or cells. The computational approach is arranged so that each cavity may have different geometrical or electrical parameters than its neighbors. This allows the program user to simulate a tube of almost arbitrary complexity. Input and output couplers, severs, complicated velocity tapers, and other features peculiar to one or a few cavities may be modeled by a correct choice of input data. The beam-wave interaction is handled by a new approach in which the RF fields are expanded in solutions to the TM wave equation retaining all significant space harmonics. The program was used to perform a design study of the TWT developed for the CTS satellite. Good agreement was obtained between the predictions of the program and the measured performance of the flight tube. The internal check on power balance was satisfied within plus or minus 0.2 per cent of input beam power.

  5. Phase locking between atmospheric convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin waves and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Dariusz B.; Flatau, Maria K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Matthews, Adrian J.

    2016-08-01

    Convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) are a major component of the tropical atmospheric circulation, propagating eastward around the equatorial belt. Here we show that there are scale interactions between CCKWs and the diurnal cycle over the Maritime Continent. In particular, CCKW packets that pass a base point in the eastern Indian Ocean at 90°E between 0600 and 0900 UTC subsequently arrive over Sumatra in phase with the diurnal cycle of convection. As the distance between Sumatra and Borneo is equal to the distance traveled by a CCKW in 1 day, these waves are then also in phase with the diurnal cycle over Borneo. Consequently, this subset of CCKWs has a precipitation signal up to a factor of 3 larger than CCKWs that arrive at other times of the day and a 40% greater chance of successfully traversing the Maritime Continent.

  6. Ultra-low-loss CMOS-Compatible Waveguide Crossing Arrays Based on Multimode Bloch Waves and Imaginary Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yangyang; Zeng, Xiaoge; Popovic, Milos A

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate broadband waveguide crossing arrays showing ultra low loss down to $0.04\\,$dB/crossing ($0.9\\%$), matching theory, and crosstalk suppression over $35\\,$dB, in a CMOS-compatible geometry. The principle of operation is the tailored excitation of a low-loss spatial Bloch wave formed by matching the periodicity of the crossing array to the difference in propagation constants of the 1$^\\text{st}$- and 3$^\\text{rd}$-order TE-like modes of a multimode silicon waveguide. Radiative scattering at the crossing points acts like a periodic imaginary-permittivity perturbation that couples two supermodes, which results in imaginary (radiative) propagation-constant splitting and gives rise to a low-loss, unidirectional breathing Bloch wave. This type of crossing array provides a robust implementation of a key component enabling dense photonic integration.

  7. Coupling-of-modes analysis of thin film plate acoustic wave resonators utilizing the S0 Lamb mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2010-04-01

    In this work the applicability of the coupling-of-modes (COM) approach to the analysis of thin AlN film plate acoustic resonators (FPAR), utilizing the S0 Lamb wave, is discussed. Analysis based on the Floquet-Bloch theorem as well as COM parameter extraction from a micromachined FPAR test structure are simultaneously used to verify the applicability of the COM approach. Finite element model simulation is used to further study the contribution of the higher order mass loading effects over the Lamb wave propagation under a periodical grating. A possibility to achieve zero sensitivity of the FPAR resonance with respect to the grating strip thickness is identified and physically interpreted for the first time.

  8. Coupling Hollow Fe3O4-Fe Nanoparticles with Graphene Sheets for High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Zhu, Chunling; Li, Chunyan; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2016-02-17

    We developed a strategy for coupling hollow Fe3O4-Fe nanoparticles with graphene sheets for high-performance electromagnetic wave absorbing material. The hollow Fe3O4-Fe nanoparticles with average diameter and shell thickness of 20 and 8 nm, respectively, were uniformly anchored on the graphene sheets without obvious aggregation. The minimal reflection loss RL values of the composite could reach -30 dB at the absorber thickness ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 mm, greatly superior to the solid Fe3O4-Fe/G composite and most magnetic EM wave absorbing materials recently reported. Moreover, the addition amount of the composite into paraffin matrix was only 18 wt %.

  9. Coupled determination of gravimetric and elastic effects on two resonant chemical sensors: love wave and microcantilever platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Ludivine; Zimmermann, Céline; Dufour, Isabelle; Déjous, Corinne; Rebière, Dominique; Pistré, Jacques

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to couple theoretical and experimental results from microcantilevers and Love-wave acoustic devices in order to identify and separate mass loading effects from elastic effects. This is important in the perspective of sensing applications. For that, a thin-film polymer is deposited on both resonant platforms. It is demonstrated that microcantilevers are essentially mass sensitive. They allow one to determine the polymer layer thickness, which is validated by optical profilometry measurements. Then, taking into account this thickness, theoretical modeling and experimental measurements with Love-wave devices permit one to estimate an equivalent elastic shear modulus of the thin-film polymer at high frequency. Results are interesting if one is to fully understand and optimize (bio)chemical sensor responses.

  10. Scratching beneath the surface while coupling atmosphere, ocean and waves: Analysis of a dense water formation event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniel, Sandro; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Ricchi, Antonio; Sclavo, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Cold Air Outbreaks (CAOs) over shallow seas may lead to dense water formation episodes, enhancing water, heat, nutrient and sediment exchanges across the continental margin, with associated seabed reshaping. During winter 2012, a CAO episode characterised by exceptional intensity stroke the northern Adriatic Sea, one of the most effective cool engines driving the Mediterranean circulation, providing a paramount opportunity for an integrated investigation of dense shelf water dynamics. In the present study, we describe this event using a fully coupled modeling approach exploring the effects of mutual interactions among atmosphere, ocean currents and sea surface waves, usually not completely accounted for, in the resulting dense water formation. Whilst atmospheric fields appear to be marginally affected by coupled dynamics in the present case, implications for sea surface elevation and circulation are far from negligible. Measurements collected in the northern Adriatic Sea showed that a physically consistent description of energy exchanges between ocean and atmosphere provides an improved estimate of heat fluxes and of air and sea temperatures. In addition, the explicit inclusion of wave action within the modeling system further enhances the modulation of air-sea exchanges and the propagation of its effect along the water column, resulting in a different intensity of northern Adriatic gyres and in different water fluxes flowing through the formation basin. Through these main controls on the water volume involved in the densification process and on the intensity of momentum input and cooling, a coupled modeling strategy accounting for atmosphere-waves-currents interactions can turn out to be crucial for improving the quantification of thermohaline properties and energy content, newly formed dense water mass, and provide a better description of its migration pathways and rates of off-shelf descent.

  11. The Magnetic Coupling of Chromospheres and Winds From Late Type Evolved Stars: Role of MHD Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Leake, James; Carpenter, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    Stellar chromospheres and winds represent universal attributes of stars on the cool portion of H-R diagram. In this paper we derive observational constrains for the chromospheric heating and wind acceleration from cool evolved stars and examine the role of Alfven waves as a viable source of energy dissipation and momentum deposition. We use a 1.5D magnetohydrodynamic code with a generalized Ohm's law to study propagation of Alfven waves generated along a diverging magnetic field in a stellar photosphere at a single frequency. We demonstrate that due to inclusion of the effects of ion-neutral collisions in magnetized weakly ionized chromospheric plasma on resistivity and the appropriate grid resolution, the numerical resistivity becomes 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the physical resistivity. The motions introduced by non-linear transverse Alfven waves can explain non-thermally broadened and non-Gaussian profiles of optically thin UV lines forming in the stellar chromosphere of α Tau and other late-type giant and supergiant stars. The calculated heating rates in the stellar chromosphere model due to resistive (Joule) dissipation of electric currents on Pedersen resistivity are consistent with observational constraints on the net radiative losses in UV lines and the continuum from α Tau. At the top of the chromosphere, Alfven waves experience significant reflection, producing downward propagating transverse waves that interact with upward propagating waves and produce velocity shear in the chromosphere. Our simulations also suggest that momentum deposition by non-linear Alfven waves becomes significant in the outer chromosphere within 1 stellar radius from the photosphere that initiates a slow and massive winds from red giants and supergiants.

  12. Evidence for strong-coupling s-wave superconductivity in MgB2: (11)B NMR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, H; Ishida, K; Kitaoka, Y; Muranaka, T; Akimitsu, J

    2001-09-17

    We have investigated a gap structure in a newly discovered superconductor, MgB2, through measurement of the (11)B nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate, (11)(1/T(1)). (11)(1/T(1)) is proportional to the temperature (T) in the normal state, and decreases exponentially in the superconducting (SC) state, revealing a tiny coherence peak just below T(c). The T dependence of 1/T(1) in the SC state can be accounted for by an s-wave SC model with a large gap size of 2Delta/k(B)T(c) approximately 5 which suggests it is in a strong-coupling regime.

  13. Adaptive observer for the joint estimation of parameters and input for a coupled wave PDE and infinite dimensional ODE system

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2016-08-05

    This paper deals with joint parameters and input estimation for coupled PDE-ODE system. The system consists of a damped wave equation and an infinite dimensional ODE. This model describes the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response in the brain and the objective is to characterize brain regions using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data. For this reason, we propose an adaptive estimator and prove the asymptotic convergence of the state, the unknown input and the unknown parameters. The proof is based on a Lyapunov approach combined with a priori identifiability assumptions. The performance of the proposed observer is illustrated through some simulation results.

  14. A process to control light in a micro resonator through a coupling modulation by surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guofang; Li, Yuan; Hu, Chunguang; Lei, Lihua; Guo, Yanchuan

    2016-08-01

    A novel process to control light through the coupling modulation by surface acoustic wave (SAW) is presented in an optical micro resonator. An optical waveguide modulator of a racetrack resonator on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is took as an example to explore the mechanism. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is developed to simulate the acousto-optical (AO) modulator using the mechanism. An analytical method is presented to verify our proposal. The results show that the process can work well as an optical modulator by SAW.

  15. Using the seventh-order numerical method to solve first-order nonlinear coupled-wave equations for degenerate two-wave and four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja, Y. H.

    1984-12-01

    Using a new seventh-order numerical method [the O(h 7) method] for solving two-point boundary value problems, numerical solutions of the first-order nonlinear coupledwave equations for degenerate two-wave and four-wave mixing in a reflection geometry have been obtained. A computer program employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination technique has also been adopted to effectively solve the resultant large, sparse and unsymmetric matrix, obtained from the O(h 7) method and the Newton-Raphson iteration method. Numerical results from the computer calculations are presented graphically. A comparison between this O(h 7) method and the shooting method, mainly from the viewpoint of computational efficiency, is also made.

  16. Generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation to the isotropic and anisotropic Rabi model in the ultrastrong-coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation (GSRWA) is proposed by employing both the displacement and the squeezing transformations. A solvable Hamiltonian is reformulated in the same form as the ordinary RWA ones. For a qubit coupled to oscillators experiment, a well-defined Schrödinger-cat-like entangled state is given by the displaced-squeezed oscillator state instead of the original displaced state. For the isotropic Rabi case, the mean photon number and the ground-state energy are expressed analytically with additional squeezing terms, exhibiting a substantial improvement of the GSRWA. And the ground-state energy in the anisotropic Rabi model confirms the effectiveness of the GSRWA. Due to the squeezing effect, the GSRWA improves the previous methods only with the displacement transformation in a wide range of coupling strengths even for large atom frequency.

  17. The nuclear displacement operator and formulation of the Born couplings of molecular Born-Oppenheimer wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfeng; Porter, Richard N.

    1988-04-01

    The nuclear displacement operator (NDO) for Born-Oppenheimer electronic wave functions (BOEWF) is introduced and some recurrence formulas are obtained. The formulas for Born couplings and higher derivatives of BOEWF with respect to nuclear coordinates are derived from very general considerations and relations among these quantities are given. The series form, exponential, and integral forms of the NDO are exhibited. Particularly, it is proven that for the two-state systems the NDO has a very simple form by which it is convenient to study two-state dynamical processes. It is shown that the NDO satisfies a differential equation which is analogous to that for the time-evolution operator in the presence of a time-dependent perturbation. The physical meanings of these two operators are compared. It is demonstrated that the NDO is uniquely determined by the vector Born coupling matrix, and that the nuclear motion may be analyzed in terms of a local non-Abelian gauge transformation.

  18. Wave mode coupling due to plasma wakes in two-dimensional plasma crystals: In-depth view

    CERN Document Server

    Couëdel, L; Ivlev, A V; Nosenko, V; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2011-01-01

    Experiments with two-dimensional (2D) plasma crystals are usually carried out in rf plasma sheaths, where the interparticle interactions are modified due to the presence of plasma wakes. The wake-mediated interactions result in the coupling between wave modes in 2D crystals, which can trigger the mode-coupling instability and cause melting. The theory predicts a number of distinct fingerprints to be observed upon the instability onset, such as the emergence of a new hybrid mode, a critical angular dependence, a mixed polarization, and distinct thresholds. In this paper we summarize these key features and provide their detailed discussion, analyze the critical dependence on experimental parameters, and highlight the outstanding issues.

  19. Quantum phase fluctuations of coherent and thermal light coupled to a non-degenerate parametric oscillator beyond rotating wave approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohosin; Mandal, Swapan; Wahiddin, Mohamed Ridza

    2017-09-01

    The essence of the rotating wave approximation (RWA) is to eliminate the non-conserving energy terms from the interaction Hamiltonian. The cost of using RWA is heavy if the frequency of the input radiation field is low (e.g. below optical region). The well known Bloch-Siegert effect is the out come of the inclusion of the terms which are normally neglected under RWA. We investigate the fluctuations of the quantum phase of the coherent light and the thermal light coupled to a nondegenerate parametric oscillator (NDPO). The Hamiltonian and hence the equations of motion involving the signal and idler modes are framed by using the strong (classical) pump condition. These differential equations are nonlinear in nature and are found coupled to each other. Without using the RWA, we obtain the analytical solutions for the signal and idler fields. These solutions are obtained up to the second orders in dimensionless coupling constants. The analytical expressions for the quantum phase fluctuation parameters due to Carruther's and Nieto are obtained in terms of the coupling constants and the initial photon numbers of the input radiation field. Moreover, we keep ourselves confined to the Pegg-Barnett formalism for measured phase operators. With and without using the RWA, we compare the quantum phase fluctuations for coherent and thermal light coupled to the NDPO. In spite of the significant departures (quantitative), the qualitative features of the phase fluctuation parameters for the input thermal light are identical for NDPO with and without RWA. On the other hand, we report some interesting results of input coherent light coupled to the NDPO which are substantially different from their RWA counterpart. In spite of the various quantum optical phenomena in a NDPO, we claim that it is the first effort where the complete analytical approach towards the solutions and hence the quantum phase fluctuations of input radiation fields coupled to it are obtained beyond rotating wave

  20. Determination of coupled sway, roll, and yaw motions of a floating body in regular waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Das

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the motion response of a floating body in time domain under the influence of small amplitude regular waves. The governing equations of motion describing the balance of wave-exciting force with the inertial, damping, and restoring forces are transformed into frequency domain by applying Laplace transform technique. Assuming the floating body is initially at rest and the waves act perpendicular to the vessel of lateral symmetry, hydrodynamic coefficients were obtained in terms of integrated sectional added-mass, damping, and restoring coefficients, derived from Frank's close-fit curve. A numerical experiment on a vessel of 19190 ton displaced mass was carried out for three different wave frequencies, namely, 0.56 rad/s, 0.74 rad/s, and 1.24 rad/s. The damping parameters (ςi reveal the system stability criteria, derived from the quartic analysis, corresponding to the undamped frequencies (βi. It is observed that the sway and yaw motions become maximum for frequency 0.56 rad/s, whereas roll motion is maximum for frequency 0.74 rad/s. All three motions show harmonic behavior and attain dynamic equilibrium for time t>100 seconds. The mathematical approach presented here will be useful to determine seaworthiness characteristics of any vessel when wave amplitudes are small and also to validate complex numerical models.

  1. Coupling of high-resolution meteorological and wave models over southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bertotti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of RISKMED project, three different high-resolution limited area meteorological models (BOLAM, MOLOCH and WRF have been run over southern Italy for the retrospective analysis of three case studies characterized by strong winds and severe wave conditions in the Ionian, southern Adriatic and southern Tyrrhenian seas. All the models were able to reproduce the main meteorological features of each event.

    The wind fields simulated by the meteorological models and those provided by the ECMWF analysis have been ingested into a wave model (WAM for the hindcast of the main wave parameters. The results have been compared with the observations of three buoys whose measurements were available in the area of interest.

    A remarkable improvement in the representation of the significant wave height came out using the limited area model data with respect to the simulations where the ECMWF analyses were used as forcing. Among the limited area models, the BOLAM-MOLOCH modelling system provided slightly better performances. From the limited set of simulations, the different model predictions came out closer to each other and more skilful in areas where the waves approach the coastline perpendicularly from the open sea.

  2. The Effect of Polar Vortex Disturbances on Mesopause Gravity Wave Drag in Relation to Mesopause Pole-to-Pole Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, R.; Hibbins, R. E.; Espy, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) play an important role in the dynamics of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region, linking the lower to the upper atmosphere. GW filtering by the background zonal wind is furthermore believed to be the fundamental mechanism coupling the winter stratosphere to the summer polar mesopause, in which increased planetary wave (PW) activity in the former is related to enhanced temperatures in the latter through a chain of global MLT temperature anomalies. During major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) the interaction between PWs and the background flow leads to increased polar stratospheric temperatures and a reversal of the climatological winds from eastward to westward. As a result, large changes in GW filtering conditions occur, making SSWs an excellent tool to empirically test the inter-hemispheric coupling mechanism. In this study, mesopause GW forcing derived from meteor radar observations over Trondheim, Norway (63°N, 10°E) during the January 2013 major SSW is discussed in light of the polar vortex strength and selective filtering conditions over the same location to show the coupling between the polar winter stratosphere and MLT. Global temperature observations obtained with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are subsequently used to study the temperature signature of the SSW in the MLT region over the winter pole in relation to the observed GW forcing. Furthermore, the temperature effect of the SSW throughout the middle atmosphere is tracked, away from the winter pole toward the summer pole, and compared to the temperature structure expected from the inter-hemispheric coupling mechanism.

  3. Planetary wave coupling processes in the middle atmosphere (30 90 km): A study involving MetO and MFR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chshyolkova, T.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    2006-02-01

    The MetO assimilated data and mesospheric winds provided by five medium frequency radars (MFR) from the Canada US Japan Opportunity (CUJO) network have been used to study coupling processes due to planetary waves (PWs) in the middle atmosphere. It is shown that there is strong vertical coupling between the stratosphere and mesosphere especially during winter months. However, not all observed disturbances in mesospheric winds can be explained by the simple propagation of PWs from below. In addition to the vertical coupling there is also weaker horizontal “inter-hemispheric” coupling during equinoxes. The data used are from December 2000 to December 2002. The time interval was chosen to include austral winters and springs of 2 years: the dynamically unusual year 2002, during which a major stratospheric warming involving a split vortex and wind reversals occurred in the Southern Hemisphere, and a more typical year 2001. The character of PW activity during these 2 years is compared. In contrast to the usually weak PW activity dominated by eastward motions, both strong eastward and westward propagating waves existed during austral winter of 2002. Wavelet spectra of MetO winds show strong peaks near 14 days that match similar signals observed in mesospheric winds at Antarctic stations [Dowdy et al., 2004. The large-scale dynamics of the mesosphere lower thermosphere during the SH stratospheric warming of 2002. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L14102. doi:10.1029/2004GL020282] during the stratospheric warming. It is suggested that this oscillation was generated at low atmospheric heights and propagated upward. The longer duration of the stratospheric mesospheric winter vortex (7 months) compared to that of the summer jet in the Northern Hemisphere provide equinoctial months when eastward winds dominate globally. Results suggest that during equinoxes, with favourable conditions, the PWs with ˜10-, 16- and 25-day periods can penetrate to the opposite hemisphere.

  4. Coupling of Radial and Axial non-Radial Oscillations of Compact Stars: Gravitational Waves from first-order Differential Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Passamonti, A; Gualtieri, L; Nagar, A; Sopuerta, C F

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the non-linear coupling between radial and non-radial oscillations of static spherically symmetric neutron stars as a possible mechanism for the generation of gravitational waves that may lead to observable signatures. In this paper we concentrate on the axial sector of the non-radial perturbations. By using a multi-parameter perturbative framework we introduce a complete description of the non-linear coupling between radial and axial non-radial oscillations; we study the gauge invariant character of the associated perturbative variables and develop a computational scheme to evolve the non-linear coupling perturbations in the time domain. We present results of simulations corresponding to different physical situations and discuss the dynamical behaviour of this non-linear coupling. Of particular interest is the occurrence of signal amplifications in the form of resonance phenomena when a frequency associated with the radial pulsations is close to a frequency associated with one of the axial w-m...

  5. Electronic coupling matrix elements from charge constrained density functional theory calculations using a plane wave basis set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Harald; Blumberger, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    We present a plane wave basis set implementation for the calculation of electronic coupling matrix elements of electron transfer reactions within the framework of constrained density functional theory (CDFT). Following the work of Wu and Van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164105 (2006)], the diabatic wavefunctions are approximated by the Kohn-Sham determinants obtained from CDFT calculations, and the coupling matrix element calculated by an efficient integration scheme. Our results for intermolecular electron transfer in small systems agree very well with high-level ab initio calculations based on generalized Mulliken-Hush theory, and with previous local basis set CDFT calculations. The effect of thermal fluctuations on the coupling matrix element is demonstrated for intramolecular electron transfer in the tetrathiafulvalene-diquinone (Q-TTF-Q-) anion. Sampling the electronic coupling along density functional based molecular dynamics trajectories, we find that thermal fluctuations, in particular the slow bending motion of the molecule, can lead to changes in the instantaneous electron transfer rate by more than an order of magnitude. The thermal average, ( { } )^{1/2} = 6.7 {mH}, is significantly higher than the value obtained for the minimum energy structure, | {H_ab } | = 3.8 {mH}. While CDFT in combination with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals describes the intermolecular electron transfer in the studied systems well, exact exchange is required for Q-TTF-Q- in order to obtain coupling matrix elements in agreement with experiment (3.9 mH). The implementation presented opens up the possibility to compute electronic coupling matrix elements for extended systems where donor, acceptor, and the environment are treated at the quantum mechanical (QM) level.

  6. Stability of optimal-wave-front-sample coupling under sample translation and rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Eilers, Hergen

    2015-01-01

    The method of wavefront shaping to control optical properties of opaque media is a promising technique for authentication applications. One of the main challenges of this technique is the sensitivity of the wavefront-sample coupling to translation and/or rotation. To better understand how translation and rotation affect the wavefront- sample coupling we perform experiments in which we first optimize reflection from an opaque surface--to obtain an optimal wavefront--and then translate or rotate the surface and measure the new reflected intensity pattern. By using the correlation between the optimized and translated or rotated patterns we determine how sensitive the wavefront-sample coupling is. These experiments are performed for different spatial-light-modulator (SLM) bin sizes, beam-spot sizes, and nanoparticle concentrations. We find that all three parameters affect the different positional changes, implying that an optimization scheme can be used to maximize the stability of the wavefront-sample coupling. ...

  7. A Coupled Model System for Southeast Florida: Wave Model Validation Using Radar and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    model is NCOM (Navy Coastal Ocean Model, Martin 2000); and the wave model is SWAN ( Simulating Waves Nearshore, Booij et al. 1999, SWAN 2010) [Since...wind speed (wind speed relative to a frame of reference moving with the currents). Second, the surface currents produce conservative ( kinematic ...grid 1: WW3 • ∆x = ∆y = 0.5° ≈ 55 km • Longitude: x = -100° to -0.5° W (260° to 359.5° E), nx =200 • Latitude: y =17° to 59° N, ny =85 • no

  8. Experimental excitation of the Dyakonov-Tamm wave in the grating-coupled configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, Drew P; Faryad, Muhammad; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Hall, Anthony S; Liu, Liu

    2014-04-01

    The Dyakonov-Tamm wave was experimentally excited along the periodically corrugated interface of magnesium fluoride as the isotropic homogeneous partnering material and a zinc-selenide chiral sculptured thin film (STF) as the anisotropic and periodically nonhomogeneous partnering material. The total transmittance of a p-polarized 633 nm laser beam was measured as a function of the angle of incidence for several thicknesses of the chiral STF to identify those dips in total transmittance that are indicative of the excitation of a Dyakonov-Tamm wave.

  9. Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirnimesh; Voulgaris, George; Warner, John C.; Olabarrieta, Maitane

    2012-01-01

    The coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST) enables simulations that integrate oceanic, atmospheric, wave and morphological processes in the coastal ocean. Within the modeling system, the three-dimensional ocean circulation module (ROMS) is coupled with the wave generation and propagation model (SWAN) to allow full integration of the effect of waves on circulation and vice versa. The existing wave-current coupling component utilizes a depth dependent radiation stress approach. In here we present a new approach that uses the vortex force formalism. The formulation adopted and the various parameterizations used in the model as well as their numerical implementation are presented in detail. The performance of the new system is examined through the presentation of four test cases. These include obliquely incident waves on a synthetic planar beach and a natural barred beach (DUCK' 94); normal incident waves on a nearshore barred morphology with rip channels; and wave-induced mean flows outside the surf zone at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO).

  10. Dip-Hump Temperature Dependence of Specific Heat and Effects of Pairing Fluctuations in the Weak-Coupling Side of a P-Wave Interacting Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotani, Daisuke; van Wyk, Pieter; Ohashi, Yoji

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the specific heat CV at constant volume in the normal state of a p-wave interacting Fermi gas. Including p-wave pairing fluctuations within the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that, in the weak-coupling side, CV exhibits a dip-hump behavior as a function of the temperature. While the dip is associated with the pseudogap phenomenon near Tc, the hump structure is found to come from the suppression of Fermi quasiparticle scattering into a p-wave molecular state in the Fermi degenerate regime. Since the latter phenomenon does not occur in the ordinary s-wave interacting Fermi gas, it may be viewed as a characteristic phenomenon associated with a p-wave pairing interaction.

  11. Diffractive beam shaping, tracking and coupling for wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). The full strength of this structure-mediated paradigm can be harnessed by addressing multiple WOWs and manipulating them to work in tandem. We propose the use of diffractive...

  12. Coupling of Two Absorbing Boundary Conditions for 2D Time-Domain Simulations of Free Surface Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, A.

    1996-06-01

    The numerical simulation of nonlinear gravity waves propagating at the surface of a perfect fluid is now usually solved by totally nonlinear time-domain numerical models in two dimensions, and this approach is being extended to three dimensions. The original initial boundary value problem is posed in an unbounded region, extending horizontally up to infinity to model the sea. Its numerical solution requires truncating the domain at a finite distance. Unfortunately, no exact nonreflecting boundary condition on the truncating surface exists in this time-domain formulation. The proposed strategy is based on the coupling of two previously known methods in order to benefit from their different, and complementary, bandwidth: the numerical "beach," very efficient in the high frequency range; and a piston-like Neumann condition, asymptotically ideal for low frequencies. The coupling method gives excellent results in the whole range of frequencies of interest and is as easy to implement in nonlinear as in linear versions. One of its major advantages is that it does not require any spectral knowledge of the incident waves.

  13. Application of a wind-wave-current coupled model in the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean sea), for wind energy purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Palomares, Ana; Navarro, Jorge; Grifoll, Manel; Pallares, Elena; Espino, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    This work shows the main results of the HAREAMAR project (including HAREMAR, ENE2012-38772-C02-01 and DARDO, ENE2012-38772-C02-02 projects), concerning the local Wind, Wave and Current simulation at St. Jordi Bay (NW Mediterranean Sea). Offshore Wind Energy has become one of the main topics within the research in Wind Energy research. Although there are quite a few models with a high level of reliability for wind simulation and prediction in onshore places, the wind prediction needs further investigations for adaptation to the Offshore emplacements, taking into account the interaction atmosphere-ocean. The main problem in these ocean areas is the lack of wind data, which neither allows for characterizing the energy potential and wind behaviour in a particular place, nor validating the forecasting models. The main objective of this work is to reduce the local prediction errors, in order to make the meteo-oceanographic hindcast and forecast more reliable. The COAWST model (Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave Sediment Transport Model; Warner et al., 2010) system has been implemented in the region considering a set of downscaling nested meshes to obtain high-resolution outputs in the region. The adaptation to this particular area, combining the different wind, wave and ocean model domains has been far from simple, because the grid domains for the three models differ significantly. This work shows the main results of the COAWST model implementation to this particular area, including both monthly and other set of tests in different atmospheric situations, especially chosen for their particular interest. The time period considered for the validation is the whole year 2012. A comparative study between the WRF, SWAN and ROMS model outputs (without coupling), the COWAST model outputs, and a buoy measurements moored in the region was performed for this year. References Warner, J.C., Armstrong, B., He, R., and Zambon, J.B., 2010, Development of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave

  14. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Hashino, Katsuya; Kanemura, Shinya; Ko, Pyungwon; Matsui, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis to evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Th...

  15. Fully Coupled Three-Dimensional Dynamic Response of a TLP Floating Wind Turbine in Waves and Wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Gireesh Kumar V.R.; Bredmose, Henrik; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2013-01-01

    A dynamic model for a tension-leg platform (TLP) floating offshore wind turbine is proposed. The model includes threedimensional wind and wave loads and the associated structural response. The total system is formulated using 17 degrees of freedom (DOF), 6 for the platform motions and 11 for the ...... and discussed. As a next step (which is not presented here), the dynamic model for the substructure is therefore being coupled to an advanced aero-elastic code Flex5, Øye (1996), which has a higher number of DOFs and a controller module.......A dynamic model for a tension-leg platform (TLP) floating offshore wind turbine is proposed. The model includes threedimensional wind and wave loads and the associated structural response. The total system is formulated using 17 degrees of freedom (DOF), 6 for the platform motions and 11......, including Glauert correction for high values of axial induction factor, dynamic stall, dynamic wake and dynamic yaw. The aerodynamic model takes into account the wind shear and turbulence effects. For a representative geographic location, platform responses are obtained for a set of wind and wave climatic...

  16. Adhesive F-actin Waves: A Novel Integrin-Mediated Adhesion Complex Coupled to Ventral Actin Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Lindsay B.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    At the leading lamellipodium of migrating cells, protrusion of an Arp2/3-nucleated actin network is coupled to formation of integrin-based adhesions, suggesting that Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and integrin-dependent adhesion may be mechanistically linked. Arp2/3 also mediates actin polymerization in structures distinct from the lamellipodium, in “ventral F-actin waves” that propagate as spots and wavefronts along the ventral plasma membrane. Here we show that integrins engage the extracellular matrix downstream of ventral F-actin waves in several mammalian cell lines as well as in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These “adhesive F-actin waves” require a cycle of integrin engagement and disengagement to the extracellular matrix for their formation and propagation, and exhibit morphometry and a hierarchical assembly and disassembly mechanism distinct from other integrin-containing structures. After Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization, zyxin and VASP are co-recruited to adhesive F-actin waves, followed by paxillin and vinculin, and finally talin and integrin. Adhesive F-actin waves thus represent a previously uncharacterized integrin-based adhesion complex associated with Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. PMID:22069459

  17. A coupled wave-3-D hydrodynamics model of the Taranto Sea (Italy): a multiple-nesting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Maria Gabriella; Samaras, Achilleas G.; Federico, Ivan; Archetti, Renata; Maicu, Francesco; Lorenzetti, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    The present work describes an operational strategy for the development of a multiscale modeling system, based on a multiple-nesting approach and open-source numerical models. The strategy was applied and validated for the Gulf of Taranto in southern Italy, scaling large-scale oceanographic model results to high-resolution coupled wave-3-D hydrodynamics simulations for the area of Mar Grande in the Taranto Sea. The spatial and temporal high-resolution simulations were performed using the open-source TELEMAC suite, forced by wind data from the COSMO-ME database, boundary wave spectra from the RON buoy at Crotone and results from the Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System (SANIFS) regarding sea levels and current fields. Model validation was carried out using data collected in the Mar Grande basin from a fixed monitoring station and during an oceanographic campaign in October 2014. The overall agreement between measurements and model results in terms of waves, sea levels, surface currents, circulation patterns and vertical velocity profiles is deemed to be satisfactory, and the methodology followed in the process can constitute a useful tool for both research and operational applications in the same field and as support of decisions for management and design of infrastructures.

  18. Laminin-332 alters connexin profile, dye coupling and intercellular Ca2+ waves in ciliated tracheal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Colin E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal epithelial cells are anchored to a dynamic basement membrane that contains a variety of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens and laminins. During development, wound repair and disease of the airway epithelium, significant changes in extracellular matrix proteins may directly affect cell migration, differentiation and events mediated by intercellular communication. We hypothesized that alterations in cell matrix, specifically type I collagen and laminin α3β3γ2 (LM-332 proteins within the matrix, directly affect intercellular communication in ciliated rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (RTEC. Methods Functional coupling of RTEC was monitored by microinjection of the negatively charged fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and Alexa 350, into ciliated RTEC grown on either a LM-332/collagen or collagen matrix. Coupling of physiologically significant molecules was evaluated by the mechanism and extent of propagated intercellular Ca2+ waves. Expression of connexin (Cx mRNA and proteins were assayed by reverse transcriptase – polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results When compared to RTEC grown on collagen alone, RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen displayed a significant increase in dye transfer. Although mechanical stimulation of RTEC grown on either LM-332/collagen or collagen alone resulted in intercellular Ca2+ waves, the mechanism of transfer was dependent on matrix: RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen propagated Ca2+waves via extracellular purinergic signaling whereas RTEC grown on collagen used gap junctions. Comparison of RTEC grown on collagen or LM-332/collagen matrices revealed a reorganization of Cx26, Cx43 and Cx46 proteins. Conclusion Alterations in airway basement membrane proteins such as LM-332 can induce connexin reorganizations and result in altered cellular communication mechanisms that could contribute to airway tissue function.

  19. Computationally generated velocity taper for efficiency enhancement in a coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    1989-01-01

    A computational routine has been created to generate velocity tapers for efficiency enhancement in coupled-cavity TWTs. Programmed into the NASA multidimensional large-signal coupled-cavity TWT computer code, the routine generates the gradually decreasing cavity periods required to maintain a prescribed relationship between the circuit phase velocity and the electron-bunch velocity. Computational results for several computer-generated tapers are compared to those for an existing coupled-cavity TWT with a three-step taper. Guidelines are developed for prescribing the bunch-phase profile to produce a taper for efficiency. The resulting taper provides a calculated RF efficiency 45 percent higher than the step taper at center frequency and at least 37 percent higher over the bandwidth.

  20. Parity breaking signatures from a Chern-Simons coupling during inflation: the case of non-Gaussian gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Orlando, Giorgio

    2017-07-01

    Considering high-energy modifications of Einstein gravity during inflation is an interesting issue. We can constrain the strength of the new gravitational terms through observations of inflationary imprints in the actual universe. In this paper we analyze the effects on slow-roll models due to a Chern-Simons term coupled to the inflaton field through a generic coupling function f(phi). A well known result is the polarization of primordial gravitational waves (PGW) into left and right eigenstates, as a consequence of parity breaking. In such a scenario the modifications to the power spectrum of PGW are suppressed under the conditions that allow to avoid the production of ghost gravitons at a certain energy scale, the so-called Chern-Simons mass MCS. In general it has been recently pointed out that there is very little hope to efficiently constrain chirality of PGW on the basis solely of two-point statistics from future CMB data, even in the most optimistic cases. Thus we search if significant parity breaking signatures can arise at least in the bispectrum statistics. We find that the tensor-tensor-scalar bispectra langle γ γ ζ rangle for each polarization state are the only ones that are not suppressed. Their amplitude, setting the level of parity breaking during inflation, is proportional to the second derivative of the coupling function f(phi) and they turn out to be maximum in the squeezed limit. We comment on the squeezed-limit consistency relation arising in the case of chiral gravitational waves, and on possible observables to constrain these signatures.

  1. The effect of Coriolis-Stokes forcing on upper ocean circulation in a two-way coupled wave-current model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Zeng'an; XIE Li'an; HAN Guijun; ZHANG Xuefeng; WU Kejian

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the Stokes drift-driven ocean currents and Stokes drift-induced wind energy input into the upper ocean using a two-way coupled wave-current modeling system that consists of the Princeton Ocean Model generalized coordinate system (POMgcs),Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model,and the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT).The Coriolis-Stokes forcing (CSF) computed using the wave parameters from SWAN was incorporated with the momentum equation of POMgcs as the core coupling process.Experimental results in an idealized setting show that under the steady state,the scale of the speed of CSF-driven current was 0.001 m/s and the maximum reached 0.02 rn/s.The Stokes drift-induced energy rate input into the model ocean was estimated to be 28.5 GW,taking 14% of the direct wind energy rate input.Considering the Stokes drift effects,the total mechanical energy rate input was increased by approximately 14%,which highlights the importance of CSF in modulating the upper ocean circulation.The actual run conducted in Taiwan Adjacent Sea (TAS) shows that:1) CSF-based wave-current coupling has an impact on ocean surface currents,which is related to the activities of monsoon winds; 2) wave-current coupling plays a significant role in a place where strong eddies present and tends to intensify the eddy's vorticity; 3) wave-current coupling affects the volume transport of the Taiwan Strait (TS) throughflow in a nontrivial degree,3.75% on average.

  2. WAVE-VORTEX MODE COUPLING IN ASTROPHYSICAL ACCRETION DISKS UNDER COMBINED RADIAL AND VERTICAL STRATIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salhi, A. [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Lehner, T. [LUTH, UMR 8102 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place de Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Godeferd, F.; Cambon, C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, UMR 5509, CNRS, INSA, UCB, F-69134 Ecully Cedex (France)

    2013-07-10

    We examine accretion disk flow under combined radial and vertical stratification utilizing a local Cartesian (or ''shearing box'') approximation. We investigate both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric disturbances with the Boussinesq approximation. Under axisymmetric disturbances, a new dispersion relation is derived. It reduces to the Solberg-Hoieland criterion in the case without vertical stratification. It shows that, asymptotically, stable radial and vertical stratification cannot induce any linear instability; Keplerian flow is accordingly stable. Previous investigations strongly suggest that the so-called bypass concept of turbulence (i.e., that fine-tuned disturbances of any inviscid smooth shear flow can reach arbitrarily large transient growth) can also be applied to Keplerian disks. We present an analysis of this process for three-dimensional plane-wave disturbances comoving with the shear flow of a general rotating shear flow under combined stable radial and vertical rotation. We demonstrate that large transient growth occurs for K{sub 2}/k{sub 1} >> 1 and k{sub 3} = 0 or k{sub 1} {approx} k{sub 3}, where k{sub 1}, K{sub 2}, and k{sub 3} are the azimuthal, radial, and vertical components of the initial wave vector, respectively. By using a generalized ''wave-vortex'' decomposition of the disturbance, we show that the large transient energy growth in a Keplerian disk is mainly generated by the transient dynamics of the vortex mode. The analysis of the power spectrum of total (kinetic+potential) energy in the azimuthal or vertical directions shows that the contribution coming from the vortex mode is dominant at large scales, while the contribution coming from the wave mode is important at small scales. These findings may be confirmed by appropriate numerical simulations in the high Reynolds number regime.

  3. Analysis of Shear Wave Generation by Decoupled and Partially Coupled Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-31

    The explosive source is on scale relative to the cavity size. Two factors suggest that both explosions m ight act as spherical seism ic sources...REFERENCES Baker, G. E., H. Xu, and J. L. Stevens (2009), Generation of Shear Waves from Explosions in Water-Filled Cavities, submitted to Bull. Seism ...I: Seismic Spectrum Scaling, Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 61, 1675-1692 Murphy, J. (1969), Discussion of Paper by D. Springer, M. Denny, J. Healy, and W

  4. Instabilities of MHD Waves Produced by Coupling of Rotation and Gradient of Magnetic Field and its Possible Application in the Galactic Central Region

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ipsita

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of MHD wave propagating in a gravitating and rotating medium permeated by non-uniform magnetic field has been done. It has been found that the Gradient of Magnetic Field when coupled with Rotation becomes capable to generate few instabilities (Temporal or Spatial) leading to the damping or amplification of MHD waves. The Jean's criterion is not sufficient for stability always. Rather, the waves will suffer instability unless their wave length (frequency) is less (greater) than certain critical values. Otherwise, those will smoothly propagate outward. Out of different scenarioes depending on the direction of the magnetic field, its gradient, rotation and wave propagation three important Special Cases have been discussed and different stability criteria have been derived. Finally, using the above theory we have obtained the stability/instability criteria for the waves moving parallel and perpendicular to the galactic plane in the Core and Periphery of the Central Region of Galaxy (C.R.G.) due to the...

  5. Weakly coupled heat bath models for Gibbs-like invariant states in nonlinear wave equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bajars (Janis); J.E. Frank (Jason); B.J. Leimkuhler (Ben)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThermal bath coupling mechanisms as utilized in molecular dynamics are applied to partial differential equation models. Working from a semi-discrete (Fourier mode) formulation for the Burgers–Hopf or Korteweg–de Vries equation, we introduce auxiliary variables and stochastic

  6. Influence of gas puff location on the coupling of lower hybrid waves in JET ELMy H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekedahl, A. [CEA, IRFM, France; Petrzilka, V. [Assoc. Euratom-IPP.CR, Czech Republic; Baranov, Y. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Brix, M [UKAEA Fusion, Culham UK; Goniche, M. [CEA, IRFM, France; Jacquet, P. [EURATOM / UKAEA, Abingdon, UK; Kirov, K K [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Mailloux, J. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Mayoral, M.-L. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Nave, M. F. F. [Association EURATOM/IST, Lisbon, Portugal; Ongena, J. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-ERM/KMS (LPP-ERM/KMS), Brussels, Belgium

    2012-01-01

    Reliable coupling of the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) to H-mode plasmas in JET is made feasible through a dedicated gas injection system, located at the outer wall and magnetically connected to the antenna (Pericoli Ridolfini et al 2004 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46 349, Ekedahl et al 2005 Nucl. Fusion 45 351, Ekedahl et al 2009 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51 044001). An experiment was carried out in JET in order to investigate whether a gas injection from the top of the torus, as is foreseen for the main gas injection in ITER, could also provide good coupling of the LH waves if magnetically connected to the antenna. The results show that a top gas injection was not efficient for providing a reliable LHCD power injection, in spite of being magnetically connected and in spite of using almost twice the amount of gas flow compared with the dedicated outer mid-plane gas puffing system. A dedicated gas injection system, set in the outer wall and magnetically connected to the LHCD antenna, is therefore recommended in order to provide the reliable coupling conditions for an LHCD antenna in ITER.

  7. Excitation of ion Bernstein waves as the dominant parametric decay channel in direct X-B mode conversion for typical spherical torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mustafa; Sadeghi, Yahya; Sobhanian, Samad; Asgarian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-03-01

    The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is typically the only wave in the electron cyclotron (EC) range that can be applied in spherical tokamaks for heating and current drive (H&CD). Spherical tokamaks (STs) operate generally in high- β regimes, in which the usual EC ordinary (O) and extraordinary (X) modes are cut off. As it was recently investigated the existence of EBWs at nonlinear regime thus the next step would be the probable nonlinear phenomena study which are predicted to be occurred within the high levels of injected power. In this regard, parametric instabilities are considered as the major channels for losses at the X-B conversion. Hence, we have to consider their effects at the UHR region which can reduce the X-B conversion efficiency. In the case of EBW heating (EBH) at high power density, the nonlinear effects can arise. Particularly at the UHR position, the group velocity is strongly reduced, which creates a high energy density and subsequently a high amplitude electric field. Therefore, a part of the input wave can decay into daughter waves via parametric instability (PI). Thus, via the present research, the excitations of ion Bernstein waves as the dominant decay channels are investigated and also an estimate for the threshold power in terms of experimental parameters related to the fundamental mode of instability is proposed.

  8. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many t...

  9. Study on the electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Zhang, Yinhong; Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    The electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices is investigated by the transfer matrix method. Research results show the high electromechanical coupling coefficient can be obtained in these systems. The optimization design of it is also discussed fully. It is significantly influenced by electrical boundary conditions on interfaces, thickness ratios of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers, and material parameters (such as velocities of pure longitudinal and transversal bulk waves in non-piezoelectric layers). In order to obtain higher electromechanical coupling coefficient, shorted interfaces, non-piezoelectric materials with large velocities of longitudinal and transversal bulk waves, and proper thickness ratios should be chosen.

  10. Study of the evanescent wave coupled semiconductor quantum dot amplifying fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke-xin; WANG Ting-yun; PANG Fu-fei

    2007-01-01

    Based on the character of semiconductors and the structure of optical fiber coupler,a new amplifying fiber,coupled semiconductor quantum dot amplifying fiber (CSQDAF),has been presented. A simplified model of PbS quantum dot amplifying fiber is built on the energy band structure of semiconductor quantum dots,and a simple expression deduced from the two-level rate equations and light propagation equations is shown in this paper,by which the gain of quantum dot amplifying fiber can be calculated. A gain of approximately 4.5 dB has been measured in this coupled semiconductor quantum dot amplifying fiber at a wavelength of 1310 nm,when the fiber is pumped by a laser operating at a wavelength of 980 nm with power of 30 mW.

  11. Symmetry breaking of localized discrete matter waves induced by spin–orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E.R. Caianiello”, CNISM and INFN–Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Universitá di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Abdullaev, F.Kh., E-mail: fatkhulla@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University of Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-10-02

    We study localized nonlinear excitations of a dilute Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) with spin–orbit coupling in a deep optical lattice (OL). For this we introduce a tight-binding model that includes the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) at the discrete level in the form of a generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Existence and stability of discrete solitons of different symmetry types is demonstrated. Quite interestingly, we find three distinctive regions in which discrete solitons undergo spontaneously symmetry breaking, passing from on-site to inter-site and to asymmetric, simply by varying the interatomic interactions. Existence ranges of discrete solitons with inter-site symmetry depend on SOC and shrink to zero as the SOC parameter is increased. Asymmetric discrete solitons appear as novel excitations specific of the SOC. Possible experimental implementation of these results is briefly discussed.

  12. On the practical applications of atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-wave coupling in mesoscale numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanski, Adam

    The objectives of this work were to develop coupled atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-wave models for the verification of the atmospheric simulations, model the small-scale ocean circulations, analyze the role of the atmospheric stability in the generation of coastal upwelling, improve the accuracy of numerical prediction over the coastal areas, and develop a parameterization of the swell-induced wind stress. The study confirmed the applicability of the high resolution Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) wind field prediction to driving small scale ocean models applied to the U.S. West Coast, and showed that the small-scale circulation pattern of Bodega Bay can be well simulated even by the relatively simple 2D ocean model. Additional experiments performed with the complex 3D Princeton Ocean Model (POM) coupled with the MM5 showed the importance of the atmospheric stability in terms of the modification of the wind stress-curl pattern and the generation of coastal upwelling. The study revealed that the introduction of the stability effect to the wind stress computation may change the monthly mean wind stress curl by up to 0.15Pa/100km, and increase the simulated upwelling velocity by up to 25%, significantly improving the picture of the simulated upwelling and relaxation events. Further analysis performed with the MM5 model run at 9km resolution, showed that the introduction of the atmosphere-ocean coupling greatly improved the quality of the model results. The comparison with buoy data revealed that the atmosphere-ocean coupling led to a 95% increase in the correlation coefficients of the air temperature and heat fluxes, 23% for the wind direction, and up to 25% for the wind speed, and the reduction of the mean errors by up to 30%. The air-wave interaction model developed during this study showed the applicability of the innovative semi-analytical approach to the computation of the swell-induced stress. Its results also confirmed the importance of the swell-induced stress for

  13. Surface Acoustic Wave Velocity and Electromechanical Coupling Coefficient of GaN Grown on (0001) Sapphire by Metal-Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhen; LI Hong-Lang; YAN Li; CHEN Xiao-Yang; LU Da-Cheng; WANG Xiao-Hui; LIU Xiang-Lin; HAN Pei-De; YUAN Hai-Rong; WANG Du; WANG Zhan-Guo; HE Shi-Tang

    2001-01-01

    High-quality and high-resistivity GaN films were grown on (0001) sapphire face by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. To measure the surface acoustic wave properties accurately, we deposited metallized interdigital trans ducers on the GaN surface. The acoustic surface wave velocity and electromechanical coupling coefficient were measured, respectively, to be 5667m/s and 1.9% by the pulse method.

  14. Comparison of the angular selectivity characteristics for an off-axis holographic storage system calculated by Born approximation and coupled-wave theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Angot, Ludovic

    2008-06-15

    The first Born approximation is applied to calculate the angular selectivity for different positions on the reconstructed image as a function of the object beam's optical axis angle theta(ob) and reference beam angle theta(rw) for a holographic data storage system that records the Fourier transform holograms in a medium with an infinite plane-wave reference beam. Results are compared with those calculated by the coupled-wave theory.

  15. A Compact System of Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection Based on the Square Wave Excitation Signal for Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui Feng ZHANG; Li Shi WANG; Zhi DANG

    2006-01-01

    This paper reported a compact system of capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D) based on the square wave excitation voltage for capillary electrophoresis, and it exhibited excellent sensitivity at the optimal frequency of 198 kHz. The feasibility and sensitivity of this detector was demonstrated by simultaneous detection of thirteen ions including alkali,alkaline earth and heavy metal ions. And the detection limits (S/N 3) were in the range of 0.2-1μmol/L for Mn2+,K+,Na+,Mg2+,Ca2+ ,Li+ ,Ba2+ ,and 7-25μmol/L for Ni2+ ,Cu2+ ,Cd2+ ,Pb2+,Co2+ ,Zn2+.

  16. Coupled-cluster Green's function: Analysis of properties originating in the exponential parametrization of the ground-state wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Kowalski, Karol

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we derive basic properties of the Green's-function matrix elements stemming from the exponential coupled-cluster (CC) parametrization of the ground-state wave function. We demonstrate that all intermediates used to express the retarded (or, equivalently, ionized) part of the Green's function in the ω representation can be expressed only through connected diagrams. Similar properties are also shared by the first-order ω derivative of the retarded part of the CC Green's function. Moreover, the first-order ω derivative of the CC Green's function can be evaluated analytically. This result can be generalized to any order of ω derivatives. Through the Dyson equation, derivatives of the corresponding CC self-energy operator can be evaluated analytically. In analogy to the CC Green's function, the corresponding CC self-energy operator can be represented by connected terms. Our analysis can easily be generalized to the advanced part of the CC Green's function.

  17. Unlocking the full potential of wave-matter nonlinear coupling in the epsilon-near-zero regime

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Marini, Andrea; Di Falco, Andrea; Faccio, Daniele; Scalora, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, unconventional metamaterial properties have triggered a revolution of electromagnetic research which has unveiled novel scenarios of wave-matter interaction. A very small dielectric permittivity is a leading example of such unusual features, since it produces an exotic static-like regime where the electromagnetic field is spatially slowly-varying over a physically large region. The so-called epsilon-near-zero metamaterials thus offer an ideal platform where to manipulate the inner details of the "stretched" field. Here we theoretically prove that a standard nonlinearity is able to operate such a manipulation to the point that even a thin slab produces a dramatic nonlinear pulse transformation, if the dielectric permittivity is very small within the field bandwidth. The predicted non-resonant releasing of full nonlinear coupling produced by the epsilon-near-zero condition does not resort to any field enhancement mechanisms and opens novel routes to exploiting matter nonlinearity for steering t...

  18. Experimental demonstration of acoustic wave induced magnetization switching in dipole coupled magnetostrictive nanomagnets for ultralow power computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Vimal; D'Souza, Noel; Atkinson, Gary M.; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2016-09-01

    Dipole-coupled cobalt nanomagnet pairs of elliptical shape (with their major axes parallel) are delineated on 128° Y-cut lithium niobate. Each pair is initially magnetized along the major axis with a magnetic field forming the (↑↑) state. When an acoustic wave (AW) is launched in the substrate from interdigitated electrodes, the softer nanomagnet in the pair flips to produce the (↑↓) state since the AW modulates the stress anisotropy. This executes the logical NOT operation because the output bit encoded in the magnetization state of the softer nanomagnet becomes the logic complement of the input bit encoded in the magnetization of the harder one. The AW acts as a clock to trigger the NOT operation and the energy dissipated is a few tens of aJ. Such AW clocking can be utilized to flip nanomagnets in a chain sequentially to steer logic bits unidirectionally along a nanomagnetic logic wire with miniscule energy dissipation.

  19. Synergy between measurements of the gravitational wave and the triple Higgs coupling in probing first order phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Hashino, Katsura; Kanemura, Shinya; Matsui, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Probing the Higgs potential and new physics behind the electroweak symmetry breaking is one of the most important issues of particle physics. In particular, nature of electroweak phase transition is essential for understanding physics at the early Universe, such that the strongly first order phase transition is required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. The strongly first order phase transition is expected to be tested by precisely measuring the triple Higgs boson coupling at future colliders like the International Linear Collider. It can also be explored via the spectrum of stochastic gravitational waves to be measured at future space-based interferometers such as eLISA and DECIGO. We discuss complementarity of both the methods in testing the strongly first order phase transition of the electroweak symmetry in models with additional isospin singlet scalar fields with and without classical scale invariance. We find that they are synergetic in identifying specific models of electroweak sym...

  20. An investigation of stress wave propagation in a shear deformable nanobeam based on modified couple stress theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh Khorshidi, Majid; Shariati, Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a new investigation for propagation of stress wave in a nanobeam based on modified couple stress theory. Using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Timoshenko beam theory, and Reddy beam theory, the effect of shear deformation is investigated. This nonclassical model contains a material length scale parameter to capture the size effect and the Poisson effect is incorporated in the current model. Governing equations of motion are obtained by Hamilton's principle and solved explicitly. This solution leads to obtain two phase velocities for shear deformable beams in different directions. Effects of shear deformation, material length scale parameter, and Poisson's ratio on the behavior of these phase velocities are investigated and discussed. The results also show a dual behavior for phase velocities against Poisson's ratio.

  1. Bond-order wave phase of the extended Hubbard model: Electronic solitons, paramagnetism, and coupling to Peierls and Holstein phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoranjan; Soos, Zoltán G.

    2010-10-01

    The bond-order wave (BOW) phase of the extended Hubbard model (EHM) in one dimension (1D) is characterized at intermediate correlation U=4t by exact treatment of N -site systems. Linear coupling to lattice (Peierls) phonons and molecular (Holstein) vibrations are treated in the adiabatic approximation. The molar magnetic susceptibility χM(T) is obtained directly up to N=10 . The goal is to find the consequences of a doubly degenerate ground state (gs) and finite magnetic gap Em in a regular array. Degenerate gs with broken inversion symmetry are constructed for finite N for a range of V near the charge-density-wave boundary at V≈2.18t where Em≈0.5t is large. The electronic amplitude B(V) of the BOW in the regular array is shown to mimic a tight-binding band with small effective dimerization δeff . Electronic spin and charge solitons are elementary excitations of the BOW phase and also resemble topological solitons with small δeff . Strong infrared intensity of coupled molecular vibrations in dimerized 1D systems is shown to extend to the regular BOW phase while its temperature dependence is related to spin solitons. The Peierls instability to dimerization has novel aspects for degenerate gs and substantial Em that suppresses thermal excitations. Finite Em implies exponentially small χM(T) at low temperature followed by an almost linear increase with T . The EHM with U=4t is representative of intermediate correlations in quasi-1D systems such as conjugated polymers or organic ion-radical and charge-transfer salts. The vibronic and thermal properties of correlated models with BOW phases are needed to identify possible physical realizations.

  2. Departures from plane-wave-like coupling to a Maverick missile in the radiating near-field region of a horn antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, D. E.; Koslover, R. A.; Cremer, C. D.; Silvestro, J.; Miner, L. M.

    1990-05-01

    The High Power Microwaves (HPM) susceptibility testing often requires irradiating test objects at the highest fluences possible. For aperture antennas, the highest fluences are generally found in the radiating near field region. For valid effects testing, the energy coupled to the object interior must accurately replicate that which would occur in a true weapon environment (plane wave illumination). Some believe that valid testing requires object placement at distances from the aperture exceeding 2 D squared/lambda (D=antenna effective diameter). Many also believe testing at farther away than 2 D squared/lambda guarantees plane wave-like coupling conditions. Neither view is correct. Testing in the reactive field region (less than lambda from the aperture) is generally invalid due to dominance of reactive coupling. For testing in the radiating near field, determination of validity is less trivial. An investigation was performed quantifying deviations from plane wave coupling. The measurements, using an instrumented Maverick missile in an anechoic chamber, and supported by theory, indicate conditions for which testing the Maverick missile accurately simulates plane wave coupling.

  3. Nonadiabatic quantum wave packet dynamics of the H + H2 reaction including the coriolis coupling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Jayachander Rao; S Mahapatra

    2009-09-01

    The effect of coriolis coupling on the dynamics of H + H2 reaction is examined by calculating the initial state-selected and energy resolved reaction probabilities on the coupled manifold of its degenerate 2 (') ground electronic state. H3 in this state is prone to the Jahn-Teller (JT) instability and consequently the degeneracy is split upon distortion from its 3ℎ equilibrium geometry. The orbital degeneracy is, however, restored along the 3ℎ symmetry configuration and it results into conical intersections of the two JT split component states. The energetically lower adiabatic component of latter is repulsive, and mainly (`rather solely’) drive the H + H2 reaction dynamics. On the otherhand, the upper adiabatic component is of bound type and can only impart non-adiabaticity on the dynamics of lower state. Comparison calculations are therefore also carried out on the uncoupled lower adiabatic sheet to assess the nonadiabatic effect. Exact quantum scattering calculations are performed by a chebyshev polynomial propagator and employing the double many body expansion potential energy surface of the electronic ground state of H3. Reaction probabilities are reported up to a total energy of ∼ 3.0 eV, slightly above the energetic minimum of the seam of conical intersections at ∼ 2.74 eV. Reaction probabilities are calculated up to the total angular momentum, = 20 and for each value of , the projection quantum number is varied from 0 to min (, max), with max = 4. Probability results are compared and discussed with those obtained without the coriolis coupling.

  4. Modeling multimode feed-horn coupled bolometers for millimeter-wave and terahertz astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinauskaite, Eimante; Murphy, Anthony; McAuley, Ian; Trappe, Neil A.; Bracken, Colm P.; McCarthy, Darragh N.; Doherty, Stephen; Gradziel, Marcin L.; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Maffei, Bruno; Lamarre, Jean-Michel A.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Savini, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Multimode horn antennas can be utilized as high efficiency feeds for bolometric detectors, providing increased throughput and sensitivity over single mode feeds, while also ensuring good control of beam pattern characteristics. Multimode horns were employed in the highest frequency channels of the European Space Agency Planck Telescope, and have been proposed for future terahertz instrumentation, such as SAFARI for SPICA. The radiation pattern of a multimode horn is affected by the details of the coupling of the higher order waveguide modes to the bolometer making the modeling more complicated than in the case of a single mode system. A typical cavity coupled bolometer system can be most efficiently simulated using mode matching, typically with smooth walled waveguide modes as the basis and computing an overall scattering matrix for the horn-waveguide-cavity system that includes the power absorption by the absorber. In this paper we present how to include a cavity coupled bolometer, modelled as a thin absorbing film with particular interest in investigating the cavity configuration for optimizing power absorption. As an example, the possible improvements from offsetting the axis of a cylindrically symmetric absorbing cavity from that of a circular waveguide feeding it (thus trapping more power in the cavity) are discussed. Another issue is the effect on the optical efficiency of the detectors of the presence of any gaps, through which power can escape. To model these effects required that existing in-house mode matching software, which calculates the scattering matrices for axially symmetric waveguide structures, be extended to be able to handle offset junctions and free space gaps. As part of this process the complete software code 'PySCATTER' was developed in Python. The approach can be applied to proposed terahertz systems, such as SPICASAFARI.

  5. Evanescent-wave coupled right angled buried waveguide: Applications in carbon nanotube mode-locking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary, R.; Thomson, R. R.; Kar, A. K., E-mail: a.k.kar@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Brown, G. [Optoscribe Ltd, 0/14 Alba Innovation Centre, Alba Campus, Livingston EH54 7GA (United Kingdom); Beecher, S. J. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Popa, D.; Sun, Z.; Torrisi, F.; Hasan, T.; Milana, S.; Bonaccorso, F.; Ferrari, A. C. [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-25

    We present an evanescent-field device based on a right-angled waveguide. This consists of orthogonal waveguides, with their points of intersection lying along an angled facet of the chip. Light guided along one waveguide is incident at the angled dielectric-air facet at an angle exceeding the critical angle, so that the totally internally reflected light is coupled into the second waveguide. By depositing a nanotube film on the angled surface, the chip is then used to mode-lock an Erbium doped fiber ring laser with a repetition rate of 26 MHz, and pulse duration of 800 fs.

  6. Roles of convective heating and boundary-layer moisture asymmetry in slowing down the convectively coupled Kelvin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Mechanisms for an in-phase relationship between convection and low-level zonal wind and the slow propagation of the convectively coupled Kelvin wave (CCKW) are investigated by analyzing satellite-based brightness temperature and reanalysis data and by constructing a simple theoretical model. Observational data analysis reveals an eastward shift of the low-level convergence and moisture relative to the CCKW convective center. The composite vertical structures show that the low-level convergence lies in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) (below 800 hPa), and is induced by the pressure trough above the top of PBL through an Ekman-pumping process. A traditional view of a slower eastward propagation speed compared to the dry Kelvin waves is attributed to the reduction of atmospheric static stability in mid-troposphere due to the convective heating effect. The authors' quantitative assessment of the heating effect shows that this effect alone cannot explain the observed CCKW phase speed. We hypothesize that additional slowing process arises from the effect of zonally asymmetric PBL moisture. A simple theoretical model is constructed to understand the relative role of the heating induced effective static stability effect and the PBL moisture effect. The result demonstrates the important role of the both effects. Thus, PBL-free atmosphere interaction is important in explaining the observed structure and propagation of CCKW.

  7. Anomalous convection diffusion and wave coupling transport of cells on comb frame with fractional Cattaneo-Christov flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zheng, Liancun; Liu, Fawang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-09-01

    An improved Cattaneo-Christov flux model is proposed which can be used to capture the effects of the time and spatial relaxations, the time and spatial inhomogeneous diffusion and the spatial transition probability of cell transport in a highly non-homogeneous medium. Solutions are obtained by numerical discretization method where the time and spatial fractional derivative are discretized by the L1-approximation and shifted Grünwald definition, respectively. The solvability, stability and convergence of the numerical method for the special case of the Cattaneo-Christov equation are proved. Results indicate that the fractional convection diffusion-wave equation is an evolution equation which displays the coexisting characteristics of parabolicity and hyperbolicity. In other words, for α in (0, 1), the cells transport occupies the characteristics of coupling convection diffusion and wave spreading. Moreover, the effects of pertinent time parameter, time and spatial fractional derivative parameters, relaxation parameter, weight coefficient and the convection velocity on the anomalous transport of cells are shown graphically and analyzed in detail.

  8. 线性耦合Oregonator振子中的Echo波%ECHO WAVES IN THE LINEARLY COUPLED OREGONATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天寿; 张锁春

    2001-01-01

    给出了耦合Oregonator振子中的Echo波的存在条件及相应周期的精确表达式, 并发现该系统 中存在两种类型的Echo波,其中一种满足漂亮的关系式:x1(t)+x2(t)=2u+,z1(t) +z2(t)=2u+(这里u+是该系统的均匀正定态的一个分量).%This paper gives the conditions of existence of echo wave and the accurate expre ssion of the relative period in the coupled Oregonators and finds that in this s ystem there are two types of echo waves,one of which satisfies the pretty relati ons x1(t)+x2(t)=2u+,z1(t)+z2(t)=2u+ (where u+ is a compone nt of the homogeneous positive steady state of the system).

  9. A Coupled Finite Difference and Moving Least Squares Simulation of Violent Breaking Wave Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    incompressible and inviscid model and the wave impacts on the vertical breakwater are simulated in this model. The resulting maximum pressures and forces on the breakwater are relatively high when compared with other studies and this is due to the incompressible nature of the present model.......Two model for simulation of free surface flow is presented. The first model is a finite difference based potential flow model with non-linear kinematic and dynamic free surface boundary conditions. The second model is a weighted least squares based incompressible and inviscid flow model. A special...... feature of this model is a generalized finite point set method which is applied to the solution of the Poisson equation on an unstructured point distribution. The presented finite point set method is generalized to arbitrary order of approximation. The two models are applied to simulation of steep...

  10. Periodic wave solutions of coupled integrable dispersionless equations by residue harmonic balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, A. Y. T.; Yang, H. X.; Guo, Z. J.

    2012-11-01

    We introduce the residue harmonic balance method to generate periodic solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. A PDE is firstly transformed into an associated ODE by a wave transformation. The higher-order approximations to the angular frequency and periodic solution of the ODE are obtained analytically. To improve the accuracy of approximate solutions, the unbalanced residues appearing in harmonic balance procedure are iteratively considered by introducing an order parameter to keep track of the various orders of approximations and by solving linear equations. Finally, the periodic solutions of PDEs result. The proposed method has the advantage that the periodic solutions are represented by Fourier functions rather than the sophisticated implicit functions as appearing in most methods.

  11. Noise in a coupling electromagnetic detecting system for high frequency gravitational waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jin; Li Fang-Yu; Zhong Yuan-Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic categories of noise in detecting high frequency gravitational waves in the microwave band (~0.1-10 GHz), which contain shot noise from the laser and the thermal radiation photons, thermal noise from statistical fluctuation of the thermal photons and fluctuation of the temperature, radiation press noise on the fractal membrane, the noise caused by the scattering of the Gaussian Beam (GB) in the detecting tube and noise in the microwave radiometers. The analysis shows that a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio may be achieved for a detecting device with the fixed power of GB (105 W), only when the temperature of the environment is no more than T=l K, and the optimal length of the microwave radiometers is about 0.3 m.

  12. Wave-guided Optical Waveguides tracked and coupled using dynamic diffractive optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael

    With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro-actuation requ......With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro......-actuation requires the optimization of optical forces and optical torques that, in turn, requires the optimization of the underlying light-matter interaction [1]. We have previously proposed and demonstrated micro-targeted light-delivery and the opto-mechanical capabilities of so-called wave-guided optical...

  13. Electromagnetic Response of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves by Coupling Open Resonant Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-Yu; CHEN Ying; WANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    We present a new detecting scheme of high-frequency gravitational waves(HFGWs) in the GHz band,the scheme consists of a high-quality-factor open microwave cavity,a static magnetic field passing through the cavity and an electromagnetic (EM)normal mode stored in the cavity.It is found that under the resonant condition firstand second-order perturbation EM effects have almost the same detecting sensitivity to the HFGWs in the GHz band (h~10-26,v~5GHz),but the former contains more information from the HFGWs.We akso provide a very brief review for possible improving way of the sensitivity.This scheme would be Highly complementary to other schemes of detecting the HFGWs.

  14. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Balram, Krishna C; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of optical and mechanical modes in nanoscale optomechanical systems has been widely studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for cavity optomechanical circuits in which localized and interacting 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency field through the piezo-electric effect, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. We use this to demonstrate a novel acoustic wave interference effect, analogous to coherent population trapping in atomic systems, in which the coherent mechanical motion induced by the electrical drive can be completely cancelled out by the optically-driven motion. The ability to manipulate cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through either photonic or phononic channels enables new device and system architectures for signal transduction betwee...

  15. Classification of Multiply Travelling Wave Solutions for Coupled Burgers, Combined KdV-Modified KdV, and Schrödinger-KdV Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Seadawy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some explicit travelling wave solutions to constructing exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations of mathematical physics are presented. By applying a theory of Frobenius decompositions and, more precisely, by using a transformation method to the coupled Burgers, combined Korteweg-de Vries- (KdV- modified KdV and Schrödinger-KdV equation is written as bilinear ordinary differential equations and two solutions to describing nonlinear interaction of travelling waves are generated. The properties of the multiple travelling wave solutions are shown by some figures. All solutions are stable and have applications in physics.

  16. Coupling electromagnetic pulse-shaped waves into wire-like interconnection structures with a non-linear protection – Time domain calculations by the PEEC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wollenberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An interconnection system whose loads protected by a voltage suppressor and a low-pass filter against overvoltages caused by coupling pulse-shaped electromagnetic waves is analyzed. The external wave influencing the system is assumed as a plane wave with HPM form. The computation is provided by a full-wave PEEC model for the interconnection structure incorporated in the SPICE code. Thus, nonlinear elements of the protection circuit can be included in the calculation. The analysis shows intermodulation distortions and penetrations of low frequency interferences caused by intermodulations through the protection circuits. The example examined shows the necessity of using full-wave models for interconnections together with non-linear circuit solvers for simulation of noise immunity in systems protected by nonlinear devices.

  17. The Nonlinear Coupling of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Waves in the Ring Current Region: The Magnetic Storm May 1-7 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E.; Gamayunov, K.; Avanov, L.

    2003-01-01

    The excitation of lower hybrid waves (LHWs) is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space, and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. In this paper we present the morphology, dynamics, and level of LHW activity generated by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves during the May 2-7, 1998 storm period on the global scale. The LHWs were calculated based on our newly developed self-consistent model that couples the system of two kinetic equations: one equation describes the ring current (RC) ion dynamic, and another equation describes the evolution of EMIC waves. It is found that the LHWs are excited by helium ions due to their mass dependent drift in the electric field of EMIC waves. The level of LHW activity is calculated assuming that the induced scattering process is the main saturation mechanism for these waves. The calculated LHWs electric fields are consistent with the observational data.

  18. Standing waves for coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with decaying potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhijie, E-mail: chenzhijie1987@sina.com; Zou, Wenming, E-mail: wzou@math.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-15

    We study the following singularly perturbed problem for a coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system which arises in Bose-Einstein condensate: −ε{sup 2}Δu + a(x)u = μ{sub 1}u{sup 3} + βuv{sup 2} and −ε{sup 2}Δv + b(x)v = μ{sub 2}v{sup 3} + βu{sup 2}v in R{sup 3} with u, v > 0 and u(x), v(x) → 0 as |x| → ∞. Here, a, b are non-negative continuous potentials, and μ{sub 1}, μ{sub 2} > 0. We consider the case where the coupling constant β > 0 is relatively large. Then for sufficiently small ε > 0, we obtain positive solutions of this system which concentrate around local minima of the potentials as ε → 0. The novelty is that the potentials a and b may vanish at someplace and decay to 0 at infinity.

  19. Modulational instability and higher-order rogue waves with parameters modulation in a coupled integrable AB system via the generalized Darboux transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya

    2015-12-01

    We study higher-order rogue wave (RW) solutions of the coupled integrable dispersive AB system (also called Pedlosky system), which describes the evolution of wave-packets in a marginally stable or unstable baroclinic shear flow in geophysical fluids. We propose its continuous-wave (CW) solutions and existent conditions for their modulation instability to form the rogue waves. A new generalized N-fold Darboux transformation (DT) is proposed in terms of the Taylor series expansion for the spectral parameter in the Darboux matrix and its limit procedure and applied to the CW solutions to generate multi-rogue wave solutions of the coupled AB system, which satisfy the general compatibility condition. The dynamical behaviors of these higher-order rogue wave solutions demonstrate both strong and weak interactions by modulating parameters, in which some weak interactions can generate the abundant triangle, pentagon structures, etc. Particularly, the trajectories of motion of peaks and depressions of profiles of the first-order RWs are explicitly analyzed. The generalized DT method used in this paper can be extended to other nonlinear integrable systems. These results may be useful for understanding the corresponding rogue-wave phenomena in fluid mechanics and related fields.

  20. Modulational instability and higher-order rogue waves with parameters modulation in a coupled integrable AB system via the generalized Darboux transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya

    2015-12-01

    We study higher-order rogue wave (RW) solutions of the coupled integrable dispersive AB system (also called Pedlosky system), which describes the evolution of wave-packets in a marginally stable or unstable baroclinic shear flow in geophysical fluids. We propose its continuous-wave (CW) solutions and existent conditions for their modulation instability to form the rogue waves. A new generalized N-fold Darboux transformation (DT) is proposed in terms of the Taylor series expansion for the spectral parameter in the Darboux matrix and its limit procedure and applied to the CW solutions to generate multi-rogue wave solutions of the coupled AB system, which satisfy the general compatibility condition. The dynamical behaviors of these higher-order rogue wave solutions demonstrate both strong and weak interactions by modulating parameters, in which some weak interactions can generate the abundant triangle, pentagon structures, etc. Particularly, the trajectories of motion of peaks and depressions of profiles of the first-order RWs are explicitly analyzed. The generalized DT method used in this paper can be extended to other nonlinear integrable systems. These results may be useful for understanding the corresponding rogue-wave phenomena in fluid mechanics and related fields.

  1. Wave Function Parity Loss Used to Mitigate Thermal Broadening in Spin-orbit Coupled Zigzag Graphene Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Mohammad Abdullah; Liang, Gengchiau

    2017-01-01

    Carrier transport through a graphene zigzag nanoribbon (ZNR) is possible to be blocked by a p-n profile implemented along its transport direction. However, we found that in cases of analogous materials with significant intrinsic spin-orbit coupling (SOC), i.e. silicene and germanene, such a profile on ZNR of these materials allows transmission mostly through spin-orbit coupled energy window due to the loss of the parity of wave functions at different energies caused by SOC. Next, a p-i-n scheme on germanene ZNR is proposed to simultaneously permit edge transmission and decimate bulk transmission. The transmission spectrum is shown to mitigate the effect of thermal broadening on germanene and silicene ZNR based spin-separators by improving spin polarization yield by 400% and 785%, respectively, at 300 K. The importance of proper gate voltage and position for such performance is further elucidated. Finally, the modulation the current output of the proposed U-shape p-i-n device while maintaining its spin polarization is discussed. PMID:28091616

  2. High performance AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with large electromechanical coupling coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; He, Xingli; Gillinger, Manuel; Ye, Zhi; Wang, Xiaozhi; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich; Luo, J. K.

    2014-09-01

    AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K2, in the range of 2.0% ˜ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

  3. Full-wave model of D-region upward VLF coupling to whistlers in the plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Shao, X.; Lay, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric-lightning-to-plasmasphere VLF coupling via whistlers is key to understanding the problem of radiation-belt losses and the slot region. In the lowermost ionosphere, the "D-region" (roughly 60 - 100 km altitude), the coupling occurs between the VLF incident from the "vacuum" below, to the electron whistler capable of transiting upward through the E- and F-regions above. We have modified our successful and data-validated D-region VLF downward-reflection model to predict upward-coupled whistler waveforms recorded on topside satellites. The model has been run in production mode for predicting downward-reflected waveforms recorded at ground stations, but the model's internal calculation also fully describes the "penetrating" solution that merges into the oblique electron whistler. We have begun to test the model against VLF, three-dimensional electric-field recordings from the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) [Pfaff et al., 2010] on the C/NOFS satellite. VEFI's broadband recording and large on-board memory serendipitously provide an excellent platform for studying lightning whistlers in the plasmasphere. We have already demonstrated [Jacobson et al., 2011] that VEFI is superbly suited for testing transionospheric propagation, in conjunction with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN; see www.wwlln.net) to provide groundtruth location/time of the lightning strokes. This poster will describe latest results. Jacobson, A. R., R. H. Holzworth, R. F. Pfaff, and M. P. McCarthy (2011), Study of oblique whistlers in the low-latitude ionosphere, jointly with the C/NOFS satellite and the World-Wide Lightning Location Network, Annales Geophysicae, 29, 851-863. Pfaff, R., D. Rowland, H. Freudenreich, K. Bromund, K. Le, M. Acuna, J. Klenzing, C. Liebrecht, S. Martin, W. J. Burke, N. C. Maynard, D. E. Hunton, P. A. Roddy, J. O. Ballenthin, and G. R. Wilson (2010), Observations of DC electric fields in the low-latitude ionosphere and their variations with

  4. On the use of ocean-atmosphere-wave models during an extreme CAO event: the importance of being coupled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniel, Sandro; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Miglietta, Mario M.; Ricchi, Antonio; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    During winter 2012 an extreme meteorological event stroke the whole Europe and particularly its central-southern sector. A strong and persistent spit of cold air coming from Siberian region (a Cold Air Outbreak, CAO) insisted on northern Italy and the Adriatic sea basin, leading to decreases in the sea temperatures up to 6 °C in less than two weeks, ice formation on the Venice lagoon and an exceptional snow fall in the Apennine region. In the sea the CAO was associated to a significant episode of dense water formation (DWF), a crucial phenomenon that heavily impacts the whole Adriatic Sea (from the sinking of water masses and associated ventilation of the northernmost shelf, to the flow along the western coast, until the flushing of southern Adriatic open slope and submarine canyons, with associated sediment transport and bottom reshaping). The extent of the DWF event in the Northern Adriatic sub-basin was estimated by means of coastal observatories, ad hoc measurements and, until now, results from existing one-way coupled atmosphere-ocean models. These are characterized by no SST feedback from the ocean to the atmosphere, and therefore by turbulent heat fluxes that may heavily reflect a non-consistent ocean state. The study proposes an investigation of the 2012 CAO using a fully coupled, three components, ocean-atmosphere-wave system (COAWST). Results highlight that, although the energy interplays between air and sea do not seem to significantly impact the wind forecasts, when providing heat fluxes that are consistent with the ocean temperature we find modified heat fluxes and air sea temperatures figures. Moreover, the consistent description of thermal exchanges adopted in the fully coupled model can affect the basin circulation, the quantification of dense water produced mass, and the description of its migration pathways and rates of off-shelf descent.

  5. Coupled cluster method with single and double excitations tailored by matrix product state wave functions

    CERN Document Server

    Veis, Libor; Neese, Frank; Legeza, Örs; Pittner, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    We present an alternative method for accurate treatment of strongly correlated systems which combines the coupled cluster (CC) theory with the density matrix renormalization group method (DMRG). The connection is done in the spirit of the tailored CC method [T. Kinoshita, O. Hino, and R. J. Bartlett, \\textit{J. Chem. Phys.} {\\bf 123} (2005) 074106]. In the first step, the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients corresponding to single and double excitations within the DMRG active space are computed by contraction of the matrix product state (MPS) matrices. These coefficients are subsequently transformed into CC amplitudes. In the second step, the CC amplitudes are used to define a "tailored" single reference CCSD wavefunction. As a result, the DMRG method is responsible for the proper description of non-dynamic correlation, whereas the dynamic correlation is incorporated through the framework of the CC theory. We illustrate the potential of this method on prominent multireference model systems like N$_2$ ...

  6. Antenna-coupled silicon-organic hybrid integrated photonic crystal modulator for broadband electromagnetic wave detection

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xingyu; Subbaraman, Harish; Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K -Y; Chung, Chi-jui; Yan, Hai; Pan, Zeyu; Nelson, Robert L; Lee, Charles Y -C; Chen, Ray T

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we design, fabricate and characterize a compact, broadband and highly sensitive integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensor based on a silicon-organic hybrid modulator driven by a bowtie antenna. The large electro-optic (EO) coefficient of organic polymer, the slow-light effects in the silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), and the broadband field enhancement provided by the bowtie antenna, are all combined to enhance the interaction of microwaves and optical waves, enabling a high EO modulation efficiency and thus a high sensitivity. The modulator is experimentally demonstrated with a record-high effective in-device EO modulation efficiency of r33=1230pm/V. Modulation response up to 40GHz is measured, with a 3-dB bandwidth of 11GHz. The slot PCW has an interaction length of 300um, and the bowtie antenna has an area smaller than 1cm2. The bowtie antenna in the device is experimentally demonstrated to have a broadband characteristics with a central resonance frequency of 10GHz, as we...

  7. Multichannel molecular state and rectified short-range boundary condition for spin-orbit-coupled ultracold fermions near p -wave resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoling

    2017-03-01

    We study the interplay of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and strong p -wave interactions to the scattering property of spin-1/2 ultracold Fermi gases. Based on a two-channel square-well potential generating p -wave resonance, we show that the presence of an isotropic SOC, even for its length being much longer than the potential range, can greatly modify the p -wave short-range boundary condition (BC). As a result, the conventional p -wave BC cannot predict the induced molecules near p -wave resonances, which can be fully destroyed due to strong interference between the s - and p -wave channels. By analyzing the intrinsic reasons for the breakdown of the conventional BC, we propose a p -wave BC that can excellently reproduce the exact molecule solutions and also equally apply for a wide class of single-particle potentials besides SOC. This work reveals the significant effect of SOC on both the short- and long-range properties of fermions near p -wave resonances, paving the way for future explorations of interesting few- and many-body physics in such systems.

  8. Full time-domain nonlinear coupled dynamic analysis of a truss spar and its mooring/riser system in irregular wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, MinDong; Teng, Bin; Xiao, LongFei; Ning, DeZhi; Shi, ZhongMin; Qu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    A new full time-domain nonlinear coupled method has been established and then applied to predict the responses of a Truss Spar in irregular wave. For the coupled analysis, a second-order time-domain approach is developed to calculate the wave forces, and a finite element model based on rod theory is established in three dimensions in a global coordinate system. In numerical implementation, the higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM) is employed to solve the velocity potential, and the 4th-order Adams-Bashforth-Moultn scheme is used to update the second-order wave surface. In deriving convergent solutions, the hull displacements and mooring tensions are kept consistent at the fairlead and the motion equations of platform and mooring-lines/risers are solved simultaneously using Newmark- β integration scheme including Newton-Raphson iteration. Both the coupled quasi-static analysis and the coupled dynamic analysis are performed. The numerical simulation results are also compared with the model test results, and they coincide very well as a whole. The slow-drift responses can be clearly observed in the time histories of displacements and mooring tensions. Some important characteristics of the coupled responses are concluded.

  9. Electron Bernstein Wave Studies in MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzman, Andrew; Anderson, Jay; Forest, Cary; Nonn, Paul; Thomas, Mark; Almagri, Abdulgader; Chapman, Brett; Dubois, Ami; Goetz, John; McCollam, Karsten

    2015-11-01

    The RFP plasma is inaccessible to ECRH, requiring the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) for edge localized heating and current drive. MST is capable of generating RFPs or overdense tokamaks with Bt(0) ~ 0.08-0.14T in which a 5.55 GHz RF source (450kW, 2ms pulse) can heat at fundamental and harmonic EC resonances. The design of a suitable antenna is challenging in the RFP due to a magnetic field geometry that requires a low-field-side launch. The small vacuum gap between the close-fitting conducting shell and plasma leads to substantial antenna-plasma interaction. A minimized port hole size is required to limit error fields. Even so the port hole induced magnetic field perturbation in the antenna near-field that affects the mode conversion process and introduces EC resonances. A 5cm diameter cylindrical antenna centered in 5cm and 11cm diameter portholes is used. A multi-chord time-resolved x-ray detector and GENRAY ray tracing verifies EBW heating at higher harmonics in an MST tokamak with 10-40keV detected x-ray energies. Evidence of RF-induced emission from absorption at higher harmonics (4th / 5th) in low current RFP discharges has been observed. Simultaneous reflected power changes correspond to termination of x-ray emission indicating power limits. Work supported by USDOE.

  10. P-wave Lambda N - Sigma N coupling and the spin-orbit splitting of 9 Lambda Be

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Suzuki, Y

    2008-01-01

    We reexamine the spin-orbit splitting of 9 Lambda Be excited states in terms of the SU_6 quark-model baryon-baryon interaction. The previous folding procedure to generate the Lambda alpha spin-orbit potential from the quark-model Lambda N LS interaction kernel predicted three to five times larger values for Delta E_{ell s}=E_x(3/2^+)-E_x(5/2^+) in the model FSS and fss2. This time, we calculate Lambda alpha LS Born kernel, starting from the LS components of the nuclear-matter G-matrix for the Lambda hyperon. This framework makes it possible to take full account of an important P-wave Lambda N - Sigma N coupling through the antisymmetric LS^{(-)} force involved in the Fermi-Breit interaction. We find that the experimental value, Delta E^{exp}_{ell s}=43 pm 5 keV, is reproduced by the quark-model G-matrix LS interaction with a Fermi-momentum around k_F=1.0 fm^{-1}, when the model FSS is used in the energy-independent renormalized RGM formalism.

  11. Computation of the Isotropic Hyperfine Coupling Constant: Efficiency and Insights from a New Approach Based on Wave Function Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Emmanuel; Tenti, Lorenzo; Angeli, Celestino; Ferré, Nicolas

    2017-02-14

    The present paper reports an original computational strategy for the computation of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constants (hcc). The algorithm proposed here is based on an approach recently introduced by some of the authors, namely, the first-order breathing orbital self-consistent field (FOBO-SCF). The approach is an almost parameter-free wave function method capable to accurately treat the spin delocalization together with the spin polarization effects while staying in a restricted formalism and avoiding spin contamination. The efficiency of the method is tested on a series of small radicals, among which four nitroxide radicals and the comparison with high-level ab initio methods show very encouraging results. On the basis of these results, the method is then applied to compute the hcc of a challenging system, namely, the DEPMPO-OOH radical in various conformations. The reference values obtained on such a large system allows us to validate a cheap computational method based on density functional theory (DFT). Another interesting feature of the model applied here is that it allows for the rationalization of the results according to a relatively simple scheme based on a two-step mechanism. More precisely, the results are analyzed in terms of two separated contributions: first the spin delocalization and then the spin polarization.

  12. A 3-D Time-Domain Coupled Model for Nonlinear Waves Acting on A Box-Shaped Ship Fixed in A Harbor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Da-guo; ZOU Zhi-li; THAM Leslie George

    2011-01-01

    A 3-D time-domain numerical coupled model is developed to obtain an efficient method for nonlinear waves acting on a box-shaped ship fixed in a harbor.The domain is divided into the inner domain and the outer domain.The inner domain is the area beneath the ship and the flow is described by the simplified Euler equations.The remaining area is the outer domain and the flow is defined by the higher-order Boussinesq equations in order to consider the nonlinearity of the wave motions.Along the interface boundaries between the inner domain and the outer domain,the volume flux is assumed to be continuous and the wave pressures are equal.Relevant physical experiment is conducted to validate the present model and it is shown that the numerical results agree with the experimental data.Compared the coupled model with the flow in the inner domain governed by the Laplace equation,the present coupled model is more efficient and its solution procedure is simpler,which is particularly useful for the study on the effect of the nonlinear waves acting on a fixed box-shaped ship in a large harbor.

  13. Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) as the driver of seismo-ionospheric coupling: recent major earthquakes of Nepal and Imphal - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sasmal, Sudipta

    2016-07-01

    An important channel of the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC) is the acoustic and gravity wave channel where the atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) play the most important part. Atmospheric waves are excited due to seismic gravitational vibrations before earthquakes and their effects on the atmosphere are the sources for seismo-ionospheric coupling which are manifested as perturbations in Very Low Frequency (VLF)/Low Frequency (LF) signal (amplitude/phase). For our study, we chose the recent major earthquakes that took place in Nepal and Imphal. The Nepal earthquake occurred on 12th May, 2015 at 12:50 pm local time (07:05 UTC) with Richter scale magnitude of M = 7.3 and depth 10 km (6.21 miles) at southeast of Kodari. The Imphal earthquake occurred on 4th January, 2016 at 4:35 am local time (23:05 UTC , 3rd January, UTC) with Richter scale magnitude of M = 6.7 and depth 55 km (34.2 miles). The data has been collected from Ionospheric and Earthquake Research Centre (IERC) of Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) transmitted from JJI station of Japan. We performed both Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and wavelet analysis on the VLF data for a couple of days before and after the major earthquakes. For both earthquakes, we observed wave like structures with periods of almost an hour before and after the earthquake day. The wave like oscillations after the earthquake may be due to the aftershock effects. We also observed that the amplitude of the wave like structures depends on the location of the epicenter between the transmitting and the receiving points and also on the depth of the earthquake.

  14. Design, construction and evaluation of a 12.2 GHz, 4.0 kW-CW coupled-cavity traveling wave tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, W. R.; Harman, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program to study design techniques and to utilize these techniques to optimize the performance of an X-band 4 kW, CW traveling wave tube ultimately intended for satellite-borne television broadcast transmitters is described. The design is based on the coupled-cavity slow-wave circuit with velocity resynchronization to maximize the conversion efficiency. The design incorporates a collector which is demountable from the tube. This was done to facilitate multistage depressed collector experiments employing a NASA designed axisymmetric, electrostatic collector for linear beam microwave tubes after shipment of the tubes to NASA.

  15. Instability of spiral and scroll waves in the presence of a gradient in the fibroblast density: the effects of fibroblast-myocyte coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Zimik, Soling

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast-myocyte coupling can modulate electrical-wave dynamics in cardiac tissue. In diseased hearts, the distribution of fibroblasts is heterogeneous, so there can be gradients in the fibroblast density (henceforth we call this GFD) especially from highly injured regions, like infarcted or ischemic zones, to less-wounded regions of the tissue. Fibrotic hearts are known to be prone to arrhythmias, so it is important to understand the effects of GFD in the formation and sustenance of arrhythmic re- entrant waves, like spiral or scroll waves. Therefore, we investigate the effects of GFD on the stability of spiral and scroll waves of electrical activation in a state-of-the- art mathematical model for cardiac tissue in which we also include fibroblasts. By introducing GFD in controlled ways, we show that spiral and scroll waves can be unstable in the presence of GFDs because of regions with varying spiral or scroll-wave frequency {\\omega}, induced by the GFD. We examine the effects of the resting membrane pote...

  16. On the Use of Coupled Wind, Wave, and Current Fields in the Simulation of Loads on Bottom-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines during Hurricanes: March 2012 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungsoo [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Manuel, Lance [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Curcic, Milan [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Chen, Shuyi S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, potential offshore wind plant sites have been identified along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. It is imperative that we define external conditions associated with hurricanes and severe winter storms and consider load cases for which wind turbines may need to be designed. We selected two hurricanes, Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), and investigated the effect these tropical storms would have on bottom-supported offshore wind turbines that were hypothetically in or close to their path as they made landfall. For realistic turbine loads assessment, it is important that the coupled influences of the changing wind, wave, and current fields are simulated throughout the evolution of the hurricanes. We employed a coupled model--specifically, the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM)--that integrates atmospheric, wave, and ocean components to produce needed wind, wave, and current data. The wind data are used to generate appropriate vertical wind profiles and full wind velocity fields including turbulence; the current field over the water column is obtained by interpolated discrete output current data; and short-crested irregular second-order waves are simulated using output directional wave spectra from the coupled model. We studied two monopile-supported offshore wind turbines sited in 20 meters of water in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate loads during Hurricane Ike, and a jacket space-frame platform-supported offshore wind turbine sited in 50 meters of water in the mid-Atlantic region to estimate loads during Hurricane Sandy. In this report we discuss in detail how the simulated hurricane wind, wave, and current output data are used in turbine loads studies. In addition, important characteristics of the external conditions are studied, including the relative importance of swell versus wind seas, aerodynamic versus hydrodynamic forces, current velocity effects, yaw control options for the turbine, hydrodynamic drag versus inertia forces

  17. Observations of polar patches generated by solar wind Alfvén wave coupling to the dayside magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    wind, IMP 8 observed large amplitude Alfvén waves that were correlated with Pc5 pulsations observed by the ground magnetometers, riometers and radars. It is concluded that the FLRs and FCEs that produced patches were driven by solar wind Alfvén waves coupling to the dayside magnetosphere. During a period of southward IMF the dawn-dusk electric field associated with the Alfvén waves modulated the subsolar magnetic reconnection into pulses that resulted in convection flow bursts mapping to the ionospheric footprint of the cusp.

    Key words. Ionosphere (polar ionosphere. Magneto- spheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; polar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  18. Multi-instrument investigation of troposphere-ionosphere coupling through gravity waves and the role of gravity waves in the formation of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakandan, Mani; Patra, Amit; Sripathi, Samireddipelle; Thokuluwa, Ramkumar; Paulino, Igo; Taori, Alok; Kandula, Niranjan

    2016-07-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) occurs in the equatorial ionosphere in pre-mid night (most of the time) as well as post-midnight (rarely) hours. The generation of EPBs by Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) due to seeding of gravity wave perturbation (polarization electric field) have well been explained theoretically by several authors but experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis is very limited. Using co-located observations from Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2o E) using an all sky airglow imager and Gadanki Ionospheric Radar Interferometer (GIRI) and Ionosonde observations from Tirunelveli (8.7o N, 77.8o E), we investigate the role of gravity waves in the generation EPB during geomagnetic quiet conditions. To avoid any changes occurring in the background ionosphere owing to the large scale features (e.g., seasonal variation), we use four consecutive nights (03-06, February, 2014). Out of these four nights on two nights we have noted very strong plasma depletions in the OI 630 nm airglow emission and radar plumes. We analyse data to identify cases where, 1) EPBs occurred with large amplitudes of mesospheric gravity waves, 2) Occurrence of EPBs without large amplitudes of mesospheric gravity waves, and 3) identifiable mesospheric gravity waves without occurrence of EPBs. In order to calculate the mesospheric gravity wave parameter we used mesospheric OH airglow emission imager data, to identify their propagation to the E-region, we used E-region observations made using the MST radar which resembled the gravity wave signatures. Together with these, by using ray tracing techniques, we have identified the source region of the noted gravity wave events also. These results are discussed in detail in the present study.

  19. Application of the graphical unitary group approach to the energy second derivative for CI wave functions via the coupled perturbed CI equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, D.J.

    1983-10-01

    Analytic derivatives of the potential energy for Self-Consistent-Field (SCF) wave functions have been developed in recent years and found to be useful tools. The first derivative for configuration interaction (CI) wave functions is also available. This work details the extension of analytic methods to energy second derivatives for CI wave functions. The principal extension required for second derivatives is evaluation of the first order change in the CI wave function with respect to a nuclear perturbation. The shape driven graphical unitary group approach (SDGUGA) direct CI program was adapted to evaluate this term via the coupled-perturbed CI equations. Several iterative schemes are compared for use in solving these equations. The pilot program makes no use of molecular symmetry but the timing results show that utilization of molecular symmetry is desirable. The principles for defining and solving a set of symmetry adapted equations are discussed. Evaluation of the second derivative also requires the solution of the second order coupled-perturbed Hartree-Fock equations to obtain the correction to the molecular orbitals due to the nuclear perturbation. This process takes a consistently higher percentage of the computation time than for the first order equations alone and a strategy for its reduction is discussed.

  20. Coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and two-dimensional kinematic wave theory for flood forecast in semi-arid catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-L. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific characteristics of semi-arid catchments, this paper aims to establish a grid-and-Green-Ampt-and-two-dimensional-kinematic-wave-based distributed hydrological physical model (Grid-GA-2D model coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and two dimensional overland flow routing model based on kinematic wave theory for flood simulation and forecasting with using GIS technology and digital elevation model (DEM. Taking into consideration the soil moisture redistribution at hillslope, Green-Ampt infiltration physical method is applied for grid-based runoff generation and two-dimensional implicit finite difference kinematic wave model is introduced to solve depressions water storing for grid-based overland flow concentration routing in the Grid-GA-2D model. The Grid-GA-2D model, the Grid-GA model with coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and one-dimension kinematic wave theory, and Shanbei model were employed to the upper Kongjiapo catchment in Qin River, a tributary of the Yellow River, with an area of 1454 km2 for flood simulation. Results show that two grid-based distributed hydrological models perform better in flood simulation and can be used for flood forecasting in semi-arid catchments. Comparing with the Grid-GA model, the flood peak simulation accuracy of the newly developed model is higher.

  1. Coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and two-dimensional kinematic wave theory for flood forecast in semi-arid catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-L.; Chen, D.-H.; Li, Z.-J.; Zhao, L.-N.

    2011-08-01

    Due to the specific characteristics of semi-arid catchments, this paper aims to establish a grid-and-Green-Ampt-and-two-dimensional-kinematic-wave-based distributed hydrological physical model (Grid-GA-2D model) coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and two dimensional overland flow routing model based on kinematic wave theory for flood simulation and forecasting with using GIS technology and digital elevation model (DEM). Taking into consideration the soil moisture redistribution at hillslope, Green-Ampt infiltration physical method is applied for grid-based runoff generation and two-dimensional implicit finite difference kinematic wave model is introduced to solve depressions water storing for grid-based overland flow concentration routing in the Grid-GA-2D model. The Grid-GA-2D model, the Grid-GA model with coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and one-dimension kinematic wave theory, and Shanbei model were employed to the upper Kongjiapo catchment in Qin River, a tributary of the Yellow River, with an area of 1454 km2 for flood simulation. Results show that two grid-based distributed hydrological models perform better in flood simulation and can be used for flood forecasting in semi-arid catchments. Comparing with the Grid-GA model, the flood peak simulation accuracy of the newly developed model is higher.

  2. Energy Loss of Solar p Modes due to the Excitation of Magnetic Sausage Tube Waves: Importance of Coupling the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R.; Hindman, B. W.

    2014-07-01

    We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = -z 0).

  3. Energy loss of solar p modes due to the excitation of magnetic sausage tube waves: Importance of coupling the upper atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R. [Applied Mathematics Department, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Hindman, B. W., E-mail: a.d.gascoyne@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jain@sheffield.ac.uk [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = –z{sub 0}).

  4. Resonant Absorption of Fast Magnetoacoustic Waves due to Coupling into the Slow and Alfven Continua in the Solar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Clack, C T M; Douglas, M

    2010-01-01

    Resonant absorption of fast magnetoacoustic (FMA) waves in an inhomogeneous, weakly dissipative, one-dimensional planar, strongly anisotropic and dispersive plasma is investigated. The magnetic configuration consists of an inhomogeneous magnetic slab sandwiched between two regions of semi-infinite homogeneous magnetic plasmas. Laterally driven FMA waves penetrate the inhomogeneous slab interacting with the localised slow or Alfven waves present in the inhomogeneous layer and are partly reflected, dissipated and transmitted by this region. The presented research aims to find the coefficient of wave energy absorption under solar chromospheric and coronal conditions. Numerical results are analyzed to find the coefficient of wave energy absorption at both the slow and Alfven resonance positions. The mathematical derivations are based on the two simplifying assumptions that (i) nonlinearity is weak, and (ii) the thickness of the inhomogeneous layer is small in comparison to the wavelength of the wave, i.e. we empl...

  5. On the coupling between unstable magnetospheric particle populations and resonant high m ULF wave signatures in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Trattner

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Many theories state that Ultra Low Frequency (ULF waves with a high azimuthal wave number (m have their energy source in wave-particle interactions, yet this assumption has been rarely tested numerically and thus many questions still remain as to the waves' exact generation mechanism. For the first time, this paper investigates the cause and effect relationship between the driving magnetospheric particle populations and the ULF wave signatures as observed in the conjugate ionosphere by quantitatively examining the energy exchange that occurs. Firstly, a Monte Carlo method is used to demonstrate statistically that the particle populations observed during conjugate ionospheric high m wave events have more free energy available than populations extracted at random. Secondly, this paper quantifies the energy transferred on a case study basis, for two classes of high m waves, by examining magnetospheric Ion Distribution Functions, (IDFs and directly comparing these with the calculated wave energy dissipated into the conjugate ionosphere. Estimates of the wave energy at the source and the sink are in excellent agreement, with both being of the order of 1010J for a typical high m wave. Ten times more energy (1011J is transferred from the magnetospheric particle population and dissipated in the ionosphere when considering a subset of high m waves known as giant pulsations (Pgs. Previous work has demonstrated that 1010J is frequently available from non - Maxwellian IDFs at L=6, whereas 1011J is not. The combination of these studies thus provides an explanation for both the rarity of Pgs and the ubiquity of other high m waves in this region.

  6. Analytical solutions for dynamic pressures of coupling fluid-solid-porous medium due to P wave incidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进廷; 张楚汉; 金峰

    2004-01-01

    Wave reflection and refraction in layered media is a topic closely related to seismology, acoustics, geophysics and earthquake engineering. Analytical solutions for wave reflection and refraction coefficients in multi-layered media subjected to P wave incidence from the elastic half-space are derived in terms of displacement potentials. The system is composed of ideal fluid, porous medium, and underlying elastic solid. By numerical examples, the effects of porous medium and the incident wave angle on the dynamic pressures of ideal fluid are analyzed. The results show that the existence of the porous medium, especially in the partially saturated case, may significantly affect the dynamic pressures of the overlying fluid.

  7. Enhancement of acousto-optical coupling in two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities by utilizing surface acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tian-Xue [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang, Yue-Sheng, E-mail: yswang@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2017-01-30

    A phoxonic crystal is a periodically patterned material that can simultaneously localize optical and acoustic modes. The acousto-optical coupling in two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities is investigated numerically. The photons can be well confined in the slot owing to the large electric field discontinuity at the air/dielectric interfaces. Besides, the surface acoustic modes lead to the localization of the phonons near the air-slot. The high overlap of the photonic and phononic cavity modes near the slot results in a significant enhancement of the moving interface effect, and thus strengthens the total acousto-optical interaction. The results of two cavities with different slot widths show that the coupling strength is dependent on the slot width. It is expected to achieve a strong acousto-optical/optomechanical coupling in air-slot phoxonic crystal structures by utilizing surface acoustic modes. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities which can confine simultaneously optical and acoustic waves are proposed. • The acoustic and optical waves are highly confined near/in the air-slot. • The high overlap of the photonic and phononic cavity modes significantly enhances the moving interface effect. • Different factors which affect the acousto-optical coupling are discussed.

  8. Validation Test Report for the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere MesoscalePrediction System (COAMPS) Version 5.0: Ocean/Wave Component Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    CP2 , and CP3 (Figure 3.4-1). The DART06 observations consisted of surface drifting floats, satellite remote sensing products, and several new...Mean Directional Error VR1 VR2 VR4 VR5 VR6 CP2 CP3 KB1 Coupled w/wave (NAVDAS and NCODA) 2.12 1.30 15.17 7.15 4.26 2.89 0.40 12.13 Coupled w...Uncoupled (ocean only) 1.75 0.54 16.30 7.86 4.76 1.69 1.23 11.14 Complex Correlation Coefficient (CCC) VR1 VR2 VR4 VR5 VR6 CP2 CP3 KB1 Coupled w

  9. Low velocity crustal flow and crust-mantle coupling mechanism in Yunnan, SE Tibet, revealed by 3D S-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haopeng; Zhu, Liangbao; Su, Youjin

    2016-08-01

    We used teleseismic data recorded by a permanent seismic network in Yunnan, SE Tibet, and measured the interstation Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 10 and 60 s. A two-step inversion scheme was used to invert for the 3D S-wave velocity and azimuthal anisotropy structure of 10-110 km. The results show that there are two low velocity channels between depths of 20-30 km in Yunnan and that the fast axes are sub-parallel to the strikes of the low velocity channels, which supports the crustal flow model. The azimuthal anisotropy pattern is quite complicated and reveals a complex crust-mantle coupling mechanism in Yunnan. The N-S trending Lüzhijiang Fault separates the Dianzhong Block into two parts. In the western Dianzhong Block, the fast axis of the S-wave changes with depth, which indicates that the crust and the lithospheric mantle are decoupled. In the eastern Dianzhong Block and the western Yangtze Craton, the crust and the lithospheric mantle may be decoupled because of crustal flow, despite a coherent S-wave fast axis at depths of 10-110 km. In addition, the difference between the S-wave fast axis in the lithosphere and the SKS splitting measurement suggests that the lithosphere and the upper mantle are decoupled there. In the Baoshan Block, the stratified anisotropic pattern suggests that the crust and the upper mantle are decoupled.

  10. Rogue-pair and dark-bright-rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations from inhomogeneous femtosecond optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomba, Emmanuel; Zakeri, Gholam-Ali

    2016-08-01

    The coupled inhomogeneous Schrödinger equations with a wide range of applications describing a field of pluses with the right and the left polarizations that take into account cross-phase modulations, stimulated Ramani scattering, and absorption effects are investigated. A combination of several different approaches is used in a novel way to obtain the explicit expressions for the rogue-pair and dark-bright-rogue waves. We study the dynamics of these structurally stable rogues and analyze the effects of a parameter that controls the region of stability that intrinsically connects the cross-phase modulation and other Kerr nonlinearity factors. The effects of the right and left polarizations on the shape of the rogue-pair and other solitary rogue waves are graphically analyzed. These rogue-pair waves are studied on periodic and non-periodic settings. We observe that rogue-pair wave from the right and left polarizations has a similar structure while the dark-bright-rogue waves have quite different intensity profiles.

  11. Spherical wave propagation in elastic media and its application to energy coupling for tamped and decoupled explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.B.

    1979-01-26

    The effects of variation in source and medium properties upon near- and far-field spectra for elastic waves are examined theoretically by considering spherical wave propagation in unbounded elastic media. This type of analysis, although idealized, provides insight into the relative effects of the various source and medium parameters on both tamped and decoupled explosions. It also provides a basis for interpreting both field and laboratory experimental data obtained during spherical wave propagation in real media. In this paper I attempt to unify the work that has been done on spherical wave propagation in elastic media. I present the results in nondimensional forms, in hopes that others may find these forms of the solutions useful and some of the conclusions, based upon my parameter studies, enlightening. Also included is a discussion of some of the limitations of the theory and examples of applications of the spherical wave propagation theory in real media.

  12. Fiber-Coupled Planar Light-Wave Circuit for Seed Laser Control in High Spectral Resolution Lidar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anthony; McNeil, Shirley; Switzer, Gregg; Battle, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Precise laser remote sensing of aerosol extinction and backscatter in the atmosphere requires a high-power, pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser that is wavelength- stabilized to a narrow absorption line such as found in iodine vapor. One method for precise wavelength control is to injection seed the Nd:YAG laser with a low-power CW laser that is stabilized by frequency converting a fraction of the beam to 532 nm, and to actively frequency-lock it to an iodine vapor absorption line. While the feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated using bulk optics in NASA Langley s Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) program, an ideal, lower cost solution is to develop an all-waveguide, frequency-locked seed laser in a compact, robust package that will withstand the temperature, shock, and vibration levels associated with airborne and space-based remote sensing platforms. A key technology leading to this miniaturization is the integration of an efficient waveguide frequency doubling element, and a low-voltage phase modulation element into a single, monolithic, planar light-wave circuit (PLC). The PLC concept advances NASA's future lidar systems due to its compact, efficient and reliable design, thus enabling use on small aircraft and satellites. The immediate application for this technology is targeted for NASA Langley's HSRL system for aerosol and cloud characterization. This Phase I effort proposes the development of a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide phase modulator for future integration into a PLC. For this innovation, the proposed device is the integration of a waveguide-based frequency doubler and phase modulator in a single, fiber pigtail device that will be capable of efficient second harmonic generation of 1,064-nm light and subsequent phase modulation of the 532 nm light at 250 MHz, providing a properly spectrally formatted beam for HSRL s seed laser locking system. Fabrication of the integrated PLC chip for NASA Langley, planned for

  13. A fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave modeling system for the Mediterranean Sea: interactions and sensitivity to the resolved scales and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsafados, P.; Papadopoulos, A.; Korres, G.; Varlas, G.

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that there is a need for a better understanding of the factors that contribute to air-sea interactions and their feedbacks. In this context it is important to develop advanced numerical prediction systems that treat the atmosphere and the ocean as a unified system. The realistic description and understanding of the exchange processes near the ocean surface requires knowledge of the sea state and its evolution. This can be achieved by considering the sea surface and the atmosphere as a continuously cross-talking dynamic system. Following and adapting concepts already developed and implemented in large-scale numerical weather models and in hurricane simulations, this study aims to present the effort towards developing a new, high-resolution, two-way fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave model in order to support both operational and research activities. A specific issue that is emphasized is the determination and parameterization of the air-sea momentum fluxes in conditions of extremely high and time-varying winds. Software considerations, data exchange as well as computational and scientific performance of the coupled system, the so-called WEW (worketa-wam), are also discussed. In a case study of a high-impact weather and sea-state event, the wind-wave parameterization scheme reduces the resulted wind speed and the significant wave height as a response to the increased aerodynamic drag over rough sea surfaces. Overall, WEW offers a more realistic representation of the momentum exchanges in the ocean wind-wave system and includes the effects of the resolved wave spectrum on the drag coefficient and its feedback on the momentum flux.

  14. A fully coupled Atmosphere–Ocean Wave modeling system (WEW for the Mediterranean Sea: interactions and sensitivity to the resolved scales and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Katsafados

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the factors that contribute to the air–sea interaction processes and their feedbacks. In this sense it is absolutely important to develop advanced numerical prediction systems that treat the atmosphere and the ocean as a unified system. The realistic description and understanding of the exchange processes near the ocean surface, requires the exact knowledge of the sea state and its evolution. This can be achieved by considering the sea surface and the atmosphere as a continuously cross talking dynamic system. Therefore, this study aims to present the effort towards developing a new, high-resolution, two-way fully coupled atmosphere–ocean wave model in order to support operational and research activities. A specific issue that it is emphasized here is the determination and parameterization of the air–sea momentum fluxes under conditions of extremely high and time-varying winds. Software considerations, data exchange as well as computational and scientific performance of the coupled system, so-called WEW, are also discussed throughout this study. In a case study of high-impact weather and sea state event, the wind–wave parameterization scheme reduces the resulted wind speed and the significant wave height as a response to the increased aerodynamic drag over rough sea surfaces. Overall, WEW offers a more realistic representation of the momentum exchanges in the ocean wind–wave system and includes the effects of the resolved wave spectrum on the drag coefficient and its feedback on the momentum flux.

  15. Underway pressure, temperature, and salinity data from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific warm pool in support of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) from 02 February 1993 to 21 February 1993 (NODC Accession 9600090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pressure, temperature, and salinity data were collected while underway from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific warm pool. Data were collected in support of the Coupled...

  16. Coupling alongshore variations in wave energy to beach morphologic change using the SWAN wave model at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Jodi L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Coastal managers have faced increasing pressure to manage their resources wisely over the last century as a result of heightened development and changing environmental forcing. It is crucial to understand seasonal changes in beach volume and shape in order to identify areas vulnerable to accelerated erosion. Shepard (1950) was among the first to quantify seasonal beach cycles. Sonu and Van Beek (1971) and Wright et al. (1985) described commonly occurring beach states. Most studies utilize widest spaced 2-D cross shore profiles or shorelines extracted from aerial photographs (e.g. Winant et al. 1975; Aubrey, 1979, Aubrey and Ross, 1985; Larson and Kraus, 1994; Jimenez et al., 1977; Lacey and Peck, 1998; Guillen et al., 1999; Norcorss et al., 2002) to analyzed systematic changes in beach evolution. But with the exception of established field stations, such as Duck, NC (Birkemeier and Mason, 1984), ans Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station (HORS) in Japan (Katoh, 1997), there are very few beach change data sets with high temporal and spatial resolutions (e.g. Dail et al., 2000; Ruggiero et al., 2005; Yates et al., in press). Comprehensive sets of nearshore morphological data and local in situ measurements outside of these field stations are very rare and virtually non-existent high-energy coasts. Studied that have attempted to relate wave statistics to beach morphology change require some knowledge of the nearshore wave climate, and have had limited success using offshore measurement (Sonu and Van Beek, 1971; Dail et al., 2000). The primary objective of this study is to qualitatively compare spatially variable nearshore wave predictions to beach change measurements in order to understand the processes responsible for a persistent erosion 'hotspot' at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA. Local wave measurements are used to calibrate and validate a wave model that provides nearshore wave prediction along the beach. The model is run for thousands of binned offshore wave

  17. Numerical simulation of suspended sediment concentration by 3D coupled wave-current model in the Oujiang River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; You, Xue-yi

    2017-04-01

    A 3D sediment transport model based on the modified environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) and the nearshore waves simulation model (SWAN) is developed to study the change of suspended sediment concentration and bottom shear stress under the actions of pure current and wave-current. After being validated by the field measured data, the proposed sediment transport model is applied in the Oujiang River Estuary, China. The results show that the ratios of both bottom shear stress and suspended sediment concentration of pure current to those of wave-current show a gradually increase from shallow nearshore water to deep open sea. The results also show that the proportion of wave contributions on bottom shear stress and sediment concentration are above 60%, approximately 20-30% and less than 10% for the water depth of less than 5 m, 5-10 m and more than 20 m, respectively. For the waters among islands, the proportion of wave contribution to bottom shear stress and sediment concentration is reduced to 10-20% for -5 m water depth and this is more obvious for the waves of large amplitude. The bottom stress and suspended sediment concentration between islands are mainly controlled by tidal current, and the effect of wave is not significant.

  18. Air-coupled guided wave detection and wavenumber filtering to full-field representation of delamination in composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, N.; De Marchi, L.; Marzani, A.

    2014-03-01

    Delamination faults in composite plates are considered dangerous as they can cause catastrophic failure before being visually assessed. Effects of delaminations are particularly relevant in guided waves scattering, local resonances and mode conversion. Detecting and analyzing these phenomena is relevant for plate characterization. In this work, leaky guided waves are used to detect delamination in composite plates. To such purpose, a hybrid ultrasonic set-up and a dedicated signal processing are proposed. An air-probe with a proper lift-off is used to detect the leakage in terms of air pressure wave over the plate surface. A piezoelectric transducer is used to generate acoustic guided waves in the composite plate. Multiple acquisitions are averaged to increase the SNR for each position of the air-probe. Curvelet Transform (CT) domain processing of the projection coefficients of the acquired elastic wave is exploited to decompose waves that are overlapped both in the time/space and in the frequency/wavenumber domain. In fact, CT is a special member of the family of multiscale and multidimensional transforms whose spatial and temporal localization is very well suited for processing signals which are sparse in the above mentioned domains. In this work this sparsity is exploited to emphasize the information of leaky guided waves scattered by the delamination by removing from the data the information related to the incident wave field. As an application, the presence of a delamination generated by a 21 Joule impact performed on a 4.9 mm thickness composite laminate was detected contactless by exploiting guided wave leakage.

  19. Design of a re-entrant double-staggered ladder circuit for V-band coupled-cavity traveling-wave tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yang; Xu Jin; Lai Jian-Qiang; Xu Xiong; Shen Fei; Wei Yan-Yu; Huang Min-Zhi; Tang Tao; Gong Yu-Bin

    2012-01-01

    The re-entrant double-staggered ladder slow-wave structure is employed in a high-power V-band coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube.This structure has a wide bandwidth,a moderate interaction impedance,and excellent thermal dissipation properties,as well as easy fabrication.A well-matched waveguide coupler is proposed for the structure.Combining the design of attenuators,a full-scale three-dimensional circuit model for the V-band coupled-cavity travelingwave tube is constructed.The electromagnetic characteristics and the beam-wave interaction of this structure are investigated.The beam current is set to be 100 mA,and the cathode voltage is tuned from 16.8 kV to 15.8 kV.The calculation results show that this tube can produce a saturated average output power over 100 W with an instantaneous bandwidth greater than 1.25 GHz in the frequency ranging from 58 GHz to 62 GHz.The corresponding gain and electronic efficiency can reach over 32 dB and 6.5%,respectively.

  20. Coupling of the zero sound to transverse spin waves for neutral and normal Fermi liquids in dc magnetic field at precessing magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwonko, J. (Inst. of Physics, TU Wroclaw (Poland))

    1989-01-01

    Following the idea by Ketterson, this author showed that in neutral and normal Fermi liquids, the polarization effects lead to coupling of transverse spin waves to zero sound at precessing magnetization of the system. The observable effects, at the range of dc fields applied to {sup 3}He, can appear only if the zero sound is degenerate with transverse spin waves excited in the reference frame rotating with the Larmor frequency about the H{sub dc}-axis. This possibility is investigated at Landau parameters vanishing at l>1 and nonzero, though small, coupling of the density to the spin density and the particle current to the spin current, resulting from the polarization of the system by H{sub dc}. The degeneration is, in general, possible but, at large values of the zero sound velocity with respect to the Fermi velocity, caused by large values of the Landau parameter F{sub 0}{sup s} and also F{sub 1}{sup s} for {sup 3}He, at F{sub 0}{sup a}< or approx.-0.7, it appears only at positive F{sub 1}{sup a}. All experimental estimations of this parameter agree in its negativity excluding the degeneration of the zero sound and transverse spin waves for {sup 3}He. (orig.).